WorldWideScience

Sample records for deep harbour layout

  1. Glas Journal: Deep Mappings of a Harbour or the Charting of Fragments, Traces and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Loeffler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With reference to a hybrid ethnographic project entitled Glas Journal (2014–2016, this article invites readers to reflect on the cultural mapping of spaces we intimately inhabit. Developed with the participation of local inhabitants of Dún Laoghaire Harbour, Ireland, Glas Journal seeks to explore the maritime environment as a liminal space, whereby the character of buildings and an area’s economic implications determine our relationship to space as much as our daily spatial rhythms and feelings of safety. Deep mapping provides the methodological blueprint for Glas Journal. In order to create a heteroglossic narrative of place and belonging, I will contextualise the project with references to seminal works in the visual arts, literature, film and geography that emotionally map spaces. Chronotopes of the threshold will be used to elaborate on spatial and cultural phenomena that occur when crossings from public to private and interior to exterior take place. Touching upon questions such as “What is a space of protection?”, “Who am I in it?”, and “Who is the Other?”, this article traces forms of liquid mapping that do not strive to conquer but rather to gain insight into the inner landscapes that are reflected in outer space.

  2. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Facility description - Layout E. Spiral ramp with one operational area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Stig [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Forsgren, Ebbe [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lange, Fritz [Lange Art AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    This report documents a proposal for the design of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The proposal is based on the principles that were formulated in the original KBS-3 study, but has been supplemented by investigations and experience to reflect current knowledge. The purpose of the report is to provide an integrated picture of the deep repository, as a basis for SKB's other work, e.g. environmental impact assessments, transport systems, safety issues and alternative locations, and to provide a co-ordinated account of the conditions and requirements concerning all of the necessary functions in the deep repository in order to have a well functioning facility. In addition, it should be possible to use the report as: a tool in the task of achieving a co-ordinated, safe and accepted design for the facility, a basis for further planning and costing, a basis for adaptation to geographic and other conditions for the particular location, a basis for information material, both within SKB and for interested parties outside, such as public authorities, municipalities and the general public. The capacity of the deep repository has been chosen on the basis of 40 years of operation of the Swedish nuclear power reactors, which will produce approximately 9,000 tons of uranium, equivalent to approximately 4,500 canisters. The design outlined is based on theoretical analyses of functions, safety requirements, procedures etc. that can be identified during the various phases of the construction and operation of the repository. In addition, preliminary organisation and staffing plans have been drawn up, for use as the basis for planning the necessary buildings. The report gives a vision of the overall layout and function of the facility, and a proposal for the design of all individual parts of the repository. The relationships between the various parts of the repository are described, both above and below ground, as is the interplay between the part above ground and part

  3. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Facility description - Layout E. Spiral ramp with one operational area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Stig; Forsgren, Ebbe; Lange, Fritz

    2002-04-01

    This report documents a proposal for the design of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The proposal is based on the principles that were formulated in the original KBS-3 study, but has been supplemented by investigations and experience to reflect current knowledge. The purpose of the report is to provide an integrated picture of the deep repository, as a basis for SKB's other work, e.g. environmental impact assessments, transport systems, safety issues and alternative locations, and to provide a co-ordinated account of the conditions and requirements concerning all of the necessary functions in the deep repository in order to have a well functioning facility. In addition, it should be possible to use the report as: a tool in the task of achieving a co-ordinated, safe and accepted design for the facility, a basis for further planning and costing, a basis for adaptation to geographic and other conditions for the particular location, a basis for information material, both within SKB and for interested parties outside, such as public authorities, municipalities and the general public. The capacity of the deep repository has been chosen on the basis of 40 years of operation of the Swedish nuclear power reactors, which will produce approximately 9,000 tons of uranium, equivalent to approximately 4,500 canisters. The design outlined is based on theoretical analyses of functions, safety requirements, procedures etc. that can be identified during the various phases of the construction and operation of the repository. In addition, preliminary organisation and staffing plans have been drawn up, for use as the basis for planning the necessary buildings. The report gives a vision of the overall layout and function of the facility, and a proposal for the design of all individual parts of the repository. The relationships between the various parts of the repository are described, both above and below ground, as is the interplay between the part above ground and part below

  4. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  5. Course Layout

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    present roll Presentation roll Interactive Media Element This is an interactive diagram of a MATLAB course layout covering 16 topics in 4 different main areas: Basics of MATLAB, Numerical Methods in MATLAB, Symbolic Manipulations in MATLAB, Mathematical Modeling in MATLAB and Simulink AE2440 Introduction to Digital Computation

  6. A-Lamp: Adaptive Layout-Aware Multi-Patch Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Photo Aesthetic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shuang; Liu, Jing; Chen, Chang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have recently been shown to generate promising results for aesthetics assessment. However, the performance of these deep CNN methods is often compromised by the constraint that the neural network only takes the fixed-size input. To accommodate this requirement, input images need to be transformed via cropping, warping, or padding, which often alter image composition, reduce image resolution, or cause image distortion. Thus the aesthetics of the origina...

  7. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-02-26

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  8. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-04-11

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Twenty metres deep! The Mesolithic period at the site Yangtze Harbour in the Rotterdam Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Early Holocene landscape development and habitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sier, M.M.; Cohen, K.M.; Kooistra, L.; Kubiak-Martens, L.; Moree, J.M.; Niekus, M.; Peeters, J.H.M.; Schiltmans, D.E.A.; Verbaas, A.; Verbruggen, F.; Vos, P.C.; Zeiler, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In November 2011 archaeologists of City of Rotterdam Archaeological Service (BOOR) conducted underwater research in the Yangtze harbour, Rotterdam Maasvlakte, The Netherlands. The research was carried out by order of Port of Rotterdam Authority and supervised by the Cultural Heritage

  10. Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2, Rotterdam : Twenty meters deep! The mesolithic period at the Yangtze Harbour site - Rotterdam Maasvlakte, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, J.J.; Brinkhuizen, D.C.; Bunnik, F.P.M.; Cohen, K.M.; Cremer, H.; Exaltus, R.P.; van Kappel, K.; Kooistra, L.I.; Koolmees, H.; de Kruyk, H.; Kubiak-Martens, L.; Moree, J.M.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th.; Peeters, J.H.M.; Schiltmans, D.E.A.; Verbaas, A.; Verbruggen, F.; Vos, P.C.; Zeiler, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 a systematic underwater field survey and an invasive investigation were executed in the Yangtze Harbour planning area, Maasvlakte, Rotterdam, commissioned by Port of Rotterdam Authority. The aim of the work was to locate and document any archaeological remains in submerged Late Pleistocene

  11. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  12. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  13. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance

  14. Layout and cabling considerations for a large communications antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Layout considerations for a large deep space communications antenna array are discussed. A fractal geometry for the antenna layout is described that provides optimal packing of antenna elements, efficient cable routing, and logical division of the array into identical sub-arrays.

  15. Layout Of Antennas And Cables In A Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Layout devised to minimize total land area occupied by large phased array of antennas and to minimize total length of cables in array. In original intended application, array expanded version of array of paraboloidal-dish microwave communication antennas of Deep Space Network. Layout also advantageous for other phased arrays of antennas and antenna elements, including notably printed-circuit microwave antenna arrays.

  16. DSS 13 phase 2 pedestal room microwave layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, T.; Chen, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The design and predicted performance is described of the microwave layout for three band operation of the beam waveguide antenna Deep Space Station 13. Three pedestal room microwave candidate layout designs were produced for simultaneous X/S and X/Ka band operation. One of the three designs was chosen based on given constraints, and for this design the microwave performance was estimated.

  17. Design and Simulation Plant Layout Using Systematic Layout Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhardini, D.; Septiani, W.; Fauziah, S.

    2017-12-01

    This research aims to design the factory layout of PT. Gunaprima Budiwijaya in order to increase production capacity. The problem faced by this company is inappropriate layout causes cross traffic on the production floor. The re-layout procedure consist of these three steps: analysing the existing layout, designing plant layout based on SLP and evaluation and selection of alternative layout using Simulation Pro model version 6. Systematic layout planning is used to re-layout not based on the initial layout. This SLP produces four layout alternatives, and each alternative will be evaluated based on two criteria, namely cost of material handling using Material Handling Evaluation Sheet (MHES) and processing time by simulation. The results showed that production capacity is increasing as much as 37.5% with the addition of the machine and the operator, while material handling cost was reduced by improvement of the layout. The use of systematic layout planning method reduces material handling cost of 10,98% from initial layout or amounting to Rp1.229.813,34.

  18. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  19. KINETIC ALGORITHMS FOR HARBOUR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Gold

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern harbour management for a busy port needs to resolve a variety of simultaneous problems. Harbour traffic may be busy and the waterways congested, both by the major shipping and by the attendant harbour tugs. The harbour channel may be narrow and tortuous, and rapidly changing tides may require frequent course adjustments. Navigation aids must be clearly specified and immediately identifiable, in order to permit safe passage for the vessels. This requires a GIS with attributes not easily available with traditional products. The GeoVS system is a kinetic GIS with full three-dimensional visualisation, so that ships, bathymetry and landscape may be viewed in a form that is immediately understandable to both harbour pilots and the harbour authority. The system is kinetic because the data structures used to preserve the topological relationships between ships, seafloor and coastline are able to be maintained on a real-time basis, taking account of ship movement recorded on the compulsory AIS (Automatic Information System beacons. Maintenance of this real-time topology allows for easy detection of potential collisions, as well as real-time bathymetric estimations, necessary to prevent ship grounding in highly tidal environments. The system, based on previous research into kinetic Voronoi diagrams, as well as development of a completely new graphical engine, is now in commercial production, where its advantages over simpler twodimensional models without automatic collision and grounding detection are becoming evident. Other applications are readily envisaged, and will be addressed in the near future.

  20. Alpine Pixel Detector Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Delebecque, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Geffroy, N; Massol, N; Rambure, T; Todorov, T

    2013-01-01

    A description of an optimized layout of pixel sensors based on a stave that combines both barrel and endcap module orientations. The mechanical stiffness of the structure is provided by carbon fiber shells spaced by carbon foam. The cooling of the modules is provided by two-phase $CO_{2}$ flowing in a thin titanium pipe glued inside the carbon fiber foam. The electrical services of all modules are provided by a single stave flex. This layout eliminates the need for separate barrel and endcap detector structures, and therefore the barrel services material in front of the endcap. The transition from barrel to endcap module orientation is optimized separately for each layer in order to minimize the active pixel area and the traversed material. The sparse module spacing in the endcap part of the stave allows for multiple fixation points, and for a stiff overall structure composed only of staves interconnected by stiff disks.

  1. Electrostatic Levitator Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) general layout with captions. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  2. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-18

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  3. Fouling Bryozoa from some Alexandria harbours, EGYPT. (I Erect species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.M. ABDEL-SALAM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fouling erect Bryozoa settled on polystyrene test panels immersed half a meter deep in the water of Abu Qir Harbour, the Eastern Harbour and El-Dekheila Harbour were studied. The present study yields 5 species of erect bryozoa. These areAmathia pruvoti, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Bowerbankia gracilis,Bugula neritina and Bugula stolonifera. The first three ones pertain to 3 genera of the family Vesiculariidae belonging to suborder the Stolonifera; while the other two species affiliate to the genus Bugula belonging to the family Bugulidae of suborder Anasca. The present record of Amathia pruvoti is the first from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. A re-description, supplied with full structural illustrations of the recorded species is given. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distributions of the species recorded are encountered.

  4. SECURITY SYSTEMS FOR MARITIME HARBOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgică SLĂMNOIU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure protection objectives are at the top of the agenda of those responsible in the European Union. Currently Romania is one of the countries on its eastern border of the Union and this has special implications in terms of security measures that are required to be implemented. Ships and harbours are important current conflict stage. An integrated system of protection of harbours must be prepared in advance in order to continuously provide information that will increase the overall performance of the intervention forces.

  5. Auditory Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  6. Layout and composition for animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghertner, Ed

    2012-01-01

    This essential, hands-on guide is filled with examples of what a composition should look like and example of poorly designed layouts. Spot potential problems before they cost time and money, and adapt creative solutions for your own projects with this invaluable resource for beginner and intermediate artists.  With Beauty and the Beast examples and Simpson character layouts, readers will learn how to develop character layout and background layout as well as strengthen composition  styles with a creative toolset of trick shot examples and inspirational case studies. A companion website will

  7. The EPR layout design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, U.; Le Carrer, P.Y.

    2001-01-01

    General: The European Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) is a French - German development for the next generation of Pressurised Water Reactor. The new reactor design is based on the experiences of operation and design of nuclear power plants in both countries. The EPR fulfils enhanced safety standards, higher availability and a longer service life. Utilities aspects: For the Utilities one important requirement is the reduction of personnel exposure during maintenance and in-service inspection. The other significant requirement is of economic nature. The main points influencing costs, which have also impact on the layout, are: outage times, accessibility of the reactor building and the available maintenance and set down areas. The Utilities have also required to load the spent fuel assemblies into the shipping cask from the bottom of the fuel pool, because of the exclusion of the drop of the cask and in order to avoid contamination at the outer cask shell. Layout and safety aspects: All safety relevant Nuclear Island (NI) buildings are designed against design earthquake as well as explosion pressure wave. The protection against Airplane Crash (APC) is realised by civil and layout dispositions. The Reactor Building, the Safeguard Buildings division 2 and 3 and the Fuel Building are protected by concrete structures. The other safety relevant nuclear buildings are protected by geographical separation. Important safety requirements are the further reduction of the probability of severe accidents and the mitigation of such an accident on the plant area. For that, a spreading area for molten corium, a channel from the reactor pit to the spreading area and the In Containment Refuelling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) for flooding and initial cooling of the corium, were implemented in the design of the Reactor Building. Layout results: The following buildings are arranged on a common raft to protect them against design earthquake: Reactor Building (RB), Safeguard Buildings (SAB

  8. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Butyltins in the sediments of Kochi and Mumbai harbours, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Garg, A.; Harji, R.; Jadhav, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Anil, A.C.

