WorldWideScience

Sample records for deep potential wells

  1. Pair production by a deep potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    Solutions are obtained for the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations with a one-dimensional symmetric potential well, having a flat bottom and arbitrary depth, width and field strengths at the walls. Quasi-stationary solutions describing a pair production by the well and the inverse process are obtained. It is shown that if the pair production probability is small, it is expressed in terms of the pair production probability on one wall and the particle oscillation frequency in the well. If the well has a supercritical depth, the lower continuum contains positron resonance scattering states at energies close to the real part of the quasi-stationary level energy (Zeldovich's effect). The qualitative dependence of the positron penetration coefficient through the wall on its energy and the well depth is an evidence that the solution of the so called one-particle Dirac equation describes in fact a many-particle system with a charge of 0 or 1

  2. Pair formation by a deep potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    We obtain solutions of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for a symmetric one-dimensional potential well with a flat bottom, and arbitrary depth, width, and field strength at the walls. Quasistationary solutions are found describing pair creation by the well, and the inverse process. It is shown that when the probability of pair creation by the well is small, it can be expressed in terms of the probability of pair creation at one of the walls and the oscillation frequency of the particle in the well. Among the states of the lower continuum, there are positron resonance scattering states for supercritical well depths. The energies of these states are close to the real part of the quasistationary energy level (the Zel'dovich effect). The qualitative dependence of the transmission coefficient of the positron through the well on its energy and the well width supports the idea that the solution of the so-called one-particle Dirac equation describes a many-particle system with charge 0 or 1

  3. Potential for offshore geothermal developments using deep gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoriu, C.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    The development of geothermal resources is steadily increasing as operators meet the challenge of maximising the temperature difference between production and injection wells, while minimising the wellhead temperature of the latter. At present, the minimum working wellhead temperature reported for the heat-to-electricity conversion cycles is limited to about 80 C. The cycle efficiency can be improved by reducing the injection temperature, which is the temperature at which the fluid exits the process. This paper evaluates the potential for generating electricity with a subsea geothermal plant using the difference between downhole reservoir temperature and that of the cold seawater at the mud line. The temperature in the world's oceans is relatively constant, ranging from 0 to 4 C at around 400 meters water depth. The use of these lower offshore water temperatures may help boost geothermal energy development. Deep gas resources are considered to be held within reservoirs below 4600 meters (15000 feet) and are relatively undeveloped as the risks and costs involved in drilling and producing such resources are extremely high. These deep resources have high reservoir temperatures, which offer an opportunity for geothermal exploitation if a new development concept can be formulated. In particular, the well design and reservoir development plan should consider reutilising existing well stock, including dry and plugged and abandoned wells for geothermal application once the gas field has been depleted. The major risks considered in this study include alternative uses of wells in no flow or rapid depletion situations. Reutilisation of the wells of depleted gas reservoirs will invariably lead to lower geothermal development costs compared with starting a geothermal campaign by drilling new wells. In particular, the well design and reservoir development plan should consider reutilising existing well stock, including dry and plugged and abandoned wells for geothermal

  4. Detector for deep well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A substantial improvement in the useful life and efficiency of a deep-well scintillation detector is achieved by a unique construction wherein the steel cylinder enclosing the sodium iodide scintillation crystal is provided with a tapered recess to receive a glass window which has a high transmittance at the critical wavelength and, for glass, a high coefficient of thermal expansion. A special high-temperature epoxy adhesive composition is employed to form a relatively thick sealing annulus which keeps the glass window in the tapered recess and compensates for the differences in coefficients of expansion between the container and glass so as to maintain a hermetic seal as the unit is subjected to a wide range of temperature

  5. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  6. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  7. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  8. Geothermal potential of northern Bavaria: Analysis of geothermal resources by evaluation of geophysical temperature logs in drinking water wells and deep wells; Geothermisches Potential Nordbayerns - Untersuchungen der geothermischen Verhaeltnisse durch Auswertung geophysikalischer Temperaturmessungen in Trinkwasser- und Tiefbohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W; Udluft, P [Lehr- und Forschungsbereich Hydrogeologie und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Geologie, Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The geothermal potential of northern Bavaria was investigated. Thermal water in the lower heat range may be used, e.g., for space heating, bath heating and agricultural purposes. Geophysical data were obtained from a number of drinking water wells with a depth of less than 150 m and a few deep wells of more than 150 m. The data are to serve as a decision aid for potential users of geothermal energy and reduce the exploration risk. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zielsetzung des Forschungsvorhabens ist die Bewertung des geothermischen Potentials Nordbayerns im Hinblick auf die Nutzung von Tiefenwasser zur Gewinnung von hydrothermaler Energie. Niedrigthermale Tiefenwaesser bieten sich z.B. als Energietraeger fuer Raumwaerme, Baederheizung and landwirtschaftliche Nutzung an. Die geothermischen Daten liegen in Form von geophysikalischen Temperaturmessungen aus zahlreichen Trinkwasserbohrungen mit weniger als 150 m Bohrtiefe und einigen Tiefbohrungen mit mehr als 150 m Bohrtiefe vor. Die Bewertung des geothermischen Potentials Nordbayerns soll als Planungsgrundlage fuer potentialle Erdwaermenutzer dienen und zu einer Minimierung des Explorationsrisikos beitragen. (orig.)

  9. Pumping potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electro collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma is considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  10. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, all such structures must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which pump ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density, multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two-dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important

  11. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well, but steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important. (author)

  12. Multi-anode deep well radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.H.; Sullivan, K.J.; Mansfield, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    An inner cylindrical cathode and outer cylindrical cathode are concentrically positioned about a vertical center axis. Vertical anode electrodes extend parallel to the center axis and are symmetrically arranged around the inter-cylinder space between the cathodes. The ends of the anode wires are supported by a pair of insulator rings and mounted near the top and bottom of the cathode cylinders. A collection voltage applied to each anode wire for establishing an inward radial E field to the inner cathode cylinder and an outward radial E field to the outer cathode cylinder. The anode-cathode assembly is mounted within a housing containing a conversion gas. A radioactive sample is inserted into the inner cathode which functions as a tubular, deep well radiation window between the sample environment and the conversion gas environment. A portion of the gamma radiations passing through the inter-cylinder region interact with the conversion gas to produce free electrons which are accelerated by the E fields and collected on the anode wires. The extremely small diameter of the anode wires intensifies the electric fields proximate each wire causing avalanche multiplication of the free electrons resulting in a detectable charge pulse. (author)

  13. Groundwater monitoring for deep-well injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Y.; Chiu, J.

    1994-01-01

    A groundwater monitoring system for detecting waste migration would not only enhance confidence in the long-term containment of injected waste, but would also provide early warnings of contamination for prompt responses to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Field experiences in Florida have demonstrated monitoring water quality and fluid pressure changes in overlying formations is useful in detecting the upward migration of injected waste. Analytical and numerical solutions indicate changes in these two monitoring parameters can vary on the basis of hydrogeologic characteristics, operation conditions, and the distances from the injection well to the monitoring wells and to the preferential hydrologic conduits. To detect waste migration through defects around the wellbore or the leaky containment interval, groundwater monitoring wells should be placed as close as possible to an injection well. In the vertical direction, a monitoring well completed in a permeable interbed within the containment interval is expected to have the highest potential for detecting upward migration. Another acceptable horizon for groundwater monitoring is the lower portion of the buffer brine aquifer immediately above the containment interval. Monitoring wells in USDWs may be needed when waste has been detected in deeper formations or when leakage out of well casings poses a concern. A monitoring well open to the injection interval is of little value in alleviating the concerns of long-term upward migration. Moreover, the installation of the well could create additional preferential pathways. Complications in groundwater monitoring may arise at existing injection sites, especially with prior releases. It is also important to recognize that monitoring in the vicinity of the wellbore may not be effective for detecting waste migration through unidentified unplugged wells or undetected transmissive fractures

  14. Performance and Feasibility Study of a Standing Column Well (SCW System Using a Deep Geothermal Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Heum Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Deep geothermal heat pump systems have considerable energy saving potential for heating and cooling systems that use stable ground temperature and groundwater as their heat sources. However, deep geothermal systems have several limitations for real applications such as a very high installation cost and a lack of recognition as heating and cooling systems. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of a Standing Column Well (SCW system using a deep geothermal well, based on a real-scale experiment in Korea. The results showed that the temperature of the heat source increased up to 42.04 °C in the borehole after the heating experiment, which is about 30 °C higher than that of normal shallow geothermal wells. Furthermore, the coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump during 3 months of operation was 5.8, but the system COP was only 3.6 due to the relatively high electric consumption of the pump. Moreover, the payback period of the system using a deep well for controlled horticulture in a glass greenhouse was calculated as 6 years compared with using a diesel boiler system.

  15. Deep-well injection of radioactive waste in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Russian federation, deep borehole injection of liquid radioactive waste has been established practice since at least 1963. The liquid is injected into sandy or other formations with high porosity, which are isolated by water-tight layers. This technique has also been used elsewhere for toxic liquid waste and residues from mining operations. Deep-well injection of radioactive waste is not currently used in any of the European Commission (EC) countries. In this paper the results of a EC-funded study were presented. The study is entitled 'Measurements, modelling of migration and possible radiological consequences at deep well injection sites for liquid radioactive waste in Russia', COSU-CT94-0099-UK. The study was carried out jointly by AEA Technology, CAG and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (NIIAR) at Dimitrovgrad. Many scientists have contributed to the results reported here. The aims of the study are: Provision of extensive information on the deep-well injection repositories and their use in the former Soviet Union; Provision of a methodology to assess safety aspects of deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in deep geological formations; This will allow evaluation of proposals to use deep-well injection techniques in other regions; Support for Russian regulatory bodies through evaluation of the suitability of the sites, including estimates of the maximum amount of waste that can be safely stored in them; and Provision of a methodology to assess the use of deep-well injection repositories as an alternative disposal technique for EC countries. 7 refs

  16. Volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingxue Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep shale gas reservoirs buried underground with depth being more than 3500 m are characterized by high in-situ stress, large horizontal stress difference, complex distribution of bedding and natural cracks, and strong rock plasticity. Thus, during hydraulic fracturing, these reservoirs often reveal difficult fracture extension, low fracture complexity, low stimulated reservoir volume (SRV, low conductivity and fast decline, which hinder greatly the economic and effective development of deep shale gas. In this paper, a specific and feasible technique of volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells is presented. In addition to planar perforation, multi-scale fracturing, full-scale fracture filling, and control over extension of high-angle natural fractures, some supporting techniques are proposed, including multi-stage alternate injection (of acid fluid, slick water and gel and the mixed- and small-grained proppant to be injected with variable viscosity and displacement. These techniques help to increase the effective stimulated reservoir volume (ESRV for deep gas production. Some of the techniques have been successfully used in the fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal wells in Yongchuan, Weiyuan and southern Jiaoshiba blocks in the Sichuan Basin. As a result, Wells YY1HF and WY1HF yielded initially 14.1 × 104 m3/d and 17.5 × 104 m3/d after fracturing. The volume fracturing of deep shale gas horizontal well is meaningful in achieving the productivity of 50 × 108 m3 gas from the interval of 3500–4000 m in Phase II development of Fuling and also in commercial production of huge shale gas resources at a vertical depth of less than 6000 m.

  17. Evaluation of upward migration around a deep injection well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Yeeping; Chiu, J.

    1994-01-01

    The long-term containment of injected wastes in the deep subsurface is expected to be achieved under suitable geologic and hydrologic conditions and by the use of competent engineering practices. Field experiences, however, indicate that waste containment may be affected by hydrologic conduits around the injection well. To assess the potential effects of these conduits, upward migration of injected waste is examined through the use of numerical models under various conditions. Test results indicate that without any preferential hydrologic conduits, most of the injected waste moves laterally in the injection interval, whereas only a small amount of waste migrates upward into the containment interval. When vertical fractures in the disturbed zone or defects in the cement seal around the wellbore exist, the contaminant can move rapidly upward along these conduits to an overlying aquifer, from which it migrates in the lateral direction. The contamination of the overlying aquifer that results from the upward migration of injected waste through these conduits cannot be impeded by a thick, low-permeability containment interval. However, when permeable interbeds exist within the containment interval, a significant portion of the waste migrating upward can be diverted laterally before reaching the overlying aquifer. The front of built-up pressure can reach the aquifer or permeable interbed immediately overlying the injection interval through the preferential hydrologic conduits shortly after the injection starts, but it cannot move farther upward because of pressure dissipation in the permeable formation. This study suggests that the injected waste has the potential to migrate upward into overlying formations through preferential migration conduits around the wellbore

  18. Ionization of deep quantum wells: Optical trampoline effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, E. Yu.; Levitskiĭ, R. S.

    2007-02-01

    A new mechanism of transitions of an electronic system from the ground state to states with excitation energies exceeding many times the energy of a light photon initiating the transitions has been considered. This mechanism is based on the so-called optical “trampoline” effect: one of the interacting electrons receives energy from another electron and, simultaneously absorbing a photon ħω, overcomes the energy gap significantly exceeding ħω. Ionization of deep quantum wells by low-frequency light of moderate intensity due to the optical trampoline effect was calculated.

  19. Development of a code of practice for deep geothermal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaver, J.D.; Bolton, R.S.; Dench, N.D.; Fooks, L.

    1990-01-01

    Recent and on-going changes to the structure of the New Zealand geothermal industry has shifted responsibility for the development of geothermal resources from central government to private enterprise. The need for a code of practice for deep geothermal wells was identified by the Geothermal Inspectorate of the Ministry of Commerce to maintain adequate standards of health and safety and to assist with industry deregulation. This paper reports that the Code contains details of methods, procedures, formulae and design data necessary to attain those standards, and includes information which drilling engineers having experience only in the oil industry could not be expected to be familiar with

  20. Development and test of a plastic deep-well pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q H; Gao, X F; Xu, Y; Shi, W D; Lu, W G; Liu, W

    2013-01-01

    To develop a plastic deep-well pump, three methods are proposed on structural and forming technique. First, the major hydraulic components are constructed by plastics, and the connection component is constructed by steel. Thus the pump structure is more concise and slim, greatly reducing its weight and easing its transportation, installation, and maintenance. Second, the impeller is designed by maximum diameter method. Using same pump casing, the stage head is greatly increased. Third, a sealing is formed by impeller front end face and steel end face, and two slots are designed on the impeller front end face, thus when the two end faces approach, a lubricating pair is formed, leading to an effective sealing. With above methods, the pump's axial length is greatly reduced, and its stage head is larger and more efficient. Especially, the pump's axial force is effectively balanced. To examine the above proposals, a prototype pump is constructed, and its testing results show that the pump efficiency exceeds the national standard by 6%, and the stage head is improved by 41%, meanwhile, its structure is more concise and ease of transportation. Development of this pump would provide useful experiences for further popularity of plastic deep-well pumps

  1. Problems of cleaning the large diameter sections of deep wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patsch, F; Gilicz, B

    1966-01-01

    In drilling deep wells, great importance is being given to the problem of cutting removal from the hole bottom of sections drilled by large diameter bits. The length of borehole sections drilled by 12-1/4-in. and larger bits has been more than doubled in Hungary in the course of the past 4 years. When the drilling fluid jet is struck against the borehole bottom, pressure waves are brought about which take on a crossed flow pattern and result in a retardation of cleaning of the well bottom, particularly in the case of larger bottom surfaces. In large diameter boreholes, the cleaning efficiency is being achieved by full utilization of the pump power and increased pump delivery. Friction losses in drill pipes are being reduced by using 6-in. XH pipes.

  2. Square well approximation to the optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.K.; Gupta, M.C.; Marwadi, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Approximations for obtaining T-matrix elements for a sum of several potentials in terms of T-matrices for individual potentials are studied. Based on model calculations for S-wave for a sum of two separable non-local potentials of Yukawa type form factors and a sum of two delta function potentials, it is shown that the T-matrix for a sum of several potentials can be approximated satisfactorily over all the energy regions by the sum of T-matrices for individual potentials. Based on this, an approximate method for finding T-matrix for any local potential by approximating it by a sum of suitable number of square wells is presented. This provides an interesting way to calculate the T-matrix for any arbitary potential in terms of Bessel functions to a good degree of accuracy. The method is applied to the Saxon-Wood potentials and good agreement with exact results is found. (author)

  3. An analysis of relative costs in drilling deep wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.E.; Cooper, G.A.; Maurer, W.C.; Westcott, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The search for new sources of oil, and particularly gas, is leading the industry to drill ever deeper wells. A depth of 15,000 ft was first passed in 1938, 20,000 ft was reached in 1939, followed by 25,000 ft in 1958, and 30,000 ft in 1972. The current US record depth is 31,441 ft. As the total depth increases, not only does the rock to be drilled become stronger, but increasing pressure and temperature induce plasticity and chip hold-down effects that make it more difficult to remove cuttings from the workfront. In addition to the reduction in rate of the drilling process itself, other activities become more complex and time-consuming, for example, tripping, running and cementing casing, and logging and coring activities. This paper analyzes the different tasks involved in drilling deep wells, in order to identify those activities that contribute most to the overall cost. These are therefore expected to be the activities where future efforts in research and development should provide the greatest reductions in total cost

  4. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  5. New instantons in the double well potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandoren, S.; Nieuwenhuizen, P. van

    2000-01-01

    A new solution of the Euclidean equations of motion is found for the quantummechanical double-well potential with a four-fermion term. It extends the usual kinkinstanton solution in which both the kink field and the fermionic fields contain a finite number of new terms which are polynomial in the

  6. The Researches on Reasonable Well Spacing of Gas Wells in Deep and low Permeability Gas Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yu Bei; Hui, Li; Lin, Li Dong

    2018-06-01

    This Gs64 gas reservoir is a condensate gas reservoir which is relatively integrated with low porosity and low permeability found in Dagang Oilfield in recent years. The condensate content is as high as 610g/m3. At present, there are few reports about the well spacing of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad. Therefore, determining the reasonable well spacing of the gas reservoir is important for ensuring the optimal development effect and economic benefit of the gas field development. This paper discusses the reasonable well spacing of the deep and low permeability gas reservoir from the aspects of percolation mechanics, gas reservoir engineering and numerical simulation. considering there exist the start-up pressure gradient in percolation process of low permeability gas reservoir, this paper combined with productivity equation under starting pressure gradient, established the formula of gas well spacing with the formation pressure and start-up pressure gradient. The calculation formula of starting pressure gradient and well spacing of gas wells. Adopting various methods to calculate values of gas reservoir spacing are close to well testing' radius, so the calculation method is reliable, which is very important for the determination of reasonable well spacing in low permeability gas reservoirs.

  7. Status and perspectives of deep N-well 130 nm CMOS MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    Deep N-Well (DNW) MAPS were developed in two different flavors to approach the specifications of vertex detectors in dissimilar experimental environments such as the Super B-Factory and the ILC. The first generation of MAPS with on-pixel data sparsification and time stamping capabilities is now available and was tested in a beam for the first time in September 2008. These devices are fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS process, and the triple well structure available in such an ultra-deep submicron technology is exploited by using the deep N-well as the charge-collecting electrode. Because of the high integration density of such a technology, complex digital functions can be included in each pixel, implementing a sparsified readout architecture of the pixel matrix with time stamping. This paper reviews the features of the ''ILC class'' and ''SuperB class'' MAPS devices, discussing their different design in terms of pixel pitch, analog signal processing, and digital readout architecture. For SuperB, a data-driven, continuously operating readout scheme was adopted along with a macropixel matrix arrangement, whereas for the ILC the matrix is read out in the long intertrain period. In both versions, the address of hit pixels is transmitted off-chip along with the time stamp. The experimental performance of the chips provides an assessment of the Deep N-Well MAPS potential in view of future applications. The paper also discusses the way forward in the development of these devices, outlining the issues that have to be tackled to design full size Deep N-Well MAPS for actual experiments. These sensors could take advantage from technological advances in microelectronic industry, such as vertical integration. The impact of these new technologies on the design and performance of DNW pixel sensors could be large, with potential benefit for various device features, from the charge collection properties to the digital readout architecture.

  8. Potential-well model in acoustic tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2010-06-01

    Standing-wave acoustic tweezers are popularly used for non-invasive and non-contact particle manipulation. Because of their good penetration in biological tissue, they also show promising prospects for in vivo applications. According to the concept of an optical vortex, we propose an acoustics-vortex- based trapping model of acoustic tweezers. A four-element 1-MHz planar transducer was used to generate 1-MHz sine waves at 1 MPa, with adjacent elements being driven with a pi/2-rad phase difference. Each element was a square with a side length of 5.08 mm, with kerfs initially set at 0.51 mm. An acoustic vortex constituting the spiral motion of an acoustic wave around the beam axis was created, with an axial null. Applying Gor'kov's theory in the Rayleigh regime yielded the potential energy and radiation force for use in subsequent analysis. In the transverse direction, the vortex structure behaved as a series of potential wells that tended to drive a suspended particle toward the beam axis. They were highly fragmented in the near field that is very close to the transducer where there was spiral interference, and well-constructed in the far field. We found that the significant trapping effect was only present between these two regions in the transverse direction--particles were free to move along the beam axis, and a repulsive force was observed in the outer acoustic vortex. Because the steepness of the potential gradient near an axial null dominates the trapping effect, the far field of the acoustic vortex is inappropriate for trapping. Particles too close to the transducer are not sufficiently trapped because of the fragmented potential pattern. We suggest that the ideal distance from the transducer for trapping particles is in front of one-fourth of the Rayleigh distance, based on the superposition of the wavefronts. The maximum trapping force acting on a 13-mum polystyrene sphere in the produced acoustic vortex was 50.0 pN, and it was possible to trap

  9. A plugging solution for cementing deep oil and gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopulo, O K; Bakshutov, V S; Bikbau, M Ya; Danyushevskiy, V S; Ilyukhin, V V; Khydyrov, M B; Lobov, L L; Nikolayeva, M K; Nikulin, V Ya; Nudelman, B I

    1983-01-01

    In order to use the solution in a temperature range of -10 to +250 degrees in conditions of salt agression, a plugging solution for cementing deep oil and gas wells, which contains a ground clinker, a mineral additive, a slaking liquid and a modifier additive, is made up in the following manner: ground chlorosilicate clinker is used as the clinker (alynite portland cement) (100 parts); a mixture of gypsum and limestone with peat or cope in a 1 to 3 to 4 to 3 to 8 ratio is used as the mineral additive (5 to 65 parts); the slaking liquid is water of a 1 to 2.5 percent aqueous solution of electrolytes of CaC/sub 12/ or K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (42 to 115.5 parts), while the modifier additive is an aqueous solution of liquid glass or polyacrylate (0.05 to 17.55 parts). The solution contains an analyte clinker of the following mineral composition, in parts by weight: Ca/sub 3/Si0/sub 4/C1/sub 2/ (alynite), 100; Ca/sub 2/Si0/sub 3/C1/sub 2/, 2.2 to 33.2; 12CuO with 7A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/, 2.2 to 25.0; CuO with 5A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/, 1.1 to 8.3; CuO with 2A10/sub 2/, 1.1 to 8.3; 4CaO with A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/ with Fe/sub 2/0/sub 3/, 15.6 to 25.0; 2CuO with Fe/sub 2/0/sub 3/, 0.1 to 5.0; a glass phase of 0.3 to 25.0 and free CuO, 0.6 to 2.5; and total MgO, 0.3 to 2.5.

  10. Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-Term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells "DeepTrek"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CSI Technologies

    2007-08-31

    The purpose of this project is to formulate a 'Supercement' designed for improving the long-term sealing integrity in HPHT wells. Phase I concentrated on chemistry studies and screening tests to design and evaluate Portland-based, hybrid Portland, and non-Portland-based cement systems suitable for further scale-up testing. Phase II work concentrated on additional lab and field testing to reduce the candidate materials list to two systems, as well as scaleup activities aimed at verifying performance at the field scale. Phase II was extended thorough a proposal to develop additional testing capabilities aimed at quantifying cementing material properties and performance that were previously not possible. Phase III focused on bringing the material(s) developed in previous Phases to commercialization, through Field Trials, Cost/Benefit Analysis, and Technology Transfer. Extensive development and testing work throughout the project led to Phase III commercialization of two very different materials: (1) Highly-expansive cement (Portland-based), patent pending as 'PRESTRESSED CEMENT'; and (2) Epoxy Resin (non-Portland-based), patent pending. Trade name is Ultra Seal-R. In Phase III, work concentrated on application of the Supercement materials in various increasingly-challenging wells. Previous testing revealed that PRESTRESSED CEMENT, when applied in weak or unconsolidated formations, tends to expand away from the central pipe, restricting the applicability of this material to competent formations. Tests were devised to quantify this effect so the material could be applied in appropriate wells. Additionally, the testing was needed because of industry resistance to expansive cements, due to previous marketing attempts with other materials that were less than successful. Field trials with the Epoxy Resin currently numbers in the hundreds of jobs at up to 295 deg F, with a large percentage being completely successful. Both the PRESTRESSED CEMENT as well

  11. Deep processes in non-relativistic confining potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbane, P.M.; Grisaru, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The authors study deep inelastic and hard scattering processes for non-relativistic particles confined in deep potentials. The mechanisms by which the effects of confinement disappear and the particles scatter as if free are useful in understanding the analogous results for a relativistic field theory. (Auth.)

  12. Exploring deep potential aquifer in water scarce crystalline rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    out to explore deep groundwater potential zone in a water scarce granitic area. As existing field condi- ... Decision support tool developed in granitic ter- .... cially in terms of fracture system, the aquifer char- acteristics ... Methodologies used.

  13. Pumping Electron-Positron Pairs from a Well Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin

    2016-04-29

    In the presence of very deep well potential, electrons will spontaneously occupy the empty embedded bound states and electron-positron pairs are created by means of a non-perturbative tunneling process. In this work, by slowly oscillating the width or depth, the population transfer channels are opened and closed periodically. We find and clearly show that by the non-synchronous ejections of particles, the saturation of pair number in a static super-critical well can be broken, and electrons and positrons can be pumped inexhaustibly from vacuum with a constant production rate. In the adiabatic limit, final pair number after a single cycle has quantized values as a function of the upper boundary of the oscillating, and the critical upper boundaries indicate the diving points of the bound states.

  14. Deep attractive NN potential as a potential for the N(1440)-N system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glozman, L.Y.; Kukulin, V.I.; Pomerantsev, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    This work demonstrates that the model of a deep attractive NN potential (the Moscow NN potential) with a deep lying extra state may be interpreted as a potential in the N(1440)-N system. Under such an interpretation, the deep-lying level forbidden for the NN system describes the N(1440)-N component in deuteron. This conclusion is used to obtain the momentum distribution for the N(1440)-N component in deuteron

  15. Potential Well Water Contaminants and Their Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first step to protect your health and the health of your family is learning about what may pollute your source of drinking water. Potential contamination may occur naturally, or as a result of human activity.

  16. Prokaryotic phylogenetic diversity of Hungarian deep subsurface geothermal well waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Andrea; Szirányi, Barbara; Krett, Gergely; Janurik, Endre; Kosáros, Tünde; Pekár, Ferenc; Márialigeti, Károly; Borsodi, Andrea K

    2014-09-01

    Geothermal wells characterized by thermal waters warmer than 30°C can be found in more than 65% of the area of Hungary. The examined thermal wells located nearby Szarvas are used for heating industrial and agricultural facilities because of their relatively high hydrocarbon content. The aim of this study was to reveal the prokaryotic community structure of the water of SZR18, K87 and SZR21 geothermal wells using molecular cloning methods and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Water samples from the outflow pipes were collected in 2012 and 2013. The phylogenetic distribution of archaeal molecular clones was very similar in each sample, the most abundant groups belonged to the genera Methanosaeta, Methanothermobacter and Thermofilum. In contrast, the distribution of bacterial molecular clones was very diverse. Many of them showed the closest sequence similarities to uncultured clone sequences from similar thermal environments. From the water of the SZR18 well, phylotypes closely related to genera Fictibacillus and Alicyclobacillus (Firmicutes) were only revealed, while the bacterial diversity of the K87 well water was much higher. Here, the members of the phyla Thermodesulfobacteria, Proteobacteria, Nitrospira, Chlorobi, OP1 and OPB7 were also detected besides Firmicutes.

  17. Pairing correlations in a fissioning potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.; Fadeev, S.

    1999-01-01

    To describe pairing correlations in a fissioning system one commonly projects the BCS wave function separately onto good particle numbers in each fragment in the exit channel, but only onto the total number of particles in the parent system. We propose to interpolate between these limiting situations by the generator-coordinate method with the particle-number difference between the nascent fragments as the generator coordinate. Model calculations are presented for the Hill-Wheeler box potential with a δ-function diaphragm to mimic scission

  18. Identification of temperature-dependent water quality changes during a deep well injection experiment in a pyritic aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prommer, H.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Artificial recharge is a technique used increasingly to supplement drinking water supplies. To assess the potential water quality changes that occur during subsurface passage, a comprehensive deep-well injection experiment was carried out for a recharge scheme, where pretreated, aerobic surface

  19. Approximate approaches to the one-dimensional finite potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shilpi; Pathak, Praveen; Singh, Vijay A

    2011-01-01

    The one-dimensional finite well is a textbook problem. We propose approximate approaches to obtain the energy levels of the well. The finite well is also encountered in semiconductor heterostructures where the carrier mass inside the well (m i ) is taken to be distinct from mass outside (m o ). A relevant parameter is the mass discontinuity ratio β = m i /m o . To correctly account for the mass discontinuity, we apply the BenDaniel-Duke boundary condition. We obtain approximate solutions for two cases: when the well is shallow and when the well is deep. We compare the approximate results with the exact results and find that higher-order approximations are quite robust. For the shallow case, the approximate solution can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless parameter σ l = 2m o V 0 L 2 /ℎ 2 (or σ = β 2 σ l for the deep case). We show that the lowest-order results are related by a duality transform. We also discuss how the energy upscales with L (E∼1/L γ ) and obtain the exponent γ. Exponent γ → 2 when the well is sufficiently deep and β → 1. The ratio of the masses dictates the physics. Our presentation is pedagogical and should be useful to students on a first course on elementary quantum mechanics or low-dimensional semiconductors.

  20. Drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), is drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, S.C. The test well is scheduled to run between mid-March and early May 2011. When completed, the well will be about 1,000 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Hilton Head area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  1. Protective Benefits of Deep Tube Wells Against Childhood Diarrhea in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer Jane; Escamilla, Veronica; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Carrel, Margaret; Yunus, Mohammad; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether deep tube wells installed to provide arsenic-free groundwater in rural Bangladesh have the added benefit of reducing childhood diarrheal disease incidence. Methods. We recorded cases of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years in 142 villages of Matlab, Bangladesh, during monthly community health surveys in 2005 and 2006. We surveyed the location and depth of 12 018 tube wells and integrated these data with diarrhea data and other data in a geographic information system. We fit a longitudinal logistic regression model to measure the relationship between childhood diarrhea and deep tube well use. We controlled for maternal education, family wealth, year, and distance to a deep tube well. Results. Household clusters assumed to be using deep tube wells were 48.7% (95% confidence interval = 27.8%, 63.5%) less likely to have a case of childhood diarrhea than were other household clusters. Conclusions. Increased access to deep tube wells may provide dual benefits to vulnerable populations in Matlab, Bangladesh, by reducing the risk of childhood diarrheal disease and decreasing exposure to naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater. PMID:23409905

  2. Deep carbon storage potential of buried floodplain soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Amanda H; Liles, Garrett C; Viers, Joshua H; Smart, David R

    2017-08-15

    Soils account for the largest terrestrial pool of carbon and have the potential for even greater quantities of carbon sequestration. Typical soil carbon (C) stocks used in global carbon models only account for the upper 1 meter of soil. Previously unaccounted for deep carbon pools (>1 m) were generally considered to provide a negligible input to total C contents and represent less dynamic C pools. Here we assess deep soil C pools associated with an alluvial floodplain ecosystem transitioning from agricultural production to restoration of native vegetation. We analyzed the soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations of 87 surface soil samples (0-15 cm) and 23 subsurface boreholes (0-3 m). We evaluated the quantitative importance of the burial process in the sequestration of subsurface C and found our subsurface soils (0-3 m) contained considerably more C than typical C stocks of 0-1 m. This deep unaccounted soil C could have considerable implications for global C accounting. We compared differences in surface soil C related to vegetation and land use history and determined that flooding restoration could promote greater C accumulation in surface soils. We conclude deep floodplain soils may store substantial quantities of C and floodplain restoration should promote active C sequestration.

  3. Deep-well injection of liquid radwaste in Russia - current status and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; Foley, M.G.; Rybal'chenko, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is submitted as part of a coordinated effort to present the topic of deep-well injection. The companion paper, open-quotes Deep-Well Injection of Liquid Radwaste in Russia - Background and Technical Basis,close quotes focuses on the original decision to inject liquid radwaste, the research behind that decision, and the design and construction of the injection facilities. The emphasis in this paper is on the current status and operation of the well facilities and the control systems used to minimize environmental impact

  4. Hydrogeologic testing plan for Deep Hydronest Test Wells, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report discusses methods of hydraulic testing which are recommended for use in the Deep Hydronest Test Wells at the proposed high level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The deep hydronest wells are intended to provide geologic, geophysical and hydrologic information on the interval from the Upper San Andres Formation to the base of the Pennsylvanian system at the site. Following the period of drilling and testing, the wells will be converted into permanent monitoring installations through which fluid pressures and water quality can be monitored at various depths in the section. 19 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Resonant coupling between ion bounce in a potential well and the potential relaxation instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, G.; Schrittwieser, R.

    1994-01-01

    When in a double plasma machine (DP-machine) plasma is produced solely in the source chamber, not only ions but also electrons can leak through the separating grid into the target chamber, so that a low-density plasma forms there. The electrons are trapped by the traveling ion space charge and can thereby overcome the strongly negative grid bias. The investigations presented here show that a positive space-charge forms behind the grid in the target chamber and a deep potential well is formed around the grid. When the anode of the target chamber is biased positively, under certain conditions a low-frequency instability is observed in the target chamber, the properties of which indicate a potential relaxation oscillation, somewhat similar to the potential relaxation instability in a quiescent plasma machine (Q machine). The frequency of the instability is determined by the ion transit time through a thin layer of the target chamber plasma. In addition, resonant coupling occurs between this frequency and the bounce frequency of ions in the potential well around the grid

  6. Deep wells integrated with microfluidic valves for stable docking and storage of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yun-Ho; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Kim, Sang Bok; Selimović, Seila; Sim, Woo Young; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we describe a microfluidic mechanism that combines microfluidic valves and deep wells for cell localization and storage. Cells are first introduced into the device via externally controlled flow. Activating on-chip valves was used to interrupt the flow and to sediment the cells floating above the wells. Thus, valves could be used to localize the cells in the desired locations. We quantified the effect of valves in the cell storage process by comparing the total number of cells stored with and without valve activation. We hypothesized that in deep wells external flows generate low shear stress regions that enable stable, long-term docking of cells. To assess this hypothesis we conducted numerical calculations to understand the influence of well depth on the forces acting on cells. We verified those predictions experimentally by comparing the fraction of stored cells as a function of the well depth and input flow rate upon activation of the valves. As expected, upon reintroduction of the flow the cells in the deep wells were not moved whereas those in shallow wells were washed away. Taken together, our paper demonstrates that deep wells and valves can be combined to enable a broad range of cell studies. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Deep learning and data assimilation for real-time production prediction in natural gas wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loh, K.K.L.; Shoeibi Omrani, P.S.; Linden, R.J.P. van der

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of the gas production from mature gas wells, due to their complex end-of-life behavior, is challenging and crucial for operational decision making. In this paper, we apply a modified deep LSTM model for prediction of the gas flow rates in mature gas wells, including the uncertainties

  8. Numerical Simulation of Borehole Flow in Deep Monitor Wells, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, K.; Oki, D. S.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells are commonly used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness in coastal aquifers. However, vertical flow in these wells can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer. Substantial borehole flow has been observed in uncased wells in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii. A numerical modeling approach, incorporating aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer, was used to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from deep monitor wells. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with the natural regional groundwater-flow system and local groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results were used to estimate differences between vertical salinity profiles in deep monitor wells and the adjacent aquifer in areas of downward, horizontal, and upward flow within the regional flow system—for cases with and without nearby pumped wells. Aquifer heterogeneity, represented in the model as layers of contrasting permeability, was incorporated in model scenarios. Results from this study provide insight into the magnitude of the differences between vertical salinity profiles from deep monitor wells and the salinity distributions in the aquifers. These insights are relevant and are critically needed for management and predictive modeling purposes.

  9. Exact quantum solutions for some asymmetrical two-well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Koo, E.

    1985-01-01

    We discuss several points of interest in the study of two-well potentials in quantum mechanics courses. In particular, we construct the solutions of the Schroedinger equation for rectangular-well, harmonic-oscillator and triangular-well potentials with a delta-function potential superimposed in different positions. The energy spectra and eigenfunctions of such systems are presented and analyzed for different intensities and positions of the delta-function potential. (author)

  10. Kramers Turnover Theory for a Triple Well Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, E.; Talkner, P.

    2001-01-01

    Kramers turnover theory is solved for a particle in a symmetric triple well potential for temperatures above the crossover temperature between tunneling and activated barrier crossing. Comparison with the turnover theory for a double well potential shows that the presence of the intermediate well always leads to a decrease of the reaction rate. At most though, the rate is a factor of two smaller than in the case of a double well potential. (author)

  11. Description of new systems for acquiring in situ data from deep wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrus, J.C.; Vinson, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    The studies being made by CEA/IPSN in respect of storage sites in a granite medium require a knowledge of the physico-chemical parameters of the water in the geological formation, since these waters are the principal vectors of hydrogeological transfers. In order to attain this objective, the design, construction and operation of two new experimental systems for sampling water in a deep well without modifying the pressure of the fluid as well was undertaken, at the same time as the measurement of pH, oxidation-reduction potential and water temperature of the aqueous medium. A pressure-compensated combined pH-Eh electrode for completely representative measurements down to 2000 metres was studied. The first results obtained at the Auriat site in France show confrontation with water belonging to the sodium bicarbonate facies, which is rich in CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 , and that pH and Eh vary as a function of the mineralogical nature of the granite and tectonic fractures

  12. A 19m Deep Well – a Downward Thermal Diffusion Cloud Chamber?

    OpenAIRE

    Holub, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    An unusual phenomenon, first observed on a clear summer day after several rainy days, were droplets constantly hitting the water surface in a 19 m deep and 2.4 m diameter water well. This droplet formation was occurring during the night as well. Since the droplet formation was near continuous, we called it “the eternal rain”. The water well is about 230 years old and located in the Benedictine monastery in Broumov, Czech Republic.

  13. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and θ 13 . At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle

  14. Calculation of the well depth parameter to the nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.U.; Kim, Y.J.

    1984-01-01

    Well depth parameter S or range correction factor S-1 is computed for several nuclear potentials such as square, Gaussian, exponential and Yukawa wells. A simple central force is assumed for nuclear potential between nucleons. We adopted only two parameters for potentials and attempted to clarify the fundamental nature of the nuclear forces that bind a proton and a neutron into a deuteron. Results thus obtained were used for an estimate of first order correction to simple square well model. (Author)

  15. Quantum Phase Spase Representation for Double Well Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Babyuk, Dmytro

    2002-01-01

    A behavior of quantum states (superposition of two lowest eigenstates, Gaussian wave packet) in phase space is studied for one and two dimensional double well potential. Two dimensional potential is constructed from double well potential coupled linearly and quadratically to harmonic potential. Quantum trajectories are compared with classical ones. Preferable tunneling path in phase space is found. An influence of energy of initial Gaussian wave packet and trajectory initial condition on tunn...

  16. Potential Health Benefits of Deep Sea Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samihah Zura Mohd Nani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea water (DSW commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches.

  17. How deep is the antinucleon optical potential at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitanos, T.; Kaskulov, M.; Lenske, H.

    2011-01-01

    The key question in the interaction of antinucleons in the nuclear medium concerns the deepness of the antinucleon-nucleus optical potential. In this work we study this task in the framework of the non-linear derivative (NLD) model which describes consistently bulk properties of nuclear matter and Dirac phenomenology of nucleon-nucleus interactions. We apply the NLD model to antinucleon interactions in nuclear matter and find a strong decrease of the vector and scalar self-energies in energy and density and thus a strong suppression of the optical potential at zero momentum and, in particular, at FAIR energies. This is in agreement with available empirical information and, therefore, resolves the issue concerning the incompatibility of G-parity arguments in relativistic mean-field (RMF) models. We conclude the relevance of our results for the future activities at FAIR.

  18. SUSY formalism for the symmetric double well potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    symmetric double well potential barrier we have obtained a class of exactly solvable potentials subject to moving boundary condition. The eigenstates are also obtained by the same technique. Keywords. SUSY; moving boundary condition; exactly solvable; symmetric double well; NH3 molecule. PACS Nos 02.30.Ik; 03.50.

  19. Electron-hole drop (EHD) stability in deformation potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.G.; Tikhodeev, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    In heterogeneously-deformed Ge the stability of electron-hole droplets (EHD) being in a potential well is considered. It is shown that the potential well effect is equivalent to the decrease of effective density of phonon EHD charge. It is pointed out that heating EHD (for example, by IR radiation), can increase the phonon droplet charge and affect its stability

  20. Double-well potential in annular Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaju, P.D.; Kuriakose, V.C.

    2004-01-01

    A double-well potential suitable for quantum-coherent vortex tunnelling can be created in an annular Josephson junction by inserting a microshort in the junction and by applying an in-plane dc magnetic field. Analysis shows that the intensity of the magnetic field determines the depth of the potential well and the strength of the microshort controls the potential barrier height while a dc bias across the junction tilts the potential well. At milli-Kelvin temperatures, the system is expected to behave as a quantum two-level system and may be useful in designing vortex qubits

  1. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  2. Site study plan for Deep Hydronest Test Wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    Wells called Deep Hydronest Wells will be installed at six locations at the Deaf Smith County Site to characterize hydraulic parameters in the geologic column between the top of the San Andres Formation and the base of Pennsylvanian System. Three hydronests will be drilled during early stages of site characterization to provide data for performance assessment modeling. Four wells are proposed for each of these 3 nests. Results of drilling, testing, and preliminary modeling will direct drilling and testing activities at the last 3 nests. Two wells are proposed at each of the last 3 nests for a total of 18 wells. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which this program will operate. Drilling and hydrologic testing of the first Deep Hydronest will begin early in the Surface Investigation Program. Drilling and testing of the first three Deep Hydronests will require about 18 months. After 12 months of evaluating and analyzing data from the first three hydronests, the remaining three hydronests will be drilled during a 12-month period. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be used to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 36 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Well-circumscribed deep-seated lipomas of the upper extremity. A report of 13 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbardouni, A; Kharmaz, M; Salah Berrada, M; Mahfoud, M; Elyaacoubi, M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if giant size is of bad prognosis in deep lipomas of the upper extremity. We report a retrospective study of 13 patients with deep-seated lipomas of the upper extremity treated during the period from April 1997 to April 2008. We evaluated the clinical and radiological characteristics, treatment and evolution profile of these patients. There were 10 women and three men, with an average age of 53 years (range 30-79 years). Seven of these lipomas were in the arm, one in the shoulder, and five in the forearm. Six lipomas were intramuscular, six intermuscular (three of them being attached to bone and labelled parosteal lipoma) and one epivaginal lipoma of the flexor tendon sheath. All patients presented a progressive slow-growing mass that was associated with radial paralysis in one case and carpal tunnel syndrome in one case. Plain radiographs showed a radiolucent soft-tissue image in all cases and an associated osteochondroma in one parosteal lipoma. Computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the lipomatous nature and benign characteristics of these deep lipomas that were giant in all cases (mean size: 7 cm). Lipoma marginal excision was performed and histopathological examination demonstrated features consistent with a benign lipoma. There was good function and no clinical recurrence was observed after a mean follow-up of three years. Giant deep-seated lipomas of the upper extremity are uncommon and can be intermuscular or intramuscular. A painless soft-tissue mass is the most frequent chief complaint. MRI with fat suppression suggests the diagnosis and studies the extension of deep lipoma. Marginal excision is the treatment of choice and histopathology eliminates diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. Appropriate evaluation of deep lipoma is to rule out malignancy by systematically performing MRI and biopsy. In contrast to deep-seated lipomas of the lower extremity or the retroperitoneal

  4. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, S.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822 (United States); College of Natural Sciences, Hawaii Pacific University, 45-045 Kamehameha Highway, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13}. At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle.

  5. Some problems in exploitation of deep-pumping wells in Tatarian oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishemguzhin, S B

    1970-01-01

    Difficulty has been experienced in pumping paraffinic oil with rod pumps. The rods have scrapers to remove paraffin from tubing walls, however this method does not work well. In an effort to improve pumping efficiency, gas anchors of various types were tried. Best results were obtained when the pumps, equipped with gas anchors, were placed about 300 m under the dynamic liquid level, and separated gas was steadily removed through the annulus. With this arrangement, more complete filling of the pump was achieved. Experience has shown that with separate production of gas from wells, the useful stroke of the pump plunger is increased as well as productivity of deep-pumping equipment.

  6. Recent progress in the development of 3D deep n-well CMOS MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traversi, G; Manghisoni, M; Re, V; Gaioni, L; Manazza, A; Ratti, L; Zucca, S

    2012-01-01

    In the deep n-well (DNW) monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) a full in-pixel signal processing chain is integrated by exploiting the triple well option of a deep submicron CMOS process. This work is concerned with the design and characterization of DNW MAPS fabricated in a vertical integration (3D) CMOS technology. 3D processes can be very effective in overcoming typical limitations of monolithic active pixel sensors. This paper discusses the main features of a new analog processor for DNW MAPS (ApselVI) in view of applications to the SVT Layer0 of the SuperB Factory. It also presents the first experimental results from the test of a DNW MAPS prototype in the GlobalFoundries 130 nm CMOS technology.

  7. Deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia. Present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybalchenko, A.

    1998-01-01

    At present there are 3 facilities (polygons) for the deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia, all of which were constructed in the mid60's. These facilities are operating successfully, and activities have started in preparation for decommissioning. Liquid radioactive waste is injected into deep porous horizons which act as 'collector-layers', isolated from the surface and from groundwaters by a relatively thick sequence of rock of low permeability. The collector-layers (also collector-horizons) contain salt waters or fresh waters of no practical application, lying beneath the main horizons containing potable waters. Construction of facilities for the deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste was preceded by geological surveys and investigations which were able to substantiate the feasibility and safety of radioactive waste injection, and to obtain initial data for facility design. Operation of the facilities was accompanied by monitoring which confirmed that the main safety requirement was satisfied i.e. localisation of radioactive waste within specified boundaries of the geologic medium. The opinion of most specialists in the atomic power industry in Russia favours deep-well injection as a solution to the problem of liquid radioactive waste management; during the period of active operation of defence facilities (atomic power industry of the former U.S.S.R.), this disposal method prevented the impact of radioactive waste on man and the environment. The experience accumulated concerning the injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia is of interest to scientists and engineers engaged in problems of protection and remediation of the environment in the vicinity of nuclear industry facilities; an example of the utilisation of the deep subsurface for solidified radioactive waste and the disposal of different types of nuclear materials. Information on the scientific principles and background for the development of facilities for the injection

  8. Horizontal single-trip gravel pack and selective simulation system for deep water extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Most of the reservoirs located in the deep water and ultra-deep water offshore South America are described as unconsolidated sandstone that require sand control on both producers and water injection wells. Horizontal Open Hole Gravel Pack completions are the preferred method of development. If completing heavy oil reservoirs, there is a necessity of longer horizontal open hole sections. Low fracture gradients may limit the length of gravel pack in the open hole section because of the pressure increase during the Beta wave proppant deposition phase. This system allows the gravel pack assembly to be installed and the gravel pack to be pumped during the alpha and beta wave deposition phases without the limitation of high pressures that could fracture the well. The benefits of the Horizontal Single-Trip Gravel Pack and Selective Stimulation System (HSTSSS) using the differential valve include the ability to complete longer horizontal intervals, valuable rig-time savings and, efficient mechanical diversion of the stimulation fluid. This paper outlines the application of the HSTSSS system using a differential valve to complete a horizontal well in offshore deep waters. The need for a differential valve is primarily in horizontal gravel packing operations when normal circulating rates and pressures around the open hole would exceed formation break down pressure. The valve is intended to be easily spaced out and run in the wash pipe. At a predetermined differential pressure the valve opens and the return flow path distance around the bottom of the tailpipe is shortened, thus reducing back pressure preventing filter cake damage without slowing the pump rate. In addition the said valve has to close to allow the selective stimulation to take place. Economic considerations along with completion efficiencies are especially important on deep water, subsea completions. The utilization of differential valves allows completion of extended-reach open hole wells and/or low fracture

  9. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongtao; Meng, Yingfeng; Li, Gao; Wei, Na; Liu, Jiajie; Ma, Xiao; Duan, Mubai; Gu, Siman; Zhu, Kuanliang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental dat...

  10. Stimulation of deep gas wells using HCl/formic acid system : lab studies and field application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr-El-Din, H.A.; Al-Mutairi, S.; Al-Malki, B. [Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia); Metcalf, S.; Walters, W. [BJ Services Co USA, Houston, TX (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Well stimulation in the deep carbonate Khuff reservoirs in eastern Saudi Arabia is needed to remove drilling mud filter cakes and to enhance reservoir permeability. A non associated gas is being produced from the reservoirs. This gas is associated with the hydrogen sulfide content that varies from 0 to 10-mol per cent. The average reservoir temperature is 275 degrees F and initial reservoir pressure is 7,000 psi. A special system is needed to stimulate the carbonate reservoir because of this high bottomhole temperature and the corrosive nature of hydrochloric acid (HCl) at high temperature. A rotating disk method was used to determine the reaction rate of an HCl/formic acid system with reservoir rocks. Results from coreflood tests showed that the acid system creates deep wormholes in tight reservoir cores. Corrosion tests showed that the well tubulars could tolerate the acid system. A gelled 15-wt per cent HCl/9-wt per cent formic acid system successfully fractured 3 vertical wells in deep sour gas reservoirs without any operational problems. The treatment resulted in significant increases in gas production and flowing wellhead pressures. In addition, overflush of the treatment successfully eliminated the return of live acid after the treatment. 37 refs., 10 tabs., 17 figs.

  11. Neural network analysis of head-flow curves in deep well pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelcue, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    In impellers with splitter blades, the difficulty in calculation of the flow area of the impeller is because of the unknown flow rate occurring in the two separate areas when the splitter blades are added. Experimental studies were made to investigate the effects of splitter blade length on deep well pump performance for different numbers of blades. Head-flow curves of deep well pump impellers with splitter blades were investigated using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Gradient descent (GD), Gradient descent with momentum (GDM) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms were used in the networks. Experimental studies were completed to obtain training and test data. Blade number (z), non-dimensional splitter blade length (L-bar ) and flow rate (Q) were used as the input layer, while the output is head (H m ). For the testing data, the root mean squared error (RMSE), fraction of variance (R 2 ) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were found to be 0.1285, 0.9999 and 1.6821%, respectively. With these results, we believe that the ANN can be used for prediction of head-flow curves as an appropriate method in deep well pump impellers with splitter blades.

  12. SUSY formalism for the symmetric double well potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using first- and second-order supersymmetric Darboüx formalism and starting with symmetric double well potential barrier we have obtained a class of exactly solvable potentials subject to moving boundary condition. The eigenstates are also obtained by the same technique.

  13. 30 CFR 203.43 - To which production do I apply the RSV earned from qualified deep wells or qualified phase 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in water between 200 and 400 meters deep, you begin drilling an original deep well with a perforated... 200 meters deep; (ii) May 18, 2007, for an RSV earned by a qualified deep well on a lease that is located entirely in water more than 200 meters deep; or (iii) The date that the first qualified well that...

  14. Noninteracting Fermi gas in a square-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The problem of a noninteracting Fermi gas in a finite square-well potential is solved analytically in the limit that the well becomes infinitely wide. The errors of previous authors using this model as a first approximation to the problem of a simple metal with surfaces are pointed out.

  15. Exact quantum solution for some symmetrical two-well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Koo, E.

    1985-01-01

    We construct the solutions of the Schroedinger equation for the rectangular-well, harmonic-oscillator and symmetric-linear potentials with a delta-function potential superimposed in their central positions. The odd-parity states are not affected by the presence of the delta-function potential. The even-parity states are determined by the condition that their wave functions have in the central position a fixed logarithmic derivative, which is proportional to the intensity the delta-function potential. (author)

  16. Radon 222 levels in deep well waters of Toluca municipality (county)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin Gutierrez, Maria Teresa.

