WorldWideScience

Sample records for deep ocean circulation

  1. Abrupt pre-Bølling-Allerød warming and circulation changes in the deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Subhas, Adam V; Southon, John R; Eiler, John M; Adkins, Jess F

    2014-07-03

    Several large and rapid changes in atmospheric temperature and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere--probably linked to changes in deep ocean circulation--occurred during the last deglaciation. The abrupt temperature rise in the Northern Hemisphere and the restart of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at the start of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, 14,700 years ago, are among the most dramatic deglacial events, but their underlying physical causes are not known. Here we show that the release of heat from warm waters in the deep North Atlantic Ocean probably triggered the Bølling-Allerød warming and reinvigoration of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Our results are based on coupled radiocarbon and uranium-series dates, along with clumped isotope temperature estimates, from water column profiles of fossil deep-sea corals in a limited area of the western North Atlantic. We find that during Heinrich stadial 1 (the cool period immediately before the Bølling-Allerød interstadial), the deep ocean was about three degrees Celsius warmer than shallower waters above. This reversal of the ocean's usual thermal stratification pre-dates the Bølling-Allerød warming and must have been associated with increased salinity at depth to preserve the static stability of the water column. The depleted radiocarbon content of the warm and salty water mass implies a long-term disconnect from rapid surface exchanges, and, although uncertainties remain, is most consistent with a Southern Ocean source. The Heinrich stadial 1 ocean profile is distinct from the modern water column, that for the Last Glacial Maximum and that for the Younger Dryas, suggesting that the patterns we observe are a unique feature of the deglacial climate system. Our observations indicate that the deep ocean influenced dramatic Northern Hemisphere warming by storing heat at depth that preconditioned the system for a subsequent abrupt overturning event during the

  2. Deep circulation in the Indian and Pacific Oceans and its implication for the dumping of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    The complexity of ocean transport processes has meant that the limits for the dumping of low-activity radioactive wastes have had to be based on very simplified models of the oceans. This report discusses the models used to determine dumping limits and contrasts them with the known ocean circulation patterns. The deep circulations of the Indian and Pacific Oceans are reviewed to provide a basis for estimating the possible destinations and likely transit times for dissolved material released at the ocean floor

  3. Southern Ocean Circulation: a High Resolution Examination of the Last Deglaciation from Deep-Sea Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L. F.; Li, T.; Chen, T.; Burke, A.; Pegrum Haram, A.; Stewart, J.; Rae, J. W. B.; van de Flierdt, T.; Struve, T.; Wilson, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two decades ago it was first noted that the skeletal remains of deep-sea corals had the potential to provide absolutely dated archives of past ocean conditions. In the intervening twenty years this field has developed to the point where strategic collections and high throughput dating techniques now allow high resolution, well dated records of past deep sea behaviour to be produced. Likewise, efforts to improve understanding of biomineralisation and growth rates are leading to refinements in proxy tools useful for examining circulation, nutrient and carbon cycling, temperature and weathering processes. Deep-sea corals are particularly valuable archives in high latitude regions where radiocarbon-based age models are susceptible to large changes in surface reservoir ages. In this presentation we show new high resolution multiproxy records of the Southern Ocean (Drake Passage) made on U-Th dated corals spanning the last glacial cycle. With more than seventeen hundred reconnaissance ages, and around 200 precise isotope dilution U-Th ages, subtle changes in ocean behaviour can be identified during times of abrupt climate change. The geochemical signature of corals from the deepest sites, closest to modern day Lower Circumpolar Deep Waters, typically show a gradual shift from glacial to Holocene values during deglaciation, likely related to ventilation of the deep ocean. By contrast for the samples collected shallower in the water column (within sites currently bathed by Upper Circumpolar Deep Waters and Antarctic Intermediate and Mode Waters) the evidence points to a more complicated picture. Vertical zonation in the geochemical data suggests that periods of stratification are interspersed with mixing events within the upper 1500m of the water column. At the same time comparison to U-Th dated records from the low latitude Pacific and Atlantic points to an important role for the Southern Ocean in feeding the intermediate waters of both ocean basins throughout the

  4. Meridional overturning circulation conveys fast acidification to the deep Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Fiz F.; Fontela, Marcos; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Mercier, Herlé; Velo, Anton; Lherminier, Pascale; Zunino, Patricia; de La Paz, Mercedes; Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Guallart, Elisa F.; Padin, Xose A.

    2018-02-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the North Atlantic Ocean has been accumulating anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and experiencing ocean acidification, that is, an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (a reduction in pH) and a reduction in the concentration of carbonate ions. The latter causes the ‘aragonite saturation horizon’—below which waters are undersaturated with respect to a particular calcium carbonate, aragonite—to move to shallower depths (to shoal), exposing corals to corrosive waters. Here we use a database analysis to show that the present rate of supply of acidified waters to the deep Atlantic could cause the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by 1,000-1,700 metres in the subpolar North Atlantic within the next three decades. We find that, during 1991-2016, a decrease in the concentration of carbonate ions in the Irminger Sea caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by about 10-15 metres per year, and the volume of aragonite-saturated waters to reduce concomitantly. Our determination of the transport of the excess of carbonate over aragonite saturation (xc[CO32-])—an indicator of the availability of aragonite to organisms—by the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shows that the present-day transport of carbonate ions towards the deep ocean is about 44 per cent lower than it was in preindustrial times. We infer that a doubling of atmospheric anthropogenic CO2 levels—which could occur within three decades according to a ‘business-as-usual scenario’ for climate change—could reduce the transport of xc[CO32-] by 64-79 per cent of that in preindustrial times, which could severely endanger cold-water coral habitats. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation would also export this acidified deep water southwards, spreading corrosive waters to the world ocean.

  5. Carbon dioxide, climate and the deep ocean circulation: Carbon chemistry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menawat, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of oceanic carbon chemistry in modulating the atmospheric levels of CO 2 . It is well known that the oceans are the primary sink of the excess carbon pumped into the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial period. The suspended particulate and the dissolved organic matters in the deep ocean play important roles as carriers of carbon and other elements critical to the fate of CO 2 . In addition, the suspended particulate matter provides sites for oxidation-reduction reactions and microbial activities. The problem is of an intricate system with complex chemical, physical and biological processes. This report describes a methodology to describe the interconversions of different forms of the organic and inorganic nutrients, that may be incorporated in the ocean circulation models. Our approach includes the driving force behind the transfers in addition to balancing the elements. Such thermodynamic considerations of describing the imbalance in the chemical potentials is a new and unique feature of our approach

  6. Costa Rica Rift Revisited: Constraints on Shallow and Deep Hydrothermal Circulation in Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. E.; Becker, K.; He, J.

    2002-12-01

    New heat-flow observations made along two seismic reflection profiles on 6 Ma crust of the Costa Rica Rift flank show an inverse correlation between heat flow and sediment thickness similar to that observed on other sedimented ridges and young ridge flanks. Extrapolation of the seafloor heat-flow values to the top of the igneous crust - justified by comparing seafloor and borehole determinations where observations are colocated - show the surface of the igneous crust to be of uniform temperature despite large local sediment thickness variations. This is consistent with observations made at DSDP/ODP Holes 504B and 896A where basement temperatures are observed to be nearly identical, also despite contrasting sediment thicknesses. Efficient lateral heat exchange via vigorous crustal hydrothermal circulation is required to create the degree of uniformity inferred and observed. Permeability measurements at the two drill sites show that this vigorous circulation may be restricted to as little as the uppermost tens of m of the crust. Permeability determined deeper in Hole 504B is too low to permit thermally significant flow, although temperature logs suggest that thermally significant flow extends throughout the 2 km section penetrated at Site 504, presumably via pathways not intersected by the borehole. The laterally uniform temperatures in the uppermost igneous crust here and elsewhere are remarkable given the small apparent depth-extent of the circulation that so efficiently distributes heat. While certainly not as vigorous, the circulation at depth suggested by the temperature logs at Site 504 is also noteworthy; unfortunately the observation cannot be generalized because of the lack of other deep crustal holes that could permit direct observations, and the lack of a method for inferring deep hydrothermal structure.

  7. Fueling export production: nutrient return pathways from the deep ocean and their dependence on the Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palter, J. B.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Simeon, J.; Slater, R. D.

    2010-11-01

    In the Southern Ocean, mixing and upwelling in the presence of heat and freshwater surface fluxes transform subpycnocline water to lighter densities as part of the upward branch of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). One hypothesized impact of this transformation is the restoration of nutrients to the global pycnocline, without which biological productivity at low latitudes would be significantly reduced. Here we use a novel set of modeling experiments to explore the causes and consequences of the Southern Ocean nutrient return pathway. Specifically, we quantify the contribution to global productivity of nutrients that rise from the ocean interior in the Southern Ocean, the northern high latitudes, and by mixing across the low latitude pycnocline. In addition, we evaluate how the strength of the Southern Ocean winds and the parameterizations of subgridscale processes change the dominant nutrient return pathways in the ocean. Our results suggest that nutrients upwelled from the deep ocean in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and subducted in Subantartic Mode Water support between 33 and 75% of global export production between 30° S and 30° N. The high end of this range results from an ocean model in which the MOC is driven primarily by wind-induced Southern Ocean upwelling, a configuration favored due to its fidelity to tracer data, while the low end results from an MOC driven by high diapycnal diffusivity in the pycnocline. In all models, nutrients exported in the SAMW layer are utilized and converted rapidly (in less than 40 years) to remineralized nutrients, explaining previous modeling results that showed little influence of the drawdown of SAMW surface nutrients on atmospheric carbon concentrations.

  8. Fueling export production: nutrient return pathways from the deep ocean and their dependence on the Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Palter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Ocean, mixing and upwelling in the presence of heat and freshwater surface fluxes transform subpycnocline water to lighter densities as part of the upward branch of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC. One hypothesized impact of this transformation is the restoration of nutrients to the global pycnocline, without which biological productivity at low latitudes would be significantly reduced. Here we use a novel set of modeling experiments to explore the causes and consequences of the Southern Ocean nutrient return pathway. Specifically, we quantify the contribution to global productivity of nutrients that rise from the ocean interior in the Southern Ocean, the northern high latitudes, and by mixing across the low latitude pycnocline. In addition, we evaluate how the strength of the Southern Ocean winds and the parameterizations of subgridscale processes change the dominant nutrient return pathways in the ocean. Our results suggest that nutrients upwelled from the deep ocean in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and subducted in Subantartic Mode Water support between 33 and 75% of global export production between 30° S and 30° N. The high end of this range results from an ocean model in which the MOC is driven primarily by wind-induced Southern Ocean upwelling, a configuration favored due to its fidelity to tracer data, while the low end results from an MOC driven by high diapycnal diffusivity in the pycnocline. In all models, nutrients exported in the SAMW layer are utilized and converted rapidly (in less than 40 years to remineralized nutrients, explaining previous modeling results that showed little influence of the drawdown of SAMW surface nutrients on atmospheric carbon concentrations.

  9. Fueling primary productivity: nutrient return pathways from the deep ocean and their dependence on the Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palter, J. B.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Simeon, J.; Slater, D.

    2010-06-01

    In the Southern Ocean, mixing and upwelling in the presence of heat and freshwater surface fluxes transform subpycnocline water to lighter densities as part of the upward branch of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). One hypothesized impact of this transformation is the restoration of nutrients to the global pycnocline, without which biological productivity at low latitudes would be catastrophically reduced. Here we use a novel set of modeling experiments to explore the causes and consequences of the Southern Ocean nutrient return pathway. Specifically, we quantify the contribution to global productivity of nutrients that rise from the ocean interior in the Southern Ocean, the northern high latitudes, and by mixing across the low latitude pycnocline. In addition, we evaluate how the strength of the Southern Ocean winds and the parameterizations of subgridscale processes change the dominant nutrient return pathways in the ocean. Our results suggest that nutrients upwelled from the deep ocean in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and subducted in Subantartic Mode Water support between 33 and 75% of global primary productivity between 30° S and 30° N. The high end of this range results from an ocean model in which the MOC is driven primarily by wind-induced Southern Ocean upwelling, a configuration favored due to its fidelity to tracer data, while the low end results from an MOC driven by high diapycnal diffusivity in the pycnocline. In all models, the high preformed nutrients subducted in the SAMW layer are converted rapidly (in less than 40 years) to remineralized nutrients, explaining previous modeling results that showed little influence of the drawdown of SAMW surface nutrients on atmospheric carbon concentrations.

  10. Deep and surface circulation in the Northwest Indian Ocean from Argo, surface drifter, and in situ profiling current observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, S. A.; Dimarco, S. F.; Stoessel, M. M.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The northwest Indian Ocean is a region of complex circulation and atmospheric influence. The Persian (Arabian) Gulf and Red Sea contribute toward the complexity of the region. This study encompasses the surface and deep circulation in the region ranging from 0°N-35°N and 40°E-80°E from January 2002-December 2009. Emphasis is in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea (roughly from 21°N-26°N and 56°E-63°E) using a variety of in situ and observation data sets. While there is a lot known about the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, little is known about the Oman Sea. Circulation in the northwest Indian Ocean is largely influenced by seasonal monsoon winds. From the winter monsoon to the summer monsoon, current direction reverses. Marginal sea inflow and outflow are also seasonally variable, which greatly impacts the physical water mass properties in the region. In situ and observation data sets include data from Argo floats (US GODAE), surface drifters (AOML) and an observation system consisting of 4 independent moorings and a cabled ocean observatory in the Oman Sea. The observing system in the Oman Sea was installed by Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. beginning in 2005, and measures current, temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and turbidity, using the Aanderaa Recording Doppler Current Profiler (RDCP) 600 and the Aanderaa Recording Current Meter (RCM) 11. The cabled ocean observatory measures dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity between 65 m and 1000 m and reports in real-time. Argo floats in the region have a parking depth range from 500 m to 2000 m. At 1000 m depth, 98% of the velocity magnitudes range from less than 1 cm/s to 20 cm/s. The Somali Current and Northeast/Southwest Monsoon Currents are present, reversing from summer to winter. At 2000 m depth, the Somali and Monsoon Currents are still present but have smaller velocities with 98% ranging from less than 1 cm/s to 13 cm/s. At both 1000 m and 2000 m, larger velocities occur

  11. Determination of deep water circulation in the East Atlantic Ocean by means of a box-model based evaluation of C-14 measurements and other tracer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlitzer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radiocarbon (C-14) measurements proved to be an efficient means of determining the average, large-area deep water circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. The thesis under review explains and discusses measurements carried out in the equatorial West Atlantic and North Atlantic Ocean. The samples have been taken during mission 56 of the RS 'meteor' in spring 1981. The gas has been obtained by vacuum extraction and the measurements have been performed in proportional counter tubes, the error to be accounted for amounting to 2per mille. These measured data, together with measurements of the potential temperatures, the silicate and CO 2 concentrations, and measured data from the South-East Atlantic Ocean, have been used to calculate on the basis of a box model of the Atlantic Ocean the deep water flow from the West to the East Atlantic Ocean, the deep water circulation between the various East Atlantic basins, and the turbulent diffusion coefficients required to parameterize the deep water mixing processes. (orig./HP) [de

  12. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C

    1996-01-01

    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  13. Glacial ocean circulation and stratification explained by reduced atmospheric temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Malte F.

    2016-01-01

    To understand climatic swings between glacial and interglacial climates we need to explain the observed fluctuations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), which in turn are most likely driven by changes in the deep ocean circulation. This study presents a model for differences in the deep ocean circulation between glacial and interglacial climates consistent with both our physical understanding and various proxy observations. The results suggest that observed changes in ocean circulation and s...

  14. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  15. The Southern Ocean's role in ocean circulation and climate transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Stewart, A.; Hines, S.; Adkins, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The ventilation of deep and intermediate density classes at the surface of the Southern Ocean impacts water mass modification and the air-sea exchange of heat and trace gases, which in turn influences the global overturning circulation and Earth's climate. Zonal variability occurs along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Antarctic margins related to flow-topography interactions, variations in surface boundary conditions, and exchange with northern basins. Information about these zonal variations, and their impact on mass and tracer transport, are suppressed when the overturning is depicted as a two-dimensional (depth-latitude) streamfunction. Here we present an idealized, multi-basin, time-dependent circulation model that applies residual circulation theory in the Southern Ocean and allows for zonal water mass transfer between different ocean basins. This model efficiently determines the temporal evolution of the ocean's stratification, ventilation and overturning strength in response to perturbations in the external forcing. With this model we explore the dynamics that lead to transitions in the circulation structure between multiple, isolated cells and a three-dimensional, "figure-of-eight," circulation in which traditional upper and lower cells are interleaved. The transient model is also used to support a mechanistic explanation of the hemispheric asymmetry and phase lag associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events during the last glacial period. In particular, the 200 year lag in southern hemisphere temperatures, following a perturbation in North Atlantic deep water formation, depends critically on the migration of Southern Ocean isopycnal outcropping in response to low-latitude stratification changes. Our results provide a self-consistent dynamical framework to explain various ocean overturning transitions that have occurred over the Earth's last 100,000 years, and motivate an exploration of these mechanisms in more sophisticated climate models.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  17. Glacial ocean circulation and stratification explained by reduced atmospheric temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Malte F

    2017-01-03

    Earth's climate has undergone dramatic shifts between glacial and interglacial time periods, with high-latitude temperature changes on the order of 5-10 °C. These climatic shifts have been associated with major rearrangements in the deep ocean circulation and stratification, which have likely played an important role in the observed atmospheric carbon dioxide swings by affecting the partitioning of carbon between the atmosphere and the ocean. The mechanisms by which the deep ocean circulation changed, however, are still unclear and represent a major challenge to our understanding of glacial climates. This study shows that various inferred changes in the deep ocean circulation and stratification between glacial and interglacial climates can be interpreted as a direct consequence of atmospheric temperature differences. Colder atmospheric temperatures lead to increased sea ice cover and formation rate around Antarctica. The associated enhanced brine rejection leads to a strongly increased deep ocean stratification, consistent with high abyssal salinities inferred for the last glacial maximum. The increased stratification goes together with a weakening and shoaling of the interhemispheric overturning circulation, again consistent with proxy evidence for the last glacial. The shallower interhemispheric overturning circulation makes room for slowly moving water of Antarctic origin, which explains the observed middepth radiocarbon age maximum and may play an important role in ocean carbon storage.

  18. The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Slomp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new mass balance model for the coupled marine cycles of phosphorus (P and carbon (C is used to examine the relationships between oceanic circulation, primary productivity, and sedimentary burial of reactive P and particulate organic C (POC, on geological time scales. The model explicitly represents the exchanges of water and particulate matter between the continental shelves and the open ocean, and it accounts for the redox-dependent burial of POC and the various forms of reactive P (iron(III-bound P, particulate organic P (POP, authigenic calcium phosphate, and fish debris. Steady state and transient simulations indicate that a slowing down of global ocean circulation decreases primary production in the open ocean, but increases that in the coastal ocean. The latter is due to increased transfer of soluble P from deep ocean water to the shelves, where it fuels primary production and causes increased reactive P burial. While authigenic calcium phosphate accounts for most reactive P burial ocean-wide, enhanced preservation of fish debris may become an important reactive P sink in deep-sea sediments during periods of ocean anoxia. Slower ocean circulation globally increases POC burial, because of enhanced POC preservation under anoxia in deep-sea depositional environments and higher primary productivity along the continental margins. In accordance with geological evidence, the model predicts increased accumulation of reactive P on the continental shelves during and following periods of ocean anoxia.

  19. Fritz Schott's Contributions to the Understanding of the Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbeck, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ocean circulation and its central significance for global climate lay at the heart of Fritz's research. In the context of hard-won data from his more than 30 research cruises to key regions of the Atlantic and Indian oceans, he made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the wind-driven and thermohaline ocean circulation. His insights and explorations of circulation and dynamics of the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans have led the field and provided a large part of the basis for planning large, international experiments. Fritz's work is also distinguished by his making exceptional use of modeling results, increasingly as the models have improved. His research has provided a much clearer correspondence between the observed ocean-structure and dynamical theory-noting both theoretical successes and limitations. Besides his general interest in the physical oceanography of the World Oceans, most of his research was devoted to the dynamics of tropical oceans with its intense and highly variable current systems. Concerning the Indian Ocean, Fritz's investigated the response of the Somali Current system to the variable monsoon winds in the early 1980's, obtaining high-quality, hydrographic surveys and the first long term direct measurement of ocean currents from moored arrays. His analyses and interpretations provided a synthesis of the complex circulations there. In the tropical Atlantic Ocean Fritz research focused on the western boundary circulation with important contributions to the understanding of the North Brazil Current retroflection, and the variability of the shallow and deep western boundary currents. Trying to solve the fundamental question ‘what is the role of the tropical ocean for climate variability', Fritz initiated large multinational research programs under the umbrella of the World Climate Research Projects WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) and CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). Fritz was the initiator and

  20. Deep water characteristics and circulation in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimei; Du, Yan; Peng, Shiqiu; Liu, Kexiu; Huang, Rui Xin

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the deep circulation in the South China Sea (SCS) using oceanographic observations combined with results from a bottom layer reduced gravity model. The SCS water, 2000 m below the surface, is quite different from that in the adjacent Pacific Ocean, and it is characterized by its low dissolved oxygen (DO), high temperature and low salinity. The horizontal distribution of deep water properties indicates a basin-scale cyclonic circulation driven by the Luzon overflow. The results of the bottom layer reduced gravity model are consistent with the existence of the cyclonic circulation in the deep SCS. The circulation is stronger at the northern/western boundary. After overflowing the sill of the Luzon Strait, the deep water moves broadly southwestward, constrained by the 3500 m isobath. The broadening of the southward flow is induced by the downwelling velocity in the interior of the deep basin. The main deep circulation bifurcates into two branches after the Zhongsha Islands. The southward branch continues flowing along the 3500 m isobath, and the eastward branch forms the sub-basin scale cyclonic circulation around the seamounts in the central deep SCS. The returning flow along the east boundary is fairly weak. The numerical experiments of the bottom layer reduced gravity model reveal the important roles of topography, bottom friction, and the upwelling/downwelling pattern in controlling the spatial structure, particularly the strong, deep western boundary current.

  1. Modeling the Middle Jurassic ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Brunetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present coupled ocean–sea-ice simulations of the Middle Jurassic (∼165 Ma when Laurasia and Gondwana began drifting apart and gave rise to the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Since the opening of the Proto-Caribbean is not well constrained by geological records, configurations with and without an open connection between the Proto-Caribbean and Panthalassa are examined. We use a sea-floor bathymetry obtained by a recently developed three-dimensional (3D elevation model which compiles geological, palaeogeographical and geophysical data. Our original approach consists in coupling this elevation model, which is based on detailed reconstructions of oceanic realms, with a dynamical ocean circulation model. We find that the Middle Jurassic bathymetry of the Central Atlantic and Proto-Caribbean seaway only allows for a weak current of the order of 2 Sv in the upper 1000 m even if the system is open to the west. The effect of closing the western boundary of the Proto-Caribbean is to increase the transport related to barotropic gyres in the southern hemisphere and to change water properties, such as salinity, in the Neo-Tethys. Weak upwelling rates are found in the nascent Atlantic Ocean in the presence of this superficial current and we discuss their compatibility with deep-sea sedimentological records in this region.

  2. Early concepts and charts of ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. G.; Stramma, L.; Kortum, G.

    realized that water is a poor conductor of heat and, unlike that of freshwater, the density of seawater continues to increase as it is cooled to its freezing point; the far-reaching significance of the implied vertical convection and deep circulation of the ocean on the moderation of climate was immediately clear (Rumford), though observations were available almost exclusively from the ocean's surface. Largely because of the marine chronometer, a wealth of unprecedentedly-accurate information about zonal, as well as meridional, surface currents began to accumulate in various hydrographic offices. In the early nineteenth century data from the Atlantic were collected and reduced in a systematic fashion (Rennell), to produce the first detailed description of the major circulation patterns at the surface for the entire mid- and low-latitude Atlantic, along with evidence for cross-equatorial flow. This work provided a foundation for the assemblage of a global data set (Humboldt; Berghaus) that yielded a worldwide charting of the non-polar currents by the late 1830s. Subtleties such as the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the Pacific were revealed for the first time. During the next two decades, the western intensification of subtropical gyres was recognized (Wilkes) while numerous refinements were made to other global descriptions (Wilkes; Kerhallet; Findlay). Heuristic and often incorrect theories of what causes the circulations in the atmosphere and oceans were popularized in the 1850s and 1860s which led to a precipitous decline in the quality of charts intended for the public (Maury; Gareis and Becker). Such errors in popular theories provided motivation for the adoption of analytical methods, which in turn led directly to the discovery of the full effect of Earth's rotation on relatively large-scale motion and the realization of how that effect produces flow perpendicular to horizontal pressure gradients (Ferrel). The precedents for modern dedicated research cruises came

  3. Depth of origin of ocean-circulation-induced magnetic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, Christopher; Saynisch-Wagner, Jan; Thomas, Maik

    2018-01-01

    As the world ocean moves through the ambient geomagnetic core field, electric currents are generated in the entire ocean basin. These oceanic electric currents induce weak magnetic signals that are principally observable outside of the ocean and allow inferences about large-scale oceanic transports of water, heat, and salinity. The ocean-induced magnetic field is an integral quantity and, to first order, it is proportional to depth-integrated and conductivity-weighted ocean currents. However, the specific contribution of oceanic transports at different depths to the motional induction process remains unclear and is examined in this study. We show that large-scale motional induction due to the general ocean circulation is dominantly generated by ocean currents in the upper 2000 m of the ocean basin. In particular, our findings allow relating regional patterns of the oceanic magnetic field to corresponding oceanic transports at different depths. Ocean currents below 3000 m, in contrast, only contribute a small fraction to the ocean-induced magnetic signal strength with values up to 0.2 nT at sea surface and less than 0.1 nT at the Swarm satellite altitude. Thereby, potential satellite observations of ocean-circulation-induced magnetic signals are found to be likely insensitive to deep ocean currents. Furthermore, it is shown that annual temporal variations of the ocean-induced magnetic field in the region of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current contain information about sub-surface ocean currents below 1000 m with intra-annual periods. Specifically, ocean currents with sub-monthly periods dominate the annual temporal variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field.

  4. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    roughly 28°S. The second is the Hawaiian Island Chain, extending to Midway Island at 28°N, 177°W and finally the Emperor Seamount chain running due...dimension array centered near Ascension. The climatology ocean (WOA09) showed very little seasonal dependence or change from the geodesic and this is

  5. Marine geochemistry ocean circulation, carbon cycle and climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Roy-Barman, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works. It brings quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to the anthropogenic pressure? The book provides a simple introduction to the concepts (environmental chemistry, isotopes), the methods (field approach, remote sensing, modeling) and the applications (ocean circulation, carbon cycle, climate change) of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Marine geochemistry is not an isolated discipline: numerous openings on physical oceanography, marine biology, climatology, geology, pollutions and ecology are proposed and provide a global vision of the ocean. It includes new topics based on ongoing research programs such as GEOTRACES, Global Carbon Project, Tara Ocean. It provides a complete outline for a course in marine geochemistry. To favor a...

  6. Modification of the deep salinity-maximum in the Southern Ocean by circulation in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew; Leach, Harry; Strass, Volker

    2017-07-01

    The evolution of the deep salinity-maximum associated with the Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) is assessed using a set of 37 hydrographic sections collected over a 20-year period in the Southern Ocean as part of the WOCE/CLIVAR programme. A circumpolar decrease in the value of the salinity-maximum is observed eastwards from the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean through the Indian and Pacific sectors to Drake Passage. Isopycnal mixing processes are limited by circumpolar fronts, and in the Atlantic sector, this acts to limit the direct poleward propagation of the salinity signal. Limited entrainment occurs into the Weddell Gyre, with LCDW entering primarily through the eddy-dominated eastern limb. A vertical mixing coefficient, κV of (2.86 ± 1.06) × 10-4 m2 s-1 and an isopycnal mixing coefficient, κI of (8.97 ± 1.67) × 102 m2 s-1 are calculated for the eastern Indian and Pacific sectors of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). A κV of (2.39 ± 2.83) × 10-5 m2 s-1, an order of magnitude smaller, and a κI of (2.47 ± 0.63) × 102 m2 s-1, three times smaller, are calculated for the southern and eastern Weddell Gyre reflecting a more turbulent regime in the ACC and a less turbulent regime in the Weddell Gyre. In agreement with other studies, we conclude that the ACC acts as a barrier to direct meridional transport and mixing in the Atlantic sector evidenced by the eastward propagation of the deep salinity-maximum signal, insulating the Weddell Gyre from short-term changes in NADW characteristics.

  7. Laboratory Models of Ocean Circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitehead, John

    1997-01-01

    ...). The subsequent studies were then split into two separate experiments involving convection in the two types of configurations which are likely to produce the very coldest water in the oceans, one...

  8. Enhanced deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation with global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelicher, T. L.; Jaccard, S.; Dunne, J. P.; Paynter, D.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-first century coupled climate model simulations, observations from the recent past, and theoretical arguments suggest a consistent trend towards warmer ocean temperatures and fresher polar surface oceans in response to increased radiative forcing resulting in increased upper ocean stratification and reduced ventilation and oxygenation of the deep ocean. Paleo-proxy records of the warming at the end of the last ice age, however, suggests a different outcome, namely a better ventilated and oxygenated deep ocean with global warming. Here we use a four thousand year global warming simulation from a comprehensive Earth System Model (GFDL ESM2M) to show that this conundrum is a consequence of different rates of warming and that the deep ocean is actually better ventilated and oxygenated in a future warmer equilibrated climate consistent with paleo-proxy records. The enhanced deep ocean ventilation in the Southern Ocean occurs in spite of increased positive surface buoyancy fluxes and a constancy of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds - circumstances that would otherwise be expected to lead to a reduction in deep ocean ventilation. This ventilation recovery occurs through a global scale interaction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation undergoing a multi-centennial recovery after an initial century of transient decrease and transports salinity-rich waters inform the subtropical surface ocean to the Southern Ocean interior on multi-century timescales. The subsequent upwelling of salinity-rich waters in the Southern Ocean strips away the freshwater cap that maintains vertical stability and increases open ocean convection and the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters. As a result, the global ocean oxygen content and the nutrient supply from the deep ocean to the surface are higher in a warmer ocean. The implications for past and future changes in ocean heat and carbon storage will be discussed.

  9. Multiple states in the late Eocene ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatsen, M. L. J.; von der Heydt, A. S.; Kliphuis, M.; Viebahn, J.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) marks a major step within the Cenozoic climate in going from a greenhouse into an icehouse state, with the formation of a continental-scale Antarctic ice sheet. The roles of steadily decreasing CO2 concentrations versus changes in ocean circulation at the EOT are still debated and the threshold for Antarctic glaciation is obscured by uncertainties in global geometry. Here, a detailed study of the late Eocene ocean circulation is carried out using an ocean general circulation model under two slightly different geography reconstructions of the middle-to-late Eocene (38 Ma). Using the same atmospheric forcing, both geographies give a profoundly different equilibrium ocean circulation state. The underlying reason for this sensitivity is the presence of multiple equilibria characterised by either North or South Pacific deep water formation. A possible shift from a southern towards a northern overturning circulation would result in significant changes in the global heat distribution and consequently make the Southern Hemisphere climate more susceptible for significant cooling and ice sheet formation on Antarctica.

  10. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajka-Williams, E

    2014-09-28

    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. The deep ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems.

  12. Oceanic Circulation. A Programmed Unit of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Maritime Academy, Castine.

    This booklet contains a programmed lesson on oceanic circulation. It is designed to allow students to progress through the subject at their own speed. Since it is written in linear format, it is suggested that students proceed through the program from "frame" to succeeding "frame." Instructions for students on how to use the booklet are included.…

  13. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  14. Changes in ocean circulation and carbon storage are decoupled from air-sea CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2011-02-01

    The spatial distribution of the air-sea flux of carbon dioxide is a poor indicator of the underlying ocean circulation and of ocean carbon storage. The weak dependence on circulation arises because mixing-driven changes in solubility-driven and biologically-driven air-sea fluxes largely cancel out. This cancellation occurs because mixing driven increases in the poleward residual mean circulation result in more transport of both remineralized nutrients and heat from low to high latitudes. By contrast, increasing vertical mixing decreases the storage associated with both the biological and solubility pumps, as it decreases remineralized carbon storage in the deep ocean and warms the ocean as a whole.

  15. Climatology of the HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model - Sea ice general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legutke, S. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    The HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) climatology, obtained in a long-term forced integration is described. HOPE-G is a primitive-equation z-level ocean model which contains a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model. It is formulated on a 2.8 grid with increased resolution in low latitudes in order to better resolve equatorial dynamics. The vertical resolution is 20 layers. The purpose of the integration was both to investigate the models ability to reproduce the observed general circulation of the world ocean and to obtain an initial state for coupled atmosphere - ocean - sea-ice climate simulations. The model was driven with daily mean data of a 15-year integration of the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM4, the atmospheric component in later coupled runs. Thereby, a maximum of the flux variability that is expected to appear in coupled simulations is included already in the ocean spin-up experiment described here. The model was run for more than 2000 years until a quasi-steady state was achieved. It reproduces the major current systems and the main features of the so-called conveyor belt circulation. The observed distribution of water masses is reproduced reasonably well, although with a saline bias in the intermediate water masses and a warm bias in the deep and bottom water of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The model underestimates the meridional transport of heat in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated heat transport in the other basins, though, is in good agreement with observations. (orig.)

  16. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. England

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean exchange of

  17. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. England

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean

  18. The deep ocean under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-13

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. General circulation and tracers: studies in the Western Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamous, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The main question addressed in this thesis is how to best use the information obtained from hydro-biogeochemical tracer data, to study the oceanic general circulation in the Western Indian Ocean. First, a principal component analysis is performed on a historical data set. The tracers considered are temperature, salinity, density, oxygen, phosphate and silica. The method reduces the amount of data to be considered by a factor of 5. It reproduces correctly and efficiently the large-scale distributions of these oceanic properties. The analysed data are then used in a finite-difference nonlinear inverse model. The grid has a resolution of 4 deg. by 4 deg.. Dynamical as well as tracer conservation constraints are used. These constraints are well satisfied by the obtained solutions but the associated errors remain large. Additional constraints would be required in order to discuss the different solutions in more detail. Finally, a qualitative study is done on the deep distribution of helium-3. The data show several important features linked to hydrothermal input in the Gulf of Aden and on the Central Indian Ridge, and to the origin of water masses and deep circulation characteristics. However additional data are required in order to clarify the distribution of this tracer in other key areas. (author) [fr

  20. Tracing the Ventilation Pathways of the Deep North Pacific Ocean Using Lagrangian Particles and Eulerian Tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, H.A.M.S.; Primeau, F.W.; Deleersnijder, E.L.C.; Heemink, A.W.

    2017-01-01

    Lagrangian forward and backward models are introduced into a coarse-grid ocean global circulation model to trace the ventilation routes of the deep North Pacific Ocean. The random walk aspect in the Lagrangian model is dictated by a rotated isopycnal diffusivity tensor in the circulation model,

  1. Deep Ocean Contribution to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L.; Sun, W.; Tang, H.; Wang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The ocean temperature and salinity change in the upper 2000m can be detected by Argo floats, so we can know the steric height change of the ocean. But the ocean layers above 2000m represent only 50% of the total ocean volume. Although the temperature and salinity change are small compared to the upper ocean, the deep ocean contribution to sea level might be significant because of its large volume. There has been some research on the deep ocean rely on the very sparse situ observation and are limited to decadal and longer-term rates of change. The available observational data in the deep ocean are too spares to determine the temporal variability, and the long-term changes may have a bias. We will use the Argo date and combine the situ data and topographic data to estimate the temperature and salinity of the sea water below 2000m, so we can obtain a monthly data. We will analyze the seasonal and annual change of the steric height change due to the deep ocean between 2005 and 2016. And we will evaluate the result combination the present-day satellite and in situ observing systems. The deep ocean contribution can be inferred indirectly as the difference between the altimetry minus GRACE and Argo-based steric sea level.

  2. 3D Visualization of Global Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, V. G.; Sharma, R.; Zhang, E.; Schmittner, A.; Jenny, B.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced 3D visualization techniques are seldom used to explore the dynamic behavior of ocean circulation. Streamlines are an effective method for visualization of flow, and they can be designed to clearly show the dynamic behavior of a fluidic system. We employ vector field editing and extraction software to examine the topology of velocity vector fields generated by a 3D global circulation model coupled to a one-layer atmosphere model simulating preindustrial and last glacial maximum (LGM) conditions. This results in a streamline-based visualization along multiple density isosurfaces on which we visualize points of vertical exchange and the distribution of properties such as temperature and biogeochemical tracers. Previous work involving this model examined the change in the energetics driving overturning circulation and mixing between simulations of LGM and preindustrial conditions. This visualization elucidates the relationship between locations of vertical exchange and mixing, as well as demonstrates the effects of circulation and mixing on the distribution of tracers such as carbon isotopes.

  3. Ocean circulation code on machine connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitart, F.

    1993-01-01

    This work is part of a development of a global climate model based on a coupling between an ocean model and an atmosphere model. The objective was to develop this global model on a massively parallel machine (CM2). The author presents the OPA7 code (equations, boundary conditions, equation system resolution) and parallelization on the CM2 machine. CM2 data structure is briefly evoked, and two tests are reported (on a flat bottom basin, and a topography with eight islands). The author then gives an overview of studies aimed at improving the ocean circulation code: use of a new state equation, use of a formulation of surface pressure, use of a new mesh. He reports the study of the use of multi-block domains on CM2 through advection tests, and two-block tests

  4. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Voss, R. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    The stability of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation against meltwater input is investigated in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. The meltwater input to the Labrador Sea is increased linearly for 250 years to a maximum input of 0.625 Sv and then reduced again to 0 (both instantaneously and slowly decreasing over 250 years). The resulting freshening forces a shutdown of the formation of North Atlantic deepwater and a subsequent reversal of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic, filling the deep Atlantic with Antarctic bottom water. The change in the overturning pattern causes a drastic reduction of the Atlantic northward heat transport, resulting in a strong cooling with maximum amplitude over the northern North Atlantic and a southward shift of the sea-ice margin in the Atlantic. Due to the increased meridional temperature gradient, the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone is displaced southward and the westerlies in the northern hemisphere gain strength. We identify four main feedbacks affecting the stability of the thermohaline circulation: the change in the overturning circulation of the Atlantic leads to longer residence times of the surface waters in high northern latitudes, which allows them to accumulate more precipitation and runoff from the continents, which results in an increased stability in the North Atlantic.

  5. Isotopes as tracers of the oceanic circulation: Results from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.; Jenkins, W.J.; Key, R.; Lupton, J.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decades, natural and anthropogenic isotopes such as tritium ( 3 H), radiocarbon ( 14 C), 3 He, or the stable isotopes of water have been used in studies of the dynamics of natural systems. Early applications of tracers to studies of the ocean were directed at determination of circulation patterns and mean residence times of specific water masses, as well as estimates of mixing coefficients. These exploratory studies suggested that tracers can add significantly to our understanding of the oceanic circulation. In order to fully exploit this potential, the first global tracer study, the GEochemical Ocean SECtions Study (GEOSECS), was launched. From the GEOSECS results it was immediately apparent that very close coordination of tracer programs with physical oceanography studies is required for full utilization of tracer data. During the 1980s plans for the World OCean Experiment (WOCE) were developed. As part of its Hydrographic Program (WHP), especially during the one-time survey, a set of tracers were measured on a global scale with unprecedented spatial resolution (both lateral and vertical). The original plan included a larger number of tracers (CFCs, 3 H/ 3 He, 14 C, 39 Ar, stable isotopes of water, helium isotopes, 228 Ra, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 85 Kr) than could actually be measured systematically (CFCs, 3 H/ 3 He, 14 C, H 2 18 O/H 2 16 O, helium isotopes). Nevertheless, the resulting data set, which presently is under evaluation, exceeds those obtained from pre-WOCE tracer studies by a wide margin. In this contribution, we describe the existing WOCE data set and demonstrate the type of results that can be expected from its interpretation on the basis of a few selected examples. These examples include: (1) the application of tritium and 3 He to studies of the ventilation of the upper waters in the Pacific Ocean, (2) the spreading of intermediate water in the Pacific and Indian oceans as derived from the distribution of 3 He, and (3) the evaluation of

  6. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Mélanie; Morrison, Cheryl L.; López Correa, Matthias; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-06-01

    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth's largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium-thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  7. Passive tracers in a general circulation model of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Stevens

    Full Text Available Passive tracers are used in an off-line version of the United Kingdom Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM to highlight features of the circulation and provide information on the inter-ocean exchange of water masses. The use of passive tracers allows a picture to be built up of the deep circulation which is not readily apparent from examination of the velocity or density fields. Comparison of observations with FRAM results gives good agreement for many features of the Southern Ocean circulation. Tracer distributions are consistent with the concept of a global "conveyor belt" with a return path via the Agulhas retroflection region for the replenishment of North Atlantic Deep Water.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (numerical modeling; water masses · Oceanography: physical (general circulation

  8. Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri F.; Morrison, Adele K.; Talley, Lynne D.; Dufour, Carolina O.; Gray, Alison R.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-01-01

    Upwelling of global deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. However, the exact pathways and role of topography in Southern Ocean upwelling remain largely unknown. Here we show detailed upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle trac...

  9. Near-inertial waves and deep ocean mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, V. I.; Townsend, W. A.

    2013-07-01

    For the existing pattern of global oceanic circulation to exist, there should be sufficiently strong turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean, the mechanisms of which are not well understood as yet. The review discusses a plausible mechanism of deep ocean mixing caused by near-inertial waves in the abyssal ocean. It is well known how winds in the atmosphere generate near-inertial waves in the upper ocean, which then propagate downwards losing their energy in the process; only a fraction of the energy at the surface reaches the abyssal ocean. An open question is whether and, if yes, how these weakened inertial motions could cause mixing in the deep. We review the progress in the mathematical description of a mechanism that results in an intense breaking of near-inertial waves near the bottom of the ocean and thus enhances the mixing. We give an overview of the present state of understanding of the problem covering both the published and the unpublished results; we also outline the key open questions. For typical ocean stratification, the account of the horizontal component of the Earth's rotation leads to the existence of near-bottom wide waveguides for near-inertial waves. Due to the β-effect these waveguides are narrowing in the poleward direction. Near-inertial waves propagating poleward get trapped in the waveguides; we describe how in the process these waves are focusing more and more in the vertical direction, while simultaneously their group velocity tends to zero and wave-induced vertical shear significantly increases. This causes the development of shear instability, which is interpreted as wave breaking. Remarkably, this mechanism of local intensification of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean can be adequately described within the framework of linear theory. The qualitative picture is similar to wind wave breaking on a beach: the abyssal ocean always acts as a surf zone for near-inertial waves.

  10. Near-inertial waves and deep ocean mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrira, V I; Townsend, W A

    2013-01-01

    For the existing pattern of global oceanic circulation to exist, there should be sufficiently strong turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean, the mechanisms of which are not well understood as yet. The review discusses a plausible mechanism of deep ocean mixing caused by near-inertial waves in the abyssal ocean. It is well known how winds in the atmosphere generate near-inertial waves in the upper ocean, which then propagate downwards losing their energy in the process; only a fraction of the energy at the surface reaches the abyssal ocean. An open question is whether and, if yes, how these weakened inertial motions could cause mixing in the deep. We review the progress in the mathematical description of a mechanism that results in an intense breaking of near-inertial waves near the bottom of the ocean and thus enhances the mixing. We give an overview of the present state of understanding of the problem covering both the published and the unpublished results; we also outline the key open questions. For typical ocean stratification, the account of the horizontal component of the Earth's rotation leads to the existence of near-bottom wide waveguides for near-inertial waves. Due to the β-effect these waveguides are narrowing in the poleward direction. Near-inertial waves propagating poleward get trapped in the waveguides; we describe how in the process these waves are focusing more and more in the vertical direction, while simultaneously their group velocity tends to zero and wave-induced vertical shear significantly increases. This causes the development of shear instability, which is interpreted as wave breaking. Remarkably, this mechanism of local intensification of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean can be adequately described within the framework of linear theory. The qualitative picture is similar to wind wave breaking on a beach: the abyssal ocean always acts as a surf zone for near-inertial waves. (paper)

  11. Understanding variability of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation in CORE-II models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, S. M.; Spence, P.; Hogg, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    The current generation of climate models exhibit a large spread in the steady-state and projected Southern Ocean upper and lower overturning circulation, with mechanisms for deep ocean variability remaining less well understood. Here, common Southern Ocean metrics in twelve models from the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment Phase II (CORE-II) are assessed over a 60 year period. Specifically, stratification, surface buoyancy fluxes, and eddies are linked to the magnitude of the strengthening trend in the upper overturning circulation, and a decreasing trend in the lower overturning circulation across the CORE-II models. The models evolve similarly in the upper 1 km and the deep ocean, with an almost equivalent poleward intensification trend in the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds. However, the models differ substantially in their eddy parameterisation and surface buoyancy fluxes. In general, models with a larger heat-driven water mass transformation where deep waters upwell at the surface ( ∼ 55°S) transport warmer waters into intermediate depths, thus weakening the stratification in the upper 2 km. Models with a weak eddy induced overturning and a warm bias in the intermediate waters are more likely to exhibit larger increases in the upper overturning circulation, and more significant weakening of the lower overturning circulation. We find the opposite holds for a cool model bias in intermediate depths, combined with a more complex 3D eddy parameterisation that acts to reduce isopycnal slope. In summary, the Southern Ocean overturning circulation decadal trends in the coarse resolution CORE-II models are governed by biases in surface buoyancy fluxes and the ocean density field, and the configuration of the eddy parameterisation.

  12. Changes in ocean circulation and carbon storage are decoupled from air-sea CO2 fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnanadesikan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of the air-sea flux of carbon dioxide is a poor indicator of the underlying ocean circulation and of ocean carbon storage. The weak dependence on circulation arises because mixing-driven changes in solubility-driven and biologically-driven air-sea fluxes largely cancel out. This cancellation occurs because mixing driven increases in the poleward residual mean circulation result in more transport of both remineralized nutrients and heat from low to high latitudes. By contrast, increasing vertical mixing decreases the storage associated with both the biological and solubility pumps, as it decreases remineralized carbon storage in the deep ocean and warms the ocean as a whole.

  13. Glacial greenhouse-gas fluctuations controlled by ocean circulation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Galbraith, Eric D

    2008-11-20

    Earth's climate and the concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) varied strongly on millennial timescales during past glacial periods. Large and rapid warming events in Greenland and the North Atlantic were followed by more gradual cooling, and are highly correlated with fluctuations of N(2)O as recorded in ice cores. Antarctic temperature variations, on the other hand, were smaller and more gradual, showed warming during the Greenland cold phase and cooling while the North Atlantic was warm, and were highly correlated with fluctuations in CO(2). Abrupt changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) have often been invoked to explain the physical characteristics of these Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillations, but the mechanisms for the greenhouse-gas variations and their linkage to the AMOC have remained unclear. Here we present simulations with a coupled model of glacial climate and biogeochemical cycles, forced only with changes in the AMOC. The model simultaneously reproduces characteristic features of the Dansgaard-Oeschger temperature, as well as CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations. Despite significant changes in the land carbon inventory, CO(2) variations on millennial timescales are dominated by slow changes in the deep ocean inventory of biologically sequestered carbon and are correlated with Antarctic temperature and Southern Ocean stratification. In contrast, N(2)O co-varies more rapidly with Greenland temperatures owing to fast adjustments of the thermocline oxygen budget. These results suggest that ocean circulation changes were the primary mechanism that drove glacial CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations on millennial timescales.

  14. Nd isotopic structure of the Pacific Ocean 70-30 Ma and numerical evidence for vigorous ocean circulation and ocean heat transport in a greenhouse world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deborah J.; Korty, Robert; Huber, Matthew; Schubert, Jessica A.; Haines, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The oceanic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a crucial component of the climate system, impacting heat and nutrient transport, and global carbon cycling. Past greenhouse climate intervals present a paradox because their weak equator-to-pole temperature gradients imply a weaker MOC, yet increased poleward oceanic heat transport appears to be required to maintain these weak gradients. To investigate the mode of MOC that operated during the early Cenozoic, we compare new Nd isotope data with Nd tracer-enabled numerical ocean circulation and coupled climate model simulations. Assimilation of new Nd isotope data from South Pacific Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program Sites 323, 463, 596, 865, and 869 with previously published data confirm the hypothesized MOC characterized by vigorous sinking in the South and North Pacific 70 to 30 Ma. Compilation of all Pacific Nd isotope data indicates vigorous, distinct, and separate overturning circulations in each basin until 40 Ma. Simulations consistently reproduce South Pacific and North Pacific deep convection over a broad range of conditions, but cases using strong deep ocean vertical mixing produced the best data-model match. Strong mixing, potentially resulting from enhanced abyssal tidal dissipation, greater interaction of wind-driven internal wave activity with submarine plateaus, or higher than modern values of the geothermal heat flux enable models to achieve enhanced MOC circulation rates with resulting Nd isotope distributions consistent with the proxy data. The consequent poleward heat transport may resolve the paradox of warmer worlds with reduced temperature gradients.

  15. Ocean Circulation and Mixing Relevant to the Global System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Arnold

    1999-01-01

    .... Arlindo's goal is to resolve the circulation and water mass stratification within the Indonesian Seas in order to formulate a thorough description of the source, spreading patterns, inter-ocean...

  16. North Atlantic ocean circulation and abrupt climate change during the last glaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, L G; McManus, J F; Curry, W B; Roberts, N L; Piotrowski, A M; Keigwin, L D

    2016-07-29

    The most recent ice age was characterized by rapid and hemispherically asynchronous climate oscillations, whose origin remains unresolved. Variations in oceanic meridional heat transport may contribute to these repeated climate changes, which were most pronounced during marine isotope stage 3, the glacial interval 25 thousand to 60 thousand years ago. We examined climate and ocean circulation proxies throughout this interval at high resolution in a deep North Atlantic sediment core, combining the kinematic tracer protactinium/thorium (Pa/Th) with the deep water-mass tracer, epibenthic δ(13)C. These indicators suggest reduced Atlantic overturning circulation during every cool northern stadial, with the greatest reductions during episodic Hudson Strait iceberg discharges, while sharp northern warming followed reinvigorated overturning. These results provide direct evidence for the ocean's persistent, central role in abrupt glacial climate change. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Circulation of the surface waters in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Sharma, G.S.

    The circulation pattern of the surface waters in the North Indian Ocean for different months of the year is discussed. In order to arrive at a reliable and detailed picture of the circulation pattern, streamlines are drawn using the isogon technique...

  18. Arctic Ocean circulation during the anoxic Eocene Azolla event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap; März, Christian; Brumsack, Hans; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    through seawater inflow). Excess vanadium accumulation during the Azolla event (80 ppm), basin volume and surface area, average vanadium sea (1.8 ppb) and river water (1.0 ppb) concentrations, together indicate that an inflow of Nordic Sea water of 0.2 Sv is needed to sustain vanadium levels. The same calculation using molybdenum gives an inflow of only 0.02 Sv. These low inflow rates imply Arctic Ocean (deep) water residence times of 2000 - 20000 years, respectively. Based on climate modeling we calculated a summed net amount of precipitation for the Eocene Arctic Basin (Precipitation - Evaporation + Runoff) of 0.46 Sv. Together these notions indicate that a compensating inflow of saline North Atlantic water occurred, accompanied by an outflow of more fresh waters, resulting in a bi-directional, two-layer flow through the (proto-) Fram Strait. Consequently, the limited exchange of water through the Fram Strait implies that a relatively low export productivity would have been sufficient to render Arctic bottom waters anoxic. Jakobsson, M., Backman, J., Rudels, B., Nycander, J., Frank, M., Mayer, L., Jokat, W., Sangiorgi, F., O'Regan, M., Brinkhuis, H., King, J., Moran, K. (2007). The early Miocene onset of a ventilated circulation regimen in the Arctic Ocean. Nature 447, 986-990.

  19. The Hamburg oceanic carbon cycle circulation model. Cycle 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.; Heinze, C.

    1992-02-01

    The carbon cycle model calculates the prognostic fields of oceanic geochemical carbon cycle tracers making use of a 'frozen' velocity field provided by a run of the LSG oceanic circulation model (see the corresponding manual, LSG=Large Scale Geostrophic). The carbon cycle model includes a crude approximation of interactions between sediment and bottom layer water. A simple (meridionally diffusive) one layer atmosphere model allows to calculate the CO 2 airborne fraction resulting from the oceanic biogeochemical interactions. (orig.)

  20. On the assimilation of absolute geodetic dynamic topography in a global ocean model: impact on the deep ocean state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androsov, Alexey; Nerger, Lars; Schnur, Reiner; Schröter, Jens; Albertella, Alberta; Rummel, Reiner; Savcenko, Roman; Bosch, Wolfgang; Skachko, Sergey; Danilov, Sergey

    2018-05-01

    General ocean circulation models are not perfect. Forced with observed atmospheric fluxes they gradually drift away from measured distributions of temperature and salinity. We suggest data assimilation of absolute dynamical ocean topography (DOT) observed from space geodetic missions as an option to reduce these differences. Sea surface information of DOT is transferred into the deep ocean by defining the analysed ocean state as a weighted average of an ensemble of fully consistent model solutions using an error-subspace ensemble Kalman filter technique. Success of the technique is demonstrated by assimilation into a global configuration of the ocean circulation model FESOM over 1 year. The dynamic ocean topography data are obtained from a combination of multi-satellite altimetry and geoid measurements. The assimilation result is assessed using independent temperature and salinity analysis derived from profiling buoys of the AGRO float data set. The largest impact of the assimilation occurs at the first few analysis steps where both the model ocean topography and the steric height (i.e. temperature and salinity) are improved. The continued data assimilation over 1 year further improves the model state gradually. Deep ocean fields quickly adjust in a sustained manner: A model forecast initialized from the model state estimated by the data assimilation after only 1 month shows that improvements induced by the data assimilation remain in the model state for a long time. Even after 11 months, the modelled ocean topography and temperature fields show smaller errors than the model forecast without any data assimilation.

  1. Decadal trends in deep ocean salinity and regional effects on steric sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, S. G.; Llovel, W.

    2017-12-01

    We present deep (below 2000 m) and abyssal (below 4000 m) global ocean salinity trends from the 1990s through the 2010s and assess the role of deep salinity in local and global sea level budgets. Deep salinity trends are assessed using all deep basins with available full-depth, high-quality hydrographic section data that have been occupied two or more times since the 1980s through either the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program or the Global Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). All salinity data is calibrated to standard seawater and any intercruise offsets applied. While the global mean deep halosteric contribution to sea level rise is close to zero (-0.017 +/- 0.023 mm/yr below 4000 m), there is a large regional variability with the southern deep basins becoming fresher and northern deep basins becoming more saline. This meridional gradient in the deep salinity trend reflects different mechanisms driving the deep salinity variability. The deep Southern Ocean is freshening owing to a recent increased flux of freshwater to the deep ocean. Outside of the Southern Ocean, the deep salinity and temperature changes are tied to isopycnal heave associated with a falling of deep isopycnals in recent decades. Therefore, regions of the ocean with a deep salinity minimum are experiencing both a halosteric contraction with a thermosteric expansion. While the thermosteric expansion is larger in most cases, in some regions the halosteric compensates for as much as 50% of the deep thermal expansion, making a significant contribution to local sea level rise budgets.

  2. Pathways of upwelling deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri; Morrison, Adele; Talley, Lynne; Dufour, Carolina; Gray, Alison; Griffies, Stephen; Mazloff, Matthew; Sarmiento, Jorge; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-04-01

    Upwelling of Atlantic, Indian and Pacific deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. Here we go beyond the two-dimensional view of Southern Ocean upwelling, to show detailed Southern Ocean upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle tracking in high-resolution ocean and climate models. The northern deep waters enter the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) via narrow southward currents along the boundaries of the three ocean basins, before spiraling southeastward and upward through the ACC. Upwelling is greatly enhanced at five major topographic features, associated with vigorous mesoscale eddy activity. Deep water reaches the upper ocean predominantly south of the southern ACC boundary, with a spatially nonuniform distribution, regionalizing warm water supply to Antarctic ice shelves and the delivery of nutrient and carbon-rich water to the sea surface. The timescale for half of the deep water to upwell from 30°S to the mixed layer is on the order of 60-90 years, which has important implications for the timescale for signals to propagate through the deep ocean. In addition, we quantify the diabatic transformation along particle trajectories, to identify where diabatic processes are important along the upwelling pathways.