    . Materials and methods 2.1. Study area and sample collection Kochi port (latitude 9-58VN, longitude 76-14VE) is situated along the west coast of India (Fig. 1b). This is an all weather port and has deep drafted alongside berths with modern cargo handling... facilities. The harbour has 16 berths, including 3 oil jetties, and wharf berth alongside in the Mattancherry and Ernakulam channels. Alongside, draft of 9.14–12 m is available in the harbour. The harbour has ship building, ship repair and dry dock facilities...

  10. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  11. Strength layout of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moczall, K.; Schmid, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Different properties are required from pipes of nuclear power plants according to their respective importance for the safety as well as the availability of a plant. For reasons of expediency and profitability, it has therefore been necessary to attach 5 requiremental stages to the above-mentioned as well as to all other components. Of the five stages, the first three represent those which are of major, medium or minor importance for safety of nuclear plants. The 4th stage gives in general the importance of the availability of a plant, whereas the 5th stage is provided for the rest of the pipes. The requirements of conventional, technical regulations are generally fulfilled in the 4th stage, whereas, phased accordingly, exceeding requirements are set up and specified in the first three stages. These requirements refer to the securing of the workability of plant components, to (redundant, resp. diverse) layout, and to the quality of components (qualifying of producers and production processes, preliminary checking of production papers, supervision of production, material and construction testing, documentation) as well as to strength verification (pressure test, stress-strain measurements, stress and fatigue analysis). (orig.) [de

  12. Investigation on repository layouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanai, Kenji [Tokai, Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Iwasa, Kengo; Hasegawa, Hiroshi [Head Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Gouke, Mitsuo; Horita, Masakuni [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Noda, Masaru [Ohbayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This report consists of three items : (1) Study of the repository configuration, (2) Study of the surface facilities configuration for construction, operation and backfilling, (3) Planning schedule. In the repository configuration, the basic factors influencing the design of the repository configuration are presented, and the results of studies of various possible repository configurations are presented for both hard and soft rock systems. Here, the minimum conditions regarding geological environment required to guide design are assumed, because it is difficult to determine the repository configuration without considering specific conditions of a disposal site. In the surface facility configuration, it is illustrated based on the results of construction, operation, backfilling studies for underground disposal facility and EIS report of CANADA. In the schedule, the overall schedule corresponding to the repository layout is outlined in link with the milestone of disposal schedule set forth in the government's basic policy. The assumptions and the basic conditions are summarized to examine the General Schedule from start of construction to closure of a repository. This summary is based on the technologies to be used for construction, operation and closure of a repository. The basic national policies form the framework for this review of the general schedule. (author)

  13. Practical Aspects of CMOS Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassen, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    The topics covered in these notes are the practical aspects and limitations of layout, when random process variations result in electrical parameters, which are not constant but rather statistically distributed.The focus is on design methods for reducing or eliminating the effects. The notes cover...... three aspects:1) to introduce layout structures robust to process variations2) to present simplistic models for analog building blocks with the aim of analysing consequences of parameter variations3) to present the basic noise considerations which guide the layout of supply structures etc....

  14. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  15. Design & layout of recreation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard R. Orr

    1971-01-01

    Design and layout of recreation facilities is a problem solving process that must be divorced from the emotionalism that has shrouded outdoor recreation and must deal deliberately with the growing information concerning people and natural resources.

  16. Optimization-Based Layout Design

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Malek, K.; Mi, Z.; Yang, J.; Nebel, K.

    2005-01-01

    The layout problem is of importance to ergonomists, vehicle/cockpit packaging engineers, designers of manufacturing assembly lines, designers concerned with the placement of levers, knobs, controls, etc. in the reachable workspace of a human, and also to users of digital human modeling code, where digital prototyping has become a valuable tool. This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method (gradient-based optimization and simulated annealing) to obtain the layout design. We implemented the...

  17. COMPUTER AIDED SELECTION OF PLANT LAYOUT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the fundamental concepts of plant layout, in which the need for plant layout, the systematic and logical approaches to the problems, layout solutions and the objectives of plant layout are discussed. Further the approaches and the scoring techniques of the two available computer rout ines are ...

  18. Accelerating ROP detector layout optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastanya, D.; Fodor, B.

    2012-01-01

    The ADORE (Alternating Detector layout Optimization for REgional overpower protection system) algorithm for performing the optimization of regional overpower protection (ROP) system for CANDU® reactors have been recently developed. The simulated annealing (SA) stochastic optimization technique is utilized to come up with a quasi optimized detector layout for the ROP systems. Within each simulated annealing history, the objective function is calculated as a function of the trip set point (TSP) corresponding to the detector layout for that particular history. The evaluation of the TSP is done probabilistically using the ROVER-F code. Since during each optimization execution thousands of candidate detector layouts are evaluated, the overall optimization process is time consuming. Since for each ROVER-F evaluation the number of fuelling ripples controls the execution time, reducing the number of fuelling ripples used during the calculation of TSP will reduce the overall optimization execution time. This approach has been investigated and the results are presented in this paper. The challenge is to construct a set of representative fuelling ripples which will significantly speedup the optimization process while guaranteeing that the resulting detector layout has similar quality to the ones produced when the complete set of fuelling ripples is employed. Results presented in this paper indicate that a speedup of up to around 40 times is attainable when this approach is utilized. (author)

  19. Source of Aegean Sea harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockyer, Christina; Rosel, P. E.; Frantzis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Documented sightings of harbour porpoises in the Mediterranean are rare, although the species is common in the neighbouring North Atlantic and Black Sea. However, in the past 2 decades, 4 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena have been recorded in the northern Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranea...

  20. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    to 25 m. Almost whole of the channel area shows even topography howeer, the area adjacent to the wharf shows uneven topography with a variation ranging between 1 and 3 m. The distribution of the inner harbour is much diversified than the outer harbour...

  1. Optimization-Based Layout Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdel-Malek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The layout problem is of importance to ergonomists, vehicle/cockpit packaging engineers, designers of manufacturing assembly lines, designers concerned with the placement of levers, knobs, controls, etc. in the reachable workspace of a human, and also to users of digital human modeling code, where digital prototyping has become a valuable tool. This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method (gradient-based optimization and simulated annealing to obtain the layout design. We implemented the proposed algorithm for a project at Oral-B Laboratories, where a manufacturing cell involves an operator who handles three objects, some with the left hand, others with the right hand.

  2. Cache-Oblivious Mesh Layouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S; Lindstrom, P; Pascucci, V; Manocha, D

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel method for computing cache-oblivious layouts of large meshes that improve the performance of interactive visualization and geometric processing algorithms. Given that the mesh is accessed in a reasonably coherent manner, we assume no particular data access patterns or cache parameters of the memory hierarchy involved in the computation. Furthermore, our formulation extends directly to computing layouts of multi-resolution and bounding volume hierarchies of large meshes. We develop a simple and practical cache-oblivious metric for estimating cache misses. Computing a coherent mesh layout is reduced to a combinatorial optimization problem. We designed and implemented an out-of-core multilevel minimization algorithm and tested its performance on unstructured meshes composed of tens to hundreds of millions of triangles. Our layouts can significantly reduce the number of cache misses. We have observed 2-20 times speedups in view-dependent rendering, collision detection, and isocontour extraction without any modification of the algorithms or runtime applications

  3. HOLA: Human-like Orthogonal Network Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Steve; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multi-stage frameworks for higher-quality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new "human-centred" methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a follow-up study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand.

  4. Computational Design of Urban Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wonka, Peter

    2015-10-07

    A fundamental challenge in computational design is to compute layouts by arranging a set of shapes. In this talk I will present recent urban modeling projects with applications in computer graphics, urban planning, and architecture. The talk will look at different scales of urban modeling (streets, floorplans, parcels). A common challenge in all these modeling problems are functional and aesthetic constraints that should be respected. The talk also highlights interesting links to geometry processing problems, such as field design and quad meshing.

  5. Efficiency Optimization by Considering the High Voltage Flyback Transformer Parasitics using an Automatic Winding Layout Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    .The energy efficiency is optimized using a proposed new automatic winding layout (AWL) technique and a comprehensive loss model.The AWL technique generates a large number of transformer winding layouts.The transformer parasitics such as dc resistance, leakage inductance and self-capacitance are calculated...... for each winding layout.An optimization technique is formulated to minimize the sum of energy losses during charge and discharge operations.The efficiency and energy loss distribution results from the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the high voltage transformer designand its impact...

  6. ITER fuel cycle systems layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-10-01

    The ITER fuel cycle building (FCB) will contain the following systems: fuel purification - permeator based; fuel purification - molecular sieves; impurity treatment; waste water storage and treatment; isotope separation; waste water tritium extraction; tritium extraction from solid breeder; tritium extraction from test modules; tritium storage, shipping and receiving; tritium laboratory; atmosphere detritiation systems; fuel cycle control centre; tritiated equipment maintenance space; control maintenance space; health physics laboratory; access, access control and facilities. The layout of the FCB and the requirements for these systems are described. (10 figs.)

  7. Generating and exploring good building layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-07-16

    Good building layouts are required to conform to regulatory guidelines, while meeting certain quality measures. While different methods can sample the space of such good layouts, there exists little support for a user to understand and systematically explore the samples. Starting from a discrete set of good layouts, we analytically characterize the local shape space of good layouts around each initial layout, compactly encode these spaces, and link them to support transitions across the different local spaces. We represent such transitions in the form of a portal graph. The user can then use the portal graph, along with the family of local shape spaces, to globally and locally explore the space of good building layouts. We use our framework on a variety of different test scenarios to showcase an intuitive design, navigation, and exploration interface. Copyright © ACM. Copyright © ACM 2013.

  8. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao

    2015-02-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines several key ingredients, including feature detection, feature filtering, feature curve extension, patch subdivision and boundary smoothing. Our framework is able to compute patch layouts through concave features as previous approaches, but also able to generate nice layouts through smoothing regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  9. Harbour Geotechnics. Book of extended abstracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Pinto, Alexandre; Cerejeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Book of extended abstracts in correspondence to Workshop 2 "Harbour Geotechnics", held in 4th September 2016 at the University of Minho, in Guimarães, Portugal. The event was part of the 3rd ICTG 2016 - International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics (http://www.civil.uminho.pt/3rd-ICTG2016/).

  10. Harbour Geotechnics. E-book of presentations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Pinto, Alexandre; Cerejeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Book of presentations in correspondence to Workshop 2 "Harbour Geotechnics", held in 4th September 2016 at the University of Minho, in Guimarães, Portugal. The event was part of the 3rd ICTG 2016 - International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics (http://www.civil.uminho.pt/3rd-ICTG2016/).

  11. Harborsim, a generally applicable harbour simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.

    1983-01-01

    Every planning of a port development or design of a new harbour is confronted with the unique physical properties and related problems to be solved. On the other hand every port can be defined as a link in the transport chain involved in the transfer of cargo from one medium of transport to another.

  12. Earlier pupping in harbour seals, Phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of most seal species is characterized by a tight synchrony of births. Typically, timing of birth shows little inter-annual variation. Here, however we show that harbour seals Phoca vitulina from the Wadden Sea (southeast North Sea) have shortened their yearly cycle,

  13. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    Mercury content of the water column estimated along Thana Creek/Bombay Harbour gave a standing stock of about 77 kg in excess of the expected background. Mercury concentration in sediment from 23 locations which varied from 0.17 to 8.21 ppm (dry...

  14. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  15. Impact investigations of access channel modifications of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    Though the modernization projects over the decades for harbour development also brought about several severe environmental modifications in Cochin harbour, along the west coast of India, so far, the physical processes involved are seldom...

  16. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph topology. This algorithm can interactively layout graphs with millions of nodes, and support real-time interaction to explore alternative graph layouts. Users can directly manipulate the layout of vertices in a force-directed fashion. The complexity of traditional repulsive force computation is reduced by approximating calculations based on the hierarchical structure of multi-level clustered graphs. We evaluate the algorithm performance, and demonstrate human-in-the-loop layout in two sensemaking case studies. Moreover, we summarize lessons learned for designing interactive large graph layout algorithms on the GPU.