    1990-01-01

    The levels of Radon 222 were determined in 46 deep (50-180m) wells in the city and county of Toluca, as well as the annual radiation dose that the stomach admits when ingesting such water. The method used for the quantification of Radon 222 was liquid scintillation counting. The result revealed that levels of Radon 222 in the studied area in the range of 0 to 320 pCi l -1 . In the case of the equivalent annual dose that the stomach (empty) admits due to ingestion of water from the wells, values are in an interval between 0 to 95 mrem a -1 . This values are well below the level established by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The wells that had the higher concentration of Radon 222 were found in the regions of Lodo Prieto, Seminario; San Antonio Buenavista and La Trinidad Huichochitlan. (Author)

  17. 30 CFR 203.41 - If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 200 meters but entirely less than 400 meters deep that: (1) Occurs before December 18, 2008; and (2... § 203.31(b) applies. In both situations, your lease must be partly or entirely in less than 200 meters...

  18. Deep wound cultures correlate well with bone biopsy culture in diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, M; Bowling, F L; Gannass, A; Jude, E B; Boulton, A J M

    2013-10-01

    Osteomyelitis is a major complication in patients with diabetic foot ulceration. Accurate pathogenic identification of organisms can aid the clinician to a specific antibiotic therapy thereby preventing the need for amputation. All diabetic patients with bone biopsy-confirmed osteomyelitis were included into the study: biopsies were performed either during surgical removal of infected bone or percutaneously under guided fluoroscopy through non-infected tissue. The depth and extent of the ulcer was assessed using a sterile blunt metal probe. Deep wound cultures were taken from the wound base after sharp debridement. Of 66 cases of suspected osteomyelitis in 102 joints, 34 patients had both bone biopsies and deep wound cultures over the study period. Thirty two of 34 (94%), had a history of preceding foot ulceration, and in 25 of the cases a positive probe to bone test was recorded. In a high proportion of patients, at least one similar organism was isolated from both the deep wound culture and bone biopsy procedures (25 of 34 cases, 73.5%, p<0.001). When organisms were isolated from both wound cultures and bone biopsies, the identical strain was identified in both procedures in a significant proportion of cases (16 of 25 cases, 64%, p<0.001, total sample analysis in 16 of 34 cases, 47%). Deep wound cultures correlate well with osseous cultures and provide a sensitive method in assessing and targeting likely pathogens that cause osseous infections. This will help aid the clinician in guiding antibiotic therapy in centers where bone biopsies may not be readily available. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Quantum information entropies for a squared tangent potential well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shishan [Information and Engineering College, DaLian University, 116622 (China); Sun, Guo-Hua, E-mail: sunghdb@yahoo.com [Centro Universitario Valle de Chalco, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de México, 56615 (Mexico); Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Edificio 9, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Draayer, J.P., E-mail: draayer@sura.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The particle in a symmetrical squared tangent potential well is studied by examining its Shannon information entropy and standard deviations. The position and momentum information entropy densities ρ{sub s}(x), ρ{sub s}(p) and probability densities ρ(x), ρ(p) are illustrated with different potential range L and potential depth U. We present analytical position information entropies S{sub x} for the lowest two states. We observe that the sum of position and momentum entropies S{sub x} and S{sub p} expressed by Bialynicki-Birula–Mycielski (BBM) inequality is satisfied. Some eigenstates exhibit entropy squeezing in the position. The entropy squeezing in position will be compensated by an increase in momentum entropy. We also note that the S{sub x} increases with the potential range L, while decreases with the potential depth U. The variation of S{sub p} is contrary to that of S{sub x}.

  20. Quantum information entropies for a squared tangent potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Shishan; Sun, Guo-Hua; Dong, Shi-Hai; Draayer, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The particle in a symmetrical squared tangent potential well is studied by examining its Shannon information entropy and standard deviations. The position and momentum information entropy densities ρ s (x), ρ s (p) and probability densities ρ(x), ρ(p) are illustrated with different potential range L and potential depth U. We present analytical position information entropies S x for the lowest two states. We observe that the sum of position and momentum entropies S x and S p expressed by Bialynicki-Birula–Mycielski (BBM) inequality is satisfied. Some eigenstates exhibit entropy squeezing in the position. The entropy squeezing in position will be compensated by an increase in momentum entropy. We also note that the S x increases with the potential range L, while decreases with the potential depth U. The variation of S p is contrary to that of S x .

  1. Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yuntao; Spronsen, Jaap van; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Natural products were used as a source for deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids. ► We define own chemical and physical properties of natural deep eutectic solvents. ► Interaction between natural deep eutectic solvents and solutes was confirmed by NMR. ► The developed natural deep eutectic solvents were applied as green media. - Abstract: Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the

  2. Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yuntao [Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Spronsen, Jaap van; Witkamp, Geert-Jan [Laboratory for Process Equipment, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Verpoorte, Robert [Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Choi, Young Hae, E-mail: y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl [Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-03-05

    Highlights: ► Natural products were used as a source for deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids. ► We define own chemical and physical properties of natural deep eutectic solvents. ► Interaction between natural deep eutectic solvents and solutes was confirmed by NMR. ► The developed natural deep eutectic solvents were applied as green media. - Abstract: Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the

  3. Paleomagnetic record determined in cores from deep research wells in the Quaternary Santa Clara basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Paleomagnetic study of cores from six deep wells provides an independent temporal framework for much of the alluvial stratigraphy of the Quaternary basin beneath the Santa Clara Valley. This stratigraphy consists of 8 upward-fining cycles in the upper 300 m of section and an underlying 150 m or more of largely fine-grained sediment. The eight cycles have been correlated with the marine oxygen isotope record, thus providing one means of dating the section. The section has also proved to contain a rich paleomagnetic record despite the intermittent sedimentation characteristic of alluvial environments.

  4. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

  5. Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlem, H. L.; G. Berden,; van Roij, A. J. A.; Crompvoets, F. M. H.; Meijer, G.

    2000-01-01

    A series of pulsed electric fields can be arranged such that it creates a traveling potential well in which neutral dipolar molecules can be confined. This provides a method to transport, to decelerate, and to cool a sample of neutral molecules while maintaining the initial phase-space density. This

  6. Scattering of sine-Gordon kinks on potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, Bernard; Zakrzewski, W J

    2007-01-01

    We study the scattering properties of sine-Gordon kinks on obstructions in the form of finite size potential 'wells'. We model this by making the coefficient of the cos(ψ) - 1 term in the Lagrangian position dependent. We show that when the kinks find themselves in the well they radiate and then interact with this radiation. As a result of this energy loss, the kinks become trapped for small velocities while at higher velocities they are transmitted with a loss of energy. However, the interaction with the radiation can produce 'unexpected' reflections by the well. We present two simple models which capture the gross features of this behaviour. Both involve standing waves either at the edges of the well or in the well itself

  7. Artificial neural network based modeling of performance characteristics of deep well pumps with splitter blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelcue, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Experimental studies were made to investigate the effects of splitter blade length (25%, 35%, 50%, 60% and 80% of the main blade length) on the pump characteristics of deep well pumps for different blade numbers (z=3, 4, 5, 6 and 7). In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was used for modeling the performance of deep well pumps with splitter blades. Two hundred and ten experimental results were used to train and test. Forty-two patterns have been randomly selected and used as the test data. The main parameters for the experiments are the blade number (z), non-dimensional splitter blade length (L-bar ), flow rate (Q, l/s), head (H m , m), efficiency (η, %) and power (P e , kW). z, L-bar and Q have been used as the input layer, and H m and η have also been used as the output layer. The best training algorithm and number of neurons were obtained. Training of the network was performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. To determine the effect of the transfer function, different ANN models are trained, and the results of these ANN models are compared. Some statistical methods; fraction of variance (R 2 ) and root mean squared error (RMSE) values, have been used for comparison

  8. Transfer of a wave packet in double-well potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Feng; Hu, Yao-Hua; Tan, Yong-Gang

    2018-04-01

    Energy potentials with double-well structures are typical in atoms and molecules systems. A manipulation scheme using Half Cycles Pulses (HCPs) is proposed to transfer a Gaussian wave packet between the two wells. On the basis of quantum mechanical simulations, the time evolution and the energy distribution of the wave packet are evaluated. The effect of time parameters, amplitude, and number of HCPs on spatial and energy distribution of the final state and transfer efficiency are investigated. After a carefully tailored HCPs sequence is applied to the initial wave packet localized in one well, the final state is a wave packet localized in the other well and populated at the lower energy levels with narrower distribution. The present scheme could be used to control molecular reactions and to prepare atoms with large dipole moments.

  9. Results of testing the E9 multiple probe lateral logging device in deep wells in the eastern Pre-caucasus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarchuk, A.F.; Kochetkov, V.T.; Kucherov, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    The integrated lateral logging device E9 developed for investigating deep and extra-deep wells, permitting measurement of apparent resistances by three probes at different depths, is described. It is heat and pressure resistant (up to 200/degree/C, 120 MPa). The tests showed that under certain favorable conditions the device is fairly effective.

  10. Potential for horizontal well technology in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglarbigi, K.; Mohan, H.; Ray, R.M.; Meehan, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of horizontal well technology has increased significantly in the U.S., contributing to the drilling of 600 to 1000 horizontal oil wells annually. A total of 86 per cent of the existing horizontal wells have been drilled in three formations, the Austin chalk in Texas, the Bakken shale in North Dakota, and the Niobrara in Colorado and Wyoming. A unique analytical system has been developed by the United States Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology Office (USDOE/NPTO) to assess the potential for greater use of horizontal well technology for other oil resources in other geological formations. The analytical system is designed to be used in association with other enhanced recovery methods that make up the DOE's Total Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). The DOE/NPTO collaborated with industry to identify the target resource for horizontal well technology and to evaluate its future recovery potential under different economic and technological conditions. This paper provides a national summary of the potential for additional production and reserves with more diverse application of horizontal wells in various types of U.S. oil resources, including the rest of the fractured reservoirs in the Austin chalk, other fractured reservoirs in the north and northwestern states, thin-bed reservoirs, and mature waterflood field. The results were presented in terms of production, reserves and national economic benefits with a full cash-flow analysis at oil prices in the range of $16 to $24 U.S. per bbl. It is estimated that 541 million to 1 billion bbls of new reserves are economically producible at these prices. The reserves estimates pertain to future horizontal wells in known fields only and are in addition to the reserves for the existing wells as of 1 January 1998. Potential production is substantial, ranging from 50 million to 85 million bbl per year by 2004 and then declining at a rate of 8 per cent per year in the following years

  11. Erasure without Work in an Asymmetric Double-Well Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Bechhoefer, John

    2016-11-11

    According to Landauer's principle, erasing a memory requires an average work of at least kTln2 per bit. Recent experiments have confirmed this prediction for a one-bit memory represented by a symmetric double-well potential. Here, we present an experimental study of erasure for a memory encoded in an asymmetric double-well potential. Using a feedback trap, we find that the average work to erase can be less than kTln2. Surprisingly, erasure protocols that differ subtly give measurably different values for the asymptotic work, a result we explain by showing that one protocol is symmetric with the respect to time reversal, while the other is not. The differences between the protocols help clarify the distinctions between thermodynamic and logical reversibility.

  12. Amplitude modulation control of escape from a potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, R.; Martínez García-Hoz, A.; Miralles, J.J.; Martínez, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of periodic amplitude modulations in controlling (suppressing and enhancing) escape from a potential well through the universal model of a damped Helmholtz oscillator subjected to an external periodic excitation (the escape-inducing excitation) whose amplitude is periodically modulated (the escape-controlling excitation). Analytical and numerical results show that this multiplicative control works reliably for different subharmonic resonances between the two periodic excitations involved, and that its effectiveness is comparable to those of different methods of additive control. Additionally, we demonstrate the robustness of the multiplicative control against the presence of low-intensity Gaussian noise. -- Highlights: •Multiplicative control of escape from a potential well has been demonstrated. •Theoretical predictions are obtained from a Melnikov analysis. •It has been shown the robustness of the multiplicative control against noise.

  13. Differences of wells scores accuracy, caprini scores and padua scores in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatot, D.; Mardia, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the venous thrombus in lower limbs. Diagnosis is by using venography or ultrasound compression. However, these examinations are not available yet in some health facilities. Therefore many scoring systems are developed for the diagnosis of DVT. The scoring method is practical and safe to use in addition to efficacy, and effectiveness in terms of treatment and costs. The existing scoring systems are wells, caprini and padua score. There have been many studies comparing the accuracy of this score but not in Medan. Therefore, we are interested in comparative research of wells, capriniand padua score in Medan.An observational, analytical, case-control study was conducted to perform diagnostic tests on the wells, caprini and padua score to predict the risk of DVT. The study was at H. Adam Malik Hospital in Medan.From a total of 72 subjects, 39 people (54.2%) are men and the mean age are 53.14 years. Wells score, caprini score and padua score has a sensitivity of 80.6%; 61.1%, 50% respectively; specificity of 80.65; 66.7%; 75% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%; 64.3%; 65.7% respectively.Wells score has better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than caprini and padua score in diagnosing DVT.

  14. Simulation and optimization of deep violet InGaN double quantum well laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyarizadeh, Gh.; Ghazai, A. J.; Rahmani, R.; Mahmodi, H.; Hassan, Z.

    2012-03-01

    The performance characteristics of a deep violet InGaN double quantum well laser diode (LD) such as threshold current ( Ith), external differential quantum efficiency (DQE) and output power have been investigated using the Integrated System Engineering Technical Computer Aided Design (ISE-TCAD) software. As well as its operating parameters such as internal quantum efficiency ( ηi), internal loss ( αi) and transparency threshold current density ( J0) have been studied. Since, we are interested to investigate the mentioned characteristics and parameters independent of well and barrier thickness, therefore to reach a desired output wavelength, the indium mole fraction of wells and barriers has been varied consequently. The indium mole fractions of well and barrier layers have been considered 0.08 and 0.0, respectively. Some important parameters such as Al mole fraction of the electronic blocking layer (EBL) and cavity length which affect performance characteristics were also investigated. The optimum values of the Al mole fraction and cavity length in this study are 0.15 and 400 μm, respectively. The lowest threshold current, the highest DQE and output power which obtained at the emission wavelength of 391.5 nm are 43.199 mA, 44.99% and 10.334 mW, respectively.

  15. A 3D deep n-well CMOS MAPS for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaioni, L., E-mail: luigi.gaioni@unipv.i [Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M. [Universita di Bergamo, I-24044 Dalmine (Bulgaria) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Ratti, L. [Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Universita di Bergamo, I-24044 Dalmine (Bulgaria) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    This work presents the features of a new kind of deep n-well monolithic active pixel sensor (DNW-MAPS), called SDR1 (Sparsified Data Readout), which exploits the capabilities of vertical integration (3D) processing in view of the design of a high granularity detector for vertexing applications at the International Linear Collider (ILC). SDR1 inherits and extends the functional capabilities of DNW-MAPS fabricated in planar (2D) CMOS technology and is expected to show better collection efficiency with respect to 2D versions. The aim of the paper is to outline the features of analog and digital architecture of the SDR1 chip, together with circuit simulations data. Also some device simulation results concerning detection efficiency will be discussed.

  16. Single particle level density in a finite depth potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.; Kolomietz, V.M.; Dejbakhsh, H.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the single particle level density g(ε) of a realistic finite depth potential well, concentrating on the continuum (ε>0) region. We carry out quantum-mechanical calculations of the partial level density g l (ε), associated with a well-defined orbital angular momentum l≤40, using the phase-shift derivative method and the Greens-function method and compare the results with those obtained using the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We also numerically calculate g(ε) as a l sum of g l (ε) up to a certain value of scr(l) max ≤40 and determine the corresponding smooth level densities using the Strutinsky smoothing procedure. We demonstrate, in accordance with Levinson close-quote s theorem, that the partial contribution g l (ε) to the single particle level density from continuum states has positive and negative values. However, g(ε) is nonnegative. We also point out that this is not the case for an energy-dependent potential well. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Performances of solar water pumping system using helical pump for a deep well: A case study for Madinah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K.O.; Joraid, A.A.; Alamri, S.N.; Jaber, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The best performance of helical pump has been reached for a deep well. ► Very high potential of solar energy at Saudi Arabia. ► Performance of solar water pumping system for a deep well of 120 m. ► We get the best efficiency of helical pump for the head of 80 m. ► The best configuration of PV generator (24 panels) has been obtained. - Abstract: The photovoltaic water pumping systems (PVWPS) constitute a potential option to draw down water in the remote desert locations for domestic usage and livestock watering. However, the widespread of this technique requires accurate information and experiences in such system sizing and installation. The aim of this work is to determine an optimum photovoltaic (PV) array configuration, adequate to supply a DC Helical pump with an optimum energy amount, under the outdoor conditions of Madinah site. Four different PV array configurations have been tested (6S × 3P, 6S × 4P, 8S × 3P and 12S × 2P). The tests have been carried for a head of 80 m, under sunny daylight hours, in a real well at a farm in Madinah site. The best results have been obtained for two PV array configurations (6S × 4P) and (8S × 3P) which are suitable to provide the optimum energy. Powered by the selected PV array configurations, the helical pump (SQF2.5-2) delivered a maximum daily average volume of water needed (22 m 3 /day).

  18. Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastasiuk, V.A., E-mail: nasa@i.ua

    2015-09-25

    The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones. - Highlights: • The financial Schrödinger equation is derived using the principle of minimum Fisher information. • Statistical models for price variation are mapped by the quantum models of coupled particle. • The model of quantum particle in parabolic potential well corresponds to Efficient market.

  19. Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasiuk, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones. - Highlights: • The financial Schrödinger equation is derived using the principle of minimum Fisher information. • Statistical models for price variation are mapped by the quantum models of coupled particle. • The model of quantum particle in parabolic potential well corresponds to Efficient market

  20. Tunable magnetic vortex resonance in a potential well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnicke, P.; Wohlhüter, P.; Suszka, A. K.; Stevenson, S. E.; Heyderman, L. J.; Raabe, J.

    2017-11-01

    We use frequency-resolved x-ray microscopy to fully characterize the potential well of a magnetic vortex in a soft ferromagnetic permalloy square. The vortex core is excited with magnetic broadband pulses and simultaneously displaced with a static magnetic field. We observe a frequency increase (blueshift) in the gyrotropic mode of the vortex core with increasing bias field. Supported by micromagnetic simulations, we show that this frequency increase is accompanied by internal deformation of the vortex core. The ability to modify the inner structure of the vortex core provides a mechanism to control the dynamics of magnetic vortices.

  1. The objected oriented programming: application to potential well system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Garcia, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Objected Oriented Programming is a new methodology which allows us to organize the code in a different way than the structured languages. This article describes the main characteristics of the Language C++, and advantages in physics computing and in building a graphic user interface. The solution of a classical exercise in one-dimensional Quantum Mechanics: to find out the energy levels and the wave functions of a potential well system, allows us to set a class hierarchy, use the concepts of overloading and polymorphism, and read or write data to disk through the input/output streams. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Potential well formation in electrostatic confinement devices. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrington, B.E.; Verdeyen, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    A large (2' diameter) spherical electrostatic confinement device has been constructed to test the feasibility of using inertial electrostatic forces to confine energetic plasmas capable of sustaining fusion reactions. Electron injection under high vacuum has produced negative wells that completely depress the potential in the center and approach the classical Langmuir virtual cathode. Electron injection into low pressure deuterium reproduces our previous results of an ion rich region within the negative well. Additional theoretical studies incorporating electrons with very narrow angular momentum (corresponding to trapped electrons in the center) has shown that an additional electron rich region (or ion rich if the polarities are reversed) can be produced within the ion rich region for presumably realistic ranges of parameters

  3. Deep geological repository: Starting communication at potentially suitable sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, Vera

    2001-01-01

    The siting of a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic is and will be a complicated process, since it is the first siting process of a nuclear facility designed from the start to be located at non-nuclear sites and to be organised under democratic conditions. This presentation describes the concept of radioactive waste and spent nuclear management in the Czech Republic, Communication activities of Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) with local representatives and lessons learned

  4. The study of planning and realization of deep groundwater well construction at Tangkil, Kemalang, Klaten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartapa

    2009-01-01

    The deep groundwater well at Tangkil is one of the cooperation outcomes between the Government of Klaten and P2BGGN - BATAN in a framework of using Klaten water sources. The method of work involves literature study, data analysis, evaluation and interpretation, respectively. The Well has 205.79 m in depth by diameter of 12.25 inch and 15.654 m3 in volume. Construction design of PVC ducks is 8 inch through 200 m depth, the volume of pipe construction is 7.825 m3 and annulus volume is 7.825 m3. The annulus filled with 7.4558 m3 of gravel wrapped, 0.0846 m3 of partition and 0.0846 m3 sanitation cement. The volume of developed pipe construction is 6.936 m3 by depth of 182 m, 8.718 m3 of annulus volume filled with 7.260 m3 or 83,28% of gravel wrapped, therefore the existence of space between its grains which is not filled with 1.013 m3 or 16,72% of gravel wrapped may become an entrance path of sands into the well and may interfere the performance of its pump. The screen pipes has been developed until 174 m depth and 136.60 m of groundwater static surface, hence the round up of groundwater by 73 m of screen pipes is suitable enough for pump installation and water well discharge. The efficiency of annulus relatively poor, therefore periodically need of checking and cleaning the entering of sands into the well has to be conducted. (author)

  5. Delineation of potential deep seated landslides in a watershed using environmental index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Siao Ying; Lin, Chao Yuan; Lin, Cheng Yu

    2016-04-01

    The extreme rainfall induced deep seated landslides cause more attentions recently. Extreme rainfall can accelerate soil moisture content and surface runoff in slopeland which usually results in severe headward erosion and slope failures in an upstream watershed. It's a crucial issue for disaster prevention to extract the sites of potential deep seated landslide dynamically. Landslide risk and scale in a watershed were well discussed in this study. Risk of landslide occurrence in a watershed can be calculated from the multiplication of hazard and vulnerability for a certain event. A synthesis indicator derived from the indices of inverted extreme rainfall, road development and inverted normalized difference vegetation index can be effectively used as vulnerability for a watershed before the event. Landslide scale estimated from the indices of soil depth, headward erosion, river concave and dip slope could be applied to locate the hotspots of deep seated landslide in a watershed. The events of Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and Soudelor in 2015 were also selected in this study to verify the delineation accuracy of the model for the references of related authorities.

  6. Deep n-well MAPS in a 130 nm CMOS technology: Beam test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, N.; Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Crescioli, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Gregucci, S.; Mammini, P.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Piendibene, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on recent beam test results for the APSEL4D chip, a new deep n-well MAPS prototype with a full in-pixel signal processing chain obtained by exploiting the triple well option of the CMOS 0.13μm process. The APSEL4D chip consists of a 4096 pixel matrix (32 rows and 128 columns) with 50x50μm 2 pixel cell area, with custom readout architecture capable of performing data sparsification at pixel level. APSEL4D has been characterized in terms of charge collection efficiency and intrinsic spatial resolution under different conditions of discriminator threshold settings using a 12 GeV/c proton beam in the T9 area of the CERN PS. We observe a maximum hit efficiency of 92% and we estimate an intrinsic resolution of about 14μm. The data driven approach of the tracking detector readout chips has been successfully used to demonstrate the possibility to build a Level 1 trigger system based on associative memories. The analysis of the beam test data is critically reviewed along with the characterization of the device under test.

  7. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  8. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  9. Equivalence between deep energy-dependent and shallow angular momentum dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedeldey, H.; Sofianos, S.A.; Papastylianos, A.; Amos, K.A.; Allen, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recently Baye showed that supersymmetry can be applied to determine a shallow l-dependent potential phase equivalent to a deep potential, assumed to be energy-independent and have Panli forbidden states (PFS), for α-α scattering. The PFS are eliminated by this procedure. Such deep potentials are generated as equivalent local potentials (ELP) to the Resonating Group Model (RGM) and are generally energy-dependent. To eliminate this E-dependence as required for the application of Baye's method, l-dependent, but E-independent, deep local potentials were generated by the exact inversion method of Marchenko. Subsequently, the supersymmetric method was used to eliminate the PFS, ensuring that the generalized Levinson theorem is satisfied. As an example, the method was applied to the simple model of two dineutrons scattering in the RGM, where the deep ELP of Horiuchi has a substantial energy-dependence and one PFS only for l=O. 16 refs., 5 figs

  10. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water less than 400 meters deep (see § 203.30(a)), has no existing deep or ultra-deep wells and that the... depths partly or entirely less than 200 meters and has not previously produced from a deep well (§ 203.30... which is 16,000 feet TVD SS and your lease is located in water 100 meters deep. Then in 2008, you drill...

  11. Numerical prediction and performance experiment in a deep-well centrifugal pump with different impeller outlet width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Zhou, Ling; Lu, Weigang; Pei, Bing; Lang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The existing research of the deep-well centrifugal pump mainly focuses on reduce the manufacturing cost and improve the pump performance, and how to combine above two aspects together is the most difficult and important topic. In this study, the performances of the deep-well centrifugal pump with four different impeller outlet widths are studied by the numerical, theoretical and experimental methods in this paper. Two stages deep-well centrifugal pump equipped with different impellers are simulated employing the commercial CFD software to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for three-dimensional incompressible steady flow. The sensitivity analyses of the grid size and turbulence model have been performed to improve numerical accuracy. The flow field distributions are acquired and compared under the design operating conditions, including the static pressure, turbulence kinetic energy and velocity. The prototype is manufactured and tested to certify the numerical predicted performance. The numerical results of pump performance are higher than the test results, but their change trends have an acceptable agreement with each other. The performance results indicted that the oversize impeller outlet width leads to poor pump performances and increasing shaft power. Changing the performance of deep-well centrifugal pump by alter impeller outlet width is practicable and convenient, which is worth popularizing in the engineering application. The proposed research enhances the theoretical basis of pump design to improve the performance and reduce the manufacturing cost of deep-well centrifugal pump.

  12. A new generic model potential for mesogenic systems: square well line potential of variable range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Szabolcs; Vesely, Franz J

    2009-11-21

    A single-site pair potential is derived to approximate the linear n-site square well interaction. The resulting square well line (SWL) potential is analytical, fairly smooth, and reproduces the distance and orientation dependence of the multisite pair energy. It contains only three control parameters n, L, and s(2), in addition to the units of length s(1) and energy epsilon. The advantages of the new model over the traditional potentials such as Gay-Berne and Kihara are that n, L, and s(2) are physically meaningful quantities and that no additional adjustable parameters are introduced. With the SWL potential even very long square well chain molecules may be treated in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations; moreover the model is well suited for perturbation theory. Using Onsager-like theories we test the effect of molecular elongation, temperature, and the range of the square well potential on the vapor-liquid and nematic-smectic A (NS) phase transitions. We find that the vapor-liquid binodal of the SWL fluid is in good agreement with MC results for square well dumbbells. For repulsive SWL particles, varying the interaction range s(2) results in a similar effect on the NS transition as the change in the ionic strength in a real suspension of fd viruses.

  13. Approximate Approaches to the One-Dimensional Finite Potential Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shilpi; Pathak, Praveen; Singh, Vijay A.

    2011-01-01

    The one-dimensional finite well is a textbook problem. We propose approximate approaches to obtain the energy levels of the well. The finite well is also encountered in semiconductor heterostructures where the carrier mass inside the well (m[subscript i]) is taken to be distinct from mass outside (m[subscript o]). A relevant parameter is the mass…

  14. Self-consistent potential variations in magnetic wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Knorr, G.; Nicholson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Self-consistent electrostatic potential variations are considered in a spatial region of weak magnetic field, as in the proposed tandem mirror thermal barriers (with no trapped ions). For some conditions, equivalent to ion distributions with a sufficiently high net drift speed along the magnetic field, the desired potential depressions are found. When the net drift speed is not high enough, potential depressions are found only in combination with strong electric fields on the boundaries of the system. These potential depressions are not directly related to the magnetic field depression. (author)

  15. Hydrochemical evaluation and identification of geochemical processes in the shallow and deep wells in the Ramganga Sub-Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, Natarajan; Patel, Neelam; Singh, Gaurav; Amarasinghe, Upali A

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 44 wells in the Ramganga Sub-Basin (RSB), India, and analysed for major ions, nutrients and trace metals. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the hydrochemistry and to identify the geochemical processes that govern the water chemistry in the shallow and deep tube wells in the study area using geochemical methods. The knowledge of changes in hydrochemistry of the aquifers is important for both groundwater recharge and use in the region. This study found that there are substantial differences of water chemistry between shallow and deep wells. In the shallow wells, the average concentrations of total dissolved solid (TDS), Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO 3 , Cl, SO 4 , NO 3 , PO 4 , F, Cu, Mn, Fe and Cr are twofold higher than the deep wells. The concentrations of dissolved silica in the groundwater do not vary with the depth, which implies that the variation in the water chemistry is not due to mineral dissolution alone. Major ion ratios and saturation indices suggest that the water chemistry is predominantly controlled by dissolution of carbonate minerals, silicate weathering and ion exchange reactions. Thermodynamic evaluation (ion activity ratios and stability filed diagrams) indicates that the kaolinite and gibbsite controlled the water chemistry in the both shallow and deep wells. In addition, the groundwater chemistry in the shallow wells is affected by the vertical infiltration of contaminated water from surface contamination sources and nitrification process. In the deep wells, absence of NO 3 and low concentrations of Cl, SO 4 , PO 4 and F imply the role of regional flow and denitrification in the groundwater. Results concluded that proper management plan is necessary to protect the shallow aquifer in the RSB since shallow aquifer pumping is less expensive than the deeper one.

  16. Characterization of geochemical constituents and bacterial populations associated with As mobilization in deep and shallow tube wells in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; van der Kraan, Geert M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard; Bruining, Johannes; Schotting, Ruud J

    2009-04-01

    While millions of people drink arsenic-contaminated tube well water across Bangladesh, there is no recent scientific explanation which is able to either comprehensively explain arsenic mobilization or to predict the spatial distribution of affected wells. Rather, mitigation strategies have focused on the sinking of deep tube wells into the currently arsenic-free Pleistocene aquifer. In this study, Bangladesh shallow tube wells identified as contaminated and uncontaminated, as well as deep tube wells, were analyzed for geochemical and in situ microbiological composition. Whereas arsenic was detected in all Holocene aquifer wells, no arsenic was found in wells accessing the Pleistocene aquifer. Bacterial genera, including Comamonadaceae, Acidovorax, Acinetobacter, and Hydrogenophaga, associated with tolerance of high arsenic concentrations, rather than dissimilatory Fe(III) or As(V) reduction, were identified in shallow tube wells, indicating that mobilization may not occur at depth, but is rather due to drawdown of surface contaminated water. Deep tube wells contained microbes indicative of aerobic conditions, including the genera Aquabacterium, Limnobacter, and Roseomonas. It is concluded that through drawdown of arsenic or organic matter, further utilization of the Pleistocene aquifer could result in contamination similar to that observed in the Holocene aquifer.

  17. Logical stochastic resonance in triple-well potential systems driven by colored noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqing; Xu, Yong; Xu, Wei; Li, Xiuchun

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the logic stochastic resonance (LSR) phenomenon in a class of stochastic triple-well potential systems is investigated. Approximate Fokker-Planck equation is first obtained by using decoupling approximation. Then, we show that LSR can be successfully induced by additive or multiplicative Gaussian colored noise in some cases. In the absence of internal noise, LSR implementation seems impossible for a = 0 (The parameter a characterizes the depth of the potential well) since the two side wells are so deep that the particle cannot hop over the barrier into the middle well when the input signal is 0. With the increasing of a, the optimal noise band to yield flexible logic gates appears and moves to higher level of noise as the correlation time of noise increases. Compared with the Gaussian white noise, the reliable region in the parameter plane of potential depth parameter a and additive noise strength D first expands and then shrinks with increasing noise color. Furthermore, the effects of multiplicative Gaussian colored noise on LSR are investigated. It was found that the flexible and reliable logic behavior can be yielded for a = 0 due to the fact that the multiplicative Gaussian colored noise strongly affects the shape of the potential function. With the increasing of a, i.e., a = 0.25, multiplicative Gaussian white noise cannot yield desired logic behavior. Fortunately, LSR can also be expected by adjusting the correlation time of Gaussian colored noise. It can also be observed that the reliable region in the parameter plane of potential depth parameter a and multiplicative noise strength Q is small for the case of Gaussian white noise and it becomes larger with the increasing of noise color.

  18. Assessing the Potential of Mathematics Textbooks to Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Malcolm; Dole, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum documents for mathematics emphasise the importance of promoting depth of knowledge rather than shallow coverage of the curriculum. In this paper, we report on a study that explored the analysis of junior secondary mathematics textbooks to assess their potential to assist in teaching and learning aimed at building and applying deep…

  19. Equilibration and nonclassicality of a double-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Steve; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro

    2016-01-29

    A double well loaded with bosonic atoms represents an ideal candidate to simulate some of the most interesting aspects in the phenomenology of thermalisation and equilibration. Here we report an exhaustive analysis of the dynamics and steady state properties of such a system locally in contact with different temperature reservoirs. We show that thermalisation only occurs 'accidentally'. We further examine the nonclassical features and energy fluxes implied by the dynamics of the double-well system, thus exploring its finite-time thermodynamics in relation to the settlement of nonclassical correlations between the wells.

  20. First generation of deep n-well CMOS MAPS with in-pixel sparsification for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traversi, Gianluca; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Caccia, Massimo; Jastrzab, Marcin; Manghisoni, Massimo; Pozzati, Enrico; Ratti, Lodovico; Re, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the characterization results relevant to a deep n-well (DNW) CMOS active pixel sensor chip designed for vertexing applications at the International Linear Collider. In this chip, named sparsified digital readout (SDR0), for the first time we implemented a sparsification logic at the pixel level. The DNW available in deep submicron CMOS processes is used to collect the charge released in the substrate, and signal processing is performed by a classical optimum amplifying stage for capacitive detectors. In this work, the experimental characterization of the SDR0 chip, including data from radioactive source ( 55 Fe) tests, will be presented.

  1. Potential Osteoporosis Recovery by Deep Sea Water through Bone Regeneration in SAMP8 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hen-Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the therapeutic potential of deep sea water (DSW on osteoporosis. Previously, we have established the ovariectomized senescence-accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8 and demonstrated strong recovery of osteoporosis by stem cell and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Deep sea water at hardness (HD 1000 showed significant increase in proliferation of osteoblastic cell (MC3T3 by MTT assay. For in vivo animal study, bone mineral density (BMD was strongly enhanced followed by the significantly increased trabecular numbers through micro-CT examination after a 4-month deep sea water treatment, and biochemistry analysis showed that serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was decreased. For stage-specific osteogenesis, bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs were harvested and examined. Deep sea water-treated BMSCs showed stronger osteogenic differentiation such as BMP2, RUNX2, OPN, and OCN, and enhanced colony forming abilities, compared to the control group. Interestingly, most untreated OVX-SAMP8 mice died around 10 months; however, approximately 57% of DSW-treated groups lived up to 16.6 months, a life expectancy similar to the previously reported life expectancy for SAMR1 24 months. The results demonstrated the regenerative potentials of deep sea water on osteogenesis, showing that deep sea water could potentially be applied in osteoporosis therapy as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM.

  2. Potential impact of global climate change on benthic deep-sea microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Rastelli, Eugenio

    2017-12-15

    Benthic deep-sea environments are the largest ecosystem on Earth, covering ∼65% of the Earth surface. Microbes inhabiting this huge biome at all water depths represent the most abundant biological components and a relevant portion of the biomass of the biosphere, and play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Increasing evidence suggests that global climate changes are affecting also deep-sea ecosystems, both directly (causing shifts in bottom-water temperature, oxygen concentration and pH) and indirectly (through changes in surface oceans' productivity and in the consequent export of organic matter to the seafloor). However, the responses of the benthic deep-sea biota to such shifts remain largely unknown. This applies particularly to deep-sea microbes, which include bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes and their viruses. Understanding the potential impacts of global change on the benthic deep-sea microbial assemblages and the consequences on the functioning of the ocean interior is a priority to better forecast the potential consequences at global scale. Here we explore the potential changes in the benthic deep-sea microbiology expected in the coming decades using case studies on specific systems used as test models. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Geothermal characteristics of deep wells using geophysical logs in Pohang area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, W.; Hamm, S. Y.; Lee, C.; Song, Y.; Kim, H.

    2016-12-01

    Pohang area displays a larger potential of geothermal energy with the highest heat flow of 83 mWm-2 in South Korea. A geothermal binary power plant with a generation capacity of 1.5MW using enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is under construction in Pohang area and will be completed until 2017. This study aims to reveal geothermal characteristics of four wells (BH-1 to BH-4 wells) of 2,383 m in depth in Pohang area, using geophysical logs. The geology of the study area is composed of tertiary mudstone of 200 - 359.1 m, tuff of 73 - 240 m, sandstone/mudstone of 46 - 907 m, rhyolite of 259 - 375 m, and andesitic volcanic breccia of 834 m in thicknesses from the surface, with granodiorite at bottom. By the result of the study, temperature and maximum electrical conductivity (EC) are 69.5°C at 1,502.6 m and 1,162 μS/cm at BH-2 well, 44.4°C at 912.3 m and 1,105 μS/cm at BH-3 well, and 82.5°C at 1,981.3 m and 3,412 μS/cm at BH-4 well. Thermal conductivity values at saturated state are 2.14 - 3.95 W/m-K (average 3.47 W/m-K) at BH-1 well and 2.36 - 3.61 W/m-K (average 2.85 W/m-K) at BH-4 well. ß (determining heat flow rate and up/down direction) values were estimated by using 1-D steady-state heat transfer equation and were determined as -0.77 - 0.99 with the geothermal gradients (Ks) of 42.5 - 46.3°C/km at BH-1 well, -3.15 - 3.05 with the Ks of 25.0 - 29.1°C/km at BH-2, -1.80 - 2.09 with the Ks of 20.0 - 23.0°C/km at BH-3 well, and -4.10 - 5.18 with the Ks of 30.2 - 39.0°C/km at BH-4 well. Most depths of all the wells showed upward heat transfer. Based on the geophysical logs, the main aquifer is located between 200 and 300 meters. KEY WORDS: Geothermal gradient, thermal conductivity, geophysical logs, ß value, heat transfer equation, Pohang area Acknowledgement This work was supported by grants from the Principal Research Fund of Korea Institute of the Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM 16-3411).

  4. Analysis of well test data from selected intervals in Leuggern deep borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    Applicability of the PTST technique was verified by conducting a sensitivity study to the various parameters. The study showed that for ranges of skin parameters the true formation permeability was still successfully estimated using the PTST analysis technique. The analysis technique was then applied to field data from the deep borehole in Leuggern, Northern Switzerland. The analysis indicated that the formation permeability may be as much as one order of magnitude larger than the value based on no-skin analysis. Swabbing data from the Leuggern deep borehole were also analyzed assuming that they are constant pressure tests. The analysis of the swabbing data indicates that the formation transmissivity is as much as 20 times larger than the previously obtained value. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  5. Potential well formation in electrostatic confinement devices. Technical summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrington, B.E.; Verdeyen, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical studies on Inertial Electrostatic Plasma Confinement that have been performed in the Gaseous Electronics Laboratory of the University of Illinois are reviewed. There has been experimental confirmation of the production of a multiple potential structure in both small and large spherical devices and the theoretical analysis has indicated the parameter range that is necessary in order to explain such results. Further experimental and theoretical approaches to testing the IEPC concept are suggested

  6. Confinement of a neutral plasma using nested electric potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    A self-consistent, two-dimensional analysis is presented on confining a region of neutral plasma with a Penning/Malmberg type plasma trap using a nested well configuration. It is found that a neutral plasma region having disparate electron and ion temperatures or having high charge state ions can be confined with static fields. For confining a neutral region comprised of electrons and equal temperature low charge state ions, a quasistatic approach appears promising. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Do galactic potential wells depend on their environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, H. J.; Lahav, O.

    1993-01-01

    Using galaxies in complete samples as tracers of the galaxy density field and about 1000 galaxies with measured circular velocities as targets, we examine the cross-correlation functions between the targets and tracers as a function of galaxy circular velocities. The correlation strength does not vary with the circular velocities except for elliptical galaxies with the highest velocity dispersions, where the effect may well be due to morphological segregations in clusters of galaxies. This is contrasted with the strong dependence of the correlation functions of dark halos on their circular velocities in some models of galaxy formation.

  8. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  9. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The present report and its annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful discussion

  10. Prediction of pressure between packers of staged fracturing pipe strings in high-pressure deep wells and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing to the deteriorated load conditions of working string and packers caused by annular pressure drop between packers during the staged stimulation of high-pressure deep well, one 2D temperature field transient prediction model for borehole under injecting conditions which considers such influences as friction heat, convection heat exchange was set up, based on energy conservation principle and borehole heat transfer theory. By means of analyzing the influences of borehole temperature and pressure changes on the annular volume between packers, and in combination with borehole temperature transient prediction model, annular fluid PVT equations of state, radial deformation model of tubing and formation transient seepage equation, a typical high-pressure deep well inter-packer annular pressure prediction model was established. Taking a high-pressure gas well in Tarim Oilfield for example, the inter-packer annular pressure prediction was conducted, on which, the mechanical analysis on packers and working strings was carried out. The analysis results show that although the pipe string is safe in the viewpoint of conventional design methods, it is still susceptible to failure after the annular pressure drop between packers was taken into consideration. Such factor should be fully considered in the design of staged stimulation pipe strings, and this prediction model provides new thoughts for the optimal design of high-pressure deep well staged stimulation pipe strings.

  11. Considerations affecting deep-well disposal of tritium-bearing low-level aqueous waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Warner, D.L.; Steindler, M.J.

    1977-03-01

    Present concepts of disposal of low-level aqueous wastes (LLAW) that contain much of the fission-product tritium from light water reactors involve dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams at fuel reprocessing plants. These concepts have been challenged in recent years. Deep-well injection of low-level aqueous wastes, an alternative to biospheric dispersal, is the subject of this presentation. Many factors must be considered in assessing its feasibility, including technology, costs, environmental impact, legal and regulatory constraints, and siting. Examination of these factors indicates that the technology of deep-well injection, extensively developed for other industrial wastes, would require little innovation before application to low-level aqueous wastes. Costs would be low, of the order of magnitude of 10 -4 mill/kWh. The environmental impact of normal deep-well disposal would be small, compared with dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams; abnormal operation would not be expected to produce catastrophic results. Geologically suitable sites are abundant in the U.S., but a well would best be co-located with the fuel-reprocessing plant where the LLAW is produced. Legal and regulatory constraints now being developed will be the most important determinants of the feasibility of applying the method

  12. Preliminary physico-chemical results obtained on water using new data acquisition systems for deep wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, J.M.; Peyrus, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    Data acquisition systems recently developed in the context of research on deep storage facilities have provided with an initial set of interesting observations for the physico-chemical study of boreholes. It is possible to make correlations between the chemical compositions of water, pH and the nature of the substrate. The sampling done at Auriat with a Gerhardt-Owen probe shows the variability in the composition of water as a function of depth. The variation in calcium content, following that of pH, is particularly notable. Examination of pH measurements is of particular interest. A general gradient correlates exactly with the nature of the substrate. Whereas steel piping has a very alkaline pH, distinct pH values correspond to the two types of granite substrate. In this general gradient, series of disturbances can be seen which correspond perfectly to fracturation zones or large fractures. These most promising preliminary results lead to believe that in situ physico-chemical measurements should be continued and developed with a view to improved evaluation of the safety of deep storage facilities

  13. Siting study for Test Area North potable water deep well project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1993-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various locations for a new potable ground water well at Test Area North (TAN). The new well is proposed to replace two existing wells located within a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume. Several locations were evaluated using computer simulations based on the hydrogeology of the site. The modeling effort involved: (1) producing a water table map, (2) superimposing the effects of pumping the proposed new production well on the water table map using the model CAPZONE, and (3) calculating the capture zone for these wells using the GWPATH model. A three dimensional contaminant transport model was used to evaluate siting a well in a deeper horizon of the aquifer. The following scenarios were investigated: (1) placing a new well 500 ft north of the existing wells; (2) locating a well 3,000 ft northwest of the existing wells; (3) deepening one of the existing wells 100 to 150 ft to produce water from beneath an interbed that acts as a hydraulic barrier; and (4) drilling a new well about 500 ft northwest of the existing wells to produce water from beneath the interbed. The recommended new well site (fourth scenario) is northwest of the existing wells, with the well completed from 500 to 600 ft below land surface to produce water from beneath the Q-R interbed. Locating the well northwest of the existing wells places the new well out of the TCE plume and reduces the possibility of transporting contaminated water across the interbed

  14. Potential Physiologies of Deep Branches on the Tree of Life with Deep Subsurface Samples from IODP Leg 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Bird, J. T.; Shumaker, A.

    2014-12-01

    Very little is known about how evolutionary branches that are distantly related to cultured microorganisms make a living in the deep subsurface marine environment. Here, sediments are cut-off from surface inputs of organic substrates for tens of thousands of years; yet somehow support a diverse population of microorganisms. We examined the potential metabolic and ecological roles of uncultured archaea and bacteria in IODP Leg 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment samples, using quantitative PCR holes 60B, 63E, 65C, and 59C and single cell genomic analysis for hole 60B. We quantified changes in total archaea and bacteria, as well as deeply-branching archaeal taxa with depth. These sediment cores alternate between high and low salinities, following a glacial cycle. This allows changes in the quantities of these groups to be placed in the context of potentially vastly different organic matter sources. In addition, single cells were isolated, and their genomes were amplified and sequenced to allow a deeper look into potential physiologies of uncultured deeply-branching organisms found up to 86 meters deep in marine sediments. Together, these data provide deeper insight into the relationship between microorganisms and their organic matter substrates in this extreme environments.

  15. A 3D Vertically Integrated Deep N-Well CMOS MAPS for the SuperB Layer0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traversi, G; Manghisoni, M; Re, V; Gaioni, L; Ratti, L

    2011-01-01

    Deep N-Well (DNW) Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) have been developed in the last few years with the aim of building monolithic sensors with similar functionalities as hybrid pixels systems. In these devices the triple well option, available in deep submicron processes, is exploited to implement analog and digital signal processing at the pixel level. Many prototypes have been fabricated in a planar (2D) 130nm CMOS technology. A new kind of DNW-MAPS, namely Apsel5 3 D, which exploits the capabilities of vertical integration (3D) processes, is presented and discussed in this paper. The impact of 3D processes on the design and performance of DNW pixel sensors could be large, with significant advantages in terms of detection efficiency, pixel cell size and immunity to cross-talk, therefore complying with the severe constraints set by future HEP experiments.

  16. A 3D Vertically Integrated Deep N-Well CMOS MAPS for the SuperB Layer0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, G; Manghisoni, M; Re, V [University of Bergamo, Via Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy); Gaioni, L; Ratti, L, E-mail: gianluca.traversi@unibg.it [INFN Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Deep N-Well (DNW) Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) have been developed in the last few years with the aim of building monolithic sensors with similar functionalities as hybrid pixels systems. In these devices the triple well option, available in deep submicron processes, is exploited to implement analog and digital signal processing at the pixel level. Many prototypes have been fabricated in a planar (2D) 130nm CMOS technology. A new kind of DNW-MAPS, namely Apsel5{sub 3}D, which exploits the capabilities of vertical integration (3D) processes, is presented and discussed in this paper. The impact of 3D processes on the design and performance of DNW pixel sensors could be large, with significant advantages in terms of detection efficiency, pixel cell size and immunity to cross-talk, therefore complying with the severe constraints set by future HEP experiments.

  17. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Deep Bed Corn Drying Based on Water Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept and the model of water potential, which were widely used in agricultural field, have been proved to be beneficial in the application of vacuum drying model and have provided a new way to explore the grain drying model since being introduced to grain drying and storage fields. Aiming to overcome the shortcomings of traditional deep bed drying model, for instance, the application range of this method is narrow and such method does not apply to systems of which pressure would be an influential factor such as vacuum drying system in a way combining with water potential drying model. This study established a numerical simulation system of deep bed corn drying process which has been proved to be effective according to the results of numerical simulation and corresponding experimental investigation and has revealed that desorption and adsorption coexist in deep bed drying.

  18. Potential for a significant deep basin geothermal system in Tintic Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, C.; Kirby, S.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of regionally high heat flow, deep basins, and permeable reservoir rocks in the eastern Great Basin may yield substantial new geothermal resources. We explore a deep sedimentary basin geothermal prospect beneath Tintic Valley in central Utah using new 2D and 3D models coupled with existing estimates of heat flow, geothermometry, and shallow hydrologic data. Tintic Valley is a sediment-filled basin bounded to the east and west by bedrock mountain ranges where heat-flow values vary from 85 to over 240 mW/m2. Based on modeling of new and existing gravity data, a prominent 30 mGal low indicates basin fill thickness may exceed 2 km. The insulating effect of relatively low thermal conductivity basin fill in Tintic Valley, combined with typical Great Basin heat flow, predict temperatures greater than 150 °C at 3 km depth. The potential reservoir beneath the basin fill is comprised of Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks. The hydrology of the Tintic Valley is characterized by a shallow, cool groundwater system that recharges along the upper reaches of the basin and discharges along the valley axis and to a series of wells. The east mountain block is warm and dry, with groundwater levels just above the basin floor and temperatures >50 °C at depth. The west mountain block contains a shallow, cool meteoric groundwater system. Fluid temperatures over 50 °C are sufficient for direct-use applications, such as greenhouses and aquaculture, while temperatures exceeding 140°C are suitable for binary geothermal power plants. The geologic setting and regionally high heat flow in Tintic Valley suggest a geothermal resource capable of supporting direct-use geothermal applications and binary power production could be present.

  19. Better well control through safe drilling margin identification, influx analysis and direct bottom hole pressure control method for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeningen, Daan [National Oilwell Varco IntelliServ (NOV), Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Currently, well control events are almost exclusively detected by using surface measurements. Measuring a volume increase in the 'closed loop' mud circulation system; a standpipe pressure decrease; or changes in a variety of drilling parameters provide indicators of a kick. Especially in deep water, where the riser comprises a substantial section of the well bore, early kick detection is paramount for limiting the severity of a well bore influx and improve the ability to regain well control. While downhole data is presently available from downhole tools nearby the bit, available data rates are sparse as mud pulse telemetry bandwidth is limited and well bore measurements compete with transmission of other subsurface data. Further, data transfer is one-directional, latency is significant and conditions along the string are unknown. High-bandwidth downhole data transmission system, via a wired or networked drill string system, has the unique capability to acquire real-time pressure and temperature measurement at a number of locations along the drill string. This system provides high-resolution downhole data available at very high speed, eliminating latency and restrictions that typically limit the availability of downhole data. The paper describes well control opportunities for deep water operations through the use of downhole data independent from surface measurements. First, the networked drill string provides efficient ways to identify pore pressure, fracture gradient, and true mud weight that comprise the safe drilling margin. Second, the independent measurement capability provides early kick detection and improved ability to analyze an influx even with a heterogeneous mud column through distributed along-string annular pressure measurements. Third, a methodology is proposed for a direct measurement method using downhole real-time pressure for maintaining constant bottom hole pressure during well kills in deep water. (author)

  20. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  1. Final report on ``Well technology of deep, hot wells and other extreme well types``; Sluttrapport. Broennteknologi i dype, varme broenner og andre ekstreme broenntyper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetveit, R.

    1995-12-31

    The main goal of the research programme with the above title was to advance the knowledge within drilling and well technology in order to obtain a better utilization of resources, reduce development costs and running expenses, and to improve safety. This final report discusses the background, the scope, the methods, and the results of the programme. It also lists the publications produced during the programme, some of which are included in an appendix. It is concluded that the programme has been successful and achieved its goal, and it has created large industrial projects.