  3. Ship track for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. A coarse resolution North Atlantic ocean circulation model: an intercomparison study with a paleoceanographic example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Seidov

    Full Text Available Paleoreconstructions suggest that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM the North Atlantic circulation was noticeably different from its present state. However, the glacial salt conveyor belt is believed to be similar to the present-day's conveyor, albeit weaker and shallower because of an increased freshwater flux in high-latitudes. We present here the investigation of the conveyor operation based on ocean circulation modelling using two numerical models in parallel. The GFDL primitive equation model and a planetary geostrophic model are employed to address the problem of the paleocirculation modelling in cases of uncertain and sparse data comprising the glacial surface boundary conditions. The role of different simplifications that may be used in the ocean climate studies, including the role of grid resolution, bottom topography, coast-line, etc., versus glacial-interglacial changes of the ocean surface climatology is considered. The LGM reverse conveyor gyre appeared to be the most noticeable feature of the glacial-to-interglacial alteration of the ocean circulation. The reversed upper-ocean conveyor, weaker and subducting 'normal' conveyor in the intermediate depths, and the change of the deep-ocean return flow route are robust signatures of the glacial North Atlantic climate. The results are found to be 'model-independent' and fairly insensitive to all factors other than the onset of the glacial surface conditions.

  5. A coarse resolution North Atlantic ocean circulation model: an intercomparison study with a paleoceanographic example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Seidov

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoreconstructions suggest that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM the North Atlantic circulation was noticeably different from its present state. However, the glacial salt conveyor belt is believed to be similar to the present-day's conveyor, albeit weaker and shallower because of an increased freshwater flux in high-latitudes. We present here the investigation of the conveyor operation based on ocean circulation modelling using two numerical models in parallel. The GFDL primitive equation model and a planetary geostrophic model are employed to address the problem of the paleocirculation modelling in cases of uncertain and sparse data comprising the glacial surface boundary conditions. The role of different simplifications that may be used in the ocean climate studies, including the role of grid resolution, bottom topography, coast-line, etc., versus glacial-interglacial changes of the ocean surface climatology is considered. The LGM reverse conveyor gyre appeared to be the most noticeable feature of the glacial-to-interglacial alteration of the ocean circulation. The reversed upper-ocean conveyor, weaker and subducting 'normal' conveyor in the intermediate depths, and the change of the deep-ocean return flow route are robust signatures of the glacial North Atlantic climate. The results are found to be 'model-independent' and fairly insensitive to all factors other than the onset of the glacial surface conditions.

  6. Adaptation of a general circulation model to ocean dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. E.; Rees, T. H.; Woodbury, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    A primitive-variable general circulation model of the ocean was formulated in which fast external gravity waves are suppressed with rigid-lid surface constraint pressires which also provide a means for simulating the effects of large-scale free-surface topography. The surface pressure method is simpler to apply than the conventional stream function models, and the resulting model can be applied to both global ocean and limited region situations. Strengths and weaknesses of the model are also presented.

  7. Geotechnical deep ocean research apparatus (DORA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    As part of the research programme on radioactive waste disposal in seabed geological formations, a Deep Ocean Research Apparatus (DORA) seabed machine has been conceptually designed and prototypes of principal subsystems built and tested by four DORA Project partners. The DORA is designed to operate in 6000 m of water and drive a string of test rods and a piezocone about 50 m into soft soil. Partner responsibility was Fugro for project management and the penetration apparatus; ISMES for data acquisition and control; Laboratorium voor Grondmechanica for the piezocone probe and its sensors; and Marine Structure Consultants for the mission profile and DORA handling requirements. The DORA will have a maximum thrust of 50 kN. The probe will measure cone resistance, sleeve friction, pore pressure and inclination. Stability on the seabed will be assisted by using a combination of polyester and polypropylene-nylon (double) braided rope. A continuous wheel-drive subsystem will drive the test rods. Gelled or lead-acid batteries can power a hydraulic powerpack. Acoustic data transmission will be used. Software for data processing automation has been tested with simulation of all input channels. Successful operation of subsystem prototypes indicates that a DORA can be constructed at any future time for use on fundamental or applied deep ocean science and seafloor engineering investigations by industry, government and universities

  8. Comparison of three-dimensional ocean general circulation models on a benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1990-12-01

    A french and an american Ocean General Circulation Models for deep-sea disposal of radioactive wastes are compared on a benchmark test problem. Both models are three-dimensional. They solve the hydrostatic primitive equations of the ocean with two different finite difference techniques. Results show that the dynamics simulated by both models are consistent. Several methods for the running of a model from a known state are tested in the French model: the diagnostic method, the prognostic method, the acceleration of convergence and the robust-diagnostic method

  9. Response of an ocean general circulation model to wind and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretched-coordinate ocean general circulation model has been designed to study the observed variability due to wind and thermodynamic forcings. The model domain extends from 60°N to 60°S and cyclically continuous in the longitudinal direction. The horizontal resolution is 5° × 5° and 9 discrete vertical levels.

  10. Deep-Sea Corals: A New Oceanic Archive

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adkins, Jess

    1998-01-01

    Deep-sea corals are an extraordinary new archive of deep ocean behavior. The species Desmophyllum cristagalli is a solitary coral composed of uranium rich, density banded aragonite that I have calibrated for several paleoclimate tracers...

  11. Narrowing the uncertainty for deep-ocean injection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, J.C.; Aumont, O. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Yool, A. [Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Plattner, G.K.; Joos, F. [Bern Univ., Bern (Switzerland). Physics Inst.; Maier-Reimer, E. [Max Planck Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Weirig, M.F.; Schlitzer, R. [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Caldeira, K.; Wickett, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Matear, R.J. [Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization, Hobart (Australia); Mignone, B.K.; Sarmiento, J.L. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States). AOS Program

    2005-07-01

    Ten ocean general circulation models (OCGMs) were compared as part of an international study investigating the ocean's ability to efficiently sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The models were selected for their ability to simulate radiocarbon and CFC-11. All of the model simulations neglected the influence of marine biota, and the simulations used only dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as a tracer in order to conserve computing resources. The models were integrated using standard ocean carbon-cycle model intercomparison project (OCMIP) formulations for gas exchange boundary conditions to obtain pre-industrial conditions. All models used the same predefined atmospheric CO{sub 2} records compiled from 1765 to 2000, as well as future scenarios in which atmospheric CO{sub 2} was stabilized at 650 ppm. Injections occurred over a period of 100 years. Results of the study showed that global budgets for CFC-11 and radiocarbon were correlated with global efficiencies for a 3000 m injection simulation. The 3000 m injection efficiency was then correlated with the global mean for deep natural radiocarbon. Results showed that simultaneously accounting for constraints from both CFC-11 and natural radiocarbon narrowed the range for a 3000 m injection efficiency in the year 2500 by a factor of 4. The study showed that models must be able to simulate global inventories for CFC-11 as well as global means for radiocarbon in deep ocean scenarios in order to be credible. It was concluded that models using both constraints will more accurately simulate global injection efficiencies.

  12. Deep ocean ventilation, carbon isotopes, marine sedimentation and the deglacial CO2 rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Heinze

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The link between the atmospheric CO2 level and the ventilation state of the deep ocean is an important building block of the key hypotheses put forth to explain glacial-interglacial CO2 fluctuations. In this study, we systematically examine the sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 and its carbon isotope composition to changes in deep ocean ventilation, the ocean carbon pumps, and sediment formation in a global 3-D ocean-sediment carbon cycle model. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that a break up of Southern Ocean stratification and invigorated deep ocean ventilation were the dominant drivers for the early deglacial CO2 rise of ~35 ppm between the Last Glacial Maximum and 14.6 ka BP. Another rise of 10 ppm until the end of the Holocene is attributed to carbonate compensation responding to the early deglacial change in ocean circulation. Our reasoning is based on a multi-proxy analysis which indicates that an acceleration of deep ocean ventilation during early deglaciation is not only consistent with recorded atmospheric CO2 but also with the reconstructed opal sedimentation peak in the Southern Ocean at around 16 ka BP, the record of atmospheric δ13CCO2, and the reconstructed changes in the Pacific CaCO3 saturation horizon.

  13. Biogeochemical proxies in Scleractinian corals used to reconstruct ocean circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilderson, T.P.; Kashgarian, M.; Schrag, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    We utilize monthly 14 C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: 1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and 2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon ( 14 C) in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral 14 C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution Δ 14 C time-series such as these, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment onetime surveys such as GEOSECS and WOCE. These data not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can be used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate change. (author)

  14. Exploring the sensitivity of global ocean circulation to future ice loss from Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condron, Alan [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The sensitivity of the global ocean circulation and climate to large increases in iceberg calving and meltwater discharges from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) are rarely studied and poorly understood. The requirement to investigate this topic is heightened by growing evidence that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is vulnerable to rapid retreat and collapse on multidecadal-to-centennial timescales. Observations collected over the last 30 years indicate that the WAIS is now losing mass at an accelerated and that a collapse may have already begun in the Amundsen Sea sector. In addition, some recent future model simulations of the AIS show the potential for rapid ice sheet retreat in the next 50 – 300 years. Such a collapse would be associated with the discharge of enormous volumes of ice and meltwater to the Southern Ocean. This project funds PI Condron to begin assessing the sensitivity of the global ocean circulation to projected increases in meltwater discharge and iceberg calving from the AIS for the next 50 – 100 years. A series of climate model simulations will determine changes in ocean circulation and temperature at the ice sheet grounding line, the role of mesoscale ocean eddies in mixing and transporting freshwater away from the continent to deep water formation regions, and the likely impact on the northward transport of heat to Europe and North America.

  15. A numerical three-dimensional ocean general circulation and radionuclides dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.; Marti, O.

    1988-01-01

    The dispersion of radioactive waste disposed of in the deep-sea or transferred from the atmosphere is a complex hydrodynamic problem concerned by space scales as large as the world ocean. The recent development in the high-speed computers has led to significant progress in ocean modelling and now allows a thorough improvement in the accuracy of the simulations of the nuclides dispersion in the sea. A three-dimensional ocean general circulation model has been recently developed in France for research and engineering purposes. The model solves the primitive equation of the ocean hydrodynamics and the advection-diffusion equation for any dissolved tracer. The code has been fully vectorized and multitasked on 1 to 4 processors of the CRAY-2

  16. Groundwater circulation in deep carbonate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szönyi-Mádl, Judit; Tóth, Ádám

    2016-04-01

    The operation of the subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle is hardly understood on basin scale due to the limitation in validated knowledge. Therefore the water balance approach is used with simplified numerical approaches during solving water related problems. The understanding of hierarchical nature of gravity-driven groundwater flow in near-surface and other driving forces in the deeper part of the lithosphere are often neglected. In this context thick and deep carbonate regions are especially less understood because the applicability of the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow (GDRGF) concept for such ranges formerly was debated. This is because karst studies are focused rather on the understanding of heterogeneity of karst systems. In contrary, this study found, on the basis of REV concept, that at regional scale not the local permeability values but its regional distribution is decisive. Firstly, according to the hydraulic diffusivity values it was stated that hydraulic connectivity is more effective in basinal carbonates compared to siliciclastics. Consequently, the efficient hydraulic responses for hydraulic head changes (due to water production or injection) in a carbonate system can give an indirect clue regarding hydraulic connectivity of the system rather than understanding the detailed permeability distribution. The concerns of the applicability of the GDRGF concept, therefore could be resolved. Subsequently, the concept of GDRGF can be used as a working hypothesis for understanding basinal hydraulics and geologic agency of flowing groundwater in thick carbonate ranges (Mádl-Szonyi and Tóth 2015). The hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range (TR) Hungary was used as a study area to reveal the role of GDRGF at basin scale. Water level changes in the system, due to long-term mine dewatering exemplify the hydraulic continuity and compartmentalization of the system. Clustering of spring data, numerical flow and

  17. Atmospheric and Oceanic Response to Southern Ocean Deep Convection Oscillations on Decadal to Centennial Time Scales in Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.; Reintges, A.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many current coupled global climate models simulate open ocean deep convection in the Southern Ocean as a recurring event with time scales ranging from a few years to centennial (de Lavergne et al., 2014, Nat. Clim. Ch.). The only observation of such event, however, was the occurrence of the Weddell Polynya in the mid-1970s, an open water area of 350 000 km2 within the Antarctic sea ice in three consecutive winters. Both the wide range of modeled frequency of occurrence and the absence of deep convection in the Weddell Sea highlights the lack of understanding concerning the phenomenon. Nevertheless, simulations indicate that atmospheric and oceanic responses to the cessation of deep convection in the Southern Ocean include a strengthening of the low-level atmospheric circulation over the Southern Ocean (increasing SAM index) and a reduction in the export of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), potentially masking the regional effects of global warming (Latif et al., 2013, J. Clim.; Martin et al., 2014, Deep Sea Res. II). It is thus of great importance to enhance our understanding of Southern Ocean deep convection and clarify the associated time scales. In two multi-millennial simulations with the Kiel Climate Model (KCM, ECHAM5 T31 atmosphere & NEMO-LIM2 ~2˚ ocean) we showed that the deep convection is driven by strong oceanic warming at mid-depth periodically overriding the stabilizing effects of precipitation and ice melt (Martin et al., 2013, Clim. Dyn.). Sea ice thickness also affects location and duration of the deep convection. A new control simulation, in which, amongst others, the atmosphere grid resolution is changed to T42 (~2.8˚), yields a faster deep convection flip-flop with a period of 80-100 years and a weaker but still significant global climate response similar to CMIP5 simulations. While model physics seem to affect the time scale and intensity of the phenomenon, the driving mechanism is a rather robust feature. Finally, we compare the atmospheric and

  18. Spiraling pathways of global deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri F; Morrison, Adele K; Talley, Lynne D; Dufour, Carolina O; Gray, Alison R; Griffies, Stephen M; Mazloff, Matthew R; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-08-02

    Upwelling of global deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. However, the exact pathways and role of topography in Southern Ocean upwelling remain largely unknown. Here we show detailed upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle tracking in high-resolution models. The analysis reveals that the northern-sourced deep waters enter the Antarctic Circumpolar Current via southward flow along the boundaries of the three ocean basins, before spiraling southeastward and upward through the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Upwelling is greatly enhanced at five major topographic features, associated with vigorous mesoscale eddy activity. Deep water reaches the upper ocean predominantly south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, with a spatially nonuniform distribution. The timescale for half of the deep water to upwell from 30° S to the mixed layer is ~60-90 years.Deep waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans upwell in the Southern Oceanbut the exact pathways are not fully characterized. Here the authors present a three dimensional view showing a spiralling southward path, with enhanced upwelling by eddy-transport at topographic hotspots.

  19. Optimisation of a parallel ocean general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, M. I.; Stevens, D. P.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a general-purpose parallel ocean circulation model, for use on a wide range of computer platforms, from traditional scalar machines to workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. Parallelism is provided, as a modular option, via high-level message-passing routines, thus hiding the technical intricacies from the user. An initial implementation highlights that the parallel efficiency of the model is adversely affected by a number of factors, for which optimisations are discussed and implemented. The resulting ocean code is portable and, in particular, allows science to be achieved on local workstations that could otherwise only be undertaken on state-of-the-art supercomputers.

  20. Arctic Ocean surface geostrophic circulation 2003–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. K. Armitage

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the surface circulation of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean is generally limited in space, time or both. We present a new 12-year record of geostrophic currents at monthly resolution in the ice-covered and ice-free Arctic Ocean derived from satellite radar altimetry and characterise their seasonal to decadal variability from 2003 to 2014, a period of rapid environmental change in the Arctic. Geostrophic currents around the Arctic basin increased in the late 2000s, with the largest increases observed in summer. Currents in the southeastern Beaufort Gyre accelerated in late 2007 with higher current speeds sustained until 2011, after which they decreased to speeds representative of the period 2003–2006. The strength of the northwestward current in the southwest Beaufort Gyre more than doubled between 2003 and 2014. This pattern of changing currents is linked to shifting of the gyre circulation to the northwest during the time period. The Beaufort Gyre circulation and Fram Strait current are strongest in winter, modulated by the seasonal strength of the atmospheric circulation. We find high eddy kinetic energy (EKE congruent with features of the seafloor bathymetry that are greater in winter than summer, and estimates of EKE and eddy diffusivity in the Beaufort Sea are consistent with those predicted from theoretical considerations. The variability of Arctic Ocean geostrophic circulation highlights the interplay between seasonally variable atmospheric forcing and ice conditions, on a backdrop of long-term changes to the Arctic sea ice–ocean system. Studies point to various mechanisms influencing the observed increase in Arctic Ocean surface stress, and hence geostrophic currents, in the 2000s – e.g. decreased ice concentration/thickness, changing atmospheric forcing, changing ice pack morphology; however, more work is needed to refine the representation of atmosphere–ice–ocean coupling in models before we can fully

  1. Optimisation of a parallel ocean general circulation model

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Beare; D. P. Stevens

    1997-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the development of a general-purpose parallel ocean circulation model, for use on a wide range of computer platforms, from traditional scalar machines to workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. Parallelism is provided, as a modular option, via high-level message-passing routines, thus hiding the technical intricacies from the user. An initial implementation highlights that the parallel efficiency of the model is adversely affected by...

  2. Evidence for infragravity wave-tide resonance in deep oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hiroko; Fukao, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    2010-10-05

    Ocean tides are the oscillatory motions of seawater forced by the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun with periods of a half to a day and wavelengths of the semi-Pacific to Pacific scale. Ocean infragravity (IG) waves are sea-surface gravity waves with periods of several minutes and wavelengths of several dozen kilometres. Here we report the first evidence of the resonance between these two ubiquitous phenomena, mutually very different in period and wavelength, in deep oceans. The evidence comes from long-term, large-scale observations with arrays of broadband ocean-bottom seismometers located at depths of more than 4,000 m in the Pacific Ocean. This observational evidence is substantiated by a theoretical argument that IG waves and the tide can resonantly couple and that such coupling occurs over unexpectedly wide areas of the Pacific Ocean. Through this resonant coupling, some of ocean tidal energy is transferred in deep oceans to IG wave energy.

  3. Radiocarbon constraints on the glacial ocean circulation and its impact on atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, L. C.; Primeau, F.; Freeman, E.; de la Fuente, M.; Goodwin, P. A.; Gottschalk, J.; Huang, E.; McCave, I. N.; Noble, T. L.; Scrivner, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    While the ocean’s large-scale overturning circulation is thought to have been significantly different under the climatic conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the exact nature of the glacial circulation and its implications for global carbon cycling continue to be debated. Here we use a global array of ocean–atmosphere radiocarbon disequilibrium estimates to demonstrate a ∼689±53 14C-yr increase in the average residence time of carbon in the deep ocean at the LGM. A predominantly southern-sourced abyssal overturning limb that was more isolated from its shallower northern counterparts is interpreted to have extended from the Southern Ocean, producing a widespread radiocarbon age maximum at mid-depths and depriving the deep ocean of a fast escape route for accumulating respired carbon. While the exact magnitude of the resulting carbon cycle impacts remains to be confirmed, the radiocarbon data suggest an increase in the efficiency of the biological carbon pump that could have accounted for as much as half of the glacial–interglacial CO2 change. PMID:28703126

  4. The abyssal and deep circulation of the Northeast Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Susan L.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional abyssal and deep circulation of the region to the east and north of the Emperor Seamount Chain/Hawaiian Ridge is determined from a compilation of CTD and Argo float data, using a new overdetermined inverse technique for the geostrophic reference velocity and diapycnal/lateral mixing coefficients. The Northeast Pacific Basin is primarily sourced from its northern boundary, at a rate of 3.5 Sv across 47°N below 3000 m. Bottom water in the western subarctic gyre recirculates cyclonically between the Emperor Seamount Chain and 155°W. Bottom water east of 155°W takes a more direct path southward along the flank of a broad topographic slope. In the deep water, a ridge of potential vorticity lying along the Mendocino Fracture Zone separates circulation systems north and south of ∼40°N. The region has very weak diapycnal and lateral mixing, and an aspect ratio for the overturning circulation that is correspondingly flat, with bottom water parcels rising less than 1 km during their long transit from the Aleutian Trench to the latitude of Hawaii.

  5. The influence of orography on modern ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffre, Pierre; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick; Sepulchre, Pierre; Goddéris, Yves

    2018-02-01

    The effects of orography on climate are investigated with a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (IPSL-CM5). Results are compared with previous investigations in order to dig out robust consequences of the lack of orography on the global scale. Emphasis is made on the thermohaline circulation whose sensitivity to orography has only been subject to a very limited number of studies using coupled models. The removal of the entire orography switches the Meridional Overturning Circulation from the Atlantic to the Pacific, following freshwater transfers from the latter to the former that reverse the salinity gradient between these oceans. This is in part due to the increased freshwater export from the Pacific to the Atlantic through North America in the absence of the Rocky Mountains and the consecutive decreased evaporation in the North Atlantic once the Atlantic MOC weakens, which cools the northern high-latitudes. In addition and unlike previous model studies, we find that tropical freshwater transfers are a major driver of this switch. More precisely, the collapse of the Asian summer monsoon, associated with westward freshwater transfer across Africa, is critical to the freshening of the Atlantic and the increased salt content in the Pacific. Specifically, precipitations are increasing over the Congo catchment area and induce a strong increase in runoff discharging into the tropical Atlantic. In addition, the removal of the Andes shifts the area of strong precipitation toward the Amazonian catchment area and results in a larger runoff discharging into the Tropical Atlantic.

  6. Effect of ocean gateways on the global ocean circulation in the late Oligocene and early Miocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von der Heydt, A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/245567526; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in the tectonic boundary conditions on global ocean circulation patterns. Using a fully coupled climate model in an idealized setup, we compare situations corresponding to the late Oligocene, the early Miocene, and present day. The model results show the

  7. Millennial-scale interaction between ice sheets and ocean circulation during marine isotope stage 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao eOhno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Waxing/waning of the ice sheets and the associated change in thermohaline circulation have played an important role in global climate change since major continental ice sheets appeared in the northern hemisphere about 2.75 million years ago. In the earliest glacial stages, however, establishment of the linkage between ice sheet development and ocean circulation remain largely unclear. Here we show new high-resolution records of marine isotope stage 100 recovered from deep-sea sediments on the Gardar Drift, in the subpolar North Atlantic. Results of a wide range of analyses clearly reveal the influence of millennial-scale variability in iceberg discharge on ocean surface condition and bottom current variability in the subpolar North Atlantic during marine isotope stage 100. We identified eight events of ice-rafted debris, which occurred mostly with decreases in sea surface temperature and in current components indicating North Atlantic Deep Water. These decreases are interpreted by weakened deep water formation linked to iceberg discharge, similarly to observations from the last glacial period. Dolomite fraction of the ice-rafted events in early MIS 100 like the last glacial Heinrich events suggests massive collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet in North America. At the same time, our early glacial data suggest differences from the last glacial period: absence of 1470-year periodicity in the interactions between ice sheets and ocean, and northerly shift of the ice-rafted debris belt. Our high-resolution data largely improve the picture of ice-sheet/ocean interactions on millennial time scales in the early glacial period after major Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  8. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K L; Ruhl, H A; Bett, B J; Billett, D S M; Lampitt, R S; Kaufmann, R S

    2009-11-17

    Climate variation affects surface ocean processes and the production of organic carbon, which ultimately comprises the primary food supply to the deep-sea ecosystems that occupy approximately 60% of the Earth's surface. Warming trends in atmospheric and upper ocean temperatures, attributed to anthropogenic influence, have occurred over the past four decades. Changes in upper ocean temperature influence stratification and can affect the availability of nutrients for phytoplankton production. Global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing. Research also suggests that such reduced mixing will enhance variability in primary production and carbon export flux to the deep sea. The dependence of deep-sea communities on surface water production has raised important questions about how climate change will affect carbon cycling and deep-ocean ecosystem function. Recently, unprecedented time-series studies conducted over the past two decades in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic at >4,000-m depth have revealed unexpectedly large changes in deep-ocean ecosystems significantly correlated to climate-driven changes in the surface ocean that can impact the global carbon cycle. Climate-driven variation affects oceanic communities from surface waters to the much-overlooked deep sea and will have impacts on the global carbon cycle. Data from these two widely separated areas of the deep ocean provide compelling evidence that changes in climate can readily influence deep-sea processes. However, the limited geographic coverage of these existing time-series studies stresses the importance of developing a more global effort to monitor deep-sea ecosystems under modern conditions of rapidly changing climate.

  9. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2015-03-19

    Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the second largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. About 72% of the global DOC inventory is stored in deep oceanic layers for years to centuries, supporting the current view that it consists of materials resistant to microbial degradation. An alternative hypothesis is that deep-water DOC consists of many different, intrinsically labile compounds at concentrations too low to compensate for the metabolic costs associated to their utilization. Here, we present experimental evidence showing that low concentrations rather than recalcitrance preclude consumption of a substantial fraction of DOC, leading to slow microbial growth in the deep ocean. These findings demonstrate an alternative mechanism for the long-term storage of labile DOC in the deep ocean, which has been hitherto largely ignored. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — As part of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), the Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART(R)) Project is an ongoing effort to...

  11. Geotechnical aspects of deep ocean radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The methods that might be used to bury radioactive waste in the deep ocean, and their likely effect on the sediment barrier, have been the subject of an international research program performed during the last ten years. This paper reviews the geotechnical aspects of deep ocean disposal and discusses how far the research performed has gone towards providing the information needed to assess this form of disposal. Considerable progress has been made during the course of the international program towards understanding the processes involved in the emplacement of heat generating waste (HGW) into the deep ocean bed and the subsequent interactions between the waste and the sediments. These processes do not appear to have a deleterious effect on the barrier properties of the sediments, and it is concluded that it is likely that HGW could be emplaced in the deep ocean in such a way that the seabed would provide an effective containment for the radionuclides

  12. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, J M; Mayol, Eva; Hansman, Roberta L.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the second largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. About 72% of the global DOC inventory is stored in deep oceanic layers for years to centuries, supporting the current view that it consists of materials resistant to microbial degradation. An alternative hypothesis is that deep-water DOC consists of many different, intrinsically labile compounds at concentrations too low to compensate for the metabolic costs associated to their utilization. Here, we present experimental evidence showing that low concentrations rather than recalcitrance preclude consumption of a substantial fraction of DOC, leading to slow microbial growth in the deep ocean. These findings demonstrate an alternative mechanism for the long-term storage of labile DOC in the deep ocean, which has been hitherto largely ignored. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimisation of a parallel ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Beare

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a general-purpose parallel ocean circulation model, for use on a wide range of computer platforms, from traditional scalar machines to workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. Parallelism is provided, as a modular option, via high-level message-passing routines, thus hiding the technical intricacies from the user. An initial implementation highlights that the parallel efficiency of the model is adversely affected by a number of factors, for which optimisations are discussed and implemented. The resulting ocean code is portable and, in particular, allows science to be achieved on local workstations that could otherwise only be undertaken on state-of-the-art supercomputers.

  14. Optimisation of a parallel ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Beare

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a general-purpose parallel ocean circulation model, for use on a wide range of computer platforms, from traditional scalar machines to workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. Parallelism is provided, as a modular option, via high-level message-passing routines, thus hiding the technical intricacies from the user. An initial implementation highlights that the parallel efficiency of the model is adversely affected by a number of factors, for which optimisations are discussed and implemented. The resulting ocean code is portable and, in particular, allows science to be achieved on local workstations that could otherwise only be undertaken on state-of-the-art supercomputers.

  15. Large-Scale Ocean Circulation-Cloud Interactions Reduce the Pace of Transient Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trossman, D. S.; Palter, J. B.; Merlis, T. M.; Huang, Y.; Xia, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Changes to the large scale oceanic circulation are thought to slow the pace of transient climate change due, in part, to their influence on radiative feedbacks. Here we evaluate the interactions between CO2-forced perturbations to the large-scale ocean circulation and the radiative cloud feedback in a climate model. Both the change of the ocean circulation and the radiative cloud feedback strongly influence the magnitude and spatial pattern of surface and ocean warming. Changes in the ocean circulation reduce the amount of transient global warming caused by the radiative cloud feedback by helping to maintain low cloud coverage in the face of global warming. The radiative cloud feedback is key in affecting atmospheric meridional heat transport changes and is the dominant radiative feedback mechanism that responds to ocean circulation change. Uncertainty in the simulated ocean circulation changes due to CO2 forcing may contribute a large share of the spread in the radiative cloud feedback among climate models.

  16. Meridional overturning and large-scale circulation of the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachaud, Alexandre; Wunsch, Carl; Marotzke, Jochem; Toole, John

    2000-11-01

    The large scale Indian Ocean circulation is estimated from a global hydrographic inverse geostrophic box model with a focus on the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). The global model is based on selected recent World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) sections which in the Indian Basin consist of zonal sections at 32°S, 20°S and 8°S, and a section between Bali and Australia from the Java-Australia Dynamic Experiment (JADE). The circulation is required to conserve mass, salinity, heat, silica and "PO" (170PO4+O2). Near-conservation is imposed within layers bounded by neutral surfaces, while permitting advective and diffusive exchanges between the layers. Conceptually, the derived circulation is an estimate of the average circulation for the period 1987-1995. A deep inflow into the Indian Basin of 11±4 Sv is found, which is in the lower range of previous estimates, but consistent with conservation requirements and the global data set. The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is estimated at 15±5 Sv. The flow in the Mozambique Channel is of the same magnitude, implying a weak net flow between Madagascar and Australia. A net evaporation of -0.6±0.4 Sv is found between 32°S and 8°S, consistent with independent estimates. No net heat gain is found over the Indian Basin (0.1 ± 0.2PW north of 32°S) as a consequence of the large warm water influx from the ITF. Through the use of anomaly equations, the average dianeutral upwelling and diffusion between the sections are required and resolved, with values in the range 1-3×10-5 cm s-1 for the upwelling and 2-10 cm2 s-1 for the diffusivity.

  17. Response of Southern Ocean circulation to global warming may enhance basal ice shelf melting around Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattermann, Tore; Levermann, Anders [Potsdam University, Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the large-scale oceanic features determining the future ice shelf-ocean interaction by analyzing global warming experiments in a coarse resolution climate model with a comprehensive ocean component. Heat and freshwater fluxes from basal ice shelf melting (ISM) are parameterized following Beckmann and Goosse [Ocean Model 5(2):157-170, 2003]. Melting sensitivities to the oceanic temperature outside of the ice shelf cavities are varied from linear to quadratic (Holland et al. in J Clim 21, 2008). In 1% per year CO{sub 2}-increase experiments the total freshwater flux from ISM triples to 0.09 Sv in the linear case and more than quadruples to 0.15 Sv in the quadratic case after 140 years at which 4 x 280 ppm = 1,120 ppm was reached. Due to the long response time of subsurface temperature anomalies, ISM thereafter increases drastically, if CO{sub 2} concentrations are kept constant at 1,120 ppm. Varying strength of the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) is crucial for ISM increase, because southward advection of heat dominates the warming along the Antarctic coast. On centennial timescales the ACC accelerates due to deep ocean warming north of the current, caused by mixing of heat along isopycnals in the Southern Ocean (SO) outcropping regions. In contrast to previous studies we find an initial weakening of the ACC during the first 150 years of warming. This purely baroclinic effect is due to a freshening in the SO which is consistent with present observations. Comparison with simulations with diagnosed ISM but without its influence on the ocean circulation reveal a number of ISM-related feedbacks, of which a negative ISM-feedback, due to the ISM-related local oceanic cooling, is the dominant one. (orig.)

  18. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrieta, J.M.; Mayol, E.; Hansman, R.L.; Herndl, G.J.; Dittmar, T.; Duarte, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the second largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. About 72% of the global DOC inventory is stored in deep oceanic layers for years to centuries, supporting the current view that it consists of materials resistant to microbial degradation. An

  19. Ocean water cycle: its recent amplification and impact on ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya

    2016-04-01

    Oceans are the largest reservoir of the world's water supply, accounting for 97% of the Earth's water and supplying more than 75% of the evaporated and precipitated water in the global water cycle. Therefore, in order to predict the future of the global hydrological cycle, it is essential to understand the changes in its largest component, which is the flux of freshwater over the oceans. Here we examine the change in the ocean water cycle and the ocean's response to such changes that were happening during the last two decades. The analysis is based on a data-constrained ocean state estimate that synthesizes all of the information available in the surface fluxes, winds, observations of sea level, temperature, salinity, geoid, etc., as well as in the physical constraints, dynamics, and conservation statements that are embedded in the equations of the MIT general circulation model. Closeness to observations and dynamical consistency of the solution ensures a physically realistic correspondence between the atmospheric forcing and oceanic fluxes, including the ocean's response to freshwater input. The results show a robust pattern of change in the ocean water cycle in the last twenty years. The pattern of changes indicates a general tendency of drying of the subtropics, and wetting in the tropics and mid-to-high latitudes, following the "rich get richer and the poor get poorer" paradigm in many ocean regions. Using a closed property budget analysis, we then investigate the changes in the oceanic state (salinity, temperature, sea level) during the same twenty-year period. The results are discussed in terms of the origin of surface signatures, and differentiated between those that are attributed to short-term natural variability and those that result from an intensified hydrological cycle due to warming climate.

  20. DeepEddy : a simple deep architecture for mesoscale oceanic eddy detection in SAR images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Dongmei; Du, Yanling; He, Qi; Song, Wei; Liotta, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection of mesoscale oceanic eddies is in great demand to monitor their dynamics which play a significant role in ocean current circulation and marine climate change. Traditional methods of eddies detection using remotely sensed data are usually based on physical parameters, geometrics,

  1. Changes in ocean circulation in the South-east Atlantic Ocean during the Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atlantic Ocean is an important ocean gateway because major oceanic systems interact with each other in a relatively small geographic area. These include the Benguela Current, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the input of warm and saline waters from the Indian Ocean via the Agulhas leakage. However, there remain questions about circulation change in this region during the Pliocene, including whether there was more or less Agulhas Leakage, which may have implications for the strength of the global thermohaline circulation. ODP Site 1087 (31°28'S, 15°19'E, 1374m water depth) is located outside the Benguela upwelling region and is affected by Agulhas leakage in the modern ocean. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are thus sensitive to the influence of Agulhas Leakage at this site. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP 1087, including the UK37' index (SSTs), pigments (primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera (water mass changes). SSTs during the Pliocene range from 17 to 22.5 °C (mean SSTs at 21 °C), and show variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. Our results indicate that the Benguela upwelling system had intensified and/or shifted south during the Pliocene. We find no evidence of Agulhas leakage, meaning that either Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced or displaced during the mid-Pliocene. Potential causes of the observed signals include changes to the local wind field and/or changes in the temperature of intermediate waters which upwell in the Benguela system. Pronounced cooling is observed during cold stages in the Pliocene, aligned with the M2 and KM2 events. These results may indicate that changes to the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet had impact on circulation in the south east Atlantic during the Pliocene via displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currents.

  2. Ocean Bottom Pressure Seasonal Cycles and Decadal Trends from GRACE Release-05: Ocean Circulation Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. C.; Chambers, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean mass variations are important for diagnosing sea level budgets, the hydrological cycle and global energy budget, as well as ocean circulation variability. Here seasonal cycles and decadal trends of ocean mass from January 2003 to December 2012, both global and regional, are analyzed using GRACE Release 05 data. The trend of global flux of mass into the ocean approaches 2 cm decade-1 in equivalent sea level rise. Regional trends are of similar magnitude, with the North Pacific, South Atlantic, and South Indian oceans generally gaining mass and other regions losing mass. These trends suggest a spin-down of the North Pacific western boundary current extension and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the South Atlantic and South Indian oceans. The global average seasonal cycle of ocean mass is about 1 cm in amplitude, with a maximum in early October and volume fluxes in and out of the ocean reaching 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3 s-1) when integrated over the area analyzed here. Regional patterns of seasonal ocean mass change have typical amplitudes of 1-4 cm, and include maxima in the subtropics and minima in the subpolar regions in hemispheric winters. The subtropical mass gains and subpolar mass losses in the winter spin up both subtropical and subpolar gyres, hence the western boundary current extensions. Seasonal variations in these currents are order 10 Sv, but since the associated depth-averaged current variations are only order 0.1 cm s-1, they would be difficult to detect using in situ oceanographic instruments. a) Amplitude (colors, in cm) and b) phase (colors, in months of the year) of an annual harmonic fit to monthly GRACE Release 05 CSR 500 km smoothed maps (concurrently with a trend and the semiannual harmonic). The 97.5% confidence interval for difference from zero is also indicated (solid black line). Data within 300 km of coastlines are not considered.

  3. Deep oceans may acidify faster than anticipated due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Lui, Hon-Kit; Hsieh, Chia-Han; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Kosugi, Naohiro; Ishii, Masao; Gong, Gwo-Ching

    2017-12-01

    Oceans worldwide are undergoing acidification due to the penetration of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere1-4. The rate of acidification generally diminishes with increasing depth. Yet, slowing down of the thermohaline circulation due to global warming could reduce the pH in the deep oceans, as more organic material would decompose with a longer residence time. To elucidate this process, a time-series study at a climatically sensitive region with sufficient duration and resolution is needed. Here we show that deep waters in the Sea of Japan are undergoing reduced ventilation, reducing the pH of seawater. As a result, the acidification rate near the bottom of the Sea of Japan is 27% higher than the rate at the surface, which is the same as that predicted assuming an air-sea CO2 equilibrium. This reduced ventilation may be due to global warming and, as an oceanic microcosm with its own deep- and bottom-water formations, the Sea of Japan provides an insight into how future warming might alter the deep-ocean acidification.

  4. Deep ocean communities impacted by changing climate over 24 y in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth L; Ruhl, Henry A; Kahru, Mati; Huffard, Christine L; Sherman, Alana D

    2013-12-03

    The deep ocean, covering a vast expanse of the globe, relies almost exclusively on a food supply originating from primary production in surface waters. With well-documented warming of oceanic surface waters and conflicting reports of increasing and decreasing primary production trends, questions persist about how such changes impact deep ocean communities. A 24-y time-series study of sinking particulate organic carbon (food) supply and its utilization by the benthic community was conducted in the abyssal northeast Pacific (~4,000-m depth). Here we show that previous findings of food deficits are now punctuated by large episodic surpluses of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor, which meet utilization. Changing surface ocean conditions are translated to the deep ocean, where decadal peaks in supply, remineralization, and sequestration of organic carbon have broad implications for global carbon budget projections.

  5. The aluminum anode in deep ocean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of field and mini-plant studies are presented for A1 + 0.045% Hg + 0.1% Si + 0.45% Zn* and A1 + 0.015% In + 0.1% Si + 3% Zn** anodes in varying depths of natural seawater. Current capacity and potential information are presented. In addition to information on anode current capacity and potential, polarization curves were obtained on both aluminum alloys using potentiostatic techniques at a simulated ocean depth of 1090 ft. (332 m). These data were compared with similarly run experiments at ocean surface pressures. As a basis of comparison, zinc anodes (U.S. Mil-A-18001H) were included as a companion alloy. Information gained on zinc is sufficient to accurately represent the behavior of this alloy. Results conclude that conditions of high pressure (and low temperature) associated with the alloys under test did not alter their galvanic behavior from that noted at the ocean surface

  6. The pole tide in deep oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fluid-dynamical theory of the pole tide is examined by describing the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble and assessing its implications for mantle anelasticity and low-frequency ocean dynamics. The Laplace tide equations accounting for bottom friction are given, and a spherical harmonic approach is delineated in which the time-independent portion of the tide height is expanded. Pole-tide height and related inertia products are linearly proportional to wobble amplitude, and the final equations are modified to account for mantle elasticity and oceanic loading. Results for pole tide effects are given for various earth models with attention to the role of boundary constraints. A dynamic effect is identified which lengthens the Chandler period by about 1 day more than static lengthening, a contribution that suggests a vigorous low-frequency response. The values derived are shown to agree with previous models that do not incorporate the effects of the pole tide.

  7. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  8. Single photon light detector for deep ocean applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, S.; Babson, J.; Learned, J.G.; O'Connor, D.; Grieder, P.K.F.; Wilson, C.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a single photon sensitive light detector module which can be operated in the ocean to a depth of 5000 m. It was designed primarily to be used as a Cherenkov light detector in conjunction with the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detector) experiment. After calibration in the laboratory, seven detectors, assembled in a vertical string geometry, have been operated simultaneously in the deep ocean off the coast of the island of Hawaii. Cosmic ray muons have been recorded successfully at dephts ranging from 2000 to 4000 m. The results have demonstrated the capability of the detector; it fulfills the specifications required for the modules to be used in a deep ocean muon and neutrino detector. (orig.)

  9. Geotechnical parameters for three deep ocean study areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the results of geotechnical measurements made on cores taken at the three deep ocean sites that have been studied in detail as part of the international programme assessing the feasibility of deep ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste. The capabilities of existing sampling methods and the adequacy of the available data for providing the geotechnical parameters needed to evaluate the technical feasibility of deep ocean disposal are discussed. It is concluded that, while it has not been possible to obtain core samples of sufficient quality and depth to provide all the parameters needed for the assessment, no fundamental differences between the sediments at the study areas and those found on land or in shallow water have been identified. (author)

  10. Impact of combining GRACE and GOCE gravity data on ocean circulation estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janjić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the focus on the Southern Ocean circulation, results of assimilation of multi-mission-altimeter data and the GRACE/GOCE gravity data into the finite element ocean model (FEOM are investigated. We use the geodetic method to obtain the dynamical ocean topography (DOT. This method combines the multi-mission-altimeter sea surface height and the GRACE/GOCE gravity field. Using the profile approach, the spectral consistency of both fields is achieved by filtering the sea surface height and the geoid. By combining the GRACE and GOCE data, a considerably shorter filter length can be used, which results in more DOT details. We show that this increase in resolution of measured DOT carries onto the results of data assimilation for the surface data. By assimilating only absolute dynamical topography data using the ensemble Kalman filter, we were able to improve modeled fields. Results are closer to observations which were not used for assimilation and lie outside the area covered by altimetry in the Southern Ocean (e.g. temperature of surface drifters or deep temperatures in the Weddell Sea area at 800 m depth derived from Argo composite.

  11. Cosmic ray muons in the deep ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babson, J.; Becker-Szenzy, R.; Cady, R.; Dye, S.; Gorham, P.; Learned, J.; Matsuno, S.; O' Conner, D.; Peterson, V.; Roberts, A.; Stenger, V. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA)); Barish, B. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA)); Bradner, H. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)); Clem, J.; Roos, C.; Webster, M. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA)); Gaidos, J.; Wilson, C. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Grieder, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)); Kitamura, T.; Mitsui, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research); Kropp, W.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H. (California Univ., Irvine (USA)); March, R. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA)); DUMAND Collaboration

    1990-03-01

    A measurement of cosmic ray muon flux was obtained at ocean depths ranging from 2 km to 4 km at 500 m intervals off the West Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii. A brief description of the experiment and the results will be presented in this paper. (orig.).

  12. Dispersal from deep ocean sources: physical and related scientific processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.R.; Kupferman, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    This report presents the results of the workshop ''Dispersal from Deep Ocean Sources: Physical and Related Scientific Processes,'' together with subsequent developments and syntheses of the material discussed there. The project was undertaken to develop usable predictive descriptions of dispersal from deep oceanic sources. Relatively simple theoretical models embodying modern ocean physics were applied, and observational and experimental data bases were exploited. All known physical processes relevant to the dispersal of passive, conservative tracers were discussed, and contact points for inclusion of nonconservative processes (biological and chemical) were identified. Numerical estimates of the amplitude, space, and time scales of dispersion were made for various mechanisms that control the evolution of the dispersal as the material spreads from a bottom point source to small-, meso-, and world-ocean scales. Recommendations for additional work are given. The volume is presented as a handbook of dispersion processes. It is intended to be updated as new results become available

  13. The importance of deep, basinwide measurements in optimized Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation observing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G. D.; Menary, M. B.; Mecking, J. V.; Moat, B. I.; Johns, W. E.; Andrews, M. B.; Rayner, D.; Smeed, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a key process in the global redistribution of heat. The AMOC is defined as the maximum of the overturning stream function, which typically occurs near 30°N in the North Atlantic. The RAPID mooring array has provided full-depth, basinwide, continuous estimates of this quantity since 2004. Motivated by both the need to deliver near real-time data and optimization of the array to reduce costs, we consider alternative configurations of the mooring array. Results suggest that the variability observed since 2004 could be reproduced by a single tall mooring on the western boundary and a mooring to 1500 m on the eastern boundary. We consider the potential future evolution of the AMOC in two generations of the Hadley Centre climate models and a suite of additional CMIP5 models. The modeling studies show that deep, basinwide measurements are essential to capture correctly the future decline of the AMOC. We conclude that, while a reduced array could be useful for estimates of the AMOC on subseasonal to decadal time scales as part of a near real-time data delivery system, extreme caution must be applied to avoid the potential misinterpretation or absence of a climate time scale AMOC decline that is a key motivation for the maintenance of these observations.Plain Language SummaryThe Atlantic Overturning Circulation is a system of ocean currents that carries heat northwards in the Atlantic. This heat is crucial to maintaining the mild climate of northwest Europe. The Overturning Circulation is predicted to slow in future in response to man-made climate change. The RAPID program is designed to measure the Overturning Circulation using a number of fixed point observations spanning the Atlantic between the Canary Islands and the Bahamas. We look at whether we could reduce the number of these fixed point observations to continue to get accurate estimates of the overturning strength but for less cost. We conclude that

  14. Application of deep convolutional neural networks for ocean front recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Estanislau; Sun, Xin; Yang, Yuting; Dong, Junyu

    2017-10-01

    Ocean fronts have been a subject of study for many years, a variety of methods and algorithms have been proposed to address the problem of ocean fronts. However, all these existing ocean front recognition methods are built upon human expertise in defining the front based on subjective thresholds of relevant physical variables. This paper proposes a deep learning approach for ocean front recognition that is able to automatically recognize the front. We first investigated four existing deep architectures, i.e., AlexNet, CaffeNet, GoogLeNet, and VGGNet, for the ocean front recognition task using remote sensing (RS) data. We then propose a deep network with fewer layers compared to existing architecture for the front recognition task. This network has a total of five learnable layers. In addition, we extended the proposed network to recognize and classify the front into strong and weak ones. We evaluated and analyzed the proposed network with two strategies of exploiting the deep model: full-training and fine-tuning. Experiments are conducted on three different RS image datasets, which have different properties. Experimental results show that our model can produce accurate recognition results.

  15. Equatorial Indian Ocean subsurface current variability in an Ocean General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanaseelan, C.; Deshpande, Aditi

    2018-03-01

    The variability of subsurface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean is studied using high resolution Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) simulations during 1958-2009. February-March eastward equatorial subsurface current (ESC) shows weak variability whereas strong variability is observed in northern summer and fall ESC. An eastward subsurface current with maximum amplitude in the pycnocline is prominent right from summer to winter during strong Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years when air-sea coupling is significant. On the other hand during weak IOD years, both the air-sea coupling and the ESC are weak. This strongly suggests the role of ESC on the strength of IOD. The extension of the ESC to the summer months during the strong IOD years strengthens the oceanic response and supports intensification and maintenance of IODs through modulation of air sea coupling. Although the ESC is triggered by equatorial winds, the coupled air-sea interaction associated with IODs strengthens the ESC to persist for several seasons thereby establishing a positive feedback cycle with the surface. This suggests that the ESC plays a significant role in the coupled processes associated with the evolution and intensification of IOD events by cooling the eastern basin and strengthening thermocline-SST (sea surface temperature) interaction. As the impact of IOD events on Indian summer monsoon is significant only during strong IOD years, understanding and monitoring the evolution of ESC during these years is important for summer monsoon forecasting purposes. There is a westward phase propagation of anomalous subsurface currents which persists for a year during strong IOD years, whereas such persistence or phase propagation is not seen during weak IOD years, supporting the close association between ESC and strength of air sea coupling during strong IOD years. In this study we report the processes which strengthen the IOD events and the air sea coupling associated with IOD. It also unravels

  16. Dynamics of large scale 3-dimensional circulation of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swapna, P.

    -diagnostic and prognostic modes. Such a model could identify both the local and remote forcing of the Indian Ocean circulation. The other objectives of the thesis are the following: (i) To study the steady state 3-dimensional circulation of Indian Ocean based on semi...

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE, LARGE-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION, AND CONVECTION OVER THE TROPICAL INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orbita Roswintiarti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the quantitative estimates of the effect of large-scale circulations on the sea surface temperature (SST-tropical convection relationship and the effect of SST on the large-scale circulation-convection relationship over the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans are presented. Although convection tends to maximize at warm SSTs, increased deep convection is also determined by the divergence (DIV associated with large-scale circulation. An analysis of the relationship between SST and deep convection shows that under subsidence and clear conditions, there is a decrease in convection or increase in Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR at a maximum rate of 3.4 Wm-2 °C-1. In the SST range of 25°C to 29.5°C, a large increase in deep convection (decrease in OLR occurs in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. The OLR reduction is found to be a strong function of the large-scale circulation in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. Under a weak large-scale circulation, the rate of OLR reduction is about    -3.5 Wm-2 °C-1 to -8.1 Wm-2 °C-1. Under the influence of strong rising motions, the rate can increase to about -12.5 Wm-2 °C-1 for the same SST range. The overall relationship between large-scale circulation and deep convection is nearly linear. A maximum rate of OLR reduction with respect to DIV is -6.1 Wm-2 (10-6 s-1 in the western Pacific Ocean. It is also found that the DIV-OLR relationship is less dependent on SST. For example, the rate of OLR reduction over the western Pacific Ocean for 26°C < SST £ 27°C is -4.2 Wm-2 (10-6 s-1, while that for 28°C < SST £ 29°C is  -5.1 Wm-2 (10-6 s-1. These results are expected to have a great importance for climate feedback mechanisms associated with clouds and SST and for climate predictability.

  18. Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Ocean Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    the volcano Agua de Pau. //i ( ,.which nas eruted 5 tir-es in tile past 4.600 / ye,.rs, the last in 1563. Xumerous not springs S/ o3220 an’ soradic...complex. In a study layered structure and physical properties to of ophiolite complexes in southern Chile , de Wit ce those of oceanic crust...Spooner et al, 1977) and and Govett, 1973). A large lens, for example that S. Chile (Stern et al, 1976). Zeolite to amphib- at Skouriotissa, had a

  19. Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2002-09-01

    Oceans cover more than two-thirds of our blue planet. The waters move in a global circulation system, driven by subtle density differences and transporting huge amounts of heat. Ocean circulation is thus an active and highly nonlinear player in the global climate game. Increasingly clear evidence implicates ocean circulation in abrupt and dramatic climate shifts, such as sudden temperature changes in Greenland on the order of 5-10 °C and massive surges of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean - events that have occurred repeatedly during the last glacial cycle.

  20. Changes of deep Pacific overturning circulation and carbonate chemistry during middle Miocene East Antarctic ice sheet expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolin; Tian, Jun; Ma, Wentao; Li, Ke; Yu, Jimin

    2018-02-01

    East Antarctic ice sheet expansion (EAIE) at ∼13.9 Ma in the middle Miocene represents a major climatic event during the long-term Cenozoic cooling, but ocean circulation and carbon cycle changes during this event remain unclear. Here, we present new fish teeth isotope (εNd) and benthic foraminiferal B/Ca records from the South China Sea (SCS), newly integrated meridional Pacific benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C records and simulated results from a biogeochemical box model to explore the responses of deep Pacific Ocean circulation and carbon cycle across EAIE. The εNd and meridional benthic δ13C records reveal a more isolated Pacific Deep Water (PDW) and a sluggish Pacific meridional overturning circulation during the post-EAIE with respect to the pre-EAIE owing to weakened southern-sourced deep water formation. The deep-water [CO23-] and calcium carbonate mass accumulation rate in the SCS display markedly similar increases followed by recoveries to the pre-EAIE level during EAIE, which were probably caused by a shelf-basin shift of CaCO3 deposition and strengthened weathering due to a sea level fall within EAIE. The model results show that the ∼1‰ positive δ13C excursion during EAIE could be attributed to increased weathering of high-δ13C shelf carbonates and a terrestrial carbon reservoir expansion. The drawdown of atmospheric CO2 over the middle Miocene were probably caused by combined effects of increased shelf carbonate weathering, expanded land biosphere carbon storage and a sluggish deep Pacific meridional overturning circulation.

  1. Overturn of the Oceasn Flow in the North Atlantic as a Trigger of Inertia Motion to Form a Meridional Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigehisa

    2010-05-01

    This work is an introduction of a meridional ocean circulation. As for the zonal motions,there have been many contributions. Recent oceanographic works noticed an overturn of the ocean current in the North Atlantic. The author notices this overturn is a trigger to generate a meridional ocean circulation to have a track through the deep Atlantic, the deep circum-polar current, the deep branch flow to the Pacific between the Australian and the South America. The east part of the branch flow relates to the upwelling off Peru, and the west part relates to form a deep water in the Northwest Pacific. THe overturn of the North Atlantic suggests an outflow of the deep water and a storage of the old aged deep water in the Northwest Pacific. The storage water increase in the Northwest Pacific shoould be a trigger of the swelling up of the sea level mid Pacific to affect to the ocean front variations between the coastal waters and the ocean water. In order to keep a hydrodynamic balance on the earth, an increase of the deep water in the Pacific should flow through the Bering Sea and the Arctic Sea to get to the North Atlantic. It should be noted that a budget of the ocean water flow must be hold the condition of the water masses concservation on the earth surface. This inertia motion is maintained once induced after any natural effect or some man-made influences. At this stage, the author has to notice that there has been developed a meridional inertia path of the air particle as well as the ocean water parcel, nevertheless nobody has had pointed out this inertiamotion with a meridional path in the ocean. Air-sea interaction must be one of the main factors for driving the ocean water though the inertia motion in the global scale is more energetic. To the details, the scientists should pursue what geophysical dynamics must be developed in the future.

  2. Thermophysical properties of deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, G.R.; McVey, D.F.; Morin, R.

    1980-01-01

    Here we report measurements of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of reconsolidated illite and smectite ocean sediments at a pore pressure of 600 bars and temperatures ranging from 25 to 420 0 C. The conductivity and diffusivity were found to be in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 W/m-K and 2.2 to 2.8 x 10 -7 m 2 /s, respectively. These data are consistent with a mixture model which predicts sediment thermal properties as a function of constituent properties and porosity. Comparison of pre- and post-test physical properties indicated a decrease in pore water content and an order of magnitude increase in shear strength and permeability

  3. Background light measurements in the deep ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Matsuno, S.; Mitsui, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Cady, D.R.; Learned, J.G.; O' Connor, D.; Dye, S.

    Ambient light intensities in the ocean at depths between 1500 m and 4700 m near Hawaii Island were measured around the one photoelectron level with 5'' diameter hemispherical photomultipliers. Measurements of count rates above variable thresholds were carried out in ship-suspended and bottom-tethered configurations. The ship-suspended rates show considerable fluctuation and their mean value decreases with depth approximately as exp (-x(m)/877). The bottomtethered rates are about an order of magnitude lower than the ship-suspended rates and show little fluctuation. The calibration of our instrument indicates an absolute flux at 4700 m depth based on the bottom-tethered measurement of 218/sub -60//sup +20/ photons/cm/sup 2/.s, which is consistent with calculated intensities due to ..beta..-decay electrons from /sup 40/K. The difference in the two cases is attributed to bioluminescence due to environmental stimulation.

  4. Aluminium in an ocean general circulation model compared with the West Atlantic Geotraces cruises

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Hulten, M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A model of aluminium has been developed and implemented in an Ocean General Circulation Model (NEMO-PISCES). In the model, aluminium enters the ocean by means of dust deposition. The internal oceanic processes are described by advection, mixing...

  5. Ocean bio-geophysical modeling using mixed layer-isopycnal general circulation model coupled with photosynthesis process

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; Saito, H.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    -chemical system that supports steady carbon circulation in geological time scale in the world ocean using Mixed Layer-Isopycnal ocean General Circulation model with remotely sensed Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) chlorophyll pigment concentration....

  6. Radiological aspects of sea bed dumping in the deep oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    In order to control coastal discharges or ocean dumping of any kind of material, it is necessary to determine a release rate. This can only come from a knowledge of the composition and chemical form of the source materials, the distribution and bioavailability of these materials in the ocean ecosystem, the degree and rates of bioaccumulation and the actual or potential use of the ocean resources. With this information release rates within acceptable limits for man and the ecosystem can then be determined. Today, probably the only situations which apply this approach are the controlled disposal of radioactive wastes. In this paper a recent radiological assessment of the dumping of packaged radioactive wastes on the seabed is discussed and some environmental aspects of the United States Department of Energy program are described examining the feasibility of the emplacement of contained radioactive wastes within the deep ocean sediments

  7. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, A; Herold, N; Huber, M

    2014-07-31

    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  8. The Influence of Ice-Ocean Interactions on Europa's Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Manucharyan, G. E.; Thompson, A. F.; Goodman, J. C.; Vance, S.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa appears to have a global liquid ocean, which is located beneath an ice shell that covers the moon's entire surface. Linking ocean dynamics and ice-ocean interactions is crucial to understanding observed surface features on Europa as well as other satellite measurements. Ocean properties and circulation may also provide clues as to whether the moon has the potential to support extraterrestrial life through chemical transport governed by ice-ocean interactions. Previous studies have identified a Hadley cell-like overturning circulation extending from the equator to mid latitudes. However, these model simulations do not consider ice-ocean interactions. In this study, our goal is to investigate how the ocean circulation may be affected by ice. We study two ice-related processes by building idealized models. One process is horizontal convection driven by an equator-to-pole buoyancy difference due to latitudinal ice transport at the ocean surface, which is found to be much weaker than the convective overturning circulation. The second process we consider is the freshwater layer formed by ice melting at the equator. A strong buoyancy contrast between the freshwater layer and the underlying water suppresses convection and turbulent mixing, which may modify the surface heat flux from the ocean to the bottom of the ice. We find that the salinity of the ocean below the freshwater layer tends to be homogeneous both vertically and horizontally with the presence of an overturning circulation. Critical values of circulation strength constrain the freshwater layer depth, and this relationship is sensitive to the average salinity of the ocean. Further coupling of temperature and salinity of the ice and the ocean that includes mutual influences between the surface heat flux and the freshwater layer may provide additional insights into the ice-ocean feedback, and its influence on the latitudinal difference of heat transport.