  17. Vegetation response to wagon wheel camp layouts.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wagon wheel camp layouts have been favoured, in some quarters, for rotational grazing due to the economy and convenience of having the camps radially arranged around central facilities. A possible disadvantage of such layouts is the tendency for over-grazing near the hub and under-grazing at the extremities.

  18. Staking Terraces Online: A Terrace Layout Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrace construction in Missouri exceeded 3 million feet at a cost of over $8 million in 2008. Up to 50 % of the total construction and design time is spent on the terrace layout itself. A web-based computer program, MOTERR, has been developed to design terrace layouts. The program utilizes digital ...

  19. A Cadence layout wrapper for MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Tsirepli, Ismini

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the focus is on creating a wrapper between MATLAB and the Cadence Virtuoso design environment. The central idea is to use the wrapper and write the code for an entire analog layout as scripts in MATLAB. Basically, we will implement a set of necessary commands for performing the most fundamental tasks in layout generation from within MATLAB.

  20. Luminaire layout: Design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The information contained in this report was presented during the discussion regarding guidelines for PAR uniformity in greenhouses. The data shows a lighting uniformity analysis in a research greenhouse for rose production at the Cornell University campus. The luminaire layout was designed using the computer program Lumen-Micro. After implementation of the design, accurate measurements were taken in the greenhouse and the uniformity analysis for both the design and implementation were compared. A study of several supplemental lighting installations resulted in the following recommendations: include only the actual growing area in the lighting uniformity analysis; for growing areas up to 20 square meters, take four measurements per square meter; for growing areas above 20 square meters, take one measurement per square meter; use one of the uniformity criteria and frequency graphs to compare lighting uniformity amongst designs; and design for uniformity criterion of a least 0.75 and the fraction within +/- 15% of the average PAR value should be close to one.

  1. Estimation of Wave Disturbance in Harbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helm-Petersen, Jacob

    seen for small changes in reflection coefficients. This points in the direction of a need for improvements of wave reflection prediction formulae. Finally comparisons between results from the numerical model and physical scale measurements from earlier experiments with the same harbour show......The motivation for the present study has been to improve the reliability in using numerical wave propagation models as a tool for estimating wave disturbance in harbours. Attention has been directed towards the importance of the modelling of reflection in the applied mild-slope model. Methods have...... been presented for the analysis of reflected wave fields in 2D and 3D. The Bayesian Directional Wave Spectrum Estimation Method has been applied throughout the study. Reflection characteristics have been investigated by use of physical models for three types of coastal structures with vertical fronts...

  2. Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Nava, Vincenzo; Topper, Mathew B. R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimisation strategy for the layout design of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays. Optimal layouts are sought so as to maximise the absorbed power given a minimum q-factor, the minimum distance between WECs, and an area of deployment. To guarantee an efficient optimisation......, a four-parameter layout description is proposed. Three different optimisation algorithms are further compared in terms of performance and computational cost. These are the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA), a genetic algorithm (GA) and the glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO) algorithm...

  3. Harbour bathing and the urban transition of water in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Farné Fratini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    transition processes. Our study suggests that the creation of the first harbour bath was not the end result of an overall master plan. Rather, we demonstrate that the harbour baths were the outcome of a contingent interplay among embedded actors’ myopic and navigational actions over a period of twenty years......n 2002 the first public harbour swimming bath in the inner harbour of Copenhagen opened. By translating the old industrial harbour into a site of urban living and recreation, the practice of swimming in the harbour has been instrumental in aligning and catalysing a series of broader urban...... transformations pertaining to the wastewater infrastructure, industrial activities, urban development, and international marketing of the city. Through a study of the processes by which swimming in the harbour came into being as a transformative urban practice, we develop a navigational conceptualisation of urban...

  4. Layout optimization using the homogenization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    A generalized layout problem involving sizing, shape, and topology optimization is solved by using the homogenization method for three-dimensional linearly elastic shell structures in order to seek a possibility of establishment of an integrated design system of automotive car bodies, as an extension of the previous work by Bendsoe and Kikuchi. A formulation of a three-dimensional homogenized shell, a solution algorithm, and several examples of computing the optimum layout are presented in this first part of the two articles.

  5. Computer aided selection of plant layout | Kitaw | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the fundamental concepts of plant layout, in which the need for plant layout, the systematic and logical approaches to the problems, layout solutions and the objectives of plant layout are discussed. Further the approaches and the scoring techniques of the two available computer rout ines are ...

  6. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work (APR...

  7. Post-Harbour Areas - New Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Rejzner, Urszula

    2015-12-01

    In the article on selected examples one illustrated the different solutions for shaping post-harbour areas. One highlighted the complexity and longevity of activities conducted in these areas, which include both: the modernization of building structures, shaping of new functional and spatial interactions, reproduction of natural resources, protection and sharing of preserved buildings and complexes of cultural heritage, but also well balanced management of transformed area. The basis for conducted deliberations constitute studies and field studies concerning the development of urban structures, conducted for many years by the author.

  8. Phytoremediation of TBT-contaminated Harbour Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Novak, Jana; DeClercq, Bartel

    growth. It was therefore decided to lagoon the sediments before bringing plants out. In a laboratory growth test, seeds of several plants were sown into fresh sediments, lagooned sediments, garden soil and in garden soil irrigated with salt water. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) performed best in these studies......, the toxicity of TBT to willows was very low. In a field study from 2003, however, willows did not survive in fresh harbour sludge. A plausible reason is the salt content of the substrate: willows have a low salt tolerance. Besides, the structure of the soil resulting from the sludge was not supporting plant...

  9. An optimization tool for satellite equipment layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zheng; Liang, Yan-gang; Zhou, Jian-ping

    2018-01-01

    Selection of the satellite equipment layout with performance constraints is a complex task which can be viewed as a constrained multi-objective optimization and a multiple criteria decision making problem. The layout design of a satellite cabin involves the process of locating the required equipment in a limited space, thereby satisfying various behavioral constraints of the interior and exterior environments. The layout optimization of satellite cabin in this paper includes the C.G. offset, the moments of inertia and the space debris impact risk of the system, of which the impact risk index is developed to quantify the risk to a satellite cabin of coming into contact with space debris. In this paper an optimization tool for the integration of CAD software as well as the optimization algorithms is presented, which is developed to automatically find solutions for a three-dimensional layout of equipment in satellite. The effectiveness of the tool is also demonstrated by applying to the layout optimization of a satellite platform.

  10. Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Mercadé Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimisation strategy for the layout design of wave energy converter (WEC arrays. Optimal layouts are sought so as to maximise the absorbed power given a minimum q-factor, the minimum distance between WECs, and an area of deployment. To guarantee an efficient optimisation, a four-parameter layout description is proposed. Three different optimisation algorithms are further compared in terms of performance and computational cost. These are the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA, a genetic algorithm (GA and the glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO algorithm. The results show slightly higher performances for the latter two algorithms; however, the first turns out to be significantly less computationally demanding.

  11. Discrete optimization in architecture architectural & urban layout

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents three projects that demonstrate the fundamental problems of architectural design and urban composition – the layout design, evaluation and optimization. Part I describes the functional layout design of a residential building, and an evaluation of the quality of a town square (plaza). The algorithm for the functional layout design is based on backtracking using a constraint satisfaction approach combined with coarse grid discretization. The algorithm for the town square evaluation is based on geometrical properties derived directly from its plan. Part II introduces a crowd-simulation application for the analysis of escape routes on floor plans, and optimization of a floor plan for smooth crowd flow. The algorithms presented employ agent-based modeling and cellular automata.

  12. CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, R Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.

  13. Ravenna, the harbour and the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Orioli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses some aspects of town planning evolution in Emilia-Romagna, referring to the plans and the events that affected Ravenna and its harbour (the so-called “Darsena di Città”, from the end of the 60s to nowadays. In this period town planning evolved towards the gradual redefinition of the perspectives of growth and the increasing attention to existing city, historical values and landscape. Since 1995, when a Urban Development Plan concerning the “Darsena di Città” was approved, many design experimentation were led, reflecting manners and themes of the national debate. The more recent experiences reflect at the local level the need of a transition – both cultural and technical – from a traditional urban design perspective towards a complex set of policies and actions that we include in the term ‘urban regeneration’.

  14. of Sediment Deposition into the Dar es Salaam Harbour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Dar es Salaam, Institute of Marine Sciences, P. O. Box 668 Zanzibar, Tanzania. Key words: Dar es Salaam harbour, sediment deposition, entrance channel. Abstract: The ..... Harbour Transportation, Fishing Ports, Sediment. Transport, Geomorphology, Inlets, and Dredging. Gulf Publishing Company, Book ...

  15. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic event and that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour were lost. Recent survey data and trend analysis from an on-ground monitoring program show that seagrasses in Cairns Harbour do remain, ...

  16. Final Report: ATLAS Phase-2 Tracker Upgrade Layout Task Force

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Hessey, N; Mättig, P; Styles, N; Wells, P; Burdin, S; Cornelissen, T; Todorov, T; Vankov, P; Watson, I; Wenig, S

    2012-01-01

    he mandate of the Upgrade Layout Task Force was to develop a benchmark layout proposal for the ATLAS Phase-2 Upgrade Letter of Intent (LOI), due in late 2012. The work described in this note has evolved from simulation and design studies made using an earlier "UTOPIA" upgrade tracker layout, and experience gained from the current ATLAS Inner Detector during the first years of data taking. The layout described in this document, called the LoI-layout, will be used as a benchmark layout for the LoI and will be used for simulation and engineering studies described in the LoI.

  17. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  18. Design and analysis of reconfigurable layout systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Meng, Gang; Heragu, S.S.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; van Houtum, Geert-Jan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for determining the layout in a manufacturing environment characterized by constantly changing product volumes and mix. Much of the production equipment is assumed to be relatively light weight and therefore their location can be easily changed to suit the

  19. Optimal Wafer Cutting in Shuttle Layout Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisted, Lasse; Pisinger, David; Altman, Avri

    2011-01-01

    . The shuttle layout problem is frequently solved in two phases: first, a floorplan of the shuttle is generated. Then, a cutting plan is found which minimizes the overall number of wafers needed to satisfy the demand of each die type. Since some die types require special production technologies, only compatible...

  20. Terrace Layout Using a Computer Assisted System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of a web-based terrace design tool based on the MOTERR program is presented, along with representative layouts for conventional and parallel terrace systems. Using digital elevation maps and geographic information systems (GIS), this tool utilizes personal computers to rapidly construct ...

  1. Beam Dynamics and Layout arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, Alessandra

    In this paper, we give some guidelines for the design of linear accelerators, with special emphasis on their use in a hadron therapy facility. We concentrate on two accelerator layouts, based on linacs. The conventional one based on a linac injecting into a synchrotron and a all-linac solution based on high gradient high frequency RF cavities.

  2. Layout and Routing Methods for Warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Roodbergen (Kees-Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractLayout and Routing Methods for Warehouses discusses aspects of order picking in warehouses. Order picking is the process by which products are retrieved from storage to meet customer demand. Various new routing methods are introduced to determine efficient sequences in which products

  3. Customisation of Indico pages - Layout and Menus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to customize the layout of your Indico pages (for example you can change the color of the background images or change the logo) and the menus on your Indico pages  (for example you can add or hide certain blocks, or change their name and order).  

  4. Comparison of tropical nematode communities from three harbours, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    recorded at Mormugao harbour and lowest (23 species) at Ratnagiri harbour. The presence of dominant species like Vasostoma sp. (41%), Sabatieria sp. 1 (23%) and Sabatieria sp. 2 (20%) designate these harbours as altered benthic habitats under stress...

  5. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. The layout we consider is a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important in digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and in the improvement of user-created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm that automatically detects constraints. We evaluate the proposed framework using a variety of input layouts from different applications. Our results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to the state of the art.

  6. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2015-09-18

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. As layout we consider a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important for digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and for the improvement of user created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate the layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm to automatically detect constraints. In our results, we evaluate the proposed framework on a variety of input layouts from different applications, which demonstrates our method has superior performance to the state of the art.

  7. 48 CFR 36.517 - Layout of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of work. 36.517... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.517 Layout of work. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-17, Layout of Work, in solicitations and contracts when...

  8. Fate and transport modelling of uranium in Port Hope Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, C.E.; Garisto, N.; Peters, R.

    2010-01-01

    Fate and transport modelling of contaminants in Port Hope Harbour and near-shore Lake Ontario was undertaken in support of an ecological and human health risk assessment. Uranium concentrations in the Harbour and near-shore Lake Ontario due to groundwater and storm water loadings were estimated with a state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamic and contaminant transport model (ECOMSED). The hydrodynamic model was simplified to obtain a first estimate of the flow pattern in the Harbour. The model was verified with field data using a tracer (fluoride). The modelling results generally showed good agreement with the tracer field data. (author)

  9. The Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus, Volume I.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovén, Bjørn

    of Athenian power. This first volume in the peer-reviewed Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus series is the culmination of the first phase of archaeological investigations conducted by the Zea Harbour Project, 2001-2006. The study focuses on Zea Harbour, where two previously unidentified building phases were......, shipsheds (Phase 3) that have been documented previously by W. Dörpfeld and I.C. Dragátsis (1885) are dated to 375-350 BC (terminus post quem) and architecturally redefined as double-unit shipsheds designed to house two ships stored end-to-end. Also among the principle discoveries are the establishment...