  2. Ground States of Ultracold Spin-1 Atoms in a Deep Double-Well Optical Superlattice in a Weak Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Gong-Ping; Qin Shuai-Feng; Wang Shou-Yang; Jian Wen-Tian

    2013-01-01

    The ground states of the ultracold spin-1 atoms trapped in a deep one-dimensional double-well optical superlattice in a weak magnetic field are obtained. It is shown that the ground-state diagrams of the reduced double-well model are remarkably different for the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic condensates. The transition between the singlet state and nematic state is observed for the antiferromagnetic interaction atoms, which can be realized by modulating the tunneling parameter or the quadratic Zeeman energy. An experiment to distinguish the different spin states is suggested. (general)

  3. Control of environmental impact of low-level aqueous fuel reprocessing wastes by deep-well disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The following conclusions are made: (1) the technology and much experience for this disposal method are available; (2) large areas of the U.S. offer geological formations suitable for deep well disposal, but substantial effort may be required in the choice of a specific site; (3) although costs are substantial, they are small compared to associated environmental and energy benefits; (4) impacts on water consumers would be minimized through regulatory checks of siting, construction, and monitoring, and also through natural dilution and radioactive decay; (5) disposal wells must satisfy regulations, of recently-increased stringency, on siting, design, construction, operation, monitoring, and decommissioning

  4. H2-rich and Hydrocarbon Gas Recovered in a Deep Precambrian Well in Northeastern Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, K. David; Doveton, John H.; Merriam, Daniel F.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Waggoner, William M.; Magnuson, L. Michael

    2007-01-01

    In late 2005 and early 2006, the WTW Operating, LLC (W.T.W. Oil Co., Inc.) no. 1 Wilson well (T.D. = 5772 ft; 1759.3 m) was drilled for 1826 ft (556.6 m) into Precambrian basement underlying the Forest City Basin in northeastern Kansas. Approximately 4500 of the 380,000 wells drilled in Kansas penetrate Precambrian basement. Except for two previous wells drilled into the arkoses and basalts of the 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift and another well drilled in 1929 in basement on the Nemaha Uplift east of the Midcontinent Rift, this well represents the deepest penetration into basement rocks in the state to date. Granite is the typical lithology observed in wells that penetrate the Precambrian in the northern Midcontinent. Although no cores were taken to definitively identify lithologies, well cuttings and petrophysical logs indicate that this well encountered basement metamorphic rocks consisting of schist, gneiss, and amphibolitic gneiss, all cut by aplite dikes.The well was cased and perforated in the Precambrian, and then acidized. After several days of swabbing operations, the well produced shows of low-Btu gas, dominated by the non-flammable component gases of nitrogen (20%), carbon dioxide (43%), and helium (1%). Combustible components include methane (26%), hydrogen (10%), and higher molecular-weight hydrocarbons (1%). Although Coveney and others [Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 71, no, 1, p. 39-48, 1987] identified H 2 -rich gas in two wells located close to the Midcontinent Rift in eastern Kansas, this study indicates that high levels of H 2 may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously thought. Unlike previous results, the gases in this study have a significant component of hydrocarbon gas, as well as H 2 , N 2 , and CO 2 . Although redox reactions between iron-bearing minerals and groundwater are a possible source of H 2 in the Precambrian basement rocks, the hydrocarbon gas does not exhibit the characteristics typically associated with proposed

  5. Temperature and Pressure Effects on Drilling Fluid Rheology and ECD in Very Deep Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetveit, R.; Bjoerkvoll, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The rheological properties of drilling fluids are usually approximated to be independent of pressure and temperature. In many cases this is a good approximation. However, for wells with small margins between pore and fracture pressure, careful evaluations and analysis of the effects of temperature and pressure on well bore hydraulics and kick probability are needed. In this publication the effects of pressure and temperature are discussed and described for typical HPHT (High Pressure High Temperature) wells. Laboratory measurements show that rheology is very pressure and temperature dependent. The practical implications of these observations are illustrated through a series of calculations with an advanced pressure and temperature simulator. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Siting and constructing very deep monitoring wells on the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, J.J.; Jacobson, R.L.; Russell, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Many aspects of the Nevada Test Site's (NTS) hydrogeologic setting restrict the use of traditional methods for the siting and construction of ground-water characterization and monitoring wells. The size of the NTS precludes establishing high-density networks of characterization wells, as are typically used at smaller sites. The geologic complexity and variability of the NTS requires that the wells be criticality situated. The hydrogeologic complexity requires that each well provide access to many aquifers. Depths to ground water on the NTS require the construction of wells averaging approximately 1000 meters in depth. Wells meeting these criteria are uncommon in the ground-water industry, therefore techniques used by petroleum engineers are being employed to solve certain siting-, design- and installation-related problems. To date, one focus has been on developing completion strings that facilitate routine and efficient ground-water sampling from multiple intervals in a single well. The method currently advocated employs a new design of sliding side door sleeve that is actuated by an electrically operated hydraulic shifting tool. Stemming of the wells is being accomplished with standard materials (cement based grouts and sands); however, new stemming methods are being developed, to accommodate the greater depths, to minimize pH-related problems caused by the use of cements, to enhance the integrity of the inter-zone seals, and to improve the representativeness of radionuclide analyses performed on ground-water samples. Bench-scale experiments have been used to investigate the properties of more than a dozen epoxy-aggregate grout mixtures -- materials that are commonly used in underwater sealing applications

  7. State of knowledge on potential risks, impacts and disturbances related to deep geothermal energy - Study report 10/07/2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Philippe; Lahaie, Franz; Cherkaoui, Auxane; Farret, Regis; Franck, Christian; Bigarre, Pascal; Pokryszka, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Deep geothermal is a renewable and non-intermittent source of energy that can contribute to the world transition for a less carbon-intensive and greenhouse gas-emitting energy mix. Only a small part of the worldwide geothermal potential has been exploited so far and many countries, including France, are aiming for a fast growing of this industry in the next decades. Like most industrial activities, deep geothermal energy shows potential local inconveniences and possible risks for the safety of persons and of the environment. Preventing and managing those risks is of utmost importance to ensure that deep geothermal development is fully compatible with the needs and expectations of citizens, especially those of neighboring inhabitants. Indeed, in the past years, concerns have been raised by local populations regarding the development of some deep geothermal projects, especially in the field of high temperature geothermal, based on the risks related to this industry. This report is intended as a scientific and objective contribution to this matter. It aims to present, in a factual and documented way, the state of knowledge on the risks, impacts and potential inconveniences associated with deep geothermal energy. In addition to the scientific literature, it is based on lessons from incidents or accidents in this field of activity. It also makes use of INERIS expertise in the field of risks related to other sectors of activity dealing with underground operations and geo-resources, especially oil wells drilling, to provide a distanced view of deep geothermal technologies. Main lessons learned from this work are provided in the synthesis chapter ending the document. It includes a global and comparative analysis of the risks, impacts or potential inconveniences identified in this sector. Considering the large amount of published works related to this field of this industry both in the research and engineering areas, the authors do not claim to be exhaustive. They tried to

  8. Desalination of brackish groundwater and concentrate disposal by deep well injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthek, N.; Raat, K.; Ruijter, J.A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Oosterhof, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the province of Friesland (in the Northern part of The Netherlands), problems have arisen with the abstraction of fresh groundwater due to salinization of wells by upcoming of brackish water. A solution to this problem is to intercept (abstract) the upcoming brackish water, desalinate it with a

  9. Geology and stratigraphy of the San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well and its correlation to surrounding ranges, Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Morales-Casique, E.; Benowitz, J.

    2014-12-01

    The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well stratigraphy records intense episodic volcanic activity in the Mexico Basin and surroundings during the past 20 Ma. The 2008-m deep lithological column is dominated by volcanic material, either as lava flows or pyroclastic deposits (97%), and only the upper most 70 m are composed of lacustrine deposits (3%). Based on geochronology and geochemistry, the lower part of the drill core is represented by rocks correlating to the Tepoztlán Formation (876-2008 m deep) that vary in composition from basaltic-andesite to rhyolite, and ages ranging from 13 to 21.2 Ma. On the surface this formation outcrops near the towns of Malinalco and Tepoztlán, ~43 km south of the deep well. Between depths of 581 and 875 m, volcanic rocks were recovered and are interpreted as lavas from the Sierra de las Cruces that vary in composition from andesite to dacite and range in age from 0.9 Ma to 5 Ma. Additionally, we documented rocks belonging to the Xochitepec Formation, outcropping around Xochimilco, in the Mexico City, with ages ranging from 1.2 and 1.7 Ma, in contrast with the Oligocene age proposed in previous works for these rocks. These new ages plus the chemical composition data, allow us to correlate the Xochitepec rocks with Sierra de las Cruces. Upward in the drill core (510-580 m) there are andesitic rocks that correlate with the 0.25 Ma Cerro de la Estrella volcanic center. The last volcanic package found in the well is correlated to the Santa Catarina basaltic andesites (70-120 m) that are younger than 0.25 Ma, and probably Holocene. Lacustrine deposits crown the stratigraphic column of the drill core with ages probably younger than 34 ka. The San Lorenzo Tezonco well is in a graben-like structure that was filled with more than 1900 m of volcanic products, suggesting that volcanism were intense in the Miocene to the Recent, and the south drainage of the Mexico Basin was closed probably in the early Pleistocene.

  10. Physisorption of an electron in deep surface potentials off a dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, R. L.; Bronold, F. X.; Fehske, H.

    2011-01-01

    We study phonon-mediated adsorption and desorption of an electron at dielectric surfaces with deep polarization-induced surface potentials where multiphonon transitions are responsible for electron energy relaxation. Focusing on multiphonon processes due to the nonlinearity of the coupling between the external electron and the acoustic bulk phonon triggering the transitions between surface states, we calculate electron desorption times for graphite, MgO, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 and electron sticking coefficients for Al 2 O 3 , CaO, and SiO 2 . To reveal the kinetic stages of electron physisorption, we moreover study the time evolution of the image-state occupancy and the energy-resolved desorption flux. Depending on the potential depth and the surface temperature, we identify two generic scenarios: (i) adsorption via trapping in shallow image states followed by relaxation to the lowest image state and desorption from that state via a cascade through the second strongly bound image state in not too deep potentials, and (ii) adsorption via trapping in shallow image states but followed by a relaxation bottleneck retarding the transition to the lowest image state and desorption from that state via a one-step process to the continuum in deep potentials.

  11. Effect of body biasing on single-event induced charge collection in deep N-well technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yi; Hu Jian-Guo; Tan Hong-Zhou; Qin Jun-Rui

    2015-01-01

    As the device size decreases, the soft error induced by space ions is becoming a great concern for the reliability of integrated circuits (ICs). At present, the body biasing technique is widely used in highly scaled technologies. In the paper, using the three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, we analyze the effect of the body biasing on the single-event charge collection in deep N-well technology. Our simulation results show that the body biasing mainly affects the behavior of the source, and the effect of body biasing on the charge collection for the nMOSFET and pMOSFET is quite different. For the nMOSFET, the RBB will increase the charge collection, while the FBB will reduce the charge collection. For the pMOSFET, the effect of RBB on the SET pulse width is small, while the FBB has an adverse effect. Moreover, the differenceof the effect of body biasing on the charge collection is compared in deep N-well and twin well. (paper)

  12. A Nuclide Release Model for a Deep Well Scenario near a Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    Recently several template programs ready for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository (HLW) and a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository (LILW) systems, that are conceptually modeled, have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. During the last few years, such template programs have been utilized for the evaluation of nuclide transports in the nearand far-field of a repository as well as transport through the biosphere under various normal and disruptive release scenarios with assumed data. The GoldSim program, another template program by which influence due to a well located very near to the repository has been modeled and evaluated for an assumed case in order to simulate the worst exposure scenario. This seems very useful to evaluate an accidental event a long time after closure of the repository has been developed and illustrated

  13. Deep Potential Molecular Dynamics: A Scalable Model with the Accuracy of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linfeng; Han, Jiequn; Wang, Han; Car, Roberto; E, Weinan

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a scheme for molecular simulations, the deep potential molecular dynamics (DPMD) method, based on a many-body potential and interatomic forces generated by a carefully crafted deep neural network trained with ab initio data. The neural network model preserves all the natural symmetries in the problem. It is first-principles based in the sense that there are no ad hoc components aside from the network model. We show that the proposed scheme provides an efficient and accurate protocol in a variety of systems, including bulk materials and molecules. In all these cases, DPMD gives results that are essentially indistinguishable from the original data, at a cost that scales linearly with system size.

  14. Trapping of a particle in a short-range harmonic potential well

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, L. B.; de Castro, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Eigenstates of a particle in a localized and unconfined harmonic potential well are investigated. Effects due to the variation of the potential parameters as well as certain results from asymptotic expansions are discussed.

  15. Deep groundwater flow systems and their characterization in single-well settings by ''push-pull'' tracer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebig-Schubert, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates the growing importance of deep groundwater research and the increasing demand for the development of suitable single-well test methods. At the forefront of the research on groundwater in the deep underground, radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories, CO 2 storage, geothermal energy supply, and aquifer storage and recovery systems (ASR) are on the agenda. The developments of suitable methods for investigating these resources are a main target. Currently available methods show considerable limitations. Accordingly, comprehensive methods for the hydraulic and hydrochemical characterization of deeper aquifers with single-well access are needed. Therefore, the goal of this PhD thesis was to identify, test, and enhance potentially suitable single-well methods for characterization of groundwater flow and solute transport in such settings. For this, several Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal (''push-pull'') tracer tests were applied at the Hamasato field site (Horonobe, Japan) in a ∝100 m deep groundwater monitoring well. Aim was to characterize the impact of a dynamic saltwater-freshwater interface on a coastal aquifer. Based on the experiences of the first methodological test, a second field campaign was conducted. This campaign focused on a systematic evaluation of the push-pull tracer test method for the first time at all. The experiments focused on the investigation of the so-called ''chaser'' and its impact on the test results. The chaser is a specific part of many push-pull tracer tests setups. From these experiments, a specific test design for the investigation of the saltwater-freshwater interface in a single-well setting was developed. The application of this design on questions regarding different fluids within the same system, e.g. different mineralized fluids (saltwater-freshwater-interface, ASR) or temperatures (geothermal research), are promising future approaches for this

  16. Deep groundwater flow systems and their characterization in single-well settings by ''push-pull'' tracer tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebig-Schubert, Klaus

    2014-11-21

    This thesis demonstrates the growing importance of deep groundwater research and the increasing demand for the development of suitable single-well test methods. At the forefront of the research on groundwater in the deep underground, radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories, CO{sub 2} storage, geothermal energy supply, and aquifer storage and recovery systems (ASR) are on the agenda. The developments of suitable methods for investigating these resources are a main target. Currently available methods show considerable limitations. Accordingly, comprehensive methods for the hydraulic and hydrochemical characterization of deeper aquifers with single-well access are needed. Therefore, the goal of this PhD thesis was to identify, test, and enhance potentially suitable single-well methods for characterization of groundwater flow and solute transport in such settings. For this, several Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal (''push-pull'') tracer tests were applied at the Hamasato field site (Horonobe, Japan) in a ∝100 m deep groundwater monitoring well. Aim was to characterize the impact of a dynamic saltwater-freshwater interface on a coastal aquifer. Based on the experiences of the first methodological test, a second field campaign was conducted. This campaign focused on a systematic evaluation of the push-pull tracer test method for the first time at all. The experiments focused on the investigation of the so-called ''chaser'' and its impact on the test results. The chaser is a specific part of many push-pull tracer tests setups. From these experiments, a specific test design for the investigation of the saltwater-freshwater interface in a single-well setting was developed. The application of this design on questions regarding different fluids within the same system, e.g. different mineralized fluids (saltwater-freshwater-interface, ASR) or temperatures (geothermal research), are promising future approaches for

  17. Antifouling potentials of eight deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Peng, Jiang; Ma, Chun-Feng; Nong, Xu-Hua; Bao, Jie; Zhang, Guang-Zhao; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Marine-derived microbial secondary metabolites are promising potential sources of nontoxic antifouling agents. The search for environmentally friendly and low-toxic antifouling components guided us to investigate the antifouling potentials of eight novel fungal isolates from deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea. Sixteen crude ethyl acetate extracts of the eight fungal isolates showed distinct antibacterial activity against three marine bacteria (Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009, Micrococcus luteus UST950701-006 and Pseudoalteromonas piscida UST010620-005), or significant antilarval activity against larval settlement of bryozoan Bugula neritina. Furthermore, the extract of Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013 displayed strong antifouling activity in a field trial lasting 4 months. By further bioassay-guided isolation, five antifouling alkaloids including brevianamide F, circumdatin F and L, notoamide C, and 5-chlorosclerotiamide were isolated from the extract of A. westerdijkiae DFFSCS013. This is the first report about the antifouling potentials of metabolites of the deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea, and the first stage towards the development of non- or low-toxic antifouling agents from deep-sea-derived fungi.

  18. Study on method and mechanism of deep well circulation for the growth control of Microcystis in aquaculture pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haibing; Sun, Feng; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yue; Yan, Qi; Ren, Ao; Xu, Hu

    2017-06-01

    In order to control the growth of Microcystis in aquaculture ponds and reduce its adverse effect on water quality and aquaculture, a production-scale experiment of deep well circulation treatment was carried out in an aquaculture pond with water surface area of 63,000 m 2 and water depth of 1.6-2.0 m. Compared with the control pond, the experiment pond had better water quality as indicated by 64.2% reduction in chlorophyll a, and 81.1% reduction in algal cells. The chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentration were reduced by 55.1%, 57.5%, and 50.8%, respectively. The treatment efficiency is mainly due to the growth control of Microcystis (i.e. cell reduction of 96.4%). The gas vesicles collapsing because of the water pressure was suggested to be the mechanism for Microcystis suppression by the deep well circulation treatment. The Microcystis lost its buoyancy after gas vesicles collapsed and it settled to the bottom of the aquaculture pond. As a result, the algae reproduction was suppressed because algae could only grow in the area with enough sunlight (i.e. water depth less than 1 m).

  19. First results from the characterization of a three-dimensional deep N-well MAPS prototype for vertexing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2013-01-01

    The prototype of a three-dimensional (3D) monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) has been characterized. The device, featuring a 20μm pitch, was designed based on the same approach that was adopted in developing the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous tiers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Different kinds of test structures, including single pixels, 3×3 arrays and 8×8 and 16×16 matrices were tested. Functionality of the collecting deep N-well electrode, the analog front-end and the digital readout electronics has been demonstrated. Inter-tier communication was found to work properly in the case of redundant interconnection and could be exploited for the test of the analog pixel section. On the other hand, inter-tier interconnections based on individual bond pads were proven ineffective likely due to wafer misalignment. -- Highlights: ► First results on the characterization of 3D DNW monolithic sensor. ► Functionality of the analog and digital sections is demonstrated. ► DNW collecting electrode is tested by means of a laser source. ► A non-linear model for charge preamplifier response is discussed. ► Redundant vertical interconnection is shown to work properly.

  20. First results from the characterization of a three-dimensional deep N-well MAPS prototype for vertexing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, L., E-mail: lodovico.ratti@unipv.it [Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Gaioni, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manazza, A. [Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Università di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marconi 5, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2013-01-21

    The prototype of a three-dimensional (3D) monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) has been characterized. The device, featuring a 20μm pitch, was designed based on the same approach that was adopted in developing the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous tiers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Different kinds of test structures, including single pixels, 3×3 arrays and 8×8 and 16×16 matrices were tested. Functionality of the collecting deep N-well electrode, the analog front-end and the digital readout electronics has been demonstrated. Inter-tier communication was found to work properly in the case of redundant interconnection and could be exploited for the test of the analog pixel section. On the other hand, inter-tier interconnections based on individual bond pads were proven ineffective likely due to wafer misalignment. -- Highlights: ► First results on the characterization of 3D DNW monolithic sensor. ► Functionality of the analog and digital sections is demonstrated. ► DNW collecting electrode is tested by means of a laser source. ► A non-linear model for charge preamplifier response is discussed. ► Redundant vertical interconnection is shown to work properly.

  1. Technologies in deep and ultra-deep well drilling: Present status, challenges and future trend in the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haige Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011–2015, CNPC independently developed a series of new drilling equipment, tools and chemical materials for deep and ultra-deep wells, including six packages of key drilling equipment: rigs for wells up to 8000 m deep, quadruple-joint-stand rigs, automatic pipe handling devices for rigs for wells being 5000/7000 m deep, managed pressure drilling systems & equipment, gas/fuel alternative combustion engine units, and air/gas/underbalanced drilling systems; seven sets of key drilling tools: automatic vertical well drilling tools, downhole turbine tools, high-performance PDC bits, hybrid bits, bit jet pulsation devices, no-drilling-surprise monitoring system, & casing running devices for top drive; and five kinds of drilling fluids and cementing slurries: high temperature and high density water-based drilling fluids, oil-based drilling fluids, high temperature and large temperature difference cementing slurry, and ductile cement slurry system. These new development technologies have played an important role in supporting China's oil and gas exploration and development business. During the following 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016–2020, there are still many challenges to the drilling of deep and ultra-deep wells, such as high temperatures, high pressures, narrow pressure window, wellbore integrity and so on, as well as the enormous pressure on cost reduction and efficiency improvement. Therefore, the future development trend will be focused on the development of efficient and mobile rigs, high-performance drill bits and auxiliary tools, techniques for wellbore integrity and downhole broadband telemetry, etc. In conclusion, this study will help improve the ability and level of drilling ultra-deep wells and provide support for oil and gas exploration and development services in China. Keywords: Deep well, Ultra-deep well, Drilling techniques, Progress, Challenge, Strategy, CNPC

  2. WKB corrections to the energy splitting in double-well potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Robnik, Marko; Salasnich, Luca

    1997-01-01

    By using the WKB quantization we deduce an analytical formula for the energy splitting in a double-well potential which is the usual Landau formula with additional quantum corrections. Then we analyze the accuracy of our formula for the double square well potential and the parabolic double-well potential.

  3. Geophysical logging and hydrologic testing of deep basalt flows in the Rattlesnake Hills Well Number One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.; Eddy, P.A.; Deju, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Geophysical logging and hydrologic testing were conducted in the Rattlesnake Hills Well Number One located along the western boundary of the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Three-dimensional velocity, Seisviewer and caliper logging were completed across 2,000 feet of basalt rock within the Wanapum and Grande Ronde formations. Drillstem testing focused along a 250-foot interval of the Grande Ronde Formation. Individual high- (approx. 2.7-2.9 grams per cubic centimeter) and low-density (approx. 2.3-2.6 grams per cubic centimeter) basalt zones within the Wanapum Formation are generally less than 50 feet thick. Within the estimated thickness of the Grande Ronde Formation, 85 percent of the low-density zones are less than 50 feet thick, compared to 55 percent of those of higher density. The Grande Ronde Formation has 13 high-density zones varying in thickness from 51 to 230 feet. Logging data suggest the thicknesses of low-density are independent of the thicknesses of the associated and underlying higher density columnar basalts. Eleven drillstem tests were conducted across selected intervals within the Grande Ronde Formation. Hydraulic conductivity values calculated for the low-density basalt zones ranged between 1.7 x 10 -7 and 3.8 x 10 -9 centimeters per second; those for high-density zones were between 1.1 x 10 -8 and 4.7 x 10 -9 centimeters per second

  4. The Potential for Low-Temperature Abiotic Hydrogen Generation and a Hydrogen-Driven Deep Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The release and oxidation of ferrous iron during aqueous alteration of the mineral olivine is known to reduce aqueous solutions to such extent that molecular hydrogen, H2, forms. H2 is an efficient energy carrier and is considered basal to the deep subsurface biosphere. Knowledge of the potential for H2 generation is therefore vital to understanding the deep biosphere on Earth and on extraterrestrial bodies. Here, we provide a review of factors that may reduce the potential for H2 generation with a focus on systems in the core temperature region for thermophilic to hyperthermophilic microbial life. We show that aqueous sulfate may inhibit the formation of H2, whereas redox-sensitive compounds of carbon and nitrogen are unlikely to have significant effect at low temperatures. In addition, we suggest that the rate of H2 generation is proportional to the dissolution rate of olivine and, hence, limited by factors such as reactive surface areas and the access of water to fresh surfaces. We furthermore suggest that the availability of water and pore/fracture space are the most important factors that limit the generation of H2. Our study implies that, because of large heat flows, abundant olivine-bearing rocks, large thermodynamic gradients, and reduced atmospheres, young Earth and Mars probably offered abundant systems where microbial life could possibly have emerged. Key Words: Serpentinization—Olivine—Hydrogen—Deep biosphere—Water—Mars. Astrobiology 11, 711–724. PMID:21923409

  5. Attenuation of deep semantic processing during mind wandering: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Judy; Friedman, David; Metcalfe, Janet

    2018-03-21

    Although much research shows that early sensory and attentional processing is affected by mind wandering, the effect of mind wandering on deep (i.e. semantic) processing is relatively unexplored. To investigate this relation, we recorded event-related potentials as participants studied English-Spanish word pairs, one at a time, while being intermittently probed for whether they were 'on task' or 'mind wandering'. Both perceptual processing, indexed by the P2 component, and deep processing, indexed by a late, sustained slow wave maximal at parietal electrodes, was attenuated during periods preceding participants' mind wandering reports. The pattern when participants were on task, rather than mind wandering, is similar to the subsequent memory or difference in memory effect. These results support previous findings of sensory attenuation during mind wandering, and extend them to a long-duration slow wave by suggesting that the deeper and more sustained levels of processing are also disrupted.

  6. Effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on chlorine generation of electrolyzed deep ocean water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoo-Shyng Wang Hsu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on the chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water (DOW. DOW was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum–plated titanium anode and cathode. The results showed that chlorine concentration reached maximal level in the batch process. Prolonged electrolysis reduced chlorine concentration in the electrolyte and was detrimental to electrolysis efficiency, especially under high electric potential conditions. Therefore, the optimal choice of electrolysis time depends on the electrolyzable chloride in DOW and cell potential adopted for electrolysis. The higher the electric potential, the faster the chlorine level reaches its maximum, but the lower the electric efficiency will be.

  7. Effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on chlorine generation of electrolyzed deep ocean water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Lu, Yi-Fa; Hsu, Shun-Yao

    2017-10-01

    Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on the chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water (DOW). DOW was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum-plated titanium anode and cathode. The results showed that chlorine concentration reached maximal level in the batch process. Prolonged electrolysis reduced chlorine concentration in the electrolyte and was detrimental to electrolysis efficiency, especially under high electric potential conditions. Therefore, the optimal choice of electrolysis time depends on the electrolyzable chloride in DOW and cell potential adopted for electrolysis. The higher the electric potential, the faster the chlorine level reaches its maximum, but the lower the electric efficiency will be. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project 4.5 km deep well, IDDP-2, in the seawater-recharged Reykjanes geothermal field in SW Iceland has successfully reached its supercritical target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ó.; Elders, Wilfred A.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Stefánsson, Ari; Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Weisenberger, Tobias B.; Harðarson, Björn S.; Mesfin, Kiflom G.

    2017-11-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project research well RN-15/IDDP-2 at Reykjanes, Iceland, reached its target of supercritical conditions at a depth of 4.5 km in January 2017. After only 6 days of heating, the measured bottom hole temperature was 426 °C, and the fluid pressure was 34 MPa. The southern tip of the Reykjanes peninsula is the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in Iceland. Reykjanes is unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in that it is recharged by seawater, which has a critical point of 406 °C at 29.8 MPa. The geologic setting and fluid characteristics at Reykjanes provide a geochemical analog that allows us to investigate the roots of a mid-ocean ridge submarine black smoker hydrothermal system. Drilling began with deepening an existing 2.5 km deep vertical production well (RN-15) to 3 km depth, followed by inclined drilling directed towards the main upflow zone of the system, for a total slant depth of 4659 m ( ˜ 4.5 km vertical depth). Total circulation losses of drilling fluid were encountered below 2.5 km, which could not be cured using lost circulation blocking materials or multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued to the total depth without return of drill cuttings. Thirteen spot coring attempts were made below 3 km depth. Rocks in the cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from upper greenschist facies to amphibolite facies, suggesting that formation temperatures at depth exceed 450 °C. High-permeability circulation-fluid loss zones (feed points or feed zones) were detected at multiple depth levels below 3 km depth to bottom. The largest circulation losses (most permeable zones) occurred between the bottom of the casing and 3.4 km depth. Permeable zones encountered below 3.4 km accepted less than 5 % of the injected water. Currently, the project is attempting soft stimulation to increase deep permeability. While it is too early to speculate on the energy potential of this well and its economics, the IDDP

  9. A review of current practices and the future for deep well injection in the upper Miocene Stevens sand, Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, S.C.; Chenot, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Waste-water disposal is a major concern of the petroleum business, especially because of complications associated with many produced-water surface-impoundment percolation facilities. In the San Joaquin Valley, California, the current environmental regulations protecting the potentially usable groundwaters are stringent. the Stevens has significant potential as a disposal zone that may offer considerable capacity when the project is designed using proper geologic and engineering studies. The Stevens sands are well known for their oil-producing capabilities, however, not much has been published regarding its suitability as a zone for deep well injection. Conditions that make the Stevens potentially suitable include (1) adequate confinement providing geologic separation from the groundwater sources in the basin, (2) storage capacity, and (3) large areal extent. Because the search for acceptable disposal options is becoming critical, the current class II disposal options is becoming critical, the current class II disposal activities in the Stevens sands were reviewed and the areas offering the greatest future potential were identified. The authors then discuss class II disposal projects in Stevens sands in the West Bellevue and Midway Sunset oil fields and estimate the ultimate basin-wide disposal capacity of the Stevens

  10. Diversity of Micromonospora strains from the deep Mediterranean Sea and their potential to produce bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gärtner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During studies on bacteria from the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea, incubation under in situ conditions (salinity, temperature and pressure and heat treatment were used to selectively enrich representatives of Micromonospora. From sediments of the Ierapetra Basin (4400 m depth and the Herodotos Plain (2800 m depth, 21 isolates were identified as members of the genus Micromonospora. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Micromonospora isolates could be assigned to 14 different phylotypes with an exclusion limit of ≥ 99.5% sequence similarity. They formed 7 phylogenetic clusters. Two of these clusters, which contain isolates obtained after enrichment under pressure incubation and phylogenetically are distinct from representative reference organism, could represent bacteria specifically adapted to the conditions in situ and to life in these deep-sea sediments. The majority of the Micromonospora isolates (90% contained at least one gene cluster for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites for non-ribosomal polypeptides and polyketides (polyketide synthases type I and type II. The determination of biological activities of culture extracts revealed that almost half of the strains produced substances inhibitory to the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Chemical analyses of culture extracts demonstrated the presence of different metabolite profiles also in closely related strains. Therefore, deep-sea Micromonospora isolates are considered to have a large potential for the production of new antibiotic compounds.

  11. Potential impacts of leakage from deep CO2 geosequestration on overlying freshwater aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark G; Jackson, Robert B

    2010-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage may use deep saline aquifers for CO(2) sequestration, but small CO(2) leakage could pose a risk to overlying fresh groundwater. We performed laboratory incubations of CO(2) infiltration under oxidizing conditions for >300 days on samples from four freshwater aquifers to 1) understand how CO(2) leakage affects freshwater quality; 2) develop selection criteria for deep sequestration sites based on inorganic metal contamination caused by CO(2) leaks to shallow aquifers; and 3) identify geochemical signatures for early detection criteria. After exposure to CO(2), water pH declines of 1-2 units were apparent in all aquifer samples. CO(2) caused concentrations of the alkali and alkaline earths and manganese, cobalt, nickel, and iron to increase by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Potentially dangerous uranium and barium increased throughout the entire experiment in some samples. Solid-phase metal mobility, carbonate buffering capacity, and redox state in the shallow overlying aquifers influence the impact of CO(2) leakage and should be considered when selecting deep geosequestration sites. Manganese, iron, calcium, and pH could be used as geochemical markers of a CO(2) leak, as their concentrations increase within 2 weeks of exposure to CO(2).

  12. Hydrogen potential in β-V2H studied by deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, R.; Price, D.L.; Reiter, G.; Richter, D.

    1989-02-01

    Two complementary techniques of deep inelastic neutron scattering were used to study hydrogen in β-V 2 H: (i) by means of neutron vibrational spectroscopy we measured hydrogen vibrations up to the fourteenth order; from these data we derived the effective single-particle potential, the shape of which is a parabola with a flattened bottom, and the hydrogen wave functions. (ii) By means of neutron Compton scattering we determined the kinetic of energy of the hydrogen; the value agrees with that calculated from the vibrational ground-state wave function. 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Reich@tu-berlin.de; Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Feneberg, Martin; Goldhahn, Rüdiger [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Universitätsplatz 2, Magdeburg 39106 (Germany); Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2015-10-05

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N. Using k ⋅ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  14. Interpretation of deep directional resistivity measurements acquired in high-angle and horizontal wells using 3-D inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrev, Vladimir; Torres-Verdín, Carlos; Calo, Victor

    2018-05-01

    The interpretation of resistivity measurements acquired in high-angle and horizontal wells is a critical technical problem in formation evaluation. We develop an efficient parallel 3-D inversion method to estimate the spatial distribution of electrical resistivity in the neighbourhood of a well from deep directional electromagnetic induction measurements. The methodology places no restriction on the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity around arbitrary well trajectories. The fast forward modelling of triaxial induction measurements performed with multiple transmitter-receiver configurations employs a parallel direct solver. The inversion uses a pre-conditioned gradient-based method whose accuracy is improved using the Wolfe conditions to estimate optimal step lengths at each iteration. The large transmitter-receiver offsets, used in the latest generation of commercial directional resistivity tools, improve the depth of investigation to over 30 m from the wellbore. Several challenging synthetic examples confirm the feasibility of the full 3-D inversion-based interpretations for these distances, hence enabling the integration of resistivity measurements with seismic amplitude data to improve the forecast of the petrophysical and fluid properties. Employing parallel direct solvers for the triaxial induction problems allows for large reductions in computational effort, thereby opening the possibility to invert multiposition 3-D data in practical CPU times.

  15. Effects of an electric field on the confined hydrogen atom in a parabolic potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wenfang

    2009-01-01

    Using the perturbation method, the confined hydrogen atom by a parabolic potential well is investigated. The binding energy of the confined hydrogen atom in a parabolic potential well is calculated as a function of the confined potential radius and as a function of the intensity of an applied electric field. It is shown that the binding energy of the confined hydrogen atom is highly dependent on the confined potential radius and the intensity of an applied electric field.

  16. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra; Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto

    2015-01-01

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well

  17. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin, E-mail: idrushusin21@gmail.com; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra, E-mail: trengginas.eka@gmail.com; Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: teguh-budi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur, 13220 (Indonesia); Sulaksono, Anto, E-mail: anto.sulaksono@sci.ui.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Jawa Barat, 164242 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.

  18. Potential Emissions of Tritium in Air from Wells on the Nevada National Security Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.

    2012-01-01

    This slide-show discusses the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and tritium in the groundwater. It describes the wells and boreholes and potential airflow from these sources. Monitoring of selected wells is discussed and preliminary results are presented

  19. Quantifying the benefit of wellbore leakage potential estimates for prioritizing long-term MVA well sampling at a CO2 storage site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolina, Nicholas A; Small, Mitchell J; Nakles, David V; Glazewski, Kyle A; Peck, Wesley D; Gorecki, Charles D; Bromhal, Grant S; Dilmore, Robert M

    2015-01-20

    This work uses probabilistic methods to simulate a hypothetical geologic CO2 storage site in a depleted oil and gas field, where the large number of legacy wells would make it cost-prohibitive to sample all wells for all measurements as part of the postinjection site care. Deep well leakage potential scores were assigned to the wells using a random subsample of 100 wells from a detailed study of 826 legacy wells that penetrate the basal Cambrian formation on the U.S. side of the U.S./Canadian border. Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the statistical power of selecting a leaking well. Power curves were developed as a function of (1) the number of leaking wells within the Area of Review; (2) the sampling design (random or judgmental, choosing first the wells with the highest deep leakage potential scores); (3) the number of wells included in the monitoring sampling plan; and (4) the relationship between a well’s leakage potential score and its relative probability of leakage. Cases where the deep well leakage potential scores are fully or partially informative of the relative leakage probability are compared to a noninformative base case in which leakage is equiprobable across all wells in the Area of Review. The results show that accurate prior knowledge about the probability of well leakage adds measurable value to the ability to detect a leaking well during the monitoring program, and that the loss in detection ability due to imperfect knowledge of the leakage probability can be quantified. This work underscores the importance of a data-driven, risk-based monitoring program that incorporates uncertainty quantification into long-term monitoring sampling plans at geologic CO2 storage sites.

  20. Reactivity of polyester aliphatic amine surfactants as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in formation water (deep well water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsabagh, A.M.; Migahed, M.A.; Awad, Hayam S.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of different concentrations, 40-200 ppm, of various polyester aliphatic amine surfactants on inhibition of the corrosion of carbon steel in the formation water (deep well water) was investigated. These surfactants exhibit different levels of inhibition particularly at high concentration (200 ppm). Inhibition efficiencies in the range 86-96% were determined by weight loss method. Comparable results were obtained from electrochemical measurements using Tafel extrapolation and polarisation resistance methods. It was shown that all the investigated surfactants act primarily as anodic inhibitors; however, they also affect the rate and mechanism of the cathodic reaction. These compounds function via adsorption on reactive sites on the corroding surface reducing the corrosion rate of the metal. It was revealed that the adsorption of these surfactants obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition effectiveness increases with the length of the aliphatic hydrocarbon chain, being a maximum in the presence of surfactant IV (∼96% efficiency). The corrosion inhibition feature of this compound is attributed to the presence of a long hydrocarbon chain that ensures large surface coverage as well as the presence of multiple active centers for adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy, SEM, has been applied to identify the surface morphology of carbon steel alloy in the absence and presence of the inhibitor molecules

  1. Reactivity of polyester aliphatic amine surfactants as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in formation water (deep well water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsabagh, A.M. [Department of Petroleum Applications, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Ahmed El-Zomor Street 1, Nasr City, Cairo 11727 (Egypt); Migahed, M.A. [Department of Petroleum Applications, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Ahmed El-Zomor Street 1, Nasr City, Cairo 11727 (Egypt)]. E-mail: mohamedatiyya707@hotmail.com; Awad, Hayam S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Girls for Science, Art and Education, Ain Shams University, Asmaa Fahmi Street, Helliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-04-15

    Effect of different concentrations, 40-200 ppm, of various polyester aliphatic amine surfactants on inhibition of the corrosion of carbon steel in the formation water (deep well water) was investigated. These surfactants exhibit different levels of inhibition particularly at high concentration (200 ppm). Inhibition efficiencies in the range 86-96% were determined by weight loss method. Comparable results were obtained from electrochemical measurements using Tafel extrapolation and polarisation resistance methods. It was shown that all the investigated surfactants act primarily as anodic inhibitors; however, they also affect the rate and mechanism of the cathodic reaction. These compounds function via adsorption on reactive sites on the corroding surface reducing the corrosion rate of the metal. It was revealed that the adsorption of these surfactants obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition effectiveness increases with the length of the aliphatic hydrocarbon chain, being a maximum in the presence of surfactant IV ({approx}96% efficiency). The corrosion inhibition feature of this compound is attributed to the presence of a long hydrocarbon chain that ensures large surface coverage as well as the presence of multiple active centers for adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy, SEM, has been applied to identify the surface morphology of carbon steel alloy in the absence and presence of the inhibitor molecules.

  2. The Double-Well Potential in Quantum Mechanics: A Simple, Numerically Exact Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, V.; Marsiglio, F.

    2012-01-01

    The double-well potential is arguably one of the most important potentials in quantum mechanics, because the solution contains the notion of a state as a linear superposition of "classical" states, a concept which has become very important in quantum information theory. It is therefore desirable to have solutions to simple double-well potentials…

  3. Quantum particle in a potential well field and in an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, U.; Olejnik, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Solutions of the Dirac equation in the field of δ-like potential well with arbitrary symmetry and in uniform electric field were obtained and analyzed. It is shown that wave function and energy of electron in bound state in the absence of electric field depend sufficiently on the type of potential well symmetry. 1 ref

  4. Microbial processes in North Atlantic pelagic sediments, and potential risks of deep-sea waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolliger, R.; Hanselmann, K.W.; Bachofen, R.

    1989-01-01

    From the results for waste disposal on deep sea sediments, it was concluded: As waste canisters are buried in the sediment to a depth of 15 to 20 cm, they are in contact with the zone that contains the highest potential bacterial activity through a relatively large surface. An input of oxidizable organic matter to the sediment surface zone will stimulate microbial activity and therefore increase the risk for solubilization and redistribution of elements in the ocean water. Waste canisters lying on the sediment surface cut off the oxygen supply from the ocean water and ease the shift to anaerobiosis. This initiates microbial activities through which metals are changed into their mobile species as a consequence of the altered environmental redox potential. The risk for steel corrosion by hydrogen sulfide, which could be produced by sulfate reducing bacteria, is minimal since this physiological group is not active in the North Atlantic sediments examined

  5. Soliton dynamical properties of Bose—Einstein condensates trapped in a double square well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin-Hui; Li Zhi-Jian

    2011-01-01

    We first present an analytical solution of the single and double solitions of Bose—Einstein condensates trapped in a double square well potential using the multiple-scale method. Then, we show by numerical calculation that a dark soliton can be transmitted through the square well potential. With increasing depth of the square well potential, the amplitude of the dark soliton becomes larger, and the soliton propagates faster. In particular, we treat the collision behaviour of the condensates trapped in either equal or different depths of the double square well potential. If we regard the double square well potential as the output source of the solitons, the collision locations (position and time) between two dark solitons can be controlled by its depth. (general)

  6. Deep Production Well for Geothermal Direct-Use Heating of A Large Commercial Greenhouse, Radium Springs, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James C. Witcher

    2002-01-01

    Expansion of a large commercial geothermally-heated greenhouse is underway and requires additional geothermal fluid production. This report discusses the results of a cost-shared U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and A.R. Masson, Inc. drilling project designed to construct a highly productive geothermal production well for expansion of the large commercial greenhouse at Radium Springs. The well should eliminate the potential for future thermal breakthrough from existing injection wells and the inducement of inflow from shallow cold water aquifers by geothermal production drawdown in the shallow reservoir. An 800 feet deep production well, Masson 36, was drilled on a US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Geothermal Lease NM-3479 at Radium Springs adjacent to the A. R. Masson Radium Springs Farm commercial greenhouse 15 miles north of Las Cruces in Dona Ana County, New Mexico just west of Interstate 25 near the east bank of the Rio Grande. The area is in the Rio Grande rift, a tectonically-active region with high heat flow, and is one of the major geothermal provinces in the western United State

  7. Dynamic Neural State Identification in Deep Brain Local Field Potentials of Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huichun; Huang, Yongzhi; Du, Xueying; Zhang, Yunpeng; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Wang, Shouyan

    2018-01-01

    In neuropathic pain, the neurophysiological and neuropathological function of the ventro-posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus (VPL) and the periventricular gray/periaqueductal gray area (PVAG) involves multiple frequency oscillations. Moreover, oscillations related to pain perception and modulation change dynamically over time. Fluctuations in these neural oscillations reflect the dynamic neural states of the nucleus. In this study, an approach to classifying the synchronization level was developed to dynamically identify the neural states. An oscillation extraction model based on windowed wavelet packet transform was designed to characterize the activity level of oscillations. The wavelet packet coefficients sparsely represented the activity level of theta and alpha oscillations in local field potentials (LFPs). Then, a state discrimination model was designed to calculate an adaptive threshold to determine the activity level of oscillations. Finally, the neural state was represented by the activity levels of both theta and alpha oscillations. The relationship between neural states and pain relief was further evaluated. The performance of the state identification approach achieved sensitivity and specificity beyond 80% in simulation signals. Neural states of the PVAG and VPL were dynamically identified from LFPs of neuropathic pain patients. The occurrence of neural states based on theta and alpha oscillations were correlated to the degree of pain relief by deep brain stimulation. In the PVAG LFPs, the occurrence of the state with high activity levels of theta oscillations independent of alpha and the state with low-level alpha and high-level theta oscillations were significantly correlated with pain relief by deep brain stimulation. This study provides a reliable approach to identifying the dynamic neural states in LFPs with a low signal-to-noise ratio by using sparse representation based on wavelet packet transform. Furthermore, it may advance closed-loop deep

  8. Near-threshold quantization and scattering for deep potentials with attractive tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltschka, Christopher; Moritz, Michael J.; Friedrich, Harald

    2000-01-01

    Near-threshold properties of bound and continuum states in a deep potential with an attractive tail depend essentially on a few 'tail parameters', which are determined by the properties of the potential tail beyond the region of r-values where WKB wavefunctions are accurate solutions of the Schroedinger equation. One of these tail parameters is a length parameter which defines the singular contribution to the level density just below threshold and the reflectivity of the tail of the potential just above threshold; another is a phase difference which, together with the length parameter, determines the mean scattering length. The near-threshold quantization rule and the actual scattering length are determined by the tail parameters together with a dimensionless constant depending on the zero-energy value of the WKB action integral. We study potentials with tails consisting of two inverse-power terms, V(r)∼-C α /r α -C α 1 /r α 1 ,α 1 >α>2and we derive exact analytical expressions for the tail parameters in the special case α 1 =2(α-1). This enables us to demonstrate the effect of a significant non-homogeneity of the potential tail on the results derived previously for homogeneous tails. (author)

  9. Towards a high performance vertex detector based on 3D integration of deep N-well MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, V

    2010-01-01

    The development of deep N-Well (DNW) CMOS active pixel sensors was driven by the ambitious goal of designing a monolithic device with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixel readout chips, such as pixel-level sparsification and time stamping. The implementation of the DNW MAPS concept in a 3D vertical integration process naturally leads the designer towards putting more intelligence in the chip and in the pixels themselves, achieving novel device structures based on the interconnection of two or more layers fabricated in the same technology. These devices are read out with a data-push scheme that makes it possible to use pixel data for the generation of a flexible level 1 track trigger, based on associative memories, with short latency and high efficiency. This paper gives an update of the present status of DNW MAPS design in both 2D and 3D versions, and presents a discussion of the architectures that are being devised for the Layer 0 of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker.

  10. Characterization of microbial communities distributed in the groundwater pumped from deep tube wells in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Kei; Nakamura, Takashi; Chapagain, Saroj Kumar; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Mori, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Kazama, Futaba

    2012-03-01

    Although groundwater is a major water supply source in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, it is known that the groundwater has significant microbial contamination exceeding the drinking water quality standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), and that this has been implicated in causing a variety of diseases among people living in the valley. However, little is known about the distribution of pathogenic microbes in the groundwater. Here, we analysed the microbial communities of the six water samples from deep tube wells by using the 16S rRNA gene sequences based culture-independent method. The analysis showed that the groundwater has been contaminated with various types of opportunistic microbes in addition to fecal microbes. Particularly, the clonal sequences related to the opportunistic microbes within the genus Acinetobacter were detected in all samples. As many strains of Acinetobacter are known as multi-drug resistant microbes that are currently spreading in the world, we conducted a molecular-based survey for detection of the gene encoding carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase (bla(oxa-23-like) gene), which is a key enzyme responsible for multi-drug resistance, in the groundwater samples. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two specific primer sets for amplifying bla(oxa-23-like) gene indicated that two of six groundwater samples contain multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter.

  11. Vertically integrated deep N-well CMOS MAPS with sparsification and time stamping capabilities for thin charged particle trackers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2010-01-01

    A fine pitch, deep N-well CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (DNW CMOS MAPS) with sparsified readout architecture and time stamping capabilities has been designed in a vertical integration (3D) technology. In this process, two 130 nm CMOS wafers are face-to-face bonded by means of thermo-compression techniques ensuring both the mechanical stability of the structure and the electrical interconnection between circuits belonging to different layers. This 3D design represents the evolution of a DNW monolithic sensor already fabricated in a planar 130 nm CMOS technology in view of applications to the vertex detector of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The paper is devoted to discussing the main design features and expected performance of the 3D DNW MAPS. Besides describing the front-end circuits and the general architecture of the detector, the work also provides some results from calculations and Monte Carlo device simulations comparing the old 2D solution with the new 3D one and illustrating the attainable detection efficiency improvements.

  12. Vertically integrated deep N-well CMOS MAPS with sparsification and time stamping capabilities for thin charged particle trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, L., E-mail: lodovico.ratti@unipv.i [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Gaioni, L. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Universita di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marconi 5, I-24044 Dalmine (Bulgaria) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2010-12-11

    A fine pitch, deep N-well CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (DNW CMOS MAPS) with sparsified readout architecture and time stamping capabilities has been designed in a vertical integration (3D) technology. In this process, two 130 nm CMOS wafers are face-to-face bonded by means of thermo-compression techniques ensuring both the mechanical stability of the structure and the electrical interconnection between circuits belonging to different layers. This 3D design represents the evolution of a DNW monolithic sensor already fabricated in a planar 130 nm CMOS technology in view of applications to the vertex detector of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The paper is devoted to discussing the main design features and expected performance of the 3D DNW MAPS. Besides describing the front-end circuits and the general architecture of the detector, the work also provides some results from calculations and Monte Carlo device simulations comparing the old 2D solution with the new 3D one and illustrating the attainable detection efficiency improvements.

  13. Towards a high performance vertex detector based on 3D integration of deep N-well MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, V, E-mail: valerio.re@unibg.i [University of Bergamo, Department of Industrial Engineering, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The development of deep N-Well (DNW) CMOS active pixel sensors was driven by the ambitious goal of designing a monolithic device with similar functionalities as in hybrid pixel readout chips, such as pixel-level sparsification and time stamping. The implementation of the DNW MAPS concept in a 3D vertical integration process naturally leads the designer towards putting more intelligence in the chip and in the pixels themselves, achieving novel device structures based on the interconnection of two or more layers fabricated in the same technology. These devices are read out with a data-push scheme that makes it possible to use pixel data for the generation of a flexible level 1 track trigger, based on associative memories, with short latency and high efficiency. This paper gives an update of the present status of DNW MAPS design in both 2D and 3D versions, and presents a discussion of the architectures that are being devised for the Layer 0 of the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker.

  14. Evolution of ion-acoustic potential well in a current-carrying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    Properties and evolution of nonlinear correlated collective disturbance of potential well in current-carrying limited plasma are described. Study shows, that potential well intensifies while exchanging energy with resonance electrons reflecting from it with distribution unstable function. In this case, electron deficiency occurs ahead of the well and electron excess - behined it due to asymmetry, relatively to well velocity, of distribution function of electrons injected at boundaries, in velocity space and due to their reflection from well. Quasineutrality is reduced by self-congruent formation of potential jump within well range. With amplitude growth at its essential values the well is braked. Similar pattern of localized disturbance evolution was observed during numerical and laboratory experiments

  15. Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William A.; Meyer, Frederick W.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

  16. Decoding of Human Movements Based on Deep Brain Local Field Potentials Using Ensemble Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs for robust movement decoding of Parkinson’s disease (PD and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. Movement-related LFP signal features were extracted by computing instantaneous power related to motor response in different neural frequency bands. An innovative neural network ensemble classifier has been proposed and developed for accurate prediction of finger movement and its forthcoming laterality. The ensemble classifier contains three base neural network classifiers, namely, feedforward, radial basis, and probabilistic neural networks. The majority voting rule is used to fuse the decisions of the three base classifiers to generate the final decision of the ensemble classifier. The overall decoding performance reaches a level of agreement (kappa value at about 0.729±0.16 for decoding movement from the resting state and about 0.671±0.14 for decoding left and right visually cued movements.

  17. Analytical Solutions of a Model for Brownian Motion in the Double Well Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ai-Jie; Zheng Lian-Cun; Zhang Xin-Xin; Ma Lian-Xi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the analytical solutions of Schrödinger equation for Brownian motion in a double well potential are acquired by the homotopy analysis method and the Adomian decomposition method. Double well potential for Brownian motion is always used to obtain the solutions of Fokker—Planck equation known as the Klein—Kramers equation, which is suitable for separation and additive Hamiltonians. In essence, we could study the random motion of Brownian particles by solving Schrödinger equation. The analytical results obtained from the two different methods agree with each other well. The double well potential is affected by two parameters, which are analyzed and discussed in details with the aid of graphical illustrations. According to the final results, the shapes of the double well potential have significant influence on the probability density function. (general)

  18. Control of tunneling in a double-well potential with chirped laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatasescu, Mihaela

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of chirped laser pulses to control the tunneling dynamics in the 0g-(6s,6p3/2) double well of Cs2 coupled with other electronic surfaces. The possibility to manipulate the tunneling dynamics appears in a pump-dump scheme designed to form deeply bound cold molecules by photoassociation of two cold cesium atoms in the 0g-(6s,6p3/2) electronic state coupled with a3Σu+ (6s,6s) electronic state. The dump pulse is acting on the 0g-(6s,6p3/2) barrier and can be used to control the tunneling and to capture population in the inner well in deep vibrational levels out of tunneling resonances.

  19. Control of tunneling in a double-well potential with chirped laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatasescu, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of chirped laser pulses to control the tunneling dynamics in the 0 g − (6s,6p 3/2 ) double well of Cs 2 coupled with other electronic surfaces. The possibility to manipulate the tunneling dynamics appears in a pump-dump scheme designed to form deeply bound cold molecules by photoassociation of two cold cesium atoms in the 0 g − (6s,6p 3/2 ) electronic state coupled with a 3 Σ u + (6s,6s) electronic state. The dump pulse is acting on the 0g − (6s,6p3/2) barrier and can be used to control the tunneling and to capture population in the inner well in deep vibrational levels out of tunneling resonances.