  9. Deep drivers of mesoscale circulation in the central Rockall Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, T. J.; Alyenik, D.; Dumont, E.; Inall, M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoscale variability in the central Rockall Trough between about 56 and 58° N has been investigated using a combination of ship-borne, underwater glider and gridded satellite altimeter measurements. Altimeter observations show that mesoscale features such as eddies and large scale circulation cells are ubiquitous phenomena. They have horizontal length scales of order 100 km with vertical scales of over 1000 m and are associated with mean current speeds (over the upper 1000 m) of 15 ± 7 cm s-1. Monthly area averaged surface Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) has substantial inter-annual variability, which at times can dominate a mean seasonal signal that varies from a maximum in May (74 cm2 s-2) to a minimum in October (52 cm2 s-2) and has increased gradually since 1992 at about 1.1 cm2 s-2 per year. A five month glider mission in the Trough showed that much of this energy comes from features that are located over 1000 m below the surface in the deep cold waters of the Trough (possibly from eddies associated the North Atlantic Current). The surface currents from altimeters had similar magnitude to the drift currents averaged over 1000 m from the glider in the stratified autumn, but were half the deep water speed during late winter. Although the mesoscale features move in an apparent random manner they may also be quasi-trapped by submarine topography such as seamounts. Occasionally anti-cyclonic and cyclonic cells combine to cause a coherent westward deflection of the European slope current that warms the Rockall side of the Trough. Such deflections contribute to the inter-annual variability in the observed temperature and salinity that are monitored in the upper 800 m of the Trough. By combining glider and altimeter measurements it is shown that altimeter measurements fail to observe a 15 cm s-1 northward flowing slope current on the eastern side and a small persistent southward current on the western side. There is much to be gained from the synergy between satellite

  10. Indian Ocean circulation changes over the Middle Pleistocene Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, B.; Auer, G.; De Vleeschouwer, D.; Christensen, B. A.; Stolfi, C.; Reuning, L.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Haug, G. H.; Bogus, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT; 1.4 - 0.4 Ma) represents a climatic shift towards climate cycles at a quasi-100-kyr frequency. Although, several high-resolution records covering the MPT from globally distributed archives exist, there is only sparse evidence on changes in heat exchange between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, which represents a crucial part of the global thermohaline circulation (THC). Deciphering the influence of this heat exchange via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is an important step in understanding the causes of the MPT. The Leeuwin Current off Western Australia is directly influenced by the ITF and can therefore be used to reconstruct ITF variability during the MPT. Today, the Leeuwin Current is the only southward flowing eastern boundary current in the southern hemisphere. The onset of the current is unknown but is proposed to have occurred 1 Ma and was likely related to significant changes in ITF dynamics during the MPT We present the first continuous reconstruction of changes in the Leeuwin Current during the MPT using data from IODP Expedition 356 Site U1460. The site is located at 29°S in the path of the current. High sedimentation rates ( 30 cm/ka) at Site U1460 provide the opportunity for high-resolution reconstruction of the MPT. We reconstruct paleoenvironmental variability by combining XRF, organic geochemistry, ICP-MS and XRD data with shipboard data, to reconstruct Leeuwin Current and ITF variability. Initial analyses show clear indications that upwelling off Western Australia intensified during the MPT, indicated by increased primary productivity related to increased nutrient levels, from 900-600 ka. Our results also suggest that the west Australian current (WAC) strengthened during this time supplying cool eutrophic waters from the high southern latitutes to the site. This intensification of the WAC may have had major implications for the Indian Ocean current system, but also the THC at large. This seems to be coupled with

  11. Tests of Parameterized Langmuir Circulation Mixing in the Oceans Surface Mixed Layer II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-11

    inertial oscillations in the ocean are governed by three-dimensional processes that are not accounted for in a one-dimensional simulation , and it was...Unlimited 52 Paul Martin (228) 688-5447 Recent large-eddy simulations (LES) of Langmuir circulation (LC) within the surface mixed layer (SML) of...used in the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and tested for (a) a simple wind-mixing case, (b) simulations of the upper ocean thermal structure at Ocean

  12. Eddy-resolving simulations of the Fimbul Ice Shelf cavity circulation: Basal melting and exchange with open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, T.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Nøst, O. A.; Lilly, J. M.; Galton-Fenzi, B. K.

    2014-10-01

    Melting at the base of floating ice shelves is a dominant term in the overall Antarctic mass budget. This study applies a high-resolution regional ice shelf/ocean model, constrained by observations, to (i) quantify present basal mass loss at the Fimbul Ice Shelf (FIS); and (ii) investigate the oceanic mechanisms that govern the heat supply to ice shelves in the Eastern Weddell Sea. The simulations confirm the low melt rates suggested by observations and show that melting is primarily determined by the depth of the coastal thermocline, regulating deep ocean heat fluxes towards the ice. Furthermore, the uneven distribution of ice shelf area at different depths modulates the melting response to oceanic forcing, causing the existence of two distinct states of melting at the FIS. In the simulated present-day state, only small amounts of Modified Warm Deep Water enter the continental shelf, and ocean temperatures beneath the ice are close to the surface freezing point. The basal mass loss in this so-called state of "shallow melting" is mainly controlled by the seasonal inflow of solar-heated surface water affecting large areas of shallow ice in the upper part of the cavity. This is in contrast to a state of "deep melting", in which the thermocline rises above the shelf break depth, establishing a continuous inflow of Warm Deep Water towards the deep ice. The transition between the two states is found to be determined by a complex response of the Antarctic Slope Front overturning circulation to varying climate forcings. A proper representation of these frontal dynamics in climate models will therefore be crucial when assessing the evolution of ice shelf basal melting along this sector of Antarctica.

  13. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and θ 13 . At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle

  14. Fingerprints of changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to large reorganizations in ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bozbiyik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 and carbon cycle changes in the land, ocean and atmosphere are investigated using the comprehensive carbon cycle-climate model NCAR CSM1.4-carbon. Ensemble simulations are forced with freshwater perturbations applied at the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean deep water formation sites under pre-industrial climate conditions. As a result, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation reduces in each experiment to varying degrees. The physical climate fields show changes qualitatively in agreement with results documented in the literature, but there is a clear distinction between northern and southern perturbations. Changes in the physical variables, in turn, affect the land and ocean biogeochemical cycles and cause a reduction, or an increase, in the atmospheric CO2 concentration by up to 20 ppmv, depending on the location of the perturbation. In the case of a North Atlantic perturbation, the land biosphere reacts with a strong reduction in carbon stocks in some tropical locations and in high northern latitudes. In contrast, land carbon stocks tend to increase in response to a southern perturbation. The ocean is generally a sink of carbon although large reorganizations occur throughout various basins. The response of the land biosphere is strongest in the tropical regions due to a shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The carbon fingerprints of this shift, either to the south or to the north depending on where the freshwater is applied, can be found most clearly in South America. For this reason, a compilation of various paleoclimate proxy records of Younger Dryas precipitation changes are compared with our model results. The proxy records, in general, show good agreement with the model's response to a North Atlantic freshwater perturbation.

  15. Behavior of candidate canister materials in deep ocean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyrl, W.H.; Stephenson, L.L.; Braithwaite, J.W.

    1977-04-01

    Corrosion tests have been conducted under simulated deep ocean conditions for nine months. The materials tested were base alloys of titanium, zirconium, and nickel. All materials tested showed corrosion rates that were very low even at the highest test temperature. None showed susceptibility to either stress corrosion cracking or differential aeration corrosion. Ambient electrochemical tests confirmed the findings that none should be sensitive to differential oxygen effects. The zirconium alloys may be more susceptible to pitting corrosion than the others, although the pitting conditions are unlikely to be found in service, unless higher temperatures are encountered. All the alloys tested could give long life under deep ocean conditions and are candidates for more detailed corrosion studies

  16. Radium 226 in the deep north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, M.

    1986-01-01

    With reference to the distribution of radium-226 in the western equatorial and north-eastern deep Atlantic Ocean it was possible to establish structures in the correlations of radium-226 to its chemical homologue Ba and dissolved SiO 2 . An 11-box model of the deep Atlantic Ocean was used to obtain information on the size of the radium-226 and Ba sources. The soil source derives mainly from the dissolution of barite. For the first time, an evaluation of the radium-226 flow resulting from the dissolution of particulate matter is presented. The box model and the radium-226 concentrations measured put down the value as 23-46·10 -21 mol/m 2 s. (DG) [de

  17. Environmental monitoring and deep ocean disposal of packaged radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Preston, A.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental monitoring in the context of the dumping of packaged radioactive waste in the deep ocean is discussed in detail. The principles and objectives laid down by the IAEA and the ICRP are reviewed. Monitoring and its relationships to radiation exposure, research, control measures and public information are described. Finally, the actual practice in the UK of environmental monitoring is detailed for the measurable case of liquid wastes in coastal waters and also for package waste in deep oceans which has to be calculated. It is concluded that better mathematical models are needed to predict the dose to man and that more research into oceanographic and biological transfer processes should be carried out. (UK)

  18. Idealised modelling of ocean circulation driven by conductive and hydrothermal fluxes at the seabed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jowan M.; Morales Maqueda, Miguel A.; Polton, Jeff A.; Megann, Alex P.

    2018-02-01

    Geothermal heating is increasingly recognised as an important factor affecting ocean circulation, with modelling studies suggesting that this heat source could lead to first-order changes in the formation rate of Antarctic Bottom Water, as well as a significant warming effect in the abyssal ocean. Where it has been represented in numerical models, however, the geothermal heat flux into the ocean is generally treated as an entirely conductive flux, despite an estimated one third of the global geothermal flux being introduced to the ocean via hydrothermal sources. A modelling study is presented which investigates the sensitivity of the geothermally forced circulation to the way heat is supplied to the abyssal ocean. An analytical two-dimensional model of the circulation is described, which demonstrates the effects of a volume flux through the ocean bed. A simulation using the NEMO numerical general circulation model in an idealised domain is then used to partition a heat flux between conductive and hydrothermal sources and explicitly test the sensitivity of the circulation to the formulation of the abyssal heat flux. Our simulations suggest that representing the hydrothermal flux as a mass exchange indeed changes the heat distribution in the abyssal ocean, increasing the advective heat transport from the abyss by up to 35% compared to conductive heat sources. Consequently, we suggest that the inclusion of hydrothermal fluxes can be an important addition to course-resolution ocean models.

  19. Ship Sensor Observations for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats" expedition sponsored by...

  20. High-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A joint programme has begun between the Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley to study the dispersion of radioactivity in the deep ocean arising from the possible dumping of high level waste on the sea bed in vitrified-glass form which would permit slow leakage over a long term scale. The programme consists firstly of the development of a simple diffusion/advection model for the dispersion of radioactivity in a closed and finite ocean, which overcomes many of the criticisms of the earlier model proposed by Webb and Morley. Preliminary results from this new model are comparable to those of the Webb-Morley model for radio isotopes with half-lives of 10-300 years but are considerably more restrictive outside this range, particularly for those which are much longer-lived. The second part of the programme, towards which the emphasis is directed, concerns the field programme planned to measure the advection and diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean to provide realistic input parameters to the model and increase our fundamental understanding of the environment in which the radioactive materials may be released. The first cruises of the programme will take place in late 1976 and involve deep current meter deployments and float dispersion experiments around the present NEA dump site with some sediment sampling, so that adsorption experiments can be started on typical deep sea sediments. The programme will expand the number of long-term deep moored stations over the next five years and include further float experiments, CTD profiling, and other physical oceanography. In the second half of the 5-year programme, attempts will be made to measure diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean using radioactive tracers

  1. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.; Arbic, Brian K.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Coward, Andrew C.; Maltrud, Mathew; Merryfield, William J.; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Varghese, Anson

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between

  2. On the semi-diagnostic computation of climatological circulation in the western tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Rao, A.D.; Dube, S.K.; Bahulayan, N.

    and internal density field on the dynamical balance of circulation in the western tropical Indian Ocean is explained. The climatological temperature and salinity data used to drive the model is found to be hydrodynamically adjusted with surface wind, flow field...

  3. Hidden cycle of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Christopher L; Repeta, Daniel J; Rothman, Daniel H; Xu, Li; Santinelli, Chiara

    2014-11-25

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large (660 Pg C) reactive carbon reservoir that mediates the oceanic microbial food web and interacts with climate on both short and long timescales. Carbon isotopic content provides information on the DOC source via δ(13)C and age via Δ(14)C. Bulk isotope measurements suggest a microbially sourced DOC reservoir with two distinct components of differing radiocarbon age. However, such measurements cannot determine internal dynamics and fluxes. Here we analyze serial oxidation experiments to quantify the isotopic diversity of DOC at an oligotrophic site in the central Pacific Ocean. Our results show diversity in both stable and radio isotopes at all depths, confirming DOC cycling hidden within bulk analyses. We confirm the presence of isotopically enriched, modern DOC cocycling with an isotopically depleted older fraction in the upper ocean. However, our results show that up to 30% of the deep DOC reservoir is modern and supported by a 1 Pg/y carbon flux, which is 10 times higher than inferred from bulk isotope measurements. Isotopically depleted material turns over at an apparent time scale of 30,000 y, which is far slower than indicated by bulk isotope measurements. These results are consistent with global DOC measurements and explain both the fluctuations in deep DOC concentration and the anomalous radiocarbon values of DOC in the Southern Ocean. Collectively these results provide an unprecedented view of the ways in which DOC moves through the marine carbon cycle.

  4. Secular trends and climate drift in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Curt; Gleckler, Peter J.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Bader, David C.

    2006-02-01

    Coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (coupled GCMs) with interactive sea ice are the primary tool for investigating possible future global warming and numerous other issues in climate science. A long-standing problem with such models is that when different components of the physical climate system are linked together, the simulated climate can drift away from observation unless constrained by ad hoc adjustments to interface fluxes. However, 11 modern coupled GCMs, including three that do not employ flux adjustments, behave much better in this respect than the older generation of models. Surface temperature trends in control run simulations (with external climate forcing such as solar brightness and atmospheric carbon dioxide held constant) are small compared with observed trends, which include 20th century climate change due to both anthropogenic and natural factors. Sea ice changes in the models are dominated by interannual variations. Deep ocean temperature and salinity trends are small enough for model control runs to extend over 1000 simulated years or more, but trends in some regions, most notably the Arctic, differ substantially among the models and may be problematic. Methods used to initialize coupled GCMs can mitigate climate drift but cannot eliminate it. Lengthy "spin-ups" of models, made possible by increasing computer power, are one reason for the improvements this paper documents.

  5. Particle fluxes in the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins: the role of ocean vertical velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Patara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between deep sedimentary fluxes and ocean current vertical velocities in an offshore area of the Ionian Sea, the deepest basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Sediment trap data are collected at 500 m and 2800 m depth in two successive moorings covering the period September 1999–May 2001. A tight coupling is observed between the upper and deep traps and the estimated particle sinking rates are more than 200 m day−1. The current vertical velocity field is computed from a 1/16°×1/16° Ocean General Circulation Model simulation and from the wind stress curl. Current vertical velocities are larger and more variable than Ekman vertical velocities, yet the general patterns are alike. Current vertical velocities are generally smaller than 1 m day−1: we therefore exclude a direct effect of downward velocities in determining high sedimentation rates. However we find that upward velocities in the subsurface layers of the water column are positively correlated with deep particle fluxes. We thus hypothesize that upwelling would produce an increase in upper ocean nutrient levels – thus stimulating primary production and grazing – a few weeks before an enhanced vertical flux is found in the sediment traps. High particle sedimentation rates may be attained by means of rapidly sinking fecal pellets produced by gelatinous macro-zooplankton. Other sedimentation mechanisms, such as dust deposition, are also considered in explaining large pulses of deep particle fluxes. The fast sinking rates estimated in this study might be an evidence of the efficiency of the biological pump in sequestering organic carbon from the surface layers of the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins.

  6. The circulation of deep water in the Tasman and Coral seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The physical oceanography of the Tasman and Coral Seas is reviewed with an emphasis on the deep currents. There are many uncertainties in the deep circulation pattern. The available data are used to develop an idealised circulation to estimate the likely path taken by water flowing from a depth of 5000 m in the Tasman Sea. The model suggests that the water would finally reach the surface layers south of the Antarctic Convergence with a median delay of 600 years. (author)

  7. Waste disposal in the deep ocean: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, T.P.; Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration at sea, industrial and sewage waste disposal in the surface mixing zone, and disposal of low-level nuclear wastes, obsolete munitions, and nerve gas onto the seafloor have been the main uses of the deep sea for waste management. In 1981 the wastes disposed of in the deep sea consisted of 48 X 10/sup 4/ t of liquid industrial wastes and 2 X 10/sup 4/ t of sewage sludge by the United States; 1.5 X 10/sup 4/ t (solids) of sewage sludge by the Federal Republic of German; 5300 t of liquid industrial wastes by Denmark; 99 t of solid industrial wastes by the United Kingdom; and 9400 t of low-level radioactive wastes by several European countries. Also in 1981 at-sea incineration of slightly more than 10/sup 5/ t of organic wastes from Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom was carried out in the North Sea. Unique oceanographic features of the deep sea include its large dilution capacity; the long residence time of deep-sea water (on the order of 10/sup 2/ y); low biological productivity in the surface water of the open ocean (≅50 g m/sup -2/ of carbon per year); the existence of an oxygen minimum zone at several hundred meters deep in the mid-latitudes; and the abyssal-clay regions showing sedimentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine-grained clay. Any deep-sea waste disposal strategy must take into account oceanic processes and current scientific knowledge in order to attain a safe solution that will last for centuries

  8. Global Ocean Circulation in Thermohaline Coordinates and Small-scale and Mesoscale mixing: An Inverse Estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeskamp, S.; Zika, J. D.; McDougall, T. J.; Sloyan, B.

    2016-02-01

    I will present results of a new inverse technique that infers small-scale turbulent diffusivities and mesoscale eddy diffusivities from an ocean climatology of Salinity (S) and Temperature (T) in combination with surface freshwater and heat fluxes.First, the ocean circulation is represented in (S,T) coordinates, by the diathermohaline streamfunction. Framing the ocean circulation in (S,T) coordinates, isolates the component of the circulation that is directly related to water-mass transformation.Because water-mass transformation is directly related to fluxes of salt and heat, this framework allows for the formulation of an inverse method in which the diathermohaline streamfunction is balanced with known air-sea forcing and unknown mixing. When applying this inverse method to observations, we obtain observationally based estimates for both the streamfunction and the mixing. The results reveal new information about the component of the global ocean circulation due to water-mass transformation and its relation to surface freshwater and heat fluxes and small-scale and mesoscale mixing. The results provide global constraints on spatially varying patterns of diffusivities, in order to obtain a realistic overturning circulation. We find that mesoscale isopycnal mixing is much smaller than expected. These results are important for our understanding of the relation between global ocean circulation and mixing and may lead to improved parameterisations in numerical ocean models.

  9. Sensitivity experiments with an adaptation model of circulation of western tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bahulayan, N.; Shaji, C.; Rao, A.D.; Dube, S.K.

    circulation at 10 m depth is controlled by both wind stress and sea surface topography. Circulation at 50 m depth is mainly controlled by thermohaline forcing and sea surface topography. The current speed in the western tropical Indian Ocean is of the order...

  10. A global mean dynamic topography and ocean circulation estimation using a preliminary GOCE gravity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Bingham, R.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth’s gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. In doing so, it promises to significantly advance our ability to determine the ocean’s general circulation. In this study, an ini...

  11. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  12. Consequences of future increased Arctic runoff on Arctic Ocean stratification, circulation, and sea ice cover

    OpenAIRE

    Nummelin, Aleksi; Ilicak, Mehmet; Li, Camille; Smedsrud, Lars Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean has important freshwater sources including river runoff, low evaporation, and exchange with the Pacific Ocean. In the future, we expect even larger freshwater input as the global hydrological cycle accelerates, increasing high-latitude precipitation, and river runoff. Previous modeling studies show some robust responses to high-latitude freshwater perturbations, including a strengthening of Arctic stratification and a weakening of the large-scale ocean circulation...

  13. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, S.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822 (United States); College of Natural Sciences, Hawaii Pacific University, 45-045 Kamehameha Highway, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13}. At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle.

  14. Frequency of Tropical Ocean Deep Convection and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, H. H.; Behrangi, A.; Ruzmaikin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The average of 36 CMIP5 models predicts about 3K of warming and a 4.7% increase in precipitation for the tropical oceans with a doubling of the CO2 by the end of this century. For this scenario we evaluate the increase in the frequency of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC) in the tropical oceans. We select only DCC which reach or penetrate the tropopause in the 15 km AIRS footprint. The evaluation is based on Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the current temperatures of the tropical oceans, those predicted by the mean of the CMIP5 models and the PDF of the DCC process. The PDF of the DCC process is derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) between the years 2003 and 2016. During this time the variability due Enso years provided a 1 K p-p change in the mean tropical SST. The key parameter is the SST associated with the onset of the DCC process. This parameter shifts only 0.5 K for each K of warming of the oceans. As a result the frequency of DCC is expected to increases by the end of this century by about 50% above the current frequency.

  15. Ocean Hydrodynamics Numerical Model in Curvilinear Coordinates for Simulating Circulation of the Global Ocean and its Separate Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The original program complex is proposed for the ocean circulation sigma-model, developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (INM), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). The complex can be used in various curvilinear orthogonal coordinate systems. In addition to ocean circulation model, the complex contains a sea ice dynamics and thermodynamics model, as well as the original system of the atmospheric forcing implementation on the basis of both prescribed meteodata and atmospheric model results. This complex can be used as the oceanic block of Earth climate model as well as for solving the scientific and practical problems concerning the World ocean and its separate oceans and seas. The developed program complex can be effectively used on parallel shared memory computational systems and on contemporary personal computers. On the base of the complex proposed the ocean general circulation model (OGCM) was developed. The model is realized in the curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system obtained by the conformal transformation of the standard geographical grid that allowed us to locate the system singularities outside the integration domain. The horizontal resolution of the OGCM is 1 degree on longitude, 0.5 degree on latitude, and it has 40 non-uniform sigma-levels in depth. The model was integrated for 100 years starting from the Levitus January climatology using the realistic atmospheric annual cycle calculated on the base of CORE datasets. The experimental results showed us that the model adequately reproduces the basic characteristics of large-scale World Ocean dynamics, that is in good agreement with both observational data and results of the best climatic OGCMs. This OGCM is used as the oceanic component of the new version of climatic system model (CSM) developed in INM RAS. The latter is now ready for carrying out the new numerical experiments on climate and its change modelling according to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios in the

  16. Finite element analysis of thermal convection in deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartling, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Of obvious importance to the study and engineering of a seabed disposal is the determination of the temperature and fluid flow fields existing in the sediment layer and the perturbation of these fields due to the implantation of localized heat sources. The fluid mechanical and heat transfer process occurring in oceanic sediments may be characterized as free (or natural) convection in a porous material. In the case of an undisturbed sediment layer, the driving force for the natural circulation of pore water comes from the geothermal heat flux. Current theories for heat flow from the sea floor suggest the possibility of large scale hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust (see e.g., Ribando, et al. 1976) which is in turn coupled with a convection process in the overlying sediment layer (Anderson 1980, Anderson, et al. 1979). The introduction of a local heat source, such as a waste canister, into a saturated sediment layer would by itself initiate a convection process due to buoyancy forces. Since the mathematical description of natural convection in a porous medium is of sufficient complexity to preclude the use of most analytic methods of analysis, approximate numerical procedures are often employed. In the following sections, a particular type of numerical method is described that has proved useful in the solution of a variety of porous flow problems. However, rather than concentrate on the details of the numerical algorithm the main emphasis of the presentation will be on the types of problems and results that are encountered in the areas of oceanic heat flow and seabed waste disposal

  17. Tropical teleconnections via the ocean and atmosphere induced by Southern Ocean deep convective events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Gunn, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The current generation (CMIP5) of Earth System Models (ESMs) shows a huge variability in their ability to represent Southern Ocean (SO) deep-ocean convection and Antarctic Bottom Water, with a preference for open-sea convection in the Weddell and Ross gyres. A long control simulation in a coarse 3o resolution ESM (the GFDL CM2Mc model) shows a highly regular multi-decadal oscillation between periods of SO open sea convection and non-convective periods. This process also happens naturally, with different frequencies and durations of convection across most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al, 2014). Here we assess the impact of SO deep convection and resulting sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the tropical atmosphere and ocean via teleconnections, with a focus on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We combine analysis of our low-resolution coupled model with inter-model analysis across historical CMIP5 simulations. SST cooling south of 60S during non-convective decades triggers a stronger, northward shifted SH Hadley cell, which results in intensified northward cross-equatorial moist heat transport and a poleward shift in the ITCZ. Resulting correlations between the cross-equatorial atmospheric heat transport and ITCZ location are in good agreement with recent theories (e.g. Frierson et al. 2013; Donohoe et al. 2014). Lagged correlations between a SO convective index and cross-equatorial heat transports (in the atmosphere and ocean), as well as various tropical (and ENSO) climate indices are analyzed. In the ocean realm, we find that non-convective decades result in weaker AABW formation and weaker ACC but stronger Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) formation, likely as a result of stronger SO westerlies (more positive SAM). The signals of AABW and AAIW are seen in the tropics on short timescales of years to decades in the temperature, heat storage and heat transport anomalies and also in deep and intermediate ocean oxygen. Most

  18. Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stubbins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved black carbon (DBC, defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzenepolycarboxylic acid (BPCA oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance were determined over the course of a 28 day irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM-C to 55 ± 15 nM-C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. The concentration of DBC correlated with CDOM absorbance and the quality of DBC indicated by the ratios of different BPCAs correlated with CDOM absorbance spectral slope, suggesting the optical properties of CDOM may provide a proxy for both DBC concentrations and quality in natural waters. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 years. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Consequently, photo-degradation is posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the apparent survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their

  19. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between models and observations that was greater than estimated statistical uncertainty. Averaging over all current meter records in various depth ranges, all four models had mean TKE within a factor of two of observations above 3500. m, and within a factor of three below 3500. m. With the exception of observations between 20 and 100. m, the models tended to straddle the observations. However, individual models had clear biases. The free running (no data assimilation) model biases were largest below 2000. m. Idealized simulations revealed that the parameterized bottom boundary layer tidal currents were not likely the source of the problem, but that reducing quadratic bottom drag coefficient may improve the fit with deep observations. Data assimilation clearly improved the model-observation comparison, especially below 2000. m, despite assimilated data existing mostly above this depth and only south of 47°N. Different diagnostics revealed different aspects of the comparison, though in general the models appeared to be in an eddying-regime with TKE that compared reasonably well with observations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The modern and glacial overturning circulation in the Atlantic ocean in PMIP coupled model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Weber

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the response of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC to LGM forcings and boundary conditions in nine PMIP coupled model simulations, including both GCMs and Earth system Models of Intermediate Complexity. Model results differ widely. The AMOC slows down considerably (by 20–40% during the LGM as compared to the modern climate in four models, there is a slight reduction in one model and four models show a substantial increase in AMOC strength (by 10–40%. It is found that a major controlling factor for the AMOC response is the density contrast between Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at their source regions. Changes in the density contrast are determined by the opposing effects of changes in temperature and salinity, with more saline AABW as compared to NADW consistently found in all models and less cooling of AABW in all models but one. In only two models is the AMOC response during the LGM directly related to the response in net evaporation over the Atlantic basin. Most models show large changes in the ocean freshwater transports into the basin, but this does not seem to affect the AMOC response. Finally, there is some dependence on the accuracy of the control state.

  1. Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART(R))

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), the Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART(R)) Project is an ongoing effort to...

  2. Bacterial Diversity in Deep-Sea Sediments from Afanasy Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Meena, R.M.; Deobagkar, D.D.

    Deep-sea sediments can reveal much about the last 200 million years of Earth history, including the history of ocean life and climate. Microbial diversity in Afanasy Nikitin seamount located at Equatorial East Indian Ocean (EEIO) was investigated...

  3. Ship Track for Operation Deep Scope 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of R/V Seward Johnson during the "Operation Deep Scope 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of...

  4. Ship Sensor Observations for Operation Deep Scope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Operation Deep Scope 2007" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  5. Ship Track for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploring the Gulf of Mexico" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  6. Dynamics of a Marine Turbine for Deep Ocean Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yuan Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For most of the ocean currents, such as the Kuroshio at east Taiwan, the Gulf Stream at east Florida and the Agulhas Current at southeast Africa, the depth of the seabed is generally deeper than one hundred meters, some waters of which can even reach one thousand meters. In such deep waters, the design of the turbine, as well as the anchoring system shall have special features so that existing ocean engineering technologies can be applied and the engineering cost can be lowered. Thus, as regards design, in addition to the analysis of the interaction between turbine and current, priority shall also be given to the design of the anchoring system of the turbine. To address the concerns, the authors propose an ocean turbine featured as follows: (1 it can be anchored in deep waters with a single cable; (2 it can generate high power in a current of moderate flow speed while producing low drag; (3 it can be self-balanced against current disturbance; (4 it is shrouded to enhance power efficiency; (5 the dynamic variations due to the interaction between the turbine and current are small. All of these features are confirmed with the computational results, leading to a detailed design of the turbine structure. If the easy-to-install high-efficiency shrouded turbines, having the capability to self-balance and requiring minimum maintenance effort, are successfully developed, the power supply pressure in Taiwan can be greatly alleviated. The Kuroshio was chosen as the typical current for the present dynamic analysis because, firstly, the flow characteristics of Kuroshio are similar to those of other large-scale currents mentioned above, and secondly, the data of Kuroshio are highly available to us so that a thorough analysis can be done.

  7. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide distributions in the Nansen Basin, Artic Ocean: Scavenging rates and circulation timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk Cochran, J.; Hirschberg, David J.; Livingston, Hugh D.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Key, Robert M.

    Determination of the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 230Th, 228 Th and 210Pb, and the anthropogenic radionuclides 241Am, 239,240Pu, 134Cs and 137Cs in water samples collected across the Nansen Basin from the Barents Sea slope to the Gakkel Ridge provides tracers with which to characterize both scavenging rates and circulation timescales in this portion of the Arctic Ocean. Large volume water samples (˜ 15001) were filtered in situ to separate particulate (> 0.5 μm) and dissolved Th isotopes and 241Am. Thorium-230 displays increases in both particulate and dissolved activities with depth, with dissolved 230Th greater and particulate 230Th lower in the deep central Nansen Basin than at the Barents Sea slope. Dissolved 228Th activities also are greater relative to 228Ra, in the central basin. Residence times for Th relative to removal from solution onto particles are ˜1 year in surface water, ˜10 years in deep water adjacent to the Barents Sea slope, and ˜20 years in the Eurasian Basin Deep Water. Lead-210 in the central basin deep water also has a residence time of ˜20 years with respect to its removal from the water column. This texture of scavenging is reflected in distributions of the particle-reactive anthropogenic radionuclide 241Am, which shows higher activities relative to Pu in the central Nansen Basin than at the Barents Sea slope. Distributions Of 137Cs show more rapid mixing at the basin margins (Barents Sea slope in the south, Gakkel Ridge in the north) than in the basin interior. Cesium-137 is mixed throughout the water column adjacent to the Barents Sea slope and is present in low but detectable activities in the Eurasian Basin Deep Water in the central basin. At the time of sampling (1987) the surface water at all stations had been labeled with 134Cs released in the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. In the ˜1 year since the introduction of Chernobyl 134Cs to the Nansen Basin, it had been mixed to depths of ˜800 m at

  8. A study on the ocean circulation and thermal diffusion near a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Hwang, Won Tae

    1994-08-01

    The thermal discharge used with cooling water at nuclear power plant is released to a neighbour sea and it is influenced on marine environment. The thermal discharge released from power plant is mainly transported and diffused by ocean circulation of neighbour sea. So the evaluation for characteristics of ocean circulation around neighbour sea is firstly performed. The purpose of this research is primarily analyzed the thermal diffusion in sea around Yongkwang nuclear power plant. For this viewpoint, fundamental oceanographic data sets are collected and analyzed in Yellow sea, west sea of Korea, sea around Yongkwang. The ocean circulation and the effects of temperature increase by thermal discharge are evaluated using these data. The characteristics of tide is interpreted by the analysis of observed tidal elevation and tidal currents. The characteristics of temperature and salinity is investigated by the long-term observation of Korea Fisheries Research and Development Agency and the short-term observation around Yongkwang. (Author)

  9. Topographic control of oceanic flows in deep passages and straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. A.

    1998-08-01

    Saddle points between neighboring deep ocean basins are the sites of unidirectional flow from one basin to the next, depending on the source of bottom water. Flow in these sites appears to be topographically controlled so the interface between the bottom water and the water above adjusts itself to permit bottom water flow from the basin that contains a source of bottom water into the next. Examples in the Atlantic include flow in the Romanche Fracture Zone, the Vema Channel, the Ceara Abyssal Plain, the Anegada-Jungfern passage, and the Discovery Gap, but there are many more. Theoretical predictions of volume flux using a method that requires only conductivity-temperature-depth data archives and detailed knowledge of bathymetry near the saddle point are compared with volume flux estimates using current meters and/or geostrophic estimates for seven cases. The ratio of prediction to volume flux estimate ranges from 1.0 to 2.7. Some ocean straits that separate adjacent seas are also found to critically control bidirectional flows between basins. Theory of the influence of rotation on such critical flows is reviewed. Predictions of volume flux in eight cases are compared with ocean estimates of volume flux from traditional methods.

  10. Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigment in a mixed layer isopycnal ocean general circulation model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Ishizaka, J.; Muneyama, K.; Frouin, R.

    The influence of phytoplankton on the upper ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in the equatorial Pacific is investigated using an isopycnal ocean general circulation model (OPYC) coupled with a mixed layer model and remotely sensed chlorophyll...

  11. Arctic deep-water ferromanganese-oxide deposits reflect the unique characteristics of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James; Konstantinova, Natalia; Mikesell, Mariah; Mizell, Kira; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Lam, Phoebe; Jensen, Laramie T.; Xiang, Yang; Gartman, Amy; Cherkashov, Georgy; Hutchinson, Deborah; Till, Claire P.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about marine mineral deposits in the Arctic Ocean, an ocean dominated by continental shelf and basins semi-closed to deep-water circulation. Here, we present data for ferromanganese crusts and nodules collected from the Amerasia Arctic Ocean in 2008, 2009, and 2012 (HLY0805, HLY0905, HLY1202). We determined mineral and chemical compositions of the crusts and nodules and the onset of their formation. Water column samples from the GEOTRACES program were analyzed for dissolved and particulate scandium concentrations, an element uniquely enriched in these deposits.The Arctic crusts and nodules are characterized by unique mineral and chemical compositions with atypically high growth rates, detrital contents, Fe/Mn ratios, and low Si/Al ratios, compared to deposits found elsewhere. High detritus reflects erosion of submarine outcrops and North America and Siberia cratons, transport by rivers and glaciers to the sea, and distribution by sea ice, brines, and currents. Uniquely high Fe/Mn ratios are attributed to expansive continental shelves, where diagenetic cycling releases Fe to bottom waters, and density flows transport shelf bottom water to the open Arctic Ocean. Low Mn contents reflect the lack of a mid-water oxygen minimum zone that would act as a reservoir for dissolved Mn. The potential host phases and sources for elements with uniquely high contents are discussed with an emphasis on scandium. Scandium sorption onto Fe oxyhydroxides and Sc-rich detritus account for atypically high scandium contents. The opening of Fram Strait in the Miocene and ventilation of the deep basins initiated Fe-Mn crust growth ∼15 Myr ago.

  12. Deep groundwater circulation and associated methane leakage in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasby, S.E.; Ferguson, G.; Brady, A.; Sharp, C.; Dunfield, P.; McMechan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Concern over potential impact of shale gas development on shallow groundwater systems requires greater understanding of crustal scale fluid movement. We examined natural deeply circulating groundwater systems in northeastern British Columbia adjacent to a region of shale gas development, in order to elucidate origin of waters, depths of circulation, and controls on fluid flow. These systems are expressed as thermal springs that occur in the deformed sedimentary rocks of the Liard Basin. Stable isotope data from these springs show that they originate as meteoric water. Although there are no thermal anomalies in the region, outlet temperatures range from 30 to 56 °C, reflecting depth of circulation. Based on aqueous geothermometry and geothermal gradients, circulation depths up to 3.8 km are estimated, demonstrating connection of deep groundwater systems to the surface. Springs are also characterised by leakage of thermogenic gas from deep strata that is partly attenuated by methanotrophic microbial communities in the spring waters. Springs are restricted to anomalous structural features, cross cutting faults, and crests of fault-cored anticlines. On a regional scale they are aligned with the major tectonic features of the Liard Line and Larsen Fault. This suggests that while connection of surface to deep reservoirs is possible, it is rare and restricted to highly deformed geologic units that produce permeable pathways from depth through otherwise thick intervening shale units. Results allow a better understanding of potential for communication between deep shale gas units and shallow aquifer systems. - Highlights: • Deep groundwater systems were studied near active shale gas development. • Natural fracture systems allow circulation of meteoric water to depths of 3.8 km. • Deep circulation systems occur, but are rare in even highly deformed rocks.

  13. A Statistical Evaluation of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models: Complexity vs. Simplicity

    OpenAIRE

    Robert K. Kaufmann; David I. Stern

    2004-01-01

    The principal tools used to model future climate change are General Circulation Models which are deterministic high resolution bottom-up models of the global atmosphere-ocean system that require large amounts of supercomputer time to generate results. But are these models a cost-effective way of predicting future climate change at the global level? In this paper we use modern econometric techniques to evaluate the statistical adequacy of three general circulation models (GCMs) by testing thre...

  14. A deep hydrothermal fault zone in the lower oceanic crust, Samail ophiolite Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlmann, B.; Mueller, S.; Koepke, J.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation is a key process for the exchange of chemical elements between the oceans and the solid Earth and for the extraction of heat from newly accreted crust at mid-ocean ridges. However, due to a dearth of samples from intact oceanic crust, or continuous samples from ophiolites, there remain major short comings in our understanding of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust, especially in the deeper parts. In particular, it is unknown whether fluid recharge and discharge occurs pervasively or if it is mainly channeled within discrete zones such as faults. Here, we present a description of a hydrothermal fault zone that crops out in Wadi Gideah in the layered gabbro section of the Samail ophiolite of Oman. Field observations reveal a one meter thick chlorite-epidote normal fault with disseminated pyrite and chalcopyrite and heavily altered gabbro clasts at its core. In both, the hanging and the footwall the gabbro is altered and abundantly veined with amphibole, epidote, prehnite and zeolite. Whole rock mass balance calculations show enrichments in Fe, Mn, Sc, V, Co, Cu, Rb, Zr, Nb, Th and U and depletions of Si, Ca, Na, Cr, Zn, Sr, Ba and Pb concentrations in the fault rock compared to fresh layered gabbros. Gabbro clasts within the fault zone as well as altered rock from the hanging wall show enrichments in Na, Sc, V, Co, Rb, Zr, Nb and depletion of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb. Strontium isotope whole rock data of the fault rock yield 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7046, which is considerably more radiogenic than fresh layered gabbro from this locality (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7030 - 0.7034), and similar to black smoker hydrothermal signatures based on epidote, measured elsewhere in the ophiolite. Altered gabbro clasts within the fault zone show similar values with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7045 - 0.7050, whereas hanging wall and foot wall display values only slightly more radiogenic than fresh layered gabbro.The secondary mineral assemblages and strontium isotope

  15. Theoretical research for natural circulation operational characteristic of ship nuclear machinery under ocean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Binghuo [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yanbh1986@163.com; Yu Lei [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yulei301@163.com

    2009-06-15

    Based on the two-phase drift flux model and the multi-pressure nodes matrix solving method, natural circulation thermal hydraulic analysis models for the Nuclear Machinery (NM) under ocean conditions are developed. The neutron physical activities and the responses of the reactivity control systems are described by the two-group, 3-dimensional space and time dependent neutron kinetics model. Reactivity feedback is calculated by coupling the neutron physics and thermal hydraulic codes, and is tested by comparison with experiments. Using the models developed, the natural circulation operating characteristics of NM in rolling and pitching motions and the transitions between forced circulation (FC) to natural circulation (NC) are analyzed. The results show that the influence of the rolling motion increases as the rolling amplitude is increased, and as the rolling period becomes shorter. The results also show that for this NM, with the same rolling period and rolling angle, the influence of pitching motion on natural circulation is greater than that of rolling motion. Furthermore, the oscillation period for pitching motion is the same as the pitching period, while the oscillation period for rolling is one half of the rolling period. In the ocean environment, excessive flow oscillation of the natural circulation may cause the control rods to respond so frequently that the NM would not be able to realize the transition from the FC to NC steadily. However, the influence of ocean environment on the transition from NC to FC is limited.

  16. Apparent changes in the climatic state of the deep North Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemmich, D; Wunsch, C

    1984-02-01

    Determination of any long-term changes in the large-scale characteristics of the deep ocean circulation would be an important clue in understanding the climatic interactions of the ocean and atmosphere. In the summer of 1981, the RV Atlantis II reoccupied two transatlantic sections at nominal latitudes of 24/sup 0/30'N and 36/sup 0/16'N with a conductivity-temperature-depth instrument (CTD). One purpose of the work was to make a comparison with previous surveys conducted during the International Geophysical Year (IGY), when sections were obtained in October 1957 and April-May 1959. The authors report here that significant warming occurred in an ocean-wide band from 700 m to 3,000 m with a maximum temperature difference of 0.2 ..pi..C. These changes are sufficient to expand the water column by several centimeters. The historical temperature-salinity curve was apparently unchanged. Interannual changes in local water mass characteristics have been proposed previously. Perhaps it would be most surprising if no changes were seen to occur. What remains obscure is the significance of these changes and the extent to which they represent long-term climate trends, or merely the minor and random fluctuations to be expected in any complex fluid system.

  17. An Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) investigation of the Red Sea circulation: 2. Three-dimensional circulation in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2003-03-01

    The three-dimensional circulation of the Red Sea is studied using a set of Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) simulations. The model performance is tested against the few available observations in the basin and shows generally good agreement with the main observed features of the circulation. The main findings of this analysis include an intensification of the along-axis flow toward the coasts, with a transition from western intensified boundary flow in the south to eastern intensified flow in the north, and a series of strong seasonal or permanent eddy-like features. Model experiments conducted with different forcing fields (wind-stress forcing only, surface buoyancy forcing only, or both forcings combined) showed that the circulation produced by the buoyancy forcing is stronger overall and dominates the wind-driven part of the circulation. The main circulation pattern is related to the seasonal buoyancy flux (mostly due to the evaporation), which causes the density to increase northward in the basin and produces a northward surface pressure gradient associated with the downward sloping of the sea surface. The response of the eastern boundary to the associated mean cross-basin geostrophic current depends on the stratification and β-effect. In the northern part of the basin this results in an eastward intensification of the northward surface flow associated with the presence of Kelvin waves while in the south the traditional westward intensification due to Rossby waves takes place. The most prominent gyre circulation pattern occurs in the north where a permanent cyclonic gyre is present that is involved in the formation of Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW). Beneath the surface boundary currents are similarly intensified southward undercurrents that carry the RSOW to the sill to flow out of the basin into the Indian Ocean.

  18. Impact of space dependent eddy mixing on large ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, M. A. S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Abernathey, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the ocean, mesoscale eddies stir tracers such as heat, oxygen, helium, dissolved CO2, affecting their spatial distribution. Recent work (Gnanadesikan et al., 2013) showed that changes in eddy stirring could result in changes of the volume of hypoxic and anoxic waters, leading to drastic consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycles. The parameterization of mesocale eddies in global climate models (GCMs) is two parts, based on the formulations of Redi (1982) and Gent and McWilliams (1990) which are associated with mixing parameters ARedi and AGM respectively. Numerous studies have looked at the sensitivity of ESMs to changing AGM, either alone or in combination with an ARedi parameter taken to be equivalent to the value of the AGM. By contrast the impact of the Redi parameterization in isolation remains unexplored. In a previous article, Pradal and Gnanadesikan, 2014, described the sensitivity of the climate system to a six fold increase in the Redi parameter. They found that increasing the isopycnal mixing coefficient tended to warm the climate of the planet overall, through an increase of heat absorption linked to a destabilization of the halocline in subpolar regions (particularly the Southern Ocean). This previous work varied a globally constant Redi parameter from 400m2/s to 2400m2/s. New estimates from altimetry (Abernathey and Marshall, 2013) better constrain the spatial patterns and range for the ARedi parameter. Does such spatial variation matter, and if so, where does matter? Following Gnanadesikan et al. (2013) and Pradal and Gnanadesikan, 2014 this study examines this question with a suite of Earth System Models.

  19. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Chang

    Full Text Available The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC, the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO. This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2. Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels" can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.

  20. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Sheng, Jinyu; Ohashi, Kyoko; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO). This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2). Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels") can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.

  1. Anomalous circulation in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during southwest monsoon of 1994

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Murty, V.S.N.; Babu, M.T.; Gopinathan, C.K.; Charyulu, R.J.K.

    and an eastward flow, constituting the southwest monsoon current (SWMC), in the vicinity of the equator characterise the upper ocean circulation. While low salinity waters (33.5 -34.75) in the upper layer are advected westward from 88 E via the westward flow...

  2. Symmetry Reductions of a 1.5-Layer Ocean Circulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fei; Lou Senyue

    2007-01-01

    The (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear 1.5-layer ocean circulation model without external wind stress forcing is analyzed by using the classical Lie group approach. Some Lie point symmetries and their corresponding two-dimensional reduction equations are obtained.

  3. Global Modeling of Internal Tides Within an Eddying Ocean General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    paper aooo not violate: any Oisclosur~,;·of trade• secrets or suggestions of outside individuals on::oncams whiCh have· beE !n communicated 1.o...fully three- dimensional global ocean circulation model, we will provide an internal tide capability everywhere, and allow nested models to include

  4. Mission Moho: Rationale for drilling deep through the ocean crust into the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildefonse, B.; Abe, N.; Kelemen, P. B.; Kumagai, H.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Wilson, D. S.; Moho Proponents, Mission

    2009-04-01

    Sampling a complete section of the ocean crust to the Moho was the original inspiration for scientific ocean drilling, and remains the main goal of the 21st Century Mohole Initiative in the IODP Science Plan. Fundamental questions about the composition, structure, and geophysical characteristics of the ocean lithosphere, and about the magnitude of chemical exchanges between the mantle, crust and oceans remain unresolved due to the absence of in-situ samples and measurements. The geological nature of the Mohorovičić discontinuity itself remains poorly constrained. "Mission Moho" is a proposal that was submitted to IODP in April 2007, with the ambition to drill completely through intact oceanic crust formed at a fast spreading rate, across the Moho and into the uppermost mantle. Although, eventually, no long-term mission was approved by IODP, the scientific objectives related to deep drilling in the ocean crust remain essential to our understanding of the Earth. These objectives are to : - Determine the geological meaning of the Moho in different oceanic settings, determine the in situ composition, structure and physical properties of the uppermost mantle, and understand mantle melt migration, - Determine the bulk composition of the oceanic crust to establish the chemical links between erupted lavas and primary mantle melts, understand the extent and intensity of seawater hydrothermal exchange with the lithosphere, and estimate the chemical fluxes returned to the mantle by subduction, - Test competing hypotheses of the ocean crust accretion at fast spreading mid-ocean ridges, and quantify the linkages and feedbacks between magma intrusion, hydrothermal circulation and tectonic activity, - Calibrate regional seismic measurements against recovered cores and borehole measurements, and understand the origin of marine magnetic anomalies, - Establish the limits of life in the ocean lithosphere. The "MoHole" was planned as the final stage of Mission Moho, which requires

  5. Tracer element studies on deep water formation and circulation in the European Artic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenisch, G.

    1991-01-01

    Tracer element investigations (tritium, helium 3, carbon 14, argon 39, krypton 85 and fluorohydrocarbons) were carried out in the European Arctic Sea. The findings are discussed with a view to their validity in the case of deep water formation and circulation. The data cover the period of 1972 through 1989. (BBR) [de

  6. Links Between the Deep Western Boundary Current, Labrador Sea Water Formation and Export, and the Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Paul G.; Kulan, Nilgun

    2010-05-01

    Based on an isopyncal analysis of historical data, 3-year overlapping triad fields of objectively analysed temperature and salinity are produced for the Labrador Sea, covering 1949-1999. These fields are then used to spectrally nudge an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model of the sub-polar gyre, otherwise forced by inter annually varying surface forcing based upon the Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE). High frequency output from the reanalysis is used to examine Labrador Sea Water formation and its export. A number of different apprpoaches are used to estimate Labrador Sea Water formation, including an instanteous kinematic approach to calculate the annual rate of water mass subduction at a given density range. Historical transports are computed along sections at 53 and 56N for several different water masses for comparison with recent observations, showing a decline in the stength of the deep western boundary current with time. The variability of the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) from the reanalysis is also examined in both depth and density space. Linkages between MOC variability and water mass formation variability is considered.

  7. Projected changes to South Atlantic boundary currents and confluence region in the CMIP5 models: the role of wind and deep ocean changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, G. M.; Gupta, A. Sen; Taschetto, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The South Atlantic (SA) circulation plays an important role in the oceanic teleconnections from the Indian, Pacific and Southern oceans to the North Atlantic, with inter-hemispheric exchanges of heat and salt. Here, we show that the large-scale features of the SA circulation are projected to change significantly under ‘business as usual’ greenhouse gas increases. Based on 19 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 there is a projected weakening in the upper ocean interior transport (stress curl over this region. The reduction in ocean interior circulation is largely compensated by a decrease in the net deep southward ocean transport (>1000 m), mainly related to a decrease in the North Atlantic deep water transport. Between 30° and 40°S, there is a consistent projected intensification in the Brazil current strength of about 40% (30%-58% interquartile range) primarily compensated by an intensification of the upper interior circulation across the Indo-Atlantic basin. The Brazil-Malvinas confluence is projected to shift southwards, driven by a weakening of the Malvinas current. Such a change could have important implications for the distribution of marine species in the southwestern SA in the future.

  8. Going with the flow: the role of ocean circulation in global marine ecosystems under a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gennip, Simon J; Popova, Ekaterina E; Yool, Andrew; Pecl, Gretta T; Hobday, Alistair J; Sorte, Cascade J B

    2017-07-01

    Ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced productivity are widely considered to be the major stressors to ocean ecosystems induced by emissions of CO 2 . However, an overlooked stressor is the change in ocean circulation in response to climate change. Strong changes in the intensity and position of the western boundary currents have already been observed, and the consequences of such changes for ecosystems are beginning to emerge. In this study, we address climatically induced changes in ocean circulation on a global scale but relevant to propagule dispersal for species inhabiting global shelf ecosystems, using a high-resolution global ocean model run under the IPCC RCP 8.5 scenario. The ¼ degree model resolution allows improved regional realism of the ocean circulation beyond that of available CMIP5-class models. We use a Lagrangian approach forced by modelled ocean circulation to simulate the circulation pathways that disperse planktonic life stages. Based on trajectory backtracking, we identify present-day coastal retention, dominant flow and dispersal range for coastal regions at the global scale. Projecting into the future, we identify areas of the strongest projected circulation change and present regional examples with the most significant modifications in their dominant pathways. Climatically induced changes in ocean circulation should be considered as an additional stressor of marine ecosystems in a similar way to ocean warming or acidification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Feasibility of deep ocean disposal of heat generating waste. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarises the research performed in the UK during the period 1977 to 1987 as part of the international programme investigating the feasibility of ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste. This study has involved: (i) the definition of the disposal operations needed to meet the minimum requirements for safely emplacing waste on or under the floor of the deep ocean; (ii) the identification and characterisation of areas of the deep ocean that might be suitable for containing heat generating waste; (iii) a study of the processes by which radionuclides might migrate through the multiple barriers that isolate the waste from man's environment; and (iv) a calculation of the radiological impact of the conceptual deep ocean repository. It is concluded that, from a technical and scientific viewpoint, disposal of heat generating waste in the deep ocean could provide a safe, economic and feasible alternative to deep disposal on land. (author)

  10. The Hamburg large scale geostrophic ocean general circulation model. Cycle 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U.

    1992-02-01

    The rationale for the Large Scale Geostrophic ocean circulation model (LSG-OGCM) is based on the observations that for a large scale ocean circulation model designed for climate studies, the relevant characteristic spatial scales are large compared with the internal Rossby radius throughout most of the ocean, while the characteristic time scales are large compared with the periods of gravity modes and barotropic Rossby wave modes. In the present version of the model, the fast modes have been filtered out by a conventional technique of integrating the full primitive equations, including all terms except the nonlinear advection of momentum, by an implicit time integration method. The free surface is also treated prognostically, without invoking a rigid lid approximation. The numerical scheme is unconditionally stable and has the additional advantage that it can be applied uniformly to the entire globe, including the equatorial and coastal current regions. (orig.)

  11. Changes in ocean circulation and carbon storage are decoupled from air-sea CO2 fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gnanadesikan; I. Marinov

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the air-sea flux of carbon dioxide is a poor indicator of the underlying ocean circulation and of ocean carbon storage. The weak dependence on circulation arises because mixing-driven changes in solubility-driven and biologically-driven air-sea fluxes largely cancel out. This cancellation occurs because mixing driven increases in the poleward residual mean circulation results in more transport of both remineralized nutrients and heat from low to high latitudes. By ...

  12. An Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) investigation of the Red Sea circulation, 1. Exchange between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2002-11-01

    The mechanisms involved in the seasonal exchange between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean are studied using an Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM), namely the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The model reproduces the basic characteristics of the seasonal circulation observed in the area of the strait of Bab el Mandeb. There is good agreement between model results and available observations on the strength of the exchange and the characteristics of the water masses involved, as well as the seasonal flow pattern. During winter, this flow consists of a typical inverse estuarine circulation, while during summer, the surface flow reverses, there is an intermediate inflow of relatively cold and fresh water, and the hypersaline outflow at the bottom of the strait is significantly reduced. Additional experiments with different atmospheric forcing (seasonal winds, seasonal thermohaline air-sea fluxes, or combinations) were performed in order to assess the role of the atmospheric forcing fields in the exchange flow at Bab el Mandeb. The results of both the wind- and thermohaline-driven experiments exhibit a strong seasonality at the area of the strait, which is in phase with the observations. However, it is the combination of both the seasonal pattern of the wind stress and the seasonal thermohaline forcing that can reproduce the observed seasonal variability at the strait. The importance of the seasonal cycle of the thermohaline forcing on the exchange flow pattern is also emphasized by these results. In the experiment where the thermohaline forcing is represented by its annual mean, the strength of the exchange is reduced almost by half.

  13. Response of Ocean Circulation to Different Wind Forcing in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Miguel; Garcia, Edgardo; Leonardi, Stafano; Canals, Miguel; Capella, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    The response of the ocean circulation to various wind forcing products has been studied using the Regional Ocean Modeling System. The computational domain includes the main islands of Puerto Rico, Saint John and Saint Thomas, located on the continental shelf dividing the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Data for wind forcing is provided by an anemometer located in a moored buoy, the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) model and the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD). Hindcast simulations have been validated using hydrographic data at different locations in the area of study. Three cases are compared to quantify the impact of high resolution wind forcing on the ocean circulation and the vertical structure of salinity, temperature and velocity. In the first case a constant wind velocity field is used to force the model as measured by an anemometer on top of a buoy. In the second case, a forcing field provided by the Navy's COAMPS model is used and in the third case, winds are taken from NDFD in collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Validated results of ocean currents against data from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers at different locations show better agreement using high resolution wind data as expected. Thanks to CariCOOS and NOAA.

  14. Two regimes of the Arctic's circulation from ocean models with ice and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, A Y; Johnson, M

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional barotropic, coupled, ocean-ice model with a space resolution of 55.5 km and driven by atmospheric forces, river run-off, and sea-level slope between the Pacific and the Arctic Oceans, has been used to simulate the vertically averaged currents and ice drift in the Arctic Ocean. Results from 43 years of numerical simulations of water and ice motions demonstrate that two wind-driven circulation regimes are possible in the Arctic, a cyclonic and an anti-cyclonic circulation. These two regimes appear to alternate at 5-7 year intervals with the 10-15 year period. It is important to pollution studies to understand which circulation regime prevails at any time. It is anticipated that 1995 is a year with a cyclonic regime, and during this cyclonic phase and possibly during past cyclonic regimes as well, pollutants may reach the Alaskan shelf. The regime shifts demonstrated in this paper are fundamentally important to understanding the Arctic's general circulation and particularly important for estimating pollution transport.