  10. Harbour porpoises respond to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Iversen, Maria; Nielsen, Nynne Hjort; Lockyer, Christina; Stern, Harry; Ribergaard, Mads Hvid

    2011-12-01

    The effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and in particular on marine top predators are difficult to assess due to, among other things, spatial variability, and lack of clear delineation of marine habitats. The banks of West Greenland are located in a climate sensitive area and are likely to elicit pronounced responses to oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic. The recent increase in sea temperatures on the banks of West Greenland has had cascading effects on sea ice coverage, residency of top predators, and abundance of important prey species like Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Here, we report on the response of one of the top predators in West Greenland; the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The porpoises depend on locating high densities of prey species with high nutritive value and they have apparently responded to the general warming on the banks of West Greenland by longer residence times, increased consumption of Atlantic cod resulting in improved body condition in the form of larger fat deposits in blubber, compared to the situation during a cold period in the 1990s. This is one of the few examples of a measurable effect of climate change on a marine mammal population.

  11. Pure JavaScript Storyline Layout Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-02

    This is a JavaScript library for a storyline layout algorithm. Storylines are adept at communicating complex change by encoding time on the x-axis and using the proximity of lines in the y direction to represent interaction between entities. The library in this disclosure takes as input a list of objects containing an id, time, and state. The output is a data structure that can be used to conveniently render a storyline visualization. Most importantly, the library computes the y-coordinate of the entities over time that decreases layout artifacts including crossings, wiggles, and whitespace. This is accomplished through multi-objective, multi-stage optimization problem, where the output of one stage produces input and constraints for the next stage.

  12. Layout Drawings of the LHC Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Vergara Fernandez, A; Maire, B; Muttoni, Y; Kournossenko, A; Zalyalov, R

    2004-01-01

    The team in charge of the LHC integration largely uses 3D scenes combining functional positions of equipments and the 3D CAD model issued from the CERN Drawing Directory (CDD) repository. This is made possible through the Digital Mock-Up tool developed at CERN. Giving dimensions in 3D context is a challenge with the current 3D CAD tools used at CERN. Requirements from users groups have made clear a need for automatic production of 2D layout drawings. This paper presents the retained solution to create on-request dimensioned drawings, to publish them, while maintaining coherence and consistency with the 3D integration scenes. Reliability of the information, on-line availability of the latest layout changes on dimensions and positions of equipments, and the maintenance of the facility is also described.

  13. Layout drawings of the LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Vergara, A

    2004-01-01

    The team in charge of the LHC integration largely uses 3D scenes combining functional positions of equipments and the 3D CAD model issued from the CERN Drawing Directory (CDD) repository. This is made possible through the Digital Mock-Up tool developed at CERN. Giving dimensions in 3D context is a challenge with the current 3D CAD tools used at CERN. Requirements from users groups have made clear a need for automatic production of 2D layout drawings. This paper presents the retained solution to create on-request dimensioned drawings, to publish them, while maintaining coherence and consistency with the 3D integration scenes. Reliability of the information, on-line availability of the latest layout changes on dimensions and positions of equipments, and the maintenance of the facility will also be described.

  14. Ergonomic Application on the Work Station Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyo Widagdo; Darlis

    2003-01-01

    Work station layout in the ideal way has been made. The dimension of the work station is 9.4 m x 7.1 m. The workers to be stationed should feel comfort. This can be done by honoring the dimensions and the sum of the tools that should be stationed and also the free space that should be mention between the tools as state in EPRI, NP-2411. (author)

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE LAYOUT SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site layout system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  16. Inverse procedural modeling of facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Feng

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we address the following research problem: How can we generate a meaningful split grammar that explains a given facade layout? To evaluate if a grammar is meaningful, we propose a cost function based on the description length and minimize this cost using an approximate dynamic programming framework. Our evaluation indicates that our framework extracts meaningful split grammars that are competitive with those of expert users, while some users and all competing automatic solutions are less successful. Copyright © ACM.

  17. Probabilistic Graph Layout for Uncertain Network Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christoph; Nocaj, Arlind; Goertler, Jochen; Deussen, Oliver; Brandes, Ulrik; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel uncertain network visualization technique based on node-link diagrams. Nodes expand spatially in our probabilistic graph layout, depending on the underlying probability distributions of edges. The visualization is created by computing a two-dimensional graph embedding that combines samples from the probabilistic graph. A Monte Carlo process is used to decompose a probabilistic graph into its possible instances and to continue with our graph layout technique. Splatting and edge bundling are used to visualize point clouds and network topology. The results provide insights into probability distributions for the entire network-not only for individual nodes and edges. We validate our approach using three data sets that represent a wide range of network types: synthetic data, protein-protein interactions from the STRING database, and travel times extracted from Google Maps. Our approach reveals general limitations of the force-directed layout and allows the user to recognize that some nodes of the graph are at a specific position just by chance.

  18. Pollution studies on harbours and jetties in Nigeria | Agbagwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    40%) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, four isolates were also identified as Salmonella species. The high distribution of the bacteria which is of public health importance in the harbours/jetties, indicates pollution. Physiochemical parameters such ...

  19. Seabed surveys of Mormugao Harbour, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Gujar, A.R.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    Detailed echosounding, side scan sonar and shallow seismics (125 line km) covering an area of 6.2 km2 in the Mormugao harbour provided information on seabed topography, surficial distribution of sediments, their thickness and rock outcrops along...

  20. Production layout improvement by using line balancing and Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) at PT. XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchari; Tarigan, U.; Ambarita, M. B.

    2018-02-01

    PT. XYZ is a wood processing company which produce semi-finished wood with production system is make to order. In the production process, it can be seen that the production line is not balanced. The imbalance of the production line is caused by the difference in cycle time between work stations. In addition, there are other issues, namely the existence of material flow pattern is irregular so it resulted in the backtracking and displacement distance away. This study aimed to obtain the allocation of work elements to specific work stations and propose an improvement of the production layout based on the result of improvements in the line balancing. The method used in the balancing is Ranked Positional Weight (RPW) or also known as Helgeson Birnie method. While the methods used in the improvement of the layout is the method of Systematic Layout Planning (SLP). By using Ranked Positional Weight (RPW) obtained increase in line efficiency becomes 84,86% and decreased balance delay becomes 15,14%. Repairing the layout using the method of Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) also give good results with a reduction in path length becomes 133,82 meters from 213,09 meters previously or a decrease of 37.2%.

  1. A REDESIGN LAYOUT TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF A COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentia Kitriastika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This project is conducted in Company X, a passenger cars wheel producing company located in Sunter, North Jakarta. With a view of increasing the productivity of the company, the focus of this project will be redesigned the layout of the factory. The main problem encountered is that the goods are not produced in single location, causing a considerable hindrance in terms of time and distance, and hence efficiency. The redesigning layout process will use SLP method and flow analysis while supported by analysis of assembly line balancing to optimize the layout. Regarding the evaluation process, ARENA software will be used to simulate and identify the bottleneck in the production process, and comparing the layout alternatives to decide the best layout. The best chosen layout according to the simulation and SLP method that supported with flow analysis and assembly line balancing will be used as the master draft layout that will be proposed to Company X.

  2. Reuse of harbour sediments in the Greenlandic construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possibilities of using harbour sediments from the Greenlandic harbours as substitutes in the Greenlandic construction industry, mainly for concrete production and road construction. Materials for use in the Greenlandic construction industry are shipped...... to Greenland from all over the world and reuse and use of resources already in Greenland would therefore make a huge contribution to the local community....

  3. Ecology, tourism and management of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)

    OpenAIRE

    Granquist, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    In cases where human and wildlife are co-using the same geographical areas and resources, management issues often get complex and stakeholder conflicts are common. The Icelandic harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) population is rapidly decreasing, but direct culling of seals still occurs. At the same time seals are becoming an important resource due to increased interest in wildlife watching. Despite the complicated management situation, the Icelandic harbour seal population is one of the least stu...

  4. Factors controlling marine fouling in some Alexandria Harbours, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH.E. RAMADAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to relate the settlement of marine fouling organisms in three different harbours in Alexandria city which present a wide range of ecological/environmental variations. Theses are the Abu Qir, Eastern and El-Dekheila harbours. Monthly samples of marine fouling were collected from the three harbours by using white roughened polystyrene test panels (12.5x12.5 cm, as well as physicochemical, chemical and other biological data. Results were treated with multivariate statistical analysis (PCA. At the Abu Qir harbour, it was found that water temperature and salinity are the most important environmental factors controlling the temporal distribution of total fouling density, whereas water temperature and chlorophyll a are the most significant environmental factors controlling the total biomass. At the Eastern harbour it was demonstrated that ammonia and phosphate are the most significant environmental factors controlling the temporal distribution and total biomass of fouling organisms. Concerning El-Dekheila harbour, the total density and total biomass of fouling organisms were inversely correlated with the total zooplankton.

  5. Marine debris in harbour porpoises and seals from German waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, B; Herr, H; Benke, H; Böhmert, M; Burkhardt-Holm, P; Dähne, M; Hillmann, M; Wolff-Schmidt, K; Wohlsein, P; Siebert, U

    2017-09-01

    Records of marine debris in and attached to stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were studied comprising information on 6587 carcasses collected along the German coast between 1990 and 2014, the decomposition state allowed for necropsy in 1622 cases. Marine debris items were recorded in 31 carcasses including 14 entanglements (5 harbour porpoises, 6 harbour seals, 3 grey seals) and 17 cases of ingestion (4 harbour porpoises, 10 harbour seals, 3 grey seals). Objects comprised general debris (35.1%) and fishing related debris (64.9%). Injuries associated with marine debris included lesions, suppurative ulcerative dermatitis, perforation of the digestive tract, abscessation, suppurative peritonitis and septicaemia. This study is the first investigation of marine debris findings in all three marine mammal species from German waters. It demonstrates the health impacts marine debris can have, including severe suffering and death. The results provide needed information on debris burdens in the North and Baltic Seas for implementing management directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. General layout of a 1300 MW PWR buildings: standard lay-out and influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Messias, M. da

    1986-01-01

    The Standardization concept of a 1300 MW Nuclear Power Plant equipped with pressurized-water reactors (PWR) will be considered with regard to the factors which have various degrees of influence on the Layout of the Site. Standardization with regard to the Layout of nuclear power plant, stands, however also for a fixed arrangement of the components in the main buildings and a fixed arrangement of the buildings in the site plan. Standardization may result in simplified and shorter licensing procedures and mean less planning effort. Concentration of systems, optimization of the electro-mechanical design, clear separation of the controlled area, need for shielding, maintenance and safety aspects are some of number of factors which have various degress of influence on the layout of the buildings. (Author) [pt

  7. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  8. Repository Surface Design Site Layout Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD (Reference 5.5), including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  9. Hierarchically organized layout for visualization of biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Bo-Liang; Jeng, Yu-Sen

    2010-01-01

    Many complex pathways are described as hierarchical structures in which a pathway is recursively partitioned into several sub-pathways, and organized hierarchically as a tree. The hierarchical structure provides a natural way to visualize the global structure of a complex pathway. However, none of the previous research on pathway visualization explores the hierarchical structures provided by many complex pathways. In this paper, we aim to develop algorithms that can take advantages of hierarchical structures, and give layouts that explore the global structures as well as local structures of pathways. We present a new hierarchically organized layout algorithm to produce layouts for hierarchically organized pathways. Our algorithm first decomposes a complex pathway into sub-pathway groups along the hierarchical organization, and then partition each sub-pathway group into basic components. It then applies conventional layout algorithms, such as hierarchical layout and force-directed layout, to compute the layout of each basic component. Finally, component layouts are joined to form a final layout of the pathway. Our main contribution is the development of algorithms for decomposing pathways and joining layouts. Experiment shows that our algorithm is able to give comprehensible visualization for pathways with hierarchies, cycles as well as complex structures. It clearly renders the global component structures as well as the local structure in each component. In addition, it runs very fast, and gives better visualization for many examples from previous related research. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Draft layout of the HPLWR power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehly, C. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech., Karlsruhe (Germany); Starflinger, J. [IKE, Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany); Schulenberg, T.; Brandauer, M.; Lemasson, D.; Velluet, R. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech., Karlsruhe (Germany); Herbell, H. [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor designed by a consortium of European partners in the 6th European Framework Programme. This paper describes a potential layout of the reactor building including the containment with the reactor and with the required safety systems, the turbine building with turbines, condensers, feedwater pumps and preheaters, and the start-up system. Design details are given for selected key components to estimate their size. Compared with a conventional power plant of similar power output, the HPLWR power plant can be designed significantly smaller. (author)

  11. Methodology of shell structure reinforcement layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrański, Tomasz; Małachowski, Jerzy; Damaziak, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization process of a reinforced shell diffuser intended for a small wind turbine (rated power of 3 kW). The diffuser structure consists of multiple reinforcement and metal skin. This kind of structure is suitable for optimization in terms of selection of reinforcement density, stringers cross sections, sheet thickness, etc. The optimisation approach assumes the reduction of the amount of work to be done between the optimization process and the final product design. The proposed optimization methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm to generate the optimal reinforcement layout. The obtained results are the basis for modifying the existing Small Wind Turbine (SWT) design.