  20. Water extraction of coals - potential for estimating low molecular weight organic acids as carbon feedstock for the deep terrestrial biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, A.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Sykes, R.; Horsfield, B. [Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    With the recent increasing interest in the deep biosphere, the question arises as to where the carbon sources that support deep microbial communities are derived from. Our research was focussed on the water-soluble, low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids that are potentially available from different sedimentary lithologies to serve as a carbon source to feed the deep biosphere. A series of Eocene-Pleistocene coals, mudstones and sandstones of varying rank (maturity) and total organic carbon (TOC) content from the Waikato Basin, New Zealand, has been Soxhlet-extracted using water. The combined concentration of recovered formate, acetate and oxalate range from 366 to 2499 {mu} g/g sediment and appear to be dependent on rank, organofacies and TOC. The yields indicate the potential of carbonaceous sediments to feed the local deep terrestrial biosphere over geological periods of time. The existence of living microbial organisms in the mudstones and sandstones was proved by the identification of intact phospholipids (PLs).

  1. Negative group delay for Dirac particles traveling through a potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi; Li Chunfang

    2003-01-01

    The properties of group delay for Dirac particles traveling through a potential well are investigated. A necessary condition is put forward for the group delay to be negative. It is shown that this negative group delay is closely related to its anomalous dependence on the width of the potential well. In order to demonstrate the validity of stationary-phase approach, numerical simulations are made for a Gaussian-shaped temporal wave packet. A restriction to the potential-well's width is obtained that is necessary for the wave packet to remain distortionless in the traveling. Numerical comparison shows that the relativistic group delay is larger than its corresponding nonrelativistic one

  2. On the emission spectrum of oscillator trapped in a potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichok, A.V.; Kuklin, V.M.; Zagorodny, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    We study the spectrum of electromagnetic waves emitted by oscillator, trapped in an external potential well. It is assumed that the natural frequency of the oscillator is much greater than the frequency of oscillations in the potential well. We consider the quantum model of emission with taking into account the recoil effect. The highest intensity of the absorption and emission lines is observed on the eigenfrequency of the oscillator when the recoil energy is equal to energy of the quantum of low-frequency oscillations in the potential well.

  3. Tunneling and energy splitting in an asymmetric double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dae-Yup

    2008-01-01

    An asymmetric double-well potential is considered, assuming that the minima of the wells are quadratic with a frequency ω and the difference of the minima is close to a multiple of hω. A WKB wave function is constructed on both sides of the local maximum between the wells, by matching the WKB function to the exact wave functions near the classical turning points. The continuities of the wave function and its first derivative at the local maximum then give the energy-level splitting formula, which not only reproduces the instanton result for a symmetric potential, but also elucidates the appearance of resonances of tunneling in the asymmetric potential

  4. Potential well yields from unconsolidated deposits in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive groundwater protection plan, developed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 1985, identified the need to delineate significant aquifers within the state. A map of the unconsolidated aquifers in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins was compiled from available data on the surficial geology and well yields. It delineates the significant unconsolidated aquifers and indicates the potential yield of wells that tap these aquifers. The potential well yield is categorized into three ranges: 100 gal/min. No yield range is given for till, but some large diameter or dug wells in till may yield up 10 gal/min. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Bound states for square well potentials extending to infinity in D ≥ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupertsberger, H.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that quantum mechanics allows the penetration into classically forbidden regions (tunneling). Less well known seems to be the fact that in some sense the converse is true also. Potentials with classically allowed regions where a particle can move freely to infinity can nevertheless lead to bound states in quantum mechanics due to the stringent requirements of the boundary conditions, thus forbidding an escape to infinity. This effect is demonstrated by using an obvious generalization of the well known one-dimensional (D = 1) square well potential to arbitray space dimensions. (author)

  6. Transport and interaction blockade of cold bosonic atoms in a triple-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagheck, P; Malet, F; Cremon, J C; Reimann, S M

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the transport properties of cold bosonic atoms in a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) triple-well potential that consists of two large outer wells, which act as microscopic source and drain reservoirs, and a small inner well, which represents a quantum-dot-like scattering region. Bias and gate 'voltages' introduce a time-dependent tilt of the triple-well configuration, and are used to shift the energetic level of the inner well with respect to the outer ones. By means of exact diagonalization considering a total number of six atoms in the triple-well potential, we find diamond-like structures for the occurrence of single-atom transport in the parameter space spanned by the bias and gate voltages. We discuss the analogy with Coulomb blockade in electronic quantum dots, and point out how one can infer the interaction energy in the central well from the distance between the diamonds.

  7. Solution of Schroedinger equation for particle moving in two-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, O.I.; Sabirov, R.Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The solution of the Schroedinger equation for the particle, moving in the two-well potential is given on the basis of a single variational method. This potential constitutes the sum of the harmonic potential and the Gaussian addition. The analytical expression for the wave function of the particle basic state is obtained. The dependence of the obtained solutions on the potential barrier height and width is studied. It is shown that the better separation of the potential barrier provides for higher accuracy of the calculations. The values of the two-well potential, whereby good agreement between the calculations and exact numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation may be expected, are presented [ru

  8. Role of depth and location of minima of a double-well potential on vibrational resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekar, S; Jeyakumari, S; Chinnathambi, V; Sanjuan, M A F

    2010-01-01

    We report our investigation into the role of depth and location of minima of a double-well potential on vibrational resonance in both underdamped and overdamped Duffing oscillators. The systems are driven by both low- and high-frequency periodic forces. We obtain theoretical expressions for the amplitude g of the high-frequency force at which resonances occur. The depth and location of the minima of the potential wells have a distinct effect on vibrational resonance in the underdamped and overdamped cases. In the underdamped system at least one resonance and at most two resonances occur and the number of resonances can be altered by varying the depth and location of the minima of the potential wells. We show that in the overdamped system there is always one and only one resonance, and the value of g at which resonance occurs is independent of the depth of the wells, but varies linearly with the locations of the minima of the wells.

  9. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  10. Overcritical PT-symmetric square well potential in the Dirac equation

    OpenAIRE

    Cannata, Francesco; Ventura, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    We study scattering properties of a PT-symmetric square well potential with real depth larger than the threshold of particle-antiparticle pair production as the time component of a vector potential in the (1+1)-dimensional Dirac equation.

  11. Diffuse versus square-well confining potentials in modelling A-C60 atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolmatov, V K; King, J L; Oglesby, J C

    2012-01-01

    A perceived advantage for the replacement of a discontinuous square-well pseudo-potential, which is often used by various researchers as an approximation to the actual C 60 cage potential in calculations of endohedral atoms A-C 60 , by a more realistic diffuse potential is explored. The photoionization of endohedral H-C 60 and Xe-C 60 is chosen as the case study. The diffuse potential is modelled by a combination of two Woods-Saxon potentials. It is demonstrated that photoionization spectra of A-C 60 atoms are largely insensitive to the degree η of diffuseness of the potential borders, in a reasonably broad range of ηs. These spectra are found to be insensitive to discontinuity of the square-well potential as well. Both potentials result in practically identical calculated spectra. New numerical values for the set of square-well parameters, which lead to a better agreement between experimental and theoretical data for A-C 60 spectra, are recommended for future studies. (paper)

  12. Symmmetric double-well potential with Saxon-Woods tail and Pade approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculescu, V.I.R.; Catana, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work we introduce a symmetric double-well potential with Woods-Saxon tail. The Woods-Saxon parts are replaced by Pade approximation.In this way the matrix elements of this potential form can be evaluated by the theory of complex functions. This results in a shorter computational time. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab., 7 refs

  13. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project 4.5 km deep well, IDDP-2, in the seawater-recharged Reykjanes geothermal field in SW Iceland has successfully reached its supercritical target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ó. Friðleifsson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Iceland Deep Drilling Project research well RN-15/IDDP-2 at Reykjanes, Iceland, reached its target of supercritical conditions at a depth of 4.5 km in January 2017. After only 6 days of heating, the measured bottom hole temperature was 426 °C, and the fluid pressure was 34 MPa. The southern tip of the Reykjanes peninsula is the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in Iceland. Reykjanes is unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in that it is recharged by seawater, which has a critical point of 406 °C at 29.8 MPa. The geologic setting and fluid characteristics at Reykjanes provide a geochemical analog that allows us to investigate the roots of a mid-ocean ridge submarine black smoker hydrothermal system. Drilling began with deepening an existing 2.5 km deep vertical production well (RN-15 to 3 km depth, followed by inclined drilling directed towards the main upflow zone of the system, for a total slant depth of 4659 m ( ∼  4.5 km vertical depth. Total circulation losses of drilling fluid were encountered below 2.5 km, which could not be cured using lost circulation blocking materials or multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued to the total depth without return of drill cuttings. Thirteen spot coring attempts were made below 3 km depth. Rocks in the cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from upper greenschist facies to amphibolite facies, suggesting that formation temperatures at depth exceed 450 °C. High-permeability circulation-fluid loss zones (feed points or feed zones were detected at multiple depth levels below 3 km depth to bottom. The largest circulation losses (most permeable zones occurred between the bottom of the casing and 3.4 km depth. Permeable zones encountered below 3.4 km accepted less than 5 % of the injected water. Currently, the project is attempting soft stimulation to increase deep permeability. While it is too early to speculate on the

  14. A study of the bound states for square potential wells with position-dependent mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    A potential well with position-dependent mass is studied for bound states. Applying appropriate matching conditions, a transcendental equation is derived for the energy eigenvalues. Numerical results are presented graphically and the variation of the energy of the bound states are calculated as a function of the well-width and mass

  15. Polaron effects on nonlinear optical rectification in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells with applied electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jinghe; Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    Polaron effects on nonlinear optical rectification in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells are studied by the effective mass approximation and the perturbation theory. The numerical results show that nonlinear optical rectification coefficients are strongly dependent on the barrier hight V 0 of the Gaussian potential quantum wells, the range L of the confinement potential and the electric field F. Besides, the numerical results show that no matter how V 0 , L and F change, taking into consideration polaron effects, the optical rectification coefficients χ 0 (2) get greatly enhanced.

  16. Shifted one-parameter supersymmetric family of quartic asymmetric double-well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin

    2014-01-01

    Extending our previous work (Rosu, 2014), we define supersymmetric partner potentials through a particular Riccati solution of the form F(x)=(x−c) 2 −1, where c is a real shift parameter, and work out the quartic double-well family of one-parameter isospectral potentials obtained by using the corresponding general Riccati solution. For these parametric double well potentials, we study how the localization properties of the two wells depend on the parameter of the potentials for various values of the shifting parameter. We also consider the supersymmetric parametric family of the first double-well potential in the Razavy chain of double well potentials corresponding to F(x)=1/2 sinh2x−2((1+√(2))sinh2x)/((1+√(2))cosh2x+1) , both unshifted and shifted, to test and compare the localization properties. - Highlights: • Quartic one-parameter DWs with an additional shift parameter are introduced. • Anomalous localization feature of their zero modes is confirmed at different shifts. • Razavy one-parameter DWs are also introduced and shown not to have this feature

  17. Shifted one-parameter supersymmetric family of quartic asymmetric double-well potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICYT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: mancass@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Chen, Pisin, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA) and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Extending our previous work (Rosu, 2014), we define supersymmetric partner potentials through a particular Riccati solution of the form F(x)=(x−c){sup 2}−1, where c is a real shift parameter, and work out the quartic double-well family of one-parameter isospectral potentials obtained by using the corresponding general Riccati solution. For these parametric double well potentials, we study how the localization properties of the two wells depend on the parameter of the potentials for various values of the shifting parameter. We also consider the supersymmetric parametric family of the first double-well potential in the Razavy chain of double well potentials corresponding to F(x)=1/2 sinh2x−2((1+√(2))sinh2x)/((1+√(2))cosh2x+1) , both unshifted and shifted, to test and compare the localization properties. - Highlights: • Quartic one-parameter DWs with an additional shift parameter are introduced. • Anomalous localization feature of their zero modes is confirmed at different shifts. • Razavy one-parameter DWs are also introduced and shown not to have this feature.

  18. Influence of time-periodic potentials on electronic transport in double-well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Lei, Li; Yan, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the Floquet theorem, we have investigated single-electron photon-assisted tunneling in a double-well system using the transfer matrix technique. The transmission probability displays satellite peaks on both sides of the main resonance peaks and these satellite peaks originate from emission or absorption photons. The single-electron resonance tunneling can be controlled through changing the applied harmonically potential positions, such as driven potential in wells, in barriers, or in whole double-well systems. This advantage should be useful in the optimization of the parameters of a transmission device. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Particle localization in a double-well potential by pseudo-supersymmetric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V. G.; Samsonov, B. F.; Shamshutdinova, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    We study properties of a particle moving in a double-well potential in the two-level approximation placed in an additional external time-dependent field. Using previously established property (J. Phys. A 41, 244023 (2008)) that any two-level system possesses a pseudo-supersymmetry we introduce the notion of pseudo-supersymmetric field. It is shown that these fields, even if their time dependence is not periodical, may produce the effect of localization of the particle in one of the wells of the double-well potential.

  20. Coherent wave packet dynamics in a double-well potential in cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Li, Gang; Ding, Ming-Song; Wang, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Yun-Cui

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the coherent wave packet dynamics of a two-level atom trapped in a symmetric double-well potential in a near-resonance cavity. Prepared on one side of the double-well potential, the atom wave packet oscillates between the left and right wells, while recoil induced by the emitted photon from the atom entangles the atomic internal and external degrees of freedom. The collapse and revival of the tunneling occurs. Adjusting the width of the wave packets, one can modify the tunneling frequency and suppress the tunneling.

  1. Influence of the potential well and the potential barrier on the density distribution of confined-model fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B H; Lee, C H; Seong Baek Seok

    2000-01-01

    A density functional perturbative approximation, which is based on the density functional expansion of the one-particle direct correlation function of model fluids with respect to the bulk density, has been employed to investigate the influence of the potential well and the potential barrier on the density behavior of confined-model fluids. The mean spherical approximation has been used to calculate the two-particle direct correlation function of the model fluids. At lower densities, the density distributions are strongly affected by the barrier height and the well depth of the model potential, the contribution from the short-range repulsive part being especially important. However, the effects of the barrier height and the well depth of the model potential decrease with increasing bulk density. The calculated results also show that in the region where the effect of the wall-fluid interaction is relatively weak, the square-barrier part of the model potential leads to a nonuniformity in the density distributio...

  2. Tunnel-induced Dipolar Resonances in a Double-well Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Bruno; Saenz, Alejandro

    2016-11-18

    A system of two dipolar particles that are confined in a double-well potential and interact via a realistic isotropic interaction potential is investigated as a protoype for ultracold atoms with a magnetic dipole moment or ultracold dipolar heteronuclear diatomic molecules in double-well traps or in optical lattices. The resulting energy spectrum is discussed as a function of the dipole-dipole interaction strength. The variation of the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is found to lead to various resonance phenomena. Among those are the previously discussed inelastic confinement-induced resonances as well as the dipole-induced resonances. It is found that the double-well potential gives rise to a new type of resonances, tunnel-induced dipolar ones. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Improving the variational path integral approach to the quantum double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Jingdong; Wang Hongyu

    2002-01-01

    An improved variational path integral approach is developed and applied to the quantum double-well potential, in which part of the quartic term of the potential is included in the trial action. The expression of the effective classical potential (ECP) under a non-Gaussian expectation is obtained. Here the frequency and fourth-order derivative of the potential are treated as two variational parameters, determined by the minimization of the ECP at each point. We calculate the ECP, the free energy and the level splitting of a symmetrical double-well potential. It is shown that the present results are better than those of the Feynman-Kleinert Gaussian variational method. (author)

  4. Experimental research on the structural instability mechanism and the effect of multi-echelon support of deep roadways in a kilometre-deep well.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Peng

    Full Text Available We study the structural instability mechanism and effect of a multi-echelon support in very-deep roadways. We conduct a scale model test for analysing the structural failure mechanism and the effect of multi-echelon support of roadways under high horizontal stress. Mechanical bearing structures are classified according to their secondary stress distribution and the strength degradation of the surrounding rock after roadway excavation. A new method is proposed by partitioning the mechanical bearing structure of the surrounding rock into weak, key and main coupling bearing stratums. In the surrounding rock, the main bearing stratum is the plastic reshaping and flowing area. The weak bearing stratum is the peeling layer or the caving part. And the key bearing stratum is the shearing and yielding area. The structural fracture mechanism of roadways is considered in analysing the bearing structure instability of the surrounding rock, and multi-echelon support that considers the structural characteristics of roadway bearings is proposed. Results of the experimental study indicate that horizontal pressure seriously influences the stability of the surrounding rock, as indicated by extension of the weak bearing area and the transfer of the main and key bearing zones. The falling roof, rib spalling, and floor heave indicate the decline of the bearing capacity of surrounding rock, thereby causing roadway structural instability. Multi-echelon support is proposed according to the mechanical bearing structure of the surrounding rock without support. The redesigned support can reduce the scope of the weak bearing area and limit the transfer of the main and key bearing areas. Consequently, kilometre-deep roadway disasters, such as wedge roof caving, floor heave, and rib spalling, can be avoided to a certain degree, and plastic flow in the surrounding rock is relieved. The adverse effect of horizontal stress on the vault, spandrel and arch foot decreases. The

  5. Microbial redox processes in deep subsurface environments and the potential application of (perchlorate in oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G Liebensteiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms to thrive under oxygen-free conditions in subsurface environments relies on the enzymatic reduction of oxidized elements, such as sulfate, ferric iron or CO2, coupled to the oxidation of inorganic or organic compounds. A broad phylogenetic and functional diversity of microorganisms from subsurface environments has been described using isolation-based and advanced molecular ecological techniques. The physiological groups reviewed here comprise iron-, manganese- and nitrate-reducing microorganisms. In the context of recent findings also the potential of chlorate and perchlorate [jointly termed (perchlorate] reduction in oil reservoirs will be discussed. Special attention is given to elevated temperatures that are predominant in the deep subsurface. Microbial reduction of (perchlorate is a thermodynamically favorable redox process, also at high temperature. However, knowledge about (perchlorate reduction at elevated temperatures is still scarce and restricted to members of the Firmicutes and the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. By analyzing the diversity and phylogenetic distribution of functional genes in (metagenome databases and combining this knowledge with extrapolations to earlier-made physiological observations we speculate on the potential of (perchlorate reduction in the subsurface and more precisely oil fields. In addition, the application of (perchlorate for bioremediation, souring control and microbial enhanced oil recovery are addressed.

  6. The thermal regime in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera, California: Inferences from precision temperature logs in deep wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Farrar, C.D.; Williams, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Long Valley Caldera in eastern California formed 0.76Ma ago in a cataclysmic eruption that resulted in the deposition of 600km3 of Bishop Tuff. The total current heat flow from the caldera floor is estimated to be ~290MW, and a geothermal power plant in Casa Diablo on the flanks of the resurgent dome (RD) generates ~40MWe. The RD in the center of the caldera was uplifted by ~80cm between 1980 and 1999 and was explained by most models as a response to magma intrusion into the shallow crust. This unrest has led to extensive research on geothermal resources and volcanic hazards in the caldera. Here we present results from precise, high-resolution, temperature-depth profiles in five deep boreholes (327-1,158m) on the RD to assess its thermal state, and more specifically 1) to provide bounds on the advective heat transport as a guide for future geothermal exploration, 2) to provide constraints on the occurrence of magma at shallow crustal depths, and 3) to provide a baseline for future transient thermal phenomena in response to large earthquakes, volcanic activity, or geothermal production. The temperature profiles display substantial non-linearity within each profile and variability between the different profiles. All profiles display significant temperature reversals with depth and temperature gradients <50??C/km at their bottom. The maximum temperature in the individual boreholes ranges between 124.7??C and 129.5??C and bottom hole temperatures range between 99.4??C and 129.5??C. The high-temperature units in the three Fumarole Valley boreholes are at the approximate same elevation as the high-temperature unit in borehole M-1 in Casa Diablo indicating lateral or sub-lateral hydrothermal flow through the resurgent dome. Small differences in temperature between measurements in consecutive years in three of the wells suggest slow cooling of the shallow hydrothermal flow system. By matching theoretical curves to segments of the measured temperature profiles, we calculate

  7. Correlation between potential well structure and neutron production in inertial electrostatic confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.; Sato, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    The electrostatic potential well in inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is studied using two approaches. First, the equilibrium potential profile is obtained by solving the charge neutrality condition, i.e. n i n e , assuming the appropriate distribution functions for the ions and the electrons. The formation of a double well structure is demonstrated, with a depth depending upon the ratio between the focus radii of the electrons and the ions. The correlations between the well depth and the volume integrated neutron production due to deuterium-deuterium (DD) reactions are obtained. Second, in order to study the stability of the well, the dynamic behaviours of the potential well are calculated by performing time advancing numerical simulations on the basis of the particle in cell method. Single, double and triple wells, depending on the amount of injected ion current, are observed to be formed for ions with a monoenergetic distribution. The well in the centre of the multiwell structure is unstable and oscillates with a periods much longer than the inverse ion plasma frequency. A double well structure can be formed even for ions with a spread out energy distribution when the ion current is larger than the threshold value. The time averaged neutron production by DD fusion events is proportional to a power of the ion current involved in forming the double well structure. The results strongly suggest that the high neutron production rate should be attributed to not only the well depth but also the unstable behaviour of the potential, i.e. the intermittent peaking of the density in the centre region. A numerical simulation reveals that IEC possesses a favourable dependence of fusion reactions on the injected ion current for the application to a neutron source or a fusion reactor. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs

  8. Well-Being With Soul: Science in Pursuit of Human Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryff, Carol D

    2018-03-01

    This essay examines core contributions of a model of psychological well-being that has had widespread scientific impact. It drew on distant formulations to identify new dimensions and measures for assessing what it means to be well. Key themes among the more than 750 studies using the model are sketched, followed by reflections about why there has been so much interest in this eudaimonic approach to well-being. A final section looks to the future, proposing new directions to illuminate the forces that work against the realization of human potential as well as those that nurture human flourishing and self-realization.

  9. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  10. On stochastic heating of electrons by intense laser radiation in the presence of electrostatic potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2014-01-01

    A simple model developed by Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)] for the study of synergistic effects of electrostatic potential well and laser radiation is extended for the case where electric field of the well is accelerating electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. It was found that in these cases, the rate of stochastic heating of energetic electrons remains virtually the same as in Paradkar et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 060703 (2012)], where electric field in electrostatic potential was slowing down electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. However, the heating of electrons with relatively low energy can be sensitive to the orientation of the electrostatic potential well with respect to the direction of the laser radiation propagation

  11. Inhibition of chaotic escape from a potential well using small parametric modulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, R.; Balibrea, F.; Lopez, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown theoretically for the first time that, depending on its period, amplitude, and initial phase, a periodic parametric modulation can suppress a chaotic escape from a potential well. The instance of the Helmholtz oscillator is used to demonstrate, by means of Melnikov close-quote s method, that parametric modulations of the linear or quadratic potential terms inhibit chaotic escape when certain resonance conditions are met. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Generalized Heisenberg algebra and algebraic method: The example of an infinite square-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curado, E.M.F.; Hassouni, Y.; Rego-Monteiro, M.A.; Rodrigues, Ligia M.C.S.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the role of generalized Heisenberg algebras (GHA) in obtaining an algebraic method to describe physical systems. The method consists in finding the GHA associated to a physical system and the relations between its generators and the physical observables. We choose as an example the infinite square-well potential for which we discuss the representations of the corresponding GHA. We suggest a way of constructing a physical realization of the generators of some GHA and apply it to the square-well potential. An expression for the position operator x in terms of the generators of the algebra is given and we compute its matrix elements

  13. Study of microwave instabilities by means of a square-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Microwave instabilities are analyzed in a simple model, in which the usual synchrotron oscillation of a particle is replaced by particle motion in a square-well potential. In the usual synchrotron oscillation, a particle moves along an elliptic trajectory. The most natural coordinates for such a motion are the action and the angle variables. On the other hand, the distribution of the particles along the ring is most conveniently described by azimuthal variables. The difficulty disappears if the synchrotron motion is approximated by the motion in a square-well potential. The square-well potential may seem extremely unphysical. However, it should be remarked that the form of the potential with addition of a Landau cavity looks more or less like a square-well. At any rate, the main motivation of introducing the square-well here is to simplify the mathematics of and thereby gain some insight into microwave instabilities. The model is exactly soluble. The results are in general agreement with the conclusions obtained from qualitative arguments based on coasting beam theory. However, some of the detailed features of the solution, for example the behavior of ω 2 as a function of impedance, are surprising

  14. Effect of the potential well on low temperature pressure broadening in CO-He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A.; Green, S.

    1986-01-01

    Previously reported low-temperature pressure-broadening calculations (Green, 1985) for CO-He interacting via an SCF-CI potential are compared with new calculations in which the attractive part of the potential is either reduced by half or eliminated entirely. Results demonstrate that the attractive well is responsible for low-temperature enhancement of pressure-broadening cross sections and suggest that agreement with recent experimental values at 4 K (Messer and DeLucia, 1984) can be obtained by a modest reduction, probably within the expected uncertainty, in the attractive part of the SCF-CI potential.

  15. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  16. The deep subterranean environment as a potential model system in ecological, biogeographical and evolutionary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez-Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in ecology, biogeography and evolution is to understand and predict how species may respond to environmental changes. Here we focus on the deep subterranean environment, a system that minimizes most of the typical uncertainties of studies on epigean (surface environments. Caves are relatively homogeneous habitats with nearly constant environmental conditions and simplified biological communities, allowing to control for biotic interactions. Thus, this particular system could be considered a natural habitat whose environmental conditions are similar to what can be reproduced in a laboratory, being an ideal model system for ecological, biogeographical and evolutionary studies. Subterranean species may potentially be used to assess the capability to persist in situ in a global change scenario, as they cannot accommodate to drastic changing conditions by behavioural plasticity, microhabitat use or by migrating to distant, more suitable areas, something frequent in epigean environments. In order to provide accurate predictions of the response of the subterranean biodiversity to climate change, we encourage evolutionary biologist, biogeographers and conservation biologist to work in this interesting ecosystem.

  17. Two-body relativistic scattering with an O(1,1)-symmetric square-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshansky, R.; Horwitz, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Scattering theory in the framework of a relativistic manifestly covariant quantum mechanics is applied to the relativistic analog of the nonrelativistic one-dimensional square-well potential, a two-body O(1,1)-symmetric hyperbolic square well in one space and one time dimension. The unitary S matrix is explicitly obtained. For well sizes large compared to the de Broglie wavelength of the reduced motion system, simple formulas are obtained for the associated sequence of resonances. This sequence has equally spaced levels and constant widths for higher resonances, and linearly increasing widths for lower-lying levels

  18. Simulated effects of potential withdrawals from wells near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucce, Patrick; Faunt, Claudia C.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of potential future withdrawals from wells J-12, J-13, and UE-25c number 3 on the ground-water flow system in the area surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were simulated by using an existing (1997) three-dimensional regional ground-water flow model. The 1997 regional model was modified only to include changes at the pumped wells. Two steady-state simulations (baseline and predictive) were conducted to estimate changes in water level and changes in ground-water outflow from Jackass Flats, where the pumped wells are located, south to the Amargosa Desert

  19. Self-diffusion of particles interacting through a square-well or square-shoulder potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbertz, H.; Michels, J.; Beijeren, H. van; Leegwater, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient and velocity autocorrelation function for a fluid of particles interacting through a square-well or square-shoulder potential are calculated from a kinetic theory similar to the Davis-Rice-Sengers theory and the results are compared to those of computer simulations. At low

  20. Kinetic theory for dilute cohesive granular gases with a square well potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takada, Satoshi; Saitoh, K.; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    We develop the kinetic theory of dilute cohesive granular gases in which the attractive part is described by a square well potential. We derive the hydrodynamic equations from the kinetic theory with the microscopic expressions for the dissipation rate and the transport coefficients. We check the

  1. Transmission and reflection in a double potential well: doing it the Bohmian way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomphorst, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics is applied to a transmission and reflection process in a double potential well. We consider a time-dependent periodic wave function and study the particle trajectories. The average time, eventually transmitted particles stay inside the barrier is the

  2. Kinetic theory for dilute cohesive granular gases with a square well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Satoshi; Saitoh, Kuniyasu; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    We develop the kinetic theory of dilute cohesive granular gases in which the attractive part is described by a square well potential. We derive the hydrodynamic equations from the kinetic theory with the microscopic expressions for the dissipation rate and the transport coefficients. We check the validity of our theory by performing the direct simulation Monte Carlo.

  3. Systematic Convergence in Applying Variational Method to Double-Well Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wai-Ning

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the application of the variational method by computing the ground- and first-excited state energies of a double-well potential. We start with the proper choice of the trial wave functions using optimized parameters, and notice that accurate expectation values in excellent agreement with the numerical results can be…

  4. Potential well measurements in spherical electrostatic-inertial plasma confinement (SEIC) using a collimated proton detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Nadler, J.H.; Gu, Y.B.

    1992-01-01

    A collimated proton detector has been developed for spatially resolved proton measurement in SEIC deuterium fusion experiments. The results are used to infer the potential well depth and well dynamics during SEIC operation. The SEIC operates as follows: ions enter the cathode-grid and are decelerated due to the presence of the positive space charge in the center created by the high ion density there. Since the fusion cross-section is ion-velocity dependent, the greater the height of the positive potential, the lower is the fusion reaction rate in that region. This source profile is determined by the collimated proton measurement. Analysis of the observed proton energy and parametric dependence on voltage current indicates that beam-background fusion predominantly occurs (for a typical 12-mA cathode current, 30-kV cathode voltage in a 4-mTorr D, background). Computer simulations suggest that for these parameters, a positive space charge potential of magnitude about 1/2 of the applied voltage forms inside the cathode. These results establish the first measurement of a positive potential well structure inside an ion injected SEIC device. The dynamics of the well profile with changing injected current is described along with a description of the technique used for unfolding the proton data

  5. A singular position-dependent mass particle in an infinite potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Omar; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2009-01-01

    An unusual singular position-dependent-mass particle in an infinite potential well is considered. The corresponding Hamiltonian is mapped through a point-canonical-transformation and an explicit correspondence between the target Hamiltonian and a Poeschl-Teller type reference Hamiltonian is obtained. New ordering ambiguity parametric setting are suggested

  6. Lévy-noise-induced transport in a rough triple-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongge; Xu, Yong; Kurths, Jürgen; Yue, Xiaole

    2016-10-01

    Rough energy landscape and noisy environment are two common features in many subjects, such as protein folding. Due to the wide findings of bursting or spiking phenomenon in biology science, small diffusions mixing large jumps are adopted to model the noisy environment that can be properly described by Lévy noise. We combine the Lévy noise with the rough energy landscape, modeled by a potential function superimposed by a fast oscillating function, and study the transport of a particle in a rough triple-well potential excited by Lévy noise, rather than only small perturbations. The probabilities of a particle staying in the middle well are considered under different amplitudes of roughness to find out how roughness affects the steady-state probability density function. Variations in the mean first passage time from the middle well to the right well have been investigated with respect to Lévy parameters and amplitudes of the roughness. In addition, we have examined the influences of roughness on the splitting probabilities of the first escape from the middle well. We uncover that the roughness can enhance significantly the first escape of a particle from the middle well, especially for different skewness parameters, but weak differences are found for stability index and noise intensity on the probabilities a particle staying in the middle well and splitting probability to the right.

  7. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York-- Niagara sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    1988-01-01

    This map depicts the locations and potential well yields of unconsolidated aquifers in western New York at a scale of 1:250 ,000. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are used for public water supplies and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary Water Supply Aquifers. ' The map also lists published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low areas, such as valleys and plains, during deglaciation of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel units yield large quantities of water - more than 100 gal/min - to properly constructed wells. Thin sand units and sand and gravel units and thicker gravel units that have a large content of silt and fine sand yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Dug wells that tap till or lacustrine deposits yield less than 5 gal/min. Well yields from bedrock are not indicated. (USGS)

  8. Calculation of high-order virial coefficients for the square-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hainam; Feng, Chao; Schultz, Andrew J; Kofke, David A; Wheatley, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    Accurate virial coefficients B_{N}(λ,ɛ) (where ɛ is the well depth) for the three-dimensional square-well and square-step potentials are calculated for orders N=5-9 and well widths λ=1.1-2.0 using a very fast recursive method. The efficiency of the algorithm is enhanced significantly by exploiting permutation symmetry and by storing integrands for reuse during the calculation. For N=9 the storage requirements become sufficiently large that a parallel algorithm is developed. The methodology is general and is applicable to other discrete potentials. The computed coefficients are precise even near the critical temperature, and thus open up possibilities for analysis of criticality of the system, which is currently not accessible by any other means.

  9. Universal Critical Power for Nonlinear Schroedinger Equations with a Symmetric Double Well Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchetti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Here we consider stationary states for nonlinear Schroedinger equations in any spatial dimension n with symmetric double well potentials. These states may bifurcate as the strength of the nonlinear term increases and we observe two different pictures depending on the value of the nonlinearity power: a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, and a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation with two asymmetric branches occurring as the result of saddle-node bifurcations. We show that in the semiclassical limit, or for a large barrier between the two wells, the first kind of bifurcation always occurs when the nonlinearity power is less than a critical value; in contrast, when the nonlinearity power is larger than such a critical value then we always observe the second scenario. The remarkable fact is that such a critical value is a universal constant in the sense that it does not depend on the shape of the double well potential and on the dimension n.

  10. Three-body systems with square-well potentials in L=0 states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A. S.; Garrido, E.; Fedorov, D. V.

    1997-01-01

    The angular part of the Faddeev equations is solved analytically for s-states in case of two-body square-well potentials. The results are, still analytically, generalized to arbitrary, short-range potentials for both small and large distances. We consider systems with three identical bosons, three non-identical particles, and two identical spin-1/2 fermions, plus a third particle with arbitrary spin. The angular wave functions are in general linear combinations of trigonometric and exponential function,. The Efimov conditions are obtained at large distances. General properties and applications to short-range potentials are discussed. Gaussian potentials are used for illustrations. The results are useful for numerical calculations, where, for example, large distances can be treated analytically and matched to the numerical solutions at smaller distances. The saving in computational efforts could be substantial. (author)

  11. Effects of neglecting carrier tunneling on electrostatic potential in calculating direct tunneling gate current in deep submicron MOSFETs

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, MMA; Haque, A

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assumption of neglecting carrier tunneling effects on self-consistent electrostatic potential in calculating direct tunneling gate current in deep submicron MOSFETs. Comparison between simulated and experimental results shows that for accurate modeling of direct tunneling current, tunneling effects on potential profile need to be considered. The relative error in gate current due to neglecting carrier tunneling is higher at higher gate voltages and increases...

  12. Measurements of strongly localized potential well profiles in an inertial electrostatic fusion neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Takiyama, K.; Koyama, T.

    2001-01-01

    Direct measurements of localized electric fields are made by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method by use of the Stark effects in the central cathode core region of an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) neutron (proton) source, which is expected for various applications, such as luggage security inspection, non-destructive testing, land mine detector, or positron emitter production for cancer detection, currently producing continuously about 10 7 n/sec D-D neutrons. Since 1967 when the first fusion reaction was successfully proved experimentally in a very compact IECF device, potential well formation due to space charge associated with spherically converging ion beams has been a central key issue to be clarified in the beam-beam colliding fusion, which is the major mechanism of the IECF neutron source. Many experiments, but indirect, were made so far to clarify the potential well, but none of them produced definitive evidence, however. Results by the present LIF method show a double well potential profile with a slight concave for ion beams with relatively larger angular momenta, whereas for ions with smaller angular momenta, potential but much steeper peak to develop. (author)

  13. Description of the skeleton of the fossil beaked whale Messapicetus gregarius: searching potential proxies for deep-diving abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramassamy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziphiidae (beaked whales are a successful family of medium- to large-sized toothed whales. Their extant members perform regular deep dives beyond the photic zone to forage for cephalopods and fish. Conversely, extinct long-snouted stem ziphiids are interpreted as epipelagic predators. However, some aspects of this hypothesis remain unclear due to the lack of clear morphological proxies for recognizing regular deep divers. We compared the forelimb, neck, and pterygoid sinus system of the fossil ziphiid Messapicetus gregarius with those of other odontocetes to evaluate the potential of these body regions as proxies to assess deep-diving specialization. The reconstructed musculature of the neck and forelimb of M. gregarius was also compared with that of other odontocetes. We also quantified variation in the proportions of the forelimb and the hamular fossa of the pterygoid sinus (HF using 16 linear measurements. The degree of association between diving behaviour in extant odontocetes and these measurements was evaluated with and without phylogenetic correction. Reconstruction of the neck musculature suggests that M. gregarius possessed a neck more flexible than most extant ziphiids due to the lower degree of fusion of the cervical vertebrae and the large insertions for the M. longus colli and Mm. intertransversarii ventrales cervicis. While neck rigidity might be related to deep diving, differences in neck flexibility among extant ziphiids indicate a more complex functional interpretation. The relationship between forelimb morphology and diving behaviour was not significant, both with and without phylogenetic correction, suggesting that it cannot be used to assess deep-diving abilities with the parameters considered here. Measurements of the HF revealed successful to evaluate deep-diving abilities in odontocetes, with an enlargement of this structure in deep divers. Considering other evidence that suggests an epipelagic behaviour, we propose

  14. Dynamical ion transfer between coupled Coulomb crystals in a double-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Andrea; Zampetaki, Alexandra; Schmelcher, Peter

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of coupled Coulomb crystals of different sizes trapped in a double well potential. The dynamics is induced by an instantaneous quench of the potential barrier separating the two crystals. Due to the intra- and intercrystal Coulomb interactions and the asymmetric population of the potential wells, we observe a complex reordering of ions within the two crystals as well as ion transfer processes from one well to the other. The study and analysis of the latter processes constitutes the main focus of this work. In particular, we examine the dependence of the observed ion transfers on the quench amplitude performing an analysis for different crystalline configurations ranging from one-dimensional ion chains via two-dimensional zigzag chains and ring structures to three-dimensional spherical structures. Such an analysis provides us with the means to extract the general principles governing the ion transfer dynamics and we gain some insight on the structural disorder caused by the quench of the barrier height.

  15. New type shift operators for circular well potential in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guohua; Dong Shihai

    2010-01-01

    New type shift operators for circular well potential in two dimensions are identified. These so-called shift operators connect those quantum systems with the different potentials but with same energy spectrum. It should be noted that these operators depend on both the radial circular and angular variables r and φ. We find that the operators P ± =P x ±P y play the role of the shift operators. The radial linear momentum P r =-ih(∂)/(∂r) , the angular momentum L z =-ih(∂)/(∂φ) and the Hamiltonian form a complete set of commuting operators with the SO(2) symmetry.

  16. Improved simple graphical solution for the eigenvalues of the finite square well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The three principal graphical methods for obtaining the energy eigenvalues of the finite square well potential are presented. The forms of the wavefunctions within the well, and the corresponding linear probability densities, are derived directly from the method. A simple extension of the method allows the energy level spectrum to be obtained directly on a linear energy scale. The variations of the energy eigenvalues with well depth and width are separately and jointly displayed, and explicit corresponding functional relationships are derived. Two universal graphs are deduced which allow the rapid appreciation and calculation of the dependence of the energy levels on the depth and width of the well and on the mass of the particle. (author)

  17. Intense laser field effects on a Woods-Saxon potential quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, R. L.; Morales, A. L.; Akimov, V.; Tulupenko, V.; Kasapoglu, E.; Ungan, F.; Duque, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the results of the theoretical study of the effects of non-resonant intense laser field and electric and magnetic fields on the optical properties in an quantum well (QW) make with Woods-Saxon potential profile. The electric field and intense laser field are applied along the growth direction of the Woods-Saxon quantum well and the magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly. To calculate the energy and the wave functions of the electron in the Woods-Saxon quantum well, the effective mass approximation and the method of envelope wave function are used. The confinement in the Woods-Saxon quantum well is changed drastically by the application of intense laser field or either the effect of electric and magnetic fields. The optical properties are calculated using the compact density matrix.

  18. Potential contribution of surface-dwelling Sargassum algae to deep-sea ecosystems in the southern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip; Minzlaff, Ulrike; Schoenle, Alexandra; Schwabe, Enrico; Hohlfeld, Manon; Jeuck, Alexandra; Brenke, Nils; Prausse, Dennis; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Brix, Saskia; Frutos, Inmaculada; Jörger, Katharina M.; Neusser, Timea P.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Devey, Colin; Brandt, Angelika; Arndt, Hartmut

    2018-02-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems, limited by their inability to use primary production as a source of carbon, rely on other sources to maintain life. Sedimentation of organic carbon into the deep sea has been previously studied, however, the high biomass of sedimented Sargassum algae discovered during the VEMA Transit expedition in 2014/2015 to the southern North Atlantic, and its potential as a regular carbon input, has been an underestimated phenomenon. To determine the potential for this carbon flux, a literature survey of previous studies that estimated the abundance of surface water Sargassum was conducted. We compared these estimates with quantitative analyses of sedimented Sargassum appearing on photos taken with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) directly above the abyssal sediment during the expedition. Organismal communities associated to Sargassum fluitans from surface waters were investigated and Sargassum samples collected from surface waters and the deep sea were biochemically analyzed (fatty acids, stable isotopes, C:N ratios) to determine degradation potential and the trophic significance within deep-sea communities. The estimated Sargassum biomass (fresh weight) in the deep sea (0.07-3.75 g/m2) was several times higher than that estimated from surface waters in the North Atlantic (0.024-0.84 g/m2). Biochemical analysis showed degradation of Sargassum occurring during sedimentation or in the deep sea, however, fatty acid and stable isotope analysis did not indicate direct trophic interactions between the algae and benthic organisms. Thus, it is assumed that components of the deep-sea microbial food web form an important link between the macroalgae and larger benthic organisms. Evaluation of the epifauna showed a diverse nano- micro-, meio, and macrofauna on surface Sargassum and maybe transported across the Atlantic, but we had no evidence for a vertical exchange of fauna components. The large-scale sedimentation of Sargassum forms an important trophic link

  19. THE EFFECTS OF GRADIENT VELOCITY AND DETENTION TIME TO COAGULATION – FLOCCULATION OF DYES AND ORGANIC COMPOUND IN DEEP WELL WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Lindu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep well water of Trisakti University by coagulation and flocculation using baffle channel system has been conducted. The detention time of hydrolic were varied. The coagulant dose was varied as 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 ppm. Water of well sampel was added by coagulant with rotation velocity 200 rpm for 1 minute. The optimal coagulant dose was determined by measuring turbidity, colour, total suspended solids and organic compound. The result showed that the organic compound and colour of deep well water of Trisakti University could be reduced by coagulation and flocculation process by hydrolyc system. The optimal dose of the coagulant was 250 ppm. The removal efficiency of colour and organic compound using optimal dose for continuous flow reactor reached after water flow passed the reactor for 3 - 5 times detention time in the reactor. The optimal gradient velocity (G was 30 - 35 sec-1 and collision energy (GT was 65.000 - 79.000 to get optimal flocculation. With this condition, the removal efficiency of turbidity, colour and organic was more than 90%.   Keywords: coagulation, flocculation, colour, organic compound, deep well

  20. Assessing the deep drilling potential of Lago de Tota, Colombia, with a seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, B. W.; Wattrus, N. J.; Fonseca, H.; Velasco, F.; Escobar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reconciling orbital-scale patterns of inter-hemispheric South American climate during the Quaternary requires continuous, high-resolution paleoclimate records that span multiple glacial cycles from both hemispheres. Southern Andean Quaternary climates are represented by multi-proxy results from Lake Titicaca (Peru-Bolivia) spanning the last 400 ka and by pending results from the Lago Junin Drilling Project (Peru). Although Northern Andean sediment records spanning the last few million years have been retrieved from the Bogota and Fúquene Basins in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, climatic reconstructions based on these cores have thus far been limited to pollen-based investigations. When viewed together with the Southern Hemisphere results, these records suggest an anti-phased hemispheric climatic response during glacial cycles. In order to better assess orbital-scale climate responses, however, independent temperature and hydroclimate proxies from the Northern Hemisphere are needed in addition to vegetation histories. As part of this objective, an effort is underway to develop a paleoclimate record from Lago de Tota (3030 m asl), the largest lake in Colombia and the third largest lake in the Andes. One of 17 highland tectonic basins in Eastern Cordillera, Lago de Tota formed during Tertiary uplift that deformed pre-foreland megasequences, synrift and back-arc megasequences. The precise age and thickness of sediments in the Lago de Tota basin has not previously been established. Here, we present results from a recent single-channel seismic reflection survey collected with a small (5 cubic inch) air gun and high-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom data. With these data, we examine the depositional history and sequence stratigraphy of Lago de Tota and assess its potential as a deep drilling target.

  1. Theoretical analysis of the local field potential in deep brain stimulation applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Lempka

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is a common therapy for treating movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD, and provides a unique opportunity to study the neural activity of various subcortical structures in human patients. Local field potential (LFP recordings are often performed with either intraoperative microelectrodes or DBS leads and reflect oscillatory activity within nuclei of the basal ganglia. These LFP recordings have numerous clinical implications and might someday be used to optimize DBS outcomes in closed-loop systems. However, the origin of the recorded LFP is poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to theoretically analyze LFP recordings within the context of clinical DBS applications. This goal was achieved with a detailed recording model of beta oscillations (∼20 Hz in the subthalamic nucleus. The recording model consisted of finite element models of intraoperative microelectrodes and DBS macroelectrodes implanted in the brain along with multi-compartment cable models of STN projection neurons. Model analysis permitted systematic investigation into a number of variables that can affect the composition of the recorded LFP (e.g. electrode size, electrode impedance, recording configuration, and filtering effects of the brain, electrode-electrolyte interface, and recording electronics. The results of the study suggest that the spatial reach of the LFP can extend several millimeters. Model analysis also showed that variables such as electrode geometry and recording configuration can have a significant effect on LFP amplitude and spatial reach, while the effects of other variables, such as electrode impedance, are often negligible. The results of this study provide insight into the origin of the LFP and identify variables that need to be considered when analyzing LFP recordings in clinical DBS applications.

  2. Time and frequency-dependent modulation of local field potential synchronization by deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton B McCracken

    Full Text Available High-frequency electrical stimulation of specific brain structures, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS, is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but mechanisms of action remain unclear. We examined the time-dependent effects of DBS applied to the entopeduncular nucleus (EP, the rat homolog of the internal globus pallidus, a target used for treatment of both dystonia and Parkinson's disease (PD. We performed simultaneous multi-site local field potential (LFP recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats to assess the effects of high-frequency (HF, 130 Hz; clinically effective, low-frequency (LF, 15 Hz; ineffective and sham DBS delivered to EP. LFP activity was recorded from dorsal striatum (STR, ventroanterior thalamus (VA, primary motor cortex (M1, and the stimulation site in EP. Spontaneous and acute stimulation-induced LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed at baseline, and after 30, 60, and 90 minutes of stimulation. HF EP DBS produced widespread alterations in spontaneous and stimulus-induced LFP oscillations, with some effects similar across regions and others occurring in a region- and frequency band-specific manner. Many of these changes evolved over time. HF EP DBS produced an initial transient reduction in power in the low beta band in M1 and STR; however, phase synchronization between these regions in the low beta band was markedly suppressed at all time points. DBS also enhanced low gamma synchronization throughout the circuit. With sustained stimulation, there were significant reductions in low beta synchronization between M1-VA and STR-VA, and increases in power within regions in the faster frequency bands. HF DBS also suppressed the ability of acute EP stimulation to induce beta oscillations in all regions along the circuit. This dynamic pattern of synchronizing and desynchronizing effects of EP DBS suggests a complex modulation of activity along cortico-BG-thalamic circuits underlying the therapeutic

  3. Ground Source Heat Supply in Moscow Oblast: Temperature Potential and Sustainable Depth of Heat Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G. P.; Gornov, V. F.; Dmitriev, A. N.; Kolesova, M. V.; Yurchenko, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a problem of increasing the efficiency of low-potential geothermal heat in heat pump systems of residential buildings the Moscow oblast of Russia, including Moscow. Estimates of a natural geothermal potential in the Moscow oblast (based on climatological data for the period from 1982 to 2011) are presented and a "Typical climatic year of natural soil temperature variations for the geoclimatic conditions of the Moscow oblast, including the city of Moscow" is proposed. Numerical simulation of the influence of geothermal energy potential and the depth of heat wells on the efficiency of ground source heat pump systems for the heat supply of residential buildings is carried out. Analysis of the numerical simulation showed that the operation of a heat pump system in a house heating mode under the geoclimatic conditions of the Moscow oblast leads to a temperature drop of the heat-exchange medium circulating through heat wells to 5-6°C by the end of the first 10 years of operation, and the process stabilizes by the 15th year of operation, and further changes in the heat-exchange medium temperature do not any longer significantly affect the temperature of the heat-exchange medium in the heat well. In this case, the exact dependence of the heat-exchange medium temperature drop on the depth is not revealed. Data on the economically expedient heat well depth for the conditions of the Moscow oblast ensuring a net present value for the whole residential building life cycle are presented. It is found that the heat well depth of 60 m can be considered as an endpoint for the Moscow oblast, and a further heat well deepening is economically impractical.

  4. Numerical investigation of electricity generation potential from fractured granite reservoir through a single vertical well at Yangbajing geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yu-Chao; Zhan, Jie-Min; Wu, Neng-You; Luo, Ying-Ying; Cai, Wen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Deep geological exploration indicates that there is a high-temperature fractured granite reservoir at depth of 950 ~ 1350 m in well ZK4001 in the north of Yangbajing geothermal field, with an average temperature of 248 °C and a pressure within 8.01 ~ 11.57 MPa; in this well there mainly produces liquid and steam two-phase flow. In this work we numerically investigated the electricity generation potential from the fractured granite reservoir through a single vertical well, analyzed the process and mechanism of the two-phase flow, and evaluated main factors affecting the heat production and electricity generation. The results show that under the reference conditions the system attains a pump power of 0.02 ~ 0.16 MW, an electrical power of 2.71 ~ 2.69 MW, and an energy efficiency of 68.06 ~ 16.34, showing favorable electricity generation performance. During the production period, the bottomhole production pressure gradually decreases, and this makes the pump power increasing and the energy efficiency decreasing. When the bottomhole pressure is lower than the saturated vapor pressure, the liquid water begins to evaporate and the bottomhole wellbore begins to produce the mixture of liquid and steam. Main factors affecting the performance are reservoir porosity, permeability and fluid production rate. Higher reservoir porosity or higher permeability or lower fluid production rate will increase the bottomehole pressure, decrease the pump power and improve the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We established a numerical model of a single vertical well heat mining system. • Desirable electricity production performance can be obtained under suitable conditions. • The system attains an electric power of 2.71 ~ 2.69 MW with an efficiency of about 68.06 ~ 16.34. • Electric power mainly depends on the reservoir porosity and water production rate. • Higher permeability within a certain range is favorable for electricity generation.

  5. Numerical simulation of electricity generation potential from fractured granite reservoir through vertical wells at Yangbajing geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yu-chao; Zhan, Jie-min; Wu, Neng-you; Luo, Ying-ying; Cai, Wen-hao

    2016-01-01

    Yangbajing geothermal field is the first high-temperature hydrothermal convective geothermal system in China. Research and development of the deep fractured granite reservoir is of great importance for capacity expanding and sustaining of the ground power plant. The geological exploration found that there is a fractured granite heat reservoir at depth of 950–1350 m in well ZK4001 in the north of the geothermal field, with an average temperature of 248 °C and a pressure of 8.01–11.57 MPa. In this work, electricity generation potential and its dependent factors from this fractured granite reservoir by water circulating through vertical wells are numerically investigated. The results indicate that the vertical well system attains an electric power of 16.8–14.7 MW, a reservoir impedance of 0.29–0.46 MPa/(kg/s) and an energy efficiency of about 29.6–12.8 during an exploiting period of 50 years under reference conditions, showing good heat production performance. The main parameters affecting the electric power are water production rate and injection temperature. The main parameters affecting reservoir impedance are reservoir permeability, injection temperature and water production rate. The main parameters affecting the energy efficiency are reservoir permeability, injection temperature and water production rate. Higher reservoir permeability or more reasonable injection temperature or water production rate within certain ranges will be favorable for improving the electricity generation performance. - Highlights: • We established a numerical model of vertical well heat mining system. • Desirable electricity production performance can be obtained under suitable conditions. • The system attains an electric power of 16.8–14.7 MW with an efficiency of about 29.6–12.8. • Electric power mainly depends on water production rate and injection temperature. • Higher permeability within a certain range is favorable for electricity generation.