  15. Intermediate Models of Planetary Circulations in the Atmosphere and Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.; Gent, Peter R.

    1980-08-01

    Large-scale extratropical motions (with dimensions comparable to, or somewhat smaller than, the planetary radius) in the atmosphere and ocean exhibit a more restricted range of phenomena than are admissible in the primitive equations for fluid motions, and there have been many previous proposals for simpler, more phenomenologically limited models of these motions. The oldest and most successful of these is the quasi-geostrophic model. An extensive discussion is made of models intermediate between the quasi-geostrophic and primitive ones, some of which have been previously proposed [e.g., the balance equations (BE), where tendencies in the equation for the divergent component of velocity are neglected, or the geostrophic momentum approximation (GM), where ageostrophic accelerations are neglected relative to geostrophic ones] and some of which are derived here. Virtues of these models are assessed in the dual measure of nearly geostrophic momentum balance (i.e., small Rossby number) and approximate frontal structure (i.e., larger along-axis velocities and length scales than their cross-axis counterparts), since one or both of these circumstances is usually characteristic of planetary motions. Consideration is also given to various coordinate transformations, since they can yield simpler expressions for the governing differential equations of the intermediate models. In particular, a new set of coordinates is proposed, isentropic geostrophic coordinates,(IGC), which has the advantage of making implicit the advections due to ageostrophic horizontal and vertical velocities under various approximations. A generalization of quasi-geostrophy is made. named hypo-geostrophy (HG), which is an asymptotic approximation of one higher order accuracy in Rossby number. The governing equations are simplest in IGC for both HG and GM; we name the latter in these coordinates isentropic semi-geostrophy (ISG), in analogy to Hoskins' (1975) semi-geostrophy (SG). HG, GM and BE are, in our

  16. 500 kyr of Indian Ocean Walker Circulation Variability Using Foraminiferal Mg/Ca and Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, J.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Pätzold, J.

    2017-12-01

    The tropical Indian Ocean is a key location for paleoclimate research affected by different oceanographic and atmospheric processes. Annual climate variations are strongly controlled by the Indian and Asian Monsoon characterized by bi-annually reversing trade winds. Inter-annual climate variations in the Walker circulation are caused by the Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño-Southern Oscillation resulting in either heavy flooding or severe droughts like for example the famine of 2011 in eastern Africa. Oceanographically the tropical western Indian Ocean receives water masses from the Indonesian Gateway area, sub-Antarctic waters that upwell south of the equator, and the outflow waters from the highly saline Red Sea. On the other hand, the tropical western Indian Ocean is a major source for providing water masses to the Agulhas Current system. Although the eastern Indian Ocean has been studied extensively, the tropical western Indian Ocean is still lacking in high quality climate-archives that have the potential to provide important information to understand how the ocean and atmospheric zonal circulation have changed in the past, and possibly will change in the future. Until now there were no long sediment cores available covering several glacial-interglacial cycles in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Core GeoB 12613-1, recovered during RV Meteor Cruise M75/2 east of the island of Pemba off Tanzania, provides an open-ocean core with well-preserved sediments covering the last five glacial-interglacial cycles ( 500 kyr). Mg/Ca and stable isotopes on both surface- and thermocline dwelling foraminifera have been performed to test how changes in sea water temperatures and relative sea water salinity were coupled on orbital time scales. The results are compared with similar records generated for the tropical eastern Indian Ocean in core SO139-74KL off Sumatra. Water column stratification on both sides of the Indian Ocean and the cross-basin gradients in sea water

  17. Upper ocean circulation modulation by phytoplankton concentration in the Equatorial Pacific and the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Sammarco, P.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; AjoyKumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    gradient in the upper ocean. This strengthens the geostrophically balanced westward currents in both side of the equatorial wave-guide (within 5 degree bands). Once these currents reach the western Pacific coast, they feed the Equatorial undercurrent (EUC...

  18. Schwarz-Christoffel Conformal Mapping based Grid Generation for Global Oceanic Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiming

    2015-04-01

    We propose new grid generation algorithms for global ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). Contrary to conventional, analytical forms based dipolar or tripolar grids, the new algorithm are based on Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) conformal mapping with prescribed boundary information. While dealing with the conventional grid design problem of pole relocation, it also addresses more advanced issues of computational efficiency and the new requirements on OGCM grids arisen from the recent trend of high-resolution and multi-scale modeling. The proposed grid generation algorithm could potentially achieve the alignment of grid lines to coastlines, enhanced spatial resolution in coastal regions, and easier computational load balance. Since the generated grids are still orthogonal curvilinear, they can be readily 10 utilized in existing Bryan-Cox-Semtner type ocean models. The proposed methodology can also be applied to the grid generation task for regional ocean modeling when complex land-ocean distribution is present.

  19. Eddy correlation measurements of oxygen uptake in deep ocean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Hume, A.

    2010-01-01

    .62 +/- 0.23 (SE, n = 7), 1.65 +/- 0.33 (n = 2), and 1.43 +/- 0.15 (n = 25) mmol m(-2) d(-1). The very good agreement between the eddy correlation flux and the chamber flux serves as a new, important validation of the eddy correlation technique. It demonstrates that the eddy correlation instrumentation......Abstract: We present and compare small sediment-water fluxes of O-2 determined with the eddy correlation technique, with in situ chambers, and from vertical sediment microprofiles at a 1450 m deep-ocean site in Sagami Bay, Japan. The average O-2 uptake for the three approaches, respectively, was 1...... available today is precise and can resolve accurately even very small benthic O-2 fluxes. The correlated fluctuations in vertical velocity and O-2 concentration that give the eddy flux had average values of 0.074 cm s(-1) and 0.049 mu M. The latter represents only 0.08% of the 59 mu M mean O-2 concentration...

  20. Environmental monitoring and deep ocean disposal of packaged radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Preston, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aims and objectives of environmental monitoring as laid down, for example by the ICRP and the IAEA include the assessment of actual or potential radiation exposure of man and the requirements of scientific investigations. The fulfillment of these aims is discussed in the context of the disposal of packaged radioactive waste in the deep Atlantic Ocean within the terms of the London Dumping Convention and within a regional agreement, the consultation/surveillance mechanism of the Nuclear Energy Agency. The paper discusses UK attitudes to such environmental monitoring, concentrates on the first of these ICRP objectives and shows how this is unlikely to be achieved by direct measurement in view of the small quantities of radioactive material involved relative to the scale of the receiving environment, and the timescale on which return to man can be conceived. Whilst meaningful environmental measurement is very unlikely to facilitate direct estimation of public radiation exposure by monitoring, it is still held that the basic objective of environmental monitoring can be met. A means by which this may be achieved is by oceanographic models. These procedures are discussed, illustrating the application of this philosophy in practice. (H.K.)

  1. Ocean circulation drifts in multi-millennial climate simulations: the role of salinity corrections and climate feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentith, Jennifer E.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Tindall, Julia C.; Smith, Robin S.

    2018-05-01

    Low-resolution, complex general circulation models (GCMs) are valuable tools for studying the Earth system on multi-millennial timescales. However, slowly evolving salinity drifts can cause large shifts in climatic and oceanic regimes over thousands of years. We test two different schemes for neutralising unforced salinity drifts in the FAMOUS GCM: surface flux correction and volumetric flux correction. Although both methods successfully maintain a steady global mean salinity, local drifts and subsequent feedbacks promote cooling (≈ 4 °C over 6000 years) and freshening (≈ 2 psu over 6000 years) in the North Atlantic Ocean, and gradual warming (≈ 0.2 °C per millennium) and salinification (≈ 0.15 psu per millennium) in the North Pacific Ocean. Changes in the surface density in these regions affect the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), such that, after several millennia, the Atlantic MOC (AMOC) is in a collapsed state, and there is a strong, deep Pacific MOC (PMOC). Furthermore, the AMOC exhibits a period of metastability, which is only identifiable with run lengths in excess of 1500 years. We also compare simulations with two different land surface schemes, demonstrating that small biases in the surface climate may cause regional salinity drifts and significant shifts in the MOC (weakening of the AMOC and the initiation then invigoration of PMOC), even when the global hydrological cycle has been forcibly closed. Although there is no specific precursor to the simulated AMOC collapse, the northwest North Pacific and northeast North Atlantic are important areas that should be closely monitored for trends arising from such biases.

  2. Decadal Patterns of Westerly Winds, Temperatures, Ocean Gyre Circulations and Fish Abundance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Oviatt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to describe the global scope of the multidecadal climate oscillations that go back at least, through several hundred years. Literature, historic data, satellite data and global circulation model output have been used to provide evidence for the zonal and meridional jet stream patterns. These patterns were predominantly zonal from the 1970s to 1990s and switched since the 1990s to a meridional wind phase, with weakening jet streams forming Rossby waves in the northern and southern hemispheres. A weakened northern jet stream has allowed northerly winds to flow down over the continents in the northern hemisphere during the winter period, causing some harsh winters and slowing anthropogenic climate warming regionally. Wind oscillations impact ocean gyre circulation affecting upwelling strength and pelagic fish abundance with synchronous behavior in sub Arctic gyres during phases of the oscillation and asynchronous behavior in subtropical gyres between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

  3. Use of Ocean Remote Sensing Data to Enhance Predictions with a Coupled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienecker, Michele M.

    1999-01-01

    Surface height, sea surface temperature and surface wind observations from satellites have given a detailed time sequence of the initiation and evolution of the 1997/98 El Nino. The data have beet complementary to the subsurface TAO moored data in their spatial resolution and extent. The impact of satellite observations on seasonal prediction in the tropical Pacific using a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model will be presented.

  4. Modulation of the Southern Ocean cadmium isotope signature by ocean circulation and primary productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.J.G.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Alderkamp, A.C.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Feldmann, H.; Andreae, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    The High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) Southern Ocean plays a key role in regulating the biological pump and the global carbon cycle. Here we examine the efficacy of stable cadmium (Cd) isotope fractionation for detecting differences in biological productivity between regions. Our results show

  5. Theoretical analysis of effect of ocean condition on natural circulation flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Houjun; Yang Xingtuan; Jiang Shengyao; Liu Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    According to the simulation loop of Integrated natural circulation reactor,the mathematical model of natural circulation in non-inertial reference system is established, and the influence mechanism of ocean condition upon natural circulation is analyzed. Software is programmed to investigate the behaviors in the cases of rolling without heating power, static state with different power and rolling with heating power, and calculation results show that: the inertia force added by rolling causes the periodical fluctuating of the flow rate of channels, but it is not the direct reason of core flow fluctuation. The heave changes the driving head, and causes the same flow rate fluctuation of all channels. Inclining makes the core flow rate decrease, but the change of flow rate of different channels is different.(authors)

  6. Bacterial Production and Enzymatic Activities in Deep-Sea Sediments of the Pacific Ocean: Biogeochemical Implications of Different Temperature Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, R.; Corinaldesi, C.; dell'Anno, A.

    2002-12-01

    The deep-sea bed, acting as the ultimate sink for organic material derived from the upper oceans primary production, is now assumed to play a key role in biogeochemical cycling of organic matter on global scale. Early diagenesis of organic matter in marine sediments is dependent upon biological processes (largely mediated by bacterial activity) and by molecular diffusion. Organic matter reaching the sea floor by sedimentation is subjected to complex biogeochemical transformations that make organic matter largely unsuitable for direct utilization by benthic heterotrophs. Extracellular enzymatic activities in the sediment is generally recognized as the key step in the degradation and utilization of organic polymers by bacteria and a key role in biopolymeric carbon mobilization is played by aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and glucosidase activities. In the present study we investigated bacterial density, bacterial C production and exo-enzymatic activities (aminopeptidase, glucosidase and phosphatase activity) in deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean in relation with the biochemical composition of sediment organic matter (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids), in order to gather information on organic matter cycling and diagenesis. Benthic viral abundance was also measured to investigate the potential role of viruses on microbial loop functioning. Sediment samples were collected at eight stations (depth ranging from 2070-3100 m) along two transects located at the opposite side (north and south) of ocean seismic ridge Juan Fernandez (along latitudes 33° 20' - 33° 40'), constituted by the submerged vulcanoes, which connects the Chilean coasts to Rapa Nui Island. Since the northern and southern sides of this ridge apparently displayed small but significant differences in deep-sea temperature (related to the general ocean circulation), this sampling strategy allowed also investigating the role of different temperature constraints on bacterial activity and

  7. Potential feedback mechanism between phytoplankton and upper ocean circulation with oceanic radiative transfer processes influenced by phytoplankton - Numerical ocean, general circulation models and an analytical solution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; Kano, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Muneyama, K.; Ueyoshi, K.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Nakata, K.; Lai, C.A.; Frouin, R.

    29208, USA 'Ocean Engineering Department, Tokai University, Shimizu, Japan "LOS Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA *Corresponding author. E-mail address: nakamotoocean@aol.com (S. Nakamoto?. Elsevier Oceanography Series 73 255 Edited...

  8. Deep-sea ecosystems of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Koslow, J.A.

    are potential sites for hydrothermal mineralization and contain active vent fields. There are no available estimates for the numbers of seamounts in the Indian Ocean based on echo sounder recordings. Satellite altimetry data indicate that the Indian Ocean has...

  9. Open oceanic productivity changes at mid-latitudes during interglacials and its relation to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Silvia; Lebreiro, S.; Kissel, C.; Guihou, A.; Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Michel, E.; Cortijo, E.; Labeyrie, L.; Voelker, A.

    2010-05-01

    Variations in the interactions between marine ecosystems, thermohaline circulation, external forcing and atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations are not yet fully represented in detailed models of the glacial-interglacial transitions. Most of the research on past productivity changes has been focused so far on high-productivity areas such as upwelling areas (i.e. equatorial or coastal upwelling areas) even though those regions appraise only a little part of the ocean. Accordingly, the importance of oceanic productivity changes over glacial/interglacial cycles should be better known, as it may also play an important role on the loss of photosynthetically generated carbon as a central mechanism in the global carbon cycle. Its understanding will help quantifying the parameters needed to run comprehensive climate models, and subsequently help to better predict climate change for the near future. A high-resolution study of oceanic productivity, bottom water flow speed, surface and deep-water mass, bottom water ventilation, and terrestrial input changes during two interglacials (Holocene and Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 5), at an open ocean site approximately 300 km west off Portugal [IMAGES core MD01-2446: 39°03'N, 12°37'W, 3547 m water depth] was conducted within the AMOCINT project (ESF-EUROCORES programme, 06-EuroMARC-FP-008). Even though siliceous productivity is expectedly low for oceanic regions, it shows a robust and consistent pattern with increased values during cold phases of MIS 5, and during the glacial stages 4 and 6 suggesting higher nutrient availability, during these periods. The same pattern is observed for MIS2 and the last deglaciation. The opal record is fully supported by the organic carbon content and to the estimated productivity using foraminifera based FA20 and SIMMAX.28 transfer functions for a near location. The benthic δ13C record suggests less North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) coincident with periods of higher productivity. The grain

  10. Bathymetry and oceanic flow structure at two deep passages crossing the Lomonosov Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Göran; Jakobsson, Martin; Assmann, Karen; Andersson, Leif G.; Nilsson, Johan; Stranne, Christian; Mayer, Larry

    2018-01-01

    The Lomonosov Ridge represents a major topographical feature in the Arctic Ocean which has a large effect on the water circulation and the distribution of water properties. This study presents detailed bathymetric survey data along with hydrographic data at two deep passages across the ridge: a southern passage (80-81° N), where the ridge crest meets the Siberian continental slope, and a northern passage around 84.5° N. The southern channel is characterized by smooth and flat bathymetry around 1600-1700 m with a sill depth slightly shallower than 1700 m. A hydrographic section across the channel reveals an eastward flow with Amundsen Basin properties in the southern part and a westward flow of Makarov Basin properties in the northern part. The northern passage includes an approximately 72 km long and 33 km wide trough which forms an intra-basin in the Lomonosov Ridge morphology (the Oden Trough). The eastern side of the Oden Trough is enclosed by a narrow and steep ridge rising 500-600 m above a generally 1600 m deep trough bottom. The deepest passage (the sill) is 1470 m deep and located on this ridge. Hydrographic data show irregular temperature and salinity profiles indicating that water exchange occurs as midwater intrusions bringing water properties from each side of the ridge in well-defined but irregular layers. There is also morphological evidence that some rather energetic flows may occur in the vicinity of the sill. A well expressed deepening near the sill may be the result of seabed erosion by bottom currents.

  11. In-situ detection of microbial life in the deep biosphere in igneous ocean crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Cosio Salas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in-situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  12. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  13. Dynamic hole closure behind a deep ocean sediment penetrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzwilewski, P.T.; Karnes, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    A freefall or boosted penetrator is one concept being considered to dispose of nuclear waste in the deep ocean seabed. For this technique to be acceptable, the sediment must be an effective barrier to the migration of radioactive nuclides, which means that the hole behind the advancing penetrator must close. One mechanism which can cause the hole to close immediately behind the penetrator is the reduction in water pressure in the wake as water tries to follow the penetrator into the sediment. An approximate solution to this complex problem is presented which analyzes the deformation of the sediment with a nonlinear, large displacement and strain, Lagrangian finite-difference computer code (STEALTH). The water was treated by Bernoulli's Principle for flow in a pipe resulting in a pressure boundary condition applied to the sediment surface along the path after passage of the penetrator. Two one-dimensional and eight two-dimensional calculations were performed with various penetrator velocities (15, 30, and 60 m/s) and sediment shear strengths. In two of the calculations, the dynamic pressure reduction was neglected to see if geostatic stresses alone would close the hole. The results of this study showed that geostatic stresses alone would not close the hole but the dynamic pressure reduction would. The largest uncertainty in the analysis was the pressure conditions in the water behind the penetrator in which frictionless, steady-state flow, in a uniform diameter pipe was assumed. A more sophisticated and realistic pressure condition has been formulated and will be implemented in the computer code in the near future

  14. Heat-flow and lateral seismic-velocity heterogeneities near Deep Sea Drilling Project-Ocean Drilling Program Site 504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Robert P.; Stephen, Ralph A.

    1991-11-01

    Both conductive heat-flow and seismic-velocity data contain information relating to the permeability of the oceanic crust. Deep Sea Drilling Project-Ocean Drilling Program Site 504 is the only place where both detailed heat-flow and seismic-velocity field studies have been conducted at the same scale. In this paper we examine the correlation between heat flow and lateral heterogeneities in seismic velocity near Site 504. Observed heterogeneities in seismic velocity, which are thought to be related to variations in crack density in the upper 500 m of the basaltic crust, show little correlation with the heat-flow pattern. This lack of correlation highlights some of the current difficulties in using seismic-velocity data to infer details of spatial variations in permeability that are significant in controlling hydrothermal circulation.

  15. Ship Sensor Observations for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploration of the Gulf of Mexico" expedition...

  16. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007" expedition, June 4 through July 6, 2007. Additional...

  17. Ship Sensor Observations for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Deep Reef Habitat - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Deep Reef Habitat" expedition sponsored by the...

  18. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2007 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the ROV Jason along its track during sixteen dives of the 2007 "Expedition to the Deep Slope" expedition sponsored by the National...

  19. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Afonso, Pedro; Fontes, Jorge; Braun, Camrin D.; Santos, Ricardo S.; Skomal, Gregory B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite

  20. Submersible Data (Dive Trackpoints) for Operation Deep Scope 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link I along its track during thirteen dives of the 2005 "Operation Deep Scope" expedition sponsored by...

  1. Surface water iron supplies in the Southern Ocean sustained by deep winter mixing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tagliabue, A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of iron limit primary productivity across much of the Southern Ocean. At the basin scale, most dissolved iron is supplied to surfacewaters from subsurface reservoirs, because land inputs are spatially limited. Deep mixing in winter...

  2. Dive Activities for Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded by personnel during the "Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006" expedition, May 7 through June 2, 2006. Additional...

  3. Response to Comment on "Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean"

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, J M; Mayol, E.; Hansman, R. L.; Herndl, G. J.; Dittmar, T.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Our recent finding that dilution limits dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization in the deep ocean has been criticized based on the common misconception that lability equates to rapid and complete utilization. Even when considering

  4. Field estimates of groundwater circulation depths in two mountainous watersheds in the western U.S. and the effect of deep circulation on solute concentrations in streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Tolley, Douglas G.; Wilson, John L.

    2017-04-01

    Estimates of groundwater circulation depths based on field data are lacking. These data are critical to inform and refine hydrogeologic models of mountainous watersheds, and to quantify depth and time dependencies of weathering processes in watersheds. Here we test two competing hypotheses on the role of geology and geologic setting in deep groundwater circulation and the role of deep groundwater in the geochemical evolution of streams and springs. We test these hypotheses in two mountainous watersheds that have distinctly different geologic settings (one crystalline, metamorphic bedrock and the other volcanic bedrock). Estimated circulation depths for springs in both watersheds range from 0.6 to 1.6 km and may be as great as 2.5 km. These estimated groundwater circulation depths are much deeper than commonly modeled depths suggesting that we may be forcing groundwater flow paths too shallow in models. In addition, the spatial relationships of groundwater circulation depths are different between the two watersheds. Groundwater circulation depths in the crystalline bedrock watershed increase with decreasing elevation indicative of topography-driven groundwater flow. This relationship is not present in the volcanic bedrock watershed suggesting that both the source of fracturing (tectonic versus volcanic) and increased primary porosity in the volcanic bedrock play a role in deep groundwater circulation. The results from the crystalline bedrock watershed also indicate that relatively deep groundwater circulation can occur at local scales in headwater drainages less than 9.0 km2 and at larger fractions than commonly perceived. Deep groundwater is a primary control on streamflow processes and solute concentrations in both watersheds.

  5. Insights From Magnesium Isotopic Compositions on the Oceanic Hydrothermal Circulation: Is Seamount Weathering the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, A.; Carder, E.; Elderfield, H.

    2006-12-01

    It has been long recognised that the input of Mg in the ocean by river is removed by precipitation of Mg-rich bearing phases, either directly from the ocean such as dolomite or through hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. The sampling of hydrothermal fluids demonstrated the efficiency of Mg consumption by the alteration of the oceanic crust, even at temperatures as low as 15°. For high-temperature fluids vented through black or white smokers in the vicinity of the ridge, the Mg concentration is up to 50 time lower than in seawater, and the close relationship between chlorine and Mg led to the idea that seawater was feeding the hydrothermal system and that Mg is quantitatively removed from it during high-T° alteration, the so called zero Mg hypothesis. Despite some hint for a non zero Mg hydrothermal end-member for a handful sites, the low concentration of Mg in oceanic hydrothermal fluids (around 1 mmol/l) has been mainly attributed to contamination by seawater during the sampling. Here we present Mg isotopic composition of 14 seawater samples from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean and Red Seas and covering a range of depth of almost 5km and 26 hydrothermal fluids from 7 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with temperature from 15° to 380°C. We find the magnesium isotope composition of seawater to be constant, with a δ^{26}Mg = -0.82±0.10 ‰ relative to the DSM3 standard. This value is consistent with a long residence time for Mg in seawater. In addition, out of the 26 hydrothermal fluids studied, more than 58% differ from seawater for their Mg isotopic composition by more than 2σ. This number rises up to 88% at 2σmean level and the shift is systematic with the fluids being either indistinguishable from seawater or enriched in light isotopes by up to 2.4‰ in δ^{26}Mg. This clearly demonstrates that fluids having low Mg concentrations are not solely bearing Mg added by contamination during sampling. The isotopic

  6. ISHTE deep-ocean corers and heater-implant system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. O.; Harrison, J. G.

    1982-09-01

    Seafloor instrumentation systems are being developed for the In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE) to determine the thermal conductivity of deep ocean sediments. As part of the experiment, a heat canister will be implanted into the sediment. Also, after about one year on the seafloor, core samplers are to be actuated to gather sediment samples. This report describes the deep ocean piston corers and the heater-implant drive system.

  7. Linkages between ocean circulation, heat uptake and transient warming: a sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Patrik; Stocker, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Transient global warming due to greenhouse gas radiative forcing is substantially reduced by ocean heat uptake (OHU). However, the fraction of equilibrium warming that is realized in transient climate model simulations differs strongly between models (Frölicher and Paynter 2015). It has been shown that this difference is not only related to the magnitude of OHU, but also to the radiative response the OHU causes, measured by the OHU efficacy (Winton et al., 2010). This efficacy is strongly influenced by the spatial pattern of the OHU and its changes (Rose et al. 2014, Winton et al. 2013), predominantly caused by changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Even in absence of external greenhouse gas forcing, an AMOC weakening causes a radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere (Peltier and Vettoretti, 2014), inducing in a net warming of the Earth System. We investigate linkages between those findings by performing both freshwater and greenhouse gas experiments in an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity. To assess the sensitivity of the results to ocean and atmospheric transport as well as climate sensitivity, we use an ensemble of model versions, systematically varying key parameters. We analyze circulation changes and radiative adjustments in conjunction with traditional warming metrics such as the transient climate response and the equilibrium climate sensitivity. This aims to improve the understanding of the influence of ocean circulation and OHU on transient climate change, and of the relevance of different metrics for describing this influence. References: Frölicher, T. L. and D.J. Paynter (2015), Extending the relationship between global warming and cumulative carbon emissions to multi-millennial timescales, Environ. Res. Lett., 10, 075022 Peltier, W. R., and G. Vettoretti (2014), Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations predicted in a comprehensive model of glacial climate: A "kicked" salt oscillator in the Atlantic, Geophys. Res

  8. Orographic effects on tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Hideki

    Large-scale mountain modifies the atmospheric circulation directly through dynamic and thermodynamic process, and also indirectly through the interaction with the ocean. To investigate orographic impacts on tropical climate, a fully coupled general circulation model (CGCM) is developed by coupling a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model and an ocean general circulation model. With realistic boundary conditions, the CGCM produces a reasonable climatology of sea surface temperature (SST), surface winds, and precipitation. When global mountains are removed, the model climatology displays substantial changes in both the mean-state and the seasonal cycle. The equatorial eastern Pacific SST acquires a semi-annual component as inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) flips and flops across the equator following the seasonal migration of the sun. Without the Andes, wet air flows into the southeastern tropical Pacific from the humid Amazon, which weakens the meridional asymmetry during the Peruvian warm season (February-April). In addition, the northeasterly trade winds are enhanced north of the equator without the orographic blocking of Central American mountains and cools SST. Triggered by the SST cooling north and moistening south of the equator, the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback further weakens the meridional asymmetry and prolongs the southern ITCZ. In the Atlantic Ocean, the equatorial cold tongue is substantially strengthened and develops a pronounced annual cycle in the absence of mountains. The easterly winds are overall enhanced over the equatorial Atlantic without orographic heating over the African highlands, developing a zonal asymmetry strengthened by the Bjerknes feedback. In the Indian Ocean, the thermocline shoals eastward and an equatorial cold tongue appears twice a year. During boreal summer, the Findlater jet is greatly weakened off Somalia and SST warms in the western Indian Ocean, forcing the equatorial easterly winds amplified

  9. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-08-09

    Hawaiian Islands on coastal waters and the open ocean at Station ALOHA (chapter 2). These results indicate that contributions from volcanic islands (e.g., Hawaii) cannot be disregarded when investigating element budgets in the North Pacific. It is further shown that seasonal variability of Asian dust input most likely has significant influence on the Nd isotope signature of central North Pacific surface waters. New results from measurements of colloidal and truly dissolved REE concentrations indicate for the first time the absence of colloidal-bound REEs in open ocean waters at different depths. Further, a complete water column profile from Station ALOHA allows tracing of North Pacific water masses based on Nd isotopes. This study presents an adjustment of the Nd isotope signature and Nd concentration of North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW), which is considered the radiogenic endmember in the global overturning circulation, and therefore of particular importance for paleoceanographic studies. Moreover, REE patterns demonstrate that vertical processes overprint the REE concentrations in deep and bottom waters, precluding their use to trace water masses in the deep Pacific. Sedimentary Nd isotopes from the last 30,000 years demonstrate the variability in water mass structure in the South Pacific and the evolution of water mass mixing in Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) during the last glacial-interglacial transition (chapter 3). Combined results from five sediment cores show an expansion of glacial bottom water and its isolation from CDW during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) based on differences in the Nd isotope signatures in cores below and above ∝4000 m. Admixture of bottom water into CDW during the early deglaciation is suggested based on the early deglacial decrease of Nd isotope signatures in CDW-bathed cores before the re-strengthening of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) advection. This is related to Southern Hemisphere climate and only later during the deglaciation did the

  10. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Hawaiian Islands on coastal waters and the open ocean at Station ALOHA (chapter 2). These results indicate that contributions from volcanic islands (e.g., Hawaii) cannot be disregarded when investigating element budgets in the North Pacific. It is further shown that seasonal variability of Asian dust input most likely has significant influence on the Nd isotope signature of central North Pacific surface waters. New results from measurements of colloidal and truly dissolved REE concentrations indicate for the first time the absence of colloidal-bound REEs in open ocean waters at different depths. Further, a complete water column profile from Station ALOHA allows tracing of North Pacific water masses based on Nd isotopes. This study presents an adjustment of the Nd isotope signature and Nd concentration of North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW), which is considered the radiogenic endmember in the global overturning circulation, and therefore of particular importance for paleoceanographic studies. Moreover, REE patterns demonstrate that vertical processes overprint the REE concentrations in deep and bottom waters, precluding their use to trace water masses in the deep Pacific. Sedimentary Nd isotopes from the last 30,000 years demonstrate the variability in water mass structure in the South Pacific and the evolution of water mass mixing in Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) during the last glacial-interglacial transition (chapter 3). Combined results from five sediment cores show an expansion of glacial bottom water and its isolation from CDW during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) based on differences in the Nd isotope signatures in cores below and above ∝4000 m. Admixture of bottom water into CDW during the early deglaciation is suggested based on the early deglacial decrease of Nd isotope signatures in CDW-bathed cores before the re-strengthening of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) advection. This is related to Southern Hemisphere climate and only later during the deglaciation did the

  11. Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamburini, C.; Canals, M.; de Madron, X.D.; Houpert, L.; Lefevre, D.; Martini, V.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Robert, A.; Testor, P.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A.C.A.; Astraatmadja, T.L.; Aubert, J.J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, H.Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herold, B.; Hossl, J.; Hsu, C.C.; De Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.N.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Riviere, C.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, V.G.; Salesa, F.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schock, F.; Schuller, J.P.; Schussler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.G.F.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June

  12. The influence of the ocean circulation state on ocean carbon storage and CO2 drawdown potential in an Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ödalen, Malin; Nycander, Jonas; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Brodeau, Laurent; Ridgwell, Andy

    2018-03-01

    During the four most recent glacial cycles, atmospheric CO2 during glacial maxima has been lowered by about 90-100 ppm with respect to interglacials. There is widespread consensus that most of this carbon was partitioned in the ocean. It is, however, still debated which processes were dominant in achieving this increased carbon storage. In this paper, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to explore the sensitivity of ocean carbon storage to ocean circulation state. We carry out a set of simulations in which we run the model to pre-industrial equilibrium, but in which we achieve different states of ocean circulation by changing forcing parameters such as wind stress, ocean diffusivity and atmospheric heat diffusivity. As a consequence, the ensemble members also have different ocean carbon reservoirs, global ocean average temperatures, biological pump efficiencies and conditions for air-sea CO2 disequilibrium. We analyse changes in total ocean carbon storage and separate it into contributions by the solubility pump, the biological pump and the CO2 disequilibrium component. We also relate these contributions to differences in the strength of the ocean overturning circulation. Depending on which ocean forcing parameter is tuned, the origin of the change in carbon storage is different. When wind stress or ocean diapycnal diffusivity is changed, the response of the biological pump gives the most important effect on ocean carbon storage, whereas when atmospheric heat diffusivity or ocean isopycnal diffusivity is changed, the solubility pump and the disequilibrium component are also important and sometimes dominant. Despite this complexity, we obtain a negative linear relationship between total ocean carbon and the combined strength of the northern and southern overturning cells. This relationship is robust to different reservoirs dominating the response to different forcing mechanisms. Finally, we conduct a drawdown experiment in which we investigate

  13. The influence of the ocean circulation state on ocean carbon storage and CO2 drawdown potential in an Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ödalen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the four most recent glacial cycles, atmospheric CO2 during glacial maxima has been lowered by about 90–100 ppm with respect to interglacials. There is widespread consensus that most of this carbon was partitioned in the ocean. It is, however, still debated which processes were dominant in achieving this increased carbon storage. In this paper, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to explore the sensitivity of ocean carbon storage to ocean circulation state. We carry out a set of simulations in which we run the model to pre-industrial equilibrium, but in which we achieve different states of ocean circulation by changing forcing parameters such as wind stress, ocean diffusivity and atmospheric heat diffusivity. As a consequence, the ensemble members also have different ocean carbon reservoirs, global ocean average temperatures, biological pump efficiencies and conditions for air–sea CO2 disequilibrium. We analyse changes in total ocean carbon storage and separate it into contributions by the solubility pump, the biological pump and the CO2 disequilibrium component. We also relate these contributions to differences in the strength of the ocean overturning circulation. Depending on which ocean forcing parameter is tuned, the origin of the change in carbon storage is different. When wind stress or ocean diapycnal diffusivity is changed, the response of the biological pump gives the most important effect on ocean carbon storage, whereas when atmospheric heat diffusivity or ocean isopycnal diffusivity is changed, the solubility pump and the disequilibrium component are also important and sometimes dominant. Despite this complexity, we obtain a negative linear relationship between total ocean carbon and the combined strength of the northern and southern overturning cells. This relationship is robust to different reservoirs dominating the response to different forcing mechanisms. Finally, we conduct a drawdown experiment

  14. Deep circulation changes in the South Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum from Nd isotope and multi-proxy records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, R.; Abouchami, W.; Zahn, R.; Masque, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report down-core sedimentary Nd isotope (εNd) records from two South Atlantic sediment cores, MD02-2594 and GeoB3603-2, located on the western South African continental margin. The core sites are positioned downstream of the present-day flow path of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and close to the Southern Ocean, which makes them suitable for reconstructing past variability in NADW circulation over the last glacial cycle. The Fe-Mn leachates εNd records show a coherent decreasing trend from glacial radiogenic values towards less radiogenic values during the Holocene. This trend is confirmed by εNd in fish debris and mixed planktonic foraminifera, albeit with an offset during the Holocene to lower values relative to the leachates, matching the present-day composition of NADW in the Cape Basin. We interpret the εNd changes as reflecting the glacial shoaling of Southern Ocean waters to shallower depths combined with the admixing of southward flowing Northern Component Water (NCW). A compilation of Atlantic εNd records reveals increasing radiogenic isotope signatures towards the south and with increasing depth. This signal is most prominent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and of similar amplitude across the Atlantic basin, suggesting continuous deep water production in the North Atlantic and export to the South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. The amplitude of the εNd change from the LGM to Holocene is largest in the southernmost cores, implying a greater sensitivity to the deglacial strengthening of NADW at these sites. This signal impacted most prominently the South Atlantic deep and bottom water layers that were particularly deprived of NCW during the LGM. The εNd variations correlate with changes in 231Pa/230Th ratios and benthic δ13C across the deglacial transition. Together with the contrasting 231Pa/230Th: εNd pattern of the North and South Atlantic, this indicates a progressive reorganization of the AMOC to full strength during the Holocene.

  15. Longitudinal biases in the Seychelles Dome simulated by 35 ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagura, Motoki; Sasaki, Wataru; Tozuka, Tomoki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Behera, Swadhin K.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-02-01

    Seychelles Dome refers to the shallow climatological thermocline in the southwestern Indian Ocean, where ocean wave dynamics efficiently affect sea surface temperature, allowing sea surface temperature anomalies to be predicted up to 1-2 years in advance. Accurate reproduction of the dome by ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) is essential for successful seasonal predictions in the Indian Ocean. This study examines the Seychelles Dome as simulated by 35 CGCMs, including models used in phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Among the 35 CGCMs, 14 models erroneously produce an upwelling dome in the eastern half of the basin whereas the observed Seychelles Dome is located in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The annual mean Ekman pumping velocity in these models is found to be almost zero in the southern off-equatorial region. This result is inconsistent with observations, in which Ekman upwelling acts as the main cause of the Seychelles Dome. In the models reproducing an eastward-displaced dome, easterly biases are prominent along the equator in boreal summer and fall, which result in shallow thermocline biases along the Java and Sumatra coasts via Kelvin wave dynamics and a spurious upwelling dome in the region. Compared to the CMIP3 models, the CMIP5 models are even worse in simulating the dome longitudes.

  16. Impact of remote oceanic forcing on Gulf of Alaska sea levels and mesoscale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Metzger, E. Joseph; Hurlburt, Harley E.

    2003-11-01

    We examine the relative importance of regional wind forcing and teleconnections by an oceanic pathway for impact on interannual ocean circulation variability in the Gulf of Alaska. Any additional factors that contribute to this variability, such as freshwater forcing from river runoff, are disregarded. The study is based on results from numerical simulations, sea level data from tide gauge stations, and sea surface height anomalies from satellite altimeter data. At the heart of this investigation is a comparison of ocean simulations that include and exclude interannual oceanic teleconnections of an equatorial origin. Using lagged correlations, the model results imply that 70-90% of the interannual coastal sea level variance in the Gulf of Alaska can be related to interannual sea levels at La Libertad, Equador. These values are higher than the corresponding range from sea level data, which is 25-55%. When oceanic teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific are excluded in the model, the explained variance becomes about 20% or less. During poleward propagation the coastally trapped sea level signal in the model is less attenuated than the observed signal. In the Gulf of Alaska we find well-defined sea level peaks in the aftermath of El Niño events. The interannual intensity of eddies in the Gulf of Alaska also peaks after El Niño events; however, these maxima are less clear after weak and moderate El Niño events. The interannual variations in eddy activity intensity are predominantly governed by the regional atmospheric forcing.

  17. A Stratification Boomerang: Nonlinear Dependence of Deep Southern Ocean Ventilation on PCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, E. D.; Merlis, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Strong correlations between atmospheric CO2, Antarctic temperatures, and marine proxy records have hinted that ventilation of the deep Southern Ocean may have played a central role in the variations of CO2 over glacial-interglacial cycles. One proposition is that, in general, the Southern Ocean ventilates the deep more strongly under higher CO2, due to a change in winds and/or the dominance of thermal stratification in a warm ocean, which weakens ocean biological carbon storage. Here, we explore this idea with a suite of multi-millennial simulations using the GFDL CM2Mc global coupled model. The results are, indeed, consistent with increasing ventilation of the Southern Ocean as pCO2 increases above modern. However, they reveal a surprising twist under low pCO2: increased salinity of the Southern Ocean, due in part to weakening atmospheric moisture transport, actually increases ventilation rate of the deep ocean under low pCO2 as well. This implies that a nadir of Southern Ocean ventilation occurs at intermediate pCO2, which the model estimates as being close to that of the present-day. This is at odds with the interpretation that weak ventilation of the deep Southern Ocean was the unifying coupled mechanism for the glacial pCO2 cycles. Rather, it suggests that factors other than the ventilation rate of the deep Southern Ocean, such as iron fertilization, ecosystem changes, water mass distributions, and sea ice cover, were key players in the glacial-interglacial CO2 changes.

  18. Changing currents: a strategy for understanding and predicting the changing ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Harry L; Robinson, Carol; Griffiths, Gwyn

    2012-12-13

    Within the context of UK marine science, we project a strategy for ocean circulation research over the next 20 years. We recommend a focus on three types of research: (i) sustained observations of the varying and evolving ocean circulation, (ii) careful analysis and interpretation of the observed climate changes for comparison with climate model projections, and (iii) the design and execution of focused field experiments to understand ocean processes that are not resolved in coupled climate models so as to be able to embed these processes realistically in the models. Within UK-sustained observations, we emphasize smart, cost-effective design of the observational network to extract maximum information from limited field resources. We encourage the incorporation of new sensors and new energy sources within the operational environment of UK-sustained observational programmes to bridge the gap that normally separates laboratory prototype from operational instrument. For interpreting the climate-change records obtained through a variety of national and international sustained observational programmes, creative and dedicated UK scientists should lead efforts to extract the meaningful signals and patterns of climate change and to interpret them so as to project future changes. For the process studies, individual scientists will need to work together in team environments to combine observational and process modelling results into effective improvements in the coupled climate models that will lead to more accurate climate predictions.

  19. Variation of Marine Geoid Due to Ocean Circulation and Sea Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Sea level (S) change and ocean circulation largely affect the gravity field and in turns the marine geoid (N). Difference between the two, D = S - N, is the dynamic ocean topography (DOT), whose gradient represents the large-scale surface geostrophic circulations. Thus, temporal variability of marine geoid (δN) is caused by the sea level change (δS) and the DOT variation (δD), δN = δS - δD. Here, δS is identified from temporally varying satellite altimeter measures; δD is calculated from the change of DOT. For large-scale processes with conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic flows take minimum energy state. Based on that, a new elliptic equation is derived in this study to determine D. Here, H is the water depth; and (X, Y) are forcing functions calculated from the in-situ density. The well-posed elliptic equation is integrated numerically on 1o grids for the world oceans with the boundary values taken from the mean DOT (1993-2006) field at the NASA/JPL website: https://grace.jpl.nasa.gov/data/get-data/dynamic-ocean-typography/, the forcing function F calculated from the three-dimensional temperature and salinity of the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) World Ocean Atlas 2013 version 2, and sea-floor topography (H) from the NOAA ETOPO5. The numerical solution compares reasonably well (relative root mean square difference of 0.09) with the NASA/JPL satellite observation of the difference between the time-averaged sea surface height and the geoid. In-situ ocean measurements of temperature, salinity, and velocity have also rapidly advanced such that the global ocean is now continuously monitored by near 4,000 free-drifting profiling floats (called Argo) from the surface to 2000 m depth with all data being relayed and made publicly available within hours after collection (http://www.argo.ucsd.edu/). This provides a huge database of temperature and salinity and in turns the forcing function F for the governing elliptic

  20. Detecting Holocene changes in thermohaline circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Keigwin, L. D.; Boyle, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the last glacial cycle, reorganizations of deep ocean water masses were coincident with rapid millennial-scale changes in climate. Climate changes have been less severe during the present interglacial, but evidence for concurrent deep ocean circulation change is ambiguous.

  1. Upper-Ocean Heat Balance Processes and the Walker Circulation in CMIP5 Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, C.; Lyon, B.; Ricciardulli, L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains as to the importance of mechanisms governing decadal and longer variability of the Walker Circulation, its connection to the tropical climate system, and prospects for tropical climate change in the face of anthropogenic forcing. Most contemporary climate models suggest that in response to elevated CO2 and a warmer but more stratified atmosphere, the required upward mass flux in tropical convection will diminish along with the Walker component of the tropical mean circulation as well. Alternatively, there is also evidence to suggest that the shoaling and increased vertical stratification of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific will enable a muted SST increase there-- preserving or even enhancing some of the dynamical forcing for the Walker cell flow. Over the past decade there have been observational indications of an acceleration in near-surface easterlies, a strengthened Pacific zonal SST gradient, and globally-teleconnected dislocations in precipitation. But is this evidence in support of an ocean dynamical thermostat process posited to accompany anthropogenic forcing, or just residual decadal fluctuations associated with variations in warm and cold ENSO events and other stochastic forcing? From a modeling perspective we try to make headway on this question by examining zonal variations in surface energy fluxes and dynamics governing tropical upper ocean heat content evolution in the WCRP CMIP5 model projections. There is some diversity among model simulations; for example, the CCSM4 indicates net ocean warming over the IndoPacific region while the CSIRO model concentrates separate warming responses over the central Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The models, as with observations, demonstrate strong local coupling between variations in column water vapor, downward surface longwave radiation and SST; but the spatial patterns of changes in the sign of this relationship differ among models and, for models as a whole, with

  2. Processes governing transient responses of the deep ocean buoyancy budget to a doubling of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palter, J. B.; Griffies, S. M.; Hunter Samuels, B. L.; Galbraith, E. D.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent observational analyses suggest there is a temporal trend and high-frequency variability in deep ocean buoyancy in the last twenty years, a phenomenon reproduced even in low-mixing models. Here we use an earth system model (GFDL's ESM2M) to evaluate physical processes that influence buoyancy (and thus steric sea level) budget of the deep ocean in quasi-steady state and under a doubling of CO2. A new suite of model diagnostics allows us to quantitatively assess every process that influences the buoyancy budget and its temporal evolution, revealing surprising dynamics governing both the equilibrium budget and its transient response to climate change. The results suggest that the temporal evolution of the deep ocean contribution to sea level rise is due to a diversity of processes at high latitudes, whose net effect is then advected in the Eulerian mean flow to mid and low latitudes. In the Southern Ocean, a slowdown in convection and spin up of the residual mean advection are approximately equal players in the deep steric sea level rise. In the North Atlantic, the region of greatest deep steric sea level variability in our simulations, a decrease in mixing of cold, dense waters from the marginal seas and a reduction in open ocean convection causes an accumulation of buoyancy in the deep subpolar gyre, which is then advected equatorward.

  3. Shallow and Deep Latent Heating Modes Over Tropical Oceans Observed with TRMM PR Spectral Latent Heating Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Yukari N.; Shige, Shoichi; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Hirota, Nagio

    2010-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of its formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the Tropics. Associated with this rainfall is a vast amount of heat, which is known as latent heat. It arises mainly due to the phase change of water vapor condensing into liquid droplets; three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere comes from tropical rainfall. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. Three-dimensional distributions of latent heating estimated from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR)utilizing the Spectral Latent Heating (SLH) algorithm are analyzed. Mass-weighted and vertically integrated latent heating averaged over the tropical oceans is estimated as approx.72.6 J/s (approx.2.51 mm/day), and that over tropical land is approx.73.7 J/s (approx.2.55 mm/day), for 30degN-30degS. It is shown that non-drizzle precipitation over tropical and subtropical oceans consists of two dominant modes of rainfall systems, deep systems and congestus. A rough estimate of shallow mode contribution against the total heating is about 46.7 % for the average tropical oceans, which is substantially larger than 23.7 % over tropical land. While cumulus congestus heating linearly correlates with the SST, deep mode is dynamically bounded by large-scale subsidence. It is notable that substantial amount of rain, as large as 2.38 mm day-1 in average, is brought from congestus clouds under the large-scale subsiding circulation. It is also notable that even in the region with SST warmer than 28 oC, large-scale subsidence effectively suppresses the deep convection, remaining the heating by congestus clouds. Our results support that the entrainment of mid-to-lower-tropospheric dry air, which accompanies the large

  4. A Lagrangian Approach to Study the Gulf of Mexico’s Deep Circulation (NCEI Accession 0159562)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition had two main elements: 1) a deep drifter study employing RAFOS floats and sound sources, which provided Lagrangian drifter tracks at 1500 and...

  5. Support of Publication Costs, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Special Issue of Deep Sea Research II Journal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Honchar

    2012-11-12

    The contribution of funds from DOE supported publication costs of a special issue of Deep Sea Research arising from presentations at the First U.S. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) Meeting held 4-6 May, 2009 to review the US implementation plan and its coordination with other monitoring activities. The special issue includes a total of 16 papers, including publications from three DOE-supported investigators (ie Sevellec, F., and A.V. Fedorov; Hu et. al., and Wan et. al.,). The special issue addresses DOE interests in understanding and simulation/modeling of abrupt climate change.

  6. Nd isotope constraints on ocean circulation, paleoclimate, and continental drainage during the Jurassic breakup of Pangea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dera, Guillaume; Prunier, Jonathan; Smith, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    , western Russia, and North America. Combined with an extensive compilation of published εNd(t) data, our results show that the continental sources of Nd were very heterogeneous across the world. Volcanic inputs from a Jurassic equivalent of the modern Pacific Ring of Fire contributed to radiogenic ε......-Tethyan, and western Russian waters varied quite similarly through time, in response to regional changes in oceanic circulation, paleoclimate, continental drainage, and volcanism. Three positive shifts in εNd(t) values occurred successively in these epicontinental seas during the Pliensbachian, in the Aalenian...

  7. Application of seeding and automatic differentiation in a large scale ocean circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode Martinsen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Computation of the Jacobian in a 3-dimensional general ocean circulation model is considered in this paper. The Jacobian matrix considered in this paper is square, large and sparse. When a large and sparse Jacobian is being computed, proper seeding is essential to reduce computational times. This paper presents a manually designed seeding motivated by the Arakawa-C staggered grid, and gives results for the manually designed seeding as compated to identity seeding and optimal seeding. Finite differences are computed for reference.

  8. On the choice of orbits for an altimetric satellite to study ocean circulation and tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Michael E.; Stewart, Robert H.; Farless, David L.; Cartwright, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The choice of an orbit for satellite altimetric studies of the ocean's circulation and tides requires an understanding of the orbital characteristics that influence the accuracy of the satellite's measurements of sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of the measurements. The orbital characteristics that influence accurate calculations of the satellite's position as a function of time are examined, and the pattern of ground tracks laid down on the ocean's surface as a function of the satellite's altitude and inclination is studied. The results are used to examine the aliases in the measurements of surface geostrophic currents and tides. Finally, these considerations are used to specify possible orbits that may be useful for the upcoming Topex/Poseidon mission.

  9. Preformed and regenerated phosphate in ocean general circulation models: can right total concentrations be wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Duteil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate distributions simulated by seven state-of-the-art biogeochemical ocean circulation models are evaluated against observations of global ocean nutrient distributions. The biogeochemical models exhibit different structural complexities, ranging from simple nutrient-restoring to multi-nutrient NPZD type models. We evaluate the simulations using the observed volume distribution of phosphate. The errors in these simulated volume class distributions are significantly larger when preformed phosphate (or regenerated phosphate rather than total phosphate is considered. Our analysis reveals that models can achieve similarly good fits to observed total phosphate distributions for a~very different partitioning into preformed and regenerated nutrient components. This has implications for the strength and potential climate sensitivity of the simulated biological carbon pump. We suggest complementing the use of total nutrient distributions for assessing model skill by an evaluation of the respective preformed and regenerated nutrient components.

  10. Picocyanobacteria and deep-ocean fluorescent dissolved organic matter share similar optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Gonsior, Michael; Luek, Jenna; Timko, Stephen; Ianiri, Hope; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Fang, Xiaoting; Zeng, Qinglu; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2017-05-01

    Marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and its related fluorescent components (FDOM), which are widely distributed but highly photobleached in the surface ocean, are critical in regulating light attenuation in the ocean. However, the origins of marine FDOM are still under investigation. Here we show that cultured picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, release FDOM that closely match the typical fluorescent signals found in oceanic environments. Picocyanobacterial FDOM also shows comparable apparent fluorescent quantum yields and undergoes similar photo-degradation behaviour when compared with deep-ocean FDOM, further strengthening the similarity between them. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveal abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in Synechococcus DOM, which may originate from degradation products of the fluorescent phycobilin pigments. Given the importance of picocyanobacteria in the global carbon cycle, our results indicate that picocyanobacteria are likely to be important sources of marine autochthonous FDOM, which may accumulate in the deep ocean.

  11. Adaptation of an unstructured-mesh, finite-element ocean model to the simulation of ocean circulation beneath ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Candy, Adam S.; Holland, Paul R.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Jenkins, Adrian

    2013-07-01

    Several different classes of ocean model are capable of representing floating glacial ice shelves. We describe the incorporation of ice shelves into Fluidity-ICOM, a nonhydrostatic finite-element ocean model with the capacity to utilize meshes that are unstructured and adaptive in three dimensions. This geometric flexibility offers several advantages over previous approaches. The model represents melting and freezing on all ice-shelf surfaces including vertical faces, treats the ice shelf topography as continuous rather than stepped, and does not require any smoothing of the ice topography or any of the additional parameterisations of the ocean mixed layer used in isopycnal or z-coordinate models. The model can also represent a water column that decreases to zero thickness at the 'grounding line', where the floating ice shelf is joined to its tributary ice streams. The model is applied to idealised ice-shelf geometries in order to demonstrate these capabilities. In these simple experiments, arbitrarily coarsening the mesh outside the ice-shelf cavity has little effect on the ice-shelf melt rate, while the mesh resolution within the cavity is found to be highly influential. Smoothing the vertical ice front results in faster flow along the smoothed ice front, allowing greater exchange with the ocean than in simulations with a realistic ice front. A vanishing water-column thickness at the grounding line has little effect in the simulations studied. We also investigate the response of ice shelf basal melting to variations in deep water temperature in the presence of salt stratification.

  12. The effect of sudden ice sheet melt on ocean circulation and surface climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, R. F.; Gregoire, L. J.; Wickert, A. D.; Valdes, P. J.; Burke, A.

    2017-12-01

    Collapse of ice sheets can cause significant sea-level rise and widespread climate change. Around 14.6 thousand years ago, global mean sea level rose by 15 m in less than 350 years during an event known as Meltwater Pulse 1a. Ice sheet modelling and sea-level fingerprinting has suggested that approximately half of this 50 mm yr-1 sea level rise may have come from a North American ice Saddle Collapse that drained into the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans. However, dating uncertainties make it difficult to determine the sequence of events and their drivers, leaving many fundamental questions. For example, was melting from the northern ice sheets responsible for the Older-Dryas or other global-scale cooling events, or did a contribution from Antarctica counteract the climatic effects? What was the role of the abrupt Bølling Warming? And how were all these signals linked to changes in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation?To address these questions, we examined the effect of the North American ice Saddle Collapse using a high resolution network drainage model coupled to an atmosphere-ocean-vegetation General Circulation Model. Here, we present the quantitative routing estimates of the consequent meltwater discharge and its impact on climate. We also tested a suite of more idealised meltwater forcing scenarios to examine the global influence of Arctic versus Antarctic ice melt. The results show that 50% of the Saddle Collapse meltwater pulse was routed via the Mackenzie River into the Arctic Ocean, and 50% was discharged directly into the Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico. This meltwater flux, equivalent to a total of 7.3 m of sea-level rise, caused a strong (6 Sv) weakening of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and widespread Northern Hemisphere cooling of 1-5 °C. The greatest cooling is in the Arctic (5-10 °C in the winter), but there is also significant winter warming over eastern North America (1-3 °C). We propose that this robust submillennial mechanism was

  13. Microbially-mediated fluorescent organic matter transformations in the deep ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio, Fran L.; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Borrull, Encarna

    2015-01-01

    The refractory nature of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) increases while it travels from surface waters to the deep ocean. This resistant fraction is in part composed of fluorescent humic-like material, which is relatively difficult to metabolize by deep water prokaryotes, and it can also b....... These findings contribute to the understanding of FDOM variability in deep waters and provide valuable information for studies where fluorescent compounds are used in order to track water masses and/or microbial processes.......The refractory nature of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) increases while it travels from surface waters to the deep ocean. This resistant fraction is in part composed of fluorescent humic-like material, which is relatively difficult to metabolize by deep water prokaryotes, and it can also...

  14. Does deep ocean mixing drive upwelling or downwelling of abyssal waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.; Nikurashin, M.; Campin, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    It is generally understood that small-scale mixing, such as is caused by breaking internal waves, drives upwelling of the densest ocean waters that sink to the ocean bottom at high latitudes. However the observational evidence that the turbulent fluxes generated by small-scale mixing in the stratified ocean interior are more vigorous close to the ocean bottom than above implies that small-scale mixing converts light waters into denser ones, thus driving a net sinking of abyssal water. Using a combination of numerical models and observations, it will be shown that abyssal waters return to the surface along weakly stratified boundary layers, where the small-scale mixing of density decays to zero. The net ocean meridional overturning circulation is thus the small residual of a large sinking of waters, driven by small-scale mixing in the stratified interior, and a comparably large upwelling, driven by the reduced small-scale mixing along the ocean boundaries.