  12. ATLAS ITk Layout Design and Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Calace, Noemi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Detector design studies are a very crucial activity for the ATLAS Collaboration, in preparation for the future High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) planned to start in 2026. One of the key activities is the design and prototyping of a new Inner Tracker (ITk), fully made of silicon, able to meet the requirements HL-LHC environment assuring at the same time very high tracking performance. A dedicated design process started from Letter of Intent (LoI) layouts is still ongoing to establish the design ATLAS ITk tracker.

  13. Evolutionary optimization technique for site layout planning

    KAUST Repository

    El Ansary, Ayman M.

    2014-02-01

    Solving the site layout planning problem is a challenging task. It requires an iterative approach to satisfy design requirements (e.g. energy efficiency, skyview, daylight, roads network, visual privacy, and clear access to favorite views). These design requirements vary from one project to another based on location and client preferences. In the Gulf region, the most important socio-cultural factor is the visual privacy in indoor space. Hence, most of the residential houses in this region are surrounded by high fences to provide privacy, which has a direct impact on other requirements (e.g. daylight and direction to a favorite view). This paper introduces a novel technique to optimally locate and orient residential buildings to satisfy a set of design requirements. The developed technique is based on genetic algorithm which explores the search space for possible solutions. This study considers two dimensional site planning problems. However, it can be extended to solve three dimensional cases. A case study is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this technique in solving the site layout planning of simple residential dwellings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Geometric properties of graph layouts optimized for greedy navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Holme, Petter

    2012-12-01

    The graph layouts used for complex network studies have been mainly developed to improve visualization. If we interpret the layouts in metric spaces such as Euclidean ones, however, the embedded spatial information can be a valuable cue for various purposes. In this work, we focus on encoding useful navigational information to geometric coordinates of vertices of spatial graphs, which is a reverse problem of harnessing geometric information for better navigation. In other words, the coordinates of the vertices are a map of the topology, not the other way around. We use a recently developed user-centric navigation protocol to explore spatial layouts of complex networks that are optimal for navigation. These layouts are generated with a simple simulated annealing optimization technique. We compare these layouts to others targeted at better visualization and discuss the spatial statistical properties of the optimized layouts for better navigability and its implication.

  15. Water Quality Observations in the Dekhaila Harbour, Alexandria, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.A.; Abdel-Aziz, N.E.; Dorgham, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Dekhaila Harbour, which was recently constructed in Alexandria, had become a highly eutrophied areas due to intensive maritime activities, and the effect of a mixture of nutrients and different pollutants reaching the harbour through land-based effluent. Environmental observations which were carried monthly from April 1998 to March 1999 demonstrated extremely high nutrient level and productive phytoplankton, showing wide temporal and spatial variations. The variability of surface salinity was one of the characteristic features of the harbour, falling within the range of 17.3-39.2 ppt. Nutrients sustained pronouncedly high values, with annual average of 19.22uM for nitrate, 4.16um for nitrite, 38.69uM for ammonia, 6.44uM for phosphate and 49.52 for silicate. Chlorophyll a was exceptionally high (up to 13.23ug/1), having an annual average of 107.5ug/1. The harbour water was relatively turbid most of the year. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen revealed the alternations of good (5-10ml/1) aeration conditions. Consequently, low zooplankton abundance was found in the Dekhalia Harbour (annual average: 22,640 ind./m3). Statistical analysis showed that the envirnomental factors controlling both phyplankton and zooplankton biomass had different seasonal patterns. (author)

  16. Three-dimensional computer aided design system for plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Takashi; Tokumasu, Shinji; Kumamoto, Kenjiro.

    1986-01-01

    The CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, with which the layout of pipings, cable trays, air conditioning ducts and so on in nuclear power plants can be planned and designed effectively in a short period is reported. This system comprises the automatic routing system by storing the rich experience and know-how of designers in a computer as the knowledge, and deciding the layout automatically following the predetermined sequence by using these, the interactive layout system for reviewing the routing results from higher level and modifying to the optimum layout, the layout evaluation system for synthetically evaluating the layout from the viewpoint of the operability such as checkup and maintenance, and the data base system which enables these effective planning and design. In this report, the total constitution of this system and the technical features and effects of the individual subsystems are outlined. In this CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, computer graphics and other latest technology were introduced, accordingly by applying this system to plant design, the design can be performed quickly, various case studies can be carried out at planning stage, and systematic and optimum layout planning becomes possible. (Kako, I.)

  17. The Offshore Wind Farm Array Cable Layout Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Joanna; Lysgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In an offshore wind farm (OWF), the turbines are connected to a transformer by cable routes that cannot cross each other. Finding the minimum cost array cable layout thus amounts to a vehicle routing problem with the additional constraints that the routes must be embedded in the plane. For this p......In an offshore wind farm (OWF), the turbines are connected to a transformer by cable routes that cannot cross each other. Finding the minimum cost array cable layout thus amounts to a vehicle routing problem with the additional constraints that the routes must be embedded in the plane....... For this problem, both exact and heuristic methods are of interest. We optimize cable layouts for real-world OWFs by a hop-indexed integer programming formulation, and develop a heuristic for computing layouts based on the Clarke and Wright savings heuristic for vehicle routing. Our heuristic computes layouts...... on average only 2% more expensive than the optimal layout. Finally, we present two problem extensions arising from real-world OWF cable layouts, and adapt the integer programming formulation to one of them. The thus obtained optimal layouts are up to 13% cheaper than the actually installed layouts....

  18. The Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus, Volume I.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovén, Bjørn

    of Athenian power. This first volume in the peer-reviewed Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus series is the culmination of the first phase of archaeological investigations conducted by the Zea Harbour Project, 2001-2006. The study focuses on Zea Harbour, where two previously unidentified building phases were......Athens in the Classical period was preeminent because of her naval power. The architectural glories of the Acropolis stood in second place to her naval bases according to an unknown Athenian writer: O Athens, queen of all cities! How fair your naval base! How fair your Parthenon! How fair your...... Piraeus! - Com. Adespot. 340 The immense historical importance of the navy of Classical Athens is evident in her struggles against Persia ending at the Battle of Salamis, the city's central role in the First Delian League, the decades of Athens' supremacy as an imperial naval power, the victories...

  19. Phagocytosis in pup and adult harbour, grey and harp seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Héloïse; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike; Fournier, Michel

    2010-04-15

    Knowledge on pinniped immunology is still in its infancy. For instance, age-related and developmental aspects of the immune system in pinnipeds need to be better described. The present study examined the phagocytic activity and efficiency of harbour, grey and harp seal leukocytes. In the first part of the study, peripheral blood was collected from captive female harbour seals of various ages. Data showed an age-related decrease in phagocytosis in female harbour seals from sub-adult to adulthood. In the second part of the study, changes in phagocytosis were quantified during lactation in wild newborn harbour, grey and harp seals and in their mothers (harp and grey seals). In newborns of the same age, leukocytes of harbour and harp seals phagocytosed less than those of grey seal pups. The phagocytic activity and efficiency increased significantly from early to mid-lactation in newborn harbour seals, and from early to late lactation in newborn grey seals, which could suggest that the transfer of phagocytosis-promoting factor(s) in colostrum is an important feature of temporary protection for pups. In contrast, no changes in phagocytic activity and efficiency were observed in lactating females of the two seal species, harp and grey, examined. At late lactation, phagocytic activity in both grey and harp seal pups and phagocytic efficiency in grey seal pups were significantly higher than in their mothers. These results could reflect either the capacity of phagocytes of the newborn harp and grey seals to respond to pathogens. Results from this study suggest that the phagocytosis of the seal species examined is not fully developed at birth as it generally increases in pups during lactation. Thereafter, the phagocytic activity of seals appears to decrease throughout adulthood. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ITER layout: Alternatives for improved maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.; Barnes, C.; Maisonnier, D.

    1991-01-01

    International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor maintenance mission objectives and their effect on systems layout are reviewed through the example of the torus vacuum pumping system. Applying maintenance requirements to this system has resulted in significant improvements in component accessibility. Further changes currently under review could result in a reduction in vacuum duct length, the addition of duct shielding to reduce neutron activation, a pump and valve assembly which can be serviced from the floor rather than solely from a crane, and provision for transport casks to enter the pump room through an equipment airlock, large enough to permit the entry of robotic devices as well as construction equipment. This rearrangement could offer savings in overall height of the pump and valve assembly. An innovation in valve configuration will allow for one-line removal of the large vacuum valve seal discs without loss of vacuum. This has potential for reduced maintenance outage time and operating cost. (orig.)

  1. Ergonomics influence on control room layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfiel, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays, human factors has become an important aspect of the design of work places. Since the control room in a nuclear power plant is a work place, too, its layout is also influenced by ergonomics. With the KWU control room concept for the 1300 MW PWR as an example, we show how assured and applicable ergonomic findings enter into the control room design. On the basis of general design principles for work places, specific methods for control room planning have been developed. By working with these methods a concept that makes it possible to build a man-machine interface able to fulfill the process control tasks with all their underlying conditions has been derived. (author)

  2. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-02-19

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input\\'s structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  3. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  4. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  5. Factors driving firm's spatial decisions on distribution channel layout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onstein, A.T.C.; Ektesaby, M.; Rezaei, J.; Tavasszy, L.A.; van Damme, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial decisions on distribution channel layout involve the layout of the transport and storage system between production and consumption as well as the selection of distribution centre locations. Both are strategic company decisions to meet logistics challenges, i.e. delivering the right product

  6. Optimal layout of radiological environment monitoring based on TOPSIS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sufen; Zhou Chunlin

    2006-01-01

    TOPSIS is a method for multi-objective-decision-making, which can be applied to comprehensive assessment of environmental quality. This paper adopts it to get the optimal layout of radiological environment monitoring, it is proved that this method is a correct, simple and convenient, practical one, and beneficial to supervision departments to scientifically and reasonably layout Radiological Environment monitoring sites. (authors)

  7. Developing an Integrated Design Strategy for Chip Layout Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; van Vliet, Frank Edward; te Riele, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated design strategy for chip layout optimization. The strategy couples both electric and thermal aspects during the conceptual design phase to improve chip performances; thermal management being one of the major topics. The layout of the chip circuitry is optimized

  8. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  9. Selecting a pharmacy layout design using a weighted scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Alissa L; Huang, Yu-Li

    2012-05-01

    A weighted scoring system was used to select a pharmacy layout redesign. Facilities layout design techniques were applied at a local hospital pharmacy using a step-by-step design process. The process involved observing and analyzing the current situation, observing the current available space, completing activity flow charts of the pharmacy processes, completing communication and material relationship charts to detail which areas in the pharmacy were related to one another and how they were related, researching applications in other pharmacies or in scholarly works that could be beneficial, numerically defining space requirements for areas within the pharmacy, measuring the available space within the pharmacy, developing a set of preliminary designs, and modifying preliminary designs so they were all acceptable to the pharmacy staff. To select a final layout that could be implemented in the pharmacy, those layouts were compared via a weighted scoring system. The weighted aspect further allowed additional emphasis on categories based on their effect on pharmacy performance. The results produced a beneficial layout design as determined through simulated models of the pharmacy operation that more effectively allocated and strategically located space to improve transportation distances and materials handling, employee utilization, and ergonomics. Facilities layout designs for a hospital pharmacy were evaluated using a weighted scoring system to identify a design that was superior to both the current layout and alternative layouts in terms of feasibility, cost, patient safety, employee safety, flexibility, robustness, transportation distance, employee utilization, objective adherence, maintainability, usability, and environmental impact.

  10. Optimization of machining fixture layout for tolerance requirements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dimensional accuracy of workpart under machining is strongly influenced by the layout of the fixturing elements like locators and clamps. Setup or geometrical errors in locators result in overall machining error of the feature under consideration. Therefore it is necessary to ensure that the layout is optimized for the desired ...

  11. Student Perceptions of Textbook Layout and Learnability in Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshangabadwala, Alefiyah

    2015-01-01

    This research is an exploratory study that investigates students' perceptions pertinent to textbook layout and organization and their evaluation of the textbook ease of learning. The objective is to find out whether the layout dynamics of school textbooks make any difference in students' interest in studying or subject understanding. 73 students…

  12. Layout Geometry in Encoding and Retrieval of Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Liu, Xianyun; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the spatial reference directions that are used to specify objects' locations in memory can be solely determined by layout geometry. Participants studied a layout of objects from a single viewpoint while their eye movements were recorded. Subsequently, participants used memory to make judgments of relative…

  13. Agriculture Education. Elements of Farm and Building Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in elements of farm and building layout. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) sketching and drawing equipment, (2) gothic lettering, (3) layout of a standard sheet, (4) job…

  14. Target aligned heliostat field layout for non-flat terrrain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Buck, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The layout for a solar tower test facility for CSIR, Pretoria, is described. The solar tower system is designed for 400kWth receiver outlet power. The heliostat field layout takes into account both the real (non-flat) topography of the terrain...