  6. Cooling of ions trapped in potential wells produced by electromagnetic radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobehart, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The probability distributions for the ground state and the excited state of a two-level ion trapped in an harmonic potential well are studied. The ion is excited by electromagnetic radiation and relaxes back due to either spontaneous or stimulated emission. The photon statistics is considered Poissonian and the momentum transfer between the electromagnetic field and the ion is assumed discrete. The present results are closely related to the quantum treatment in the heavy particle limit as well as to those derived from previous semiclassical models. (Author) [es

  7. Dissipative Double-Well Potential for Cold Atoms: Kramers Rate and Stochastic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroescu, Ion; Hume, David B; Oberthaler, Markus K

    2016-12-09

    We experimentally study particle exchange in a dissipative double-well potential using laser-cooled atoms in a hybrid trap. We measure the particle hopping rate as a function of barrier height, temperature, and atom number. Single-particle resolution allows us to measure rates over more than 4 orders of magnitude and distinguish the effects of loss and hopping. Deviations from the Arrhenius-law scaling at high barrier heights occur due to cold collisions between atoms within a well. By driving the system periodically, we characterize the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in the system response.

  8. Resonances and analyticity of scattering wave function for square-well-type potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, T.A.; Hammer, C.L.; Zidell, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we extend our previous analysis of the scattering of wave packets in one dimension to the case of the square-well potential. The analytic properties of the general scattering solution are emphasized thereby making the analysis useful as introductory material for a more sophisticated S-matrix treatment. The square-well model is particularly interesting because of its application to the deuteron problem. Resonance scattering, barrier penetration, time delay, and line shape are discussed at the level of the first-year graduate student

  9. Dynamical properties of a particle in a time-dependent double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonel, Edson D; McClintock, P V E

    2004-01-01

    Some chaotic properties of a classical particle interacting with a time-dependent double-square-well potential are studied. The dynamics of the system is characterized using a two-dimensional nonlinear area-preserving map. Scaling arguments are used to study the chaotic sea in the low-energy domain. It is shown that the distributions of successive reflections and of corresponding successive reflection times obey power laws with the same exponent. If one or both wells move randomly, the particle experiences the phenomenon of Fermi acceleration in the sense that it has unlimited energy growth

  10. The Potential Well-Depth U Constraints on the Surface Gravitational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of in nuclear matter, the experimental values indicate a nonrelativistic poten- tial of about −16 MeV (Fukuda et al. 1998) and −14 MeV (Khaustov et al. 2000) or less, respectively. But Dover & Gal (1983), based on their analysis of emulsion data, found the -nucleus potential well-depth to be 21−24 MeV. In actual calculation, a.

  11. Solution of Wheeler-De Witt Equation, Potential Well and Tunnel Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yongchang; Weng Gang

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the relation of the cosmic scale factor and scalar field to solve Wheeler-De Witt equation, gives the tunnel effect of the cosmic scale factor a and quantum potential well of scalar field, and makes it fit with the physics of cosmic quantum birth. By solving Wheeler-De Witt equation we achieve a general probability distribution of the cosmic birth, and give the analysis of cosmic quantum birth.

  12. Coherent and generalized intelligent states for infinite square well potential and nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kinani, A.H; Daoud, M.

    2001-10-01

    This article is an illustration of the construction of coherent and generalized intelligent states which has been recently proposed by us for an arbitrary quantum system. We treat the quantum system submitted to the infinite square well potential and the nonlinear oscillators. By means of the analytical representation of the coherent states a la Gazeau-Klauder and those a la Klauder-Perelomov, we derive the generalized intelligent states in analytical ways. (author)

  13. Structural phases of colloids interacting via a flat-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Campos, L Q; de Souza Silva, C C; Apolinario, S W S

    2012-11-01

    Using Langevin dynamics simulations we investigate the self-assembly of colloidal particles in two dimensions interacting via an isotropic potential, which comprises both a hard-core repulsion and an additional softened square-well potential of controllable width α. In dilute concentrations, the particles assemble in small clusters with a well-defined crystalline order. For small values of α the particles form triangular lattices. As α is increased, more particles can be captured by the potential well giving rise to different crystalline symmetries and the structural phase transitions between them. The main structures observed are triangular, square, and a mixture of square and triangular cells forming an Archimedean tiling. In the concentrated regime the particles form a single percolated cluster with essentially the same orderings at the same ranges of α values as observed in the dilute regime, thus showing that cluster boundary effects have a minor influence on the cluster crystal symmetry. By using energy analysis and geometry arguments we discuss how the different observed structures minimize the system energy at different values of α.

  14. Coupling parameter series expansion for fluid with square-well plus repulsive-square-barrier potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble are performed for fluid with potential consisting of a square-well plus a square-barrier to obtain thermodynamic properties such as pressure, excess energy, constant volume excess heat capacity, and excess chemical potential, and structural property such as radial distribution function. The simulations cover a wide density range for the fluid phase, several temperatures, and different combinations of the parameters defining the potential. These simulation data have been used to test performances of a coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE recently proposed by one of the authors [S. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 74, 031119 (2006], and a traditional 2nd-order high temperature series expansion (HTSE based on a macroscopic compressibility approximation (MAC used with confidence since its introduction in 1967. It is found that (i the MCA-based 2nd-order HTSE unexpectedly and depressingly fails for most situations investigated, and the present simulation results can serve well as strict criteria for testing liquid state theories. (ii The CPSE perturbation scheme is shown to be capable of predicting very accurately most of the thermodynamic properties simulated, but the most appropriate level of truncating the CPSE differs and depends on the range of the potential to be calculated; in particular, the shorter the potential range is, the higher the most appropriate truncating level can be, and along with rising of the potential range the performance of the CPSE perturbation scheme will decrease at higher truncating level. (iii The CPSE perturbation scheme can calculate satisfactorily bulk fluid rdf, and such calculations can be done for all fluid states of the whole phase diagram. (iv The CPSE is a convergent series at higher temperatures, but show attribute of asymptotic series at lower temperatures, and as a result, the surest asymptotic value occurs at lower-order truncation.

  15. A convergent iterative solution of the quantum double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.; Zhao, W.Q.; Cimenser, A.

    2001-01-01

    We present a new convergent iterative solution for the two lowest quantum wave functions ψ ev and ψ od of the Hamiltonian with a quartic double-well potential V in one dimension. By starting from a trial function, which is by itself the exact lowest even or odd eigenstate of a different Hamiltonian with a modified potential V+δV, we construct the Green's function for the modified potential. The true wave functions, ψ ev or ψ od , then satisfy a linear inhomogeneous integral equation, in which the inhomogeneous term is the trial function, and the kernel is the product of the Green's function times the sum of δV, the potential difference, and the corresponding energy shift. By iterating this equation we obtain successive approximations to the true wave function; furthermore, the approximate energy shift is also adjusted at each iteration so that the approximate wave function is well behaved everywhere. We are able to prove that this iterative procedure converges for both the energy and the wave function at all x. The effectiveness of this iterative process clearly depends on how good the trial function is, or equivalently, how small the potential difference δV is. Although each iteration brings a correction smaller than the previous one by a factor proportional to the parameter that characterizes the smallness of δV, it is not a power series expansion in the parameter. The exact tunneling information of the modified potential is, of course, contained in the Green's function; by adjusting the kernel of the integral equation via the energy shift at each iteration, we bring enough of this information into the calculation so that each approximate wave function is exponentially tuned. This is the underlying reason why the present method converges, while the usual power series expansion does not

  16. CO2 storage in deep underground strata. Integrity of deep wells under the influence of CO2; CO{sub 2} Lagerung im Geogrund. Integritaet von Tiefbohrungen unter Einfluss von CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M.; Franz, O. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik; Nangue Donfack, R. [Baker Hughes GmbH, Houston, TX (United States); Shinde, S. [Shell (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    Deep underground storage of CO2 is possible in petroleum reservoirs, gas reservoirs, aquifers and coal seams. Two aspects must be considered for safety: First, the technical integrity of the production and injection systems must be ensured during the operating phase of, typically, 10 to 50 years. Secondly, the technical integrity of the boreholes must be ensured for the whole storage period of 100 to 5000 years in order to prevent release of CO2 through the boreholes after sealing. The industry has long years of experience with injection of CO2 gained in CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR), in the production of high-pressure acid gas from natural gas wells, and in the injection of the acid components H2S and CO2 separated during acid gas production. Completion equipment and components of CO2 EOR and acid gas projects were analyzed, and detailed information on potential failure processes and their consequences. There are no major problems in ensuring safe injection and production during the operating phase. In contrast, the proof of technical stability over a period of 1000 years and more is a challenge as the experience so far covers only a few decades. This is the focus of research projects worldwide. The contribution presents the state of the art and shows how safe storage of CO2 may be possible. The results presented are part of the activities carried out in the CSEGR project (Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas REcovery). The partners of Clausthal University are: Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hanover, EEG - Erdgas Erdoel GmbH Berlin, Wintershall AG Kassel, Vattenfall AB, and E.ON Ruhrgas GmbH, Essen. The project receives BMBF funds from the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN programme. (orig.)

  17. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--Hudson-Mohawk sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Trudell, Ruth A.; Casey, George D.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the location and potential well yields of unconsolidated aquifers in the Hudson-Mohawk region at a scale of 1:250,000. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are heavily used by community water systems and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary Water Supply ' aquifers, and cites published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low-lying areas such as valleys or plains during deglaciations of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel deposits generally yield large quantities of water, greater than 100 gal/min. Thin sand, sand and gravel deposits, or thicker gravel units that have a large content of silt and fine sand, yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Wells dug in till and those drilled in bedrock commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  18. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--lower Hudson sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Trudell, Ruth A.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the location and potential well yields from unconsolidated aquifers in the lower-Hudson region at a 1:250 ,000 scale. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are heavily used by community water systems and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary water supply ' aquifers and cites published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low-lying areas such as valleys or plains during deglaciation of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel deposits generally yield large quantities of water, more than 100 gal/min. Thin sand, sand and gravel deposits, or thicker gravel units that have a large content of silt and fine sand, yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Wells dug in till and those drilled in bedrock commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  19. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York-- Adirondack sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Trudell, Ruth A.; Casey, George D.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the location and potential well yield from unconsolidated aquifers in the Adirondack region at a 1:250,000 scale. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are heavily used by community water systems and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary Water Supply ' aquifers and cites published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low-lying areas such as valleys or plains during deglaciation of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel deposits generally yield large quantities of water, greater than 100 gal/min. Thin sand, sand and gravel deposits, or thicker gravel units have a large content of silt and fine sand, yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Wells dug in till and those drilled in bedrock commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  20. Piezoelectric and deformation potential effects of strain-dependent luminescence in semiconductor quantum well structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Aihua; Peng, Mingzeng; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of strain-dependent luminescence is important for the rational design of pressure-sensing devices. The interband momentum-matrix element is the key quantity for understanding luminescent phenomena. We analytically solved an infinite quantum well (IQW) model with strain, in the frame......The mechanism of strain-dependent luminescence is important for the rational design of pressure-sensing devices. The interband momentum-matrix element is the key quantity for understanding luminescent phenomena. We analytically solved an infinite quantum well (IQW) model with strain......, in the framework of the 6 × 6 k·p Hamiltonian for the valence states, to directly assess the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and the strain-induced deformation potential for the interband momentum-matrix element. We numerically addressed problems of both the infinite and IQWs with piezoelectric fields...... to elucidate the effects of the piezoelectric potential and the deformation potential on the strain-dependent luminescence. The experimentally measured photoluminescence variatio½n as a function of pressure can be qualitatively explained by the theoretical results....

  1. Evaluating the potential of group singing to enhance the well-being of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane W; McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna; Lange, Andrea; Jenkins, Sue; Lewin, Gill

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a singing program developed specifically for older community-dwelling people on measures of health and well-being. An eight-week singing program was developed and evaluated using standardised measures of health and well-being, measures designed to examine specific singing program outcomes, and semi-structured interviews. Participants aged 70 years and older were recruited through a home care service provider (n = 17) and an advertisement in a community newspaper (n = 19). Standard outcome measures indicated that the program had little effect on health and well-being. However, study-specific measures indicated that many participants had positive gains. Those in the home care group required more assistance to attend and continue in the program than those in the general community. Participants reported that the community-based singing facilitator was essential to the program's success. Well-structured community-based singing programs have the potential to impact positively upon the well-being of older people, but program viability depends on support with recruitment, transport and funding. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  2. The potentiality of hydrocarbon generation of the Jurassic source rocks in Salam-3x well,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the identification of the potential and generating capability of oil generation in the Jurassic source rocks in the Salam-3x well. This depending on the organo-geochemical analyses of cutting samples representative of Masajid, Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations, as well as, representative extract samples of the Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations. The geochemical analysis suggested the potential source intervals within the encountered rock units as follows: Masajid Formation bears mature source rocks and have poor to fair generating capability for generating gas (type III kerogen. Khatatba Formation bears mature source rock, and has poor to good generating capability for both oil and gas. Ras Qattara Formation constituting mature source rock has good to very good generating capability for both oil and gas. The burial history modeling shows that the Masajid Formation lies within oil and gas windows; Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations lie within the gas window. From the biomarker characteristics of source rocks it appears that the extract is genetically related as the majority of them were derived from marine organic matters sources (mainly algae deposited under reducing environment and take the direction of increasing maturity and far away from the direction of biodegradation. Therefore, Masajid Formation is considered as effective source rocks for generating hydrocarbons, while Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations are the main source rocks for hydrocarbon accumulations in the Salam-3x well.

  3. Tic related local field potentials in the thalamus and the effect of deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome : Report of three cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bour, L. J.; Ackermans, L.; Foncke, E. M. J.; Cath, D.; van der Linden, C.; Vandewalle, V. Visser; Tijssen, M. A.

    Objective: Three patients with intractable Tourette syndrome (TS) underwent thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). To investigate the role of thalamic electrical activity in tic generation, local field potentials (LFP), EEG and EMG simultaneously were recorded. Methods: Event related potentials and

  4. Identifying Toxic Impacts of Metals Potentially Released during Deep-Sea Mining—A Synthesis of the Challenges to Quantifying Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hauton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In January 2017, the International Seabed Authority released a discussion paper on the development of Environmental Regulations for deep-sea mining (DSM within the Area Beyond National Jurisdiction (the “Area”. With the release of this paper, the prospect for commercial mining in the Area within the next decade has become very real. Moreover, within nations' Exclusive Economic Zones, the exploitation of deep-sea mineral ore resources could take place on very much shorter time scales and, indeed, may have already started. However, potentially toxic metal mixtures may be released at sea during different stages of the mining process and in different physical phases (dissolved or particulate. As toxicants, metals can disrupt organism physiology and performance, and therefore may impact whole populations, leading to ecosystem scale effects. A challenge to the prediction of toxicity is that deep-sea ore deposits include complex mixtures of minerals, including potentially toxic metals such as copper, cadmium, zinc, and lead, as well as rare earth elements. Whereas the individual toxicity of some of these dissolved metals has been established in laboratory studies, the complex and variable mineral composition of seabed resources makes the a priori prediction of the toxic risk of DSM extremely challenging. Furthermore, although extensive data quantify the toxicity of metals in solution in shallow-water organisms, these may not be representative of the toxicity in deep-sea organisms, which may differ biochemically and physiologically and which will experience those toxicants under conditions of low temperature, high hydrostatic pressure, and potentially altered pH. In this synthesis, we present a summation of recent advances in our understanding of the potential toxic impacts of metal exposure to deep-sea meio- to megafauna at low temperature and high pressure, and consider the limitation of deriving lethal limits based on the paradigm of exposure to

  5. Deep bore well water level fluctuations in the Koyna region, India: the presence of a low order dynamical system in a seismically active environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ramana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in deep bore wells in the vicinity of seismically active Koyna region in western India provides an opportunity to understand the causative mechanism underlying reservoir-triggered earthquakes. As the crustal porous rocks behave nonlinearly, their characteristics can be obtained by analysing water level fluctuations, which reflect an integrated response of the medium. A Fractal dimension is one such measure of nonlinear characteristics of porous rock as observed in water level data from the Koyna region. It is inferred in our study that a low nonlinear dynamical system with three variables can predict the water level fluctuations in bore wells.

  6. Evaluation of the potential for reduction in well spacing of the Bakken sand pool, Court Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majcher, M.B.; Estrada, C.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Archer, J.C. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    For the past 15 years, the Court field has produced hydrocarbons from the Mississippian/Devonian middle Bakken sandstone reservoir. The formation is located in west central Saskatchewan and was deposited in a marine shelf environment and later reworked into tidally influenced sand ridges. Vertical wells and a waterflood recovery scheme have been used to produce heavy crude with an API gravity of 17. A better understanding of the reservoir behaviour is required in order to advance field development and maintain successful waterflood management. Three-dimensional seismic and well logs were used to map the structural complexity of the sand ridge. This study examined the feasibility of using production and seismic data to update and substantiate a simulation model which was used to evaluate downspace potential. Stratigraphic disparities were taken into account as discontinuous interbedded siltstones may be flow barriers that create anisotropy in the permeability zone. Grid orientation was altered to align axially with the permeability trends of the main sand ridge. This study also reviewed an earlier field simulation and generated an updated model. The potential to reduce well spacing was then identified and waterflood optimization of the middle Bakken reservoir was evaluated. It was concluded that the edges of the sand ridge and areas isolated from existing injectors have the greatest potential for infill drilling and additional water injection because of the high sinkhole density. It was noted that drilling edge regions with high oil saturations have a risk of low permeability zones, resulting in low production rates and the possibility of an ineffective waterflood scheme. Therefore, a successful waterflood in the edge zones would require injector-producer pairs in the equivalent sand facies. 4 refs., 36 figs.

  7. Potential-well distortion and mode-mixing instability in proton machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, King-Yuen [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In proton machines, potential-well distortion leads to small amount of bunch lengthening with minimal head-tail asymmetry. Longitudinal mode-mixing instability occurs at higher azimuthal modes. When the driving resonance is of broad-band, the threshold corresponds to the Boussard-modified Keil-Schnell criterion for microwave instability. When the driving resonance is narrower than the bunch spectrum, the threshold corresponds to a similar criterion derived before. The thresholds are higher when the machine operates below transition. (author)

  8. Resonant tunneling of spin-wave packets via quantized states in potential wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ulf-Hendrik; Gatzen, Marius; Demidov, Vladislav E; Demokritov, Sergej O

    2007-09-21

    We have studied the tunneling of spin-wave pulses through a system of two closely situated potential barriers. The barriers represent two areas of inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field, where the existence of spin waves is forbidden. We show that for certain values of the spin-wave frequency corresponding to the quantized spin-wave states existing in the well formed between the barriers, the tunneling has a resonant character. As a result, transmission of spin-wave packets through the double-barrier structure is much more efficient than the sequent tunneling through two single barriers.

  9. Theoretical Evaluation of the Escape Rate of Charged Particles Trapped in a Potential Energy Well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yongbin; Ordonez, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    In various types of charged particle sources and traps, charged particles are temporarily trapped within a potential energy well. In the work reported, a theoretical evaluation of the escape rate of trapped charged particles is carried out. As a specific example, the loss rate is evaluated for trapped plasma particles that are undergoing both collisions among themselves and collisions with particles of a different plasma species having a different temperature. Conditions are considered in which both species are confined within a nested Penning trap

  10. Stochastic resonance in a delayed triple-well potential driven by correlated noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Jin, Yanfei; Xiao, Shaomin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate stochastic resonance (SR) in a delayed triple-well potential subject to correlated noises and a harmonic signal. The stationary probability density, together with the response amplitude of the system, is obtained by using the small time delay approximation. It is found that the time delay, noise intensities, and the cross-correlation between noises can induce the occurrence of the transition. Moreover, the appropriate choice of noise intensities and time delay can improve the output of the system, enhance the SR effect, and lead to the phenomenon of noise enhanced stability. Especially, the stochastic multi-resonance phenomenon is observed when the multiplicative and additive noises are correlated. Finally, the theoretical results are well verified through numerical simulations.

  11. Coupled dynamics of interacting spin-1 bosons in a double-well potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D. W. S.; Foerster, A.; Gusmão, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of dynamical processes involving two or three particles in a double-well potential. Motivated by experimental realizations of such a system with optically trapped cold atoms, we focus on spin-1 bosons with special attention on the effects of a spin-dependent interaction in addition to the usual Hubbard-like repulsive one. For a sufficiently weak tunneling amplitude in comparison to the dominant Hubbard coupling, particle motion is strongly correlated, occurring only under fine-tuned relationships between well-depth asymmetry and interactions. We highlight processes involving tunneling of coupled particle pairs and triads, emphasizing the role of the spin-dependent interaction in resonance conditions.

  12. Negative specific heat, phase transition and particles spilling from a potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J.; Liu, Q.H.; Liu, T.G.; Li, L.X.

    2008-01-01

    For a finite number of noninteracting particles in a box with a potential well in the center, the microcanonical kinetic energy in dependence on the total energy as it is negative can be classified into three categories. The first exhibits a monotonical rise and the specific heat is positive. The second shows a diminishing sawtooth wave with a global rise. The last corresponds to the extreme case and takes the regular sawtooth wave form. The sawtooth wave portion associates periodically a kinetic energy fall in spite of an increase of the total energy; and we attribute to such a fall the negative specific heat. The phase transition can be defined when the relatively dense particle state in the well and relatively dilute particle state in the rest volume of the box coexist, and the appearance of the negative specific heat is sufficient but not necessary for the onset of the phase transition

  13. Potential for hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic and diazotrophic populations to initiate biofilm formation in oligotrophic, deep terrestrial subsurface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofen; Pedersen, Karsten; Edlund, Johanna; Eriksson, Lena; Åström, Mats; Andersson, Anders F; Bertilsson, Stefan; Dopson, Mark

    2017-03-23

    Deep terrestrial biosphere waters are separated from the light-driven surface by the time required to percolate to the subsurface. Despite biofilms being the dominant form of microbial life in many natural environments, they have received little attention in the oligotrophic and anaerobic waters found in deep bedrock fractures. This study is the first to use community DNA sequencing to describe biofilm formation under in situ conditions in the deep terrestrial biosphere. In this study, flow cells were attached to boreholes containing either "modern marine" or "old saline" waters of different origin and degree of isolation from the light-driven surface of the earth. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we showed that planktonic and attached populations were dissimilar while gene frequencies in the metagenomes suggested that hydrogen-fed, carbon dioxide- and nitrogen-fixing populations were responsible for biofilm formation across the two aquifers. Metagenome analyses further suggested that only a subset of the populations were able to attach and produce an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Initial biofilm formation is thus likely to be mediated by a few bacterial populations which were similar to Epsilonproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified bacteria. Populations potentially capable of attaching to a surface and to produce extracellular polysaccharide matrix for attachment were identified in the terrestrial deep biosphere. Our results suggest that the biofilm populations were taxonomically distinct from the planktonic community and were enriched in populations with a chemolithoautotrophic and diazotrophic metabolism coupling hydrogen oxidation to energy conservation under oligotrophic conditions.

  14. Bimolecular Master Equations for a Single and Multiple Potential Wells with Analytic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2018-04-12

    The analytic solutions, that is, populations, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular master equations, separately, for a single and multiple potential wells and reaction channels, where K is the component of the total angular momentum J along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination products at a given energy E. The analytic approach provides the functional dependence of the population of molecules on its K-active or K-adiabatic dissociation, association rate constants and the intermolecular energy transfer, where the approach may complement the usual numerical approaches for reactions of interest. Our previous work, Part I, considered the solutions for a single potential well, whereby an assumption utilized there is presently obviated in the derivation of the exact solutions and farther discussed. At the high-pressure limit, the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular master equations may each reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high-pressure limit expressions) for bimolecular recombination rate constant, for a single potential well, and augmented by isomerization terms when multiple potential wells are present. In the low-pressure limit, the expression for population above the dissociation limit, associated with a single potential well, becomes equivalent to the usual presumed detailed balance between the association and dissociation rate constants, where the multiple well case is also considered. When the collision frequency of energy transfer, Z LJ , between the chemical intermediate and bath gas is sufficiently less than the dissociation rate constant k d ( E' J' K') for postcollision ( E' J' K), then the solution for population, g( EJK) + , above the critical energy further simplifies such that depending on Z LJ , the dissociation and association rate constant k r ( EJK), as g( EJK) + = k r ( EJK)A·BC/[ Z LJ + k d ( EJK)], where A and BC are the reactants, for

  15. Control of the symmetry breaking in double-well potentials by the resonant nonlinearity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistazakis, H. E.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Malomed, B. A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional model of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), combining the double-well potential, which is a usual setting for the onset of spontaneous-symmetry-breaking (SSB) effects, and time-periodic modulation of the nonlinearity, which may be implemented by means of the Feshbach-resonance-management (FRM) technique. Both cases of the nonlinearity that is repulsive or attractive on the average are considered. In the former case, the main effect produced by the application of the FRM is spontaneous self-trapping of the condensate in either of the two potential wells in parameter regimes where it would remain untrapped in the absence of the management. In the weakly nonlinear regime, the frequency of intrinsic oscillations in the FRM-induced trapped state is very close to half the FRM frequency, suggesting that the effect is accounted for by a parametric resonance. In the case of the attractive nonlinearity, the FRM-induced effect is the opposite, i.e., enforced detrapping of a state which is self-trapped in its unmanaged form. In the latter case, the frequency of oscillations of the untrapped mode is close to a quarter of the driving frequency, suggesting that a higher-order parametric resonance may account for this effect.

  16. Tunable potential well for plasmonic trapping of metallic particles by bowtie nano-apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Du, Guangqing; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Bian, Hao; Yong, Jiale; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-26

    In this paper, the tunable optical trapping dependence on wavelength of incident beam is theoretically investigated based on numerical simulations. The Monte Carlo method is taken into account for exploring the trapping characteristics such as average deviation and number distribution histogram of nanoparticles. It is revealed that both the width and the depth of potential well for trapping particles can be flexibly adjusted by tuning the wavelength of the incident beam. In addition, incident wavelengths for the deepest potential well and for the strongest stiffness at bottom are separated. These phenomena are explained as the strong plasmon coupling between tweezers and metallic nanoparticles. In addition, required trapping fluence and particles' distributions show distinctive properties through carefully modifying the incident wavelengths from 1280 nm to 1300 nm. Trapping with lowest laser fluence can be realized with 1280 nm laser and trapping with highest precision can be realized with 1300 nm laser. This work will provide theoretical support for advancing the manipulation of metallic particles and related applications such as single-molecule fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Vibrational Resonance in an Overdamped System with a Sextic Double-Well Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Can-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of vibrational resonance (VR) in an overdamped system with a sextic double-well potential under the excitation of two different periodic signals is investigated. The approximate analytical expression of the resonance amplitude Q at the low-frequency u is obtained. The VR is observed, and the values of B (the amplitude of the high-frequency signal) and Q (the frequency of the high-frequency signal) at which VR occurs are determined. Moreover, the relationship between B and Q is revealed. The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results.%@@ The phenomenon of vibrational resonance(VR)in an overdamped system with a sextic double-well potential under the excitation of two different periodic signals is investigated.The approximate analytical expression of the resonance amplitude Q at the low-frequency ω is obtained.The VR is observed,and the values of B(the amplitude of the high-frequency signal)and Ω(the frequency of the high-frequency signal)at which VR occurs are determined.Moreover,the relationship between B and Ω is revealed.The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results.

  18. Barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well-based solar-cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Jihad M.; Shum, Kai; Wang, W. B.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-based solar-cell structures is reported for the purpose of achieving maximum efficiency. The time-dependent short-circuit current density at the collector side of various MQW solar-cell structures under resonant condition was numerically calculated using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The energy efficiency of solar cells based on the InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW structues were compared when carriers are excited at a particular solar-energy band. Using InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As MQW structures it is found that a maximum energy efficiency can be achieved if the structure is designed with barrier potential of about 450 meV. The efficiency is found to decline linearly as the barrier potential increases for GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW-structure-based solar cells.

  19. Trapping of quantum particles and light beams by switchable potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkin, Eduard; Malomed, Boris A.; Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi

    2010-09-01

    We consider basic dynamical effects in settings based on a pair of local potential traps that may be effectively switched on and off, or suddenly displaced, by means of appropriate control mechanisms, such as scanning tunneling microscopy or photo-switchable quantum dots. The same models, based on the linear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent trapping potentials, apply to the description of optical planar systems designed for the switching of trapped light beams. The analysis is carried out in the analytical form, using exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The first dynamical problem considered in this work is the retention of a particle released from a trap which was suddenly turned off, while another local trap was switched on at a distance—immediately or with a delay. In this case, we demonstrate that the maximum of the retention rate is achieved at a specific finite value of the strength of the new trap, and at a finite value of the temporal delay, depending on the distance between the two traps. Another problem is retrapping of the bound particle when the addition of the second trap transforms the single-well setting into a double-well potential (DWP). In that case, we find probabilities for the retrapping into the ground or first excited state of the DWP. We also analyze effects entailed by the application of a kick to a bound particle, the most interesting one being a kick-induced transition between the DWP’s ground and excited states. In the latter case, the largest transition probability is achieved at a particular strength of the kick.

  20. Trapping of quantum particles and light beams by switchable potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonkin, Eduard; Malomed, Boris A.; Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2010-01-01

    We consider basic dynamical effects in settings based on a pair of local potential traps that may be effectively switched on and off, or suddenly displaced, by means of appropriate control mechanisms, such as scanning tunneling microscopy or photo-switchable quantum dots. The same models, based on the linear Schroedinger equation with time-dependent trapping potentials, apply to the description of optical planar systems designed for the switching of trapped light beams. The analysis is carried out in the analytical form, using exact solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The first dynamical problem considered in this work is the retention of a particle released from a trap which was suddenly turned off, while another local trap was switched on at a distance--immediately or with a delay. In this case, we demonstrate that the maximum of the retention rate is achieved at a specific finite value of the strength of the new trap, and at a finite value of the temporal delay, depending on the distance between the two traps. Another problem is retrapping of the bound particle when the addition of the second trap transforms the single-well setting into a double-well potential (DWP). In that case, we find probabilities for the retrapping into the ground or first excited state of the DWP. We also analyze effects entailed by the application of a kick to a bound particle, the most interesting one being a kick-induced transition between the DWP's ground and excited states. In the latter case, the largest transition probability is achieved at a particular strength of the kick.

  1. Performance improvement of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes via Al-composition graded quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Fujun; Ding, Gege; Liu, Yuhang

    2018-06-01

    Characteristics of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) with step-like and Al-composition graded quantum wells have been investigated. The simulation results show that compared to DUV-LEDs with the conventional AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) structure, the light output power (LOP) and efficiency droop of DUV-LEDs with the Al-composition graded wells were remarkably improved. The key factor accounting for the improved performance is ascribed to the better modulation of carrier distribution in the quantum wells to increase the overlap between electron and hole wavefunctions, which contributes to more efficient recombination of electrons and holes, and thereby a significant enhancement in the LOP.

  2. Quaternary tectonics from seismic interpretation and its potential relation with deep geothermal fluids in the Marche (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicco, Jessica; Invernizzi, Chiara; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Costa, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the structural features is fundamental in evaluating geothermal exchange potential and in modelling geothermal systems. In particular, faults and fractures play an important role for the circulation of fluids in the crust, and structural setting can influence groundwater flow, its regime, chemistry and electrical conductivity. In this context, data coming from accurate studies of groundwater physical properties in the Marche region (Central Italy), concerning electrical conductivity above all, revealed some anomalies in several localities that could be ascribed to a strong structural control. Data acquisition and interpretation of some SW-NE seismic reflection profiles crossing the Apennine chain to the Adriatic sea and kindly provided by ENI S.p.A, highlight important deep Plio-Quaternary structures connected with minor surface ones and to hydrogeological conditions. Seismic profiles interpretation allowed to reconstruct the structural setting and to identify the recent evolution of the Apennine Marche sector in more detail with respect to what is already known. In fact, some high angle structures affecting the whole sedimentary sequence and routing at high depth were labelled. These are NW-SE sub-parallel transpressive structures bounded by SW and NE-dipping high-angle reverse faults reaching > 10 km depth (positive flower structures), and probably involving the upper crust basement. Three main alignments were identified from W to the coast line. In some cases, flower nucleation gives rise to the lifting and counter-clockwise rotation of the Pre-Pliocene substratum blocks, with the upwelling and outcropping of Upper Miocene (Messinian) evaporite deposits along the axial zone of the transpressive structural highs. Noting the analyses of groundwater properties coming from wells placed in proximity of these structures or located along the analysed seismic profiles, anomalies in electrical conductivity are relevant. The activity of the deep rooting

  3. YouTube as a potential source of information on deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademci, Mehmet Ş; Yazman, Serkan; Güneş, Tevfik; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Tayfur, Kaptanderya; Gokalp, Orhan

    2017-09-01

    Background No work has been reported on the use of video websites to learn about deep vein thrombosis and the value of education using them. We examined the characteristics and scientific accuracy of videos related to deep vein thrombosis on YouTube. Methods YouTube was surveyed using no filter and the key words 'deep vein thrombosis' and 'leg vein clot' in June 2016. The videos evaluated were divided into three groups in terms of their scientific content, accuracy, and currency: useful, partly useful, and useless. Results Of the 1200 videos watched, 715 (59.58%) were excluded with the exclusion criteria. Although most of the videos uploaded (22.9%, n = 111) were created by physicians, the number of views for website-based videos was significantly higher (p = 0.002). When the uploaded videos were assessed in terms of their usefulness, videos from physicians and hospitals were statistically more useful than other videos (p < 0.001). Conclusions For videos created by medical professionals to be of higher quality, we believe they should be more up-to-date and comprehensive, and contain animations about treatment modalities and early diagnosis in particular.

  4. Potential sources of hydrocarbons and their microbial degradation in sediments from the deep geothermal Lusi site, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheeder, Georg; Blumenberg, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems, which started in 2006 following an earthquake on Java Island. Since then it has been continuously producing hot and hydrocarbon rich mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Numerous investigations focused on the study of microbial communities which thrive at offshore methane and oil seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done on onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 as well as of liquid hydrocarbons originating from one or more km below the surface. While the source of the methane at Lusi is unambiuous, the origin of the seeping oil is still discussed. Both, source and maturity estimates from biomarkers, are in favor of a type II/III organic matter source. Likely the oils were formed from the studied black shales (deeper Ngimbang Fm.) which contained a Type III component in the Type II predominated organic matter. In all samples large numbers of active microorganisms were present. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade different hydrocarbons. The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments. Ongoing microbial activity in crater sediment samples under high temperatures (80-95C) indicate a deep origin of the involved microorganisms. First results of molecular analyses of the microbial community compositions confirm the above findings. This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage systems and provides an ideal analogue for comparison with the better investigated offshore structures.

  5. Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A.; O'Neill, J. G.; Kululanga, G.

    There has been very little scientific research work into the use of plant extracts to purify groundwater. Research studies on the purification of groundwater have mainly been carried out in developed countries and have focused on water purification systems using aluminium sulphate (a coagulant) and chlorine (a disinfectant). Such systems are expensive and not viable for rural communities due to abject poverty. Shallow well water, which is commonly available throughout Africa, is often grossly contaminated and usually consumed untreated. As a result, water-related diseases kill more than 5 million people every year worldwide. This research was aimed at examining natural plant extracts in order to develop inexpensive ways for rural communities to purify their groundwater. The study involved creating an inventory of plant extracts that have been used for water and wastewater purification. A prioritisation system was derived to select the most suitable extracts, which took into account criteria such as availability, purification potential, yield and cost of extraction. Laboratory trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were added to water samples obtained from five shallow wells in Malawi. The trials consisted of jar tests to assess the coagulation potential and the resulting effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and coliforms. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera, J. curcas and Guar gum can considerably improve the quality of shallow well water. Turbidity reduction was higher for more turbid water. A reduction efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved by all three extracts on shallow well water that had a turbidity of 49 NTU. A reduction in coliforms was about 80% for all extracts. The pH of the water samples increased with dosage, but remained within acceptable levels for drinking water for all the extracts

  6. How to test for diagonalizability: the discretized PT-invariant square-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigert, S.

    2005-01-01

    Given a non-Hermitian matrix M, the structure of its minimal polynomial encodes whether M is diagonalizable or not. This note explains how to determine the minimal polynomial of a matrix without going through its characteristic polynomial. The approach is applied to a quantum mechanical particle moving in a square well under the influence of a piece-wise constant PT-symmetric potential. Upon discretizing the configuration space, the system is described by a matrix of dimension three which turns out not to be diagonalizable for a critical strength of the interaction. The systems develops a three-fold degenerate eigenvalue, and two of the three eigenfunctions disappear at this exceptional point, giving a difference between the algebraic and geometric multiplicity of the eigenvalue equal to two. (author)

  7. Kinematic evidence of satellite galaxy populations in the potential wells of first-ranked cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, L. L.; Hu, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    The velocities of 38 centrally positioned galaxies (r much less than 100 kpc) were measured relative to the velocity of the first-ranked galaxy in 14 rich clusters. Analysis of the velocity distribution function of this sample and of previous data shows that the population cannot be fit by a single Gaussian. An adequate fit is obtained if 60 percent of the objects lie in a Gaussian with sigma = 250 km/s and the remainder in a population with sigma = 1400 km/s. All previous data sets are individually consistent with this conclusion. This suggests that there is a bound population of galaxies in the potential well of the central galaxy in addition to the normal population of the cluster core. This is taken as supporting evidence for the galactic cannibalism model of cD galaxy formation.

  8. Transition state theory approach to polymer escape from a one dimensional potential well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mökkönen, Harri; Ikonen, Timo; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Jónsson, Hannes

    2015-06-14

    The rate of escape of an ideal bead-spring polymer in a symmetric double-well potential is calculated using transition state theory (TST) and the results compared with direct dynamical simulations. The minimum energy path of the transitions becomes flat and the dynamics diffusive for long polymers making the Kramers-Langer estimate poor. However, TST with dynamical corrections based on short time trajectories started at the transition state gives rate constant estimates that agree within a factor of two with the molecular dynamics simulations over a wide range of bead coupling constants and polymer lengths. The computational effort required by the TST approach does not depend on the escape rate and is much smaller than that required by molecular dynamics simulations.

  9. Lévy flights in an infinite potential well as a hypersingular Fredholm problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Elena V; Garbaczewski, Piotr; Stephanovich, Vladimir; Żaba, Mariusz

    2016-05-01

    We study Lévy flights with arbitrary index 0potential well of infinite depth. Such a problem appears in many physical systems ranging from stochastic interfaces to fracture dynamics and multifractality in disordered quantum systems. The major technical tool is a transformation of the eigenvalue problem for initial fractional Schrödinger equation into that for Fredholm integral equation with hypersingular kernel. The latter equation is then solved by means of expansion over the complete set of orthogonal functions in the domain D, reducing the problem to the spectrum of a matrix of infinite dimensions. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are then obtained numerically with some analytical results regarding the structure of the spectrum.

  10. Nucleation theory in Langevin's approach and lifetime of a Brownian particle in potential wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseechkin, N V

    2008-07-14

    The multivariable theory of nucleation suggested by Alekseechkin [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)] is further developed in the context of Langevin's approach. The use of this approach essentially enhances the capability of the nucleation theory, because it makes possible to consider the cases of small friction which are not taken into account by the classical Zel'dovich-Frenkel theory and its multivariable extensions. The procedure for the phenomenological determination of the nucleation parameters is described. Using the similarity of the Kramers model with that of nucleation, the lifetime of a Brownian particle in potential wells in various dimensionalities is calculated with the help of the expression for the steady state nucleation rate.

  11. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of Bose-Fermi mixtures in double-well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S. K.; Malomed, B. A.; Salasnich, L.; Toigo, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of a superfluid Bose-Fermi (BF) mixture in a double-well potential (DWP). The mixture is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) for the bosons, coupled to an equation for the order parameter of the Fermi superfluid, which is derived from the respective density functional in the unitarity limit (a similar model applies to the BCS regime, too). Straightforward SSB in the degenerate Fermi gas loaded into a DWP is impossible, as it requires an attractive self-interaction, and the intrinsic nonlinearity in the Fermi gas is repulsive. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that the symmetry breaking is possible in the mixture with attraction between fermions and bosons, like 40 K and 87 Rb. Numerical results are represented by dependencies of asymmetry parameters for both components on particle numbers of the mixture, N F and N B , and by phase diagrams in the (N F ,N B ) plane, which displays regions of symmetric and asymmetric ground states. The dynamical picture of the SSB, induced by a gradual transformation of the single-well potential into the DWP, is reported too. An analytical approximation is proposed for the case when the GPE for the boson wave function may be treated by means of the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation. Under a special linear relationship between N F and N B , the TF approximation allows us to reduce the model to a single equation for the fermionic function, which includes competing repulsive and attractive nonlinear terms. The latter one directly displays the mechanism of the generation of the effective attraction in the Fermi superfluid, mediated by the bosonic component of the mixture.

  12. Beam Studies of the Segmented Resistive WELL: a Potential Thin Sampling Element for Digital Hadron Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arazi, Lior; Breskin, Amos; Bressler, Shikma; Moleri, Luca; Natal da Luz, Hugo; Oliveri, Eraldo; Pitt, Michael; Rubin, Adam; Marques Ferreira dos Santos, Joaquim; Calapez Albuquerque Veloso, João Filipe; White, Andrew Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEMs) have the potential of constituting thin, robust sampling elements in Digital Hadron Calorimetry (DHCAL) in future colliders. We report on recent beam studies of new single- and double-THGEM-like structures; the multiplier is a Segmented Resistive WELL (SRWELL) - a single-faced THGEM in contact with a segmented resistive layer inductively coupled to readout pads. Several 10$\\times$10 cm$^2$ configurations with a total thickness of 5-6 mm (excluding electronics) with 1 cm$^2$ pads coupled to APV-SRS readout were investigated with muons and pions. Detection efficiencies in the 98$%$ range were recorded with average pad-multiplicity of $\\sim$1.1. The resistive anode resulted in efficient discharge damping, with potential drops of a few volts; discharge probabilities were $\\sim10^{-7}$ for muons and $\\sim10^{-6}$ for pions in the double-stage configuration, at rates of a few kHz/cm$^2$. Further optimization work and research on larger detectors are underway.

  13. Temporal behavior of 222Radon, 226Radium and 238Uranium in deep water wells which provide Valle de Toluca with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Tamez, E.; Iturbe, J.L.; Acosta, A.; Segovia, N.; Carrillo, J.; Armienta, M.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of radionuclides in underground waters may be an indication of its origin and also the sign of the hydraulic properties of the aquifers layers where circulate. Additionally, the ingestion by human beings of water with radioactive elements (Radon 222, Radium 226, Uranium 238) can give as a result the accumulation of such elements in several organs of the body producing then health damages. In this work, the concentrations of Radon 222, Radium 226 and Uranium 238, in waters coming from deep wells which provide with drinking water the Toluca Valley, were determined. For this purpose, during a year (june 1991 to August 1992) ten wells were sampled with a tracking of the radionuclides concentration as well as the physical-chemical components of water; it was established the relationship presented by the analyzed waters with the local geology and the local and regional systems. (Author)

  14. Solution of Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equations for finite and infinite square well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boztosun, I.; Taskin, F.; Burtebayev, N.

    2002-01-01

    The solution of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau relativistic equation for spinless boson in a central field has a long standing problem and the mathematical difficulty in attempting to reach the solution even for simple problems has caused the use this equation to be regarded as quite unattractive among scientists. In this paper we first derive the system of the first-order coupled differential equation which enable the energy eigenvalues to be evaluated and show that these equations can be reduced to the second-order Schroedinger type radial differential equation. We then consider some of the properties of this equation, which are needed for practical calculations, and show that using this the second-order radial equation, the physical observables can be found in a very simple way. As an example, we consider a pionic atoms in the finite and infinite square-well potentials and calculate the eigen-energies as well as the wave functions using the relativistic Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation. We show that our findings are in excellent agreement with the results of the Klein-Gordon equation

  15. Cubic–quintic long-range interactions with double well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsilifis, Panagiotis A; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Rothos, Vassilis M

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we examine the combined effects of cubic and quintic terms of the long-range type in the dynamics of a double well potential. Employing a two-mode approximation, we systematically develop two cubic–quintic ordinary differential equations and assess the contributions of the long-range interactions in each of the relevant prefactors, gauging how to simplify the ensuing dynamical system. Finally, we obtain a reduced canonical description for the conjugate variables of relative population imbalance and relative phase between the two wells and proceed to a dynamical systems analysis of the resulting pair of ordinary differential equations. While in the case of cubic and quintic interactions of the same kind (e.g. both attractive or both repulsive), only a symmetry-breaking bifurcation can be identified, a remarkable effect that emerges e.g. in the setting of repulsive cubic but attractive quintic interactions is a ‘symmetry-restoring’ bifurcation. Namely, in addition to the supercritical pitchfork that leads to a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the antisymmetric state, there is a subcritical pitchfork that eventually reunites the asymmetric daughter branch with the antisymmetric parent one. The relevant bifurcations, the stability of the branches and their dynamical implications are examined both in the reduced (ODE) and in the full (PDE) setting. The model is argued to be of physical relevance, especially so in the context of optical thermal media. (paper)

  16. Mach-Zehnder interferometry with interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrada, T.

    2014-01-01

    Mach-Zehnder interferometry with interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential Particle-wave duality has enabled the construction of interferometers for massive particles such as electrons, neutrons, atoms or molecules. Implementing atom interferometry has required the development of analogues to the optical beam-splitters, phase shifters or recombiners to enable the coherent, i.e. phase-preserving manipulation of quantum superpositions. While initially demonstrating the wave nature of particles, atom interferometers have evolved into some of the most advanced devices for precision measurement, both for technological applications and tests of the fundamental laws of nature. Bose- Einstein condensates (BEC) of ultracold atoms are particular matter waves: they exhibit a collective many-body wave function and macroscopic coherence properties. As such, they have often been considered as an analogue to optical laser elds and it is natural to wonder whether BECs can provide to atom interferometry a similar boost as the laser brought to optical interferometry. One fundamental dierence between atomic BECs and lasers elds is the presence of atomic interactions, yielding an intrinsic non-linearity. On one hand, interactions can lead to eects destroying the phase coherence and limiting the interrogation time of trapped BEC interferometers. On the other hand, they can be used to generate nonclassical (e.g. squeezed) states to improve the sensitivity of interferometric measurements beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). In this thesis, we present the realization of a full Mach-Zehnder interferometric sequence with trapped, interacting BECs con ned on an atom chip. Our interferometer relies on the coherent manipulation of a BEC in a magnetic double-well potential. For this purpose, we developed a novel type of matter-wave recombiner, an element which so far was missing in BEC atom optics. We have been able to exploit interactions to generate a squeezed

  17. 'Deep is the well of the past': Reconsidering the origins of the Exodus motif in its cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raik Heckl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows, that the stories of the Patriarchs as well as the Exodus-story are allochthonous traditions of origin. We find comparable stories in the neighboring cultures of Israel. Egypt as origin of human culture was of utmost importance in the Levant. Herodotus reports a myth of origin of the Phoenicians which is of particular interest in this respect. As far as it can be seen there are affinities between this tradition and the Exodus motif from the Hebrew Bible. This raises the question if we should read the Biblical traditions as part of the comprehensive cultural context of the Levant.

  18. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  19. Deep tissue single cell MSC ablation using a fiber laser source to evaluate therapeutic potential in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Pendleton, Emily G.; Lin, Charles P.; Mortensen, Luke J.

    2016-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a currently uncurable disease where a mutation in collagen type I yields brittle bones. One potential therapy is transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but controlling and enhancing transplanted cell survival has proven challenging. Therefore, we use a 2- photon imaging system to study individual transplanted cells in the living bone marrow. We ablated cells deep in the bone marrow and observed minimal collateral damage to surrounding tissue. Future work will evaluate the local impact of transplanted MSCs on bone deposition in vivo.

  20. The first fully functional 3D CMOS chip with Deep N-well active pixel sensors for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traversi, G.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the characterization of Deep N-well (DNW) active pixel sensors fabricated in a vertically integrated technology. The DNW approach takes advantage of the triple well structure to lay out a sensor with relatively large charge collecting area (as compared to standard three transistor MAPS), while the readout is performed by a classical signal processing chain for capacitive detectors. This new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous tiers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS process where the top tier is thinned down to about 12μm to expose through silicon vias (TSV), therefore making connection to the buried circuits possible. This technology has been used to design a fine pitch 3D CMOS sensor with sparsification capabilities, in view of vertexing applications to the International Linear Collider (ILC) experiments. Results from the characterization of different kind of test structures, including single pixels, 3×3 and 8×8 matrices, are presented

  1. Diagnostic criteria of well differentiated thyroid tumor of uncertain malignant potential; a histomorphological and immunohistochemical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Fatma El-Zahraa Salah El-Deen

    2015-06-01

    Well differentiated thyroid tumor of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) represents a true "gray zone" of "follicular patterned" thyroid lesions, that needs to be characterized in order to outright the diagnosis of carcinoma and avoid unnecessary aggressive treatment. To emphasize on the histomorphological criteria for more accurate diagnosis of WDT-UMP. Also to compare the immunohistochemical expression of CK19 of WDT-UMP versus adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 60 thyroid specimens; 18 WDT-UMPs, 24 PTC (18 classic variant and 6 follicular variants) and 18 benign thyroid lesions (8 adenoma, 6 Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 4 hyperplastic nodules). H&E stained sections were assessed according to the published major and minor criteria of malignancy in the thyroid. CK 19 immunostaining was examined and evaluated according to the proportion and intensity scores. We could detect the absence of nuclear inclusions, presence of characteristic nuclear groove, nuclear clearing, ovoid nuclei, nuclear crowdness, nuclear enlargement and pleomorphism as important reliable features for diagnosis of WDT-UMP with p value (<0.0001 for each). WDT-UMP showed moderate to strong CK 19 immunostaining with proportion scores 3 and 4; an intermediate expression profile; higher than adenoma and less than papillary carcinoma (p<0.0001). The constellations of both major and minor criteria of malignancy are important clues for WDT-UMP diagnosis which could be ascertained by CK 19 immunostaining. Copyright © 2015. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Transport and trapping of dust particles in a potential well created by inductively coupled diffused plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, S; Bandyopadhyay, P

    2016-05-01

    A versatile linear dusty (complex) plasma device is designed to study the transport and dynamical behavior of dust particles in a large volume. Diffused inductively coupled plasma is generated in the background of argon gas. A novel technique is used to introduce the dust particles in the main plasma by striking a secondary direct current glow discharge. These dust particles are found to get trapped in an electrostatic potential well, which is formed due to the combination of the ambipolar electric field caused by diffusive plasma and the field produced by the charged glass wall of the vacuum chamber. According to the requirements, the volume of the dust cloud can be controlled very precisely by tuning the plasma and discharge parameters. The present device can be used to address the underlying physics behind the transport of dust particles, self-excited dust acoustic waves, and instabilities. The detailed design of this device, plasma production and characterization, trapping and transport of the dust particle, and some of the preliminary experimental results are presented.

  3. Symmetry breaking of a Bose–Fermi mixture in a triple-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Pei-Gen; Wang, Yuan-Sheng; Ji, Shen-Tong; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a one-dimensional Bose–Fermi mixture in a triple-well potential with two equally populated spin components at zero temperature. Based on the coupled equations for a Bose–Fermi mixture, we illustrate the symmetry breaking of the Bose–Fermi mixture with different strengths of interspecies and intraspecies interactions that are induced by changing the particle numbers of bosons and fermions. The several novel density profiles of symmetric and asymmetric ground states in the phase diagram of the (N F ,N B ) plane are demonstrated. In addition, the variation of density as a function of N B at fixed N F , which clearly shows the transition among distinct types of symmetric and asymmetric ground states, is illustrated. -- Highlights: ► We demonstrate the phase diagram in (N F ,N B ) plane. ► We then illustrate distinct regions in the phase diagram of the (N F ,N B ) plane and the corresponding novel typical density profiles of ground states. ► The novel density profiles of symmetric and asymmetric ground states are demonstrated. ► We illustrate the novel phase transitions among some of these ground states.

  4. A weak microwave instability with potential well distortion and radial mode coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.; Chen, Bo; Oide, Katsunobu

    1995-07-01

    In attempts to minimize the impedance of an accelerator by smoothing out its vacuum chamber, improvements are typically first made by reducing the inductive part of the impedance. As the inductance is reduced, however, the impedance becomes increasingly relatively resistive, and as a consequence, the nature of potential well distortion changes qualitatively. An inductive impedance lengthens the bunch (above transition) while maintaining more or less a head-tail symmetry of the bunch longitudinal distribution. A resistive impedance does not change the bunch length as much, but tends to cause a large head-tail asymmetry. We explore two ways which might in principle allevial this instability mechanism. (i) add a higher harmonic cavity: A higher harmonic rf voltage with appropriate and amplitude may compensate for the head-tail asymmetry and thus raise the instability threshold. (ii) operate the accelerator with a negative momentum compaction factor η:(12) With η > 0, the distorted beam distribution leans toward the head of the bunch; the bunch tail sees large wakefields. Operating with η < 0 could conceivably help because the beam distribution now leans toward the tail of the bunch. Both (i) and (ii) were explored in this paper. We found that a higher harmonic cavity of a modest voltage can indeed eliminate this instability, while the advantage of operating with η< 0 is less obvious

  5. Speech Intelligibility Potential of General and Specialized Deep Neural Network Based Speech Enhancement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Morten; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study aspects of single microphone speech enhancement (SE) based on deep neural networks (DNNs). Specifically, we explore the generalizability capabilities of state-of-the-art DNN-based SE systems with respect to the background noise type, the gender of the target speaker...... general. Finally, we compare how a DNN-based SE system trained to be noise type general, speaker general, and SNR general performs relative to a state-of-the-art short-time spectral amplitude minimum mean square error (STSA-MMSE) based SE algorithm. We show that DNN-based SE systems, when trained...... a state-of-the-art STSA-MMSE based SE method, when tested using a range of unseen speakers and noise types. Finally, a listening test using several DNN-based SE systems tested in unseen speaker conditions show that these systems can improve SI for some SNR and noise type configurations but degrade SI...