  15. The impact of the ocean observing system on estimates of the California current circulation spanning three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew M.; Jacox, Michael G.; Crawford, William J.; Laughlin, Bruce; Edwards, Christopher A.; Fiechter, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Data assimilation is now used routinely in oceanography on both regional and global scales for computing ocean circulation estimates and for making ocean forecasts. Regional ocean observing systems are also expanding rapidly, and observations from a wide array of different platforms and sensor types are now available. Evaluation of the impact of the observing system on ocean circulation estimates (and forecasts) is therefore of considerable interest to the oceanographic community. In this paper, we quantify the impact of different observing platforms on estimates of the California Current System (CCS) spanning a three decade period (1980-2010). Specifically, we focus attention on several dynamically related aspects of the circulation (coastal upwelling, the transport of the California Current and the California Undercurrent, thermocline depth and eddy kinetic energy) which in many ways describe defining characteristics of the CCS. The circulation estimates were computed using a 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system, and our analyses also focus on the impact of the different elements of the control vector (i.e. the initial conditions, surface forcing, and open boundary conditions) on the circulation. While the influence of each component of the control vector varies between different metrics of the circulation, the impact of each observing system across metrics is very robust. In addition, the mean amplitude of the circulation increments (i.e. the difference between the analysis and background) remains relatively stable throughout the three decade period despite the addition of new observing platforms whose impact is redistributed according to the relative uncertainty of observations from each platform. We also consider the impact of each observing platform on CCS circulation variability associated with low-frequency climate variability. The low-frequency nature of the dominant climate modes in this region allows us to track through time the

  16. Using Green's Functions to initialize and adjust a global, eddying ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, H.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Jahn, O.; Wang, D.; Bowman, K.; Zhang, H.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Project aims to attribute changes in the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide to spatially resolved fluxes by utilizing the full suite of NASA data, models, and assimilation capabilities. For the oceanic part of this project, we introduce ECCO2-Darwin, a new ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model based on combining the following pre-existing components: (i) a full-depth, eddying, global-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), (ii) an adjoint-method-based estimate of ocean circulation from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project, (iii) the MIT ecosystem model "Darwin", and (iv) a marine carbon chemistry model. Air-sea gas exchange coefficients and initial conditions of dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and oxygen are adjusted using a Green's Functions approach in order to optimize modeled air-sea CO2 fluxes. Data constraints include observations of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) for 2009-2010, global air-sea CO2 flux estimates, and the seasonal cycle of the Takahashi et al. (2009) Atlas. The model sensitivity experiments (or Green's Functions) include simulations that start from different initial conditions as well as experiments that perturb air-sea gas exchange parameters and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon. The Green's Functions approach yields a linear combination of these sensitivity experiments that minimizes model-data differences. The resulting initial conditions and gas exchange coefficients are then used to integrate the ECCO2-Darwin model forward. Despite the small number (six) of control parameters, the adjusted simulation is significantly closer to the data constraints (37% cost function reduction, i.e., reduction in the model-data difference, relative to the baseline simulation) and to independent observations (e.g., alkalinity). The adjusted air-sea gas

  17. The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability in surface and deep ocean temperature and salinity fields from unperturbed climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, D.; Jungclaus, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Large multidecadal fluctuations in basin-average sea-surface temperature (SST) are a known feature of observed, reconstructed and simulated variability in the North Atlantic Ocean. This phenomenon is often referred to as Multidecadal Atlantic Variability or AMV. Historical AMV fluctuations are associated with analog basin-scale changes in sea-surface salinity, so that warming corresponds to salinification and cooling to freshening [Polyakov et al., 2005]. The surface imprint of the AMV further corresponds to same-sign fluctuations in the shallow ocean and with opposite-sign fluctuations in the deep ocean for both temperature and salinity [Polyakov et al., 2005]. This out-of-phase behavior reflects the thermohaline overturning circulation shaping North Atlantic's low-frequency variability. Several processes contribute to the AMV, involving both ocean-atmosphere coupled processes and deep ocean circulation [e.g., Grossmann and Klotzbach, 2009]. In particular, recirculation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region of salinity anomalies from Arctic freshwater export may trigger multidecadal variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and therefore may be part of the AMV [Jungclaus et al., 2005; Dima and Lohmann, 2007]. With this contribution, we aim to improve the physical interpretation of the AMV by investigating spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and salinity fields in the shallow and deep ocean. We focus on two unperturbed millennial-scale simulations performed with the Max Planck Institute Earth system model in its paleo (MPI-ESM-P) and low-resolution (MPI-ESM-LR) configurations, which provide reference control climates for assessments of pre-industrial and historical climate simulations. The two model configurations only differ for the presence, in MPI-ESM-LR, of an active module for dynamical vegetation. We use spatial-average indices and empirical orthogonal functions/principal components to track the horizontal and vertical

  18. The Double ITCZ Syndrome in GCMs: A Coupled Problem among Convection, Atmospheric and Ocean Circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. J.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    The double ITCZ bias has been a long-standing problem in coupled atmosphere-ocean models. A previous study indicates that uncertainty in the projection of global warming due to doubling of CO2 is closely related to the double ITCZ biases in global climate models. Thus, reducing the double ITCZ biases is not only important to getting the current climate features right, but also important to narrowing the uncertainty in future climate projection. In this work, we will first review the possible factors contributing to the ITCZ problem. Then, we will focus on atmospheric convection, presenting recent progress in alleviating the double ITCZ problem and its sensitivity to details of convective parameterization, including trigger conditions for convection onset, convective memory, entrainment rate, updraft model and closure in the NCAR CESM1. These changes together can result in dramatic improvements in the simulation of ITCZ. Results based on both atmospheric only and coupled simulations with incremental changes of convection scheme will be shown to demonstrate the roles of convection parameterization and coupled interaction between convection, atmospheric circulation and ocean circulation in the simulation of ITCZ.

  19. Response of a comprehensive climate model to a broad range of external forcings: relevance for deep ocean ventilation and the development of late Cenozoic ice ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Eric; de Lavergne, Casimir

    2018-03-01

    Over the past few million years, the Earth descended from the relatively warm and stable climate of the Pliocene into the increasingly dramatic ice age cycles of the Pleistocene. The influences of orbital forcing and atmospheric CO2 on land-based ice sheets have long been considered as the key drivers of the ice ages, but less attention has been paid to their direct influences on the circulation of the deep ocean. Here we provide a broad view on the influences of CO2, orbital forcing and ice sheet size according to a comprehensive Earth system model, by integrating the model to equilibrium under 40 different combinations of the three external forcings. We find that the volume contribution of Antarctic (AABW) vs. North Atlantic (NADW) waters to the deep ocean varies widely among the simulations, and can be predicted from the difference between the surface densities at AABW and NADW deep water formation sites. Minima of both the AABW-NADW density difference and the AABW volume occur near interglacial CO2 (270-400 ppm). At low CO2, abundant formation and northward export of sea ice in the Southern Ocean contributes to very salty and dense Antarctic waters that dominate the global deep ocean. Furthermore, when the Earth is cold, low obliquity (i.e. a reduced tilt of Earth's rotational axis) enhances the Antarctic water volume by expanding sea ice further. At high CO2, AABW dominance is favoured due to relatively warm subpolar North Atlantic waters, with more dependence on precession. Meanwhile, a large Laurentide ice sheet steers atmospheric circulation as to strengthen the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, but cools the Southern Ocean remotely, enhancing Antarctic sea ice export and leading to very salty and expanded AABW. Together, these results suggest that a `sweet spot' of low CO2, low obliquity and relatively small ice sheets would have poised the AMOC for interruption, promoting Dansgaard-Oeschger-type abrupt change. The deep ocean temperature and

  20. What Drives the Variability of the Atlantic Water Circulation in the Arctic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lique, C.; Johnson, H. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Atlantic Water (AW) layer in the Arctic Basin is isolated from the atmosphere by the overlaying surface layer; yet observations of the AW pan-Arctic boundary current have revealed that the velocities in this layer exhibit significant variations on all timescales. Here, analysis of a global ocean/sea ice model hindcast, complemented by experiments performed with an idealized process model, are used to investigate what controls the variability of AW circulation, with a focus on the role of wind forcing. The AW circulation carries the imprint of wind variations, both remotely over the Nordic and Barents seas where they force variability on the AW inflow to the Arctic Basin, and locally over the Arctic Basin through the forcing of the wind-driven Beaufort gyre, which modulates and transfers the wind variability to the AW layer. Our results further suggest that understanding variability in the large amount of heat contained within the AW layer requires a better understanding of the circulation within both AW and surface layers.

  1. Reconstruct the past thermocline circulation in the Atlantic: calcification depths and Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations for 6 deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleroux, C.; deMenocal, P.; Arbuszewski, J.; Linsley, B.

    2012-04-01

    The subtropical cells are shallow meridional overturning circulations driven by the atmospheric circulation and the deep thermohaline circulation. They connect the mid-latitude and the tropic, release latten heat to the atmosphere and impact climate on decadal to longer time scale. The upper water column temperature and salinity structures of the ocean reflect this circulation. We present proxies to study these past structures. We performed stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) and trace element ratio measurements on one surface-dwelling (G. ruber)1 and six deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera species (N. dutertrei, G. inflata, G. tumida, G. truncatulinoides, G. hirsuta and G. crassaformis) on 66 coretops spanning from 35°N to 20°S along the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Comparison between measured δ18O and predicted δ18O (using water column temperature and seawater δ18O), shows that N. dutertrei, G. tumida, G. hirsuta and G. crassaformis keep the same apparent calcification depth along the transect (respectively: 125m, 150m, 700m and 800m). Calcification at two depth levels was also tested. For the six deep-dwelling species, we establish Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations with both atlas temperature at the calcification depth and isotopic temperature. We present Mg/Ca-temperature equations for species previously very poorly calibrated. The δ18O and temperature (Mg/Ca derived) on the six planktonic foraminifera species faithfully reproduce the modern water column structure of the upper 800 m depth, establishing promising proxies for past subsurface reconstruction. 1 Arbuszewski, J. J., P. B. deMenocal, A. Kaplan, and C. E. Farmer (2010), On the fidelity of shell-derived δ18Oseawater estimates, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 300(3-4), 185-196.

  2. Toward Improved Estimation of the Dynamic Topography and Ocean Circulation in the High Latitude and Arctic Ocean: The Importance of GOCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, J. A.; Raj, R. P.; Nilsen, J. E. Ø.

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and shows significant sensitivity to anthropogenic climate forcing and the ongoing climate change. Accelerated changes in the Arctic are already observed, including elevated air and ocean temperatures, declines of the summer sea ice extent...... quantify this. Moreover, changes in the temperature and salinity of surface waters in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas may also influence the flow of dense water through the Denmark Strait, which are found to be a precursor for changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a lead time...... circulation and transport variability in the high latitude and Arctic Ocean. In this respect, this study combines in situ hydrographical data, surface drifter data and direct current meter measurements, with coupled sea ice–ocean models, radar altimeter data and the latest GOCE-based geoid in order...

  3. Lead isotopes in deep-sea coral skeletons: Ground-truthing and a first deglacial Southern Ocean record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David J.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Adkins, Jess F.

    2017-05-01

    a persistence of the same Pb sources through time, although we cannot rule out a minor influence from recent anthropogenic Pb. Whereas neodymium (Nd) isotopes in the Southern Ocean respond to global ocean circulation changes between glacial and interglacial periods, Pb isotopes record more localised mixing within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, potentially further modulated by climate through changing terrestrial inputs from southern Africa or Australia. Such decoupling between Pb and Nd isotopes in the Southern Ocean highlights their potential to provide complementary insights into past oceanographic variability. Keywords: Southern Ocean; Tasmania; Deglaciation; Climate change; Ocean circulation; Weathering; Isotope tracers; Pb isotopes; Deep-sea corals

  4. Dumping of solid packaged radioactivity in the deep oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Wm. O.; Van As, D.

    1980-01-01

    With the increasing use of nuclear energy, the quantity of radioactive wastes which are generated is also increasing. Their treatment and disposal is causing a concern in further development of nuclear energy. World's oceans are considered as a possible location for these wastes. A convention on the prevention of marine pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other matter into oceans was adopted at the Intergovernmental Conference held at London in November 1972. The convention prohibits dumping of high-level radioactive wastes in the oceans and has entrusted the IAEA the tasks of defining the high level radioactive wastes and providing recommendations for the issue of special permits for dumping of the radioactive materials which do not fall into the category of high-level wastes. A provisional definition and recommendations formulated by the IAEA and adopted by contractin.o. parties in 1976 are outlined. On the basis of an oceanographic model developed by Shepherd (1976) and considered to be the best available, a revised definition and revised recommendations were formulated. Their salient features are mentioned. The key parameters for specific site assessments are mentioned. The Nuclear Energy Agency also formulated guidelines on sea-disposal packages for radioactive wastes in 1974 and revised them in 1978. Finally it is noted that criteria have not been established for dumping of non-radioactive wastes in the ocean, though such criteria are contained in the IAEA recommendations in case of radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  5. Increased particle flux to the deep ocean related to monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Ittekkot, V.; Manganini, S.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Haake, B.; Degens, E.T.; Desai, B.N.; Honjo, S.

    . To assess the impact of monsoon-driven processes on the downward particle flux variations in the open ocean we deployed three moored arrays consisting of six time-series sediment traps at selected locations in the western, central and eastern parts...

  6. Atypical anticlockwise internal tidal motions in the deep ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the ocean, horizontal motions associated with freely propagating semidiurnal tidal inertia-gravity waves mainly describe an ellipse that is traversed in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere. In this article, rare observations of anticlockwise polarised semidiurnal motions are

  7. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  8. Isotopic evaluation of ocean circulation in the Late Cretaceous North American seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Alan B.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Barrick, Reese E.

    2011-12-01

    During the mid- and Late Cretaceous period, North America was split by the north-south oriented Western Interior Seaway. Its role in creating and maintaining Late Cretaceous global greenhouse conditions remains unclear. Different palaeoceanographic reconstructions portray diverse circulation patterns. The southward extent of relatively cool, low-salinity, low-δ18O surface waters critically distinguishes among these models, but past studies of invertebrates could not independently assess water temperature and isotopic compositions. Here we present oxygen isotopes in biophosphate from coeval marine turtle and fish fossils from western Kansas, representing the east central seaway, and from the Mississippi embayment, representing the marginal Tethys Ocean. Our analyses yield precise seawater isotopic values and geographic temperature differences during the main transition from the Coniacian to the early Campanian age (87-82 Myr), and indicate that the seaway oxygen isotope value and salinity were 2‰ and 3‰ lower, respectively, than in the marginal Tethys Ocean. We infer that the influence of northern freshwater probably reached as far south as Kansas. Our revised values imply relatively large temperature differences between the Mississippi embayment and central seaway, explain the documented regional latitudinal palaeobiogeographic zonation and support models with relatively little inflow of surface waters from the Tethys Ocean to the Western Interior Seaway.

  9. Dynamic modeling of the horizontal eddy viscosity coefficient for quasigeostrophic ocean circulation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romit Maulik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forth a simplified dynamic modeling strategy for the eddy viscosity coefficient parameterized in space and time. The eddy viscosity coefficient is dynamically adjusted to the local structure of the flow using two different nonlinear eddy viscosity functional forms to capture anisotropic dissipation mechanism, namely, (i the Smagorinsky model using the local strain rate field, and (ii the Leith model using the gradient of the vorticity field. The proposed models are applied to the one-layer and two-layer wind-driven quasigeostrophic ocean circulation problems, which are standard prototypes of more realistic ocean dynamics. Results show that both models capture the quasi-stationary ocean dynamics and provide the physical level of eddy viscosity distribution without using any a priori estimation. However, it is found that slightly less dissipative results can be obtained by using the dynamic Leith model. Two-layer numerical experiments also reveal that the proposed dynamic models automatically parameterize the subgrid-scale stress terms in each active layer. Furthermore, the proposed scale-aware models dynamically provide higher values of the eddy viscosity for smaller resolutions taking into account the local resolved flow information, and addressing the intimate relationship between the eddy viscosity coefficients and the numerical resolution employed by the quasigeostrophic models.

  10. Daily Reservoir Inflow Forecasting using Deep Learning with Downscaled Multi-General Circulation Models (GCMs) Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW) has a population of over 7 million depending on many water supply reservoirs. The reservoir inflow plays a vital role in water supply decision making process and long-term strategic planning for the region. This paper demonstrates a method of utilizing deep learning algorithms and multi-general circulation model (GCM) platform to forecast reservoir inflow for three reservoirs within the DFW: Eagle Mountain Lake, Lake Benbrook and Lake Arlington. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition was firstly employed to extract the features, which were then represented by the deep belief networks (DBNs). The first 75 years of the historical data (1940 -2015) were used to train the model, while the last 2 years of the data (2016-2017) were used for the model validation. The weights of each DBN gained from the training process were then applied to establish a neural network (NN) that was able to forecast reservoir inflow. Feature predictors used for the forecasting model were generated from weather forecast results of the downscaled multi-GCM platform for the North Texas region. By comparing root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias error (MBE) with the observed data, the authors found that the deep learning with downscaled multi-GCM platform is an effective approach in the reservoir inflow forecasting.

  11. Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tamburini

    Full Text Available The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

  12. Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Moscoso, Luciano; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma Nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; Păvălaş, Gabriela E; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J M; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G F; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

  13. Geotechnical properties of deep-ocean sediments: a critical state approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, E.W.L.

    1988-11-01

    The possible disposal of high-level radioactive waste using the sediments of the deep-ocean floor as repositories has initiated research to establish an understanding of the fundamental behaviour of deep-ocean sediments. The work described in this thesis consisted of a series of triaxial stress path tests using microcomputer controlled hydraulic triaxial cells to investigate the strength and stress-strain behaviour for mainly anisotropically (K o ) consolidated 'undisturbed' (tubed) and reconstituted specimens of deep-ocean sediments taken from two study areas in the North Atlantic Ocean. The test results have been analysed within the framework of critical state soil mechanics to investigate sediment characteristics such as the state boundary surface, drained and undrained strength and stress-strain behaviour. While marked anisotropic behaviour is found in a number of respects, the results indicate that analysis in a critical state framework is as valid as for terrestrial sediments. Differences in behaviour between tubed and reconstituted specimens have been observed and the effect of the presence of carbonate has been investigated. An attempt has been made to develop an elasto-plastic constitutive K o model based on critical state concepts. This model has been found to agree reasonably well with experimental data for kaolin and deep-ocean sediments. (author)

  14. Clay mineralogical and Sr, Nd isotopic investigations in two deep-sea sediment cores from Northeast Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Babu, G.; Masood Ahmad, S.; Padmakumari, V.M.; Dayal, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Sr and Nd isotopic studies in terrigenous component of the ocean sediments provide useful information about weathering patterns near source rock and climatic conditions existed on the continents. Variations in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd isotopic ratios in clastic sediments depend on the source from the continents, volcanic input and circulation changes. The composition of clay minerals mainly depends on climate, geology and topography of the surrounding region. Chlorite and Illite are formed under physical weathering in arid cold climate and kaolinite and smectite are the characteristic products of chemical weathering in humid wet climatic conditions. Therefore, the variations in clay mineral composition in deep-sea sediments can be interpreted in terms of changes in the climatic conditions prevailed in the continental source areas

  15. Listening to the Deep: Live monitoring of ocean noise and cetacean acoustic signals

    OpenAIRE

    André, Michel; Van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sánchez, A.M.; Castell, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The development and broad use of passive acoustic monitoring techniques have the potential to help assessing the large-scale influence of artificial noise on marine organisms and ecosystems. Deep-sea observatories have the potential to play a key role in understanding these recent acoustic changes. LIDO(Listening to the Deep Ocean Environment) is an international project that is allowing the real-time longterm monitoring of marine ambient noise as well as marine mammal sounds at cabled and...

  16. A record of deep-ocean dissolved O2 from the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Daniel A.; Keller, C. Brenhin

    2018-01-01

    The oxygenation of the deep ocean in the geological past has been associated with a rise in the partial pressure of atmospheric molecular oxygen (O2) to near-present levels and the emergence of modern marine biogeochemical cycles. It has also been linked to the origination and diversification of early animals. It is generally thought that the deep ocean was largely anoxic from about 2,500 to 800 million years ago, with estimates of the occurrence of deep-ocean oxygenation and the linked increase in the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen to levels sufficient for this oxygenation ranging from about 800 to 400 million years ago. Deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations over this interval are typically estimated using geochemical signatures preserved in ancient continental shelf or slope sediments, which only indirectly reflect the geochemical state of the deep ocean. Here we present a record that more directly reflects deep-ocean oxygen concentrations, based on the ratio of Fe3+ to total Fe in hydrothermally altered basalts formed in ocean basins. Our data allow for quantitative estimates of deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations from 3.5 billion years ago to 14 million years ago and suggest that deep-ocean oxygenation occurred in the Phanerozoic (541 million years ago to the present) and potentially not until the late Palaeozoic (less than 420 million years ago).

  17. A record of deep-ocean dissolved O2 from the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Daniel A; Keller, C Brenhin

    2018-01-18

    The oxygenation of the deep ocean in the geological past has been associated with a rise in the partial pressure of atmospheric molecular oxygen (O 2 ) to near-present levels and the emergence of modern marine biogeochemical cycles. It has also been linked to the origination and diversification of early animals. It is generally thought that the deep ocean was largely anoxic from about 2,500 to 800 million years ago, with estimates of the occurrence of deep-ocean oxygenation and the linked increase in the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen to levels sufficient for this oxygenation ranging from about 800 to 400 million years ago. Deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations over this interval are typically estimated using geochemical signatures preserved in ancient continental shelf or slope sediments, which only indirectly reflect the geochemical state of the deep ocean. Here we present a record that more directly reflects deep-ocean oxygen concentrations, based on the ratio of Fe 3+ to total Fe in hydrothermally altered basalts formed in ocean basins. Our data allow for quantitative estimates of deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations from 3.5 billion years ago to 14 million years ago and suggest that deep-ocean oxygenation occurred in the Phanerozoic (541 million years ago to the present) and potentially not until the late Palaeozoic (less than 420 million years ago).

  18. Physical oceanographic characteristics influencing the dispersion of dissolved tracers released at the sea floor in selected deep ocean study areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.; Moore, D.E.

    1981-02-01

    Scenarios which follow the development in space and time of the concentration field of a dissolved tracer released at the sea floor are presented for a Pacific and two Atlantic study areas. The scenarios are closely tied to available data by means of simple analytical models and proceed in stages from short time and space scales in the immediate vicinity of a release point to those scales characteristic of ocean basins. The concepts of internal mixing time and residence time in the benthic mixed layer, useful for developing an intuitive feeling for the behavior of a tracer in this feature, are introduced and discussed. We also introduce the concept of domain of occupation, which is useful in drawing distinctions between mixing and stirring in the ocean. From this study it is apparent that reliable estimation of mixing will require careful consideration of the dynamics of the eddy fields in the ocean. Another area in which more information is urgently needed is in the relation of deep isopycnal structure and bottom topography to local near-bottom circulation

  19. Exploring Ocean Animal Trajectory Pattern via Deep Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Su

    2016-01-01

    We trained a combined deep convolutional neural network to predict seals’ age (3 categories) and gender (2 categories). The entire dataset contains 110 seals with around 489 thousand location records. Most records are continuous and measured in a certain step. We created five convolutional layers for feature representation and established two fully connected structure as age’s and gender’s classifier, respectively. Each classifier consists of three fully connected layers. Treating seals’ latitude and longitude as input, entire deep learning network, which includes 780,000 neurons and 2,097,000 parameters, can reach to 70.72% accuracy rate for predicting seals’ age and simultaneously achieve 79.95% for gender estimation.

  20. Exploring Ocean Animal Trajectory Pattern via Deep Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Su

    2016-05-23

    We trained a combined deep convolutional neural network to predict seals’ age (3 categories) and gender (2 categories). The entire dataset contains 110 seals with around 489 thousand location records. Most records are continuous and measured in a certain step. We created five convolutional layers for feature representation and established two fully connected structure as age’s and gender’s classifier, respectively. Each classifier consists of three fully connected layers. Treating seals’ latitude and longitude as input, entire deep learning network, which includes 780,000 neurons and 2,097,000 parameters, can reach to 70.72% accuracy rate for predicting seals’ age and simultaneously achieve 79.95% for gender estimation.

  1. The relation between Arctic Ocean circulation and the Arctic Oscillation as revealed by satellite altimetry and gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, J.; Kwok, R.; Peralta Ferriz, C.; Dickinson, S.; Morison, D.; Andersen, R.; Dewey, S.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic Ocean circulation is commonly characterized by the persistent anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre in the Canada Basin and the Transpolar Drift. While these are clearly important features, their role in changing Arctic Ocean circulation is at times distorted by sampling biases inherent in drifting buoy and standard shipboard measurements of western nations. Hydrographic measurements from SCICEX submarine cruises for science in the early 1990s revealed an increasingly cyclonic circulation along the Russian side of the Arctic Ocean related to the low sea level pressure pattern in the same region associated with a high Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. More recently satellite altimetry (ICESat and CryoSat2) and gravimetry (GRACE) have provided the basin-wide observational coverage needed to see shifts to increased cyclonic circulation in 2004 to 2008 and decreased cyclonic circulation in 2008 to 2015. These shifts are related to changes in the AO and are important for their effect on the trajectories of sea ice and freshwater through the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Performance of an autonomously deployable telemetered deep ocean seismic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jonathan; Laske, Gabe; Orcutt, John; Babcock, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    We describe a transformative technology that can provide near real-time telemetry of sensor data from the ocean bottom without a moored buoy or a cable to shore. The breakthrough technology that makes this system possible is an autonomous surface vehicle called a Wave Glider developed by Liquid Robotics, which harvests wave and solar energy for motive and electrical power. For navigation, the wave glider is equipped with a small computer, a GPS receiver, a rudder, solar panels and batteries, AIS ship detection receiver, weather station, and an Iridium satellite modem. Wave gliders have demonstrated trans-oceanic range and long-term station keeping capabilities. We present results from several deployments of a prototype system that demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. The system comprises ocean bottom package (OBP) and an ocean surface gateway (OSG). Acoustic communications connect the OBP instruments with OSG while communications between the gateway and land are provided by the Iridium satellite constellation. The most recent deployment of the OBP was off the edge of the Patton Escarpment some 300 km west of San Diego in 4000 m of water. The OSG was launched about 30 km west of San Diego harbor and programmed to navigate to the site of the ocean bottom package. Arriving after 161 hours, the OSG then commenced holding station at the site for the next 68 days. Speeds over-the-ground varied with wind, wave, and surface current conditions but averaged 0.5 m/s while winds varied between 0 m/s and 17 m/s and wave heights between 0.2 m and 5.9 m. Over this period the median total data latency was 260 s and the data loss less that 0.2% when the wave glider was within 1.5 km of the central point. We have also tested a full-scale model of a towable ocean bottom package, which demonstrated that a wave glider could tow and navigate an autonomously deployable ocean bottom package. Taken together, these tests have demonstrated that the concept is viable for long

  3. Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksnes, Dag L.; Rostad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2017-01-01

    The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna...... distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web....

  4. Deep ocean nutrients during the Last Glacial Maximum deduced from sponge silicon isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Georg, R. Bastian; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Robinson, Laura F.; Halliday, Alex N.

    2010-04-01

    The relative importance of biological and physical processes within the Southern Ocean for the storage of carbon and atmospheric pCO 2 on glacial-interglacial timescales remains uncertain. Understanding the impact of surface biological production on carbon export in the past relies on the reconstruction of the nutrient supply from upwelling deep waters. In particular, the upwelling of silicic acid (Si(OH) 4) is tightly coupled to carbon export in the Southern Ocean via diatom productivity. Here, we address how changes in deep water Si(OH) 4 concentrations can be reconstructed using the silicon isotopic composition of deep-sea sponges. We report δ30Si of modern deep-sea sponge spicules and show that they reflect seawater Si(OH) 4 concentration. The fractionation factor of sponge δ30Si compared to seawater δ30Si shows a positive relationship with Si(OH) 4, which may be a growth rate effect. Application of this proxy in two down-core records from the Scotia Sea reveals that Si(OH) 4 concentrations in the deep Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were no different than today. Our result does not support a coupling of carbon and nutrient build up in an isolated deep ocean reservoir during the LGM. Our data, combined with records of stable isotopes from diatoms, are only consistent with enhanced LGM Southern Ocean nutrient utilization if there was also a concurrent reduction in diatom silicification or a shift from siliceous to organic-walled phytoplankton.

  5. Studies of deep water formation and circulation in the Weddell Sea using natural and anthropogenic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, Peter; Bayer, Reinhold

    1991-01-01

    The application of natural and anthropogenic trace substances in oceanographic studies of the Weddell Sea is reviewed. The potential of some steady-state and transient tracers (tritium, CFC-11 and CFC-12, 18 O, and helium isotopes) for studies of deep water formation and circulation is discussed on the basis of data sets collected mainly on cruises of R/V 'Polastern' to the Weddell Sea during the 1980s. CFC/ tritium ratio dating of young water masses is applied to estimate mean age and transit times of water involved in Weddell Sea Bottom Water formation. The history of the CFC-11/tritium ratio through time is derived for Weddell Sea shelf waters. (author). 36 refs.; 18 figs

  6. A high-resolution ocean circulation model of the Gulf of Naples and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ruggero, P.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of a high-resolution circulation model of a southern Tyrrhenian coastal area is discussed. The sigma-coordinate Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is implemented with a 1/144° resolution in a domain that includes highly urbanized coastal areas, such as the Gulf of Naples and the nearby gulfs of Gaeta and Salerno, that are particularly relevant from oceanographic, ecological and social viewpoints. The model takes initial and boundary conditions from a 1/48° resolution POM model of the whole Tyrrhenian Sea. The main forcing is provided by ECMWF wind data, but an alternative wind field obtained from the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data is also tested. Fundamental aspects of coastal modeling, such as the relative importance of local and remote forcing in semi-enclosed seas, and the sensitivity to different wind products are discussed.

  7. Variational data assimilation system with nesting model for high resolution ocean circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Yoichi; Igarashi, Hiromichi; Hiyoshi, Yoshimasa; Sasaki, Yuji; Wakamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Awaji, Toshiyuki [Center for Earth Information Science and Technology, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-Ku, Yokohama 236-0001 (Japan); In, Teiji [Japan Marine Science Foundation, 4-24, Minato-cho, Mutsu, Aomori, 035-0064 (Japan); Nakada, Satoshi [Graduate School of Maritime Science, Kobe University, 5-1-1, Fukae-minamimachi, Higashinada-Ku, Kobe, 658-0022 (Japan); Nishina, Kei, E-mail: ishikaway@jamstec.go.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawaoiwake-cho, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    To obtain the high-resolution analysis fields for ocean circulation, a new incremental approach is developed using a four-dimensional variational data assimilation system with nesting models. The results show that there are substantial biases when using a classical method combined with data assimilation and downscaling, caused by different dynamics resulting from the different resolutions of the models used within the nesting models. However, a remarkable reduction in biases of the low-resolution model relative to the high-resolution model was observed using our new approach in narrow strait regions, such as the Tsushima and Tsugaru straits, where the difference in the dynamics represented by the high- and low-resolution models is substantial. In addition, error reductions are demonstrated in the downstream region of these narrow channels associated with the propagation of information through the model dynamics. (paper)

  8. Current measurements from acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP) in the southwest Atlantic Ocean from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 1991-01-03 to 1992-11-26 (NODC Accession 0087597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data from the ADCP instruments of BE/335 and BW/333 from January 3, 1991 to November 26, 1992 collected as part of the World Ocean Circulation...

  9. Seasonal variations of thermocline circulation and ventilation in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuzhu

    1997-05-01

    of RSW/PGW seems effectively blocked by the continuation of strong northward jet of the Somali Current along the western Arabian Sea during the summer, giving a rather small contribution of only up to 20% in the Arabian Sea. A schematic summer and winter thermocline circulation emerges from this study. Both hydrography and water - mass mixing ratios suggest that the contribution of the water from the South Indian Ocean and from the Indo-Pacific through flow controls the circulation and ventilation in the western boundary region during the summer. However, during the winter the water is carried into the eastern boundary by the Equatorial Countercurrent and leaks into the eastern Bay of Bengal, from where the water is advected into the northwestern Indian Ocean by the North Equatorial Current. The so-called East Madagascar Current as a southward flow occurs only during the summer, as is suggested by both hydrography and water-mass mixing patterns from this paper. During the winter (austral summer) the current seems reversal to a northward flow along east of Madagascar, somewhat symmetrical to the Somali Current in the north.

  10. A geotechnical investigation of a deep ocean site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Schuttenhelm, R.T.E.

    1990-01-01

    A site investigation in deep water often relies solely on laboratory tests to evaluate the geotechnical properties of the sediments. This imposes two fundamental limitations on the investigation: The maximum depth to which the properties can be profiled and the uncertainty of sample disturbance and de-pressurization effects on the measured data. This paper uses results from investigations performed in a water depth of 5.4 km at an abyssal plain site, Great Meteor East (GME), to illustrate how ambiguities can arise in laboratory measurements of strength, and discusses how a simple in-situ test, the expendable penetrator, can be used to corroborate the laboratory data

  11. Bacterial diversity and biogeography in deep-sea sediments of the South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Regina; Bienhold, Christina; Ramette, Alban

    2010-01-01

    in 1051 sequences. Phylotypes affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria were present in all three basins. The distribution of these shared phylotypes seemed to be influenced neither by the Walvis Ridge nor by different deep water masses, suggesting a high dispersal......Microbial biogeographic patterns in the deep sea depend on the ability of microorganisms to disperse. One possible limitation to microbial dispersal may be the Walvis Ridge that separates the Antarctic Lower Circumpolar Deep Water from the North Atlantic Deep Water. We examined bacterial...... communities in three basins of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean to determine diversity and biogeography of bacterial communities in deep-sea surface sediments. The analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene clone libraries in each basin revealed a high diversity, representing 521 phylotypes with 98% identity...

  12. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml−1 in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml−1 in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml−1. The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web. PMID:25290506

  13. Response to Comment on "Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean"

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2015-12-18

    Our recent finding that dilution limits dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization in the deep ocean has been criticized based on the common misconception that lability equates to rapid and complete utilization. Even when considering the redefinition of recalcitrant DOC recently proposed by Jiao et al., the dilution hypothesis best explains our experimental observations.

  14. Earthquakes drive large-scale submarine canyon development and sediment supply to deep-ocean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Joshu J; Howarth, Jamie D; Orpin, Alan R; Barnes, Philip M; Bowden, David A; Rowden, Ashley A; Schimel, Alexandre C G; Holden, Caroline; Horgan, Huw J; Nodder, Scott D; Patton, Jason R; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Gerstenberger, Matthew; Micallef, Aaron; Pallentin, Arne; Kane, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Although the global flux of sediment and carbon from land to the coastal ocean is well known, the volume of material that reaches the deep ocean-the ultimate sink-and the mechanisms by which it is transferred are poorly documented. Using a globally unique data set of repeat seafloor measurements and samples, we show that the moment magnitude ( M w ) 7.8 November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake (New Zealand) triggered widespread landslides in a submarine canyon, causing a powerful "canyon flushing" event and turbidity current that traveled >680 km along one of the world's longest deep-sea channels. These observations provide the first quantification of seafloor landscape change and large-scale sediment transport associated with an earthquake-triggered full canyon flushing event. The calculated interevent time of ~140 years indicates a canyon incision rate of 40 mm year -1 , substantially higher than that of most terrestrial rivers, while synchronously transferring large volumes of sediment [850 metric megatons (Mt)] and organic carbon (7 Mt) to the deep ocean. These observations demonstrate that earthquake-triggered canyon flushing is a primary driver of submarine canyon development and material transfer from active continental margins to the deep ocean.

  15. Impacts of changing ocean circulation on the distribution of marine microplastic litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welden, Natalie Ac; Lusher, Amy L

    2017-05-01

    Marine plastic pollution is currently a major scientific focus, with attention paid to its distribution and impacts within ecosystems. With recent estimates indicating that the mass of plastic released to the marine environment may reach 250 million metric tons by 2025, the effects of plastic on our oceans are set to increase. Distribution of microplastics, those plastics measuring less than 5 mm, are of increasing concern because they represent an increasing proportion of marine litter and are known to interact with species in a range of marine habitats. The local abundance of microplastic is dependent on a complex interaction between the scale of local plastic sources and prevailing environmental conditions; as a result, microplastic distribution is highly heterogeneous. Circulation models have been used to predict plastic distribution; however, current models do not consider future variation in circulation patterns and weather systems caused by a changing climate. In this study, we discuss the potential impacts of global climate change on the abundance and distribution of marine plastic pollution. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:483-487. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-28

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  17. Adaptive subdomain modeling: A multi-analysis technique for ocean circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Alper; Baugh, John

    2017-07-01

    Many coastal and ocean processes of interest operate over large temporal and geographical scales and require a substantial amount of computational resources, particularly when engineering design and failure scenarios are also considered. This study presents an adaptive multi-analysis technique that improves the efficiency of these computations when multiple alternatives are being simulated. The technique, called adaptive subdomain modeling, concurrently analyzes any number of child domains, with each instance corresponding to a unique design or failure scenario, in addition to a full-scale parent domain providing the boundary conditions for its children. To contain the altered hydrodynamics originating from the modifications, the spatial extent of each child domain is adaptively adjusted during runtime depending on the response of the model. The technique is incorporated in ADCIRC++, a re-implementation of the popular ADCIRC ocean circulation model with an updated software architecture designed to facilitate this adaptive behavior and to utilize concurrent executions of multiple domains. The results of our case studies confirm that the method substantially reduces computational effort while maintaining accuracy.

  18. Excess bottom radon 222 distribution in deep ocean passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Broecker, W.S.; Biscaye, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Radon 222 and STD profiles were obtained as part of the Geosecs program in the Vema Channel in the southwest Atlantic Ocean and in the Samoan, Clarion, and Wake Island passages in the Pacific Ocean. The standing crop of excess radon 222 is higher in the passages than at other nearby locations. The most likely explanation for this is that there is a high flux of radon 222 from the floor of the passages. Since much of the floor is covered with manganese nodules and encrustations, the high flux of radon 222 may be attributable to the high concentrations of radium 226 in the outer few millimeters of such deposits. Laboratory measurements of radon 222 emissivity from maganese encrustations obtained in Vema Channel support this hypothesis. The excess radon 222 in the Vema Channel and Wake Island Passage is found in substantial quantities at heights above bottom greatly exceeding the heights at which excess radon 222 is found in nonpassage areas. The horizontal diffusion of radon emanating from the walls of the passages is unlikely to be the cause of the observed concentrations because the ratio of wall surface area to water volume is very low. The profiles must therefore be a result of exceptionally high apparent vertical mixing in the passages. Further work is needed to determine the nature of this apparent vertical mixing. The excess radon 222 and STD data in all four passages have been fit with an empirical model in which it is assumed that the bouyancy flux is constant with distance above bottom. The fits are very good and yield apparent buoyancy fluxes that are between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude greater than those obtained at nearby stations outside the passages for three of the four passages

  19. Longitudinal Biases in the Seychelles Dome Simulated by 34 Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled General Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagura, M.; Sasaki, W.; Tozuka, T.; Luo, J.; Behera, S. K.; Yamagata, T.

    2012-12-01

    The upwelling dome of the southern tropical Indian Ocean is examined by using simulated results from 34 ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) including those from the phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Among the current set of the 34 CGCMs, 12 models erroneously produce the upwelling dome in the eastern half of the basin while the observed Seychelles Dome is located in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean (Figure 1). The annual mean Ekman pumping velocity is almost zero in the southern off-equatorial region in these models. This is in contrast with the observations that show Ekman upwelling as the cause of the Seychelles Dome. In the models that produce the dome in the eastern basin, the easterly biases are prominent along the equator in boreal summer and fall that cause shallow thermocline biases along the Java and Sumatra coasts via Kelvin wave dynamics and result in a spurious upwelling dome there. In addition, these models tend to overestimate (underestimate) the magnitude of annual (semiannual) cycle of thermocline depth variability in the dome region, which is another consequence of the easterly wind biases in boreal summer-fall. Compared to the CMIP3 models (Yokoi et al. 2009), the CMIP5 models are even worse in simulating the dome longitudes and magnitudes of annual and semiannual cycles of thermocline depth variability in the dome region. Considering the increasing need to understand regional impacts of climate modes, these results may give serious caveats to interpretation of model results and help in further model developments.; Figure 1: The longitudes of the shallowest annual-mean D20 in 5°S-12°S. The open and filled circles are for the observations and the CGCMs, respectively.

  20. Circulation, eddies, oxygen, and nutrient changes in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeschel, R.; Stramma, L.; Weller, R. A.; Fischer, T.

    2015-06-01

    A large subsurface oxygen deficiency zone is located in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean (ETSP). The large-scale circulation in the eastern equatorial Pacific and off the coast of Peru in November/December 2012 shows the influence of the equatorial current system, the eastern boundary currents, and the northern reaches of the subtropical gyre. In November 2012 the equatorial undercurrent (EUC) is centered at 250 m depth, deeper than in earlier observations. In December 2012, the equatorial water is transported southeastward near the shelf in the Peru-Chile undercurrent (PCUC) with a mean transport of 1.4 Sv. In the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), the flow is overlaid with strong eddy activity on the poleward side of the OMZ. Floats with parking depth at 400 m show fast westward flow in the mid-depth equatorial channel and sluggish flow in the OMZ. Floats with oxygen sensors clearly show the passage of eddies with oxygen anomalies. The long-term float observations in the upper ocean lead to a net community production estimate at about 18° S of up to 16.7 mmol C m-3 yr-1 extrapolated to an annual rate and 7.7 mmol C m-3 yr-1 for the time period below the mixed layer. Oxygen differences between repeated ship sections are influenced by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), by the phase of El Niño, by seasonal changes, and by eddies, and hence have to be interpreted with care. At and south of the Equator the decrease in oxygen in the upper ocean since 1976 is related to an increase in nitrate, phosphate, and in part silicate.

  1. 3D movies for teaching seafloor bathymetry, plate tectonics, and ocean circulation in large undergraduate classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. D.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Gebbie, G.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; Kronenberger, M.; Spero, H. J.; Streletz, G. J.; Weber, C.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic problems and datasets are often 3D or 4D in nature, yet projected onto a 2D surface such as a piece of paper or a projection screen. Reducing the dimensionality of data forces the reader to "fill in" that collapsed dimension in their minds, creating a cognitive challenge for the reader, especially new learners. Scientists and students can visualize and manipulate 3D datasets using the virtual reality software developed for the immersive, real-time interactive 3D environment at the KeckCAVES at UC Davis. The 3DVisualizer software (Billen et al., 2008) can also operate on a desktop machine to produce interactive 3D maps of earthquake epicenter locations and 3D bathymetric maps of the seafloor. With 3D projections of seafloor bathymetry and ocean circulation proxy datasets in a virtual reality environment, we can create visualizations of carbon isotope (δ13C) records for academic research and to aid in demonstrating thermohaline circulation in the classroom. Additionally, 3D visualization of seafloor bathymetry allows students to see features of seafloor most people cannot observe first-hand. To enhance lessons on mid-ocean ridges and ocean basin genesis, we have created movies of seafloor bathymetry for a large-enrollment undergraduate-level class, Introduction to Oceanography. In the past four quarters, students have enjoyed watching 3D movies, and in the fall quarter (2015), we will assess how well 3D movies enhance learning. The class will be split into two groups, one who learns about the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from diagrams and lecture, and the other who learns with a supplemental 3D visualization. Both groups will be asked "what does the seafloor look like?" before and after the Mid-Atlantic Ridge lesson. Then the whole class will watch the 3D movie and respond to an additional question, "did the 3D visualization enhance your understanding of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?" with the opportunity to further elaborate on the effectiveness of the visualization.

  2. A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Topper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

  3. A global mean ocean circulation estimation using goce gravity models - the DTU12MDT mean dynamic topography model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Ocean Circulation Experiment - GOCE satellite mission measure the Earth gravity field with unprecedented accuracy leading to substantial improvements in the modelling of the ocean circulation and transport. In this study of the performance of GOCE, a newer gravity model have been...... combined with the DTU10MSS mean sea surface model to construct a global mean dynamic topography model named DTU10MDT. The results of preliminary analyses using preliminary GOCE gravity models clearly demonstrated the potential of GOCE mission. Both the resolution and the estimation of the surface currents...... have been improved significantly compared to results obtained using pre-GOCE gravity field models. The results of this study show that geostrophic surface currents associated with the mean circulation have been further improved and that currents having speeds down to 5 cm/s have been recovered....

  4. Evaluation of the radioactive wastes disposal into the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, I.; Yamamoto, M.; Inoue, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A hazard assessment for deep sea disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes which originate from nuclear power reactors in Japan is presented. The model takes account of leaching characteristics of radionuclides from wastes solidified with cement, which has not been considered in other papers. Maximum and average concentrations of radionuclides in an upper mixed layer of the sea are estimated and maximum doses for individual and population doses for Japanese people are calculated. In order to evaluate an uncertainty of parameters in the model, a sensitivity analysis was performed. The discussions include: which parameter in an equation of the model affects most the average concentration of radionuclides in the upper mixed layer and, to what degree the fluctuation of parameters due to the variation of environmental factors affects the concentration. Generally, the most sensitive parameter is the depth of the seas where the solidified wastes would be deposited. The concentration of radionuclides in the surface water is not sensitively affected by the vertical diffusion coefficient. (author)

  5. Impact of Parameterized Lateral Mixing on the Circulation of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragen, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the strongest ocean current in the world, transporting approximately 130 Sv Eastward around Antarctica. This current is often poorly simulated in climate models. It is not clear why this is the case as the Circumpolar Current is affected by both wind and buoyancy. Changes in wind and buoyancy are not independent of each other, however, so determining the effects of both separately has proved difficult. This study was undertaken in order to examine the impact of changing the lateral diffusion coefficient A­redi on ACC transport. A­redi is poorly known and its value ranges across an order of magnitude in the current generation of climate models. To explore these dynamics, a coarse resolution, fully coupled model suite was run with A­redi mixing coefficients of 400 m2/s, 800 m2/s, 1200 m2/s, and 2400 m2/s. Additionally, two models were run with two-dimensional representations of the mixing coefficient based on altimetry. Our initial results indicate that higher values of the lateral mixing coefficient result in the following changes. We see weaker winds over the Southern Ocean as a whole. The high mixing case results in an 8.7% decrease in peak wind stress. We see a 2% weaker transport in the Drake Passage in the highest mixing case compared to the lowest, but an 11% decrease in transport for a zonal average. The change of temperature and salinity with depth with different Redi parameters also shows a significant difference between the Southern Ocean as a whole and the Drake Passage. Our findings seem to suggest that the Drake Passage is not an adequate diagnostic for explaining the differences between different climate models, as processes distant from the passage may play an important role. Observed changes in overturning with an increase in lateral mixing include an increase in northward transport of Antarctic Bottom Water fed by a small diversion of northern deep water inflows. This diversion means that less of the

  6. Deep ocean fluxes and their link to surface ocean processes and the biological pump

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    's role as a reservoir for atmospheric CO sub(2).The results show a pronounced monsoon-driven seasonality with enhanced organic carbon fluxes into the deep-sea during the SW Monsoon and during the early and late NE Monsoon north of 10 degrees N...

  7. Effects of stratification and fluctuations on sound propagation in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that even in a homogeneous ocean, the effects of non-thermal noise and sound absorption limit the maximum effective range of detection of acoustic signals from particle cascades to distances of 2 to 10 kilometers, depending on the surface conditions prevailing and the directional characteristics of the detector. In the present paper, the effects of stratification and fluctuations in the sound velocity profile in the deep ocean over distances of this order are examined. Attention is given to two effects of potential significance, refraction and scintillation. It is found that neither effect has any significant consequences at ranges of less than 10 km

  8. Annual cycle of the upper-ocean circulation and properties in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ocean dynamics and its influence on ocean properties in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Surface winds and heat fluxes from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis forced the model (Model_NCEP) with initial and ...

  9. Compilation of ocean circulation and other data from ADCP current meters, CTD casts, tidal gauges, and other instruments from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University and other institutions as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and other projects from 24 November 1985 to 30 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000649)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of ocean circulation and other data were collected from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University (OSU) and other institutions as part of...

  10. Simulations of future climate with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stendel, M.; Schmith, T.; Hesselbjerg Christensen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A coupled atmosphere/ocean general circulation model to study the time-dependent climate response to changing concentrations of greenhouse gases, chlorofluorocarbons and aerosols according to the new IPCC SRES scenarios A2 and B2 has been used. The results of these experiments are compared to an unforced 300-year control experiment. The changes in the last three decades of the scenario simulations (2071-2100) are furthermore compared to the simulation of present-day climate (1961-1990). In accordance with previous experiments we find that greenhouse warming is reduced when aerosol effects are considered. Sulfur emissions, however, are lower than in the IS92a scenario. Consequently, the greenhouse warming effect, which leads to a bigger temperature increase than in the GSDIO experiment can outweigh the aerosol cooling effect. The result shows that there still are serious difficulties and uncertainties in this type of model simulation. Those are partially due to oversimplifications in the model, concerning the radiative properties of aerosols in particular, and therefore the indirect aerosol effect. Another inherent problem, however, is the uncertainty in the scenarios themselves. This is the case for short-lived substances with an inhomogeneous spatial and temporal distribution, such as aerosols. Therefore, on a decadal horizon, changes in the emissions of those substance can exert a significant effect on anthropogenic climate change. (LN)

  11. The feasibility of heat generating waste disposal into deep ocean sedimentary formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.

    1986-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the work undertaken to date by the Commission of European Communities ''Sub-Seabed Program'' in collaboration with national programmes of member countries. Special emphasis has been placed on the studies of the characteristics of deep ocean sediments to act as a barrier to the dispersion of radionuclides and the technical investigations carried out to demonstrate engineering feasibility of the option. (author)

  12. The new version of the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Sigma Ocean Model (INMSOM) for simulation of Global Ocean circulation and its variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Fomin, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present the improved version of the ocean general circulation sigma-model developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). The previous version referred to as INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) is used as the oceanic component of the IPCC climate system model INMCM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Climate Model (Volodin et al 2010,2013). Besides, INMOM as the only sigma-model was used for simulations according to CORE-II scenario (Danabasoglu et al. 2014,2016; Downes et al. 2015; Farneti et al. 2015). In general, INMOM results are comparable to ones of other OGCMs and were used for investigation of climatic variations in the North Atlantic (Gusev and Diansky 2014). However, detailed analysis of some CORE-II INMOM results revealed some disadvantages of the INMOM leading to considerable errors in reproducing some ocean characteristics. So, the mass transport in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) was overestimated. As well, there were noticeable errors in reproducing thermohaline structure of the ocean. After analysing the previous results, the new version of the OGCM was developed. It was decided to entitle is INMSOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Sigma Ocean Model). The new title allows one to distingwish the new model, first, from its older version, and second, from another z-model developed in the INM RAS and referred to as INMIO (Institute of Numerical Mathematics and Institute of Oceanology ocean model) (Ushakov et al. 2016). There were numerous modifications in the model, some of them are as follows. 1) Formulation of the ocean circulation problem in terms of full free surface with taking into account water amount variation. 2) Using tensor form of lateral viscosity operator invariant to rotation. 3) Using isopycnal diffusion including Gent-McWilliams mixing. 4) Using atmospheric forcing computation according to NCAR methodology (Large and Yeager 2009). 5

  13. Deglacial and Holocene sea-ice variability north of Iceland and response to ocean circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaotong; Zhao, Meixun; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Sha, Longbin; Eiríksson, Jón; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-08-01

    Sea-ice conditions on the North Icelandic shelf constitute a key component for the study of the climatic gradients between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans at the Polar Front between the cold East Icelandic Current delivering Polar surface water and the relatively warm Irminger Current derived from the North Atlantic Current. The variability of sea ice contributes to heat reduction (albedo) and gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and further affects the deep-water formation. However, lack of long-term and high-resolution sea-ice records in the region hinders the understanding of palaeoceanographic change mechanisms during the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Here, we present a sea-ice record back to 15 ka (cal. ka BP) based on the sea-ice biomarker IP25, phytoplankton biomarker brassicasterol and terrestrial biomarker long-chain n-alkanols in piston core MD99-2272 from the North Icelandic shelf. During the Bølling/Allerød (14.7-12.9 ka), the North Icelandic shelf was characterized by extensive spring sea-ice cover linked to reduced flow of warm Atlantic Water and dominant Polar water influence, as well as strong meltwater input in the area. This pattern showed an anti-phase relationship with the ice-free/less ice conditions in marginal areas of the eastern Nordic Seas, where the Atlantic Water inflow was strong, and contributed to an enhanced deep-water formation. Prolonged sea-ice cover with occasional occurrence of seasonal sea ice prevailed during the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka) interrupted by a brief interval of enhanced Irminger Current and deposition of the Vedde Ash, as opposed to abruptly increased sea-ice conditions in the eastern Nordic Seas. The seasonal sea ice decreased gradually from the Younger Dryas to the onset of the Holocene corresponding to increasing insolation. Ice-free conditions and sea surface warming were observed for the Early Holocene, followed by expansion of sea ice during the Mid-Holocene.

  14. Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean.

    KAUST Repository

    Aksnes, Dag L.

    2017-05-01

    The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna and contribute to the biological carbon pump through the active flux of organic carbon transported in their daily vertical migrations. They occupy depths from 200 to 1000 m at daytime and migrate to a varying degree into surface waters at nighttime. Their daytime depth, which determines the migration amplitude, varies across the global ocean in concert with water mass properties, in particular the oxygen regime, but the causal underpinning of these correlations has been unclear. We present evidence that the broad variability in the oceanic DSL daytime depth observed during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition is governed by variation in light penetration. We find that the DSL depth distribution conforms to a common optical depth layer across the global ocean and that a correlation between dissolved oxygen and light penetration provides a parsimonious explanation for the association of shallow DSL distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web.

  15. Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean.

    KAUST Repository

    Aksnes, Dag L.; Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein; Martinez, Udane; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2017-01-01

    The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna and contribute to the biological carbon pump through the active flux of organic carbon transported in their daily vertical migrations. They occupy depths from 200 to 1000 m at daytime and migrate to a varying degree into surface waters at nighttime. Their daytime depth, which determines the migration amplitude, varies across the global ocean in concert with water mass properties, in particular the oxygen regime, but the causal underpinning of these correlations has been unclear. We present evidence that the broad variability in the oceanic DSL daytime depth observed during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition is governed by variation in light penetration. We find that the DSL depth distribution conforms to a common optical depth layer across the global ocean and that a correlation between dissolved oxygen and light penetration provides a parsimonious explanation for the association of shallow DSL distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web.

  16. Current components, physical, ocean circulation, wind circulation, and other data from moored buoys, CTD casts, drifting buoys, and in situ wind recorders from AIRCRAFT and other platforms from the North Atlantic Ocean and other locations as part of the Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic Experiment/Français Océan et Climat dans l'Atlantique Equatorial (SEQUAL/FOCAL) project from 1980-01-25 to 1985-12-18 (NODC Accession 8700111)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current components, physical, ocean circulation, wind circulation, and other data were collected from moored buoys, CTD casts, drifting buoys, and in situ wind...

  17. Use of a free ocean CO₂ enrichment (FOCE) system to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on the foraging behavior of a deep-sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, James P; Lovera, Chris; Buck, Kurt R; Peltzer, Edward T; Taylor, Josi R; Walz, Peter; Whaling, Patrick J; Brewer, Peter G

    2014-08-19

    The influence of ocean acidification in deep-sea ecosystems is poorly understood but is expected to be large because of the presumed low tolerance of deep-sea taxa to environmental change. We used a newly developed deep-sea free ocean CO2 enrichment (dp-FOCE) system to evaluate the potential consequences of future ocean acidification on the feeding behavior of a deep-sea echinoid, the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus fragilis. The dp-FOCE system simulated future ocean acidification inside an experimental enclosure where observations of feeding behavior were performed. We measured the average movement (speed) of urchins as well as the time required (foraging time) for S. fragilis to approach its preferred food (giant kelp) in the dp-FOCE chamber (-0.46 pH units) and a control chamber (ambient pH). Measurements were performed during each of 4 trials (days -2, 2, 24, 27 after CO2 injection) during the month-long period when groups of urchins were continuously exposed to low pH or control conditions. Although urchin speed did not vary significantly in relation to pH or time exposed, foraging time was significantly longer for urchins in the low-pH treatment. This first deep-sea FOCE experiment demonstrated the utility of the FOCE system approach and suggests that the chemosensory behavior of a deep-sea urchin may be impaired by ocean acidification.

  18. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 ms-1 to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Deserts on the sea floor: Edward Forbes and his azoic hypothesis for a lifeless deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R; Rice, Tony

    2006-12-01

    While dredging in the Aegean Sea during the mid-19th century, Manxman Edward Forbes noticed that plants and animals became progressively more impoverished the greater the depth they were from the surface of the water. By extrapolation Forbes proposed his now infamous azoic hypothesis, namely that life would be extinguished altogether in the murky depths of the deep ocean. The whole idea seemed so entirely logical given the enormous pressure, cold and eternal darkness of this apparently uninhabitable environment. Yet we now know that the sea floor is teeming with life. Curiously, it took 25 years for the azoic hypothesis to fall from grace. This was despite the presence of ample contrary evidence, including starfishes, worms and other organisms that seemingly originated from the deep seabed. This is a tale of scientists ignoring observations that ran counter to their deep-seated, yet entirely erroneous, beliefs.

  20. Thermodynamic Equations of State for Aqueous Solutions Applied to Deep Icy Satellite and Exoplanet Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, S.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Journaux, B.; Sotin, C.; Choukroun, M.; Barnes, R.