  15. Multipurpose layout drawing of metalware of bridge crane load trolley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multipurpose layout drawing of metalware of bridge crane load trolley is proposed. The numerical analysis of proposed layout drawing is conducted using the example of bridge crane load trolley with capacity of 20 t. This analysis is carried out using the finite element method.

  16. Multipurpose layout drawing of metalware of bridge crane load trolley

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov K.A.; Denisov I.A.

    2017-01-01

    Multipurpose layout drawing of metalware of bridge crane load trolley is proposed. The numerical analysis of proposed layout drawing is conducted using the example of bridge crane load trolley with capacity of 20 t. This analysis is carried out using the finite element method.

  17. Layout of the LER [Low Energy Ring] Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently been trying to accumulate all of the information necessary to decide on the layout of the regular curved arcs of the Low Energy Ring (LER) and there have been several ABC Notes published on different aspects of the problem. This note will describe the layout that has been derived from these considerations

  18. Optimal Control Surface Layout for an Aeroservoelastic Wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a technique for locating the optimal control surface layout of an aeroservoelastic Common Research Model wingbox, in the context of maneuver load alleviation and active utter suppression. The combinatorial actuator layout design is solved using ideas borrowed from topology optimization, where the effectiveness of a given control surface is tied to a layout design variable, which varies from zero (the actuator is removed) to one (the actuator is retained). These layout design variables are optimized concurrently with a large number of structural wingbox sizing variables and control surface actuation variables, in order to minimize the sum of structural weight and actuator weight. Results are presented that demonstrate interdependencies between structural sizing patterns and optimal control surface layouts, for both static and dynamic aeroelastic physics.

  19. On the impact of layout quality to understanding UML diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Practical experience suggests that use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. However, existing experimental evidence for this effect is been weak and inconclusive. In this paper, we explore two explanations. Firstly, we observe that the visual...... qualities of diagrams are more prominent in earlier life cycle phases so that the impact of layout quality should be more apparent in models and diagram types used there, an aspect not studied in previous research. Secondly, in practice, good layouts use many different heuristics simultaneously whereas...... previous research considered them in isolation only. In this paper, we report the results of a series of controlled experiments using compound layouts on requirements analysis models. With very high significance, we find a notable impact of the layout quality measured by different aspects of cognitive load....

  20. Topology-optimized metasurfaces: impact of initial geometric layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianji; Fan, Jonathan A

    2017-08-15

    Topology optimization is a powerful iterative inverse design technique in metasurface engineering and can transform an initial layout into a high-performance device. With this method, devices are optimized within a local design phase space, making the identification of suitable initial geometries essential. In this Letter, we examine the impact of initial geometric layout on the performance of large-angle (75 deg) topology-optimized metagrating deflectors. We find that when conventional metasurface designs based on dielectric nanoposts are used as initial layouts for topology optimization, the final devices have efficiencies around 65%. In contrast, when random initial layouts are used, the final devices have ultra-high efficiencies that can reach 94%. Our numerical experiments suggest that device topologies based on conventional metasurface designs may not be suitable to produce ultra-high-efficiency, large-angle metasurfaces. Rather, initial geometric layouts with non-trivial topologies and shapes are required.

  1. Epizootics in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Siebert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Epizootic diseases causing considerable mortality in harbour seal populations have mainly been reported from the waters of the United States and Europe. Such die-offs were largely attributable to viral infections. Several hundred individuals died from respiratory infections caused by Influenza A viruses at the coast of New England, USA, in 1979, 1980 and 1982. More than 53,000 harbour seals were killed in European waters by Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV, a morbillivirus,in two outbreaks in 1988 and 2002. For several other epizootics of smaller scale in the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of the USA and, most recently, in Danish and Swedish waters in 2007 the causes remain unclear, although characteristic respiratory symptoms and interstitial pneumonia suspicious of viral etiology were detected as well as occasionally bacterial infections caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mass mortalities caused by biotoxins, direct human interactions or changes in oceanographic conditions have so far not been described for harbour seals. However, high organochlorine loads detected in European harbour seal populations and suspected to impede immune functions, were considered an aggravating factor in the 1988 morbillivirus epizootic. Establishing supranational stranding networks is a key prerequisite for the detection of future unusual die-offs in marine mammals. Detailed post-mortem investigations of all organ systems are essential for targeted etiological studies towards the causes of mass mortalities in seals.

  2. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics.

  3. Social Archaeological Approaches in Port and Harbour Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam

    2013-12-01

    This introductory article to the special issue of the Journal of Maritime Archaeology offers a comparative perspective on the theme of archaeological theory and social archaeological approaches to ports and harbours. As a specialist in Roman archaeology I was keen to explore the way in which specialists in other areas of archaeology approached the archaeology of ports and harbours and whether different approaches and perspectives may be able to add nuances to the way in which material is interpreted. The volume brings together a collection of exciting new studies which explore social themes in port and harbour studies with the intention to encourage debate and the use of new interpretative perspectives. This article examines a number of interpretative themes including those relating to architectural analyse, human behaviour, action and experience and artefact analysis. These themes help us to move towards a more theoretically informed ports and harbour archaeology which focuses on meaning as well as description. The emphasis on theory within archaeology allows us to be more ambitious in our interpretative frameworks including in Roman archaeology which has not tended to embrace the theoretical aspects of the archaeological discipline with as much enthusiasm as some other areas of archaeology.

  4. high and low water prediction at lagos harbour, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    moon and sun on the earth. Water level recordings are done with the aid of manual tide gauges, automatic tide gauges and water level recorders. There are a number of needs for water level information. The most popular use of water level information is for navigation. Water level information is also important in harbour and ...

  5. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems, through the integration of microbiological monitoring (faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas species) and heavy metal contamination (lead, cadmium and mercury). One way ANOVA indicates statistically significant ...

  6. Echolocation signals of wild harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsgaard, A.; Wahlberg, Magnus; Tougaard, J.

    2007-01-01

    level was more than 30 dB above what has been measured from captive animals, while the spectral and temporal properties were comparable. Calculations based on the sonar equation indicate that harbour porpoises, using these high click intensities, should be capable of detecting fish and nets and should...

  7. The first case of conjoined twin harbour porpoises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompanje, E.J.O.; Camphuysen, C.J.; Leopold, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the smallest and most abundant cetacean in NW European continental shelf waters. Their global abundance numbers at least ~700,000 individuals. Within the North Sea, total abundance has recently been estimated at approximately 345,000 animals. The species

  8. Aspects of Water Quality of Freshwater Systems Harbouring Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of some aspects of water quality of freshwater systems harbouring snail vectors of schistosome parasites was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Calcium ion concentration of the water bodies was a mean value of 31 mg.l-1. The range of temperature was 15 - 30OC. The occurrence of Biomphalaria pferifferi was attributed to ...

  9. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone 'complete and catastrophic loss' as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic ...

  10. Numerical simulation of ship motion in offshore and harbour areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Jensen, Bjarne; Mortensen, Simon Brandi

    2008-01-01

    A method for simulating the motions and mooring forces of a moored ship subject to wave forcing has been further developed and validated for both the open water case and inside harbour areas. The method was originally developed and reported in Bingham (2000). The simulation tool is named WAMSIM...

  11. Numerical simulation of ship motion in offshore and harbour areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Jensen, Bjarne; Mortensen, Simon Brandi

    2008-01-01

    and it solves the equations of motions in the time domain. The package applies the WAMITW® model to provide the frequency domain hydrodynamic characteristics (the frequency response functions or FRFs) of the body. Examples from both open waters and enclosed waters in harbours are presented....

  12. Determining optimal pinger spacing for harbour porpoise bycatch mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Krog, Carsten; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2013-01-01

    A trial was conducted in the Danish North Sea hake gillnet fishery in July to September 2006 to determine whether the spacing of the Aquatec AQUAmark100 pinger could be increased without reducing the effectiveness of the pinger in mitigating harbour porpoise bycatch. The trial was designed as a c...

  13. Predicted concentrations of biocides from antifouling paints in Visakhapatnam Harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A; Rao, K V Mohan; Ramesh, U S

    2009-02-01

    The concentrations of biocides leached from antifouling coatings are monitored in most of the developed countries. However, in India and many other developing countries, there is very little data available on the concentrations of biocides in ports and harbours. The first step was to obtain the order of magnitude levels of concentrations of biocides in the marine environment of the Visakhapatnam Harbour, and the MAM-PEC (Marine Antifoulant Model to Predict Environmental Concentrations) model was used to predict these values. The Visakhapatnam Port lies on the eastern coast of India, roughly halfway between Chennai and Kolkata, and is the largest port in India. This port is a natural harbour; the long and narrow outlet to the open sea makes it a 'poorly flushed' harbour. Predicted concentrations of tributyltin (TBT), copper, dichlofluanid, seanine, irgarol, diuron, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione were computed. The results of the computations indicate that the levels of these biocides are comparable to those in many western countries. This gives credence to the fact that persistence of TBT and some other biocides is a global problem that cannot be ignored.

  14. Mixing in Visakhapatnam harbour and nutrient inputs to nearshore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Rao, V.S.

    in the Visakhapatnam harbour probably occurs relatively slow. The distribution curves for saline water fraction and nonconservative nutrient (phosphate) concentration in different seasons are also presented. The nutrient inputs from the Visakhapatnam harbour...

  15. Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004). Proceedings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    The two volumes contain 103 scientific papers in the field of harbour and ocean engineering, presented at the Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004), held at National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Dona...

  16. A systematic study of wave conditions and sediment transport near Mormugao harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, M.P.M.

    Wave conditions and the nature of sediment transport in the Mormugao Harbour area have been evaluated in view of the proposed development project of this harbour It has been found from this study that generally high waves will be experienced...

  17. Vuosaari Harbour Road Tunnel Traffic Management and Incident Detection System Design Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Helsinki is constructing in Vuosaari a new modem and effectivecargo harbour. All cargo harbour activities will be concentratedthere. The total project includes the harbour, a logisticsarea, traffic connections (road, railway and fairway and aBusiness Park. The road connection goes through the Porvarinlahtiroad tunnel. The harbour will commence operatingin 2008. This paper gives an oveTView of the tunnel design phasefunctional studies and risk analysis tunnel incident detectionsystem design issues and some specific environmental featuresof the tunnel.

  18. A generic algorithm for layout of biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Falk; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael

    2009-11-12

    Biological networks are widely used to represent processes in biological systems and to capture interactions and dependencies between biological entities. Their size and complexity is steadily increasing due to the ongoing growth of knowledge in the life sciences. To aid understanding of biological networks several algorithms for laying out and graphically representing networks and network analysis results have been developed. However, current algorithms are specialized to particular layout styles and therefore different algorithms are required for each kind of network and/or style of layout. This increases implementation effort and means that new algorithms must be developed for new layout styles. Furthermore, additional effort is necessary to compose different layout conventions in the same diagram. Also the user cannot usually customize the placement of nodes to tailor the layout to their particular need or task and there is little support for interactive network exploration. We present a novel algorithm to visualize different biological networks and network analysis results in meaningful ways depending on network types and analysis outcome. Our method is based on constrained graph layout and we demonstrate how it can handle the drawing conventions used in biological networks. The presented algorithm offers the ability to produce many of the fundamental popular drawing styles while allowing the exibility of constraints to further tailor these layouts.

  19. A generic algorithm for layout of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Tim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological networks are widely used to represent processes in biological systems and to capture interactions and dependencies between biological entities. Their size and complexity is steadily increasing due to the ongoing growth of knowledge in the life sciences. To aid understanding of biological networks several algorithms for laying out and graphically representing networks and network analysis results have been developed. However, current algorithms are specialized to particular layout styles and therefore different algorithms are required for each kind of network and/or style of layout. This increases implementation effort and means that new algorithms must be developed for new layout styles. Furthermore, additional effort is necessary to compose different layout conventions in the same diagram. Also the user cannot usually customize the placement of nodes to tailor the layout to their particular need or task and there is little support for interactive network exploration. Results We present a novel algorithm to visualize different biological networks and network analysis results in meaningful ways depending on network types and analysis outcome. Our method is based on constrained graph layout and we demonstrate how it can handle the drawing conventions used in biological networks. Conclusion The presented algorithm offers the ability to produce many of the fundamental popular drawing styles while allowing the exibility of constraints to further tailor these layouts.