  6. Simulation of the distribution of radionuclides in the reservoir bed for deep-well injection disposal of acid liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskov, M.D.; Istomin, A.D.; Kesler, A.G.; Zubkov, A.A.; Zakharova, E.V.; Egorov, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for describing the changes in the state of the reservoir bed for dee-well injection disposal of acid liquid radioactive waste. The model considers the multicomponent filtration of the solution in the heterogeneous bed, sorption-desorption of radionuclides, taking into account the dependence of the distribution coefficient on the temperature and pH, as well as radioactive decay, interaction of acids with minerals, radiation-chemical and thermochemical decomposition of the acids, and dynamics of the temperature field, taking into account the convective heat transfer, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat release. The results of the simulation of the migration of radionuclides were reported, as well as of the distribution of the acids and the dynamics of the temperature field in the vicinity of the injection well of the site for deep-well injection disposal of the waste from Siberian Chemical Combine. A man-caused barrier is formed in the vicinity of the injection well, hindering the spread of radionuclides in the reservoir bed [ru

  7. Dual-well potential field function for articulated manipulator trajectory planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Badawy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new attractive potential field function is proposed in this paper for manipulator trajectory planning. Existing attractive potential field constructs a global minimum through which maneuvering objects move down the gradient of the potential field toward this global minimum. The proposed method constructs a potential field with two minima. The purpose of these two minima is to create a dual attraction between links rather than affecting each link by the preceding one through kinematic constraints.

  8. Environmental hazard assessment of a marine mine tailings deposit site and potential implications for deep-sea mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Nélia C; Rocha, Thiago L; Canals, Miquel; Cardoso, Cátia; Danovaro, Roberto; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Regoli, Francesco; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Bebianno, Maria João

    2017-09-01

    Portmán Bay is a heavily contaminated area resulting from decades of metal mine tailings disposal, and is considered a suitable shallow-water analogue to investigate the potential ecotoxicological impact of deep-sea mining. Resuspension plumes were artificially created by removing the top layer of the mine tailings deposit by bottom trawling. Mussels were deployed at three sites: i) off the mine tailings deposit area; ii) on the mine tailings deposit beyond the influence from the resuspension plumes; iii) under the influence of the artificially generated resuspension plumes. Surface sediment samples were collected at the same sites for metal analysis and ecotoxicity assessment. Metal concentrations and a battery of biomarkers (oxidative stress, metal exposure, biotransformation and oxidative damage) were measured in different mussel tissues. The environmental hazard posed by the resuspension plumes was investigated by a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE) model that integrated all the data. The resuspension of sediments loaded with metal mine tails demonstrated that chemical contaminants were released by trawling subsequently inducing ecotoxicological impact in mussels' health. Considering as sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) those indicated in Spanish action level B for the disposal of dredged material at sea, the WOE model indicates that the hazard is slight off the mine tailings deposit, moderate on the mine tailings deposit without the influence from the resuspension plumes, and major under the influence of the resuspension plumes. Portmán Bay mine tailings deposit is a by-product of sulphide mining, and despite differences in environmental setting, it can reflect the potential ecotoxic effects to marine fauna from the impact of resuspension of plumes created by deep-sea mining of polymetallic sulphides. A similar approach as in this study could be applied in other areas affected by sediment resuspension and for testing future deep-sea mining sites in

  9. Cyclin D1 in well differentiated thyroid tumour of uncertain malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba Saini, Monika; Weynand, Birgit; Rahier, Jacques; Mourad, Michel; Hamoir, Marc; Marbaix, Etienne

    2015-04-18

    Encapsulated follicular tumours with equivocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) type nuclear features continue to remain a challenge despite the recent attempts to classify these borderline lesions. The term 'well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP)' was introduced to classify these tumours. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of a cell cycle regulator like cyclin D1 in these tumours along with assessment of other well established PTC markers like galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19. Thirteen cases of metastatic PTC, papillary microcarcinoma and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) were identified from a histological review of 510 cases. In addition, 13 cases of a subset of follicular adenomatoid nodules with focal areas showing nuclear features characteristic of PTC, identified as WDT-UMP, were also analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis of galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and the proliferation markers Ki67 and cyclin D1 was performed. Lesions were analyzed for cyclin D1 gene amplification by fluorescent in-situ hybridization. All WDT-UMP lesions showed immunolabelling of cyclin D1, Ki67; 11/ 13 cases showed immunolabelling of CK19; 10/13 cases showed immunolabelling of HBME-1 and 4/13 cases showed immunolabelling of galectin-3. Surrounding benign adenomatoid areas showed no to faint focal staining in all thirteen cases of cyclin D1, HBME-1 and galectin-3. A low rate of cyclin D1 gene amplification was identified in a significant proportion of cells in the WDT-UMP lesions as compared to surrounding benign adenomatoid areas. Increased expression of cyclin D1 and amplification of its gene along with immunolabelling of HBME-1 in WDT-UMP lesions showing cytological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma within follicular adenomatoid nodules suggest that these areas could correspond to a precursor lesion of follicular variant of PTC. Overexpression of cyclin D1, associated with the amplification of the gene suggests that these WDT-UMP lesions are an

  10. [Wells clinical prediction criteria in patients suspected of having deep vein thrombosis: evaluation of components and use in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Castrillo Riesgo, Luis; Jiménez Hernández, Sònia; Piñera Salmerón, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    To determine the applicability of the Wells clinical prediction criteria for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients in hospital emergency departments and to evaluate the relevance of the score's components. Prospective multicenter cohort study in consecutive hospital emergency department patients suspected of having DVT. Full-leg Doppler compression ultrasound imaging was performed on all patients. We recorded information on variables related to risk for DVT and the components of clinical prediction scales. Wells and Oudega clinical prediction scores were calculated. We studied 362 patients in 23 hospital emergency departments; the mean (SD) age was 65 (18) years and 52.8% were women. DVT was diagnosed in 254 patients (70.16%); 171 (47.2%) had proximal DVT. The clinical probability of DVT according to the Wells scale and the prevalence of proximal DVT were as follows: low probability, 57 patients (14 with DVT, 24.6%); intermediate probability, 124 (43 with DVT, 34.7%), and high probability, 181 (114 with DVT, 63%). Only 5 of the components of the Wells scale were associated with the presence of proximal DVT. The prevalence of DVT is very high in the 3 categories of clinical probability indicated by the Wells score. The prevalences do not correspond to those of the cohort used to validate the scale. It appears to be necessary to develop scales adjusted for use in hospital emergency departments when DVT is suspected.

  11. The potential for methane hydrate formation in deep repositories of spent nuclear fuel in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohidi, Bahman; Chapoy, Antonin; Smellie, John; Puigdomenech, Ignasi

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of this work was to establish whether the pertaining pressure and temperature conditions and dissolved gas concentration in groundwater is conducive to gas hydrate formation using a modelling approach. The hydrate stability pressure-temperature zone of dissolved methane in the presence of salt has been obtained through calculations which show that a decrease in the system pressure and/or an increase in salt concentration favours hydrate formation, as both factors reduce equilibrium gas solubility in the aqueous phase. This behaviour is unlike that of the system including a gas phase, where the water phase is always saturated with methane, and hence the methane solubility in water is not a limiting factor. The main conclusion is that hydrate formation is not possible at the reported methane concentrations and water salinities for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. At the highest salinities and methane concentrations encountered, namely ∼0.00073 mole fraction methane and ∼10 mass % NaCl at a depth of 1,000 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, hydrates could form if the system temperatures and pressures are below 2.5 deg C and 60 bar, respectively, i.e. values that are much lower than those prevailing at that depth (∼20 deg C and ∼100 bar, respectively). Furthermore, the calculated results provide the necessary data to estimate the effect of increase in dissolved methane concentration on potential hydrate formation, as well as two phase flow. The available depth dependency of methane concentration at the sites studied in Sweden and Finland was used in another study to estimate the diffusive flow of methane in the rock volumes. These diffusion rates, which are highest at Olkiluoto, indicate that even if the conditions were to become favourable to methane hydrate formation, then it would take several millions of years before a thin layer of hydrates could be formed, a condition which is outside the required period of satisfactory

  12. The potential for methane hydrate formation in deep repositories of spent nuclear fuel in granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohidi, Bahman; Chapoy, Antonin (Hydrafact Ltd, Inst. of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Puigdomenech, Ignasi (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The main aim of this work was to establish whether the pertaining pressure and temperature conditions and dissolved gas concentration in groundwater is conducive to gas hydrate formation using a modelling approach. The hydrate stability pressure-temperature zone of dissolved methane in the presence of salt has been obtained through calculations which show that a decrease in the system pressure and/or an increase in salt concentration favours hydrate formation, as both factors reduce equilibrium gas solubility in the aqueous phase. This behaviour is unlike that of the system including a gas phase, where the water phase is always saturated with methane, and hence the methane solubility in water is not a limiting factor. The main conclusion is that hydrate formation is not possible at the reported methane concentrations and water salinities for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. At the highest salinities and methane concentrations encountered, namely approx0.00073 mole fraction methane and approx10 mass % NaCl at a depth of 1,000 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, hydrates could form if the system temperatures and pressures are below 2.5 deg C and 60 bar, respectively, i.e. values that are much lower than those prevailing at that depth (approx20 deg C and approx100 bar, respectively). Furthermore, the calculated results provide the necessary data to estimate the effect of increase in dissolved methane concentration on potential hydrate formation, as well as two phase flow. The available depth dependency of methane concentration at the sites studied in Sweden and Finland was used in another study to estimate the diffusive flow of methane in the rock volumes. These diffusion rates, which are highest at Olkiluoto, indicate that even if the conditions were to become favourable to methane hydrate formation, then it would take several millions of years before a thin layer of hydrates could be formed, a condition which is outside the required period of

  13. Displacement potential solution of a guided deep beam of composite materials under symmetric three-point bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Muzibur; Ahmad, S. Reaz

    2017-12-01

    An analytical investigation of elastic fields for a guided deep beam of orthotropic composite material having three point symmetric bending is carried out using displacement potential boundary modeling approach. Here, the formulation is developed as a single function of space variables defined in terms of displacement components, which has to satisfy the mixed type of boundary conditions. The relevant displacement and stress components are derived into infinite series using Fourier integral along with suitable polynomials coincided with boundary conditions. The results are presented mainly in the form of graphs and verified with finite element solutions using ANSYS. This study shows that the analytical and numerical solutions are in good agreement and thus enhances reliability of the displacement potential approach.

  14. The potential significance of permafrost to the behaviour of a deep radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Marsily, G.de

    1991-02-01

    Permafrost is one of the scenarios that is being considered as part of the groundwater flow and transport modelling for the Project-90 assessment. It is included as one of the primary Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) which are being kept outside the Process System in the SKB/SKI scenario development project. There is a large amount of evidence that Sweden has suffered several cycles of permafrost development over the Quaternary, approximately the last 2My, and climatic predictions for the next hundred thousand years suggest that similar climatic cycling is likely to occur. The presence of permafrost could have important effects on the hydrogeological regime and could therefore be important in modifying the release and dispersion of radionuclides from a repository. The climatic conditions of permafrost would also influence radionuclide migration and accumulation in the biosphere and the associated radiation exposure of man. These biosphere aspects are not considered here but the implications for discharge into the biosphere are examined, including the abstraction of groundwater by man in permafrost regions. This report reviews the evidence relating to permafrost development and discusses the possible implications for the long-term safety of a deep repository. (78 refs.) (au)

  15. Gamma-ray analysis for U, Th and K on bulk cutting samples from deep wells in the Danish Subbasin and the North German Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovborg, L.

    1987-07-01

    A total of 1329 bulk cutting samples from deep wells in Denmark were analysed for U, Th and K by laboratory gamma-ray analysis. Contamination of the samples by drilling mud additives, mud solids and fall down was studied by means of a wash down experiment and by comparison with the total gamma-ray response from wireline logging. It is concluded that the inorganic geochemistry on bulk cutting samples must be applied with great caution. The data are useful for geochemical characterization of well sections and for regional geochemical correlation. Radioelement abundance logs and radioelement ratio logs are presented from 3 wells in the Danish Subbasin and 2 wells in the North German Basin. The radioelement geochemistry is discussed for the successive lithostratigraphical units and a reference radioelement profile is established for the central part of the Danish Subbasin. Finally, a model describing the relationship between common lithofacies and their U content and Th/U ratio is suggested. The model deliniates the depositional environment and the relative distances to the provenance areas. It is concluded that: (1) Uranium is mobile during deposition, but since then it is fixed by stable mineral phases at depth; (2) Thorium reflects source area characteristics and that any available ions are readily adsorbed by clay minerals. Thorium anomalies may thus serve as lithostratigraphical markers; (3) Potassium occurs in unstable rock forming mineral phases. The present distribution is controlled not only by the clastic mineral assemblage, but also by the diagenetic processes through geologic time

  16. Deep-sea ferromanganese deposits and their resource potentials for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    ) in seamount crusts recovered from the Indian Ocean are important. The hydrogenous crusts are not only important as economically valuable deposits of Co and Pt, but also are potential paleoceanographic repositories. Ferromanganese nodule exploration by India...

  17. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Locke, D.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  18. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Locke, D.A. (Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  19. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D.; Locke, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended

  20. Potential predictors for the amount of intra-operative brain shift during deep brain stimulation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datteri, Ryan; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Konrad, Peter E.; Neimat, Joseph S.; D'Haese, Pierre-François; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2011-03-01

    A number of groups have reported on the occurrence of intra-operative brain shift during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. This has a number of implications for the procedure including an increased chance of intra-cranial bleeding and complications due to the need for more exploratory electrodes to account for the brain shift. It has been reported that the amount of pneumocephalus or air invasion into the cranial cavity due to the opening of the dura correlates with intraoperative brain shift. Therefore, pre-operatively predicting the amount of pneumocephalus expected during surgery is of interest toward accounting for brain shift. In this study, we used 64 DBS patients who received bilateral electrode implantations and had a post-operative CT scan acquired immediately after surgery (CT-PI). For each patient, the volumes of the pneumocephalus, left ventricle, right ventricle, third ventricle, white matter, grey matter, and cerebral spinal fluid were calculated. The pneumocephalus was calculated from the CT-PI utilizing a region growing technique that was initialized with an atlas-based image registration method. A multi-atlas-based image segmentation method was used to segment out the ventricles of each patient. The Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software package was utilized to calculate the volumes of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), white matter and grey matter. The volume of individual structures had a moderate correlation with pneumocephalus. Utilizing a multi-linear regression between the volume of the pneumocephalus and the statistically relevant individual structures a Pearson's coefficient of r = 0.4123 (p = 0.0103) was found. This study shows preliminary results that could be used to develop a method to predict the amount of pneumocephalus ahead of the surgery.

  1. Phase contribution of image potential on empty quantum well States in pb islands on the cu(111) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M C; Lin, C L; Su, W B; Lin, S P; Lu, S M; Lin, H Y; Chang, C S; Hsu, W K; Tsong, Tien T

    2009-05-15

    We use scanning tunneling spectroscopy to explore the quantum well states in the Pb islands grown on a Cu(111) surface. Our observation demonstrates that the empty quantum well states, whose energy levels lie beyond 1.2 eV above the Fermi level, are significantly affected by the image potential. As the quantum number increases, the energy separation between adjacent states is shrinking rather than widening, contrary to the prediction for a square potential well. By simply introducing a phase factor to reckon the effect of the image potential, the shrinking behavior of the energy separation can be reasonably explained with the phase accumulation model. The model also reveals that there exists a quantum regime above the Pb surface in which the image potential is vanished. Moreover, the quasi-image-potential state in the tunneling gap is quenched because of the existence of the quantum well states.

  2. The dependence of potential well formation on the magnetic field strength and electron injection current in a polywell device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, S.; Gummersall, D.; Carr, M.; Khachan, J.

    2014-01-01

    A capacitive probe has been used to measure the plasma potential in a polywell device in order to observe the dependence of potential well formation on magnetic field strength, electron injection current, and polywell voltage bias. The effectiveness of the capacitive probe in a high energy electron plasma was determined by measuring the plasma potential of a planar diode with an axial magnetic field. The capacitive probe was translated along the axis of one of the field coils of the polywell, and the spatial profile of the potential well was measured. The confinement time of electrons in the polywell was estimated with a simple analytical model which used the experimentally observed potential well depths, as well as a simulation of the electron trajectories using particle orbit theory

  3. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [1-]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria) in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic. In order to evaluate seismicity and to assess the impact of seismic effects at depths of hypothetical deep geological repository for the next time period, the neo-deterministic method was selected as an extension of the probabilistic method. Each one out of the seven survey areas were assessed by the neo-deterministic evaluation of the seismic wave-field excited by selected individual events and determining the maximum loading. Results of seismological databases studies and neo-deterministic analysis of Čihadlo locality are presented.

  4. Construction of a system using a deep learning algorithm to count cell numbers in nanoliter wells for viable single-cell experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatani, Takashi; Fukunaga, Koichi; Miyata, Kaede; Shirasaki, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Junji; Baba, Rie; Matsusaka, Masako; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Moro, Kazuyo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Uemura, Sotaro

    2017-12-04

    For single-cell experiments, it is important to accurately count the number of viable cells in a nanoliter well. We used a deep learning-based convolutional neural network (CNN) on a large amount of digital data obtained as microscopic images. The training set consisted of 103 019 samples, each representing a microscopic grayscale image. After extensive training, the CNN was able to classify the samples into four categories, i.e., 0, 1, 2, and more than 2 cells per well, with an accuracy of 98.3% when compared to determination by two trained technicians. By analyzing the samples for which judgments were discordant, we found that the judgment by technicians was relatively correct although cell counting was often difficult by the images of discordant samples. Based on the results, the system was further enhanced by introducing a new algorithm in which the highest outputs from CNN were used, increasing the accuracy to higher than 99%. Our system was able to classify the data even from wells with a different shape. No other tested machine learning algorithm showed a performance higher than that of our system. The presented CNN system is expected to be useful for various single-cell experiments, and for high-throughput and high-content screening.

  5. Pharmacological Potential of Phylogenetically Diverse Actinobacteria Isolated from Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems of the Submarine Avilés Canyon in the Cantabrian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; González, Verónica; Braña, Alfredo F; Palacios, Juan J; Otero, Luis; Fernández, Jonathan; Molina, Axayacatl; Kulik, Andreas; Vázquez, Fernando; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as an unexplored source for natural product discovery. Eighty-seven deep-sea coral reef invertebrates were collected during an oceanographic expedition at the submarine Avilés Canyon (Asturias, Spain) in a range of 1500 to 4700 m depth. From these, 18 cultivable bioactive Actinobacteria were isolated, mainly from corals, phylum Cnidaria, and some specimens of phyla Echinodermata, Porifera, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Sipuncula. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, all isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria, mainly to the Streptomyces genus and also to Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia and Myceligenerans. Production of bioactive compounds of pharmacological interest was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques and subsequent database comparison. Results reveal that deep-sea isolated Actinobacteria display a wide repertoire of secondary metabolite production with a high chemical diversity. Most identified products (both diffusible and volatiles) are known by their contrasted antibiotic or antitumor activities. Bioassays with ethyl acetate extracts from isolates displayed strong antibiotic activities against a panel of important resistant clinical pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi, all of them isolated at two main hospitals (HUCA and Cabueñes) from the same geographical region. The identity of the active extracts components of these producing Actinobacteria is currently being investigated, given its potential for the discovery of pharmaceuticals and other products of biotechnological interest.

  6. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  7. Quantum particle-number fluctuations in a two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, Pawel; Oles, Bartlomiej; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    A two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential with repulsive interactions may undergo a phase separation transition if the interspecies interactions outweigh the intraspecies ones. We analyze the transition in the strong interaction limit within the two-mode approximation. Numbers of particles in each potential well are equal and constant. However, at the transition point, the ground state of the system reveals huge fluctuations of numbers of particles belonging to the different gas components; that is, the probability for observation of any mixture of particles in each potential well becomes uniform.

  8. Relation between Nitrates in Water Wells and Potential Sources in the Lower Yakima Valley, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of a study EPA conducted to investigate the contribution of various sources to the high nitrate levels in groundwater and residential drinking water wells in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State.

  9. Forward and inverse modeling of near-well flow using discrete edge-based vector potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, W.

    2007-01-01

    Homogeneous effective permeabilities in the near-well region are generally obtained using analytical solutions for transient flow. In contrast, this paper focuses on heterogeneous permeability obtained from steady flow solutions, although extensions to unsteady flow are introduced too. Exterior

  10. Multichannel scattering amplitudes of microparticles in a quantum well with two-dimensional -potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrakian, D.M.; Badalyan, D.H.; Sedrakian, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional quantum particle scattering on two-dimensional δ-potential is considered. Analytical expressions for the amplitudes of the multi-channel transmission and reflection are given. The problem for the case when the number of channels is finite and equal N, and the particle falls on the potential moving through the channel l is solved. The case of a three channel scattering is studied in details. It is shown that under conditions k 2 → 0 and k 3 → 0 'overpopulation' of particles on the second and third channels occurs. The points of δ-potential location which provide a full 'overpopulation' of particles is also found

  11. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaláb Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [10]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic.

  12. The Sturmian expansion: A well-depth-method for orbitals in a deformed potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.M.; Vaagen, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Sturmian expansion method has over the years successfully been used to generate orbitals in a deformed potential. In this paper we review the method in detail including more recent extentions. The convergence properties are discussed in terms of examples of current interest for nucleon-transfer reactions. Comparisons with other methods are also made. (orig.)

  13. Localized surface plasmon enhanced deep UV-emitting of AlGaN based multi-quantum wells by Al nanoparticles on SiO2 dielectric interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ju; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jingwen; Wu, Feng; Dai, Jiangnan; Long, Hanling; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Zhang, Jun; Du, Shida; Ye, Lei; Chen, Changqing

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report a 2.6-fold deep ultraviolet emission enhancement of integrated photoluminescence (PL) intensity in AlGaN-based multi-quantum wells (MQWs) by introducing the coupling of local surface plasmons from Al nanoparticles (NPs) on a SiO2 dielectric interlayer with excitons and photons in MQWs at room temperature. In comparison to bare AlGaN MQWs, a significant 2.3-fold enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency, from 16% to 37%, as well as a 13% enhancement of photon extraction efficiency have been observed in the MQWs decorated with Al NPs on SiO2 dielectric interlayer. Polarization-dependent PL measurement showed that both the transverse electric and transverse magnetic mode were stronger than the original intensity in bare AlGaN MQWs, indicating a strong LSPs coupling process and vigorous scattering ability of the Al/SiO2 composite structure. These results were confirmed by the activation energy of non-radiative recombination from temperature-dependent PL measurement and the theoretical three dimensional finite difference time domain calculations.

  14. Deep horizons: Soil Carbon sequestration and storage potential in grassland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sallan, Gemma; Schulte, Rogier; Lanigan, Gary J.; Byrne, Kenneth A.; Reidy, Brian; Creamer, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) enhances soil fertility, holding nutrients in a plant-available form. It also improves aeration and water infiltration. Soils are considered a vital pool for C (Carbon) sequestration, as they are the largest pool of C after the oceans, and contain 3.5 more C than the atmosphere. SOC models and inventories tend to focus on the top 30 cm of soils, only analysing total SOC values. Association of C with microaggregates (53-250 μm) and silt and clay (40 °C. Through a wet sieving procedure, four aggregate sizes were isolated: large macroaggregates (>2000 μm); macroaggregates (250-2000 μm); microaggregates and silt & clay. Organic C associated to each aggregate fraction was analysed on a LECO combustion analyser. Sand-free C was calculated for each aggregate size. For all soil types, 84% of the SOC located in the first 30 cm was contained inside macroaggregates and large macroaggregates. Given that this fraction has a turnover time of 1 to 10 years, sampling at that depth only provides information on the labile fraction in soil, and does not consider the longer term C sequestration potential. Only when looking at the whole profile, two clear trends could be observed: 1) soils with a clay increase at depth had most of their C located in the silt and clay fractions, which indicate their enhanced C sequestration capacity, 2) free-draining soils had a bigger part of their SOC located in the macroaggregate fractions. These results indicate that current C inventories and models that focus on the top 30 cm, do not accurately measure soil C sequestration potential in soils, but rather the more labile fraction. However, at depth soil forming processes have been identified as a major factor influencing C sequestration potential in soils. This has a major impact in further quantifying and sustaining C sequestration into the future. Soils with a high sequestration potential at depth need to be managed to enhance the residence time to contribute to future

  15. Structural orderings of anisotropically confined colloids interacting via a quasi-square-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, L Q Costa; Apolinario, S W S

    2015-01-01

    We implement Brownian dynamics to investigate the static properties of colloidal particles confined anisotropically and interacting via a potential which can be tailored in a repulsive-attractive-respulsive fashion as the interparticle distance increases. A diverse number of structural phases are self-assembled, which were classified according to two aspects, that is, their macroscopic and microscopic patterns. Concerning the microscopic phases we found the quasicrystalline, triangular, square, and mixed orderings, where this latter is a combination of square and triangular cells in a 3×2 proportion, i.e., the so-called (3(3),4(2)) Archimedian lattice. On the macroscopic level the system could self-organize in a compact or perforated single cluster surrounded or not by fringes. All the structural phases are summarized in detailed phases diagrams, which clearly show that the different phases are extended as the confinement potential becomes more anisotropic.

  16. Gamma-ray analysis for U, TH and K on bulk cutting samples from deep wells in the Danish subbasin and the North German basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leth Nielsen, B.; Loevborg, L.; Soerensen, P.; Mose, E.

    1987-04-01

    A total of 1329 bulk cutting samples from deep wells in Denmark were analysed for U, Th and K by laboratory gamma-ray analysis. Contamination of the samples by drilling mud additives, mud solids and fall down was studied by means of a wash down experiment and by comparison with the total gamma-ray response from wire-line logging. It is concluded that the inorganic geochemistry on bulk cutting samples must be applied with great caution. The data are useful for geochemical characterization of well sections and for regional geochemical correlation. Radioelement abundance logs and radioelement ratio logs are presented from 3 wells in the Danish Subbasin and 2 wells in the North German Basin. The radioelement geochemistry is discussed for the successive lithostratigraphical units and a reference radio element profile is established for the central part of the Danish Subbasin. Finally, a model describing the relationship between common lithofacies and their U content and Th/U ratio is suggested. The model deliniates the depositional environment and the relative distances to the provenance areas. It is concluded that 1) Uranium is mobile during deposition, but since then it is fixed by stable mineral phases at depth. 2) Thorium reflects source area characteristics and that any available ions are readily adsorped by clay minerals. Thorium anomalies may thus serve as lithostratigraphical markers. 3) Potassium occurs in unstable rock forming mineral phases. The present distribution is controlled not only by the clastic mineral assemblage, but also by the diagenetic processes through geologic time. 33 refs. (author)

  17. The Noise from Wind Turbines: Potential Adverse Impacts on Children's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2011-01-01

    Research linking loud sounds to hearing loss in youngsters is now widespread, resulting in the issuance of warnings to protect children's hearing. However, studies attesting to the adverse effects of intrusive sounds and noise on children's overall mental and physical health and well-being have not received similar attention. This, despite the…

  18. 30 CFR 203.40 - Which leases are eligible for royalty relief as a result of drilling a deep well or a phase 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... longitude in water depths entirely less than 400 meters deep. (b) The lease has not produced gas or oil from... than 200 meters and entirely less than 400 meters deep. (c) In the case of a lease located partly or... less than 400 meters of water, it must either: (1) Have been issued before November 28, 1995, and not...

  19. Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis of unknown malignant potential: Sonographic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, K W S; Tse, K S; Shek, K W; Hau, M N; Ting, S H

    2017-10-09

    Paratesticular mesothelioma is a rare differential diagnosis in the presence of scrotal hydrocele. A 17-year-old boy presented with a 3-year history of progressive hydrocele. Sonography revealed a large left paratesticular mass within the hydrocele. Serum tumor markers were negative. Left hydrocelectomy was performed and pathological analysis of the epididymal mass revealed a well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma. We discuss the sonographic and pathological findings of this rare neoplasm. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Assessing potential risks from exposure to natural uranium in well water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson-Hayes, A.C.; Fresquez, P.R.; Whicker, F.W.

    2002-01-01

    Over 50% of the wells in the Nambe region of northern New Mexico exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency's recommended drinking water standard of 20 μg l -1 for 238 U; the highest in the area was measured at 1200 μg U l -1 . Uranium uptake was estimated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), lettuce (Lactuca scarriola), and radish (Raphanus sativus) irrigated with Nambe well water containing -1 . Plant uptake and human dose and toxicity associated with ingestion of water and produce and inhalation of irrigated soil related to gardening activities were evaluated. Uranium concentration in plants increased linearly with increasing U concentration in irrigation water, particularly in lettuce and radish. The estimated total committed effective dose for 70 years of maximum continuous exposure, via the three pathways to well water containing 1200 μg U l -1 , was 0.17 mSv with a corresponding kidney concentration of 0.8 μg U g -1 kidney

  1. Assessing potential risks from exposure to natural uranium in well water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakonson-Hayes, A.C.; Fresquez, P.R. E-mail: fresquezp@lanl.gov; Whicker, F.W

    2002-07-01

    Over 50% of the wells in the Nambe region of northern New Mexico exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency's recommended drinking water standard of 20 {mu}g l{sup -1} for {sup 238}U; the highest in the area was measured at 1200 {mu}g U l{sup -1}. Uranium uptake was estimated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), lettuce (Lactuca scarriola), and radish (Raphanus sativus) irrigated with Nambe well water containing <1, 150, 500, and 1200 {mu}g U l{sup -1}. Plant uptake and human dose and toxicity associated with ingestion of water and produce and inhalation of irrigated soil related to gardening activities were evaluated. Uranium concentration in plants increased linearly with increasing U concentration in irrigation water, particularly in lettuce and radish. The estimated total committed effective dose for 70 years of maximum continuous exposure, via the three pathways to well water containing 1200 {mu}g U l{sup -1}, was 0.17 mSv with a corresponding kidney concentration of 0.8 {mu}g U g{sup -1} kidney.

  2. Barents Sea Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure from Deep Seismic and Potential Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, I.; Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Minakov, A.; Huismans, R. S.; Faleide, J. I.

    2016-12-01

    The Barents Sea basement comprises at least two different domains; the Caledonian in the west and the Timanian in the east. Contrasting interpretations have been published recently, as the transition between these two domains is not well constrained. Interpretations of new high-quality magnetic data covering most of the SW Barents Sea challenged previous studies of the Late Paleozoic basin configurations in the western and central Barents Sea. Two major directions of Caledonian structures have been proposed by different authors: N-S and SW-NE. Two regional ocean bottom seismic (OBS) profiles, crossing these two major directions, were acquired in 2014.The primary goal in this project is to locate the main Caledonian suture in the western Barents Sea, as well as the possible Barentsia-Baltica suture postulated further eastwards. High velocity anomalies associated with Caledonian eclogites are particularly interesting as they may be related to Caledonian suture zones. The collapse of the Caledonian mountain range predominantly along these suture zones is expected to be closely linked to the deposition of Devonian erosional products, and subsequent rifting is likely to be influenced by inheritance of Caledonian trends. P-wave travel-time modelling is done by use of a combined ray-tracing and inversion scheme, and gravity modelling has been used to support the seismic model. The results indicate high P-wave velocities (mostly over 4 km/s) close to the seafloor as well as high velocity (around 6 km/s) zones at shallow depths which are interpreted as volcanic sills. The crustal transect reveals areas of complex geology and velocity inversions. Strong reflections from within the crystalline crust indicate a heterogeneous basement terrain. Gravity modelling agrees with this, as several blocks with variable densities had to be introduced in order to reproduce the observed gravity anomalies. Refractions from the top of the crystalline basement together with reflections from

  3. Barents Sea Paleozoic basement and basin configurations: Crustal structure from deep seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Iselin; Mjelde, Rolf; Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Huismans, Ritske; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2016-04-01

    The Barents Sea is underlain by at least two different basement domains; the Caledonian in the west and the Timanian in the east. The transition between these two domains is not well constrained and contrasting interpretations have been published recently. Interpretations of new high-quality magnetic data covering most of the SW Barents Sea has challenged the Late Paleozoic basin configurations in the western and central Barents Sea as outlined in previous studies. Two regional ocean bottom seismic (OBS) profiles were acquired in 2014. This new dataset crosses the two major directions of Caledonian deformation proposed by different authors: N-S direction and SW-NE direction. Of particular importance are the high velocity anomalies related to Caledonian eclogites, revealing the location of Caledonian suture zones in the northern Barents Sea. One of the main objectives with this project is to locate the main Caledonian suture in the western Barents Sea, as well as the possible Barentsia-Baltica suture postulated further eastwards. The collapse of the Caledonian mountain range predominantly along these suture zones is expected to be tightly linked to the deposition of large thicknesses of Devonian erosional products, and later rifting is expected to be influenced by inheritance of Caledonian trends. The P-wave travel-time modelling is done by use of a combined ray-tracing and inversion scheme, and gravity- and magnetic modelling will be used to augment the seismic model. The preliminary results indicate high P-wave velocities (mostly over 4 km/s) close to the seafloor as well as high velocity (around 6 km/s) zones at shallow depths which are interpreted as volcanic sills. The crustal transects reveal areas of complex geology and velocity inversions. A low seismic impedance contrast between the sedimentary section and top crystalline basement makes identification of this interface uncertain. Depth to Moho mostly lies around 30 km, except in an area of rapid change in

  4. Spin symmetry in the relativistic symmetrical well potential including a proper approximation to the spin-orbit coupling term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai

    2010-01-01

    In the case of exact spin symmetry, we approximately solve the Dirac equation with scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials by using a proper approximation to the spin-orbit coupling term, and obtain the corresponding energy equation and spinor wave functions for the bound states. We find that there exist only positive-energy bound states in the case of spin symmetry. Also, the energy eigenvalue approaches a constant when the potential parameter α goes to zero. The special case for equally scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials is studied briefly.

  5. Deep comparative genomics among Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum isolates highlights genes potentially involved in pathoadaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Vítor; Gomes, João Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a human sexually transmitted disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (serovars L1-L3). LGV clinical manifestations range from severe ulcerative proctitis (anorectal syndrome), primarily caused by the epidemic L2b strains, to painful inguinal lymphadenopathy (the typical LGV bubonic form). Besides potential host-related factors, the differential disease severity and tissue tropism among LGV strains is likely a function of the genetic backbone of the strains. We aimed to characterize the genetic variability among LGV strains as strain- or serovar-specific mutations may underlie phenotypic signatures, and to investigate the mutational events that occurred throughout the pathoadaptation of the epidemic L2b lineage. By analyzing 20 previously published genomes from L1, L2, L2b and L3 strains and two new genomes from L2b strains, we detected 1497 variant sites and about 100 indels, affecting 453 genes and 144 intergenic regions, with 34 genes displaying a clear overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations. Effectors and/or type III secretion substrates (almost all of those described in the literature) and inclusion membrane proteins showed amino acid changes that were about fivefold more frequent than silent changes. More than 120 variant sites occurred in plasmid-regulated virulence genes, and 66% yielded amino acid changes. The identified serovar-specific variant sites revealed that the L2b-specific mutations are likely associated with higher fitness and pointed out potential targets for future highly discriminatory diagnostic/typing tests. By evaluating the evolutionary pathway beyond the L2b clonal radiation, we observed that 90.2% of the intra-L2b variant sites occurring in coding regions involve nonsynonymous mutations, where CT456/tarp has been the main target. Considering the progress on C. trachomatis genetic manipulation, this study may constitute an important contribution for prioritizing

  6. [Two-dimensional model of a double-well potential: proton transfer when a hydrogen bond is deformed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, P M

    2014-01-01

    The potential energy cross-section profile along a hydrogen bond may contain two minima in certain conditions; it is so-called a double well potential. The H-bond double well potential is essential for proton transfer along this hydrogen bond. We have considered the two-dimensional model of such double well potential in harmonic approximation, and we have also investigated the proton tunneling in it. In real environments thermal motion of atoms or conformational changes may cause reorientation and relative shift of molecule fragment forming the hydrogen bond and, as a result, the hydrogen bond isdeformed. This deformation is liable to change the double well potential form and, hence, the probability of the proton tunneling is changed too. As it is shown the characteristic time of proton tunneling is essentially increased by even small relative shift of heavy atoms forming the H-bond and also rotational displacement of covalent bond generated by one of heavy atoms and the proton (hydrogen atom). However, it is also shown, at the certain geometry of the H-bond deformation the opposite effect occurred, i.e., the characteristic time is not increased and even decreased. Notice that such its behavior arises from two-dimensionality of potential wells; this and other properties of our model are discussed in detail.

  7. Price dynamics of the financial markets using the stochastic differential equation for a potential double well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L. S.; Miranda, L. L. B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used the Itô's stochastic differential equation for the double well with additive white noise as a mathematical model for price dynamics of the financial market. We have presented a model which allows us to test within the same framework the comparative explanatory power of rational agents versus irrational agents, with respect to the facts of financial markets. We have obtained the mean price in terms of the β parameter that represents the force of the randomness term of the model.

  8. Distribution and spectrum of fluctuations of a Brownian particle in a potential well with reflecting walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soskin, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examine Brownian motion in a square well with reflecting walls. An exact solution is obtained for the corresponding Einstein-Fokker-Planck equation, which is used to find the coordinate correlation function in explicit form. The correlation function, normalized to the square of the distance between the walls, typically exhibits a similarity property: its behavior as a function of time, friction, temperature, and wall separation reduces to a function of one simple combination of those four quantities. The limiting cases of low and high friction are investigated in detail, with explicit expressions being derived for the spectrum

  9. Applying species-tree analyses to deep phylogenetic histories: challenges and potential suggested from a survey of empirical phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Hayley C; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-02-01

    Coalescent-based methods for species-tree estimation are becoming a dominant approach for reconstructing species histories from multi-locus data, with most of the studies examining these methodologies focused on recently diverged species. However, deeper phylogenies, such as the datasets that comprise many Tree of Life (ToL) studies, also exhibit gene-tree discordance. This discord may also arise from the stochastic sorting of gene lineages during the speciation process (i.e., reflecting the random coalescence of gene lineages in ancestral populations). It remains unknown whether guidelines regarding methodologies and numbers of loci established by simulation studies at shallow tree depths translate into accurate species relationships for deeper phylogenetic histories. We address this knowledge gap and specifically identify the challenges and limitations of species-tree methods that account for coalescent variance for deeper phylogenies. Using simulated data with characteristics informed by empirical studies, we evaluate both the accuracy of estimated species trees and the characteristics associated with recalcitrant nodes, with a specific focus on whether coalescent variance is generally responsible for the lack of resolution. By determining the proportion of coalescent genealogies that support a particular node, we demonstrate that (1) species-tree methods account for coalescent variance at deep nodes and (2) mutational variance - not gene-tree discord arising from the coalescent - posed the primary challenge for accurate reconstruction across the tree. For example, many nodes were accurately resolved despite predicted discord from the random coalescence of gene lineages and nodes with poor support were distributed across a range of depths (i.e., they were not restricted to a particular recent divergences). Given their broad taxonomic scope and large sampling of taxa, deep level phylogenies pose several potential methodological complications including

  10. Are Well-Informed Potential Trial Participants More Likely to Participate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lucas Lentini Herling; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo Nickenig; Machado, Wagner de Lara; Rodrigues, Clarissa G; Limkakeng, Alexander T

    2017-12-01

    Bearing in mind the importance of the informed consent, flaws in this process may be a barrier to participants' recruitment. Our objective was to determine the relationship between the degree of comprehension of the informed consent document plus the importance given to individual elements by potential participants of a hypothetical trial and their willingness to participate in such trials. We performed an Online Survey simulating an emergency department trial recruitment, posteriorly evaluating participants' ratings of importance and self-assessed comprehension of specific topics of the informed consent document. Only 10% of the sample read the entire document. Some specific topics were associated with willingness to participate in the hypothetical trial, but simple composite additive scores of comprehension and importance were not. We concluded that participants in general do not read the entire informed consent document and that importance given to specific topics may influence willingness to participate.

  11. Tailoring of motional states in double-well potentials by time-dependent processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerkoenen, Kari; Kaerki, Ollijuhani; Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2006-01-01

    We show that the vibrational state tailoring method developed for molecular systems can be applied for cold atoms in optical lattices. The original method is based on a three-level model interacting with two strong laser pulses in a counterintuitive sequence [M. Rodriguez et al., Phys. Rev. A 62, 053413 (2000)]. Here we outline the conditions for achieving similar dynamics with single time-dependent potential surfaces. It is shown that guided switching between diabatic and adiabatic evolution has an essential role in this system. We also show that efficient and precise tailoring of motional states in optical lattices can be achieved, for instance, simply by superimposing two lattices and moving them with respect to each other

  12. Open circuit potential monitored digital photocorrosion of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, Srivatsa; Dubowski, Jan J.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructuring of semiconductor wafers with an atomic level depth resolution is a challenging task, primarily due to the limited availability of instruments for in situ monitoring of such processes. Conventional digital etching relies on calibration procedures and cumbersome diagnostics applied between or at the end of etching cycles. We have developed a photoluminescence (PL) based process for monitoring in situ digital photocorrosion (DPC) of GaAs/AlGaAs microstructures at rates below 0.2 nm per cycle. In this communication, we demonstrate that DPC of GaAs/AlGaAs microstructures could be monitored with open circuit potential (OCP) measured between the photocorroding surface of a microstructure and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode installed in the sample chamber. The excellent correlation between the position of both PL and OCP maxima indicates that the DPC process could be monitored in situ for materials that do not necessarily exhibit measurable PL emission.

  13. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer, E-mail: odahan@bgu.ac.il; Ronen, Zeev, E-mail: zeevrone@bgu.ac.il

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  14. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10"5 to 10"7 copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  15. Diversity, biogeography and biodegradation potential of actinobacteria in the deep-sea sediments along the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Actinobacteria has been reported to be common or even abundant in deep marine sediments, however, knowledge about the diversity, distribution, and function of actinobacteria is limited. In this study, actinobacterial diversity in the deep sea along the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR was investigated using both 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and culture-based methods. The samples were collected at depths of 1662–4000 m below water surface. Actinobacterial sequences represented 1.2–9.1% of all microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences in each sample. A total of 5 actinobacterial classes, 17 orders, 28 families and 52 genera were detected by pyrosequencing, dominated by the classes Acidimicrobiia and Actinobacteria. Differences in actinobacterial community compositions were found among the samples. The community structure showed significant correlations to geochemical factors, notably pH, calcium, total organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen, rather than to spatial distance at the scale of the investigation. In addition, 176 strains of the Actinobacteria class, belonging to 9 known orders, 18 families, and 29 genera, were isolated. Among these cultivated taxa, 8 orders, 13 families, and 15 genera were also recovered by pyrosequencing. At a 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the pyrosequencing data encompassed 77.3% of the isolates but the isolates represented only 10.3% of the actinobacterial reads. Phylogenetic analysis of all the representative actinobacterial sequences and isolates indicated that at least four new orders within the phylum Actinobacteria were detected by pyrosequencing. More than half of the isolates spanning 23 genera and all samples demonstrated activity in the degradation of refractory organics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polysaccharides, suggesting their potential ecological functions and biotechnological applications for carbon recycling.

  16. Diversity, Biogeography, and Biodegradation Potential of Actinobacteria in the Deep-Sea Sediments along the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Limin; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Dai, Xin; Liu, Li; Xi, Lijun; Wang, Jian; Song, Lei; Wang, Yuezhu; Zhu, Yaxin; Huang, Li; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria has been reported to be common or even abundant in deep marine sediments, however, knowledge about the diversity, distribution, and function of actinobacteria is limited. In this study, actinobacterial diversity in the deep sea along the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) was investigated using both 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and culture-based methods. The samples were collected at depths of 1662–4000 m below water surface. Actinobacterial sequences represented 1.2–9.1% of all microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences in each sample. A total of 5 actinobacterial classes, 17 orders, 28 families, and 52 genera were detected by pyrosequencing, dominated by the classes Acidimicrobiia and Actinobacteria. Differences in actinobacterial community compositions were found among the samples. The community structure showed significant correlations to geochemical factors, notably pH, calcium, total organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen, rather than to spatial distance at the scale of the investigation. In addition, 176 strains of the Actinobacteria class, belonging to 9 known orders, 18 families, and 29 genera, were isolated. Among these cultivated taxa, 8 orders, 13 families, and 15 genera were also recovered by pyrosequencing. At a 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the pyrosequencing data encompassed 77.3% of the isolates but the isolates represented only 10.3% of the actinobacterial reads. Phylogenetic analysis of all the representative actinobacterial sequences and isolates indicated that at least four new orders within the phylum Actinobacteria were detected by pyrosequencing. More than half of the isolates spanning 23 genera and all samples demonstrated activity in the degradation of refractory organics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polysaccharides, suggesting their potential ecological functions and biotechnological applications for carbon recycling. PMID:27621725

  17. Control Mechanism of Rock Burst in the Floor of Roadway Driven along Next Goaf in Thick Coal Seam with Large Obliquity Angle in Deep Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the theoretical aspects combined with stress analysis over the floor strata of coal seam and the calculation model for the stress on the coal floor. Basically, this research presents the relevant results obtained for the rock burst prevention in the floor of roadway driven along next goaf in the exploitation of thick coal seam with large obliquity in deep well and rock burst tendency. The control mechanism of rock burst in the roadway driven along next goaf is revealed in the present work. That is, the danger of rock burst can be removed by changing the stress environment for the energy accumulation of the floor and by reducing the impact on the roadway floor from the strong dynamic pressure. This result can be profitable being used at the design stage of appropriate position of roadway undergoing rock burst tendency in similar conditions. Based on the analysis regarding the control mechanism, this paper presents a novel approach to the prevention of rock burst in roadway floor under the above conditions. That is, the return airway is placed within the goaf of the upper working face that can prevent the rock burst effectively. And in this way, mining without coal pillar in the thick coal seam with large obliquity and large burial depth (over a thousand meters is realized. Practice also proves that the rock burst in the floor of roadway driven along next goaf is controlled and solved.

  18. Potential Applications of Modularity to Enable a Deep Space Habitation Capability for Future Human Exploration Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry; Smitherman, David

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating preliminary concepts of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) enabling long duration crewed exploration of asteroids, the Moon, and Mars is a technically challenging problem. Sufficient habitat volumes and equipment, necessary to ensure crew health and functionality, increase propellant requirements and decrease launch flexibility to deliver multiple elements on a single launch vehicle; both of which increase overall mission cost. Applying modularity in the design of the habitat structures and subsystems can alleviate these difficulties by spreading the build-up of the overall habitation capability across several smaller parts. This allows for a more flexible habitation approach that accommodates various crew mission durations and levels of functionality. This paper provides a technical analysis of how various modular habitation approaches can impact the parametric design of a DSH with potential benefits in mass, packaging volume, and architectural flexibility. This includes a description of the desired long duration habitation capability, the definition of a baseline model for comparison, a small trade study to investigate alternatives, and commentary on potentially advantageous configurations to enable different levels of habitability. The approaches investigated include modular pressure vessel strategies, modular subsystems, and modular manufacturing approaches to habitat structure. The paper also comments upon the possibility of an integrated habitation strategy using modular components to create all short and long duration habitation elements required in the current exploration architectures.

  19. Limit behavior of mass critical Hartree minimization problems with steep potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujin; Luo, Yong; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-06-01

    We consider minimizers of the following mass critical Hartree minimization problem: eλ(N ) ≔inf {u ∈H1(Rd ) , ‖u‖2 2=N } Eλ(u ) , where d ≥ 3, λ > 0, and the Hartree energy functional Eλ(u) is defined by Eλ(u ) ≔∫Rd|∇u (x ) |2d x +λ ∫Rdg (x ) u2(x ) d x -1/2 ∫Rd∫Rdu/2(x ) u2(y ) |x -y |2 d x d y . Here the steep potential g(x) satisfies 0 =g (0 ) =infRdg (x ) ≤g (x ) ≤1 and 1 -g (x ) ∈Ld/2(Rd ) . We prove that there exists a constant N* > 0, independent of λg(x), such that if N ≥ N*, then eλ(N) does not admit minimizers for any λ > 0; if 0 N N*, then there exists a constant λ*(N) > 0 such that eλ(N) admits minimizers for any λ > λ*(N) and eλ(N) does not admit minimizers for 0 N). For any given 0 N N*, the limit behavior of positive minimizers for eλ(N) is also studied as λ → ∞, where the mass concentrates at the bottom of g(x).

  20. Cancer surgeons' distress and well-being, II: modifiable factors and the potential for organizational interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Rebecca S; Baser, Ray; Li, Yuelin; Scardino, Peter T; Brown, Arthur E; Kissane, David W

    2011-05-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the prevalence of burnout among surgical oncologists at a comprehensive cancer center was 42% and psychiatric morbidity 27%, and high quality of life (QOL) was absent for 54% of surgeons. Here we examine modifiable workplace factors and other stressors associated with burnout, psychiatric morbidity, and low QOL, together with interest in interventions to reduce distress and improve wellness. Study-specific questions important for morale, QOL, and stressors associated with burnout were included in an anonymous Internet-based survey distributed to the surgical faculty at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Among the 72 surgeons who responded (response rate of 73%), surgeons identified high stress from medical lawsuits, pressure to succeed in research, financial worries, negative attitudes to gender, and ability to cope with patients' suffering and death. Workplace features requiring greatest change were the reimbursement system, administrative support, and schedule. Work-life balance and relationship issues with spouse or partner caused high stress. Strongest correlations with distress were a desire to change communication with patients and the tension between the time devoted to work versus time available to be with family. Surgeons' preferences for interventions favored a fitness program, nutrition consultation, and increased socialization with colleagues, with less interest in interventions conventionally used to address psychological distress. Several opportunities to intervene at the organizational level permit efforts to reduce burnout and improve QOL.