    2014-12-01

    Supporting life in icy world or exoplanet oceans may require global seafloor chemical reactions between water and rock. Such interactions have been regarded as limited in larger icy worlds such as Ganymede and Titan, where ocean depths approach 800 km and GPa pressures (>10katm). If the oceans are composed of pure water, such conditions are consistent with the presence of dense ice phases V and VI that cover the rocky seafloor. Exoplanets with oceans can obtain pressures sufficient to generate ices VII and VIII. We have previously demonstrated temperature gradients in such oceans on the order of 20 K or more, resulting from fluid compressibility in a deep adiabatic ocean based on our experimental work. Accounting for increases in density for highly saline oceans leads to the possibility of oceans perched under and between high pressure ices. Ammonia has the opposite effect, instead decreasing ocean density, as reported by others and confirmed by our laboratory measurements in the ammonia water system. Here we report on the completed equation of state for aqueous ammonia derived from our prior measurements and optimized global b-spline fitting methods We use recent diamond anvil cell measurements for water and ammonia to extend the equation of state to 400°C and beyond 2 GPa, temperatures and pressures applicable to icy worlds and exoplanets. Densities show much less temperature dependence but comparabe high-pressure derivatives to previously published ammonia-water properties derived for application to Titan (Croft et al. 1988). Thermal expansion is in better agreement with the more self-consistent equation of state of Tillner-Roth and Friend (1998). We also describe development of a planetary NaCl equation of state using recent measurements of phase boundaries and sound speeds. We examine implications of realistic ocean-ice thermodynamics for Titan and exoplanet interiors using the methodology recently applied to Ganymede for oceans dominated by MgSO4. High

  1. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Deep Reef Habitat - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during one dive of the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Deep Reef...

  2. Climate and vegetation changes around the Atlantic Ocean resulting from changes in the meridional overturning circulation during deglaciation

    OpenAIRE

    D. Handiani; A. Paul; L. Dupont

    2012-01-01

    The Bølling-Allerød (BA, starting ~ 14.5 ka BP) is one of the most pronounced abrupt warming periods recorded in ice and pollen proxies. The leading explanation of the cause of this warming is a sudden increase in the rate of deepwater formation in the North Atlantic Ocean and the resulting effect on the heat transport by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In this study, we used the University of Victoria (UVic) Earth System-Climate Mod...

  3. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Circulation and water mass properties in a meander of the North Pacific Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2016-09-01

    A Seaglider autonomous underwater vehicle augmented the Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W) surface mooring, measuring spatial structure on scales relevant to the monthly evolution of the moored time series. During each of three missions from June 2008 to January 2010, a Seaglider made biweekly 50 km × 50 km surveys in a bowtie-shaped survey track. Horizontal temperature and salinity gradients measured by these surveys were an order of magnitude stronger than climatological values and sometimes of opposite sign. Geostrophically inferred circulation was corroborated by moored acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements and AVISO satellite altimetry estimates of surface currents, confirming that glider surveys accurately resolved monthly scale mesoscale spatial structure. In contrast to climatological North Pacific Current circulation, upper-ocean flow was modestly northward during the first half of the 18 month survey period, and weakly westward during its latter half, with Rossby number O>(0.01>). This change in circulation coincided with a shift from cool and fresh to warm, saline, oxygen-rich water in the upper-ocean halocline, and an increase in vertical fine structure there and in the lower pycnocline. The anomalous flow and abrupt water mass transition were due to the slow growth of an anticyclonic meander within the North Pacific Current with radius comparable to the scale of the survey pattern, originating to the southeast of OSP.

  4. The Role of Rough Topography in Mediating Impacts of Bottom Drag in Eddying Ocean Circulation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trossman, David S; Arbic, Brian K; Straub, David N; Richman, James G; Chassignet, Eric P; Wallcraft, Alan J; Xu, Xiaobiao

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the substantial sensitivity of eddies in two-layer quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence models to the strength of bottom drag, this study explores the sensitivity of eddies in more realistic ocean general circulation model (OGCM) simulations to bottom drag strength. The OGCM results are interpreted using previous results from horizontally homogeneous, two-layer, flat-bottom, f-plane, doubly periodic QG turbulence simulations and new results from two-layer β -plane QG turbulence simulations run in a basin geometry with both flat and rough bottoms. Baroclinicity in all of the simulations varies greatly with drag strength, with weak drag corresponding to more barotropic flow and strong drag corresponding to more baroclinic flow. The sensitivity of the baroclinicity in the QG basin simulations to bottom drag is considerably reduced, however, when rough topography is used in lieu of a flat bottom. Rough topography reduces the sensitivity of the eddy kinetic energy amplitude and horizontal length scales in the QG basin simulations to bottom drag to an even greater degree. The OGCM simulation behavior is qualitatively similar to that in the QG rough bottom basin simulations in that baroclinicity is more sensitive to bottom drag strength than are eddy amplitudes or horizontal length scales. Rough topography therefore appears to mediate the sensitivity of eddies in models to the strength of bottom drag. The sensitivity of eddies to parameterized topographic internal lee wave drag, which has recently been introduced into some OGCMs, is also briefly discussed. Wave drag acts like a strong bottom drag in that it increases the baroclinicity of the flow, without strongly affecting eddy horizontal length scales.

  5. Seawater Circulation and Thermal Sink at OCEAN Ridges - FIELD Evidence in Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, A. A.; Boudier, F. I.; Cathles, L. M.; Buck, W. R.; Celerier, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Exceptionally, the lowermost gabbros in the Oman ophiolite are black and totally fresh, except for minute traces of impregnation by seawater fluids at very high temperature (~1000°C). These black gabbros sharply contrast with normal, whitish gabbros altered down to Low-T~500-350°C. These hydrous alterations are ascribed to an unconventional model of seawater circulation and cooling of the permanent magma chambers of fast spreading ocean ridges. In this model, gabbros issued from the magma chamber cross a ~100 m thick thermal boundary layer (TBL) before reaching a narrow, Low-T high permeability channel where the heated return seawater is flowing towards black smokers and the local gabbros are altered. Uprising mantle diapirs in Oman diverge at ~5 km on each side of the palaeo-ridge axis and feed an overlying magma chamber that closes at this distance from axis. Preservation of black gabbros along the Moho implies that the loop of seawater alteration locally does not reach Moho beyond this ~5km distance (otherwise black gabbros would be altered in whitish gabbros). This defines an internal "thermal sink" within ~5 km to the ridge axis. There, the sink is efficiently cooled by the active hydrothermal convection that is ridge transverse. This has been documented near the Galapagos ridge by marine geophysical data, within the same distance. Beyond this critical distance, the cooling system becomes dominantly conductive and ridge-parallel. The TBL and attached return flow channels must be rising into the overcooled, accreted crust. Beyond the thermal sink, the 500°C isotherm rebounds into the crust. It is only after ~ 1My of crustal drift that this isotherm penetrates into the uppermost mantle in a sustained fashion, developing serpentinites at the expense of peridotites.

  6. Mid-Pliocene shifts in ocean overturning circulation and the onset of Quaternary-style climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarnthein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A major tipping point of Earth's history occurred during the mid-Pliocene: the onset of major Northern-Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG and of pronounced, Quaternary-style cycles of glacial-to-interglacial climates, that contrast with more uniform climates over most of the preceding Cenozoic and continue until today (Zachos et al., 2001. The severe deterioration of climate occurred in three steps between 3.2 Ma (warm MIS K3 and 2.7 Ma (glacial MIS G6/4 (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005. Various models (sensu Driscoll and Haug, 1998 and paleoceanographic records (intercalibrated using orbital age control suggest clear linkages between the onset of NHG and the three steps in the final closure of the Central American Seaways (CAS, deduced from rising salinity differences between Caribbean and the East Pacific. Each closing event led to an enhanced North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and this strengthened the poleward transport of salt and heat (warmings of +2–3°C (Bartoli et al., 2005. Also, the closing resulted in a slight rise in the poleward atmospheric moisture transport to northwestern Eurasia (Lunt et al., 2007, which probably led to an enhanced precipitation and fluvial run-off, lower sea surface salinity (SSS, and an increased sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, hence promoting albedo and the build-up of continental ice sheets. Most important, new evidence shows that the closing of the CAS led to greater steric height of the North Pacific and thus doubled the low-saline Arctic Throughflow from the Bering Strait to the East Greenland Current (EGC. Accordingly, Labrador Sea IODP Site 1307 displays an abrupt but irreversible EGC cooling of 6°C and freshening by ~2 psu from 3.25/3.16–3.00 Ma, right after the first but still reversible attempt of closing the CAS.

  7. Changes in Ocean Circulation with an Ice-Free Arctic: Reconstructing Early Holocene Arctic Ocean Circulation Using Geochemical Signals from Individual Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livsey, C.; Spero, H. J.; Kozdon, R.

    2016-12-01

    The impacts of sea ice decrease and consequent hydrologic changes in the Arctic Ocean will be experienced globally as ocean and atmospheric temperatures continue to rise, though it is not evident to what extent. Understanding the structure of the Arctic water column during the early/mid Holocene sea ice minimum ( 6-10 kya), a post-glacial analogue of a seasonally ice-free Arctic, will help us to predict what the changes we can expect as the Earth warms over the next century. Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral; Nps) is a species of planktonic foraminifera that dominates assemblages in the polar oceans. This species grows its chambers (ontogenetic calcite) in the surface waters and subsequently descends through the water column to below the mixed layer where it quickly adds a thick crust of calcite (Kohfeld et al., 1996). Therefore, geochemical signals from both the surface waters and sub-mixed layer depths are captured within single Nps shells. We were able to target ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), therefore capturing signals from both the ontogenetic and crust calcite in single Nps shells. This data was combined with laser ablation- inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) Mg/Ca profiles of trace metals through the two layers of calcite of the same shells, to determine the thermal structure of the water column. Combining δ18O, temperature, and salinity gradients from locations across the Arctic basin allow us to reconstruct the hydrography of the early Holocene Arctic sea ice minimum. These results will be compared with modern Arctic water column characteristics in order to develop a conceptual model of Arctic Ocean oceanographic change due to global warming. Kohfeld, K.E., Fairbanks, R.G., Smith, S.L., Walsh, I.D., 1996. Neogloboquadrina pachyderma(sinistral coiling) as paleoceanographic tracers in polar oceans: Evidence from northeast water polynya plankton tows, sediment traps, and surface sediments. Paleoceanography 11, 679-699.

  8. Patterns and trends of macrobenthic abundance, biomass and production in the deep Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Degen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the distribution and dynamics of macrobenthic communities of the deep Arctic Ocean. The few previous studies report low standing stocks and confirm a gradient with declining biomass from the slopes down to the basins, as commonly reported for deep-sea benthos. In this study, we investigated regional differences of faunal abundance and biomass, and made for the first time ever estimates of deep Arctic community production by using a multi-parameter artificial neural network model. The underlying data set combines data from recent field studies with published and unpublished data from the past 20 years, to analyse the influence of water depth, geographical latitude and sea-ice concentration on Arctic benthic communities. We were able to confirm the previously described negative relationship of macrofauna standing stock with water depth in the Arctic deep sea, while also detecting substantial regional differences. Furthermore, abundance, biomass and production decreased significantly with increasing sea-ice extent (towards higher latitudes down to values <200 ind m−2, <65 mg C m−2 and <73 mg C m−2 y−1, respectively. In contrast, stations under the seasonal ice zone regime showed much higher standing stock and production (up to 2500 mg C m−2 y−1, even at depths down to 3700 m. We conclude that particle flux is the key factor structuring benthic communities in the deep Arctic Ocean as it explains both the low values in the ice-covered Arctic basins and the higher values in the seasonal ice zone.

  9. Modes of North Atlantic Decadal Variability in the ECHAM1/LSG Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorita, Eduardo; Frankignoul, Claude

    1997-02-01

    The climate variability in the North Atlantic sector is investigated in a 325-yr integration of the ECHAM1/ LSG coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. At the interannual timescale, the coupled model behaves realistically and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies arise as a response of the oceanic surface layer to the stochastic forcing by the atmosphere, with the heat exchanges both generating and damping the SST anomalies. In the ocean interior, the temperature spectra are red up to a period of about 20 years, and substantial decadal fluctuations are found in the upper kilometer or so of the water column. Using extended empirical orthogonal function analysis, two distinct quasi-oscillatory modes of ocean-atmosphere variability are identified, with dominant periods of about 20 and 10 years, respectively. The oceanic changes in both modes reflect the direct forcing by the atmosphere through anomalous air-sea fluxes and Ekman pumping, which after some delay affects the intensity of the subtropical and subpolar gyres. The SST is also strongly modulated by the gyre currents. In the thermocline, the temperature and salinity fluctuations are in phase, as if caused by thermocline displacements, and they have no apparent connection with the thermohaline circulation. The 20-yr mode is the most energetic one; it is easily seen in the thermocline and can be found in SST data, but it is not detected in the atmosphere alone. As there is no evidence of positive ocean-atmosphere feedback, the 20-yr mode primarily reflects the passive response of the ocean to atmospheric fluctuations, which may be in part associated with climate anomalies appearing a few years earlier in the North Pacific. The 10-yr mode is more surface trapped in the ocean. Although the mode is most easily seen in the temperature variations of the upper few hundred meters of the ocean, it is also detected in the atmosphere alone and thus appears to be a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode. In both modes

  10. Efficient computation of past global ocean circulation patterns using continuation in paleobathymetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, T. E.; Baatsen, M. L.J.; Wubs, F.W.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the field of paleoceanographic modeling, the different positioning of Earth's continental configurations is often a major challenge for obtaining equilibrium ocean flow solutions. In this paper, we introduce numerical parameter continuation techniques to compute equilibrium solutions of ocean

  11. "Going with the flow" or not: evidence of positive rheotaxis in oceanic juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta in the South Pacific Ocean Using Satellite Tags and Ocean Circulation Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Kobayashi

    Full Text Available The movement of juvenile loggerhead turtles (n = 42 out-fitted with satellite tags and released in oceanic waters off New Caledonia was examined and compared with ocean circulation data. Merging of the daily turtle movement data with drifter buoy movements, OSCAR (Ocean Surface Current Analyses--Real time circulation data, and three different vertical strata (0-5 m, 0-40 m, 0-100 m of HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model circulation data indicated the turtles were swimming against the prevailing current in a statistically significant pattern. This was not an artifact of prevailing directions of current and swimming, nor was it an artifact of frictional slippage. Generalized additive modeling was used to decompose the pattern of swimming into spatial and temporal components. The findings are indicative of a positive rheotaxis whereby an organism is able to detect the current flow and orient itself to swim into the current flow direction or otherwise slow down its movement. Potential mechanisms for the means and adaptive significance of rheotaxis in oceanic juvenile loggerhead turtles are discussed.

  12. A unified spectral parameterization for wave breaking: From the deep ocean to the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipot, J.-F.; Ardhuin, F.

    2012-11-01

    A new wave-breaking dissipation parameterization designed for phase-averaged spectral wave models is presented. It combines wave breaking basic physical quantities, namely, the breaking probability and the dissipation rate per unit area. The energy lost by waves is first explicitly calculated in physical space before being distributed over the relevant spectral components. The transition from deep to shallow water is made possible by using a dissipation rate per unit area of breaking waves that varies with the wave height, wavelength and water depth. This parameterization is implemented in the WAVEWATCH III modeling framework, which is applied to a wide range of conditions and scales, from the global ocean to the beach scale. Wave height, peak and mean periods, and spectral data are validated using in situ and remote sensing data. Model errors are comparable to those of other specialized deep or shallow water parameterizations. This work shows that it is possible to have a seamless parameterization from the deep ocean to the surf zone.

  13. Diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean: Results of monthly mean sea surface topography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bahulayan, N.; Shaji, C.

    A three-dimensional diagnostic model has been developed to compute the monthly mean circulation and sea surface topography in the Western Tropical Indian Ocean north of 20 degrees S and west of 80 degrees E. The diagnostic model equations...

  14. Response of the Atlantic Ocean circulation to Greenland Ice Sheet melting in a strongly-eddying ocean model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Maltrud, M.E.; Hecht, M.W.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Kliphuis, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) to high-latitude freshwater input is one of the key uncertainties in the climate system. Considering the importance of the AMOC for global heat transports, and the vulnerability of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to global

  15. Total circulating microparticle levels are increased in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munrós, J; Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Coloma, J L; Torrente, M A; Reverter, J C; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2017-02-01

    Are the levels of total circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) and circulating tissue factor-containing microparticles (cMP-TF) increased in patients with endometriosis? The levels of total cMP, but not cMP-TF, were higher in patients with endometriosis, and these were attributed to higher levels in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of total cMP in inflammatory conditions as well as higher levels of other inflammatory biomarkers in endometriosis. Increased expression of tissue factor (a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis has been described. There is no previous data regarding total cMP and cMP-TF levels in patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study including two groups of patients was carried out. The E group included 65 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (37 with DIE lesions) and the C group comprises 33 women without surgical findings of any form of endometriosis. Patients and controls were recruited during the same 10-month period. Controls were the next patient without endometriosis undergoing surgery, after including two patients with endometriosis. Venous blood samples for total cMP and cMP-TF determinations were obtained at the time of surgery, before anesthesia at a tertiary care center. To assess total cMP, an ELISA functional assay was used and cMP-TF activity in plasma was measured using an ELISA kit. Total cMP levels in plasma were higher in the E group compared with the C group (P < 0.0001). The subanalysis of endometriosis patients with DIE or with ovarian endometriomas without DIE showed that total cMP levels were higher in the DIE group (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in cMP-TF levels among the groups analyzed. This is a preliminary study in which the sample size was arbitrarily decided, albeit in keeping with previous studies analyzing

  16. Dispersal of volcaniclastic material by buoyant water plumes in deep-ocean explosive basaltic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreyre, T.; Soule, S.; Reves-Sohn, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The ability of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) volcanic systems to generate explosive eruptions is inhibited by the large hydrostatic pressures associated with their deep-sea location, which suppress volatile exsolution from the magma, and which preclude the generation of steam from lava-water interaction. Nevertheless, volcaniclastic material indicative of explosive activity has been found along many parts of the global MOR, raising important questions regarding the volatile systematics within mid-ocean ridge magmatic systems, and the processes by which volcaniclastic material may be dispersed during deep-sea eruptions. In this study we measured the settling velocities of volcaniclastic grains recovered from the Gakkel Ridge, Loihi Seamount, and Axial Volcano, and developed empirical settling velocity models as a function of particle size for three different particle shapes (angular, sheet, and rod). We then used the Morton, Turner, Taylor turbulent plume model to investigate how a plume of buoyant water may distribute this volcaniclastic material during a deep-sea eruption so that the physical characteristics of the deposits may be used to constrain the location and size (i.e., energy) of the eruptions that produced them. We ran the turbulent plume model for conditions ranging from a typical black smoker (~150 MW) to a megaplume (~30000 MW), and for water column density stratifications and currents corresponding to nominal conditions for the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. We found that maximum dispersal distances for the dominant size of volcaniclastic material within buoyant water plumes range from Pele). These distances are insufficient to explain the areal extent of the volcaniclastic deposits observed along the 85°E segment of the Gakkel Ridge and various portions of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, indicating that additional energy in the form of momentum from expanding gases is required to produce the observed deposits.

  17. Progress toward a Km-scale neutrino detector in the deep ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    The best particles for observing distant objects are photons and neutrinos. Because of the neutrino`s weak interaction cross section, detectors suitable for astronomy must be very large and well shielded from cosmic rays. Eventually, a detector with the order of a square km of effective area will be needed for systematic observations of distant point sources such as active galactic nuclei. Prototype detectors are currently being developed at several sites in the ocean, at Lake Baikal, and in Antarctica. This talk summarizes the status of the projects that use the deep ocean for the detector medium and shielding: DUMAND, NESTOR and ANTARES. Technical developments will be needed for a future km-scale detector; progress on one of these, a digital electronic system, is also described.

  18. Earth system feedback statistically extracted from the Indian Ocean deep-sea sediments recording Eocene hyperthermals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Kentaro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Ikehara, Minoru; Kato, Yasuhiro

    2017-09-12

    Multiple transient global warming events occurred during the early Palaeogene. Although these events, called hyperthermals, have been reported from around the globe, geologic records for the Indian Ocean are limited. In addition, the recovery processes from relatively modest hyperthermals are less constrained than those from the severest and well-studied hothouse called the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In this study, we constructed a new and high-resolution geochemical dataset of deep-sea sediments clearly recording multiple Eocene hyperthermals in the Indian Ocean. We then statistically analysed the high-dimensional data matrix and extracted independent components corresponding to the biogeochemical responses to the hyperthermals. The productivity feedback commonly controls and efficiently sequesters the excess carbon in the recovery phases of the hyperthermals via an enhanced biological pump, regardless of the magnitude of the events. Meanwhile, this negative feedback is independent of nannoplankton assemblage changes generally recognised in relatively large environmental perturbations.

  19. Progress toward a Km-scale neutrino detector in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    The best particles for observing distant objects are photons and neutrinos. Because of the neutrino's weak interaction cross section, detectors suitable for astronomy must be very large and well shielded from cosmic rays. Eventually, a detector with the order of a square km of effective area will be needed for systematic observations of distant point sources such as active galactic nuclei. Prototype detectors are currently being developed at several sites in the ocean, at Lake Baikal, and in Antarctica. This talk summarizes the status of the projects that use the deep ocean for the detector medium and shielding: DUMAND, NESTOR and ANTARES. Technical developments will be needed for a future km-scale detector; progress on one of these, a digital electronic system, is also described

  20. Astronomically paced changes in deep-water circulation in the western North Atlantic during the middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Lohmann, Gerrit; Sexton, Philip; Zachos, James; Pälike, Heiko

    2018-02-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) currently redistributes heat and salt between Earth's ocean basins, and plays a vital role in the ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Despite its crucial role in today's climate system, vigorous debate remains as to when deep-water formation in the North Atlantic started. Here, we present datasets from carbonate-rich middle Eocene sediments from the Newfoundland Ridge, revealing a unique archive of paleoceanographic change from the progressively cooling climate of the middle Eocene. Well-defined lithologic alternations between calcareous ooze and clay-rich intervals occur at the ∼41-kyr beat of axial obliquity. Hence, we identify obliquity as the driver of middle Eocene (43.5-46 Ma) Northern Component Water (NCW, the predecessor of modern NADW) variability. High-resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C suggest that obliquity minima correspond to cold, nutrient-depleted, western North Atlantic deep waters. We thus link stronger NCW formation with obliquity minima. In contrast, during obliquity maxima, Deep Western Boundary Currents were weaker and warmer, while abyssal nutrients were more abundant. These aspects reflect a more sluggish NCW formation. This obliquity-paced paleoceanographic regime is in excellent agreement with results from an Earth system model, in which obliquity minima configurations enhance NCW formation.

  1. Listening to the Deep: live monitoring of ocean noise and cetacean acoustic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M; van der Schaar, M; Zaugg, S; Houégnigan, L; Sánchez, A M; Castell, J V

    2011-01-01

    The development and broad use of passive acoustic monitoring techniques have the potential to help assessing the large-scale influence of artificial noise on marine organisms and ecosystems. Deep-sea observatories have the potential to play a key role in understanding these recent acoustic changes. LIDO (Listening to the Deep Ocean Environment) is an international project that is allowing the real-time long-term monitoring of marine ambient noise as well as marine mammal sounds at cabled and standalone observatories. Here, we present the overall development of the project and the use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) techniques to provide the scientific community with real-time data at large spatial and temporal scales. Special attention is given to the extraction and identification of high frequency cetacean echolocation signals given the relevance of detecting target species, e.g. beaked whales, in mitigation processes, e.g. during military exercises. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Archaeal Viruses Contribute to the Novel Viral Assemblage Inhabiting Oceanic, Basalt-Hosted Deep Subsurface Crustal Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, O. D.; Rappe, M. S.; Jungbluth, S.; Lin, H. T.; Steward, G.

    2015-12-01

    Fluids contained in the basalt-hosted deep subsurface of the world's oceans represent one of the most inaccessible and understudied biospheres on earth. Recent improvements in sampling infrastructure have allowed us to collect large volumes of crustal fluids (~104 L) from Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits (CORKs) placed in boreholes located on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR). We detected viruses within these fluids by TEM and epifluorescence microscopy in samples collected from 2010 to 2014. Viral abundance, determined by epifluorescence counts, indicated that concentrations of viruses in subsurface basement fluids (~105 ml-1) are lower than the overlying seawater, but are higher in abundance than microbial cells in the same samples. Analysis of TEM images revealed distinct viral morphologies (rod and spindle-shaped) that resemble the morphologies of viral families infecting archaea. There are very few, if any, direct observations of these viral morphologies in marine samples, although they have been observed in enrichment cultures and their signature genes detected in metagenomic studies from hydrothermal vents and marine sediments. Analysis of metagenomes from the JdFR crustal fluids revealed sequences with homology to archaeal viruses from the rudiviridae, bicaudaviridae and fuselloviridae. Prokaryotic communities in fluids percolating through the basaltic basement rock of the JdFR flank are distinct from those inhabiting the overlying sediments and seawater. Similarly, our data support the idea that the viral assemblage in these fluids is distinct from viral assemblages in other marine and terrestrial aquatic environments. Our data also suggest that viruses contribute to the mortality of deep subsurface prokaryotes through cell lysis, and viruses may alter the genetic potential of their hosts through the processes of lysogenic conversion and horizontal gene transfer.

  3. A feasibility study of the disposal of radioactive waste in deep ocean sediments by drilled emplacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, M.R.C.

    1983-08-01

    This report describes the second phase of a study of the feasibility of disposal and isolation of high level radioactive waste in holes drilled deep into the sediments of the ocean. In this phase, work has concentrated on establishing the state of the art of the various operations and developing the design, in particular the drilling operation, the loading of flasks containing waste canisters from supply vessels onto the platform, the handling of radioactive waste on board, and its emplacement into predrilled holes. In addition, an outline design of the offshore platform has been prepared. (author)

  4. Genetic homogeneity in the deep-sea grenadier Macrourus berglax across the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Ilaria; Castilho, Rita; Massa-Gallucci, Alexia; Sacchi, Carlotta; Cunha, Regina L.; Stefanni, Sergio; Helyar, Sarah J.; Knutsen, Halvor; Mariani, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    Paucity of data on population structure and connectivity in deep sea species remains a major obstacle to their sustainable management and conservation in the face of ever increasing fisheries pressure and other forms of impacts on deep sea ecosystems. The roughhead grenadier Macrourus berglax presents all the classical characteristics of a deep sea species, such as slow growth and low fecundity, which make them particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic impact, due to their low resilience to change. In this study, the population structure of the roughhead grenadier is investigated throughout its geographic distribution using two sets of molecular markers: a partial sequence of the Control Region of mitochondrial DNA and species-specific microsatellites. No evidence of significant structure was found throughout the North Atlantic, with both sets of molecular markers yielding the same results of overall homogeneity. We posit two non-mutually exclusive scenarios that can explain such outcome: i) substantial high gene flow among locations, possibly maintained by larval stages, ii) very large effective size of post-glacially expanded populations. The results can inform management strategies in this by-caught species, and contribute to the broader issue of biological connectivity in the deep ocean.

  5. Coastal circulation in the North Indian Ocean: Coastal segment (14,S-W)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.

    and as a result the circulation shows a distinct seasonal character. The nature of winds, precipitation, runoff, and tides in the region are summarized. Characteristics of large-scale near surface circulation and of water masses in the North Indian Basin...

  6. The Arctic Ocean as a dead end for floating plastics in the North Atlantic branch of the Thermohaline Circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2017-04-20

    The subtropical ocean gyres are recognized as great marine accummulation zones of floating plastic debris; however, the possibility of plastic accumulation at polar latitudes has been overlooked because of the lack of nearby pollution sources. In the present study, the Arctic Ocean was extensively sampled for floating plastic debris from the Tara Oceans circumpolar expedition. Although plastic debris was scarce or absent in most of the Arctic waters, it reached high concentrations (hundreds of thousands of pieces per square kilometer) in the northernmost and easternmost areas of the Greenland and Barents seas. The fragmentation and typology of the plastic suggested an abundant presence of aged debris that originated from distant sources. This hypothesis was corroborated by the relatively high ratios of marine surface plastic to local pollution sources. Surface circulation models and field data showed that the poleward branch of the Thermohaline Circulation transfers floating debris from the North Atlantic to the Greenland and Barents seas, which would be a dead end for this plastic conveyor belt. Given the limited surface transport of the plastic that accumulated here and the mechanisms acting for the downward transport, the seafloor beneath this Arctic sector is hypothesized as an important sink of plastic debris.

  7. Duality of Ross Ice Shelf systems: crustal boundary, ice sheet processes and ocean circulation from ROSETTA-Ice surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.; Fricker, H. A.; Das, I.; Porter, D. F.; Springer, S. R.; Siegfried, M. R.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Bell, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Bathymetry beneath Antarctic ice shelves controls sub-ice-shelf ocean circulation and has a major influence on the stability and dynamics of the ice sheets. Beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, the sea-floor bathymetry is a product of both tectonics and glacial processes, and is influenced by the processes it controls. New aerogeophysical surveys have revealed a fundamental crustal boundary bisecting the Ross Ice Shelf and imparting a duality to the Ross Ice Shelf systems, encompassing bathymetry, ocean circulation and ice flow history. The ROSETTA-Ice surveys were designed to increase the resolution of Ross Ice Shelf mapping from the 55 km RIGGS survey of the 1970s to a 10 km survey grid, flown over three years from New York Air National Guard LC130s. Radar, LiDAR, gravity and magnetic instruments provide a top to bottom profile of the ice shelf and the underlying seafloor, with 20 km resolution achieved in the first two survey seasons (2015 and 2016). ALAMO ocean-profiling floats deployed in the 2016 season are measuring the temperature and salinity of water entering and exiting the sub-ice water cavity. A significant east-west contrast in the character of the magnetic and gravity fields reveals that the lithospheric boundary between East and West Antarctica exists not at the base of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), as previously thought, but 300 km further east. The newly-identified boundary spatially coincides with the southward extension of the Central High, a rib of shallow basement identified in the Ross Sea. The East Antarctic side is characterized by lower amplitude magnetic anomalies and denser TAM-type lithosphere compared to the West Antarctic side. The crustal structure imparts a fundamental duality on the overlying ice and ocean, with deeper bathymetry and thinner ice on the East Antarctic side creating a larger sub-ice cavity for ocean circulation. The West Antarctic side has a shallower seabed, more restricted ocean access and a more complex history of

  8. Ocean Circulation and Dynamics on the West Antarctic Peninsula Continental Shelf

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varas, Carlos F

    2007-01-01

    Observations of current velocity, temperature, salinity and pressure from a 2-year moored array deployment and four hydrographic cruises conducted by the United States Southern Ocean GLOBEC program...

  9. Reverse transcriptase directs viral evolution in a deep ocean methane seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B. G.; Bagby, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Deep ocean methane seeps are sites of intense microbial activity, with complex communities fueled by aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophy. Methane consumption in these communities has a substantial impact on the global carbon cycle, yet little is known about their evolutionary history or their likely evolutionary trajectories in a warming ocean. As in other marine systems, viral predation and virally mediated horizontal gene transfer are expected to be major drivers of evolutionary change in these communities; however, the host cells' resistance to cultivation has impeded direct study of the viral population. We conducted a metagenomic study of viruses in the anoxic sediments of a deep methane seep in the Santa Monica Basin in the Southern California Bight. We retrieved 1660 partial viral genomes, tentatively assigning 1232 to bacterial hosts and 428 to archaea. One abundant viral genome, likely hosted by Clostridia species present in the sediment, was found to encode a diversity-generating retroelement (DGR), a module for reverse transcriptase-mediated directed mutagenesis of a distal tail fiber protein. While DGRs have previously been described in the viruses of human pathogens, where diversification of viral tail fibers permits infection of a range of host cell types, to our knowledge this is the first description of such an element in a marine virus. By providing a mechanism for massively broadening potential host range, the presence of DGRs in these systems may have a major impact on the prevalence of virally mediated horizontal gene transfer, and even on the phylogenetic distances across which genes are moved.

  10. Mixed layer depth calculation in deep convection regions in ocean numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Peggy; Hu, Xianmin; Pennelly, Clark; Spence, Paul; Myers, Paul G.

    2017-12-01

    Mixed Layer Depths (MLDs) diagnosed by conventional numerical models are generally based on a density difference with the surface (e.g., 0.01 kg.m-3). However, the temperature-salinity compensation and the lack of vertical resolution contribute to over-estimated MLD, especially in regions of deep convection. In the present work, we examined the diagnostic MLD, associated with the deep convection of the Labrador Sea Water (LSW), calculated with a simple density difference criterion. The over-estimated MLD led us to develop a new tool, based on an observational approach, to recalculate MLD from model output. We used an eddy-permitting, 1/12° regional configuration of the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) to test and discuss our newly defined MLD. We compared our new MLD with that from observations, and we showed a major improvement with our new algorithm. To show the new MLD is not dependent on a single model and its horizontal resolution, we extended our analysis to include 1/4° eddy-permitting simulations, and simulations using the Modular Ocean Model (MOM) model.

  11. On the role of the Agulhas system in ocean circulation and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beal, L.M.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.; Biastoch, A.; Zahn, R.; SCOR/WCRP/IAPSO Working Group 136; Zinke, J.; Ridderinkhof, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean receives warm, saline water from the Indo-Pacific Ocean through Agulhas leakage around the southern tip of Africa. Recent findings suggest that Agulhas leakage is a crucial component of the climate system and that ongoing increases in leakage under anthropogenic warming could

  12. Models for changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ocean geochemistry and circulation during the late Pleistocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; SenGupta, R.

    in oceanic alkalinity (and hence a decrease in atmospheric CO@d2@@) due to CaCO@d3@@ compensation. A likely mechanism for this rearrangement could be an orbital-forced insolation related increase in biological production in the Southern Ocean. This, coupled...

  13. Ocean circulation off the north-west coast of the United States is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The coastal upwelling region near Cape Blanco (43°N), Oregon, off the west coast of the ... other eastern boundary current regions of the world. ..... behaviour in August, when the upwelling circulation ... This work was funded by the United.

  14. Assimilation of TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data into a global ocean circulation model: How good are the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Ichiro; Raghunath, Ramanujam; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Chao, Yi

    1999-11-01

    The feasibility of assimilating satellite altimetry data into a global ocean general circulation model is studied. Three years of TOPEX/Poseidon data are analyzed using a global, three-dimensional, nonlinear primitive equation model. The assimilation's success is examined by analyzing its consistency and reliability measured by formal error estimates with respect to independent measurements. Improvements in model solution are demonstrated, in particular, properties not directly measured. Comparisons are performed with sea level measured by tide gauges, subsurface temperatures and currents from moorings, and bottom pressure measurements. Model representation errors dictate what can and cannot be resolved by assimilation, and its identification is emphasized.

  15. Influence of various forcings on global climate in historical times using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stendel, Martin; Mogensen, Irene A.; Christensen, Jens H.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a simulation of the climate of the last five centuries with a state-of-the-art coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model are presented. The model has been driven with most relevant forcings, both natural (solar variability, volcanic aerosol) and anthropogenic (greenhouse...... gases, sulphate aerosol, land-use changes). In contrast to previous GCM studies, we have taken into account the latitudinal dependence of volcanic aerosol and the changing land cover for a period covering several centuries. We find a clear signature of large volcanic eruptions in the simulated...

  16. Role of the Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A; Han, Weiqing; Timmermann, Axel; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Liu, Zhengyu; Washington, Warren M; Large, William; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kimoto, Masahide; Lambeck, Kurt; Wu, Bingyi

    2012-04-24

    Abrupt climate transitions, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, occurred frequently during the last glacial period, specifically from 80-11 thousand years before present, but were nearly absent during interglacial periods and the early stages of glacial periods, when major ice-sheets were still forming. Here we show, with a fully coupled state-of-the-art climate model, that closing the Bering Strait and preventing its throughflow between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the glacial period can lead to the emergence of stronger hysteresis behavior of the ocean conveyor belt circulation to create conditions that are conducive to triggering abrupt climate transitions. Hence, it is argued that even for greenhouse warming, abrupt climate transitions similar to those in the last glacial time are unlikely to occur as the Bering Strait remains open.

  17. Nanocalorimetric characterization of microbial activity in deep subsurface oceanic crustal fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eRobador

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although fluids within the upper oceanic basaltic crust harbor a substantial fraction of the total prokaryotic cells on Earth, the energy needs of this microbial population are unknown. In this study, a nanocalorimeter (sensitivity down to 4.3 x 10-3 mJ h-1 ml-1 was used to measure the enthalpy of microbially catalyzed reactions as a function of temperature in samples from two distinct crustal fluid aquifers. Microorganisms in unamended, warm (63 °C and geochemically altered anoxic fluids taken from 292 meters sub-basement (msb near the Juan de Fuca Ridge produced 267.3 mJ of heat over the course of 97 hours during a step-wise isothermal scan from 35.5 to 85.0 °C. Most of this heat signal likely stems from the germination of thermophilic endospores (6.66 x 104 cells ml-1FLUID and their subsequent metabolic activity at temperatures greater than 50 °C. The average cellular energy consumption (1.79 x 10-7 kJ h-1 cell-1 reveals the high metabolic potential of a dormant community transported by fluids circulating through the ocean crust. By contrast, samples taken from 293 msb from cooler (3.8 °C, relatively unaltered oxic fluids, produced 12.8 mJ of heat over the course of 14 hours as temperature ramped from 34.8 to 43.0 °C. Corresponding cell-specific energy turnover rates (0.18 pW cell-1 were converted to oxygen uptake rates of 24.5 nmol O2 ml-1FLUID d-1, validating previous model predictions of microbial activity in this environment. Given that the investigated fluids are characteristic of expansive areas of the upper oceanic crust, the measured metabolic heat rates can be used to constrain boundaries of habitability and microbial activity in the oceanic crust.

  18. Parameterization of Mixed Layer and Deep-Ocean Mesoscales Including Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Dubovikov, M. S.; Howard, A. M.; Leboissetier, A.

    2018-01-01

    In 2011, Chelton et al. carried out a comprehensive census of mesoscales using altimetry data and reached the following conclusions: "essentially all of the observed mesoscale features are nonlinear" and "mesoscales do not move with the mean velocity but with their own drift velocity," which is "the most germane of all the nonlinear metrics."� Accounting for these results in a mesoscale parameterization presents conceptual and practical challenges since linear analysis is no longer usable and one needs a model of nonlinearity. A mesoscale parameterization is presented that has the following features: 1) it is based on the solutions of the nonlinear mesoscale dynamical equations, 2) it describes arbitrary tracers, 3) it includes adiabatic (A) and diabatic (D) regimes, 4) the eddy-induced velocity is the sum of a Gent and McWilliams (GM) term plus a new term representing the difference between drift and mean velocities, 5) the new term lowers the transfer of mean potential energy to mesoscales, 6) the isopycnal slopes are not as flat as in the GM case, 7) deep-ocean stratification is enhanced compared to previous parameterizations where being more weakly stratified allowed a large heat uptake that is not observed, 8) the strength of the Deacon cell is reduced. The numerical results are from a stand-alone ocean code with Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiment I (CORE-I) normal-year forcing.

  19. Ocean circulation in the southern Benguela region from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene: tracking Agulhas leakage into the SE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Benjamin; McClymont, Erin; Felder, Sojna; Leng, Melanie

    2013-04-01

    The transition from the warmth of the middle Pliocene to the large amplitude, 100 kyr glacial-interglacial cycles of the late Pleistocene provides a way to understand the forcings and impacts of regional and global climate change. Here, we investigate changes in ocean circulation over the period from 3.5 Ma to present using a marine sediment core, ODP Site 1087 (31o28'S, 15o19'E, 1374m water depth). ODP 1087 is located in the South-east Atlantic Ocean, outside the Benguela upwelling region. Its location allows investigation of the history of the heat and salt transfer to the Atlantic Ocean from the Indian Ocean ("Agulhas leakage"), which plays an important part in the global thermohaline circulation. It is not known how this transfer reacted to generally warmer global temperatures during the mid-Pliocene, nor to the transition to a globally cooler climate in the early Pleistocene. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the history of ODP 1087. These include the U37K' index to reconstruct sea surface temperatures, pigment analysis for understanding productivity changes, and foraminifera assemblage analysis to detect the presence of different water masses at the site. We have identified changes in SSTs and biological productivity that we argue to reflect shifts in the position of the Benguela upwelling cells, and a changing influence of Agulhas leakage. Our new data reveal a different organization in the Southeast Atlantic. It shows that during the Pliocene ODP 1087 was dominated by Benguela upwelling which had shifted south. We find no evidence for Agulhas leakage during the mid Pliocene, which could mean that Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced during the mid Pliocene. The implications of these results for understanding Plio-Pleistocene climate changes will be explored here.

  20. Influence of solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton on the thermal structure and circulation of the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Robert; Ueyoshi, Kyozo; Kampel, Milton

    2007-09-01

    Numerical experiments conducted with an ocean general ocean circulation model reveal the potential influence of solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton on the thermal structure and currents of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean. In the model, solar radiation penetration is parameterized explicitly as a function of chlorophyll-a concentration, the major variable affecting water turbidity in the open ocean. Two types of runs are performed, a clear water (control) run with a constant minimum chlorophyll-a concentration of 0.02 mgm -3, and a turbid water (chlorophyll) run with space- and time-varying chlorophyll-a concentration from satellite data. The difference between results from the two runs yields the biological effects. In the chlorophyll run, nutrients and biology production are implicitly taken into account, even though biogeochemical processes are not explicitly included, since phytoplankton distribution, prescribed from observations, is the result of those processes. Due to phytoplankton-radiation forcing, the surface temperature is higher by 1-2 K on average annually in the region of the North Equatorial current, the Northern part of the South Equatorial current, and the Caribbean system, and by 3-4 K in the region of the Guinea current. In this region, upwelling is reduced, and heat trapped in the surface layers by phytoplankton is not easily removed. The surface temperature is lower by 1 K in the Northern region of the Benguela current, due to increased upwelling. At depth, the equatorial Atlantic is generally cooler, as well as the eastern part of the tropical basin (excluding the region of the sub-tropical gyres). The North and South equatorial currents, as well as the Equatorial undercurrent, are enhanced by as much as 3-4 cms -1, and the circulation of the subtropical gyres is increased. Pole-ward heat transport is slightly reduced North of 35°N, suggesting that phytoplankton, by increasing the horizontal return flow in the subtropical region, may exert a

  1. The past, present and future distribution of a deep-sea shrimp in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeenatul Basher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shrimps have a widespread distribution across the shelf, slope and seamount regions of the Southern Ocean. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity and adaptability in response to environmental change. We use species distribution models to predict changes in the geographic range of the deep-sea Antarctic shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes under changing climatic conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present and to the year 2100. The present distribution range indicates a pole-ward shift of the shrimp population since the last glaciation. This occurred by colonization of slopes from nearby refugia located around the northern part of Scotia Arc, southern tip of South America, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, southern tip of the Campbell plateau and Kerguelen plateau. By 2100, the shrimp are likely to expand their distribution in east Antarctica but have a continued pole-ward contraction in west Antarctica. The range extension and contraction process followed by the deep-sea shrimp provide a geographic context of how other deep-sea Antarctic species may have survived during the last glaciation and may endure with projected changing climatic conditions in the future.

  2. Mid-depth South Atlantic Ocean circulation and chemical stratification during MIS-10 to 12: implications for atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Maslin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed record of benthic foraminifera carbon isotopes from the intermediate-depth South East Atlantic margin shows little glacial-interglacial variability between MIS-12 to MIS-10, suggesting that Northern Atlantic deepwaters consistently penetrated to at least 30° S. Millennial-scale increases in either the mass or flux of northern-sourced deepwaters over the core site occurred alongside reductions in Lower North Atlantic Deep Water recorded in North Atlantic sediment cores and show that the lower and intermediate limb of the Atlantic deepwater convective cell oscillated in anti-phase during previous glacial periods. In addition, a 500 yr resolution record of the Cape Basin intermediate-deep δ13C gradient shows that a reduction in deep Southern Ocean ventilation at the end of MIS-11 was consistent with a modelled CO2 drawdown of ~21–30 ppm. Further increases in the Southern Ocean chemical divide during the transition into MIS-10 were completed before minimum CO2 levels were reached, suggesting that other mechanisms such as alkalinity changes were responsible for the remaining ~45 ppm drawdown.

  3. Interhemispheric controls on deep ocean circulation and carbon chemistry during the last two glacial cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilson, D.J.; Galy, A.; Piotrowski, A.M.; Banakar, V.K.

    composition was analysed on the Nu Plasma multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Cambridge, using an exponential mass fractionation correction (to 146Nd/144Nd = 0...

  4. Constraints on the Lost City Hydrothermal System from borehole thermal data; 3-D models of heat flow and hydrothermal circulation in an oceanic core complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, S.; McCaig, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    A perennial problem in near-ridge hydrothermal circulation is that the only directly measurable data to test models is often vent fluid temperature. Surface heat flow measurements may be available but without the underlying thermal structure it is not known if they are transient and affected by local hydrothermal flow, or conductive. The Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex at 30 °N on the mid-Atlantic Ridge, offers a unique opportunity to better constrain hydrothermal circulation models. The temperature profile in gabbroic rocks of IODP Hole 1309D was measured in IODPExpedition 340T, and found to be near-conductive, but with a slight inflexion at ~750 mbsf indicating downward advection of fluid above that level. The lack of deep convection is especially remarkable given that the long-lived Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is located only 5km to the south. We have modelled hydrothermal circulation in the Massif using Comsol Multiphysics, comparing 2-D and 3-D topographic models and using temperature-dependent conductivity to give the best estimate of heatflow into the Massif. We can constrain maximum permeability in gabbro below 750 mbsf to 5e-17 m2. The thermal gradient in the upper part of the borehole can be matched with a permeability of 3e-14 m2 in a 750 m thick layer parallel to the surface of the massif, with upflow occurring in areas of high topography and downflow at the location of the borehole. However in 3-D the precise flow pattern is quite model dependent, and the thermal structure can be matched either by downflow centred on the borehole at lower permeability or centred a few hundred metres from the borehole at higher permeability. The borehole gradient is compatible with the longevity (>120 kyr) and outflow temperature (40-90 °C) of the LCHF either with a deep more permeable (1e-14 m2 to 1e-15 m2) domain beneath the vent site in 2-D or a permeable fault slot 500 to 1000m wide and parallel to the transform fault in 3-D. In both cases topography

  5. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation During the Last Glacial Maximum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Adkins, J.F.; Curry, W.B.; Dokken, T.; Hall, I.R.; Herguera, J.C.; Hirschi, J.J.-M.; Ivanova, E.V.; Kissel, C.; Marchal, O.; Marchitto, T.M.; McCave, I.N.; McManus, J.F.; Mulitza, S.; Ninnemann, U.; Peeters, F.J.C.; Yu, E.-F.; Zahn, R.

    2007-01-01

    The circulation of the deep Atlantic Ocean during the height of the last ice age appears to have been quite different from today. We review observations implying that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum was neither extremely sluggish nor an enhanced version of

  6. The Evolution of Deep Ocean Chemistry and Respired Carbon in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Over the Last Deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Maria; Calvo, Eva; Skinner, Luke; Pelejero, Carles; Evans, David; Müller, Wolfgang; Povea, Patricia; Cacho, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    It has been shown that the deep Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) region was poorly ventilated during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) relative to Holocene values. This finding suggests a more efficient biological pump, which indirectly supports the idea of increased carbon storage in the deep ocean contributing to lower atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial. However, proxies related to respired carbon are needed in order to directly test this proposition. Here we present Cibicides wuellerstorfi B/Ca ratios from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1240 measured by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) as a proxy for deep water carbonate saturation state (Δ[CO32-], and therefore [CO32-]), along with δ13C measurements. In addition, the U/Ca ratio in foraminiferal coatings has been analyzed as an indicator of oxygenation changes. Our results show lower [CO32-], δ13C, and [O2] values during the LGM, which would be consistent with higher respired carbon levels in the deep EEP driven, at least in part, by reduced deep water ventilation. However, the difference between LGM and Holocene [CO32-] observed at our site is relatively small, in accordance with other records from across the Pacific, suggesting that a "counteracting" mechanism, such as seafloor carbonate dissolution, also played a role. If so, this mechanism would have increased average ocean alkalinity, allowing even more atmospheric CO2 to be "sequestered" by the ocean. Therefore, the deep Pacific Ocean very likely stored a significant amount of atmospheric CO2 during the LGM, specifically due to a more efficient biological carbon pump and also an increase in average ocean alkalinity.

  7. Various approaches to the modelling of large scale 3-dimensional circulation in the Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Rao, A.D.; Dube, S.K.

    In this paper, the three different approaches to the modelling of large scale 3-dimensional flow in the ocean such as the diagnostic, semi-diagnostic (adaptation) and the prognostic are discussed in detail. Three-dimensional solutions are obtained...

  8. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Rogers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp., stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae, bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more

  9. Study on method and mechanism of deep well circulation for the growth control of Microcystis in aquaculture pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haibing; Sun, Feng; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yue; Yan, Qi; Ren, Ao; Xu, Hu

    2017-06-01

    In order to control the growth of Microcystis in aquaculture ponds and reduce its adverse effect on water quality and aquaculture, a production-scale experiment of deep well circulation treatment was carried out in an aquaculture pond with water surface area of 63,000 m 2 and water depth of 1.6-2.0 m. Compared with the control pond, the experiment pond had better water quality as indicated by 64.2% reduction in chlorophyll a, and 81.1% reduction in algal cells. The chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentration were reduced by 55.1%, 57.5%, and 50.8%, respectively. The treatment efficiency is mainly due to the growth control of Microcystis (i.e. cell reduction of 96.4%). The gas vesicles collapsing because of the water pressure was suggested to be the mechanism for Microcystis suppression by the deep well circulation treatment. The Microcystis lost its buoyancy after gas vesicles collapsed and it settled to the bottom of the aquaculture pond. As a result, the algae reproduction was suppressed because algae could only grow in the area with enough sunlight (i.e. water depth less than 1 m).

  10. The effects of natural iron fertilisation on deep-sea ecology: the Crozet Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Wolff

    Full Text Available The addition of iron to high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC oceanic waters stimulates phytoplankton, leading to greater primary production. Large-scale artificial ocean iron fertilization (OIF has been proposed as a means of mitigating anthropogenic atmospheric CO(2, but its impacts on ocean ecosystems below the photic zone are unknown. Natural OIF, through the addition of iron leached from volcanic islands, has been shown to enhance primary productivity and carbon export and so can be used to study the effects of OIF on life in the ocean. We compared two closely-located deep-sea sites (∼400 km apart and both at ∼4200 m water depth to the East (naturally iron fertilized; +Fe and South (HNLC of the Crozet Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Our results suggest that long-term geo-engineering of surface oceanic waters via artificial OIF would lead to significant changes in deep-sea ecosystems. We found that the +Fe area had greater supplies of organic matter inputs to the seafloor, including polyunsaturated fatty acid and carotenoid nutrients. The +Fe site also had greater densities and biomasses of large deep-sea animals with lower levels of evenness in community structuring. The species composition was also very different, with the +Fe site showing similarities to eutrophic sites in other ocean basins. Moreover, major differences occurred in the taxa at the +Fe and HNLC sites revealing the crucial role that surface oceanic conditions play in changing and structuring deep-sea benthic communities.

  11. Shelf erosion and submarine river canyons: implications for deep-sea oxygenation and ocean productivity during glaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsandev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The areal exposure of continental shelves during glacial sea level lowering enhanced the transfer of erodible reactive organic matter to the open ocean. Sea level fall also activated submarine canyons thereby allowing large rivers to deposit their particulate load, via gravity flows, directly in the deep-sea. Here, we analyze the effects of shelf erosion and particulate matter re-routing to the open ocean during interglacial to glacial transitions, using a coupled model of the marine phosphorus, organic carbon and oxygen cycles. The results indicate that shelf erosion and submarine canyon formation may significantly lower deep-sea oxygen levels, by up to 25%, during sea level low stands, mainly due to the supply of new material from the shelves, and to a lesser extent due to particulate organic matter bypassing the coastal zone. Our simulations imply that deep-sea oxygen levels can drop significantly if eroded shelf material is deposited to the seafloor. Thus the glacial ocean's oxygen content could have been significantly lower than during interglacial stages. Primary production, organic carbon burial and dissolved phosphorus inventories are all affected by the erosion and rerouting mechanisms. However, re-routing of the continental and eroded shelf material to the deep-sea has the effect of decoupling deep-sea oxygen demand from primary productivity in the open ocean. P burial is also not affected showing a disconnection between the biogeochemical cycles in the water column and the P burial record.

  12. Summer monsoon circulation and precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean during ENSO in the NCEP climate forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdary, J. S.; Chaudhari, H. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Parekh, Anant; Suryachandra Rao, A.; Sreenivas, P.; Pokhrel, S.; Singh, P.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections to tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) and their relationship with the Indian summer monsoon in the coupled general circulation model climate forecast system (CFS). The model shows good skill in simulating the impact of El Niño over the Indian Oceanic rim during its decay phase (the summer following peak phase of El Niño). Summer surface circulation patterns during the developing phase of El Niño are more influenced by local Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the model unlike in observations. Eastern TIO cooling similar to that of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is a dominant model feature in summer. This anomalous SST pattern therefore is attributed to the tendency of the model to simulate more frequent IOD events. On the other hand, in the model baroclinic response to the diabatic heating anomalies induced by the El Niño related warm SSTs is weak, resulting in reduced zonal extension of the Rossby wave response. This is mostly due to weak eastern Pacific summer time SST anomalies in the model during the developing phase of El Niño as compared to observations. Both eastern TIO cooling and weak SST warming in El Niño region combined together undermine the ENSO teleconnections to the TIO and south Asia regions. The model is able to capture the spatial patterns of SST, circulation and precipitation well during the decay phase of El Niño over the Indo-western Pacific including the typical spring asymmetric mode and summer basin-wide warming in TIO. The model simulated El Niño decay one or two seasons later, resulting long persistent warm SST and circulation anomalies mainly over the southwest TIO. In response to the late decay of El Niño, Ekman pumping shows two maxima over the southern TIO. In conjunction with this unrealistic Ekman pumping, westward propagating Rossby waves display two peaks, which play key role in the long-persistence of the TIO warming in the model (for more than a

  13. The influence of Southern Ocean surface buoyancy forcing on glacial-interglacial changes in the global deep ocean stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, S; Eisenman, I; Stewart, AL

    2016-01-01

    ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Previous studies have suggested that the global ocean density stratification below ∼3000 m is approximately set by its direct connection to the Southern Ocean surface density, which in turn is constrained by the atmosphere. Here the role of Southern Ocean surface forcing in glacial-interglacial stratification changes is investigated using a comprehensive climate model and an idealized conceptual model. Southern Ocean surface forcing is f...

  14. Seasonal cycle of surface circulation in the coastal North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    with similar patterns of longshore current and wind stress; (ii) circulation off the west coast of India is consistent with the dynamics of a wind-driven eastern boundary current only during the southwest monsoon. During the northeast monsoon it is possible...

  15. Effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on chlorine generation of electrolyzed deep ocean water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoo-Shyng Wang Hsu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on the chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water (DOW. DOW was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum–plated titanium anode and cathode. The results showed that chlorine concentration reached maximal level in the batch process. Prolonged electrolysis reduced chlorine concentration in the electrolyte and was detrimental to electrolysis efficiency, especially under high electric potential conditions. Therefore, the optimal choice of electrolysis time depends on the electrolyzable chloride in DOW and cell potential adopted for electrolysis. The higher the electric potential, the faster the chlorine level reaches its maximum, but the lower the electric efficiency will be.

  16. Effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on chlorine generation of electrolyzed deep ocean water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Lu, Yi-Fa; Hsu, Shun-Yao

    2017-10-01

    Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. A two-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of electrolysis time and electric potential on the chlorine generation efficiency of electrolyzed deep ocean water (DOW). DOW was electrolyzed in a glass electrolyzing cell equipped with platinum-plated titanium anode and cathode. The results showed that chlorine concentration reached maximal level in the batch process. Prolonged electrolysis reduced chlorine concentration in the electrolyte and was detrimental to electrolysis efficiency, especially under high electric potential conditions. Therefore, the optimal choice of electrolysis time depends on the electrolyzable chloride in DOW and cell potential adopted for electrolysis. The higher the electric potential, the faster the chlorine level reaches its maximum, but the lower the electric efficiency will be. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca; Soule, S Adam; Manga, Michael; White, James; McPhie, Jocelyn; Wysoczanski, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoerger, Dana; Fornari, Daniel; Caratori-Tontini, Fabio; Houghton, Bruce; Mitchell, Samuel; Ikegami, Fumihiko; Conway, Chris; Murch, Arran; Fauria, Kristen; Jones, Meghan; Cahalan, Ryan; McKenzie, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km 2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.