  20. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    CHOW, Barbara A., 1997. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 1-22. Observations are given for the first time of West Harbour, a pristine south-coast Jamaican mangal. West Harbour is shown to be a

  1. Fast grid layout algorithm for biological networks with sweep calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kaname; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2008-06-15

    Properly drawn biological networks are of great help in the comprehension of their characteristics. The quality of the layouts for retrieved biological networks is critical for pathway databases. However, since it is unrealistic to manually draw biological networks for every retrieval, automatic drawing algorithms are essential. Grid layout algorithms handle various biological properties such as aligning vertices having the same attributes and complicated positional constraints according to their subcellular localizations; thus, they succeed in providing biologically comprehensible layouts. However, existing grid layout algorithms are not suitable for real-time drawing, which is one of requisites for applications to pathway databases, due to their high-computational cost. In addition, they do not consider edge directions and their resulting layouts lack traceability for biochemical reactions and gene regulations, which are the most important features in biological networks. We devise a new calculation method termed sweep calculation and reduce the time complexity of the current grid layout algorithms through its encoding and decoding processes. We conduct practical experiments by using 95 pathway models of various sizes from TRANSPATH and show that our new grid layout algorithm is much faster than existing grid layout algorithms. For the cost function, we introduce a new component that penalizes undesirable edge directions to avoid the lack of traceability in pathways due to the differences in direction between in-edges and out-edges of each vertex. Java implementations of our layout algorithms are available in Cell Illustrator. masao@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Optimization of offshore wind farm layout in restricted zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an optimization method for offshore wind farm layout design is proposed. With the purpose of maximizing the energy production of the wind farm, the wind turbine (WT) positions are optimized. Due to the limitations of seabed conditions, marine traffic limitations or shipwrecks, etc...... with multiple adaptive methods (PSO-MAM) is adopted. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can find a layout which outperforms a baseline layout of a reference wind farm (RWF) by increasing the energy yield by 3.84%....

  3. Neighboring Structure Visualization on a Grid-based Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcou, G; Horvath, D; Varnek, A

    2017-10-01

    Here, we describe an algorithm to visualize chemical structures on a grid-based layout in such a way that similar structures are neighboring. It is based on structure reordering with the help of the Hilbert Schmidt Independence Criterion, representing an empirical estimate of the Hilbert-Schmidt norm of the cross-covariance operator. The method can be applied to any layout of bi- or three-dimensional shape. The approach is demonstrated on a set of dopamine D5 ligands visualized on squared, disk and spherical layouts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: Life in coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Anton Miller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The harbour porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 130 kHz with a wavelength of about 12 mm. We argue that such echolocation signals and narrow band auditory filters give the harbour porpoise a selective advantage in a coastal environment. Predation by killer whales and a minimum noise region in the ocean around 130 kHz may have provided selection pressures for using this frequency band for biosonar signals.

  5. Quantitative comparison between two geometrical layouts for diffraction enhanced imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Wanxia; Yuan Qingxi [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Zhu Peiping [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhupp@ihep.ac.cn; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Chen Bo [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Hu Tiandou [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-07-15

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) with two crystals has been performed at the 4W1A beamline at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Two different crystal geometrical layouts were used to collect images, in the first layout the rotation axis of the crystal has been set perpendicular to the orbital plane while in the second the axis is parallel to the orbital plane. Performance comparison between the two layouts is discussed in terms of thermal expansion of the crystal induced by the heat load, imaging homogeneity, spatial resolution and angular resolution. From both experimental and theoretical data we show that the best images may be obtained with the optical layout in which the rotation axis of the crystals is perpendicular to the orbital plane.

  6. Factors driving the spatial layout of distribution channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onstein, A.T.C.; Ektesaby, M.; Rezaei, J.; Tavasszy, L.A.; van Damme, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Research statement Our study analyses the factors that drive decision-making on distribution structures, including the layout of distribution channels and the locations of distribution centres. Distribution is a primary firm activity, which strongly influences logistics costs and logistics

  7. Optimal Material Layout - Applied on Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dollerup, Niels; Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a general, finite-element-based optimisation tool for improving the material layout of concrete structures. The application presented is general and exemplified by material optimisation of reinforced concrete slabs. By utilising the optimisation tool, it is possible to deter......This paper introduces a general, finite-element-based optimisation tool for improving the material layout of concrete structures. The application presented is general and exemplified by material optimisation of reinforced concrete slabs. By utilising the optimisation tool, it is possible...... to determine the optimal material layout of a slab in the ultimate load state, based on simple inputs such as outer geometry, boundary conditions, multiple load cases and design domains. The material layout of the optimal design can either be fully orthotropic or isotropic, or a combination with a predefined...

  8. Quantitative comparison between two geometrical layouts for diffraction enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wanxia; Yuan Qingxi; Zhu Peiping; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Hu Tiandou; Wu Ziyu

    2007-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) with two crystals has been performed at the 4W1A beamline at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Two different crystal geometrical layouts were used to collect images, in the first layout the rotation axis of the crystal has been set perpendicular to the orbital plane while in the second the axis is parallel to the orbital plane. Performance comparison between the two layouts is discussed in terms of thermal expansion of the crystal induced by the heat load, imaging homogeneity, spatial resolution and angular resolution. From both experimental and theoretical data we show that the best images may be obtained with the optical layout in which the rotation axis of the crystals is perpendicular to the orbital plane

  9. Evaluation of facility layout alternatives for a remanufacturing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, James S.; Lim, Huay-Huay

    2002-02-01

    Remanufacturing environments involve a higher degree of system complexity when compared to traditional manufacturing environments due to the variability associated with the routing, processing times and demand. Many of the consequences of this system complexity can be dealt with through operational-based approaches using specialized production planning and control techniques. However, it is also possible to improve overall system performance through the analysis of appropriate structural issues such as facility layout. This paper presents the results of a simulation-based analysis of four different layout alternatives: traditional job shop, cellular, fractal and holonic. An analysis of each layout alternative is conducted while varying product complexity, dispatching rules, number of workcenters, number of part types, shop load and demand variability with respect to flow time, WIP and machine utilization. The results of the analysis reveal under which conditions each layout alternative would be preferred to achieve the best overall system performance.

  10. Learning Layouts for Single-Page Graphic Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Peter; Agarwala, Aseem; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for automatically creating graphic design layouts using a new energy-based model derived from design principles. The model includes several new algorithms for analyzing graphic designs, including the prediction of perceived importance, alignment detection, and hierarchical segmentation. Given the model, we use optimization to synthesize new layouts for a variety of single-page graphic designs. Model parameters are learned with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization (NIO) from a small number of example layouts. To demonstrate our approach, we show results for applications including generating design layouts in various styles, retargeting designs to new sizes, and improving existing designs. We also compare our automatic results with designs created using crowdsourcing and show that our approach performs slightly better than novice designers.

  11. Influence of offshore wind farms layout on electrical resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Koldby, Erik

    2014-01-01

    , winding resistances and winding capacitances. Considering the frequency range of the present investigations, up to about 1 MHz, a lumped representation of the transformer characteristics was deemed sufficient. Breakers and capacitors are modelled as ideal components. The chosen wind farm layout includes...... ranges. The results show the influence of specific parameters being varied depending on the farm layout. In particular, cable lengths and transformer broad band characteristics turned out to have significant impact on the results....

  12. KBS-3H layout adaptation 2007 for the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Erik; Hagros, Annika; Autio, Jorma; Kirkkomaeki, Timo

    2008-05-01

    As part of the KBS-3H design an Olkiluoto-specific layout of a KBS-3H repository has been produced based on the latest Olkiluoto data and the bedrock model. One of the main goals of this work was to support the evaluation of the feasibility of the one layer KBS-3H concept and to compare the layouts based on the KBS-3H and KBS-3V disposal concepts. The layout presented in this work can be considered only preliminary and involves a number of uncertainties. The percentage of unusable host rock was assumed to be 25% in this work but can change due to the further design of the different components of the KBS-3H disposal system and further development of the host rock criteria. The layout is also significantly affected by the layout-determining fracture zones. In this work 11 major (highly transmissive) fracture zones interpreted to intersect the -420 m level were considered deterministically. The KBS-3H layout requires a larger area than the KBS-3V repository and takes up most of the available area between the major fracture zones HZ20 and HZ21. This is mainly due to the long drift sections occupied by the compartment plugs (30 m) and the bentonite blocks in the blank zones (10 m), which reduces the usability of the host rock and results in larger canister spacings than in the KBS-3V concept, where the positioning of the deposition holes is very flexible and narrow zones with a moderate transmissivity usually have only a minor effect on the locations of the canisters. According to the results, there is enough bedrock in the current investigation area at central Olkiluoto for KBS-3H layout in one layer. However the layout takes up nearly all of the potential bedrock resource and therefore the result is quite sensitive to possible changes in the design bases

  13. Site selection and general layout of heap leaching uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunmao; Rongfeng

    2011-01-01

    The site selection and general layout of uranium mill is an important work in the design and consultation stage of uranium mining and metallurgy's engineering construction. Based on the design practices, the principles and methods for the site selection and general layout of heap leaching uranium mill are analyzed and studied. Some problems which should be paid much attention to in the design are discussed in hopes of providing a useful reference for the design and consultation of similar projects. (authors)

  14. Layout dependent effects analysis on 28nm process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Helen; Zhang, Mealie; Wong, Waisum; Song, Huiyuan; Xu, Wei; Hurat, Philippe; Ding, Hua; Zhang, Yifan; Cote, Michel; Huang, Jason; Lai, Ya-ch

    2015-03-01

    Advanced process nodes introduce new variability effects due to increased density, new material, new device structures, and so forth. This creates more and stronger Layout Dependent effects (LDE), especially below 28nm. These effects such as WPE (Well Proximity Effect), PSE (Poly Spacing Effect) change the carrier mobility and threshold voltage and therefore make the device performances, such as Vth and Idsat, extremely layout dependent. In traditional flows, the impact of these changes can only be simulated after the block has been fully laid out, the design is LVS and DRC clean. It's too late in the design cycle and it increases the number of post-layout iteration. We collaborated to develop a method on an advanced process to embed several LDE sources into a LDE kit. We integrated this LDE kit in custom analog design environment, for LDE analysis at early design stage. These features allow circuit and layout designers to detect the variations caused by LDE, and to fix the weak points caused by LDE. In this paper, we will present this method and how it accelerates design convergence of advanced node custom analog designs by detecting early-on LDE hotspots on partial or fully placed layout, reporting contribution of each LDE component to help identify the root cause of LDE variation, and even providing fixing guidelines on how to modify the layout and to reduce the LDE impact.

  15. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  16. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  17. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman

    2012-06-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach to graph layout that treats the vertices V as repelling charged particles with the edges E connecting them acting as springs. Traditionally, the amount of work required in applying the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is O(|V|2 + |E|) using direct calculations and O(|V| log |V| + |E|) using truncation, filtering, and/or multi-level techniques. Correct application of the Fast Multipole Method allows us to maintain a lower complexity of O(|V| + |E|) while regaining most of the precision lost in other techniques. Solving layout problems for truly large graphs with millions of vertices still requires a scalable algorithm and implementation. We have been able to leverage the scalability and architectural adaptability of the ExaFMM library to create a Force-Directed Graph Layout implementation that runs efficiently on distributed multicore and multi-GPU architectures. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  19. Biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in harbour seals and harbour porpoises from the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijser, L.; Losada, S.; Das, K.; Roosens, L.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Harbour seals and harbour porpoises are top predator species from the North Sea, have long life spans and hence, are known to accumulate high levels of anthropogenic contaminants. To gain knowledge about the behaviour of naturally-produced compounds in these marine mammals, the biomagnification of

  20. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Design and layout of Army national cemeteries... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. (a) General cemetery layout plans, landscape planting plans and gravesite layout plans for Army...

  1. SIMPLIFIED MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF SMALL SIZED UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLE LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong reduction of new aircraft design period using new technology based on artificial intelligence is the key problem mentioned in forecasts of leading aerospace industry research centers. This article covers the approach to devel- opment of quick aerodynamic design methods based on artificial intelligence neural system. The problem is being solved for the classical scheme of small sized unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV. The principal parts of the method are the mathe- matical model of layout, layout generator of this type of aircraft is built on aircraft neural networks, automatic selection module for cleaning variety of layouts generated in automatic mode, robust direct computational fluid dynamics method, aerodynamic characteristics approximators on artificial neural networks.Methods based on artificial neural networks have intermediate position between computational fluid dynamics methods or experiments and simplified engineering approaches. The use of ANN for estimating aerodynamic characteris-tics put limitations on input data. For this task the layout must be presented as a vector with dimension not exceeding sev-eral hundred. Vector components must include all main parameters conventionally used for layouts description and com- pletely replicate the most important aerodynamics and structural properties.The first stage of the work is presented in the paper. Simplified mathematical model of small sized UAV was developed. To estimate the range of geometrical parameters of layouts the review of existing vehicle was done. The result of the work is the algorithm and computer software for generating the layouts based on ANN technolo-gy. 10000 samples were generated and the dataset containig geometrical and aerodynamic characteristics of layoutwas created.