  1. Creative potential: mental well-being impact assessment of the Liverpool 2008 European capital of culture programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, H M; Scott-Samuel, A

    2010-04-01

    Culture has a number of potential impacts upon health and well-being. This project was undertaken to assess the potential impacts of the Liverpool 2008 European Capital of Culture programme upon mental well-being, so that positive effects can be maximized and negative impacts reduced, in order that health and well-being are promoted and inequalities are reduced. A mental well-being impact assessment (MWIA) toolkit has been developed, and was piloted in this study. MWIA uses a sequence of procedures designed to systematically assess the effect of projects, programmes and policies upon people's mental well-being and health. The MWIA toolkit was used to explore the potential positive and negative impacts on mental well-being of a sample of projects and policies from the European Capital of Culture programme. This was achieved by asking stakeholders to answer a series of questions, holding participative workshops, constructing a community profile and reviewing the research literature. Recommendations were developed which aim to enhance the impact of the programme on people's mental well-being. As expected, both positive and negative impacts of the European Capital of Culture programme on mental well-being were identified. Fourteen themes were identified as emerging from the workshops, screening and reviewing the research evidence. Based on these data, 33 recommendations were developed by the project steering group and have been presented to the Liverpool Culture Company. The process of conducting the assessment, particularly its participatory nature and its awareness-raising role, had impacts upon mental well-being. The findings demonstrate the potential for the Culture Company programme to have a profound impact upon mental well-being, and highlight areas which could be addressed to optimize the impact of the programme. 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of 234U and 238U activity concentrations in groundwaters from three deep wells drilled in Itu Intrusive Suite (SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Francisca de

    2006-01-01

    Activity concentrations of ( 234 U) and ( 238 U) were determined in groundwaters drawn from three deep wells drilled in rocks from Itu Intrusive Suite (SP), two located in Salto town (S and SY wells) and the other one in Itu (I well). Sampling was done from September, 2004 to December, 2005, and twelve samples of each well were collected monthly. For those determinations alpha spectrometry technique was used, providing high precision results, as shown by the very good agreement of the data obtained in the analyses of 23 duplicates. The waters from the three wells presented a considerable enrichment of 234 U in relation to 238 U, indicating an important radioactive disequilibrium of these isotopes. In well I, the activity concentrations of ( 238 U) varied from (1,06 +- 0,03) to (2,1+- 0,2) mBq/L and those of ( 234 U) spanned from (3,1 +- 0,2) to (6,0 +- 0,4) mBq/L, whereas ( 234 U/ 238 U) activity ratios did not present significant variation, during the sampling time interval, presenting an average of 2,8 +- 0,1. The S waters showed the lowest uranium concentrations and the largest diversity of ( 238 U) and ( 234 U) activity concentrations, which varied from (0,26 +- 0,02) to (1,07+- 0,08) mBq/L and from (1,8 +- 0,1) to (7,0 +- 0,5) mBq/L, respectively, and also presented variable ( 234 U/ 238 U) activity ratios, spanning from (2,79 +- 0,07) to (8,1+- 0,3). In SY well, ( 238 U) activities varied between (0,8 +- 0,1) and (4,2 +- 0,3) mBq/L and those ones of ( 234 U) from (14 +- 1) to (53 +- 4) mBq/L, whereas ( 234 U/ 238 U) ratios fell in the interval from 12,6 +- 0,3 to 18,3 +- 0,4, with the highest activities of both radioisotopes registered during the dry season and the lowest ones in the rainy time period. The ( 234 U/ 238 U) activity ratios, which were invariable during sampling period of well I, indicated the contribution of rainfall to recharge the aquifer. The observed correlation between those ratios and uranium concentrations, for S and SY wells, showed

  3. On-call work and physicians' well-being: testing the potential mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, T; Puttonen, S; Elovainio, M

    2014-07-01

    On-call duties have been rated to be among the most stressful aspects of physicians' work. On-call work has been associated, for example, with medical errors, injuries and lower well-being. Thus, because it is not possible to remove on-call duties, measures to decrease the negative ramifications of on-call work are needed. To examine whether working on-call would predict psychological distress, job satisfaction and work ability in a 4-year follow-up and whether sleeping problems or work interference with family (WIF) would act as mechanisms in these associations. Questionnaires in 2006 and 2010 among physicians in Finland. The mediation analyses were conducted using methods suggested by Preacher and Hayes to examine direct and indirect effects with multiple mediators. There were 1541 respondents (60% women) of whom 52% had on-call duties. Sleeping problems and WIF acted as mechanisms in the association of existence of on-call duties with high distress, low job satisfaction and low work ability. On-call work was associated with higher levels of sleeping problems and WIF, and the number of active on-call hours was associated with higher levels of WIF, but not with sleeping problems. According to our results, one way to attenuate on-call work's negative ramifications is to make it easier for on-call physicians to connect work and family lives and develop work arrangements to promote better sleep and protected sleep time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, A.; Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B., E-mail: l.ma@ifw-dresden.de; Jorgensen, M. R. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Miao, S. D. [Anhui Key Lab of Controllable Chemical Reaction and Material Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Tunxi Road. 193, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2016-04-25

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  5. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Schmidt, O. G.; Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B.; Jorgensen, M. R.; Miao, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  6. Distribution of Quercus agrifolia mycorrhizae deep within weathered bedrock: a potential mechanism for transport of stored water

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Bornyasz; R. Graham; M. Allen

    2002-01-01

    In southwestern California, Quercus agrifolia distribution closely matches regions of granitic regolith. High annual evapotranspiration demand and inherent shallow soil conditions lead to a dependence on a deep rooting system and an ability to access water from deep within the regolith. Most of the plant available water in weathered granitic rock is...

  7. A new proof for the convergent iterative solution of the degenerate quantum double-well potential and its generalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new and simpler proof for the convergent iterative solution of the one-dimensional degenerate double-well potential. This new proof depends on a general theorem, called the hierarchy theorem, that shows the successive stages in the iteration to form a monotonically increasing sequence of approximations to the energy and to the wavefunction at any point x. This important property makes possible a much simpler proof of convergence than the one given before in the literature. The hierarchy theorem proven in this paper is applicable to a much wider class of potentials which includes the quartic potential

  8. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  9. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than -200mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150mg/L at the inlet to ∼300mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10 5 to 10 7 copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient Procedure to Compute the Microcanonical Volume of Initial Conditions that Lead to Escape Trajectories from a Multidimensional Potential Well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens, Holger; Burbanks, Andrew; Wiggins, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A procedure is presented for computing the phase space volume of initial conditions for trajectories that escape or ‘‘react’’ from a multidimensional potential well. The procedure combines a phase space transition state theory, which allows one to construct dividing surfaces that are free of local

  11. Do non-gaussian effects decrease tunneling probabilities? Three-loop instanton density for the double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejnik, S.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the leading and next-to-leading non-gaussian effects have a minor inlfuence on the instanton density for the double-well potential: it is slightly increased, contrary to the claims of other authors. We point out a connection to recent quantitative studies of topological effects in gauge theories. (orig.)

  12. Enhanced conflict monitoring via a short-duration, video-assisted deep breathing in healthy young adults: an event-related potential approach through the Go/NoGo paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Suen Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Practitioners of mindfulness are reported to have greater cognitive control especially in conflict monitoring, response inhibition and sustained attention. However, due to the various existing methods in each mindfulness practices and also, the high commitment factor, a barrier still exists for an individual to pick up the practices. Therefore, the effect of short duration deep breathing on the cognitive control is investigated here. Methods Short duration guided deep breathing videos consisting of 5, 7 and 9 min respectively were created and used on subjects training. The effect on cognitive control was assessed using a Go/NoGo task along with event-related potential (ERP measurements at Fz, Cz, and Pz. Results From the study, the significant outcome showed at the follow-up session in which participants engaged for 5 min deep breathing group showed a profound NoGo N2 amplitude increment as compared to the control group, indicating an enhanced conflict monitoring ability. An inverse relationship between the NoGo N2 amplitude and the breathing duration is observed as well at the follow-up session. Conclusion These results indicated the possibility of performing short duration deep breathing guided by a video to achieve an enhanced conflict monitoring as an alternative to other mindfulness practices and 5 min is found to be the optimum practice duration. Significant This study is the first to establish a relationship between deep breathing and conflict monitoring through ERP. The study population of young adults taken from the same environment reduces the variance in ERP results due to age and environment. Limitation A larger sample size would provide a greater statistical power. A longer duration of deep breathing should be investigated to further clarify the relationship between the practice duration and the NoGo N2 amplitude. The result can be split by gender and analyzed separately due to the different brain structure of males

  13. Quantum Effects for a Proton in a Low-Barrier, Double-Well Potential: Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of Acetylacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyer, Vitaliy; Prince, Kevin C; Coreno, Marcello; Melandri, Sonia; Maris, Assimo; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Giuliano, Barbara M; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Carravetta, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    We have performed core level photoemission spectroscopy of gaseous acetylacetone, its fully deuterated form, and two derivatives, benzoylacetone and dibenzoylmethane. These molecules show intramolecular hydrogen bonds, with a proton located in a double-well potential, whose barrier height is different for the three compounds. This has allowed us to examine the effect of the double-well potential on photoemission spectra. Two distinct O 1s core hole peaks are observed, previously assigned to two chemical states of oxygen. We provide an alternative assignment of the double-peak structure of O 1s spectra by taking full account of the extended nature of the wave function associated with the nuclear motion of the proton, the shape of the ground and final state potentials in which the proton is located, and the nonzero temperature of the samples. The peaks are explained in terms of an unusual Franck-Condon factor distribution.

  14. Isomeric States in the Second and Third Well of the Potential and Long-Lived Superheavy Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, A.; Gelberg, S.; Kolb, D.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, in a study of the 16 O + 197 Au and 28 Si + 181 Ta reactions near and below the Coulomb barrier, long-lived high spin isomeric states have been found by us in the second and third well of the potential-energy surfaces. Such isomeric states have very unusual physical properties. In addition to their very long lifetimes, much longer than of their corresponding ground states, they have very unusual decay properties. They may decay by 5 to 7 orders of magnitude enhanced alpha particles, in transitions from the second or third well of the potential in the parent nuclei to the respective well in the daughters, or by very retarded alpha particles, in transitions from the second well in the parent nucleus to normal states in the daughter, or from the third well in the parent to the second well in the daughter. They also may decay by long-lived proton activities, in transitions from the second well in the parent nucleus to the normal states in the daughter. Experimental evidences for all these new phenomena will be presented in the conference. The existence of long-lived isomeric states in the second and third well of the potential is very important when the production of superheavy elements is considered. Because of the very much reduced extra-push energy needed for their production, they may be produced much easier than the normal states, in reactions between very heavy nuclei. In particular, the discovery of the long-lived superheavy element with Z = 112 can consistently be understood

  15. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. - Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccalino, Patricia L., E-mail: ptocca@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 6000 J Street, Placer Hall, Sacramento, California 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [USGS, 2130 SW 5th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Scott, Jonathon C., E-mail: jon@usgs.gov [USGS, 202 NW 66th Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73116 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public

  16. Storage of nuclear waste in very deep boreholes: Feasibility study and assessment of economic potential. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.; Sandstedt, H.

    1989-12-01

    Part I concentrates on quality assurance-related questions such as geological prerequisities at great depth. Part II concentrates on the engineering aspects of the very deep borehole concept (VDH). (orig.)

  17. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S.--occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L; Norman, Julia E; Scott, Jonathon C

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of rotational diffusion in an orientational potential well on the point spread function of electric dipole emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallinga, Sjoerd

    2015-02-01

    A study is presented of the point spread function (PSF) of electric dipole emitters that go through a series of absorption-emission cycles while the dipole orientation is changing due to rotational diffusion within the constraint of an orientational potential well. An analytical expression for the PSF is derived valid for arbitrary orientational potential wells in the limit of image acquisition times much larger than the rotational relaxation time. This framework is used to study the effects of the direction of incidence, polarization, and degree of coherence of the illumination. In the limit of fast rotational diffusion on the scale of the fluorescence lifetime the illumination influences only the PSF height, not its shape. In the limit of slow rotational diffusion on the scale of the fluorescence lifetime there is a significant effect on the PSF shape as well, provided the illumination is (partially) coherent. For oblique incidence, illumination asymmetries can arise in the PSF that give rise to position offsets in localization based on Gaussian spot fitting. These asymmetries persist in the limit of free diffusion in a zero orientational potential well.

  19. Dynamical properties for an ensemble of classical particles moving in a driven potential well with different time perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da; Caldas, I.L.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider dynamical properties for an ensemble of classical particles confined to an infinite box of potential and containing a time-dependent potential well described by different nonlinear functions. For smooth functions, the phase space contains chaotic trajectories, periodic islands and invariant spanning curves preventing the unlimited particle diffusion along the energy axis. Average properties of the chaotic sea are characterised as a function of the control parameters and exponents describing their behaviour show no dependence on the perturbation functions. Given invariant spanning curves are present in the phase space, a sticky region was observed and show to modify locally the diffusion of the particles

  20. High-efficiency γ-ray flash generation via multiple-laser scattering in ponderomotive potential well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z; Hu, R H; Shou, Y R; Qiao, B; Chen, C E; He, X T; Bulanov, S S; Esirkepov, T Zh; Bulanov, S V; Yan, X Q

    2017-01-01

    γ-ray flash generation in near-critical-density target irradiated by four symmetrical colliding laser pulses is numerically investigated. With peak intensities about 10^{23} W/cm^{2}, the laser pulses boost electron energy through direct laser acceleration, while pushing them inward with the ponderomotive force. After backscattering with counterpropagating laser, the accelerated electron is trapped in the electromagnetic standing waves or the ponderomotive potential well created by the coherent overlapping of the laser pulses, and emits γ-ray photons in a multiple-laser-scattering regime, where electrons act as a medium transferring energy from the laser to γ rays in the ponderomotive potential valley.

  1. The excitation of an independent-particle gas - classical or quantal - by a time-dependent potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Skalski, J.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic numerical investigation of the excitation of a classical or quantal gas of non-interacting particles in a time-dependent potential well is described. The excitation energy was followed in time for one oscillation around the sphere for six types of deformation: spheroidal shapes and Legendre polynomial ripples P 2 , P 3 , P 4 , P 5 , P 6 , with relative rms amplitudes of 0.2. Ten different speeds of deformation and eleven different values of the diffuseness of the potential well were studied, making altogether 660 quantal and 660 classical time-dependent calculations. In the upper range of deformation speeds the quantal results for the non-integrable shapes P 3 -P 6 agree approximately with the wall formula for dissipation, the deviations being largely accounted for by the wave-mechanical suppression factor of Koonin et al. For low deformation speeds the dissipation becomes dominated by one or two avoided level crossings. (orig.)

  2. The Benefits of Goal Adjustment Capacities for Well-Being Among Women With Breast Cancer: Potential Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, Maria G; Scheier, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer can seriously disrupt a person's important life goals. As such, the ability to adjust one's goals may be critical for well-being. The present study investigated the relationships between disengagement/reengagement capacity and well-being among women with breast cancer, as well as several potential mechanisms (intrusive thoughts, life purpose, and physical activity) that could explain these relationships. The sample consisted of 230 women with early-stage (n = 172) or late-stage (n = 58) breast cancer, who were followed prospectively for 8 months. Well-being measures consisted of global mental health, perceived physical health, positive/negative affect, and sleep efficiency. Disengagement capacity did not predict any outcome variable. In contrast, reengagement capacity prospectively predicted changes in global mental health, positive affect, negative affect, sleep efficiency, life purpose, and physical activity. Life purpose mediated the prospective relationship between reengagement capacity and multiple aspects of well-being. The relationships between purpose and positive/negative affect were reciprocal over time. Results also suggested that physical activity is not a mediator, but is in fact a result of the effect of reengagement capacity on well-being. The results demonstrate that reengagement capacity is important for well-being among women with breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The infinite well and Dirac delta function potentials as pedagogical, mathematical and physical models in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, M., E-mail: mabelloni@davidson.edu [Physics Department, Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Robinett, R.W., E-mail: rick@phys.psu.edu [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The infinite square well and the attractive Dirac delta function potentials are arguably two of the most widely used models of one-dimensional bound-state systems in quantum mechanics. These models frequently appear in the research literature and are staples in the teaching of quantum theory on all levels. We review the history, mathematical properties, and visualization of these models, their many variations, and their applications to physical systems.

  4. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilization of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. These processes are considered separately in detail, reviewing first the mechanisms involved and the most important unknown then the types of natural analogue which could most usefully provide supporting evidence for the effects of the process. Conclusions are drawn, for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A summary is provided of the conclusions for each process, and the most important topics for further studies are listed. Specific examples of these requisite analogues are given. The report emphasises throughout the importance of linking analogues to well defined processes, concluding that analogues of complete disposal systems do not exist. The results are seen to be widely applicable. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Author)

  5. A comparative assessment of GIS-based data mining models and a novel ensemble model in groundwater well potential mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Moghaddam, Davood Davoodi; Kalantar, Bahareh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kisi, Ozgur

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, application of ensemble models has been increased tremendously in various types of natural hazard assessment such as landslides and floods. However, application of this kind of robust models in groundwater potential mapping is relatively new. This study applied four data mining algorithms including AdaBoost, Bagging, generalized additive model (GAM), and Naive Bayes (NB) models to map groundwater potential. Then, a novel frequency ratio data mining ensemble model (FREM) was introduced and evaluated. For this purpose, eleven groundwater conditioning factors (GCFs), including altitude, slope aspect, slope angle, plan curvature, stream power index (SPI), river density, distance from rivers, topographic wetness index (TWI), land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and lithology were mapped. About 281 well locations with high potential were selected. Wells were randomly partitioned into two classes for training the models (70% or 197) and validating them (30% or 84). AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB algorithms were employed to get groundwater potential maps (GPMs). The GPMs were categorized into potential classes using natural break method of classification scheme. In the next stage, frequency ratio (FR) value was calculated for the output of the four aforementioned models and were summed, and finally a GPM was produced using FREM. For validating the models, area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was calculated. The ROC curve for prediction dataset was 94.8, 93.5, 92.6, 92.0, and 84.4% for FREM, Bagging, AdaBoost, GAM, and NB models, respectively. The results indicated that FREM had the best performance among all the models. The better performance of the FREM model could be related to reduction of over fitting and possible errors. Other models such as AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB also produced acceptable performance in groundwater modelling. The GPMs produced in the current study may facilitate groundwater exploitation

  6. Modeling the potential impact of seasonal and inactive multi-aquifer wells on contaminant movement to public water-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.L.; Clark, B.R.; Landon, M.K.; Kauffman, L.J.; Eberts, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wells screened across multiple aquifers can provide pathways for the movement of surprisingly large volumes of groundwater to confined aquifers used for public water supply (PWS). Using a simple numerical model, we examine the impact of several pumping scenarios on leakage from an unconfined aquifer to a confined aquifer and conclude that a single inactive multi-aquifer well can contribute nearly 10% of total PWS well flow over a wide range of pumping rates. This leakage can occur even when the multi-aquifer well is more than a kilometer from the PWS well. The contribution from multi-aquifer wells may be greater under conditions where seasonal pumping (e.g., irrigation) creates large, widespread downward hydraulic gradients between aquifers. Under those conditions, water can continue to leak down a multi-aquifer well from an unconfined aquifer to a confined aquifer even when those multi-aquifer wells are actively pumped. An important implication is that, if an unconfined aquifer is contaminated, multi-aquifer wells can increase the vulnerability of a confined-aquifer PWS well.

  7. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation - Assessing the potential for active groundwater flow and origin of the brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nativ, R.; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A.

    1997-08-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) contains contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater in the deep system is saline and has been considered to be stagnant in previous studies. This study was designed to address the following questions: is groundwater in the deep system stagnant; is contaminant migration controlled by diffusion only or is advection a viable mechanism; where are the potential outlet points? On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of saline groundwater flow and potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial and temporal temperature variations at depth, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. The observations suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active, freshwater-bearing units. Influx of recent water does occur. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow are likely to be small. The origin of the saline groundwater was assessed by using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model that best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated

  8. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  9. Deep Geothermal energy potential in Madrid basin; Potencial de la Geotermia profunda en la Cuenca de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, R.; Sanchez, J.; Ungemach, P.

    2009-07-01

    The Madrid Basin geothermal potential was evidenced in 1980 thanks to an oil exploration well drilled by Shell-Campsa which showed temperatures of 88 degree centigrade and 150 degree centigrade at 1,700 mts and 3,400 mts depth respectively. The low enthalpy geothermal reservoir could be further assessed by four exploratory wells the first one, Pradillo (originals Shell-Campsa oil well), two drilled by ADARO and IGME (Geological survey of Spain) in San Sebastian de los Reyes and Tres Cantos respectively. The latest well, Geomadrid 1, was drilled in 1990 by the Madrid Regional government. The afore mentioned wells have identified a dependable geothermal resource, hosted in a tertiary, clastic, consolidated sandstone reservoir consisting of a thick multilayered sequence (200-800m), with temperatures ranging from 70 degree centigrade to 90 degree centigrade and depths of 1,500 to 2,150 m., overlying a Mesozoic sequence, suitable to be exploited for thermal uses in several district heating grids around Madrid in areas displaying adequate heat loads. A medium temperature reservoir was also identified at the contact between Mesozoic Cretaceous limestones and fractured basement granites at 3,400mts depth, with measured temperatures of 156 degree centigrade, that could be developed and exploited in view of a combined power and heat production (CPH) within the Madrid suburban areas. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Numerical investigation of electricity generation potential from fractured granite reservoir by water circulating through three horizontal wells at Yangbajing geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yuchao; Zhan, Jiemin; Wu, Nengyou; Luo, Yingying; Cai, Wenhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical model of the 950–1350 m fractured granite reservoir through horizontal wells is established. • Desirable electricity production performance can be obtained under suitable conditions. • The system attains an electric power of 26.9–24.3 MW with an efficiency of about 50.10–22.39. • Electric power mainly depends on water production rate and injection temperature. • Higher permeability within a certain range is favorable for electricity generation. - Abstract: Deep geological exploration indicates that there is a high-temperature fractured granite reservoir at depth of 950–1350 m in well ZK4001 in the north of Yangbajing geothermal field, with an average temperature of 248 °C and a pressure within 8.01–11.57 MPa. In this work, we evaluated electricity generation potential from this fractured granite reservoir by water circulating through three horizontal wells, and analyzed main factors affecting the performance and efficiency through numerical simulation. The results show that in the reference case the system attains a production temperature of 248.0–235.7 °C, an electrical power of 26.9–24.3 MW, an injection pressure of 10.48–12.94 MPa, a reservoir impedance of 0.07–0.10 MPa/(kg/s), a pump power of 0.54–1.08 MW and an energy efficiency of 50.10–22.39 during a period of 20 years, displaying favorable production performance. Main factors affecting the production performance and efficiency are reservoir permeability, water production rate and injection temperature; within certain ranges increasing the reservoir permeability or adopting more reasonable water production rate or injection temperature will obviously improve the system production performance.

  11. Evaluating the anti-inflammatory potential of Tectaria cicutaria L. rhizome extract in vitro as well as in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Amit S; Raina, Prerna; Deshpande, Manasi M; Wali, Ashok G; Zanwar, Anand; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2013-10-28

    The rhizome of Tectaria cicutaria has been used in the folklore system of Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for the treatment of various disorders such as rheumatic pain, chest complaints, burns, sprain, poisonous bites, tonsilitis, toothache, gum complaints, cuts and wounds. The present work has for the first time tried to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extract of Tectaria cicutaria rhizome (TCRaq) in vitro as well as in vivo. Anti-inflammatory potential of TCRaq was analyzed in vivo in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. Serum antioxidant status in TCRaq-treated as well as untreated control rodents was measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In vitro experiments for analyzing the anti-inflammatory potential of TCRaq were performed on murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Analysis of nitric oxide release in RAW 264.7 cells was done by Griess reaction. RT-PCR and western blotting experiment was performed to analyze the expression of iNOS. Expression of COX-2 and NFκB proteins was evaluated by western blotting. TCRaq significantly reduced the paw volume in Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight, which was comparable with the standard diclofenac treatment. The rats treated with TCRaq showed a significant increase in the serum antioxidant levels compared to the untreated control animals. TCRaq was able to reduce the nitric oxide (NO) levels in RAW 264.7 cells that had been stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This was accompanied by a corresponding decrease in iNOS expression at mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, TCRaq was found to decrease the expression of COX-2 as well as the nuclear translocation of NFκB in RAW 264.7 cells. Our study signifies the anti-inflammatory potential of Tectaria cicutaria and scientifically validates its traditional use in inflammatory conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  13. The infinite well and Dirac delta function potentials as pedagogical, mathematical and physical models in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, M.; Robinett, R. W.

    2014-07-01

    The infinite square well and the attractive Dirac delta function potentials are arguably two of the most widely used models of one-dimensional bound-state systems in quantum mechanics. These models frequently appear in the research literature and are staples in the teaching of quantum theory on all levels. We review the history, mathematical properties, and visualization of these models, their many variations, and their applications to physical systems. quote>For the ISW and the attractive DDF potentials, Eq. (4) implies, as expected, that energy eigenfunctions will have a kink-a discontinuous first derivative at the location of the infinite jump(s) in the potentials. However, the large |p| behavior of the momentum-space energy eigenfunction given by Eq. (5) will be |ϕ(p)|∝1/p2. Therefore for the ISW and the attractive DDF potentials, expectation value of p will be finite, but even powers of p higher than 2 will not lead to convergent integrals. This analysis proves that despite the kinks in the ISW and attractive DDF eigenfunctions, is finite, and therefore yield appropriate solutions to the Schrödinger equation.The existence of power-law ‘tails’ of a momentum distribution as indicated in Eq. (5) in the case of ‘less than perfect’ potentials [41], including a 1/p2 power-law dependence for a singular potential (such as the DDF form) may seem a mathematical artifact, but we note two explicit realizations of exactly this type of behavior in well-studied quantum systems.As noted below (in Section 6.2) the momentum-space energy eigenfunction of the ground state of one of the most familiar (and singular) potentials, namely that of the Coulomb problem, is given by ϕ1,0,0(p)=√{8p0/π}p0/2 where p0=ħ/a0 with a0 the Bohr radius. This prediction for the p-dependence of the hydrogen ground state momentum-space distribution was verified by Weigold [42] and collaborators with measurements taken out to p-values beyond 1.4p0; well out onto the power-law

  14. Microscopic models for proton transfer in water and strongly hydrogen-bonded complexes with a single-well proton potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    A new mechanism and formalism for proton transfer in donor-acceptor complexes with long hydrogen bonds introduced recently [1], is applied to a proton transfer in liquid water. "Structural diffusion" of hydroxonium ions is regarded as totally adiabatic process, with synchronous hindered translation...... of two closest water molecules to and from the reaction complex as crucial steps. The water molecules induce a "gated" shift of the proton from the donor to the acceptor in the double-well potential with simultaneous breaking/formation of hydrogen bonds between these molecules and the proton donor...... and acceptor. The short-range and long-range proton transfer as "structural diffusion" of Zundel complexes is also considered. The theoretical formalism is illustrated with the use of Morse, exponential, and harmonic molecular potentials. This approach is extended to proton transfer in strongly hydrogen...

  15. Inflationary predictions of double-well, Coleman-Weinberg, and hilltop potentials with non-minimal coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Nilay; Güleryüz, Ömer; Nefer Şenoğuz, Vedat

    2018-05-01

    We discuss how the non-minimal coupling ξphi2R between the inflaton and the Ricci scalar affects the predictions of single field inflation models where the inflaton has a non-zero vacuum expectation value (VEV) v after inflation. We show that, for inflaton values both above the VEV and below the VEV during inflation, under certain conditions the inflationary predictions become approximately the same as the predictions of the Starobinsky model. We then analyze inflation with double-well and Coleman-Weinberg potentials in detail, displaying the regions in the v-ξ plane for which the spectral index ns and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r values are compatible with the current observations. r is always larger than 0.002 in these regions. Finally, we consider the effect of ξ on small field inflation (hilltop) potentials.

  16. Energy levels of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Yuan; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the energy levels of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential under the mean-field approximation. We find that the energy levels of the system can be significantly influenced by the atomic interactions. Without atomic interaction, four energy levels change linearly with the tunneling amplitude, the Raman coupling, and the spin-orbit coupling. However, whenever atomic interaction is considered, three more energy levels will appear, which have a nonlinear dependence on those parameters above. These three energy levels are multi-degenerate and related to the macro-symmetry of the system.

  17. Energy levels of a spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Cao, Hui; Fu, Li-Bin; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the energy levels of a spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential under the mean-field approximation. We find that the energy levels of the system can be significantly influenced by the atomic interactions. Without atomic interaction, four energy levels change linearly with the tunneling amplitude, the Raman coupling, and the spin–orbit coupling. However, whenever atomic interaction is considered, three more energy levels will appear, which have a nonlinear dependence on those parameters above. These three energy levels are multi-degenerate and related to the macro-symmetry of the system. (paper)

  18. Horseshoes chaos and stability of a delayed van der Pol-Duffing oscillator under a bounded double well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwuimy, C.A. Kitio; Woafo, P.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper a van der Pol-Duffing oscillator with a bounded double well potential and a delayed (positive and negative) position and velocity feedback is considered. Attention is focussed on the effects of time delay on stability, escape motion and horseshoes chaos. Using Forde and Nelson's theorem, harmonic balance and Melnikov criterion for chaos, the boundary conditions for such phenomena are derived. It appears that, time delay can be used as simple switch to avoid and/or create complex behavior of the model. (author)

  19. A code to compute the action-angle transformation for a particle in an abritrary potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.S.; Warnock, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    For a Vlasov treatment of longitudinal stability under an arbitrary wake field, with the solution of the Haiessinski equation as the unperturbed distribution, it is important to have the action-angle transformation for the distorted potential well in a convenient form. The authors have written a code that gives the transformation q,p → J, φ, with q(J,φ) as a Fourier series in φ, the Fourier coefficients and the Hamiltonian H(J) being spline functions of J in C 2 (having continuous second derivatives)

  20. Computer models versus reality: how well do in silico models currently predict the sensitization potential of a substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Anette; Schuster, Paul Xaver; Guth, Katharina; Worth, Andrew; Burton, Julien; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2013-12-01

    National legislations for the assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals are increasingly based on the globally harmonized system (GHS). In this study, experimental data on 55 non-sensitizing and 45 sensitizing chemicals were evaluated according to GHS criteria and used to test the performance of computer (in silico) models for the prediction of skin sensitization. Statistic models (Vega, Case Ultra, TOPKAT), mechanistic models (Toxtree, OECD (Q)SAR toolbox, DEREK) or a hybrid model (TIMES-SS) were evaluated. Between three and nine of the substances evaluated were found in the individual training sets of various models. Mechanism based models performed better than statistical models and gave better predictivities depending on the stringency of the domain definition. Best performance was achieved by TIMES-SS, with a perfect prediction, whereby only 16% of the substances were within its reliability domain. Some models offer modules for potency; however predictions did not correlate well with the GHS sensitization subcategory derived from the experimental data. In conclusion, although mechanistic models can be used to a certain degree under well-defined conditions, at the present, the in silico models are not sufficiently accurate for broad application to predict skin sensitization potentials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of the potential well on the breakage rate of colloidal aggregates in simple shear and uniaxial extensional flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiqiang; Harshe, Yogesh M; Lattuada, Marco

    2015-06-02

    In this work we build on our previous paper (Harshe, Y. M.; Lattuada, M. Langmuir 2012, 28, 283-292) and compute the breakage rate of colloidal aggregates under the effect of shear forces by means of Stokesian dynamics simulations. A library of clusters made of identical spherical particles covering a broad range of masses and fractal dimension values (from 1.8 to 3.0) was generated by means of a combination of several Monte Carlo methods. DLVO theory has been used to describe the interparticle interactions, and contact forces have been introduced by means of the discrete element method. The aggregate breakage process was investigated by exposing them to well-defined shear forces, generated under both simple shear and uniaxial extensional flow conditions, and by recording the time required to reach the first breakage event. It has been found that the breakage rate of clusters was controlled by the potential well between particles as described by DLVO theory. A semiempirical Arrhenius-type exponential equation that relates the potential well to the breakage rate has been used to fit the simulation results. The dependence of the breakage process on the radius of gyration, on the external shear strength, and on the fractal dimension has been obtained, providing a very general relationship for the breakage rate of clusters. It was also found that the fragment mass distribution is insensitive to the presence of electrostatic repulsive interactions. We also clarify the physical reason for the large difference in the breakage rate of clusters between simple shear and the uniaxial extensional flow using a criterion based on the energy dissipation rate. Finally, in order to answer the question of the minimum cluster size that can break under simple shear conditions, a critical rotation number has been introduced, expressing the maximum number of rotations that a cluster exposed to simple shear could sustain before breakage.

  2. Characterization of DNA-repair potential in deep subsurface bacteria challenged by UV light, hydrogen peroxide, and gamma radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Arrage, Andrew Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Subsurface bacterial isolates obtained through the DOE Subsurface Science Program were tested for resistance to UV light, gamma radiation and H202. Some deep subsurface bacteria were resistant to UV light, demonstrating â ¥1.0% survival at fluences which resulted in a 0.0001% survival level of E. coli B. The percentage of UV resistant aerobic subsurface bacteria and surface soil bacteria were similar; 30.8% and 25.8% respectively. All of the microaerophilic subsurface isolates ...

  3. Full-Thickness Excision versus Shaving by Laparoscopy for Intestinal Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Rationale and Potential Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Simone Laganà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial mucosa (glands and stroma abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE is considered the most aggressive presentation of the disease, penetrating more than 5 mm in affected tissues, and it is reported in approximately 20% of all women with endometriosis. DIE can cause a complete distortion of the pelvic anatomy and it mainly involves uterosacral ligaments, bladder, rectovaginal septum, rectum, and rectosigmoid colon. This review describes the state of the art in laparoscopic approach for DIE with a special interest in intestinal involvement, according to recent literature findings. Our attention has been focused particularly on full-thickness excision versus shaving technique in deep endometriosis intestinal involvement. Particularly, the aim of this paper is clarifying from the clinical and methodological points of view the best surgical treatment of deep intestinal endometriosis, since there is no standard of care in the literature and in different surgical settings. Indeed, this review tries to suggest when it is advisable to manage the full-thickness excision or the shaving technique, also analyzing perioperative management, main complications, and surgical outcomes.

  4. Potential pitfalls of reconstructing deep time evolutionary history with only extant data, a case study using the canidae (mammalia, carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finarelli, John A; Goswami, Anjali

    2013-12-01

    Reconstructing evolutionary patterns and their underlying processes is a central goal in biology. Yet many analyses of deep evolutionary histories assume that data from the fossil record is too incomplete to include, and rely solely on databases of extant taxa. Excluding fossil taxa assumes that character state distributions across living taxa are faithful representations of a clade's entire evolutionary history. Many factors can make this assumption problematic. Fossil taxa do not simply lead-up to extant taxa; they represent now-extinct lineages that can substantially impact interpretations of character evolution for extant groups. Here, we analyze body mass data for extant and fossil canids (dogs, foxes, and relatives) for changes in mean and variance through time. AIC-based model selection recovered distinct models for each of eight canid subgroups. We compared model fit of parameter estimates for (1) extant data alone and (2) extant and fossil data, demonstrating that the latter performs significantly better. Moreover, extant-only analyses result in unrealistically low estimates of ancestral mass. Although fossil data are not always available, reconstructions of deep-time organismal evolution in the absence of deep-time data can be highly inaccurate, and we argue that every effort should be made to include fossil data in macroevolutionary studies. © 2013 The Authors. Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. The potential for spills and leaks of hydraulic fracturing related fluids on well sites and from road incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Sarah; Worrall, Fred; Davies, Richard; Gluyas, Jon

    2017-04-01

    The potential growth of shale gas developments within Europe has raised concerns of the possibility of spills and leaks from shale gas sites and from liquid transportation via roads and pipelines. Data from a range of sources has been examined to estimate the likelihood of an incident. From the US, the Texas Railroad Commission and the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission have maintained records of the quantity; reasons for the spill; and reported impacts. For the UK, the Environment Agency pollution incident database and transport statistics from the UKs Department for Transport have also been analysed and used as an analogy to determine the likelihood of an incident or spill on the road. Data were used as an analogue to predict the potential number of spills and leaks that might occur at a well site, or in transport operation, under different shale gas development scenarios if fracking was to go forward in the UK. Since 2014 the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission has recorded 3874 spills in the State of Colorado, the majority of these (1941) consisted of produced water, whereas 835 recorded oil spills. Of all the spills recorded 1809 spilt more than 0.79 m3, with 1356 of these leaking outside the berm of the well site, and three sites requiring construction of an emergency pits to contain the spillage. During 2015, there were 53054 active wells; the percentage of produced oil spilt was 0.001%, whilst the percentage of produced water spilt was 0.009%. Data from the Texas Railroad Commission shows the number of reported spills over 0.16 m3 in Texas since 2009 has increased year on year, with 675 reported in 2009 and 1485 in 2015. The greatest loss each year was of crude oil, with 14176 m3 being spilt in 2015, which is equivalent to 0.0089% of the oil produced. Clean-up operations recover some of the lost fluid; however, much is left unrecovered, annually 60% of the crude oil spilt is recovered, 65% of production fluid is recovered, whereas just 30% of liquid gas is

  6. Scientific investigation in deep wells for nuclear waste disposal studies at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, Northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jacques; Rebours, Hervé; Vinsot, Agnès; Robin, Pierre

    Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is constructing an underground test facility to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Jurassic-age Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. This paper describes the processes, the methods and results of a scientific characterization program carried out from the surface via deep boreholes with the aim to build a research facility for radioactive waste disposal. In particular this paper shows the evolution of the drilling programs and the borehole set up due to the refinement of the scientific objectives from 1994 to 2004. The pre-investigation phase on the Meuse/Haute-Marne site started in 1994. It consisted in drilling seven scientific boreholes. This phase, completed in 1996, led to the first regional geological cross-section showing the main geometrical characteristics of the host rock. Investigations on the laboratory site prior to the sinking of two shafts started in November 1999. The sinking of the shafts started in September 2000 with the auxiliary shaft completed in October 2004. The experimental gallery, at a depth of 445 m in the main shaft, was in operation by end 2004. During the construction of the laboratory, two major scientific programs were initiated to improve the existing knowledge of the regional hydrogeological characteristics and to accelerate the process of data acquisition on the shales. The aim of the 2003 hydrogeological drilling program was to determine, at regional scale, the properties of groundwater transport and to sample the water in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestones. The 2003-2004 programs consisted in drilling nine deep boreholes, four of which were slanted, to achieve an accurate definition of the structural features.

  7. Gross-Pitaevskii equation for Bose particles in a double-well potential: Two-mode models and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananikian, D.; Bergeman, T.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, our primary goal has been to explore the range of validity of two-mode models for Bose-Einstein condensates in double-well potentials. Our derivation, like others, uses symmetric and antisymmetric condensate basis functions for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In what we call an 'improved two-mode model' (I2M), the tunneling coupling energy explicitly includes a nonlinear interaction term, which has been given previously in the literature but not widely appreciated. We show that when the atom number (and hence the extent of the wave function) in each well vary appreciably with time, the nonlinear interaction term produces a temporal change in the tunneling energy or rate, which has not previously been considered to our knowledge. In addition, we obtain a parameter, labeled ''interaction tunneling,'' that produces a decrease of the tunneling energy when the wave functions in the two wells overlap to some extent. Especially for larger values of the nonlinear interaction term, results from this model produce better agreement with numerical solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in one and three dimensions, as compared with models that have no interaction term in the tunneling energy. The usefulness of this model is demonstrated by good agreement with recent experimental results for the tunneling oscillation frequency [Albiez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 010402 (2005)]. We also present equations and results for a multimode approach, and use the I2M model to obtain modified equations for the second-quantized version of the Bose-Einstein double-well problem

  8. Characterization of natural organic matter in bentonite clays for potential use in deep geological repositories for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Michaela H.M.; McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the composition of natural organic matter in bentonite clay. • Biomarker results indicate a predominance of plant-derived organic matter. • Aromatic and aliphatic compounds were observed in NMR spectra. • Degradation ratios suggest that organic matter is highly altered. • The natural organic matter in bentonite clay is predominantly recalcitrant. - Abstract: The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is developing a Deep Geological Repository (DGR) to contain and isolate used nuclear fuel in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 m. The design concept employs a multibarrier system, including the use of copper-coated used fuel containers, surrounded by a low-permeability, swelling clay buffer material within a low permeability, stable host rock environment. The natural organic matter (NOM) composition of the bentonite clays being considered for the buffer material is largely uncharacterized at the molecular-level. To gain a better understanding of the NOM in target clays from Wyoming and Saskatchewan, molecular-level methods (biomarker analysis, solid-state 13 C NMR and solution-state 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) were used to elucidate the structure and sources of NOM. Organic carbon content in three commercially available bentonites analyzed was low (0.11–0.41%). The aliphatic lipid distribution of the clay samples analyzed showed a predominance of higher concentration of lipids from vascular plants and low concentrations of lipids consistent with microbial origin. The lignin phenol vanillyl acid to aldehyde ratio (Ad/Al) for the National sample indicated an advanced state of lignin oxidation and NOM diagenesis. The 13 C NMR spectra were dominated by signals in the aromatic and aliphatic regions. The ratio of alkyl/O-alkyl carbon ranged from 7.6 to 9.7, indicating that the NOM has undergone advanced diagenetic alteration. The absence lignin-derived phenols commonly observed in CuO oxidation

  9. Pathological tremor prediction using surface EMG and acceleration: potential use in “ON-OFF” demand driven deep brain stimulator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Shukla, Pitamber; Slavin, Konstantin V.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We present a proof of concept for a novel method of predicting the onset of pathological tremor using non-invasively measured surface electromyogram (sEMG) and acceleration from tremor-affected extremities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Essential tremor (ET). Approach The tremor prediction algorithm uses a set of spectral (fourier and wavelet) and non-linear time series (entropy and recurrence rate) parameters extracted from the non-invasively recorded sEMG and acceleration signals. Main results The resulting algorithm is shown to successfully predict tremor onset for all 91 trials recorded in 4 PD patients and for all 91 trials recorded in 4 ET patients. The predictor achieves a 100% sensitivity for all trials considered, along with an overall accuracy of 85.7% for all ET trials and 80.2% for all PD trials. By using a Pearson’s chi-square test, the prediction results are shown to significantly differ from a random prediction outcome. Significance The tremor prediction algorithm can be potentially used for designing the next generation of non-invasive closed-loop predictive ON-OFF controllers for deep brain stimulation (DBS), used for suppressing pathological tremor in such patients. Such a system is based on alternating ON and OFF DBS periods, an incoming tremor being predicted during the time intervals when DBS is OFF, so as to turn DBS back ON. The prediction should be a few seconds before tremor re-appears so that the patient is tremor-free for the entire DBS ON-OFF cycle as well as the tremor-free DBS OFF interval should be maximized in order to minimize the current injected in the brain and battery usage. PMID:23658233

  10. Development of a computational system for supporting to the wells control in deep water; Desenvolvimento de um sistema computacional para suporte ao controle de pocos em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotomayor, Gabriel Paulo Gutierrez

    1997-06-01

    This dissertation presents the development and application of a computational tool that works with an integrated vision of well control process and includes tasks related to the well design concerning safety, kick detection and circulation out of the well. This tool, named PROKICK, offers to the technical personnel involved in well control operations, functionality to operational procedures, pressure behavior prediction and preparation of killsheet for deepwater wells. Also, this tool supports the analysis of well control problems with knowledge systems, built production rules. (author)

  11. Test of virtual photon theory. [Cross sections, square-well potential, 0 to 300 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, E T; Tomusiak, E L [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon (Canada). Saskatchewan Accelerator Lab.

    1976-11-30

    In order to extract a photodisintegration cross section in the c.m. system from an electrodisintegration cross section measured in the lab system, one has to assume that the electrons are mostly scattered forward and that the monopole contributions are negligible. To test the validity of these approximations, a square well potential was assumed for the initial and final states and the photodisintegration cross section was calculated exactly within this model. These results were then compared with the results one would obtain using the virtual photon theory approximations for electron energies of 0-300 MeV and excitation energies up to 40 MeV. In comparing the two results, it is shown how and why the virtual photon theory approximations fail in certain kinematical regions.

  12. Absence of a Scott correction for the total binding energy of noninteracting fermions in a smooth potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxtable, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown, for V in a particular class of smooth functions, that the total binding energy, E(Z), of Z noninteracting Fermions in the potential well Z 4/3 V(Z 1/3 X) obeys E(Z) = c TF (V)Z 7/3 + O(Z 5/3 ) as Z → ∞. Here c TF (V) is the coefficient predicted by Thomas-Fermi theory. This result is consistent with the conjectured Scott correction, which occurs at order Z 2 , to the total binding energy of an atomic number Z. This correction is thought to arise only because V(x)∼ - |x| -1 near x = 0 in the atomic problem, and so V is not a smooth function

  13. Dipolar-induced interplay between inter-level physics and macroscopic phase transitions in triple-well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aixia; Xue Jukui

    2012-01-01

    We propose a scheme to reveal the interplay between dipole–dipole interaction (DDI), inter-level coupling and macroscopic phase transitions in dipolar condensates. By considering a macroscopic sample of dipolar bosons in triple-well potentials, DDI-induced coupling between the inter-level physics and the macroscopic phase transitions is presented. When the DDI exceeds certain thresholds, the degeneracy of the two lowest energy levels and the excitation of new eigenstates occur, respectively. Interestingly, these thresholds give the boundaries of various quantum phase transitions. That is, the quantum phase transitions are the consequence of the levels' degeneracy and the new eigenstates' excitation. Furthermore, DDI-induced long-range macroscopic Josephson oscillations are observed and long-range coherent quantum transportation is achieved. Our results give clear proof of the interplay between the multi-level physics and quantum phase transitions, and also provide a way for designing the long-range coherent quantum transportation. (paper)

  14. Influence of Three-square-well Interaction Potential on Isotope Effect Coefficient of High-TC Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udomsamuthirun, P.; Dokkaemklang, S.; Kumvongsa, C.; Maneeratanakul, S.

    2005-10-01

    In this research, the exact formula of the isotope effect coefficient of s wave and d-wave superconductor in weak-coupling limit are derived by using a three square- well interaction potential that pairing interaction consists of 3 parts : an attractive electron-phonon interaction, an attractive non-electron-phonon interaction , and a repulsive Coulomb interaction . op ac , w w and c w is the characteristic energy cutoff of the Debye phonon , non-phonon ,and Coulomb respectively and 2 / 1 ac M- a w , and c op , w w do not depend on isotope mass(M). We find that, in all case of consideration, the isotope coefficient converges to 0.5 at lower value of Coulomb coupling constant and larger values of phonon and non-phonon coupling constant

  15. Abundance and potential metabolic activity of methanogens in well-aerated forest and grassland soils of an alpine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Katrin; Praeg, Nadine; Mutschlechner, Mira; Wagner, Andreas O; Illmer, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Although methanogens were recently discovered to occur in aerated soils, alpine regions have not been extensively studied for their presence so far. Here, the abundance of archaea and the methanogenic guilds Methanosarcinales, Methanococcales, Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanocella spp. was studied at 16 coniferous forest and 14 grassland sites located at the montane and subalpine belts of the Northern Limestone Alps (calcareous) and the Austrian Central Alps (siliceous) using quantitative real-time PCR. Abundance of archaea, methanogens and the methanogenic potentials were significantly higher in grasslands than in forests. Furthermore, methanogenic potentials of calcareous soils were higher due to pH. Methanococcales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanocella spp. were detected in all collected samples, which indicates that they are autochthonous, while Methanobacteriales were absent from 4 out of 16 forest soils. Methanosarcinales were absent from 10 out of 16 forest soils and 2 out of 14 grassland soils. Nevertheless, together with Methanococcales they represented the majority of the 16S rRNA gene copies quantified from the grassland soils. Contrarily, forest soils were clearly dominated by Methanococcales. Our results indicate a higher diversity of methanogens in well-aerated soils than previously believed and that pH mainly influences their abundances and activities. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Potential Role of Semaphorin 3A and Its Receptors in Regulating Aberrant Sympathetic Innervation in Peritoneal and Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jiaming; Tan, Hao; Liu, Tianyu; Shang, Chunliang; Liu, Duo; Guo, Luyan; Yao, Shuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of nerve repellent factors in regulation of the imbalanced innervation of endometriosis. This prospective study aims to explore the role of Sema 3A in regulating aberrant sympathetic innervation in peritoneal and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Ectopic endometriotic lesion were collected from patients with peritoneal endometriosis (n = 24) and deep infiltrating endometriosis of uterosacral ligament (n = 20) undergoing surgery for endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial samples were collected from patients with endometriosis (n = 22) or without endometriosis (n = 26). Healthy peritoneum (n = 13) from the lateral pelvic wall and healthy uterosacral ligament (n = 13) were obtained from patients who had no surgical and histological proof of endometriosis during hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Firstly, we studied the immunostaining of Sema 3A, Plexin A1 and NRP-1 in all the tissues described above. Then we studied the nerve fiber density (NFD) of endometriosis-associated (sympathetic) nerve and para-endometriotic (sympathetic) nerve by double immunofluorescence staining. Finally we analyzed the relationship between expression of Sema 3A in stromal cells of endometriotic lesion and the aberrant innervation of endometriosis. Semi-quantitative immunostaining demonstrated that (1) Higher immunostaining of Sema 3A were found in the eutopic endometrial glandular epithelial cells from patients with endometriosis (p = 0.041) than those without endometriosis; (2) Sema 3A immunostaining was higher in glandular epithelial cells of peritoneal endometriosis (Pendometriosis, while its expression in ectopic stormal cells in both groups were significantly lower than that from eutopic endometrium of women without endometirosis (Pendometriosis-associated sympathetic nerve of peritoneal endometriosis (pendometriosis of uterosacral ligament (pperitoneal and deep infiltrating endometriosis.

  17. Deep-sea impact experiments and their future requirements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    In recent years, several experiments to assess the potential impacts due to deep-sea mining in the Pacific as well as the Indian Oceans have indicated the immediate changes and restoration patterns of environmental conditions in the marine ecosystem...

  18. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 486-493 E-ISSN 2391-5471 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : deep geological repository * earthquake * seismicity * neo-deterministic analysis * probabilistic seismic hazard assessment Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure; DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Environmental and geological engineering, geotechnics; Environmental and geological engineering, geotechnics (GFU-E) Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/phys.2017.15.issue-1/phys-2017-0055/phys-2017-0055.pdf

  19. Potential impact of Andrassy bentonite microbial diversity in the long-term performance of a deep nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadza, M. Y. Mohd; Tadza, M. A. Mohd; Bag, R.; Harith, N. S. H.

    2018-01-01

    Copper and steel canning and bentonite buffer are normally forseen as the primary containment component of a deep nuclear waste repository. Distribution of microbes in subsurface environments have been found to be extensive and directly or indirectly may exert influence on waste canister corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. The understanding of clays and microbial interaction with radionuclides will be useful in predicting the microbial impacts on the performance of the waste repositories. The present work characterizes the culture-dependent microbial diversity of Andrassy bentonite recovered from Tawau clay deposits. The evaluation of microbial populations shows the presence of a number of cultivable microbes (e.g. Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Paecilomyces, Trichoderma, and Fusarium). Additionally, a pigmented yeast strain Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was also recovered from the formation. Both Bacillus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa have high tolerance towards U radiation and toxicity. The presence of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in Andrassy bentonite might be able to change the speciation of radionuclides (e.g. uranium) in a future deep repository. However, concern over the presence of Fe (III) reduction microbes such as Bacillus also found in the formation could lead to corrosion of copper steel canister and affect the overall performance of the containment system.

  20. Modelling the potential to achieve deep carbon emission cuts in existing UK social housing: The case of Peabody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Andrew; Taylor, Simon; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As part of the UK's effort to combat climate change, deep cuts in carbon emissions will be required from existing housing over the coming decades. The viability of achieving such emission cuts for the UK social housing sector has been explored through a case study of Peabody, a housing association operating in London. Various approaches to stock refurbishment were modelled for Peabody's existing stock up to the year 2030, incorporating insulation, communal heating and micro-generation technologies. Outputs were evaluated under four future socio-economic scenarios. The results indicate that the Greater London Authority's target of a 60% carbon emission cut by 2025 can be achieved if extensive stock refurbishment is coupled with a background of wider societal efforts to reduce carbon emissions. The two key external requirements identified are a significant reduction in the carbon intensity of grid electricity and a stabilisation or reduction in householder demand for energy. A target of achieving zero net carbon emissions across Peabody stock by 2030 can only be achieved if grid electricity becomes available from entirely zero-carbon sources. These results imply that stronger action is needed from both social landlords and Government to enable deep emission cuts to be achieved in UK social housing.

  1. Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kitamura, Kenichi; Ohta, Junichiro; Toda, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Takuya; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2011-08-01

    World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly. Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare-earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2,000 seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific. We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare-earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration. We show that rare-earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements.

  2. Heavy Mg-doping of (Al,Ga)N films for potential applications in deep ultraviolet light-emitting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y. H.; Towe, E.

    2018-03-01

    Doping of high aluminum-containing (Al,Ga)N thin films has remained a challenging problem that has hindered progress in the development of deep ultraviolet light-emitters. This paper reports on the synthesis and use of heavily doped (Al,Ga)N films in deep ultraviolet (˜274 nm) light-emitting structures; these structures were synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy under liquid-metal growth conditions that facilitate the incorporation of extremely high density of Mg dopant impurities (up to 5 × 1019 cm-3) into aluminum-rich (Al,Ga)N thin films. Prototypical light-emitting diode structures incorporating Al0.7Ga0.3N films doped with Mg impurities that ionize to give free hole carrier concentrations of up to 6 × 1017 cm-3 exhibit external quantum efficiencies of up 0.56%; this is an improvement from previous devices made from molecular beam epitaxy-grown materials. This improvement is believed to be due to the high hole carrier concentration enabled by the relatively low activation energy of 220 meV compared to the expected values of 408-507 meV for Al0.7Ga0.3N films.

  3. Why & When Deep Learning Works: Looking Inside Deep Learnings

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    The Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Computational Intelligence (ICRI-CI) has been heavily supporting Machine Learning and Deep Learning research from its foundation in 2012. We have asked six leading ICRI-CI Deep Learning researchers to address the challenge of "Why & When Deep Learning works", with the goal of looking inside Deep Learning, providing insights on how deep networks function, and uncovering key observations on their expressiveness, limitations, and potential. The outp...