  18. Applying machine learning to global surface ocean and seabed data to reveal the controls on the distribution of deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Müller, Dietmar; O'Callaghan, Simon

    2017-04-01

    World's ocean basins contain a rich and nearly continuous record of environmental fluctuations preserved as different types of deep-sea sediments. The sediments represent the largest carbon sink on Earth and its largest geological deposit. Knowing the controls on the distribution of these sediments is essential for understanding the history of ocean-climate dynamics, including changes in sea-level and ocean circulation, as well as biological perturbations. Indeed, the bulk of deep-sea sediments comprises the remains of planktonic organisms that originate in the photic zone of the global ocean implying a strong connection between the seafloor and the sea surface. Machine-learning techniques are perfectly suited to unravelling these controls as they are able to handle large sets of spatial data and they often outperform traditional spatial analysis approaches. Using a support vector machine algorithm we recently created the first digital map of seafloor lithologies (Dutkiewicz et al., 2015) based on 14,400 surface samples. This map reveals significant deviations in distribution of deep-sea lithologies from hitherto hand-drawn maps based on far fewer data points. It also allows us to explore quantitatively, for the first time, the relationship between oceanographic parameters at the sea surface and lithologies on the seafloor. We subsequently coupled this global point sample dataset of 14,400 seafloor lithologies to bathymetry and oceanographic grids (sea-surface temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic nutrients) and applied a probabilistic Gaussian process classifier in an exhaustive combinatorial fashion (Dutkiewicz et al., 2016). We focused on five major lithologies (calcareous sediment, diatom ooze, radiolarian ooze, clay and lithogenous sediment) and used a computationally intensive five-fold cross-validation, withholding 20% of the data at each iteration, to assess the predictive performance of the machine learning method. We find that

  19. The Oceanic Flux Program: A three decade time-series of particle flux in the deep Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. C.; Conte, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), 75 km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running time-series of its kind. Initiated in 1978, the OFP has produced an unsurpassed, nearly continuous record of temporal variability in deep ocean fluxes, with a >90% temporal coverage at 3200m depth. The OFP, in conjunction with the co-located Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) time-series, has provided key observations enabling detailed assessment of how seasonal and non-seasonal variability in the deep ocean is linked with the overlying physical and biogeochemical environment. This talk will focus on the short-term flux variability that overlies the seasonal flux pattern in the Sargasso Sea, emphasizing episodic extreme flux events. Extreme flux events are responsible for much of the year-to-year variability in mean annual flux and are most often observed during early winter and late spring when surface stratification is weak or transient. In addition to biological phenomena (e.g. salp blooms), passage of productive meso-scale features such as eddies, which alter surface water mixing characteristics and surface export fluxes, may initiate some extreme flux events. Yet other productive eddies show a minimal influence on the deep flux, underscoring the importance of upper ocean ecosystem structure and midwater processes on the coupling between the surface ocean environment and deep fluxes. Using key organic and inorganic tracers, causative processes that influence deep flux generation and the strength of the coupling with the surface ocean environment can be identified.

  20. Is a deep one-cell meridional circulation essential for the flux transport solar dynamo?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2014-01-01

    The solar activity cycle is successfully modeled by the flux transport dynamo, in which the meridional circulation of the Sun plays an important role. Most of the kinematic dynamo simulations assume a one-cell structure of the meridional circulation within the convection zone, with the equatorward return flow at its bottom. In view of the recent claims that the return flow occurs at a much shallower depth, we explore whether a meridional circulation with such a shallow return flow can still retain the attractive features of the flux transport dynamo (such as a proper butterfly diagram, the proper phase relation between the toroidal and poloidal fields). We consider additional cells of the meridional circulation below the shallow return flow—both the case of multiple cells radially stacked above one another and the case of more complicated cell patterns. As long as there is an equatorward flow in low latitudes at the bottom of the convection zone, we find that the solar behavior is approximately reproduced. However, if there is either no flow or a poleward flow at the bottom of the convection zone, then we cannot reproduce solar behavior. On making the turbulent diffusivity low, we still find periodic behavior, although the period of the cycle becomes unrealistically large. In addition, with a low diffusivity, we do not get the observed correlation between the polar field at the sunspot minimum and the strength of the next cycle, which is reproduced when diffusivity is high. On introducing radially downward pumping, we get a more reasonable period and more solar-like behavior even with low diffusivity.

  1. Is a deep one-cell meridional circulation essential for the flux transport solar dynamo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai, E-mail: ghazra@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-02-20

    The solar activity cycle is successfully modeled by the flux transport dynamo, in which the meridional circulation of the Sun plays an important role. Most of the kinematic dynamo simulations assume a one-cell structure of the meridional circulation within the convection zone, with the equatorward return flow at its bottom. In view of the recent claims that the return flow occurs at a much shallower depth, we explore whether a meridional circulation with such a shallow return flow can still retain the attractive features of the flux transport dynamo (such as a proper butterfly diagram, the proper phase relation between the toroidal and poloidal fields). We consider additional cells of the meridional circulation below the shallow return flow—both the case of multiple cells radially stacked above one another and the case of more complicated cell patterns. As long as there is an equatorward flow in low latitudes at the bottom of the convection zone, we find that the solar behavior is approximately reproduced. However, if there is either no flow or a poleward flow at the bottom of the convection zone, then we cannot reproduce solar behavior. On making the turbulent diffusivity low, we still find periodic behavior, although the period of the cycle becomes unrealistically large. In addition, with a low diffusivity, we do not get the observed correlation between the polar field at the sunspot minimum and the strength of the next cycle, which is reproduced when diffusivity is high. On introducing radially downward pumping, we get a more reasonable period and more solar-like behavior even with low diffusivity.

  2. Using Deep-Sea Scientific Drilling to Enhance Ocean Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Michael; Cooper, Sharon; Kurtz, Nicole; Burgio, Marion; Cicconi, Alessia

    2017-04-01

    Beginning with confirmation of sea floor spreading in Leg 3 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project in 1968, scientific ocean drilling has provided much of the evidence supporting modern understanding of the Earth System, global climate changes, and many other important concepts. But for more than three decades, results of discoveries were published primarily in scientific journals and cruise volumes. On occasion, science journalists would write articles for the general public, but organized educational outreach efforts were rare. Starting about a decade ago, educators were included in the scientific party aboard the JOIDES Resolution. These "teachers-at-sea" developed formats to translate the technical and scientific activities into language understandable to students, teachers, and the public. Several "Schools of Rock" have enabled groups of teachers and informal science educators to experience what happens aboard the JOIDES Resolution. Over the past few years, educational outreach efforts based on scientific drilling expanded to create a large body of resources that promote Ocean Science Literacy. Partnerships between scientists and educators have produced a searchable database of inquiry-centered classroom and informal science activities. These are available for free through the JOIDES Resolution website, joidesresolution.org. Activities are aligned with the Ocean Literacy Principles (http://oceanliteracy.wp2.coexploration.org/) and Science Education Standards. In addition to a suite of lessons based on the science behind scientific drilling, participants have developed a range of educational resources that include graphic novels ("Tales of the Resolution" (http://joidesresolution.org/node/263) ; children's books ("Uncovering Earth's Secrets" and "Where the Wild Microbes Grow" http://joidesresolution.org/node/2998); posters, videos, and other materials. Cooper and Kurtz are currently overseeing improvements and revisions to the JR education website pages. The

  3. Enhanced Mean Dynamic Topography And Ocean Circulation Estimation Using Goce Preliminary Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Bingham, Rory; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2011-01-01

    have been combined with the recent DNSC08MSS mean sea surface model to construct a global GOCE satellite-only mean dynamic topography model. At a first glance, the GOCE MDT display the well known features related to the major ocean current systems. A closer look, however, reveals that the improved...

  4. Climate change and ocean deoxygenation within intensified surface-driven upwelling circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    Ocean deoxygenation often takes place in proximity to zones of intense upwelling. Associated concerns about amplified ocean deoxygenation arise from an arguable likelihood that coastal upwelling systems in the world's oceans may further intensify as anthropogenic climate change proceeds. Comparative examples discussed include the uniquely intense seasonal Somali Current upwelling, the massive upwelling that occurs quasi-continuously off Namibia and the recently appearing and now annually recurring 'dead zone' off the US State of Oregon. The evident 'transience' in causal dynamics off Oregon is somewhat mirrored in an interannual-scale intermittence in eruptions of anaerobically formed noxious gases off Namibia. A mechanistic scheme draws the three examples towards a common context in which, in addition to the obvious but politically problematic remedy of actually reducing 'greenhouse' gas emissions, the potentially manageable abundance of strongly swimming, finely gill raker-meshed small pelagic fish emerges as a plausible regulating factor.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. D.E.E.P. Learning: Promoting Informal STEM Learning through Ocean Research Simulation Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, E.; Rohrlick, D.; Layman, C.; Peach, C. L.; Orcutt, J. A.; Keen, C. S.; Matthews, J.; Nsf Ooi-Ci Education; Public Engagement Team

    2010-12-01

    It is generally recognized that interactive digital games have the potential to promote the development of valuable learning and life skills, including data processing, decision-making, critical thinking, planning, communication and collaboration (Kirriemuir and MacFarlane, 2006). But the research and development of educational games, and the study of the educational value of interactive games in general, have lagged far behind the same efforts for games created for the purpose of entertainment. Our group is attempting to capitalize on the facts that games are now played in 67% of American households (ESA, 2010), and across a broad range of ages, by developing effective and engaging simulation games that promote Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) literacy in informal science education institutions (ISEIs; e.g., aquariums, museums, science centers). In particular, we are developing games based on the popular Microsoft Xbox360 gaming platform and the free Microsoft XNA game development kit, which engage ISEI visitors in the exploration and understanding of the deep-sea environment. Known as Deep-sea Extreme Environment Pilot (D.E.E.P.), the games place players in the role of piloting a remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) to complete science-based objectives associated with the exploration of ocean observing systems and hydrothermal vent environments. In addition to creating a unique educational product, our efforts are intended to identify 1) the key elements of a successful STEM-based simulation game experience in an informal science education institution, and 2) which aspects of game design (e.g., challenge, curiosity, fantasy, personal recognition) are most effective at maximizing both learning and enjoyment. We will share our progress to date, including formative assessment results from testing the game prototypes at Birch Aquarium at Scripps, and discuss the potential benefits and challenges to interactive gaming as a tool to support STEM

  6. Titan : A new facility for ultraclean sampling of trace elements and isotopes in the deep oceans in the international Geotraces program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baar, H.J.W.; Timmermans, K.R; Laan, P.; De Porto, H.H.; Ober, S.; Blom, J.J.; Bakker, M.C.; Schilling, J; Sarthou, G.; Smit, M. G.; Klunder, M

    2008-01-01

    Towards more rapid ultraclean sampling of deep ocean waters for trace elements, a novel rectangular frame was constructed of titanium, holding two rows of 12 samplers, as well as various sensors. The frame is deployed to deep ocean waters by an 8000 m length Kevlar wire with internal power and

  7. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 1992-02-26 to 1993-04-14 (NODC Accession 9700264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS. Data were collected by Oregon State University (OSU) as part of the World Ocean Circulation...

  8. Hydrothermal Fe cycling and deep ocean organic carbon scavenging: Model-based evidence for significant POC supply to seafloor sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    German, C.R.; Legendre, L.L.; Sander, S.G.;; Niquil, N.; Luther-III, G.W.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Han, X.; LeBris, N.

    by more than ~10% over background values, what the model does indicate is that scavenging of carbon in association with Fe-rich hydrothermal plume particles should play a significant role in the delivery of particulate organic carbon to deep ocean...

  9. Micrometer- and nanometer-sized platinum group nuggets in micrometeorites from deep-sea sediments of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; Parashar, K.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    We examined 378 micrometeorites collected from deep-sea sediments of the Indian Ocean of which 175, 180, and 23 are I-type, S-type, and G-type, respectively. Of the 175 I-type spherules, 13 contained platinum group element nuggets (PGNs...

  10. MBARI Mapping AUV: A High-Resolution Deep Ocean Seafloor Mapping Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Thomas, H.; McEwen, R.; Henthorn, R.; McGill, P.; Thompson, D.; Sibenac, M.; Jensen, S.; Shane, F.; Hamilton, A.

    2005-05-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) is developing an autonomous seafloor mapping capability for deep ocean science applications. The MBARI Mapping AUV is a 0.53 m (21 in) diameter, 5.1 m (16.7 ft) long, Dorado-class vehicle designed to carry four mapping sonars. The primary sensor is a 200 kHz multibeam sonar producing swath bathymetry and sidescan. In addition, the vehicle carries 100 kHz and 410 kHz chirp sidescan sonars, and a 2-16 kHz sweep chirp subbottom profiler. Navigation and attitude data are obtained from an inertial navigation system (INS) incorporating a ring laser gyro and a 300 kHz Doppler velocity log (DVL). The vehicle also includes acoustic modem, ultra-short baseline navigation, and long-baseline navigation systems. The Mapping AUV is powered by 6 kWhr of Li-polymer batteries, providing expected mission duration of 12 hours at a typical speed of 1.5 m/s. All components of the vehicle are rated to 6000 m depth, allowing MBARI to conduct high-resolution mapping of the deep-ocean seafloor. The sonar package is also be mountable on ROV Ventana, allowing surveys at altitudes less than 20 m at topographically challenging sites. The vehicle was assembled and extensively tested during 2004; this year we are commencing operations for MBARI science projects while continuing the process of testing and integrating the complete suite of sensors and systems. MBARI is beginning to use this capability to observe the changing morphology of dynamic systems such as submarine canyons and active slumps, to map deep-water benthic habitats at resolutions comparable to ROV and submersible observations, to provide basemaps for ROV dives, and to provide high resolution bathymetry and subbottom profiles as part of a variety of projects requiring knowledge of the seafloor. We will present initial results from surveys in and around Monterey Canyon, including high resolution repeat surveys of four sites along the canyon axis.

  11. New Experimental Constraints on Crystallization Differentiation in a Deep Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. J.; Ito, E.; Nakamura, E.; Tronnes, R.; Frost, D.

    2001-12-01

    Most of Earth's mass probably accreted as a consequence of numerous impacts between large bodies and proto-Earth, and a giant impact with a Mars-sized object is the most plausible explanation for a Moon forming event. 1 Physical models show that large impacts would have caused high-degrees of melting and a global magma ocean. 2 Crystallization differentiation in a deep magma ocean could impart stratification in the solidified mantle, forming large geochemical domains. To accurately model crystallization in a deep magma ocean the liquidus phase-relations of peridotite, as well as mineral/melt element partitioning, must be known at lower mantle conditions. Here, we report the results of liquidus experiments on fertile model peridotite compositions at 23 - 33 GPa. Experiments were performed in 6/8-type multi-anvil apparatus using carbide and sintered-diamond second-stage anvils with 4 and 2 mm truncations, respectively. Samples were encapsulated by either graphite or Re. High-temperatures were generated using LaCrO3 or Re furnaces, and temperatures were held from 2 to 50 minutes at 2300 - 2500 C. Run products were analyzed for major and trace elements using EPMA and SIMS. At 23 GPa the liquidus phase is majorite, followed closely down temperature by ferropericlase (Fp) and Mg-perovskite (Mg-Pv). At 24 GPa the liquidus phase has changed to Fp, followed closely by majorite and Mg-Pv. Ca-perovskite (Ca-Pv) is present only at much lower temperatures close to the solidus. At approximately 31 GPa Mg-Pv is the liquidus phase followed down-temperature by Fp then Ca-Pv. At ~ 33 GPa Ca-Pv crystallizes closer to the liquidus, within about 50 C, at a similar temperature to Fp. Thus, important phases crystallizing in a deep magma ocean are Mg-Pv, Ca-Pv and Fp. Crystallization models based on major element partitioning show that only very modest amounts of crystal separation of a Mg-Pv + Fp assemblage can be tolerated before Ca/Al, Al/Ti and Ca/Ti ratios become unrealistic for

  12. Seismic evidence for deep fluid circulation in the overriding plate of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauzin, B.; Reynard, B.; Bodin, T.; Perrillat, J. P.; Debayle, E.

    2015-12-01

    In subduction zones, non-volcanic tremors are associated with fluid circulations (Obara, 2002). Their sources are often located on the interplate boundary (Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Shelly et al, 2006; La Rocca, 2009), consistent with fluids released by the dehydration of subducted plates (Hacker et al., 2003). Reports of tremors in the overriding continental crust of several subduction zones in the world (Kao et al., 2005; Payero et al., 2008; Ide, 2012) suggest fluid circulation at shallower depths but potential fluid paths are poorly documented. Here we obtained seismic observations from receiver functions that evidence the close association between the shallow tremor zone, electrical conductivity, and tectonic features of the Cascadia overriding plate. A seismic discontinuity near 15 km depth in the crust of the overriding North American plate is attributed to the Conrad discontinuity. This interface is segmented, and its interruption is spatially correlated with conductive regions and shallow swarms of seismicity and non-volcanic tremors. These observations suggest that shallow fluid circulation, tremors and seismicity are controlled by fault zones limiting blocks of accreted terranes in the overriding plate (Brudzinski and Allen, 2007). These zones constitute fluid "escape" routes that may contribute unloading fluid pressure on the megathrust. Obara, K. (2002). Science, 296, 1679-1681. Rogers, G., & Dragert, H. (2003). Science, 300, 1942-1943. Shelly, D. R., et al. (2006). Nature, 442, 188-191. La Rocca, M., et al. (2009). Science, 323, 620-623. Kao, H., et al. (2005). Nature, 436, 841-844. Payero, J. S., et al. (2008). Geophysical Research Letters, 35. Ide, S. (2012). Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 117. Brudzinski, M. R., & Allen, R. M. (2007). Geology, 35, 907-910.

  13. Experimental studies on behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in relation to deep-ocean disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, S.R.; Fowler, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the interactions of long-lived radionuclides with sediments from present or potential deep-ocean radioactive waste disposal sites. The studies have been concerned with both geochemical aspects and sediment/animal radioecology. Examples drawn from the comparative behaviour of technetium and three transuranium nuclides (neptunium, plutonium and americium) are presented in relation to their uptake from sea water by deep-ocean sediments, ease of desorption and transfer from contaminated sediments to benthic invertebrates. The results provide information for the prediction of the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in the deep-sea water/sediment boundary after their release from wastes. (author)

  14. Climate and vegetation changes around the Atlantic Ocean resulting from changes in the meridional overturning circulation during deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handiani, D.; Paul, A.; Dupont, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Bølling-Allerød (BA, starting ~ 14.5 ka BP) is one of the most pronounced abrupt warming periods recorded in ice and pollen proxies. The leading explanation of the cause of this warming is a sudden increase in the rate of deepwater formation in the North Atlantic Ocean and the resulting effect on the heat transport by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In this study, we used the University of Victoria (UVic) Earth System-Climate Model (ESCM) to run simulations, in which a freshwater perturbation initiated a BA-like warming period. We found that under present climate conditions, the AMOC intensified when freshwater was added to the Southern Ocean. However, under Heinrich event 1 (HE1, ~ 16 ka BP) climate conditions, the AMOC only intensified when freshwater was extracted from the North Atlantic Ocean, possibly corresponding to an increase in evaporation or a decrease in precipitation in this region. The intensified AMOC led to a warming in the North Atlantic Ocean and a cooling in the South Atlantic Ocean, resembling the bipolar seesaw pattern typical of the last glacial period. In addition to the physical response, we also studied the simulated vegetation response around the Atlantic Ocean region. Corresponding with the bipolar seesaw hypothesis, the rainbelt associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifted northward and affected the vegetation pattern in the tropics. The most sensitive vegetation area was found in tropical Africa, where grass cover increased and tree cover decreased under dry climate conditions. An equal but opposite response to the collapse and recovery of the AMOC implied that the change in vegetation cover was transient and robust to an abrupt climate change such as during the BA period, which is also supported by paleovegetation data. The results are in agreement with paleovegetation records from Western tropical Africa, which also show a reduction in forest cover during this time period. Further

  15. Horizontal Residual Mean Circulation: Evaluation of Spatial Correlations in Coarse Resolution Ocean Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; McDougall, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    Coarse resolution ocean models lack knowledge of spatial correlations between variables on scales smaller than the grid scale. Some researchers have shown that these spatial correlations play a role in the poleward heat flux. In order to evaluate the poleward transport induced by the spatial correlations at a fixed horizontal position, an equation is obtained to calculate the approximate transport from velocity gradients. The equation involves two terms that can be added to the quasi-Stokes streamfunction (based on temporal correlations) to incorporate the contribution of spatial correlations. Moreover, these new terms do not need to be parameterized and is ready to be evaluated by using model data directly. In this study, data from a high resolution ocean model have been used to estimate the accuracy of this HRM approach for improving the horizontal property fluxes in coarse-resolution ocean models. A coarse grid is formed by sub-sampling and box-car averaging the fine grid scale. The transport calculated on the coarse grid is then compared to the transport on original high resolution grid scale accumulated over a corresponding number of grid boxes. The preliminary results have shown that the estimate on coarse resolution grids roughly match the corresponding transports on high resolution grids.

  16. Effect of Gravity Waves from Small Islands in the Southern Ocean on the Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Oman, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of small islands in the Southern Ocean on the atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is considered with a series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model in which the gravity wave stress generated by these islands is increased to resemble observed values. The enhanced gravity wave drag leads to a 2 K warming of the springtime polar stratosphere, partially ameliorating biases in this region. Resolved wave drag declines in the stratospheric region in which the added orographic gravity waves deposit their momentum, such that changes in gravity waves are partially compensated by changes in resolved waves, though resolved wave drag increases further poleward. The orographic drag from these islands has impacts for surface climate, as biases in tropospheric jet position are also partially ameliorated. These results suggest that these small islands are likely contributing to the missing drag near 60 degrees S in the upper stratosphere evident in many data assimilation products.

  17. Using a {sigma}-coordinate numerical ocean model for simulating the circulation at Ormen Lange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassen, Inge K.; Berntsen, Jarle

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a numerical model for the simulation of circulation at the Ormen Lange oil field. The model uses a topography following vertical coordinate and time split integration procedure. The model is implemented for a 28 km x 46 km area at Ormen Lange. The equations are given in detail and numerical experiments are discussed. The numerical studies investigate how the flow specified at open boundaries surrounding the Ormen Lange area may be interpolated into the interior domain taking into account the conservation laws that are believed to determine the flow and the local topography.

  18. North Atlantic 20th century multidecadal variability in coupled climate models: sea surface temperature and ocean overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Medhaug

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Output from a total of 24 state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models is analyzed. The models were integrated with observed forcing for the period 1850–2000 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. All models show enhanced variability at multi-decadal time scales in the North Atlantic sector similar to the observations, but with a large intermodel spread in amplitudes and frequencies for both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. The models, in general, are able to reproduce the observed geographical patterns of warm and cold episodes, but not the phasing such as the early warming (1930s–1950s and the following colder period (1960s–1980s. This indicates that the observed 20th century extreme in temperatures are due to primarily a fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate variability and not dominated by external forcing. Most models show a realistic structure in the overturning circulation, where more than half of the available models have a mean overturning transport within the observed estimated range of 13–24 Sverdrup. Associated with a stronger than normal AMOC, the surface temperature is increased and the sea ice extent slightly reduced in the North Atlantic. Individual models show potential for decadal prediction based on the relationship between the AMO and AMOC, but the models strongly disagree both in phasing and strength of the covariability. This makes it difficult to identify common mechanisms and to assess the applicability for predictions.

  19. Porosity evolution at the brittle-ductile transition in the continental crust: Implications for deep hydro-geothermal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violay, M; Heap, M J; Acosta, M; Madonna, C

    2017-08-09

    Recently, projects have been proposed to engineer deep geothermal reservoirs in the ductile crust. To examine their feasibility, we performed high-temperature (up to 1000 °C), high-pressure (130 MPa) triaxial experiments on granite (initially-intact and shock-cooled samples) in which we measured the evolution of porosity during deformation. Mechanical data and post-mortem microstuctural characterisation (X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy) indicate that (1) the failure mode was brittle up to 900 °C (shear fracture formation) but ductile at 1000 °C (no strain localisation); (2) only deformation up to 800 °C was dilatant; (3) deformation at 900 °C was brittle but associated with net compaction due to an increase in the efficiency of crystal plastic processes; (4) ductile deformation at 1000 °C was compactant; (5) thermally-shocking the granite did not influence strength or failure mode. Our data show that, while brittle behaviour increases porosity, porosity loss is associated with both ductile behaviour and transitional behaviour as the failure mode evolves from brittle to ductile. Extrapolating our data to geological strain rates suggests that the brittle-ductile transition occurs at a temperature of 400 ± 100 °C, and is associated with the limit of fluid circulation in the deep continental crust.

  20. Okamejei ornata n. sp., a new deep-water skate (Elasmobranchii, Rajidae) from the northwestern Indian Ocean off Socotra Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, Simon; Stehmann, Matthias F. W.; Thiel, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    A new species of the Indo-Pacific skate genus Okamejei is described based on 10 specimens caught around the Socotra Islands (northwestern Indian Ocean). The type series of Okamejei ornata n. sp. was sampled during cruise 17 of RV 'Vityaz' along the deep western Indian Ocean in 1988/89. The new species represents the fifth species of Okamejei in the western Indian Ocean and differs from its congeners in having a unique dorsal pattern of variable dark brown spots encircled with beige pigment and arranged into rosettes. The dorsal ground color is ocher, but the anterior snout is dusky. Compared to congeners in the western Indian Ocean, the new species has a shorter preorbital snout length, a greater orbit diameter, fewer pectoral radials, an intermediate distance between first gill slits, and an intermediate number of upper jaw tooth rows.

  1. Late Holocene variations in Pacific surface circulation and biogeochemistry inferred from proteinaceous deep-sea corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Guilderson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available δ15N and δ13C data obtained from samples of proteinaceous deep-sea corals collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (Hawaiian Archipelago and the central equatorial Pacific (Line Islands document multidecadal to century-scale variability in the isotopic composition of surface-produced particulate organic matter exported to the deep sea. Comparison of the δ13C data, where Line Islands samples are 0.6‰ more positive than the Hawaiian samples, supports the contention that the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre is more efficient than the tropical upwelling system at trapping and/or recycling nutrients within the mixed layer. δ15N values from the Line Islands samples are also more positive than those from the central gyre, and within the Hawaiian samples there is a gradient with more positive δ15N values in samples from the main Hawaiian Islands versus the French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The gradient in the Hawaiian samples likely reflects the relative importance of algal acquisition of metabolic N via dissolved seawater nitrate uptake versus nitrogen fixation. The Hawaiian sample set also exhibits a strong decrease in δ15N values from the mid-Holocene to present. We hypothesize that this decrease is most likely the result of decreasing trade winds, and possibly a commensurate decrease in entrainment of more positive δ15N-NO3 subthermocline water masses.

  2. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination

  3. Systems analysis approach to the disposal of high-level waste in deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de; Hill, M.D.; Murray, C.N.; Talbert, D.M.; Van Dorp, F.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Among the different options being studied for disposal of high-level solidified waste, increasing attention is being paid to that of emplacement of glasses incorporating the radioactivity in deep oceanic sediments. This option has the advantage that the areas of the oceans under investigation appear to be relatively unproductive biologically, are relatively free from cataclysmic events, and are areas in which the natural processes are slow. Thus the environment is stable and predictable so that a number of barriers to the release and dispersion of radioactivity can be defined. Task Groups set up in the framework of the International Seabed Working Group have been studying many aspects of this option since 1976. In order that the various parts of the problem can be assessed within an integrated framework, the methods of systems analysis have been applied. In this paper the Systems Analysis Task Group members report the development of an overall system model. This will be used in an iterative process in which a preliminary analysis, together with a sensitivity analysis, identifies the parameters and data of most importance. The work of the other task groups will then be focussed on these parameters and data requirements so that improved results can be fed back into an improved overall systems model. The major requirements for the development of a preliminary overall systems model are that the problem should be separated into identified elements and that the interfaces between the elements should be clearly defined. The model evolved is deterministic and defines the problem elements needed to estimate doses to man

  4. Distal transport of dissolved hydrothermal iron in the deep South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N; Boyle, Edward A; Jenkins, William J

    2014-11-25

    Until recently, hydrothermal vents were not considered to be an important source to the marine dissolved Fe (dFe) inventory because hydrothermal Fe was believed to precipitate quantitatively near the vent site. Based on recent abyssal dFe enrichments near hydrothermal vents, however, the leaky vent hypothesis [Toner BM, et al. (2012) Oceanography 25(1):209-212] argues that some hydrothermal Fe persists in the dissolved phase and contributes a significant flux of dFe to the global ocean. We show here the first, to our knowledge, dFe (Pacific Ocean, where dFe of 1.0-1.5 nmol/kg near 2,000 m depth (0.4-0.9 nmol/kg above typical deep-sea dFe concentrations) was determined to be hydrothermally derived based on its correlation with primordial (3)He and dissolved Mn (dFe:(3)He of 0.9-2.7 × 10(6)). Given the known sites of hydrothermal venting in these regions, this dFe must have been transported thousands of kilometers away from its vent site to reach our sampling stations. Additionally, changes in the size partitioning of the hydrothermal dFe between soluble (Pacific Rise only leaks 0.02-1% of total Fe vented into the abyssal Pacific, this dFe persists thousands of kilometers away from the vent source with sufficient magnitude that hydrothermal vents can have far-field effects on global dFe distributions and inventories (≥3% of global aerosol dFe input).

  5. Circulation, retention, and mixing of waters within the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean: The role of stratified Taylor columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Meijers, Andrew S.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Brown, Peter J.; Venables, Hugh J.; Abrahamsen, E. Povl; Jullion, Loïc.; Messias, Marie-José

    2015-01-01

    The waters of the Weddell-Scotia Confluence (WSC) lie above the rugged topography of the South Scotia Ridge in the Southern Ocean. Meridional exchanges across the WSC transfer water and tracers between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to the north and the subpolar Weddell Gyre to the south. Here, we examine the role of topographic interactions in mediating these exchanges, and in modifying the waters transferred. A case study is presented using data from a free-drifting, intermediate-depth float, which circulated anticyclonically over Discovery Bank on the South Scotia Ridge for close to 4 years. Dimensional analysis indicates that the local conditions are conducive to the formation of Taylor columns. Contemporaneous ship-derived transient tracer data enable estimation of the rate of isopycnal mixing associated with this column, with values of O(1000 m2/s) obtained. Although necessarily coarse, this is of the same order as the rate of isopycnal mixing induced by transient mesoscale eddies within the ACC. A picture emerges of the Taylor column acting as a slow, steady blender, retaining the waters in the vicinity of the WSC for lengthy periods during which they can be subject to significant modification. A full regional float data set, bathymetric data, and a Southern Ocean state estimate are used to identify other potential sites for Taylor column formation. We find that they are likely to be sufficiently widespread to exert a significant influence on water mass modification and meridional fluxes across the southern edge of the ACC in this sector of the Southern Ocean.

  6. Geophysical excitation of LOD/UT1 estimated from the output of the global circulation models of the atmosphere - ERA-40 reanalysis and of the ocean - OMCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbacz, A.; Brzeziński, A.; Thomas, M.

    2008-04-01

    We use new estimates of the global atmospheric and oceanic angular momenta (AAM, OAM) to study the influence on LOD/UT1. The AAM series was calculated from the output fields of the atmospheric general circulation model ERA-40 reanalysis. The OAM series is an outcome of global ocean model OMCT simulation driven by global fields of the atmospheric parameters from the ERA- 40 reanalysis. The excitation data cover the period between 1963 and 2001. Our calculations concern atmospheric and oceanic effects in LOD/UT1 over the periods between 20 days and decades. Results are compared to those derived from the alternative AAM/OAM data sets.

  7. Boldness in a deep sea hermit crab to simulated tactile predator attacks is unaffected by ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won; Barry, James P.

    2016-09-01

    Despite rapidly growing interest in the effects of ocean acidification on marine animals, the ability of deep-sea animals to acclimate or adapt to reduced pH conditions has received little attention. Deep-sea species are generally thought to be less tolerant of environmental variation than shallow-living species because they inhabit relatively stable conditions for nearly all environmental parameters. To explore whether deep-sea hermit crabs ( Pagurus tanneri) can acclimate to ocean acidification over several weeks, we compared behavioral "boldness," measured as time taken to re-emerge from shells after a simulated predatory attack by a toy octopus, under ambient (pH ˜7.6) and expected future (pH ˜7.1) conditions. The boldness measure for crab behavioral responses did not differ between different pH treatments, suggesting that future deep-sea acidification would not influence anti-predatory behavior. However, we did not examine the effects of olfactory cues released by predators that may affect hermit crab behavior and could be influenced by changes in the ocean carbonate system driven by increasing CO2 levels.

  8. Bidecadal North Atlantic ocean circulation variability controlled by timing of volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingedouw, Didier; Ortega, Pablo; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Butler, Paul G; Khodri, Myriam; Séférian, Roland

    2015-03-30

    While bidecadal climate variability has been evidenced in several North Atlantic paleoclimate records, its drivers remain poorly understood. Here we show that the subset of CMIP5 historical climate simulations that produce such bidecadal variability exhibits a robust synchronization, with a maximum in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) 15 years after the 1963 Agung eruption. The mechanisms at play involve salinity advection from the Arctic and explain the timing of Great Salinity Anomalies observed in the 1970s and the 1990s. Simulations, as well as Greenland and Iceland paleoclimate records, indicate that coherent bidecadal cycles were excited following five Agung-like volcanic eruptions of the last millennium. Climate simulations and a conceptual model reveal that destructive interference caused by the Pinatubo 1991 eruption may have damped the observed decreasing trend of the AMOC in the 2000s. Our results imply a long-lasting climatic impact and predictability following the next Agung-like eruption.

  9. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispine Nyamweya

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May and mixing (June-August. Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  10. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  11. Past and future ice age initiation: the role of an intrinsic deep-ocean millennial oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    This paper offers three interdependent contributions to studies of climate variation: (1) the recognition and analysis of an intrinsic millennial oceanic oscillation that affects both Northern and Southern high latitude climates, (2) The recognition of an oceanographic switch to ice-free seas west of Greenland that explains the initiation of the Last Ice Age, and (3) an analysis of the effect of increasing salinity in the seas east of Greenland that suggests the possibility of the initiation of an ice age threshold climate in the near future. In the first contribution the millennial oscillation in the flow of the North Atlantic Drift reported by Bond et al. (1997) is proposed to be part of a 1500 yr intrinsic deep ocean oscillation. This oscillation involves the exchange of North Atlantic intermediate-level deep water (NADW) formed in the seas east of Greenland with Antarctic Bottom Water formed in a shallow-water zone at the edge of the Antarctic continent. The concept of NADW formation is already well known, with details of the sinking water flowing out of the Greenland Sea observed by Smethie et al. (2000) using chlorofluorocarbon tracers. The concept of Antarctic Bottom Water formation is also already well established. However, its modulation by the changing fraction of NADW in the Southern Ocean, which I infer from the analysis of Weyl (1968), has not been previously discussed. The modulated lower-salinity Antarctic Bottom Water that reaches the northern North Atlantic then provides negative feedback for the cyclic variation of NADW formation as proposed here. This causes the 1500 yr bipolar oscillation. The feedback suggests the possible sinusoidal character of the proposed oscillation model. The model is consistent with the cooling of the Little Ice Age (Lamb, 1972, 1995), and it also correctly predicts NASA's observation of today's record maximum area of winter sea ice on the Southern Ocean and the present observed record low rate of Antarctic Bottom Water

  12. Oceans circulation and electron cyclotron resonance sources: Measurement of the AR-39 isotopic ratio in Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaelens, M.; Loiselet, M.; Ryckewaert, G.; Pardo, R.C.; Scott, R.H.; Vondrasek, R.; Collon, Ph.; Kutchera, W.

    2004-01-01

    The radionuclide 39 Ar is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays and has an isotopic abundance of 8.1x10 -16 . Because its half life (T 1/2 =269 years) is well matched to the time periods involved in the oceanic currents around the Earth, the measurement of the 39 Ar isotopic ratio is an ideal tool to date ocean water from different depths. It would complement the information gained by the 14 C measurements (T 1/2 =5730 years). However, the measurement of the isotopic ratio 39 Ar/ 40 Ar is a technical challenge: 1 L of modern ocean water contains ∼6500 atoms of 39 Ar, and produces ∼17 decays per year. Although it has been possible to detect the 39 Ar decays in large volumes of sea water by using the low level counting technique, the possibility of measuring the number of 39 Ar atoms faster and in smaller samples using the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique would be a major breakthrough for this type of measurement. The development of a viable AMS method for 39 Ar has been underway for several years at Argonne National Laboratory, and is presently hampered by the presence of stable 39 K ions coming from the ion source. Although the intensity of this isobaric contaminant is low (∼pA extracted from the source), it has to be compared with the 39 Ar beam intensity (atoms per minutes). In order to separate these two beams (whose mass difference is only 1.6x10 -5 ), the intensity of the 39 K beam coming from the ion source has to be reduced by several orders of magnitude. This reduction has been investigated both at Argonne National Laboratory and at Louvain-la-Neuve. Two techniques have been tried out. In the first, a quartz liner is used to provide a clean surface, while in the second these impurities are buried in a SiO 2 layer formed in situ by running the source with a mixture of silane and oxygen. The 39 K background has been reduced by a factor of 100 with these treatments. These techniques and their results obtained both at Argonne and Louvain

  13. Vertical structure, biomass and topographic association of deep-pelagic fishes in relation to a mid-ocean ridge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, T. T.; Porteiro, F. M.; Heino, M.; Byrkjedal, I.; Langhelle, G.; Anderson, C. I. H.; Horne, J.; Søiland, H.; Falkenhaug, T.; Godø, O. R.; Bergstad, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    The assemblage structure and vertical distribution of deep-pelagic fishes relative to a mid-ocean ridge system are described from an acoustic and discrete-depth trawling survey conducted as part of the international Census of Marine Life field project MAR-ECO . The 36-station, zig-zag survey along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Iceland to the Azores) covered the full depth range (0 to >3000 m), from the surface to near the bottom, using a combination of gear types to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the pelagic fauna. Abundance per volume of deep-pelagic fishes was highest in the epipelagic zone and within the benthic boundary layer (BBL; 0-200 m above the seafloor). Minimum fish abundance occurred at depths below 2300 m but above the BBL. Biomass per volume of deep-pelagic fishes over the MAR reached a maximum within the BBL, revealing a previously unknown topographic association of a bathypelagic fish assemblage with a mid-ocean ridge system. With the exception of the BBL, biomass per volume reached a water column maximum in the bathypelagic zone between 1500 and 2300 m. This stands in stark contrast to the general "open-ocean" paradigm that biomass decreases exponentially from the surface downwards. As much of the summit of the MAR extends into this depth layer, a likely explanation for this mid-water maximum is ridge association. Multivariate statistical analyses suggest that the dominant component of deep-pelagic fish biomass over the northern MAR was a wide-ranging bathypelagic assemblage that was remarkably consistent along the length of the ridge from Iceland to the Azores. Integrating these results with those of previous studies in oceanic ecosystems, there appears to be adequate evidence to conclude that special hydrodynamic and biotic features of mid-ocean ridge systems cause changes in the ecological structure of deep-pelagic fish assemblages relative to those at the same depths over abyssal plains. Lacking terrigenous input of

  14. Antarctic lakes suggest millennial reorganizations of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric and oceanic circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brenda L; Denton, George H; Fountain, Andrew G; Hendy, Chris H; Henderson, Gideon M

    2010-12-14

    The phasing of millennial-scale oscillations in Antarctica relative to those elsewhere in the world is important for discriminating among models for abrupt climate change, particularly those involving the Southern Ocean. However, records of millennial-scale variability from Antarctica dating to the last glacial maximum are rare and rely heavily on data from widely spaced ice cores, some of which show little variability through that time. Here, we present new data from closed-basin lakes in the Dry Valleys region of East Antarctica that show high-magnitude, high-frequency oscillations in surface level during the late Pleistocene synchronous with climate fluctuations elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere. These data suggest a coherent Southern Hemisphere pattern of climate change on millennial time scales, at least in the Pacific sector, and indicate that any hypothesis concerning the origin of these events must account for synchronous changes in both high and temperate latitudes.

  15. Reconstructing surface ocean circulation with 129I time series records from corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Burr, George S; Jull, A J Timothy; Russell, Joellen L; Biddulph, Dana; White, Lara; Prouty, Nancy G; Chen, Yue-Gau; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Zhou, Weijian; Lam, Doan Dinh

    2016-12-01

    The long-lived radionuclide 129 I (half-life: 15.7 × 10 6  yr) is well-known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global 129 I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1960 levels. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic 129 I produced from industrial nuclear fuels reprocessing plants has been the primary source of 129 I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic and around the globe. Here we present four coral 129 I time series records from: 1) Con Dao and 2) Xisha Islands, the South China Sea, 3) Rabaul, Papua New Guinea and 4) Guam. The Con Dao coral 129 I record features a sudden increase in 129 I in 1959. The Xisha coral shows similar peak values for 129 I as the Con Dao coral, punctuated by distinct low values, likely due to the upwelling in the central South China Sea. The Rabaul coral features much more gradual 129 I increases in the 1970s, similar to a published record from the Solomon Islands. The Guam coral 129 I record contains the largest measured values for any site, with two large peaks, in 1955 and 1959. Nuclear weapons testing was the primary 129 I source in the Western Pacific in the latter part of the 20th Century, notably from testing in the Marshall Islands. The Guam 1955 peak and Con Dao 1959 increases are likely from the 1954 Castle Bravo test, and the Operation Hardtack I test is the most likely source of the 1959 peak observed at Guam. Radiogenic iodine found in coral was carried primarily through surface ocean currents. The coral 129 I time series data provide a broad picture of the surface distribution and depth penetration of 129 I in the Pacific Ocean over the past 60 years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. ESTIMATING THE DEEP SOLAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION USING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS AND A DYNAMO MODEL: A VARIATIONAL APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Ching Pui; Jouve, Laurène; Brun, Allan Sacha; Fournier, Alexandre; Talagrand, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    We show how magnetic observations of the Sun can be used in conjunction with an axisymmetric flux-transport solar dynamo model in order to estimate the large-scale meridional circulation throughout the convection zone. Our innovative approach rests on variational data assimilation, whereby the distance between predictions and observations (measured by an objective function) is iteratively minimized by means of an optimization algorithm seeking the meridional flow that best accounts for the data. The minimization is performed using a quasi-Newton technique, which requires knowledge of the sensitivity of the objective function to the meridional flow. That sensitivity is efficiently computed via the integration of the adjoint flux-transport dynamo model. Closed-loop (also known as twin) experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the validity and accuracy of this technique for a variety of meridional flow configurations, ranging from unicellular and equatorially symmetric to multicellular and equatorially asymmetric. In this well-controlled synthetic context, we perform a systematic study of the behavior of our variational approach under different observational configurations by varying their spatial density, temporal density, and noise level, as well as the width of the assimilation window. We find that the method is remarkably robust, leading in most cases to a recovery of the true meridional flow to within better than 1%. These encouraging results are a first step toward using this technique to (i) better constrain the physical processes occurring inside the Sun and (ii) better predict solar activity on decadal timescales

  17. ESTIMATING THE DEEP SOLAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION USING MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS AND A DYNAMO MODEL: A VARIATIONAL APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Ching Pui; Jouve, Laurène; Brun, Allan Sacha [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU Université Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Fournier, Alexandre [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot UMR 7154 CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Talagrand, Olivier [Laboratoire de météorologie dynamique, UMR 8539, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2015-12-01

    We show how magnetic observations of the Sun can be used in conjunction with an axisymmetric flux-transport solar dynamo model in order to estimate the large-scale meridional circulation throughout the convection zone. Our innovative approach rests on variational data assimilation, whereby the distance between predictions and observations (measured by an objective function) is iteratively minimized by means of an optimization algorithm seeking the meridional flow that best accounts for the data. The minimization is performed using a quasi-Newton technique, which requires knowledge of the sensitivity of the objective function to the meridional flow. That sensitivity is efficiently computed via the integration of the adjoint flux-transport dynamo model. Closed-loop (also known as twin) experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the validity and accuracy of this technique for a variety of meridional flow configurations, ranging from unicellular and equatorially symmetric to multicellular and equatorially asymmetric. In this well-controlled synthetic context, we perform a systematic study of the behavior of our variational approach under different observational configurations by varying their spatial density, temporal density, and noise level, as well as the width of the assimilation window. We find that the method is remarkably robust, leading in most cases to a recovery of the true meridional flow to within better than 1%. These encouraging results are a first step toward using this technique to (i) better constrain the physical processes occurring inside the Sun and (ii) better predict solar activity on decadal timescales.

  18. Dissolution of methane bubbles with hydrate armoring in deep ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Margarita; Socolofsky, Scott

    2017-11-01

    The deep ocean is a storehouse of natural gas. Methane bubble moving upwards from marine sediments may become trapped in gas hydrates. It is uncertain precisely how hydrate armoring affects dissolution, or mass transfer from the bubble to the surrounding water column. The Texas A&M Oilspill Calculator was used to simulate a series of gas bubble dissolution experiments conducted in the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory High Pressure Water Tunnel. Several variations of the mass transfer coefficient were calculated based on gas or hydrate phase solubility and clean or dirty bubble correlations. Results suggest the mass transfer coefficient may be most closely modeled with gas phase solubility and dirty bubble correlation equations. Further investigation of hydrate bubble dissolution behavior will refine current numeric models which aid in understanding gas flux to the atmosphere and plumes such as oil spills. Research funded in part by the Texas A&M University 2017 Undergraduate Summer Research Grant and a Grant from the Methane Gas Hydrates Program of the US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  19. Deep-Ocean Crusts as Telescopes: Using Live Radioisotopes to Probe Supernova Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, B D; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Fields, Brian D.; Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Ellis, John

    2005-01-01

    Live 60Fe has recently been detected in a deep-ocean ferromanganese crust, isolated in layers dating from about 3 Myr ago. Since 60Fe has a mean life of 2.2 Myr, a near-Earth supernova is the only likely source for such a signal, and we explore here the consequences of a supernova origin. We combine the 60Fe data with several supernova nucleosynthesis models to calculate the supernova distance as a function of progenitor mass, finding an allowed range of 15-120 pc. We also predict the signals expected for several other radioisotopes, which are independent of the supernova distance. Species likely to be present near or above background levels are 10Be, 26Al, 53Mn, 182Hf and 244Pu. Of these, 182Hf and 244Pu are nearly background-free, presenting the best opportunities to provide strong confirmation of the supernova origin of the 60Fe signal, and to demonstrate that at least some supernovae are the source for the r-process. The accuracies of our predictions are hampered by large uncertainties in the predicted 60...

  20. The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW.

  1. Study of elementary absorption in the marine sediments of the North Atlantic ocean deeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, D.; Guegueniat, P.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the retention of actinide elements (Np, Pu, Am) and of Cs in the sediments of the ocean deeps around Cap-Vert. Plutonium: retention increases with temperatures of 4 to 30 0 C, then stays constant from 30 to 80 0 C. Desorption is slow. Americium: absorption is very strong at any temperature. Measurements of a wide variety of sediments show that retention is not affected by facies (including carbonated sediments). Neptunium: retention is more or less constant between 4 and 15 0 C, and distinctly higher at 30-50 0 C. It is reversible. Caesium: absorption decreases slightly from 4 to 30 0 C, but increases rapidly at 50 to 80 0 C. At the lowest temperatures it is reversible, but it appears to be irreversible at 50 0 . Cs absorption is subject to ponderal concentration. With equal amounts of activity, retention of Cs-135 is weaker than that of Cs-137: likewise the addition of the stable isotope causes in the amounts of Kd in Cs-137. Finally, this paper presents preliminary results showing the natural metallic element content of the sediments

  2. Array design considerations for exploitation of stable weakly dispersive modal pulses in the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.

    2017-07-01

    Modal pulses are broadband contributions to an acoustic wave field with fixed mode number. Stable weakly dispersive modal pulses (SWDMPs) are special modal pulses that are characterized by weak dispersion and weak scattering-induced broadening and are thus suitable for communications applications. This paper investigates, using numerical simulations, receiver array requirements for recovering information carried by SWDMPs under various signal-to-noise ratio conditions without performing channel equalization. Two groups of weakly dispersive modal pulses are common in typical mid-latitude deep ocean environments: the lowest order modes (typically modes 1-3 at 75 Hz), and intermediate order modes whose waveguide invariant is near-zero (often around mode 20 at 75 Hz). Information loss is quantified by the bit error rate (BER) of a recovered binary phase-coded signal. With fixed receiver depths, low BERs (less than 1%) are achieved at ranges up to 400 km with three hydrophones for mode 1 with 90% probability and with 34 hydrophones for mode 20 with 80% probability. With optimal receiver depths, depending on propagation range, only a few, sometimes only two, hydrophones are often sufficient for low BERs, even with intermediate mode numbers. Full modal resolution is unnecessary to achieve low BERs. Thus, a flexible receiver array of autonomous vehicles can outperform a cabled array.

  3. On Deep-Ocean $^{60}Fe$ as a Fossil of a Near-Earth Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, B D; Fields, Brian D.; Ellis, John

    1999-01-01

    Live $^{60}$Fe has recently been reported in a deep-ocean ferromanganese crust. Analysis of the isotopic ratios in the sample suggests that the measured $^{60}$Fe abundance exceeds the levels generated by terrestrial and cosmogenic sources, and it has been proposed that the excess of $^{60}$Fe is a signature of a supernova that exploded near the earth several Myr ago. In this paper, we consider the possible background sources, and confirm that the measured $^{60}$Fe is significantly higher than all known backgrounds, in contrast with the reported abundance of live $^{53}$Mn. We discuss scenarios in which the data are consistent with a supernova event at a distance $D \\sim 30$ pc and an epoch $t_{\\rm SN} \\sim 5$ Myr ago. We propose tests that could confirm or refute the interpretation of the $^{60}$Fe discovery, including searches for $^{10}$Be, $^{129}$I and $^{146}$Sm. Such a nearby supernova event might have had some impact on the earth's biosphere, principally by enhancing the cosmic-ray flux. This might h...

  4. Application of systems analysis to the disposal of high level waste in deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marsily, G.; Dorp, F. van

    1982-01-01

    Emplacement in deep ocean sediments is one of the disposal options being considered for solidified high level radioactive waste. Task groups set up within the framework of the NEA Seabed Working Group have been studying many aspects of this option since 1976. The methods of systems analysis have been applied to enable the various parts of the problem to be assessed within an integrated framework. This paper describes the progress made by the Systems Analysis Task Group towards the development of an overall system model. The Task Group began by separating the problem into elements and defining the interfaces between these elements. A simple overall system model was then developed and used in both a preliminary assessment and a sensitivity analysis to identify the most important parameters. These preliminary analyses used a very simple model of the overall system and therefore the results cannot be used to draw any conclusions as to the acceptability of the sub-seabed disposal option. However they served to show the utility of the systems analysis method. The work of the other task groups will focus on the important parameters so that improved results can be fed back into an improved system model. Subsequent iterations will eventually provide an input to an acceptability decision. (Auth.)

  5. Submersible Data (Dive Waypoints) for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data and information collected by the submersible Johnson Sea-Link II at waypoints along its track during two of the seventeen dives of the 2003 "Life on the Edge -...

  6. Climate change and ocean acidification impacts on lower trophic levels and the export of organic carbon to the deep ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Coward, A. C.; Bernie, D.; Anderson, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Most future projections forecast significant and ongoing climate change during the 21st century, but with the severity of impacts dependent on efforts to restrain or reorganise human activity to limit carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. A major sink for atmospheric CO2, and a key source of biological resources, the World Ocean is widely anticipated to undergo profound physical and – via ocean acidification – chemical changes as direct and indirect results of these emissions. Given strong biophysi...

  7. Assessment of Southern Ocean water mass circulation and characteristics in CMIP5 models: Historical bias and forcing response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallée, J.-B.; Shuckburgh, E.; Bruneau, N.; Meijers, A. J. S.; Bracegirdle, T. J.; Wang, Z.; Roy, T.

    2013-04-01

    The ability of the models contributing to the fifth Coupled Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to represent the Southern Ocean hydrological properties and its overturning is investigated in a water mass framework. Models have a consistent warm and light bias spread over the entire water column. The greatest bias occurs in the ventilated layers, which are volumetrically dominated by mode and intermediate layers. The ventilated layers have been observed to have a strong fingerprint of climate change and to impact climate by sequestrating a significant amount of heat and carbon dioxide. The mode water layer is poorly represented in the models and both mode and intermediate water have a significant fresh bias. Under increased radiative forcing, models simulate a warming and lightening of the entire water column, which is again greatest in the ventilated layers, highlighting the importance of these layers for propagating the climate signal into the deep ocean. While the intensity of the water mass overturning is relatively consistent between models, when compared to observation-based reconstructions, they exhibit a slightly larger rate of overturning at shallow to intermediate depths, and a slower rate of overturning deeper in the water column. Under increased radiative forcing, atmospheric fluxes increase the rate of simulated upper cell overturning, but this increase is counterbalanced by diapycnal fluxes, including mixed-layer horizontal mixing, and mostly vanishes.

  8. Physical profile data collected in the Equatorial Pacific during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON array, a network of deep ocean moored buoys, February 23 - December 16, 2005 (NODC Accession 0002644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 2005, CTD data were collected in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON array, a network of deep ocean moored buoys to support...

  9. Linkages between the circulation and distribution of dissolved organic matter in the White Sea, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Semushin, Andrey V.; Martma, Tõnu; Ivanov, Boris V.; Kowalczuk, Piotr; Granskog, Mats A.

    2016-05-01

    The White Sea is a semi-enclosed Arctic marginal sea receiving a significant loading of freshwater (225-231 km3 yr-1 equaling an annual runoff yield of 2.5 m) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from river run-off. We report discharge weighed values of stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of -14.0‰ in Northern Dvina river for the period 10 May-12 October 2012. We found a significant linear relationship between salinity (S) and δ18O (δ18O=-17.66±0.58+0.52±0.02×S; R2=0.96, N=162), which indicates a dominant contribution of river water to the freshwater budget and little influence of sea ice formation or melt. No apparent brine additions from sea-ice formation is evident in the White Sea deep waters as seen from a joint analysis of temperature (T), S, δ18O and aCDOM(350) data, confirming previous suggestions about strong tidal induced vertical mixing in winter being the likely source of the deep waters. We investigated properties and distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the White Sea basin and coastal areas in summer. We found contrasting DOM properties in the inflowing Barents Sea waters and White Sea waters influenced by terrestrial runoff. Values of absorption by CDOM at 350 nm (aCDOM(350)) and DOC (exceeding 10 m-1 and 550 μmol l-1, respectively) in surface waters of the White Sea basin are higher compared to other river-influenced coastal Arctic domains. Linear relationship between S and CDOM absorption, and S and DOC (DOC=959.21±52.99-25.80±1.79×S; R2=0.85; N=154) concentrations suggests conservative mixing of DOM in the White Sea. The strongest linear correlation between CDOM absorption and DOC was found in the ultraviolet (DOC=56.31±2.76+9.13±0.15×aCDOM(254); R2=0.99; N=155), which provides an easy and robust tool to trace DOC using CDOM absorption measurements as well as remote sensing algorithms. Deviations from this linear relationship in surface waters likely indicate contribution from

  10. Assessing the sensitivity of the North Atlantic Ocean circulation to freshwater perturbation in various glacial climate states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, Cedric J. van; Renssen, Hans [VU University Amsterdam, Section Climate Change and Landscape Dynamics, Department of Earth Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roche, Didier M. [VU University Amsterdam, Section Climate Change and Landscape Dynamics, Department of Earth Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laboratoire CEA/INSU-CNRS/UVSQ, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE/IPSL), Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2011-11-15

    A striking characteristic of glacial climate in the North Atlantic region is the recurrence of abrupt shifts between cold stadials and mild interstadials. These shifts have been associated with abrupt changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) mode, possibly in response to glacial meltwater perturbations. However, it is poorly understood why they were more clearly expressed during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3, {proportional_to}60-27 ka BP) than during Termination 1 (T1, {proportional_to}18-10 ka BP) and especially around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, {proportional_to}23-19 ka BP). One clue may reside in varying climate forcings, making MIS3 and T1 generally milder than LGM. To investigate this idea, we evaluate in a climate model how ice sheet size, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration and orbital insolation changes between 56 ka BP (=56k), 21k and 12.5k affect the glacial AMOC response to additional freshwater forcing. We have performed three ensemble simulations with the earth system model LOVECLIM using those forcings. We find that the AMOC mode in the mild glacial climate type (56k and 12.5k), with deep convection in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas, is more sensitive to a constant 0.15 Sv freshwater forcing than in the cold type (21k), with deep convection mainly south of Greenland and Iceland. The initial AMOC weakening in response to freshwater forcing is larger in the mild type due to an early shutdown of Labrador Sea deep convection, which is completely absent in the 21k simulation. This causes a larger fraction of the freshwater anomaly to remain at surface in the mild type compared to the cold type. After 200 years, a weak AMOC is established in both climate types, as further freshening is compensated by an anomalous salt advection from the (sub-)tropical North Atlantic. However, the slightly fresher sea surface in the mild type facilitates further weakening of the AMOC, which occurs when a surface buoyancy threshold (-0.6 kg

  11. A new genus and species of deep-sea glass sponge (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Aulocalycidae) from the Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Sautya, Sabyasachi; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Ingole, Baban

    2011-01-01

    Abstract New hexactinellid sponges were collected from 2589 m depth on the Carlsberg Ridge in the Indian Ocean during deep-sea dredging. All fragments belong to a new genus and species, Indiella gen. n. ridgenensis sp. n., a representative of the family Aulocalycidae described here. The peculiar features of this sponge, not described earlier for other Aulocalycidae, are: longitudinal strands present in several layers and epirhyses channelization.

  12. A new genus and species of deep-sea glass sponge (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Aulocalycidae from the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sautya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New hexactinellid sponges were collected from 2589 m depth on the Carlsberg Ridge in the Indian Ocean during deep-sea dredging. All fragments belong to a new genus and species, Indiella gen. n. ridgenensis sp. n., a representative of the family Aulocalycidae described here. The peculiar features of this sponge, not described earlier for other Aulocalycidae, are: longitudinal strands present in several layers and epirhyses channelization.

  13. A new genus and species of deep-sea glass sponge (Porifera, Hexactinellida, Aulocalycidae) from the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautya, Sabyasachi; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ingole, Baban

    2011-01-01

    New hexactinellid sponges were collected from 2589 m depth on the Carlsberg Ridge in the Indian Ocean during deep-sea dredging. All fragments belong to a new genus and species, Indiellagen. n.ridgenensissp. n., a representative of the family Aulocalycidae described here. The peculiar features of this sponge, not described earlier for other Aulocalycidae, are: longitudinal strands present in several layers and epirhyses channelization.

  14. Turbulence and finestructure in a deep ocean channel with sill overflow on the mid-Atlantic ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippenhauer, Sandra; Dengler, Marcus; Fischer, Tim; Kanzow, Torsten

    2015-05-01

    Diapycnal mixing in the deep ocean is known to be much stronger in the vicinity of rough topography of mid-ocean ridges than above abyssal plains. In this study a horizontally profiling microstructure probe attached to an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is used to infer the spatial distribution of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (ε) in the central valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first successful realization of a horizontal, deep-ocean microstructure survey. More than 22 h of horizontal, near-bottom microstructure data from the Lucky Strike segment (37°N) are presented. The study focuses on a channel with unidirectional sill overflow. Density was found to decrease along the channel following the mean northward flow of 3 to 8 cm/s. The magnitude of the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation was distributed asymmetrically relative to the position of the sill. Elevated dissipation rates were present in a segment 1-4 km downstream (north) of the sill with peak values of 1 ×10-7 W/kg. Large flow speeds and elevated density finestructure were observed within this segment. Lowered hydrographic measurements indicated unstable stratification in the same region. The data indicate that hydraulic control was established at least temporarily. Inside the channel at wavelengths between 1 m and 250 m the slopes of AUV-inferred horizontal temperature gradient spectra were found to be consistent with turbulence in the inertial-convective subrange. Integrated temperature gradient variance in this wavelength interval was consistent with an ε2/3 dependence. The results illustrate that deep-reaching AUVs are a useful tool to study deep ocean turbulence over complex terrain where free-falling and lowered turbulence measurements are inefficient and time-consuming.

  15. Simulation of anthropogenic CO2 uptake in the CCSM3.1 ocean circulation-biogeochemical model: comparison with data-based estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khatiwala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The global ocean has taken up a large fraction of the CO2 released by human activities since the industrial revolution. Quantifying the oceanic anthropogenic carbon (Cant inventory and its variability is important for predicting the future global carbon cycle. The detailed comparison of data-based and model-based estimates is essential for the validation and continued improvement of our prediction capabilities. So far, three global estimates of oceanic Cant inventory that are "data-based" and independent of global ocean circulation models have been produced: one based on the Δ C* method, and two that are based on constraining surface-to-interior transport of tracers, the TTD method and a maximum entropy inversion method (GF. The GF method, in particular, is capable of reconstructing the history of Cant inventory through the industrial era. In the present study we use forward model simulations of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3.1 to estimate the Cant inventory and compare the results with the data-based estimates. We also use the simulations to test several assumptions of the GF method, including the assumption of constant climate and circulation, which is common to all the data-based estimates. Though the integrated estimates of global Cant inventories are consistent with each other, the regional estimates show discrepancies up to 50 %. The CCSM3 model underestimates the total Cant inventory, in part due to weak mixing and ventilation in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Analyses of different simulation results suggest that key assumptions about ocean circulation and air-sea disequilibrium in the GF method are generally valid on the global scale, but may introduce errors in Cant estimates on regional scales. The GF method should also be used with caution when predicting future oceanic anthropogenic carbon uptake.

  16. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Peterson, Michael G.; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C.; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E.; Schwarz, Lisa K.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    As top predators in the northeast Pacific Ocean, northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our study examined a suite of POPs in blubber (inner and outer) and blood (serum) of free-ranging northern elephant seals. For adult females (N = 24), we satellite tracked and sampled the same seals before and after their approximately seven month long foraging trip. For males, we sampled different adults and sub-adults before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) the same foraging trip. For females, we calculated blubber burdens for all compounds. The highest POP concentrations in males and females were found for ∑ DDTs and ∑ PCBs. In blubber and serum, males had significantly greater concentrations than females for almost all compounds. For males and females, ∑ DDT and ∑ PBDEs were highly correlated in blubber and serum. While ∑ PCBs were highly correlated with ∑ DDTs and ∑ PBDEs in blubber and serum for males, ∑ PCBs showed weaker correlations with both compounds in females. As females gained mass while foraging, concentrations of nearly all POPs in inner and outer blubber significantly decreased; however, the absolute burden in blubber significantly increased, indicating ingestion of contaminants while foraging. Additionally, we identified three clusters of seal foraging behavior, based on geography, diving behavior, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, which corresponded with differences in ∑ DDTs, ∑ PBDEs, MeO-BDE 47, as well as the ratio of ∑ DDTs to ∑ PCBs, indicating the potential for behavior to heighten or mitigate contaminant exposure. The greatest concentrations of ∑ DDTs and ∑ PBDEs were observed in the cluster that foraged closer to the coast and had blood samples more enriched in 13 C. Bioaccumulation of POPs by elephant seals supports mesopelagic food webs as a sink for POPs and highlights elephant seals as a potential sentinel of contamination in deep

  17. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Sarah H., E-mail: sarahpeterson23@gmail.com [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Peterson, Michael G. [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Malarvannan, Govindan [Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E. [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, 1801 East Cotati Ave, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Schwarz, Lisa K. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Costa, Daniel P. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    deep ocean food webs. - Highlights: • All elephant seals had detectable concentrations of DDTs, PCBs, CHLs, and PBDEs. • We quantified changes in the blubber burdens of POPs, within individual seals. • Despite mass dilution while foraging, blubber burdens showed POP ingestion. • Bioaccumulation of some POP compounds in seals varied across the North Pacific. • Ratio of ΣDDTs:ΣPCBs corroborated latitudinal variation seen in other species.

  18. Initiation of a Marinoan Snowball Earth in a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voigt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the initiation of a Marinoan Snowball Earth (~635 million years before present with the state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. This is the most sophisticated model ever applied to Snowball initiation. A comparison with a pre-industrial control climate shows that the change of surface boundary conditions from present-day to Marinoan, including a shift of continents to low latitudes, induces a global-mean cooling of 4.6 K. Two thirds of this cooling can be attributed to increased planetary albedo, the remaining one third to a weaker greenhouse effect. The Marinoan Snowball Earth bifurcation point for pre-industrial atmospheric carbon dioxide is between 95.5 and 96% of the present-day total solar irradiance (TSI, whereas a previous study with the same model found that it was between 91 and 94% for present-day surface boundary conditions. A Snowball Earth for TSI set to its Marinoan value (94% of the present-day TSI is prevented by doubling carbon dioxide with respect to its pre-industrial level. A zero-dimensional energy balance model is used to predict the Snowball Earth bifurcation point from only the equilibrium global-mean ocean potential temperature for present-day TSI. We do not find stable states with sea-ice cover above 55%, and land conditions are such that glaciers could not grow with sea-ice cover of 55%. Therefore, none of our simulations qualifies as a "slushball" solution. While uncertainties in important processes and parameters such as clouds and sea-ice albedo suggest that the Snowball Earth bifurcation point differs between climate models, our results contradict previous findings that Snowball Earth initiation would require much stronger forcings.

  19. Impact of sinking carbon flux on accumulation of deep-ocean carbon in the Northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; Saino, T.

    calculations using 14 C activity arises from the separation of natural 90 Biogeochemistry (2007) 82:89–100 123 and bomb-produced 14 C. Rubin and Key (2002) proposed the potential alkalinity method to achieve the separation. However, they found anomalous scatter... in the relationship between 14 C and potential alkalinity caused by data from the northern Indian Ocean (north of equator) and attributed that to the possible transportation of bomb radiocarbon, as carbonate particles from the surface ocean to the sediment...

  20. Deep carbon export from a Southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Smetacek, V.; Klaas, C.; Strass, V.H.; Assmy, P.; Montresor, M.; Cisewski, B.; Savoye, N.; Webb, A.; d’Ovidio, F.; Arrieta, J.M.; Bathmann, U.; Bellerby, R.; Berg, G.M.; Croot, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Henjes, J.; Herndl, G.J.; Hoffmann, L.J.; Leach, H.; Losch, M.; Mills, M.M.; Neill, C.; Peeken, I.; Rottgers, R.; Sachs, O.; Sauter, E.; Schmidt, M.M.; Schwarz, J.; Terbruggen, A.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.

    Fertilization of the ocean by adding iron compounds has induced diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms accompanied by considerable carbon dioxide drawdown in the ocean surface layer. However, because the fate of bloom biomass could not be adequately...

  1. Experiences modeling ocean circulation problems on a 30 node commodity cluster with 3840 GPU processor cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C.

    2008-12-01

    for which this technology is currently most useful. However, many interesting problems fit within this envelope. Looking forward, we extrapolate our experience to estimate full-scale ocean model performance and applicability. Finally we describe preliminary hybrid mixed 32-bit and 64-bit experiments with graphics cards that support 64-bit arithmetic, albeit at a lower performance.

  2. Metagenomic profiles of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) between human impacted estuary and deep ocean sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baowei; Yang, Ying; Liang, Ximei; Yu, Ke; Zhang, Tong; Li, Xiangdong

    2013-11-19

    Knowledge of the origins and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is essential for understanding modern resistomes in the environment. The mechanisms of the dissemination of ARGs can be revealed through comparative studies on the metagenomic profiling of ARGs between relatively pristine and human-impacted environments. The deep ocean bed of the South China Sea (SCS) is considered to be largely devoid of anthropogenic impacts, while the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) in south China has been highly impacted by intensive human activities. Commonly used antibiotics (sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin) have been detected through chemical analysis in the PRE sediments, but not in the SCS sediments. In the relatively pristine SCS sediments, the most prevalent and abundant ARGs are those related to resistance to macrolides and polypeptides, with efflux pumps as the predominant mechanism. In the contaminated PRE sediments, the typical ARG profiles suggest a prevailing resistance to antibiotics commonly used in human health and animal farming (including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides), and higher diversity in both genotype and resistance mechanism than those in the SCS. In particular, antibiotic inactivation significantly contributed to the resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams, and macrolides observed in the PRE sediments. There was a significant correlation in the levels of abundance of ARGs and those of mobile genetic elements (including integrons and plasmids), which serve as carriers in the dissemination of ARGs in the aquatic environment. The metagenomic results from the current study support the view that ARGs naturally originate in pristine environments, while human activities accelerate the dissemination of ARGs so that microbes would be able to tolerate selective environmental stress in response to anthropogenic impacts.

  3. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the census of marine life decade and beyond: a proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R German

    Full Text Available The ChEss project of the Census of Marine Life (2002-2010 helped foster internationally-coordinated studies worldwide focusing on exploration for, and characterization of new deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem sites. This work has advanced our understanding of the nature and factors controlling the biogeography and biodiversity of these ecosystems in four geographic locations: the Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB, the New Zealand region, the Arctic and Antarctic and the SE Pacific off Chile. In the AEB, major discoveries include hydrothermal seeps on the Costa Rica margin, deepest vents found on the Mid-Cayman Rise and the hottest vents found on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was also shown that the major fracture zones on the MAR do not create barriers for the dispersal but may act as trans-Atlantic conduits for larvae. In New Zealand, investigations of a newly found large cold-seep area suggest that this region may be a new biogeographic province. In the Arctic, the newly discovered sites on the Mohns Ridge (71 °N showed extensive mats of sulfur-oxidisng bacteria, but only one gastropod potentially bears chemosynthetic symbionts, while cold seeps on the Haakon Mossby Mud Volcano (72 °N are dominated by siboglinid worms. In the Antarctic region, the first hydrothermal vents south of the Polar Front were located and biological results indicate that they may represent a new biogeographic province. The recent exploration of the South Pacific region has provided evidence for a sediment hosted hydrothermal source near a methane-rich cold-seep area. Based on our 8 years of investigations of deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystems worldwide, we suggest highest priorities for future research: (i continued exploration of the deep-ocean ridge-crest; (ii increased focus on anthropogenic impacts; (iii concerted effort to coordinate a major investigation of the deep South Pacific Ocean - the largest contiguous habitat for life within Earth's biosphere, but

  4. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the census of marine life decade and beyond: a proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher R; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Baker, Maria C; Tyler, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    The ChEss project of the Census of Marine Life (2002-2010) helped foster internationally-coordinated studies worldwide focusing on exploration for, and characterization of new deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystem sites. This work has advanced our understanding of the nature and factors controlling the biogeography and biodiversity of these ecosystems in four geographic locations: the Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB), the New Zealand region, the Arctic and Antarctic and the SE Pacific off Chile. In the AEB, major discoveries include hydrothermal seeps on the Costa Rica margin, deepest vents found on the Mid-Cayman Rise and the hottest vents found on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was also shown that the major fracture zones on the MAR do not create barriers for the dispersal but may act as trans-Atlantic conduits for larvae. In New Zealand, investigations of a newly found large cold-seep area suggest that this region may be a new biogeographic province. In the Arctic, the newly discovered sites on the Mohns Ridge (71 °N) showed extensive mats of sulfur-oxidisng bacteria, but only one gastropod potentially bears chemosynthetic symbionts, while cold seeps on the Haakon Mossby Mud Volcano (72 °N) are dominated by siboglinid worms. In the Antarctic region, the first hydrothermal vents south of the Polar Front were located and biological results indicate that they may represent a new biogeographic province. The recent exploration of the South Pacific region has provided evidence for a sediment hosted hydrothermal source near a methane-rich cold-seep area. Based on our 8 years of investigations of deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystems worldwide, we suggest highest priorities for future research: (i) continued exploration of the deep-ocean ridge-crest; (ii) increased focus on anthropogenic impacts; (iii) concerted effort to coordinate a major investigation of the deep South Pacific Ocean - the largest contiguous habitat for life within Earth's biosphere, but also the

  5. Sinking rates and ballast composition of particles in the Atlantic Ocean: implications for the organic carbon fluxes to the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G.; Karakaş, G.

    2009-01-01

    The flux of materials to the deep sea is dominated by larger, organic-rich particles with sinking rates varying between a few meters and several hundred meters per day. Mineral ballast may regulate the transfer of organic matter and other components by determining the sinking rates, e.g. via particle density. We calculated particle sinking rates from mass flux patterns and alkenone measurements applying the results of sediment trap experiments from the Atlantic Ocean. We have indication for higher particle sinking rates in carbonate-dominated production systems when considering both regional and seasonal data. During a summer coccolithophorid bloom in the Cape Blanc coastal upwelling off Mauritania, particle sinking rates reached almost 570 m per day, most probably due the fast sedimentation of densely packed zooplankton fecal pellets, which transport high amounts of organic carbon associated with coccoliths to the deep ocean despite rather low production. During the recurring winter-spring blooms off NW Africa and in opal-rich production systems of the Southern Ocean, sinking rates of larger particles, most probably diatom aggregates, showed a tendency to lower values. However, there is no straightforward relationship between carbonate content and particle sinking rates. This could be due to the unknown composition of carbonate and/or the influence of particle size and shape on sinking rates. It also remains noticeable that the highest sinking rates occurred in dust-rich ocean regions off NW Africa, but this issue deserves further detailed field and laboratory investigations. We obtained increasing sinking rates with depth. By using a seven-compartment biogeochemical model, it was shown that the deep ocean organic carbon flux at a mesotrophic sediment trap site off Cape Blanc can be captured fairly well using seasonal variable particle sinking rates. Our model provides a total organic carbon flux of 0.29 Tg per year down to 3000 m off the NW African upwelling

  6. Site Management and Monitoring Plan (SMMP) for the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Water Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites, OR/WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SMMP is intended to provide management and monitoring strategies for disposal in the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites on the border of Oregon and Washington.

  7. An ocean circulation model in σS- z- σB hybrid coordinate and its validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhanpeng; Yuan, Yeli; Yang, Guangbing

    2018-02-01

    A 3D, two-time-level, σS- z- σB hybrid-coordinate Marine Science and Numerical Modeling numerical ocean circulation model (HyMOM) is developed in this paper. In HyMOM, the σ coordinate is employed in the surface and bottom regions, and the z coordinate is used in the intermediate layers. This method can overcome problems with vanishing surface cells and minimize the unwanted deviation in representing bottom topography. The connection between the σ and z layers vertically includes an expanded "ghost" method and the linear interpolation. The governing equations in the σS- z- σB hybrid coordinate based on the complete Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are derived in detail. The two-level time staggered and Eulerian forward and backward schemes, which are of second-order of accuracy, are adopted for the temporal difference in internal and external mode, respectively. The computation of the baroclinic gradient force is tested in an analytic test problem; the errors for two methods in HyMOM, which are relatively large only in the bottom layers, are obviously smaller than those in the pure σ and z models in almost all of the vertical layers. A quasi-global climatologic numerical experiment is constructed to test the simulation performance of HyMOM. With the monthly mean Levitus climatology data as reference, the HyMOM can improve the simulating accuracy compared with its pure z or σ coordinate implementation.

  8. Six new deep-water sternaspid species (Annelida, Sternaspidae from the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Salazar-Vallejo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most sternaspid species have been described from shallow water, and Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 includes one deep water species: C. gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 from Iceland. In Sternaspis Otto, 1821, the most speciose genus, most species were described from shallow water and only three thrive in deep water: S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, and S. riestchi Caullery, 1944 from Indonesia. The study of some deep sea sternaspids from the Pacific Ocean in the collections of six research institutions resulted in the discovery of six undescribed species, and for three of them there were abundant materials showing ventro-caudal shield development. Caulleryaspis fauchaldi sp. n. is described based on specimens from Oregon and California; it differs from the known species because it has a shield with rounded anterior margins and its peg chaetae form thin, small spines. Caulleryaspis nuda sp. n. was collected off Oregon; it is unique because its shield lacks a layer of sediment particles firmly attached, but has instead a thin layer of small particles loosely attached. Four other species are newly described in Sternaspis: S. annenkovae sp. n. was collected east off the northern Kurile Islands in about 4,000 m depth; it differs from other species bya bicolored body, with the introvert darker than the abdomen, and its ventro-caudal shield plates are divergent resulting in a divided fan. The second species, S. maureri sp.n. was found off Peru in 1296–6489 m water depths and in the Southwestern Pacific in 795–3830 m; it resembles S. williamsae sp. n. but differs because its shield has better-developed ribs, the fan has a shallow or indistinct median notch and has lateral notches well-developed. The third species, S. uschakovi sp. n., was found in the Okhotsk Sea in 592–1366 m, off California in 1585 m, Gulf of California in 1200–1274 m, and Western

  9. Six new deep-water sternaspid species (Annelida, Sternaspidae) from the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I; Buzhinskaja, Galina

    2013-01-01

    Most sternaspid species have been described from shallow water, and Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 includes one deep water species: C. gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 from Iceland. In Sternaspis Otto, 1821, the most speciose genus, most species were described from shallow water and only three thrive in deep water: S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, and S. riestchi Caullery, 1944 from Indonesia. The study of some deep sea sternaspids from the Pacific Ocean in the collections of six research institutions resulted in the discovery of six undescribed species, and for three of them there were abundant materials showing ventro-caudal shield development. Caulleryaspis fauchaldi sp. n. is described based on specimens from Oregon and California; it differs from the known species because it has a shield with rounded anterior margins and its peg chaetae form thin, small spines. Caulleryaspis nuda sp. n. was collected off Oregon; it is unique because its shield lacks a layer of sediment particles firmly attached, but has instead a thin layer of small particles loosely attached. Four other species are newly described in Sternaspis: S. annenkovae sp. n. was collected east off the northern Kurile Islands in about 4,000 m depth; it differs from other species by having a bicolored body, with the introvert darker than the abdomen, and its ventro-caudal shield plates are divergent resulting in a divided fan. The second species, S. maureri sp. n. was found off Peru in 1296-6489 m water depths and in the Southwestern Pacific in 795-3830 m; it resembles S. williamsae sp. n. but differs because its shield has better-developed ribs, the fan has a shallow or indistinct median notch and has lateral notches well-developed. The third species, S. uschakovi sp. n., was found in the Okhotsk Sea in 592-1366 m, off California in 1585 m, Gulf of California in 1200-1274 m, and Western Mexico in 2548 m; it

  10. Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and δ18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that

  11. South Atlantic Ocean circulation: Simulation experiments with a quasi-geostrophic model and assimilation of TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS 1 altimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenchie, P.; Verron, J.

    1998-10-01

    Simulation experiments of South Atlantic Ocean circulations are conducted with a 1/6°, four-layered, quasi-geostrophic model. By means of a simple nudging data assimilation procedure along satellite tracks, TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS 1 altimeter measurements are introduced into the model to control the simulation of the basin-scale circulation for the period from October 1992 to September 1994. The model circulation appears to be strongly influenced by the introduction of altimeter data, offering a consistent picture of South Atlantic Ocean circulations. Comparisons with observations show that the assimilating model successfully simulates the kinematic behavior of a large number of surface circulation components. The assimilation procedure enables us to produce schematic diagrams of South Atlantic circulation in which patterns ranging from basin-scale currents to mesoscale eddies are portrayed in a realistic way, with respect to their complexity. The major features of the South Atlantic circulation are described and analyzed, with special emphasis on the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region, the Subtropical Gyre with the formation of frontal structures, and the Agulhas Retroflection. The Agulhas eddy-shedding process has been studied extensively. Fourteen eddies appear to be shed during the 2-year experiment. Because of their strong surface topographic signature, Agulhas eddies have been tracked continuously during the assimilation experiment as they cross the South Atlantic basin westward. Other effects of the assimilation procedure are shown, such as the intensification of the Subtropical Gyre, the appearance of a strong seasonal cycle in the Brazil Current transport, and the increase of the mean Brazil Current transport. This last result, combined with the westward oriention of the Agulhas eddies' trajectories, leads to a southward transport of mean eddy kinetic energy across 30°S.

  12. GRACE gravity model: assssment in terms of deep ocean currents from hydrography and from the ECCO ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Stammer, D.; Fukumori, I.

    2003-01-01

    Here we assess the new generation of gravity models, derived from GRACE data. The differences between a global geoid model (one from GRACE data and one the well-known EGM-96), minus a Mean Sea Surface derived from over a decade of altimetric data are compared to hydrographic data from the Levitus compilation and to the ECCO numerical ocean model, which assimilates altimetry and other data.

  13. Climate change and ocean acidification impacts on lower trophic levels and the export of organic carbon to the deep ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yool

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most future projections forecast significant and ongoing climate change during the 21st century, but with the severity of impacts dependent on efforts to restrain or reorganise human activity to limit carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. A major sink for atmospheric CO2, and a key source of biological resources, the World Ocean is widely anticipated to undergo profound physical and – via ocean acidification – chemical changes as direct and indirect results of these emissions. Given strong biophysical coupling, the marine biota is also expected to experience strong changes in response to this anthropogenic forcing. Here we examine the large-scale response of ocean biogeochemistry to climate and acidification impacts during the 21st century for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6 and 8.5 using an intermediate complexity global ecosystem model, MEDUSA-2.0. The primary impact of future change lies in stratification-led declines in the availability of key nutrients in surface waters, which in turn leads to a global decrease (1990s vs. 2090s in ocean productivity (−6.3%. This impact has knock-on consequences for the abundance of the low trophic level biogeochemical actors modelled by MEDUSA-2.0 (−5.8%, and these would be expected to similarly impact higher trophic level elements such as fisheries. Related impacts are found in the flux of organic material to seafloor communities (−40.7% at 1000 m, and in the volume of ocean suboxic zones (+12.5%. A sensitivity analysis removing an acidification feedback on calcification finds that change in this process significantly impacts benthic communities, suggesting that a~better understanding of the OA-sensitivity of calcifying organisms, and their role in ballasting sinking organic carbon, may significantly improve forecasting of these ecosystems. For all processes, there is geographical variability in change – for instance, productivity declines −21% in the Atlantic and increases +59% in

  14. Estimating carbonate parameters from hydrographic data for the intermediate and deep waters of the Southern Hemisphere oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, H. C.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Williams, M. J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Using ocean carbon data from global datasets, we have developed several multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithms to estimate alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the intermediate and deep waters of the Southern Hemisphere (south of 25° S) from only hydrographic data (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen). A Monte Carlo experiment was used to identify a potential density (σθ) of 27.5 as an optimal break point between the two regimes with different MLR algorithms. The algorithms provide a good estimate of DIC (R2=0.98) and alkalinity (R2=0.91), and excellent agreement for aragonite and calcite saturation states (R2=0.99). Combining the algorithms with the CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas (CARS), we have mapped the calcite saturation horizon (CSH) and aragonite saturation horizon (ASH) for the Southern Ocean at a spatial resolution of 0.5°. These maps are more detailed and more consistent with the oceanography than the previously gridded GLODAP data. The high-resolution ASH map reveals a dramatic circumpolar shoaling at the polar front. North of 40° S the CSH is deepest in the Atlantic (~ 4000 m) and shallower in the Pacific Ocean (~ 2750 m), while the CSH sits between 3200 and 3400 m in the Indian Ocean. The uptake of anthropogenic carbon by the ocean will alter the relationships between DIC and hydrographic data in the intermediate and deep waters over time. Thus continued sampling will be required, and the MLR algorithms will need to be adjusted in the future to account for these changes.

  15. Estimating carbonate parameters from hydrographic data for the intermediate and deep waters of the Southern Hemisphere oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Bostock

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using ocean carbon data from global datasets, we have developed several multiple linear regression (MLR algorithms to estimate alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in the intermediate and deep waters of the Southern Hemisphere (south of 25° S from only hydrographic data (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen. A Monte Carlo experiment was used to identify a potential density (σθ of 27.5 as an optimal break point between the two regimes with different MLR algorithms. The algorithms provide a good estimate of DIC (R2=0.98 and alkalinity (R2=0.91, and excellent agreement for aragonite and calcite saturation states (R2=0.99. Combining the algorithms with the CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas (CARS, we have mapped the calcite saturation horizon (CSH and aragonite saturation horizon (ASH for the Southern Ocean at a spatial resolution of 0.5°. These maps are more detailed and more consistent with the oceanography than the previously gridded GLODAP data. The high-resolution ASH map reveals a dramatic circumpolar shoaling at the polar front. North of 40° S the CSH is deepest in the Atlantic (~ 4000 m and shallower in the Pacific Ocean (~ 2750 m, while the CSH sits between 3200 and 3400 m in the Indian Ocean. The uptake of anthropogenic carbon by the ocean will alter the relationships between DIC and hydrographic data in the intermediate and deep waters over time. Thus continued sampling will be required, and the MLR algorithms will need to be adjusted in the future to account for these changes.

  16. Thermohaline circulation in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIB) during austral summer and winter periods of 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.

    circulation. The dynamic topography field at 500 m relative to 2000 db surface in the central part of CIB, representing the abyssal circulation, was generally characterized by a southwestward weak flow around 10 degrees S flanked by cyclonic and anti...

  17. The scale of hydrothermal circulation of the Iheya-North field inferred from intensive heat flow measurements and ocean drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Y.; Kinoshita, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Nakajima, R.; Kumagai, H.; Takai, K.

    2014-12-01

    Iheya-North hydrothermal field situated in the middle Okinawa trough backarc basin is one of the largest ongoing Kuroko deposits in the world. Active chimneys as well as diffuse ventings (maximum fluid temperature 311 °C) have been located and studied in detail through various geological and geophysical surveys. To clarify the spatial scale of the hydrothermal circulation system, intensive heat flow measurements were carried out and ~100 heat flow data in and around the field from 2002 to 2014. In 2010, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 was carried out, and subbottom temperature data were obtained around the hydrothermal sites. During the JAMSTEC R/V Kaiyo cruise, KY14-01 in 2014, Iheya-North "Natsu" and "Aki" hydrothermal fields were newly found. The Iheya-Noth "Natsu" and "Aki" sites are located 1.2 km and 2.6 km south from the Iheya-North original site, respectively, and the maximum venting fluid temperature was 317 °C. We obtained one heat flow data at the "Aki" site. The value was 17 W/m2. Currently, the relationship between these hydrothermal sites are not well known. Three distinct zones are identified by heat flow values within 3 km from the active hydrothermal field. They are high-heat flow zone (>1 W/m2; HHZ), moderate-heat-flow zone (1-0.1 W/m2; MHZ); and low-heat-flow zone (<0.1 W/m2; LHZ). With increasing distance east of the HHZ, heat flow gradually decreases towards MHZ and LHZ. In the LHZ, temperature at 37m below the seafloor (mbsf) was 6 °C, that is consistent with the surface low heat flow suggesting the recharge of seawater. However, between 70 and 90 mbsf, the coarser sediments were cored, and temperature increased from 25 °C to 40°C. The temperature was 905°C at 151 mbsf, which was measured with thermoseal strips. The low thermal gradient in the upper 40 m suggests downward fluid flow. We infer that a hydrothermal circulation in the scale of ~1.5 km horizontal vs. ~a few hundred meters vertical.

  18. Ocean Response to Tropical Storms as Observed by a Moored Ocean Observing System in the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropeza, F.; Jaramillo, S.; Fan, S.

    2013-05-01

    As part of the support activities for a deepwater development in the Gulf of Mexico, a moored ocean observing system (OOS) was deployed in a water depth of approximately 2500m, 300km south of the Louisiana Coast. From June 2007 to May 2009, the system comprised seven single point Aanderaa Recording Current Meters (RCM), deployed at 450m, 700m, 1,100m, 1,500m, 2,000m, 2,400m and 2,490m below surface, and an RDI 75kHz Longranger Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), deployed between 249 and 373m below surface in upward-looking mode. Since May 2009, the OOS was upgraded to a Wavescan Buoy based moored system including meteorological sensors for: atmospheric pressure, air temperature, wind speed and direction; directional waves sensor; a Doppler Current Sensor (DCS) at 1.5 m depth for surface currents; and two downward-looking ADCP's covering the upper 1,000m of the water column. This OOS has been operating without interruptions from 2007 to the present and has registered data associated with nine tropical storms, including the direct passage of Hurricane Ike, in September of 2008, and loop current events with speeds of up to 4 knots. It has provided one of the most comprehensive set of velocity observations in the Gulf of Mexico, especially, the near surface currents, during pre-storm conditions, response, and ocean relaxation following hurricanes/tropical storms. Based on these observations the upper ocean responses to the energy input from tropical storms are characterized in terms of the associated mixing processes and momentum balances.

  19. Multimillennium changes in dissolved oxygen under global warming: results from an AOGCM and offline ocean biogeochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Oka, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ohgaito, R.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term oceanic oxygen change due to global warming is still unclear; most future projections (such as CMIP5) are only performed until 2100. Indeed, few previous studies using conceptual models project oxygen change in the next thousands of years, showing persistent global oxygen reduction by about 30% in the next 2000 years, even after atmospheric carbon dioxide stops rising. Yet, these models cannot sufficiently represent the ocean circulation change: the key driver of oxygen change. Moreover, considering serious effect oxygen reduction has on marine life and biogeochemical cycling, long-term oxygen change should be projected for higher validity. Therefore, we used a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) and an offline ocean biogeochemical model, investigating realistic long-term changes in oceanic oxygen concentration and ocean circulation. We integrated these models for 2000 years under atmospheric CO2 doubling and quadrupling. After global oxygen reduction in the first 500 years, oxygen concentration in deep ocean globally recovers and overshoots, despite surface oxygen decrease and weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea recovers and overshoots, after initial cessation. Thus, enhanced deep convection and associated Antarctic Bottom Water supply oxygen-rich surface waters to deep ocean, resulting global deep ocean oxygenation. We conclude that the change in ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean potentially drives millennial-scale oxygenation in the deep ocean; contrary to past reported long-term oxygen reduction and general expectation. In presentation, we will discuss the mechanism of response of deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea and show the volume changes of hypoxic waters.

  20. Being There & Getting Back Again: Half a Century of Deep Ocean Research & Discovery with the Human Occupied Vehicle "Alvin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Fornari, D. J.; Fryer, P.; Girguis, P. R.; Humphris, S. E.; Kelley, D. S.; Tivey, M.; Van Dover, C. L.; Von Damm, K.

    2012-12-01

    In 2013, Alvin returns to service after significant observational and operational upgrades supported by the NSF, NAVSEA & NOAA. Here we review highlights of the first half-century of deep submergence science conducted by Alvin, describe some of the most significant improvements for the new submarine and discuss the importance of these new capabilities for 21st century ocean science and education. Alvin has a long history of scientific exploration, discovery and intervention at the deep seafloor: in pursuit of hypothesis-driven research and in response to human impacts. One of Alvin's earliest achievements, at the height of the Cold War, was to help locate & recover an H-bomb in the Mediterranean, while the last dives completed, just ahead of the current refit, were to investigate the impacts of the Deep Water Horizon oil spill. Alvin has excelled in supporting a range of Earth & Life Science programs including, in the late 1970s, first direct observations and sampling of deep-sea hydrothermal vents and the unusual fauna supported by microbial chemosynthesis. The 1980s saw expansion of Alvin's dive areas to newly discovered hot-springs in the Atlantic & NE Pacific, Alvin's first dives to the wreck of RMS Titanic and its longest excursions away from WHOI yet, via Loihi Seamount (Hawaii) to the Mariana Trench. The 1990s saw Alvin's first event-response dives to sites where volcanic eruptions had just occurred at the East Pacific Rise & Juan de Fuca Ridge while the 2000s saw Alvin discover novel off-axis venting at Lost City. Observations from these dives fundamentally changed our views of volcanic and microbial processes within young ocean crust and even the origins of life! In parallel, new deep submergence capabilities, including manipulative experiments & sensor development, relied heavily on testing using Alvin. Recently, new work has focused on ocean margins where fluid flow from the seafloor results in the release of hydrocarbons and other chemical species that

  1. Amino acid stable isotope applications to deep-sea corals: A molecular geochemistry approach to reconstructing past ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, K.; McCarthy, M. D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Sherwood, O.; Williams, B.; Larsen, T.; Glynn, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change is predicted to alter ocean productivity, food web dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, and the efficacy of the biological pump. Proteinaceous deep-sea corals act as "living sediment traps," providing long-term, high-resolution records of exported surface ocean production and a window into past changes in ocean condition as a historical context for potential future changes. Here, we present recent work developing the application of compound-specific stable isotope analysis of individual amino acids to proteinaceous deep-sea corals to reconstruct past changes in phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemical cycling. We present new calibrations for molecular isotope comparisons between metabolically active coral polyp tissue and bioarchival proteinaceous skeleton. We then applied these techniques to deep-sea corals from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) to reconstruct centennial to millennial time scale changes in phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemical cycling as a function of regional climate change. This work suggests that the NPSG has undergone multiple major phytoplankton regime shifts over the last millennium between prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton communities and associated sources of nitrogen fueling production. The most recent regime, which started around the end of the Little Ice Age and the onset of the Industrial era, is unprecedented in the last 1000 years and resulted in a 30-50% increase in diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribution to export production and an associated 17-27% increase in N2-fixation in the NPSG over last century. By offering the first direct phylogenetic context for long-term shifts in isotopic records of exported particulate organic matter, our data represent a major step forward in understanding the evolution of marine plankton community dynamics, food web architecture, biogeochemical cycling, and the climate feedback loops through the biological pump.

  2. Influence of ocean acidification and deep water upwelling on oligotrophic plankton communities in the subtropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) causes pronounced shifts in marine carbonate chemistry and a decrease in seawater pH. Increasing evidence indicates that these changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-can significantly affect marine food webs and biogeochemical...... cycles. However, current scientific knowledge is largely based on laboratory experiments with single species and artificial boundary conditions, whereas studies of natural plankton communities are still relatively rare. Moreover, the few existing community-level studies were mostly conducted in rather...... and successfully simulated a deep water upwelling event that induced a pronounced plankton bloom. Our study revealed significant effects of OA on the entire food web, leading to a restructuring of plankton communities that emerged during the oligotrophic phase, and was further amplified during the bloom...

  3. Bythaelurus vivaldii, a new deep-water catshark (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) from the northwestern Indian Ocean off Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, Simon; Kaschner, Carina Julia

    2017-05-08

    A new very small deep-water catshark, Bythaelurus vivaldii, is described based on two female specimens caught off Somalia in the northwestern Indian Ocean during the German 'Valdivia' expedition in 1899. It is morphologically closest to the recently described B. bachi, which is the only other Bythaelurus species in the western Indian Ocean that shares a stout body of large specimens and the presence of oral papillae. It further resembles B. vivaldii in the broad mouth and broad posterior head, but differs in the presence of composite oral papillae and a higher diversity in dermal denticle morphology. Additionally, the new species differs from all congeners in the western Indian Ocean in a larger pre-second dorsal fin length, a longer head, a larger interdorsal space, a larger intergill length, a longer pectoral-fin posterior margin, a shorter caudal fin, an intermediate caudal fin preventral margin, and a larger internarial width. Furthermore, the second dorsal fin of the new species is smaller than in its congeners in the western Indian Ocean except for B. lutarius, which is easily distinguished by the slender body and virtual absence of oral papillae, as well as the aforementioned further characters. An updated key to all valid species of Bythaelurus is provided.

  4. Deep ice and salty oceans of icy worlds, how high pressures influence their thermodynamics and provide constrains on extraterrestrial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, B.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Abramson, E.

    2017-12-01

    As in Earth arctic and Antarctic regions, suspected extraterrestrial deep oceans in icy worlds (i.e. icy moons and water-rich exoplanets) chemistry and thermodynamic state will strongly depend on their equilibrium with H2O ice and present solutes. Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 salt species are currently the main suspected ionic solutes to be present in deep oceans based on remote sensing, magnetic field measurements, cryovolcanism ice grains chemical analysis and chondritic material aqueous alteration chemical models. Unlike on our planet, deep extraterrestrial ocean might also be interacting at depth with high pressure ices (e.g. III, V, VI, VI, X) which have different behavior compared to ice Ih. Unfortunately, the pressures and temperatures inside these hydrospheres differ significantly from the one found in Earth aqueous environments, so most of our current thermodynamic databases do not cover the range of conditions relevant for modeling realistically large icy worlds interiors. Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions. High pressure in-situ measurements using diamond anvil cell apparatus were operated both at the University of washington and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility on aqueous systems phase diagrams with Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 species, salt incorporation in high pressure ices and density inversions between the solid and the fluids. These results suggest a more complex picture of the interior structure, dynamic and chemical evolution of large icy worlds hydrospheres when solutes are taken into account, compared to current models mainly using pure water. Based on our in-situ experimental measurements, we propose the existence of new liquid environments at greater depths and the possibility of solid state transport of solute through the high pressure ices

  5. The discovery of deep-water seagrass meadows in a pristine Indian Ocean wilderness revealed by tracking green turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, N; Unsworth, R K F; Gourlay, J B Q; Hays, G C

    2018-03-21

    Our understanding of global seagrass ecosystems comes largely from regions characterized by human impacts with limited data from habitats defined as notionally pristine. Seagrass assessments also largely focus on shallow-water coastal habitats with comparatively few studies on offshore deep-water seagrasses. We satellite tracked green turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are known to forage on seagrasses, to a remote, pristine deep-water environment in the Western Indian Ocean, the Great Chagos Bank, which lies in the heart of one of the world's largest marine protected areas (MPAs). Subsequently we used in-situ SCUBA and baited video surveys to survey the day-time sites occupied by turtles and discovered extensive monospecific seagrass meadows of Thalassodendron ciliatum. At three sites that extended over 128 km, mean seagrass cover was 74% (mean range 67-88% across the 3 sites at depths to 29 m. The mean species richness of fish in seagrass meadows was 11 species per site (mean range 8-14 across the 3 sites). High fish abundance (e.g. Siganus sutor: mean MaxN.site -1  = 38.0, SD = 53.7, n = 5) and large predatory shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) (mean MaxN.site -1  = 1.5, SD = 0.4, n = 5) were recorded at all sites. Such observations of seagrass meadows with large top predators, are limited in the literature. Given that the Great Chagos Bank extends over approximately 12,500 km 2 and many other large deep submerged banks exist across the world's oceans, our results suggest that deep-water seagrass may be far more abundant than previously suspected. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial decomposition of marine dissolved organic matter in cool oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Walter, Sunita R.; Jaekel, Ulrike; Osterholz, Helena; Fisher, Andrew T.; Huber, Julie A.; Pearson, Ann; Dittmar, Thorsten; Girguis, Peter R.

    2018-05-01

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is one of the largest active reservoirs of reduced carbon on Earth. In the deep ocean, DOC has been described as biologically recalcitrant and has a radiocarbon age of 4,000 to 6,000 years, which far exceeds the timescale of ocean overturning. However, abiotic removal mechanisms cannot account for the full magnitude of deep-ocean DOC loss. Deep-ocean water circulates at low temperatures through volcanic crust on ridge flanks, but little is known about the associated biogeochemical processes and carbon cycling. Here we present analyses of DOC in fluids from two borehole observatories installed in crustal rocks west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and show that deep-ocean DOC is removed from these cool circulating fluids. The removal mechanism is isotopically selective and causes a shift in specific features of molecular composition, consistent with microbe-mediated oxidation. We suggest organic molecules with an average radiocarbon age of 3,200 years are bioavailable to crustal microbes, and that this removal mechanism may account for at least 5% of the global loss of DOC in the deep ocean. Cool crustal circulation probably contributes to maintaining the deep ocean as a reservoir of `aged' and refractory DOC by discharging the surviving organic carbon constituents that are molecularly degraded and depleted in 14C and 13C into the deep ocean.

  7. Deep ocean CTD data 2011-2013 from the Aloha Cabled Observatory (NODC Accession 0123115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is a system of hardware and software that extends electric power and the Internet offshore, supporting sustained real-time...

  8. Basalt microlapilli in deep sea sediments of Indian Ocean in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Iyer, S.D.

    Two cores recovered from the flanks of Mid-India oceanic ridge in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone consist of discrete pyroclastic layers at various depths. These layers are composed of coarse-grained, angular basaltic microlapilli in which...

  9. ANTARES: An underwater neutrino observatory for the exploration of both the deep Ocean and the deep Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escoffier, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy is a new and unique method to explore the Universe. It is full of promises, such as improving our knowledge on cosmic accelerators or distinguishing unambiguously between hadronic and electronic acceleration mechanisms of very high energy cosmic rays. In this document the issues of neutrino astronomy are introduced and an overview of current and former neutrino telescopes is given, with a description of the performance results expected from the ANTARES underwater detector. My research path is marked by contributions to the detector calibration and by studies of the trigger system with the development of a new data selection algorithm. The potential for discovery of the ANTARES telescope is then illustrated with two analyses, one dedicated to the research of high-energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursters and the other dedicated to the search for magnetic monopoles. Within this dissertation, I also discuss the opportunity offered by a submarine detector to understand the deep-sea environment. Indeed, ANTARES is a multidisciplinary, permanent marine observatory bringing its brick to the edifice of the global understanding of physical phenomena and biological oceanography in the context of global changes. I illustrate these remarks with studies on marine bioluminescence observed by ANTARES and its connection to the dense water formation originating from the Gulf of Lion. (author)

  10. Active Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) during the warm Pliocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, Natalie J; Fedorov, Alexey V; Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Tiedemann, Ralf; Haug, Gerald H

    2017-09-01

    An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific deep convection. We present complementary measurement and modeling evidence that the warm, ~400-ppmv (parts per million by volume) CO 2 world of the Pliocene supported subarctic North Pacific deep-water formation and a Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) cell. In Pliocene subarctic North Pacific sediments, we report orbitally paced maxima in calcium carbonate accumulation rate, with accompanying pigment and total organic carbon measurements supporting deep-ocean ventilation-driven preservation as their cause. Together with high accumulation rates of biogenic opal, these findings require vigorous bidirectional communication between surface waters and interior waters down to ~3 km in the western subarctic North Pacific, implying deep convection. Redox-sensitive trace metal data provide further evidence of higher Pliocene deep-ocean ventilation before the 2.73-Ma (million years) transition. This observational analysis is supported by climate modeling results, demonstrating that atmospheric moisture transport changes, in response to the reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradients of the Pliocene, were capable of eroding the halocline, leading to deep-water formation in the western subarctic Pacific and a strong PMOC. This second Northern Hemisphere overturning cell has important implications for heat transport, the ocean/atmosphere cycle of carbon, and potentially the equilibrium response of the Pacific to global warming.

  11. A Deep Learning Algorithm of Neural Network for the Parameterization of Typhoon-Ocean Feedback in Typhoon Forecast Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Jing; Wei, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Two algorithms based on machine learning neural networks are proposed—the shallow learning (S-L) and deep learning (D-L) algorithms—that can potentially be used in atmosphere-only typhoon forecast models to provide flow-dependent typhoon-induced sea surface temperature cooling (SSTC) for improving typhoon predictions. The major challenge of existing SSTC algorithms in forecast models is how to accurately predict SSTC induced by an upcoming typhoon, which requires information not only from historical data but more importantly also from the target typhoon itself. The S-L algorithm composes of a single layer of neurons with mixed atmospheric and oceanic factors. Such a structure is found to be unable to represent correctly the physical typhoon-ocean interaction. It tends to produce an unstable SSTC distribution, for which any perturbations may lead to changes in both SSTC pattern and strength. The D-L algorithm extends the neural network to a 4 × 5 neuron matrix with atmospheric and oceanic factors being separated in different layers of neurons, so that the machine learning can determine the roles of atmospheric and oceanic factors in shaping the SSTC. Therefore, it produces a stable crescent-shaped SSTC distribution, with its large-scale pattern determined mainly by atmospheric factors (e.g., winds) and small-scale features by oceanic factors (e.g., eddies). Sensitivity experiments reveal that the D-L algorithms improve maximum wind intensity errors by 60-70% for four case study simulations, compared to their atmosphere-only model runs.

  12. Seawater capacitance – a promising proxy for mapping and characterizing drifting hydrocarbon plumes in the deep ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fleming

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons released into the deep ocean are an inevitable consequence of natural seep, seafloor drilling, and leaking wellhead-to-collection-point pipelines. The Macondo 252 (Deepwater Horizon well blowout of 2010 was even larger than the Ixtoc event in the Gulf of Campeche in 1979. History suggests it will not be the last accidental release, as deepwater drilling expands to meet an ever-growing demand. For those who must respond to this kind of disaster, the first line of action should be to know what is going on. This includes knowing where an oil plume is at any given time, where and how fast it is moving, and how it is evolving or degrading. We have experimented in the laboratory with induced polarization as a method to track hydrocarbons in the seawater column and find that finely dispersed oil in seawater gives rise to a large distributed capacitance. From previous sea trials, we infer this could potentially be used to both map and characterize oil plumes, down to a ratio of less than 0.001 oil-to-seawater, drifting and evolving in the deep ocean. A side benefit demonstrated in some earlier sea trials is that this same approach in modified form can also map certain heavy placer minerals, as well as communication cables, pipelines, and wrecks buried beneath the seafloor.

  13. Does seismic activity control carbon exchanges between transform-faults in old ocean crust and the deep sea? A hypothesis examined by the EU COST network FLOWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)-Action FLOWS (http://www.cost.eu/domains_actions/essem/Actions/ES1301) was initiated on the 25th of October 2013. It is a consortium formed by members of currently 14 COST countries and external partners striving to better understand the interplay between earthquakes and fluid flow at transform-faults in old oceanic crust. The recent occurrence of large earthquakes and discovery of deep fluid seepage calls for a revision of the postulated hydrogeological inactivity and low seismic activity of old oceanic transform-type plate boundaries, and indicates that earthquakes and fluid flow are intrinsically associated. This Action merges the expertise of a large number of research groups and supports the development of multidisciplinary knowledge on how seep fluid (bio)chemistry relates to seismicity. It aims to identify (bio)geochemical proxies for the detection of precursory seismic signals and to develop innovative physico-chemical sensors for deep-ocean seismogenic faults. National efforts are coordinated through Working Groups (WGs) focused on 1) geophysical and (bio)geochemical data acquisition; 2) modelling of structure and seismicity of faults; 3) engineering of deep-ocean physico-chemical seismic sensors; and 4) integration and dissemination. This poster will illustrate the overarching goals of the FLOWS Group, with special focus to research goals concerning the role of seismic activity in controlling the release of carbon from the old ocean crust into the deep ocean.

  14. Modelling Nd-isotopes with a coarse resolution ocean circulation model: Sensitivities to model parameters and source/sink distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempfer, Johannes; Stocker, Thomas F.; Joos, Fortunat; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Siddall, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition (Nd) of seawater is a quasi-conservative tracer of water mass mixing and is assumed to hold great potential for paleo-oceanographic studies. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the simulation of the two neodymium isotopes 143 Nd, and 144 Nd using the Bern3D model, a low resolution ocean model. The high computational efficiency of the Bern3D model in conjunction with our comprehensive approach allows us to systematically and extensively explore the sensitivity of Nd concentrations and ε Nd to the parametrisation of sources and sinks. Previous studies have been restricted in doing so either by the chosen approach or by computational costs. Our study thus presents the most comprehensive survey of the marine Nd cycle to date. Our model simulates both Nd concentrations as well as ε Nd in good agreement with observations. ε Nd co-varies with salinity, thus underlining its potential as a water mass proxy. Results confirm that the continental margins are required as a Nd source to simulate Nd concentrations and ε Nd consistent with observations. We estimate this source to be slightly smaller than reported in previous studies and find that above a certain magnitude its magnitude affects ε Nd only to a small extent. On the other hand, the parametrisation of the reversible scavenging considerably affects the ability of the model to simulate both, Nd concentrations and ε Nd . Furthermore, despite their small contribution, we find dust and rivers to be important components of the Nd cycle. In additional experiments, we systematically varied the diapycnal diffusivity as well as the Atlantic-to-Pacific freshwater flux to explore the sensitivity of Nd concentrations and its isotopic signature to the strength and geometry of the overturning circulation. These experiments reveal that Nd concentrations and ε Nd are comparatively little affected by variations in diapycnal diffusivity and the Atlantic-to-Pacific freshwater flux

  15. Influence of SST from Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and atmospheric circulation in the precipitation regime of basin from Brazilian SIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, M. D.; Ramos, C. G.; Madeira, P.; de Macedo, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The South American climate presents tropical, subtropical and extratropical features because of its territorial extension, being influenced by a variety of dynamical systems with different spatial and temporal scales which result in different climatic regimes in their subregions. Furthermore, the precipitation regime in South America is influenced by low-frequency phenomena as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic dipole and the Madden Julian Oscilation (MJO), in other words, is directly influenced by variations of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Due to the importance of the precipitation for many sectors including the planning of productive activities, such as agriculture, livestock and hydropower energy, many studies about climate variations in Brazil have tried to determine and explain the mechanisms that affect the precipitation regime. However, because of complexity of the climate system, and consequently of their impacts on the global precipitation regime, its interactions are not totally understood and therefore misrepresented in numerical models used to forecast climate. The precipitation pattern over hydrographic basin which form the Brasilian National Interconnected System (Sistema Interligado Nacional-SIN) are not yet known and therefore the climate forecast of these regions still presents considerable failure that need to be corrected due to its economic importance. In this context, the purpose here is to determine the precipitation patterns on the Brazilian SIN, based on SST and circulation observed data. In a second phase a forecast climate model for these regions will be produced. In this first moment 30 years (1983 to 2012) of SST over Pacific and Atlantic Ocean were analyzed, along with wind in 850 and 200 hPa and precipitation observed data. The precipitation patterns were analyzed through statistical analyses for interannual (ENSO) and intraseasonal (MJO) anomalies for these variables over the SIN basin. Subsequently, these

  16. Western Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability on different time scales. A study based on stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, benthic foraminiferal assemblages and Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romahn, Sarah

    2014-08-19

    In order to understand the Earth's climate evolution it is crucial to evaluate the role of low-latitude oceans in the global climate system, as they are connected to both hemispheres via atmospheric and oceanic circulation and thus hold the potential to disentangle the asynchronicity of short-term Pleistocene climate variability. However, the potential of low latitude oceans to respond to and force large-scale changes of the climate system is still debated. The aim of this thesis is to examine and to understand the causal relationship of both atmospheric and oceanic changes in the tropical western Indian Ocean on centennial-, millennial and glacial-interglacial timescales. For this purpose I investigated stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of both planktic and benthic foraminiferal tests, Mg/Ca ratios of planktic foraminiferal tests as well as benthic foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary geochemical parameters on two sediment cores (GeoB12615-4, 446 m and GeoB12616-4, 1449 m) from the continental slope off Tanzania, East Africa.

  17. Western Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability on different time scales. A study based on stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, benthic foraminiferal assemblages and Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romahn, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the Earth's climate evolution it is crucial to evaluate the role of low-latitude oceans in the global climate system, as they are connected to both hemispheres via atmospheric and oceanic circulation and thus hold the potential to disentangle the asynchronicity of short-term Pleistocene climate variability. However, the potential of low latitude oceans to respond to and force large-scale changes of the climate system is still debated. The aim of this thesis is to examine and to understand the causal relationship of both atmospheric and oceanic changes in the tropical western Indian Ocean on centennial-, millennial and glacial-interglacial timescales. For this purpose I investigated stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of both planktic and benthic foraminiferal tests, Mg/Ca ratios of planktic foraminiferal tests as well as benthic foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary geochemical parameters on two sediment cores (GeoB12615-4, 446 m and GeoB12616-4, 1449 m) from the continental slope off Tanzania, East Africa.

  18. Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulong Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources contribute to the total noise field in the deep ocean direct-arrival zones. Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources may significantly and simultaneously affect the spatial characteristics of the total noise field to some extent. In this work, a ray approach and parabolic equation solution method were jointly utilized to model the low-frequency ambient noise field in a range-dependent deep ocean environment by considering their calculation accuracy and efficiency in near-field wind-driven and far-field distant shipping noise fields. The reanalysis databases of National Center of Environment Prediction (NCEP and Volunteer Observation System (VOS were used to model the ambient noise source intensity and distribution. Spatial vertical directionality and correlation were analyzed in three scenarios that correspond to three wind speed conditions. The noise field was dominated by distant shipping noise sources when the wind speed was less than 3 m/s, and then the spatial vertical directionality and vertical correlation of the total noise field were nearly consistent with those of distant shipping noise field. The total noise field was completely dominated by near field wind generated noise sources when the wind speed was greater than 12 m/s at 150 Hz, and then the spatial vertical correlation coefficient and directionality pattern of the total noise field was approximately consistent with that of the wind-driven noise field. The spatial characteristics of the total noise field for wind speeds between 3 m/s and 12 m/s were the weighted results of wind-driven and distant shipping noise fields. Furthermore, the spatial characteristics of low-frequency ambient noise field were compared with the classical Cron/Sherman deep water noise field coherence function. Simulation results with the described modeling method showed good agreement with the experimental measurement results based on the vertical line

  19. Spatial Vertical Directionality and Correlation of Low-Frequency Ambient Noise in Deep Ocean Direct-Arrival Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiulong; Yang, Kunde; Cao, Ran; Duan, Shunli

    2018-01-01

    Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources contribute to the total noise field in the deep ocean direct-arrival zones. Wind-driven and distant shipping noise sources may significantly and simultaneously affect the spatial characteristics of the total noise field to some extent. In this work, a ray approach and parabolic equation solution method were jointly utilized to model the low-frequency ambient noise field in a range-dependent deep ocean environment by considering their calculation accuracy and efficiency in near-field wind-driven and far-field distant shipping noise fields. The reanalysis databases of National Center of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and Volunteer Observation System (VOS) were used to model the ambient noise source intensity and distribution. Spatial vertical directionality and correlation were analyzed in three scenarios that correspond to three wind speed conditions. The noise field was dominated by distant shipping noise sources when the wind speed was less than 3 m/s, and then the spatial vertical directionality and vertical correlation of the total noise field were nearly consistent with those of distant shipping noise field. The total noise field was completely dominated by near field wind generated noise sources when the wind speed was greater than 12 m/s at 150 Hz, and then the spatial vertical correlation coefficient and directionality pattern of the total noise field was approximately consistent with that of the wind-driven noise field. The spatial characteristics of the total noise field for wind speeds between 3 m/s and 12 m/s were the weighted results of wind-driven and distant shipping noise fields. Furthermore, the spatial characteristics of low-frequency ambient noise field were compared with the classical Cron/Sherman deep water noise field coherence function. Simulation results with the described modeling method showed good agreement with the experimental measurement results based on the vertical line array deployed near

  20. Temperature, salinity, and optical characteristics data from NOAA Offi