  4. Effectiveness of ketogenic diet in pentylenetetrazol-induced and kindling rats as well as its potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Ding, Yao; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Shen, Chun-Hong; Jin, Bo; Guo, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2016-02-12

    The effects and mechanisms of ketogenic diets (KD) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to reveal electrographic and behavioral thresholds in responses to the KD in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, as well as its antiepileptogenic effects on PTZ-kindling rats. Additionally, we investigated the potential link between KD and expression levels of two cation chloride co-transporters: K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1). The KD group had significantly higher electrographic thresholds than the control (ND) group for the first spike-and-wave, subcontinuous spike-and-wave, high amplitude spike-and-wave, and polyspikes both in the cortex and hippocampus. Compared to the ND group, the KD group had higher behavioral thresholds for behavioral absence, first jerk, first overt myoclonia, and generalized seizures. In the PTZ-kindling model, KD not only prolonged the latency of myoclonic and clonic convulsions, but shortened clonic and generalized duration. In addition, KD rats had higher KCC2 protein expression before kindling, during myoclonic jerks, and GTCS compared with ND rats. There were no significant differences in NKCC1 protein levels between both groups following the four-week dietary intervention without PTZ exposure (before kindling). Moreover, KD inhibited the upregulation of NKCC1 expression induced by kindling in myoclonic jerks and GTCS. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that KD had antiepileptic features in elevating thresholds to most electrographic and behavioral seizure patterns in PTZ-induced rats, as well as delaying the progression and alleviating the severity of seizure in PTZ-kindling model. The antiepileptogenic effects of KD may be attributed to its regulatory properties on KCC2 and NKCC1 protein expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A reversible albumin-binding growth hormone derivative is well tolerated and possesses a potential once-weekly treatment profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Olsen, Minna W Brændholt; Alifrangis, Lene; Klim, Søren; Suntum, Mette

    2014-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) replacement therapy currently requires daily sc injections for years/lifetime, which may be both inconvenient and distressing for patients. NNC0195-0092 is a novel hGH derivative intended for once-weekly treatment of GH deficiency. A noncovalent albumin binding moiety is attached to the hGH backbone. Clearance is reduced as a consequence of a reversible binding to circulating serum albumin, which prolongs the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect. To evaluate safety, local tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of a single dose (SD) and multiple doses (MD) of NNC0195-0092. Randomized, single-center, placebo-controlled, double-blind, SD/MD, dose-escalation trial of 105 healthy male subjects. NNC0195-0092 sc administration: Five cohorts of eight subjects received one dose of NNC0195-0092 (0.01-0.32 mg/kg) (n = 6) or placebo (n = 2). Sixteen subjects (equal numbers of Japanese and non-Asian) received once-weekly doses of NNC0195-0092 (0.02-0.24 mg/kg; n=12) or placebo (n=4) for 4 weeks. Blood samples were drawn for assessment of safety, PK, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein 3 profiles and anti-drug antibodies. SD and MD of NNC0195-0092 were well tolerated at all dose levels. No safety concerns or local tolerability issues were identified. A dose-dependent IGF-1 response was observed. IGF-1 profiles suggest that NNC0195-0092 may be suitable for once-weekly dosing, with a clinically relevant dose ≤0.08 mg/kg/week. No differences in PK and PD were observed between Japanese and non-Asian subjects. SD and MD of NNC0195-0092 administered to healthy Japanese and non-Asian male subjects were well tolerated at all doses. The present trial suggests that NNC0195-0092 has the potential for an efficacious, well-tolerated, once-weekly GH treatment.

  6. Uranium Speciation in Drinking Water from Drilled Wells in Southern Finland and Its Potential Links to Health Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, O.; Vercouter, Th.; Ansoborlo, E.; Fichet, P.; Perret, P.; Kurttio, P.; Salonen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Exceptionally high concentrations of natural uranium have been found in drinking water originating from drilled wells in Southern Finland. However, no clear clinical symptoms have been observed among the exposed population. Hence a question arose as to whether uranium speciation could be one reason for the lack of significant adverse health effects. Uranium species were determined using time-resolved laser-induced-fluorescence-spectroscopy. We performed multi-element chemical analyses in these water samples, and predictive calculations were carried out using up-to-date thermodynamic data. The results indicated good agreement between measurements and modeling. The low toxicity of Finnish bedrock water may be due to the predominance of two calcium dependent species, Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (aq) and CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 2- , whose non toxicity for cells has been described previously. This interdisciplinary study describes chemical speciation of drinking water with elevated uranium concentrations and the potential consequence on health. From these results, it appears that modeling could be used for a better understanding of uranium toxicity of drinking water in the event of contamination. (authors)

  7. Accurate energy levels for the anharmonic oscillator and a summable series for the double-well potential in perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    We introduce a generalization of Wick-ordering which maps the anharmonic oscillator (AO) Hamiltonian for mass m and coupling lambda exactly into a ''Wick-ordered'' Hamiltonian with an effective mass M which is a simple analytic function of lambda and m. The effective coupling Λ=lambda/M 3 is bounded. We transform the AO perturbation series in lambda into one in Λ. This series may then be summed using Borel summation methods. We also introduce a new summation method for the AO series (which is a practical necessity to obtain accurate energy levels of the excited states). We obtain a numerical accuracy for (E/sub P/T--E/sub e/xact)/ E/sub e/xact of at least 10 -7 (using 20 orders of perturbation theory) and 10 -3 (using only 2 orders of perturbation theory) for all couplings and all energy levels of the anharmonic oscillator. The methods are applicable also to the double-well potential (DWP, the AO with a negative mass-squared). The only change is that now the effective coupling is unbounded as lambda→0. The series in Λ is, however, still summable. The relative accuracy in the energy levels for 20 orders of perturbation theory varies from 10 -7 for large coupling to 1% at lambda=0.1 and to 10% at lambda=.05. We also present results for the sextic oscillator

  8. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: Geochemical results from the Frio-I Brine Pilot test, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Nance, H. Seay; Cole, David R.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in general, and deep saline aquifers in particular, are being investigated as possible repositories for large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO2 in such aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick "C" sandstone unit of the Frio Formation, a regional aquifer in the US Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained before CO2 injection from the injection well and an observation well 30 m updip showed a Na–Ca–Cl type brine with ∼93,000 mg/L TDS at saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions; gas analyses showed that CH4 comprised ∼95% of dissolved gas, but CO2 was low at 0.3%. Following CO2 breakthrough, 51 h after injection, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5–5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100–3000 mg/L as HCO3) and in Fe (30–1100 mg/L), a slug of very high DOC values, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, DIC, and CH4. These data, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicate corrosion of pipe and well casing as well as rapid dissolution of minerals, especially calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, both caused by lowered pH (initially ∼3.0 at subsurface conditions) of the brine in contact with supercritical CO2.These geochemical parameters, together with perfluorocarbon tracer gases (PFTs), were used to monitor migration of the injected CO2 into the overlying Frio “B”, composed of a 4-m-thick sandstone and separated from the “C” by ∼15 m of shale and siltstone beds. Results obtained from the Frio “B” 6 months after injection gave chemical and isotopic markers that show significant CO2 (2.9% compared with 0.3% CO2 in dissolved gas) migration into the “B” sandstone. Results of samples collected 15 months after injection, however, are ambiguous, and can be interpreted to show no additional injected CO2 in the “B” sandstone

  9. Potential Role of Semaphorin 3A and Its Receptors in Regulating Aberrant Sympathetic Innervation in Peritoneal and Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jiaming; Tan, Hao; Liu, Tianyu; Shang, Chunliang; Liu, Duo; Guo, Luyan; Yao, Shuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of nerve repellent factors in regulation of the imbalanced innervation of endometriosis. This prospective study aims to explore the role of Sema 3A in regulating aberrant sympathetic innervation in peritoneal and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Ectopic endometriotic lesion were collected from patients with peritoneal endometriosis (n = 24) and deep infiltrating endometriosis of uterosacral ligament (n = 20) undergoing surgery for endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial samples were collected from patients with endometriosis (n = 22) or without endometriosis (n = 26). Healthy peritoneum (n = 13) from the lateral pelvic wall and healthy uterosacral ligament (n = 13) were obtained from patients who had no surgical and histological proof of endometriosis during hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Firstly, we studied the immunostaining of Sema 3A, Plexin A1 and NRP-1 in all the tissues described above. Then we studied the nerve fiber density (NFD) of endometriosis-associated (sympathetic) nerve and para-endometriotic (sympathetic) nerve by double immunofluorescence staining. Finally we analyzed the relationship between expression of Sema 3A in stromal cells of endometriotic lesion and the aberrant innervation of endometriosis. Semi-quantitative immunostaining demonstrated that (1) Higher immunostaining of Sema 3A were found in the eutopic endometrial glandular epithelial cells from patients with endometriosis (p = 0.041) than those without endometriosis; (2) Sema 3A immunostaining was higher in glandular epithelial cells of peritoneal endometriosis (Pendometriosis, while its expression in ectopic stormal cells in both groups were significantly lower than that from eutopic endometrium of women without endometirosis (Pendometriosis-associated sympathetic nerve of peritoneal endometriosis (pendometriosis of uterosacral ligament (pendometriosis. PMID:26720585

  10. Potential Environmental Factors Affecting Oil-Degrading Bacterial Populations in Deep and Surface Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bacterial community dynamics as a result of an oil spill is important for predicting the fate of oil released to the environment and developing bioremediation strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the roles of temperature, water chemistry (nutrients), and initial bacterial community in selecting oil degraders through a series of incubation experiments. Surface (2 m) and bottom (1537 m) waters, collected near the Deepwater Horizon site, were amended with 200 ppm light Louisiana sweet crude oil and bacterial inoculums from surface or bottom water, and incubated at 4 or 24°C for 50 days. Bacterial community and residual oil were analyzed by pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results showed that temperature played a key role in selecting oil-degrading bacteria. Incubation at 4°C favored the development of Cycloclasticus, Pseudoalteromonas , Sulfitobacter , and Reinekea , while 24°C incubations enhanced Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Phaeobacter, and Roseobacter. Water chemistry and the initial community also had potential roles in the development of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities. Pseudoalteromonas , Oleibacter , and Winogradskyella developed well in the nutrient-enriched bottom water, while Reinekea and Thalassobius were favored by low-nutrient surface water. We revealed that the combination of 4°C, crude oil and bottom inoculum was a key factor for the growth of Cycloclasticus , while the combination of surface inoculum and bottom water chemistry was important for the growth of Pseudoalteromonas . Moreover, regardless of the source of inoculum, bottom water at 24°C was a favorable condition for Oleibacter. Redundancy analysis further showed that temperature and initial community explained 57 and 19% of the variation observed, while oil and water chemistry contributed 14 and 10%, respectively. Overall, this study revealed the relative roles of temperature, water

  11. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Coal is the energy source with the largest geological availability worldwide. Of all non-renewable energies coal and lignite accounting for 55 % of the reserves and some 76 % of the resources represent the largest potential. Reserves are those geological quantities of a mineral which can currently be mined under technically and economically viable conditions. Resources are those quantities which are either proven but currently not economically recoverable or quantities which can still be expected or explored on the basis of geological findings. The global availability of energy source does not only depend on geological and economic factors. The technical availability, e.g. mining and preparation capacities, the sufficient availability of land and sea-borne transportation as well as transloading capacities and also a political availability are required likewise. The latter may be disturbed by domestic-policy disputes like strikes or unrest or by foreign-policy disputes like embargos, trade conflicts or even tensions and wars in the producing regions. In the energy-economic discussion the reach of fossil primary energies plays a central role with the most important questions being: when will which energy source be exhausted, which impact will future developments have on the energy price, what does the situation of the other energies look like and which alternatives are there? The reach of coal can only be estimated because of the large deposits on the one hand and the uncertain future coal use and demand on the other. The stronger growth of population and the economic catching-up process in the developing and threshold countries will result in a shift of the production and demand centres in the global economy. However, also in case of further increases the geological potential will be sufficient to reliably cover the global coal demand for the next 100 years. The conventional mining of seams at great depths or of thin seams reaches its technical and economic limits

  12. Innovative Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoid Receptors as Targets in Alzheimer's disease and Less Well-Known Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Juan A; Campillo, Nuria E

    2018-02-25

    The discovery of cannabinoid receptors at the beginning of the 1990s, CB1 being cloned in 1990 and CB2 cloned in 1993, and the availability of selective and potent cannabimimetics could only be justified by the existence of endogenous ligands that are capable of binding to them. Thus, the characterisation and cloning of the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1) led to the isolation and characterisation of the first endocannabinoid, arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), two years later and the subsequent identification of a family of lipid transmitters known as the fatty acid ester 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The endogenous cannabinoid system is a complex signalling system that comprises transmembrane endocannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (the endocannabinoids), the specific uptake mechanisms and the enzymatic systems related to their biosynthesis and degradation. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in a wide diversity of biological processes, in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, including memory, learning, neuronal development, stress and emotions, food intake, energy regulation, peripheral metabolism, and the regulation of hormonal balance through the endocrine system. In this context, this article will review the current knowledge of the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptor as a target in Alzheimer's disease and other less well-known diseases that include, among others, multiple sclerosis, bone metabolism, and Fragile X syndrome. The therapeutic applications will be addressed through the study of cannabinoid agonists acting as single drugs and multi-target drugs highlighting the CB2 receptor agonist. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. The potential of social enterprise to enhance health and well-being: a model and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael J; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel; Kerr, Susan

    2014-12-01

    In recent years civil society organisations, associations, institutions and groups have become increasingly involved at various levels in the governance of healthcare systems around the world. In the UK, particularly in the context of recent reform of the National Health Service in England, social enterprise - that part of the third sector engaged in trading - has come to the fore as a potential model of state-sponsored healthcare delivery. However, to date, there has been no review of evidence on the outcomes of social enterprise involvement in healthcare, nor in the ability of social enterprise to address health inequalities more widely through action on the social determinants of health. Following the development of an initial conceptual model, this systematic review identifies and synthesises evidence from published empirical research on the impact of social enterprise activity on health outcomes and their social determinants. Ten health and social science databases were searched with no date delimiters set. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied prior to data extraction and quality appraisal. Heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed precluded meta-analysis/meta-synthesis and so the results are therefore presented in narrative form. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The included studies provide limited evidence that social enterprise activity can impact positively on mental health, self-reliance/esteem and health behaviours, reduce stigmatization and build social capital, all of which can contribute to overall health and well-being. No empirical research was identified that examined social enterprise as an alternative mode of healthcare delivery. Due to the limited evidence available, we discuss the relationship between the evidence found and other literature not included in the review. There is a clear need for research to better understand and evidence causal mechanisms and to explore the impact of social enterprise activity, and wider civil

  14. Electroluminescence in p-InAs/AlSb/InAsSb/AlSb/p(n)-GaSb type II heterostructures with deep quantum wells at the interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikhailova, M. P.; Ivanov, E.V.; Moiseev, K. D.; Yakovlev, Yu. P.; Hulicius, Eduard; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Šimeček, Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2010), 66-71 ISSN 1063-7826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : electroluninescence * MOVPE * GaSb * InAs * quantum well Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2010

  15. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system near "Boulder Zone" deep wells in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, acquired, processed, and interpreted seismic-reflection data near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields to determine if geologic factors may contribute to the upward migration of injected effluent into that upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an underground source of drinking water. The depth of the Boulder Zone at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields ranges from about 2,750 to 3,300 feet below land surface (ft bls), whereas overlying permeable zones used as alternative drinking water supply range in depth from about 825 to 1,580 ft bls at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structures imaged on seismic-reflection profiles created for the study describe the part of the Floridan aquifer system overlying and within the Boulder Zone. Features of the Floridan aquifer system underlying the Boulder Zone were not studied because seismic-reflection profiles acquired near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields lacked adequate resolution at such depths.

  16. s-wave scattering for deep potentials with attractive tails falling off faster than -1/r2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tim-Oliver; Kaiser, Alexander; Friedrich, Harald

    2011-01-01

    For potentials with attractive tails, as occur in typical atomic interactions, we present a simple formula for the s-wave phase shift δ 0 . It exposes a universal dependence of δ 0 (E) on the potential tail and the influence of effects specific to a given potential, which enter via the scattering length a, or equivalently, the noninteger part Δ th of the threshold quantum number n th . The formula accurately reproduces δ 0 (E) from threshold up to the semiclassical regime, far beyond the validity of the effective-range expansion. We derive the tail functions occurring in the formula for δ 0 (E) and demonstrate the validity of the formula for attractive potential tails proportional to 1/r 6 or to 1/r 4 , and also for a mixed potential tail consisting of a 1/r 4 term together with a non-negligible 1/r 6 contribution.

  17. Early Childhood Teachers' Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Potential Predictors of Depression, Stress, and Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Grant, Ashley A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Early childhood teachers' psychological well-being influences the nurturing and learning classroom climate in early care and education as well as children's development. However, less is known about predictors of teachers' psychological well-being in preschool. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between…

  18. Evaluating Mind Fitness Training and Its Potential Effects on Surgical Residents' Well-Being: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lases, S. S.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Slootweg, Irene A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Pierik, E. G. J. M.; Heineman, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Residents' well-being is essential for both the individual physician and the quality of patient care they deliver. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly enhance residents' well-being. We investigated (i) the influence of mind fitness training (MFT) on quality of care-related well-being

  19. The formation of potentially harmful compounds in churros, a Spanish fried-dough pastry, as influenced by deep frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F J; Arribas-Lorenzo, G

    2008-07-15

    Colour, moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acrylamide (AA) were investigated in traditional Spanish churros. Samples were deep-fried in sunflower oil at lab-scale temperatures of 180, 190 and 200°C and for frying times of 2, 3, 5 and 7min. Fresh made churros were also obtained from local producers. HMF ranged from 1.2±0.02 to 221.4±2.02mg/kg for lab-scale experiments and an average of 74.3±47.5mg/kg was recorded in commercial samples. AA ranged from below the limit of quantitation to 90±0.6μg/kg for lab-scale experiments and an average of 46±24.5μg/kg was measured in commercial samples. Temperatures between 185 and 200°C are commonly used to obtain churros with an acceptable palatability and a crispy surface. However, HMF and AA levels increased nearly two-fold from 190 to 200°C at the same frying times, indicating that a more precise control of frying temperatures is required to minimize their formation. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilisation of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. Existing studies are assessed and possibilities considered for additional analogues. Conclusions are drawn for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Auth.)

  1. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral hippocampus restores deficits in processing of auditory evoked potentials in a rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Samuel G; Grace, Anthony A

    2013-02-01

    Existing antipsychotic drugs are most effective at treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but their relative efficacy is low and they are associated with considerable side effects. In this study deep brain stimulation of the ventral hippocampus was performed in a rodent model of schizophrenia (MAM-E17) in an attempt to alleviate one set of neurophysiological alterations observed in this disorder. Bipolar stimulating electrodes were fabricated and implanted, bilaterally, into the ventral hippocampus of rats. High frequency stimulation was delivered bilaterally via a custom-made stimulation device and both spectral analysis (power and coherence) of resting state local field potentials and amplitude of auditory evoked potential components during a standard inhibitory gating paradigm were examined. MAM rats exhibited alterations in specific components of the auditory evoked potential in the infralimbic cortex, the core of the nucleus accumbens, mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, and ventral hippocampus in the left hemisphere only. DBS was effective in reversing these evoked deficits in the infralimbic cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of MAM-treated rats to levels similar to those observed in control animals. In contrast stimulation did not alter evoked potentials in control rats. No deficits or stimulation-induced alterations were observed in the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices, the shell of the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area. These data indicate a normalization of deficits in generating auditory evoked potentials induced by a developmental disruption by acute high frequency, electrical stimulation of the ventral hippocampus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for lung tumors: the potential value of target immobilization and reduced lung density in dose escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, J.; Debois, M.M.; Raben, A.; Mageras, G.S.; Lutz, W.R.; Mychalczak, B.; Schwartz, L.H.; Gloeggler, P.J.; Leibel, S.A.; Fuks, Z.; Kutcher, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Lung tumors are subject to movement due to respiratory motion. Conventionally, a margin is applied to the clinical target volume (CTV) to account for this and other treatment uncertainties. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric benefits of a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique which has two distinct features - deep inspiration which reduces lung density and breath-hold which immobilizes lung tumors. Both properties can potentially reduce the mass of normal lung tissue in the high dose region, thus improving the possibility of dose escalation. Methods and Materials: To study the efficacy of the DIBH technique, CT scans are acquired for each patient under 4 respiration conditions: free-breathing; DIBH; shallow inspiration breath-hold; shallow expiration breath-hold. The free-breathing and DIBH scans are used to generate treatment plans for comparison of standard and DIBH techniques, while the shallow inspiration and expiration scans provide information on the maximum extent of tumor motion under free-breathing conditions. To acquire the breath-hold scans, the patients are brought to reproducible respiration levels using spirometry and slow vital capacity maneuvers. For the treatment plan comparison free-breathing and DIBH planning target volumes (PTVs) are constructed consisting of the CTV plus a margin for setup error and lung tumor motion. For both plans the margin for setup error is the same while the margin for lung tumor motion differs. The margin for organ motion in free-breathing is determined by the maximum tumor excursions in the shallow inspiration and expiration CT scans. For the DIBH, tumor motion is reduced to the extent to which DIBH can be maintained and the margin for any residual tumor motion is determined from repeat fluoroscopic movies, acquired with the patient monitored using spirometry. Three-dimensional treatment plans, generated using apertures based on the free-breathing and DIBH PTVs, are

  3. Low-Carbon Natural Gas for Transportation: Well-to-Wheels Emissions and Potential Market Assessment in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penev, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report improves on the understanding of the long-term technology potential of low-carbon natural gas (LCNG) supply pathways by exploring transportation market adoption potential through 2035 in California. Techno-economic assessments of each pathway are developed to compare the capacity, cost, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LCNG production pathways. The study analyzes the use of fuel from these pathways in light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle applications. Economic and life-cycle GHG emissions analysis suggest that landfill gas resources are an attractive and relatively abundant resource in terms of cost and GHG reduction potential, followed by waste water treatment plants and biomass with gasification and methanation. Total LCNG production potential is on the order of total natural gas demand anticipated in a success scenario for future natural gas vehicle adoption by 2035 across light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle markets (110 trillion Btu/year).

  4. Evaluating Mind Fitness Training and Its Potential Effects on Surgical Residents' Well-Being : A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lases, S. S.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Slootweg, Irene A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Pierik, E. G. J. M.; Heineman, Erik

    Background Residents' well-being is essential for both the individual physician and the quality of patient care they deliver. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly enhance residents' well-being. We investigated (i) the influence of mind fitness training (MFT) on quality of care-related

  5. Accurate Quantum Wave Packet Study of the Deep Well D+ + HD Reaction: Product Ro-vibrational State-Resolved Integral and Differential Cross Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haixiang; Zhu, Weimin; Su, Wenli; Dong, Lihui; Li, Bin

    2018-03-08

    The H + + H 2 reaction and its isotopic variants as the simplest triatomic ion-molecule reactive system have been attracting much interests, however there are few studies on the titled reaction at state-to-state level until recent years. In this work, accurate state-to-state quantum dynamics studies of the titled reaction have been carried out by a reactant Jacobi coordinate-based time-dependent wave packet approach on diabatic potential energy surfaces constructed by Kamisaka et al. Product ro-vibrational state-resolved information has been calculated for collision energies up to 0.2 eV with maximal total angular momentum J = 40. The necessity of including all K-component for accounting the Coriolis coupling for the reaction has been illuminated. Competitions between the two product channels, (D + + HD' → D' + + HD and D + + HD' → H + + DD') were investigated. Total integral cross sections suggest that resonances enhance the reactivity of channel D + + HD'→ H + + DD', however, resonances depress the reactivity of the another channel D + + HD' → D' + + HD. The structures of the differential cross sections are complicated and depend strongly on collision energies of the two channels and also on the product rotational states. All of the product ro-vibrational state-resolved differential cross sections for this reaction do not exhibit rigorous backward-forward symmetry which may indicate that the lifetimes of the intermediate resonance complexes should not be that long. The dynamical observables of this deuterated isotopic reaction are quite different from the reaction of H + + H 2 → H 2 + H + reported previously.

  6. Assessment of Gas Production Potential from Hydrate Reservoir in Qilian Mountain Permafrost Using Five-Spot Horizontal Well System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Pei Liang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the production behaviors of gas hydrate at site DK-2 in the Qilian Mountain permafrost using the novel five-spot well (5S system by means of numerical simulation. The whole system is composed of several identical units, and each single unit consists of one injection well and four production wells. All the wells are placed horizontally in the hydrate deposit. The combination method of depressurization and thermal stimulation is employed for hydrate dissociation in the system. Simulation results show that favorable gas production and hydrate dissociation rates, gas-to-water ratio, and energy ratio can be acquired using this kind of multi-well system under suitable heat injection and depressurization driving forces, and the water production rate is manageable in the entire production process under current technology. In addition, another two kinds of two-spot well (2S systems have also been employed for comparison. It is found that the 5S system will be more commercially profitable than the 2S configurations for gas production under the same operation conditions. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the gas production performance is dependent on the heat injection rate and the well spacing of the 5S system.

  7. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  8. Probabilistic calculations and sensitivity analysis of parameters for a reference biosphere model assessing the potential exposure of a population to radionuclides from a deep geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Christian; Kaiser, Jan Christian [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, Munich (Germany); Proehl, Gerhard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Wagramerstrasse 5, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Radioecological models are used to assess the exposure of hypothetical populations to radionuclides. Potential radionuclide sources are deep geological repositories for high level radioactive waste. Assessment time frames are long since releases from those repositories are only expected in the far future, and radionuclide migration to the geosphere biosphere interface will take additional time. Due to the long time frames, climate conditions at the repository site will change, leading to changing exposure pathways and model parameters. To identify climate dependent changes in exposure in the far field of a deep geological repository a range of reference biosphere models representing climate analogues for potential future climate states at a German site were developed. In this approach, model scenarios are developed for different contemporary climate states. It is assumed that the exposure pathways and parameters of the contemporary biosphere in the far field of the repository will change to be similar to those at the analogue sites. Since current climate models cannot predict climate developments over the assessment time frame of 1 million years, analogues for a range of realistically possible future climate conditions were selected. These climate states range from steppe to permafrost climate. As model endpoint Biosphere Dose conversion factors (BDCF) are calculated. The radionuclide specific BDCF describe the exposure of a population to radionuclides entering the biosphere in near surface ground water. The BDCF are subject to uncertainties in the exposure pathways and model parameters. In the presented work, probabilistic and sensitivity analysis was used to assess the influence of model parameter uncertainties on the BDCF and the relevance of individual parameters for the model result. This was done for the long half-live radionuclides Cs-135, I-129 and U-238. In addition to this, BDCF distributions for nine climate reference regions and several scenarios were

  9. Evaluating the Use of a Negative D-Dimer and Modified Low Wells Score in Excluding above Knee Deep Venous Thrombosis in an Outpatient Population, Assessing Need for Diagnostic Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahiminejad, Maryam; Rastogi, Anshul; Prabhudesai, Shirish; Mcclinton, David; MacCallum, Peter; Platton, Sean; Friedman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Colour doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) is widely used in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT); however, the number of scans positive for above knee DVT is low. The present study evaluates the reliability of the D-dimer test combined with a clinical probability score (Wells score) in ruling out an above knee DVT and identifying patients who do not need a CDUS. Materials and Method. This study is a retrospective audit and reaudit of a total of 816 outpatients presenting with suspected lower limb DVT from March 2009 to March 2010 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Following the initial audit, a revised clinical diagnostic pathway was implemented. Results. In our initial audit, seven patients (4.9%) with a negative D-dimer and a low Wells score had a DVT. On review, all seven had a risk factor identified that was not included in the Wells score. No patient with negative D-dimer and low Wells score with no extra clinical risk factor had a DVT on CDUS (negative predictive value 100%). A reaudit confirmed adherence to our revised clinical diagnostic pathway. Conclusions. A negative D-dimer together with a low Wells score and no risk factors effectively excludes a lower limb DVT and an ultrasound is unnecessary in these patients

  10. Existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson systems with steep potential well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Miao; Tian, Lixin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Fubao

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with a class of Schrödinger-Poisson systems with the asymptotically linear or asymptotically 3-linear nonlinearity. Under some suitable assumptions on V , K , a , and f , we prove the existence, nonexistence, and asymptotic behavior of solutions via variational methods. In particular, the potential V is allowed to be sign-changing for the asymptotically linear case.

  11. POTENTIAL FOR INVASION OF UNDERGROUND SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER THROUGH MUD-PLUGGED WELLS: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPRAISAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of the feasibility study described here was to test the hypothesis that properly plugged wells are effectively sealed by drilling mud. In The process of testing the hypothesis, evidence about dynamics of building mud cake on the wellbore-face was obtained, as ...

  12. Generator coordinate calculations of 4He and 16O nuclei with Skyrme-like forces and square-well construction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Petkov, I.Zh.; Christov, C.V.

    1984-11-01

    The generator coordinate method with a square-well construction potential and Skyrme-like interactions is applied to calculate characteristics of 4 He and 16 O nuclei. The corresponding nucleon momentum distributions have a high momentum component, which differs from the results obtained with a harmonic oscillator potential. (author)

  13. Deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1977-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron (muon) nucleon and neutrino nucleon scattering as well as electron positron annihilation into hadrons are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. The emphasis is placed on comparisons of quantum chromodynamics with the data. (orig.) [de

  14. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  15. Potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions in well-functioning community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, J T; Perera, S; Newman, A B; Thorpe, J M; Donohue, J M; Simonsick, E M; Shorr, R I; Bauer, D C; Marcum, Z A

    2017-04-01

    There are few studies examining both drug-drug and drug-disease interactions in older adults. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions and associated factors in community-dwelling older adults. This cross-sectional study included 3055 adults aged 70-79 without mobility limitations at their baseline visit in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study conducted in the communities of Pittsburgh PA and Memphis TN, USA. The outcome factors were potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions as per the application of explicit criteria drawn from a number of sources to self-reported prescription and non-prescription medication use. Over one-third of participants had at least one type of interaction. Approximately one quarter (25·1%) had evidence of had one or more drug-drug interactions. Nearly 10·7% of the participants had a drug-drug interaction that involved a non-prescription medication. % The most common drug-drug interaction was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affecting antihypertensives. Additionally, 16·0% had a potential drug-disease interaction with 3·7% participants having one involving non-prescription medications. The most common drug-disease interaction was aspirin/NSAID use in those with history of peptic ulcer disease without gastroprotection. Over one-third (34·0%) had at least one type of drug interaction. Each prescription medication increased the odds of having at least one type of drug interaction by 35-40% [drug-drug interaction adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1·35, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·27-1·42; drug-disease interaction AOR = 1·30; CI = 1·21-1·40; and both AOR = 1·45; CI = 1·34-1·57]. A prior hospitalization increased the odds of having at least one type of drug interaction by 49-84% compared with those not hospitalized (drug-drug interaction AOR = 1·49, 95% CI = 1·11-2·01; drug-disease interaction AOR = 1·69, CI = 1·15-2

  16. Antitumor Activity of Artemisinin and Its Derivatives: From a Well-Known Antimalarial Agent to a Potential Anticancer Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Crespo-Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of quality of life and survival of cancer patients will be greatly enhanced by the development of highly effective drugs to selectively kill malignant cells. Artemisinin and its analogs are naturally occurring antimalarials which have shown potent anticancer activity. In primary cancer cultures and cell lines, their antitumor actions were by inhibiting cancer proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In xenograft models, exposure to artemisinins substantially reduces tumor volume and progression. However, the rationale for the use of artemisinins in anticancer therapy must be addressed by a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in their cytotoxic effects. The primary targets for artemisinin and the chemical base for its preferential effects on heterologous tumor cells need yet to be elucidated. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent advances and new development of this class of drugs as potential anticancer agents.

  17. Extracting the potential-well of a near-field optical trap using the Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammad Asif; Padhy, Punnag; Hansen, Paul C.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2018-02-01

    The non-conservative nature of the force field generated by a near-field optical trap is analyzed. A plasmonic C-shaped engraving on a gold film is considered as the trap. The force field is calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor method. The Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition is used to extract the conservative and the non-conservative component of the force. Due to the non-negligible non-conservative component, it is found that the conventional approach of extracting the potential by direct integration of the force is not accurate. Despite the non-conservative nature of the force field, it is found that the statistical properties of a trapped nanoparticle can be estimated from the conservative component of the force field alone. Experimental and numerical results are presented to support the claims.

  18. The association of dietary inflammatory potential with depression and mental well-being among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel S; Malecki, Kristen M

    2017-06-01

    Current treatment for depression is not considered effective among all cases and, thus far, nutritional protocols are minimal within depression treatment guidelines. Recently, there has been increasing interest in a possible protective and modifiable role of diet in common mental disorders, including depression, due to pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of nutrients. This study aims to investigate whether the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), designed to estimate the inflammatory potential of diet, is associated with depression and other measures of mental health. In a representative sample of U.S. adults (≥20years of age, N=11,592), the distribution of DII score is assessed. Multivariate logistic regression models determine the association between DII quintile and depression. Associations of DII quintile with frequent distress and frequent anxiety are also evaluated. In fully adjusted models, higher DII score is associated with over a two-fold higher odds of depression (OR (95% CI)=2.26 (1.60, 3.20) for highest vs. lowest quintile, Type III p-value≤0.0001). DII score is also associated with higher odds of frequent distress (OR (95% CI)=1.81 (1.20, 2.71) for highest vs. lowest quintile, Type III p-value=0.0167). This association was not significant for frequent anxiety (Type III p-value=0.12). Results of this study indicate that dietary inflammatory potential is associated with depression. These results are consistent with existing hypotheses that inflammatory pathways play a role in the etiology of depression. Further research examining the underlying biological and cellular mechanisms of depression is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Miles Bore,1 Brian Kelly,2 Balakrishnan Nair2 1School of Psychology, 2School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Purpose: Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods: In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127 completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout; and personality traits. Results: Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. Keywords: medical student, well-being, psychological distress, personality

  20. Phase equilibria of toluene/heptane with deep eutectic solvents based on ethyltriphenylphosphonium iodide for the potential use in the separation of aromatics from naphtha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareem, Mukhtar A.; Mjalli, Farouq S.; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Hadj-Kali, Mohamed K.O.; Ghareh Bagh, Fatemeh Saadat; Alnashef, Inas M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ionic liquid analogues are introduced as potential replacements for ionic liquids. • Deep eutectic solvents presented in this work were successful for extracting aromatics. • Hand correlation was applied to ascertain the experimental measurements. • The NRTL thermodynamic model was capable for correlating the LLE experimental data. -- Abstract: In this work, the liquid–liquid extraction of toluene from hydrocarbons mixtures (toluene/heptane) was investigated using deep eutectic solvents as solvents. Ethyltriphenylphosphonium iodide as a salt with either ethylene glycol or sulfolane as hydrogen-bond donors (HBDs) were utilized for synthesizing six DESs. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria data were determined experimentally for the ternary system (toluene + heptane + DES) at (30, 40, 50, and 60) °C and atmospheric pressure. Hand correlation was applied to establish the reliability of the experimental data. In many cases the correlation factor is found close to unity which indicates high reliability of the data. The selectivities and distribution coefficients were used to determine the suitability of these DESs as solvents for this extraction process. Higher selectivities than those published for sulfolane as a commercial solvent were observed. The DES made from ethyltriphenylphosphonium iodide and sulfolane at salt:HBD of 1:4 showed the best separation capability at 30 °C. Thus, it was further characterized by measuring its viscosity and refractive index at a range of temperatures to help understand its physical behaviour needed for process design. The non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model was applied successfully to correlate the experimental tie-lines and to calculate the phase compositions of the ternary systems. It has been found that the third non-randomness parameter varies linearly with the HBD number of moles

  1. Evaluating Mind Fitness Training and Its Potential Effects on Surgical Residents’ Well-Being: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lases, S S; Lombarts, M J M H; Slootweg, Irene A; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Pierik, E G J M; Heineman, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Residents’ well-being is essential for both the individual physician and the quality of patient care they deliver. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly enhance residents’ well-being. We investigated (i) the influence of mind fitness training (MFT) on quality of care-related well-being characteristics: work engagement, empathy, work satisfaction and stress perception and explored (ii) residents’ perceptions of MFT. A multicenter study was conducted in eight Dutch teaching hospitals, from September 2012 to February 2014, using mixed methods—that is, quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis. Eighty-nine surgical residents were invited to participate in pre- and post-intervention questionnaire surveys. Twenty-two residents participated in MFT and were additionally invited to evaluate the training by post-intervention interviews including open questions. At baseline 22 (100%) residents in intervention group and 47 (70.2%) residents in control group, and postintervention 20 (90.9 %) residents in intervention group and 41 (66.1%) residents in control group completed the questionnaires. In intervention-group, residents’ specialty satisfaction increased by 0.23 point on 5-point Likert scale (95% CI 0.23–0.24, P < 0.001) while stress scores decreased by -0.94 point on 10-point scale (95% CI -1.77 to -0.12, P = 0.026). No substantial changes were observed in control group. Participation in MFT was positively associated with residents’ empathy (b = 7.22; 95% CI 4.33–10.11; P < 0.001) and specialty satisfaction scores (b = 0.42; 95% CI 0.18–0.65; P = 0.001). Residents positively evaluated MFT with median scores of 6.80 for training design and 7.21 for outcome (10-point scale). Residents perceived improvement in focusing skills and reported being more aware of their own state of mind and feeling calmer and more in control. Mind fitness training could improve residents’ empathy, specialty satisfaction, stress

  2. Potential tank waste material anomalies located near the liquid observation wells: Model predicted responses of a neutron moisture detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finfrock, S.H.; Toffer, H.; Watson, W.T.

    1994-09-01

    Extensive analyses have been completed to demonstrate that a neutron moisture probe can be used to recognize anomalies in materials and geometry surrounding the liquid observation wells (LOWs). Furthermore, techniques can be developed that will permit the interpretation of detector readings, perturbed by the presence of anomalies, as more accurate moisture concentrations. This analysis effort extends the usefulness of a neutron moisture probe system significantly, especially in the complicated geometries and material conditions that may be encountered in the waste tanks. Both static-source and pulsed-source neutron probes were considered in the analyses. Four different detector configurations were investigated: Thermal and epithermal neutron detectors located in both the near and far field

  3. Coltsfoot as a potential cause of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a patient also consuming kava and blue vervain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshour, Jessica E; Odle, Brian; Rikhye, Somi; Stewart, David W

    2012-09-01

    To report a case of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) possibly associated with the use of coltsfoot, kava, or blue vervain. A 27-year-old white male presented with leg pain and swelling, tachycardia, and pleuritic chest pain. He had no significant medical history. A medication history revealed extensive herbal medication use including: coltsfoot, passionflower, red poppy flower petals, wild lettuce, blue lily flowers, wild dagga flowers, Diviners Three Burning Blend® (comprised of salvia divinorum, blue lily, and wild dagga), kava-kava, St. John's Wort, blue vervain, and Dreamer's Blend® (comprised of Calea zacatechichi, vervain, Entada rheedii, wild lettuce, and Eschscholzia californica). Lower extremity Doppler ultrasound and computed topography (CT) of the chest revealed DVT and PE. A hypercoagulable work-up was negative. The patient was treated with enoxaparin and warfarin and was discharged home. While no distinct agent can be identified as a sole cause of this venous thromboembolic event, coltsfoot could potentially affect coagulation through its effect on vascular endothelial cells as they regulate nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a known mediator of platelet activity and coagulation, particularly in the pulmonary vasculature. Kava and vervain have estrogenic properties. Of the medications consumed by this self-proclaimed "herbalist," coltsfoot is a potential cause of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE).

  4. Carbonated deep in non-NBR 9831/2006 Portland cements in oil well; Carbonatacao em cimentos nao especificados pela Norma NBR 9831/2006 quando empregados em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastenpflug, D.; Moraes, M.K.; Dalla Vecchia, F.; Costa, E.M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Pesquisa sobre Armazenamento de Carbono (CEPAC); Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais (PGETEMA)], Email: hasten@gmail.com; Abreu, J.V. [Holcim Brasil S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico

    2010-07-01

    The NBR 9831/2006 well cements are indicated to well completions to sequestration of CO{sub 2} in geologic formations, being cement class G the most popular. However, studies have shown that Class G cement might suffers considerable degradation due to exposure to CO{sub 2} under geologic sequestration conditions. In order to increase cement resistance to acid attack, admixtures and additives as fly ash, fume, limestone and mineral wastes have been investigated. In this paper experiments were conducted to evaluated four commercial non- NBR 9831/2006 cements generally used in pavement area, in cracks completion and in concretes for use in aggressive environments. These cements were chosen because they have mineral additive into their specifications. This paper analyses the carbonated deep after accelerated carbonation reaction tests that simulate the well's geological conditions, when exposed to water saturated with supercritical CO{sub 2} and wet supercritical CO{sub 2} at 70 deg C and 15 MPa, during 7 days. In addition, compressive strength and the workability of these pastes were evaluated. The results were compared to the ones realized at the same condition with cement class G. It was observed that the cement used in pavement area (Pavifort) has a good resistance to CO{sub 2} attack when compared to the other types of cement, but its compressive strength is very low. (author)

  5. Is the gap between micro- and macroeconomic assessments in health care well understood? The case of vaccination and potential remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is an established intervention that reduces the burden and prevents the spread of infectious diseases. Investing in vaccination is known to offer a wide range of economic and intangible benefits that can potentiate gains for the individual and for society. The discipline of economics provides us with microeconomic and macroeconomic methods for evaluating the economic gains attributed to health status changes. However, the observed gap between micro and macro estimates attributed to health presents challenges to our understanding of health-related productivity changes and, consequently, economic benefits. The gap suggests that the manner in which health-related productive output is quantified in microeconomic models might not adequately reflect the broader economic benefit. We propose that there is a transitional domain that links the micro- and macroeconomic improvement attributed to health status changes. Currently available economic evaluation methods typically omit these consequences, however; they may be adjusted to integrate these transitional consequences. In practical terms, this may give rise to multipliers to apply toward indirect costs to account for the broader macroeconomic benefits linked to changes in health status. In addition, it is possible to consider that different medical conditions and health care interventions may pose different multiplying effects, suggesting that the manner in which resources are allocated within health services gives rise to variation in the amount of the micro-macro gap. An interesting way to move forward in integrating the micro- and macro-level assessment might be by integrating computable general equilibrium (CGE) models as part of the evaluation framework, as was recently performed for pandemic flu and malaria vaccination.

  6. Trichostatin A treatment of cloned mouse embryos improves constitutive heterochromatin remodeling as well as developmental potential to term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochard Vincent

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome reprogramming in early mouse embryos is associated with nuclear reorganization and particular features such as the peculiar distribution of centromeric and pericentric heterochromatin during the first developmental stage. This zygote-specific heterochromatin organization could be observed both in maternal and paternal pronuclei after natural fertilization as well as in embryonic stem (ES cell nuclei after nuclear transfer suggesting that this particular type of nuclear organization was essential for embryonic reprogramming and subsequent development. Results Here, we show that remodeling into a zygotic-like organization also occurs after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, supporting the hypothesis that reorganization of constitutive heterochromatin occurs regardless of the source and differentiation state of the starting material. However, abnormal nuclear remodeling was frequently observed after SCNT, in association with low developmental efficiency. When transient treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA was tested, we observed improved nuclear remodeling in 1-cell SCNT embryos that correlated with improved rates of embryonic development at subsequent stages. Conclusion Together, the results suggest that proper organization of constitutive heterochromatin in early embryos is involved in the initial developmental steps and might have long term consequences, especially in cloning procedures.

  7. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Miles; Kelly, Brian; Nair, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127) completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout); and personality traits. Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students.

  8. CD133 expression in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a potential predictor of progressive clinical courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hong, Seung-Mo; An, Soyeon; Kim, Joo Young; Corbeil, Denis; Karbanová, Jana; Otani, Kyoko; Fujikura, Kohei; Song, Ki-Byung; Kim, Song Cheol; Akita, Masayuki; Nanno, Yoshihide; Toyama, Hirochika; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson; Hirose, Takanori; Itoh, Tomoo; Zen, Yoh

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate whether the stemness molecule, CD133, is expressed in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs; World Health Organization grades 1 and 2) and establish its clinical relevance using 2 separate cohorts. In the first series (n = 178) in which tissue microarrays were available, immunohistochemistry revealed that CD133 was expressed in 14 cases (8%). CD133+ PanNETs had higher TNM stages (P < .01), more frequent lymphovascular invasion (P = .01), and higher recurrence rates (P = .01). In the second cohort (n = 56), the expression of CD133 and CK19 was examined in whole tissue sections. CD133 and CK19 were positive in 10 (18%) and 36 (64%) cases, respectively. CD133 expression correlated with higher pT scores (P < .01), the presence of microscopic venous infiltration (P = .03), and shorter disease-free periods (P < .01). When cases were divided into grade 1 and 2 neoplasms, patients with CD133+ PanNET continued to have shorter disease-free periods than did those with CD133- tumors in both groups (P < .01 and P = .02, respectively). Although CK19+ cases had shorter disease-free periods than did CK19- cases in the whole cohort (P = .02), this difference was less apparent in subanalyses of grade 1 and 2 cases. CD133 expression also appeared to be an independent predictive factor for tumor recurrence in a multivariate analysis (P = .018). The CD133 phenotype was identical between primary and metastatic foci in 17 of 18 cases from which tissues of metastatic deposits were available. In conclusion, the combination of CD133 phenotyping and World Health Organization grading may assist in stratifying patients in terms of the risk of progressive clinical courses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NKX2.2, PDX-1 and CDX-2 as potential biomarkers to differentiate well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michelle X; Coates, Ryan F; Ambaye, Abiy; Cortright, Valerie; Mitchell, Jeannette M; Buskey, Alexa M; Zubarik, Richard; Liu, James G; Ades, Steven; Barry, Maura M

    2018-01-01

    Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET) most frequently arise from the gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreas, and lung. Patients often present as metastasis with an unknown primary, and the clinical management and outcome depend on multiple factors, including the accurate diagnosis with the tumor primary site. Determining the site of the NET with unknown primary remains challenging. Many biomarkers have been investigated in primary NETs and metastatic NETs, with heterogeneous sensitivity and specificity observed. We used high-throughput tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with antibodies against a panel of transcriptional factors including NKX2.2, PDX-1, PTF1A, and CDX-2 on archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded NETs, and investigated the protein expression pattern of these transcription factors in 109 primary GI ( N  = 81), pancreatic ( N  = 17), and lung ( N  = 11) NETs. Differential expression pattern of these markers was observed. In the GI and pancreatic NETs ( N  = 98), NKX2.2, PDX-1, and CDX-2 were immunoreactive in 82 (84%), 14 (14%), and 52 (52%) cases, respectively. PDX-1 was expressed mainly in the small intestinal and appendiceal NETs, occasionally in the pancreatic NETs, and not in the colorectal NETs. All three biomarkers including NKX2.2, PDX-1, and CDX-2 were completely negative in lung NETs. PTF1A was expressed in all normal and neuroendocrine tumor cells. Our findings suggest that NKX2.2 was a sensitive and specific biomarker for the GI and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. We proposed that a panel of immunostains including NKX2.2, PDX-1, and CDX-2 may show diagnostic utility for the most common NETs.

  10. Deep Learning in Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharchuk, G; Gong, E; Wintermark, M; Rubin, D; Langlotz, C P

    2018-02-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning using a convolutional neural network architecture that shows tremendous promise for imaging applications. It is increasingly being adapted from its original demonstration in computer vision applications to medical imaging. Because of the high volume and wealth of multimodal imaging information acquired in typical studies, neuroradiology is poised to be an early adopter of deep learning. Compelling deep learning research applications have been demonstrated, and their use is likely to grow rapidly. This review article describes the reasons, outlines the basic methods used to train and test deep learning models, and presents a brief overview of current and potential clinical applications with an emphasis on how they are likely to change future neuroradiology practice. Facility with these methods among neuroimaging researchers and clinicians will be important to channel and harness the vast potential of this new method. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  12. Environmental challenges of deep water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, Arvid

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation there are discussed the experiences of petroleum industry, and the projects that have been conducted in connection with the planning and drilling of the first deep water wells in Norway. There are also presented views on where to put more effort in the years to come, so as to increase the knowledge of deep water areas. Attention is laid on exploration drilling as this is the only activity with environmental potential that will take place during the next five years or so. The challenges for future field developments in these water depths are briefly discussed. 7 refs

  13. Revivals in an infinite square well in the presence of a δ well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vugalter, G.A.; Sorokin, V.A.; Das, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated quantum revivals of wave packets in a one-dimensional infinite square well potential containing a δ well in the middle. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation for this composite potential admits formally exact solutions. We present analytical results for revival properties in three physically motivated approximations: wave packets containing eigenstates with large numbers in the presence of an arbitrary δ well, 'shallow' and 'deep' δ wells. Analytical results in the case of a 'shallow' δ well have been tested numerically

  14. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions

  15. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-09-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.

  16. Deformation potentials in AlGaN and InGaN alloys and their impact on optical polarization properties of nitride quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Łepkowski, S. P.; Gorczyca, I.; Stefańska-Skrobas, K.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation potentials acz−D1, act−D2, D3, D4, and D5 are determined for random AlGaN and InGaN alloys using electronic band structure calculations based on the density functional theory. A sublinear composition dependence is obtained for acz−D1 and D3 in AlGaN, and D3 in InGaN, whereas...... superlinear behavior on composition is found foract−D2, D4, and D5 in AlGaN, and act−D2and D5 in InGaN. The optical polarization properties of nitride quantum wells are very well described by the k·p method when the obtained deformation potentials are included. In m-plane AlGaN/AlN and InGaN/GaN quantum wells...

  17. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S. — Occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. - Highlights: ► We assessed mixtures in untreated groundwater samples from public-supply wells. ► A screening

  18. Observation of double-well potential of NaH C 1Σ+ state: Deriving the dissociation energy of its ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Huang, Hsien-Yu; Whang, Thou-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2018-03-21

    Vibrational levels (v = 6-42) of the NaH C 1 Σ + state including the inner and outer wells and the near-dissociation region were observed by pulsed optical-optical double resonance fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. The absolute vibrational quantum number is identified by comparing the vibrational energy difference of this experiment with the ab initio calculations. The outer well with v up to 34 is analyzed using the Dunham expansion and a Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) potential energy curve is constructed. A hybrid double-well potential combined with the RKR potential, the ab initio calculation, and a long-range potential is able to describe the whole NaH C 1 Σ + state including the higher vibrational levels (v = 35-42). The dissociation energy of the NaH C 1 Σ + state is determined to be D e (C) = 6595.10 ± 5 cm -1 and then the dissociation energy of the NaH ground state D e (X) = 15 807.87 ± 5 cm -1 can be derived.

  19. Self-potential monitoring around wells in Mutnovsky geothermal field, Kamchatka; Kamchatka hanto mutnovsky deno chinetsui shuhen no shizen den`i monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, N.; Tosha, T.; Ishito, K. [Geological Survey of Japan Ibaragi (Japan); Delemen, I.; Kiryukhin, A. [Institute of Volcanology Far East Branch Russia Academy of Sciences (Russia)

    1997-07-01

    Mutnovsky is a geothermal field which lies to the south of and about 80km away from Petropavlovsk, Kamchatsky, the state capital of Kamchatka. The geothermal survey has been conducted since 1978 in this field. In this study, the self-potential variation was observed by monitoring the potential difference between places near and far from a well in the same region. Then, the self-potential associated with spurting vapor from a well was analyzed using a model of the self-potential generated from the steaming current coupled with the flow of hot water in the porous medium. As results of an experiment on the spurt of stream, vapor containing 80% stream in weight was exhausted at a mass flow rate of 30kg/sec at 100degC from wells. Since the specific enthalpy of this vapor is 2225kJ/kg, the underground geothermal storage layer was estimated to be a state of liquid and vapor two-phase. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Remaining Physiological Barriers in Porcine Kidney Xenotransplantation: Potential Pathways behind Proteinuria as well as Factors Related to Growth Discrepancies following Pig-to-Kidney Xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jigesh A; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Tanabe, Tatsu; Watanabe, Hironosuke; Johnson, Richard J; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Considerable shortages in the supply of available organs continue to plague the field of solid organ transplantation. Despite changes in allocation, as well as the utilization of extended criteria and living donors, the number of patients waiting for organs continues to grow at an alarming pace. Xenotransplantation, cross-species solid organ transplantation, offers one potential solution to this dilemma. Previous extensive research dedicated to this field has allowed for resolution of xenograft failure due to acute rejection, leaving new areas of unresolved challenges as barriers to success in large animal models. Specific to kidney xenotransplantation, recent data seems to indicate that graft compromise can occur due to discrepancies in growth between breeds of donors and significant proteinuria leading to nephrotic syndrome in the recipient. Given these potential limitations, herein, we review potential pathways behind proteinuria, as well as potential causative factors related to growth discrepancies. Control of both of these has the potential to allow xenotransplantation to become clinically applicable in an effort to resolve this organ shortage crisis.