  2. Preliminary Design Through Graphs: A Tool for Automatic Layout Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Biagini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagrams are essential in the preliminary stages of design for understanding distributive aspects and assisting the decision-making process. By drawing a schematic graph, designers can visualize in a synthetic way the relationships between many aspects: functions and spaces, distribution of layouts, space adjacency, influence of traffic flows within a facility layout, and so on. This process can be automated through the use of modern Information and Communication Technologies tools (ICT that allow the designers to manage a large quantity of information. The work that we will present is part of an on-going research project into how modern parametric software influences decision-making on the basis of automatic and optimized layout distribution. The method involves two phases: the first aims to define the ontological relation between spaces, with particular reference to a specific building typology (rules of aggregation of spaces; the second entails the implementation of these rules through the use of specialist software. The generation of ontological relations begins with the collection of data from historical manuals and analyses of case studies. These analyses aim to generate a “relationship matrix” based on preferences of space adjacency. The phase of implementing the previously defined rules is based on the use of Grasshopper to analyse and visualize different layout configurations. The layout is generated by simulating a process involving the collision of spheres, which represents specific functions of the design program. The spheres are attracted or rejected as a function of the relationships matrix, as defined above. The layout thus obtained will remain in a sort of abstract state independent of information about the exterior form, but will still provide a useful tool for the decision-making process. In addition, preliminary results gathered through the analysis of case studies will be presented. These results provide a good variety

  3. An efficient biological pathway layout algorithm combining grid-layout and spring embedder for complicated cellular location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kaname; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2010-06-18

    Graph drawing is one of the important techniques for understanding biological regulations in a cell or among cells at the pathway level. Among many available layout algorithms, the spring embedder algorithm is widely used not only for pathway drawing but also for circuit placement and www visualization and so on because of the harmonized appearance of its results. For pathway drawing, location information is essential for its comprehension. However, complex shapes need to be taken into account when torus-shaped location information such as nuclear inner membrane, nuclear outer membrane, and plasma membrane is considered. Unfortunately, the spring embedder algorithm cannot easily handle such information. In addition, crossings between edges and nodes are usually not considered explicitly. We proposed a new grid-layout algorithm based on the spring embedder algorithm that can handle location information and provide layouts with harmonized appearance. In grid-layout algorithms, the mapping of nodes to grid points that minimizes a cost function is searched. By imposing positional constraints on grid points, location information including complex shapes can be easily considered. Our layout algorithm includes the spring embedder cost as a component of the cost function. We further extend the layout algorithm to enable dynamic update of the positions and sizes of compartments at each step. The new spring embedder-based grid-layout algorithm and a spring embedder algorithm are applied to three biological pathways; endothelial cell model, Fas-induced apoptosis model, and C. elegans cell fate simulation model. From the positional constraints, all the results of our algorithm satisfy location information, and hence, more comprehensible layouts are obtained as compared to the spring embedder algorithm. From the comparison of the number of crossings, the results of the grid-layout-based algorithm tend to contain more crossings than those of the spring embedder algorithm due to

  4. Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Visuwan D.; Phruksaphanrat B

    2014-01-01

    In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyze and de...

  5. Optimization of offshore wind farm layout in restricted zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong; Soltani, Mohsen; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an optimization method for offshore wind farm layout design is proposed. With the purpose of maximizing the energy production of the wind farm, the wind turbine (WT) positions are optimized. Due to the limitations of seabed conditions, marine traffic limitations or shipwrecks, etc., the WTs are expected to be placed outside specific areas. Based on this fact, a restriction zone concept is proposed in this paper and implemented with the penalty function method. In order to find a feasible solution, a recent proposed stochastic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm with multiple adaptive methods (PSO-MAM) is adopted. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can find a layout which outperforms a baseline layout of a reference wind farm (RWF) by increasing the energy yield by 3.84%. - Highlights: • The offshore restricted area concept is proposed. • The recent developed PSO-MAM algorithm is arranged to optimize the layout. • The penalty function method is adopted to help find the feasible solution. • The optimized layout increases energy yields 3.84% than reference wind farm.

  6. A flexible layout design method for passive micromixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yongshun; Gao, Qingyong; Wu, Yihui

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses a flexible layout design method of passive micromixers based on the topology optimization of fluidic flows. Being different from the trial and error method, this method obtains the detailed layout of a passive micromixer according to the desired mixing performance by solving a topology optimization problem. Therefore, the dependence on the experience of the designer is weaken, when this method is used to design a passive micromixer with acceptable mixing performance. Several design disciplines for the passive micromixers are considered to demonstrate the flexibility of the layout design method for passive micromixers. These design disciplines include the approximation of the real 3D micromixer, the manufacturing feasibility, the spacial periodic design, and effects of the Péclet number and Reynolds number on the designs obtained by this layout design method. The capability of this design method is validated by several comparisons performed between the obtained layouts and the optimized designs in the recently published literatures, where the values of the mixing measurement is improved up to 40.4% for one cycle of the micromixer.

  7. The Influence of Environmental Spatial Layout on Perceived Lightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanari, Kei; Inagami, Makoto; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2011-01-01

    It is obvious that perceived lightness of a surface depends on the surrounding luminance distribution in 2D and 3D. These effects are usually explained by the mechanisms at relatively low level of visual system. However, there seems to be a relation between the illuminance and spatial layout of the scene regardless of the surrounding luminance distribution. If this is valid, perceived lightness of a surface in the scene could be influenced by the spatial layout in the scene. In this research, we investigated the relation between the perceived lightness of surface and the spatial layout of the scene. The subject matched the lightness of test patch presented on a natural picture with various spatial layout to that of comparison stimulus presented on a uniform gray background. The mean luminance of the surround stimuli were the same and the local contrast between the text patch and the surround was kept constant. Results showed that the perceived lightness of a stimulus depended on the spatial structure presented in the background. This result indicates that the spatial layout of the scene is related to the illuminance of that and influenced on perceived lightness.

  8. Genetic Algorithm (GA)-Based Inclinometer Layout Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weijie; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xianping; Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents numerical simulation results of an airflow inclinometer with sensitivity studies and thermal optimization of the printed circuit board (PCB) layout for an airflow inclinometer based on a genetic algorithm (GA). Due to the working principle of the gas sensor, the changes of the ambient temperature may cause dramatic voltage drifts of sensors. Therefore, eliminating the influence of the external environment for the airflow is essential for the performance and reliability of an airflow inclinometer. In this paper, the mechanism of an airflow inclinometer and the influence of different ambient temperatures on the sensitivity of the inclinometer will be examined by the ANSYS-FLOTRAN CFD program. The results show that with changes of the ambient temperature on the sensing element, the sensitivity of the airflow inclinometer is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and decreases when the ambient temperature increases. GA is used to optimize the PCB thermal layout of the inclinometer. The finite-element simulation method (ANSYS) is introduced to simulate and verify the results of our optimal thermal layout, and the results indicate that the optimal PCB layout greatly improves (by more than 50%) the sensitivity of the inclinometer. The study may be useful in the design of PCB layouts that are related to sensitivity improvement of gas sensors.

  9. Layout design in order to improve efficiency in manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Tarigan, U.; Nasution, T. H.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted at the company that produces bobbins and ream type cigarette paper. Problems that found on the production process is the back and forth (back tracking) movement. Back and forth (back tracking) movement extending the total distance moved by the material and increase the total moment of transfer materials thus reducing the efficiency of the transfer of materials in the production process. The purpose of this study is to give design for the layout of production facilities in the company, so that the expected production produced by the company can reach the targets set by the management company. The method used in this research is the Graph-Based Construction and Travel Chart Method. The results of the analysis of the proposed layout with Graph-Based Construction was selected with a total value that is equal to the moment of transfer of 780 758 m / year. This result is better than the actual layout in the amount of 1,021,038.12 meters / year and the results of the method Travel Alternative Chart I of 826.236,60 meters/year, Alternative II of 1.004.433,56 meters / year, and Alternative III for 828,467.12 meters/year. The design layout of Graph-Based Construction material increases the transfer efficiency for 23.53%. With this layout proposal, expected production capacity will be increased along with the shortening of the distance of the displacement that must be passed by the material to be processed.

  10. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asuncion; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Joergensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age<=1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable. - While organochlorine levels in W. Greenland harbour porpoises are low, their contribution to Inuit dietary intake should not be disregarded

  11. Analysis of Sequence Diagram Layout in Advanced UML Modelling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ņikiforova Oksana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System modelling using Unified Modelling Language (UML is the task that should be solved for software development. The more complex software becomes the higher requirements are stated to demonstrate the system to be developed, especially in its dynamic aspect, which in UML is offered by a sequence diagram. To solve this task, the main attention is devoted to the graphical presentation of the system, where diagram layout plays the central role in information perception. The UML sequence diagram due to its specific structure is selected for a deeper analysis on the elements’ layout. The authors research represents the abilities of modern UML modelling tools to offer automatic layout of the UML sequence diagram and analyse them according to criteria required for the diagram perception.

  12. Optimization of Wind Farm Layout in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic site selection for wind farms in complex terrain is a technological difficulty in the development of onshore wind farms. This paper presented a method for optimizing wind farm layout in complex terrain. This method employed Lissaman and Jensen wake models, took wind velocity distribut......Microscopic site selection for wind farms in complex terrain is a technological difficulty in the development of onshore wind farms. This paper presented a method for optimizing wind farm layout in complex terrain. This method employed Lissaman and Jensen wake models, took wind velocity...... are subject to boundary conditions and minimum distance conditions. The improved genetic algorithm (GA) for real number coding was used to search the optimal result. Then the optimized result was compared to the result from the experienced layout method. Results show the advantages of the present method...

  13. Ergonomics and simulation-based approach in improving facility layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Jocelyn D.

    2018-02-01

    The use of the simulation-based technique in facility layout has been a choice in the industry due to its convenience and efficient generation of results. Nevertheless, the solutions generated are not capable of addressing delays due to worker's health and safety which significantly impact overall operational efficiency. It is, therefore, critical to incorporate ergonomics in facility design. In this study, workstation analysis was incorporated into Promodel simulation to improve the facility layout of a garment manufacturing. To test the effectiveness of the method, existing and improved facility designs were measured using comprehensive risk level, efficiency, and productivity. Results indicated that the improved facility layout generated a decrease in comprehensive risk level and rapid upper limb assessment score; an increase of 78% in efficiency and 194% increase in productivity compared to existing design and thus proved that the approach is effective in attaining overall facility design improvement.

  14. Effect of layout on surge line thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Jianyong; Huang Wei

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze and evaluate the effect of layout on the thermal stratification for PWR Pressurizer surge line, numerical simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method is taken on 6 kinds of layout improvement with 2 improvement schemes, i.e., increasing the obliquity of quasi horizontal section and adding a vertical pipe between the quasi horizontal section and next elbow, and the maximum temperature differences of quasi horizontal section of surge line of various layouts under different flowrate are obtained. The comparison shows that, the increasing of the obliquity of quasi horizontal section can mitigate the thermal stratification phenomena but can not eliminate this phenomena, while the adding of a vertical pipe between the quasi horizontal section and next elbow can effectively mitigate and eliminate the thermal stratification phenomena. (authors)

  15. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  16. Production layout improvement in emergency services: a participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Volunteer fire department is a service that responds emergency situations in places where there are no military emergency services. These services need to respond quickly, because time is often responsible for the operation success besides work environment and setup time interfere with the prompt response to these calls and care efficiency. The layout design is one factor that interferes with the quick setup. In this case, the spaces arrangement can result in excessive or unnecessary movements; also the equipment provision may hinder the selection and collection of these or even create movement barriers for the workers. This work created a new layout for the emergency assistance service, considering the human factors related to work through the task analysis and workers participation on the alternatives of improvement. The results showed an alternate layout with corridors and minimization of unusable sites, allowing greater flexibility and new possibilities of requirements.

  17. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  18. Joint Graph Layouts for Visualizing Collections of Segmented Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jing

    2017-09-12

    We present a novel and efficient approach for computing joint graph layouts and then use it to visualize collections of segmented meshes. Our joint graph layout algorithm takes as input the adjacency matrices for a set of graphs along with partial, possibly soft, correspondences between nodes of different graphs. We then use a two stage procedure, where in the first step, we extend spectral graph drawing to include a consistency term so that a collection of graphs can be handled jointly. Our second step extends metric multi-dimensional scaling with stress majorization to the joint layout setting, while using the output of the spectral approach as initialization. Further, we discuss a user interface for exploring a collection of graphs. Finally, we show multiple example visualizations of graphs stemming from collections of segmented meshes and we present qualitative and quantitative comparisons with previous work.

  19. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbour and Adjacent Coast, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chon-Lin; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Fang, Meng-Der

    2005-01-01

    Surficial sediment samples collected from Kaohsiung Harbour and its nearby coast were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). According to our results, the average total concentrations of n-alkanes (n-C12 to C35) and aromatics (15 PAHs) were 4.33 microg g(-1) dry weight (ranged 0.46-22.60) and 0.59 microg g(-1) dry weight (ranged 0.09-1.75), respectively. The highest concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were recorded in stations near the estuaries of Qianzhen River and Love River, respectively. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in the samples indicate that there has been significant non-petrogenic, possibly terrestrial, contribution in the sediment of the open coast of Kaohsiung Harbour and that there has been dominant contribution from petrogenic sources in the sediment of the inner harbour. PAHs, detected in the samples, however, indicated a higher pyrolytic contribution in open-coast samples and a higher petrogenic contribution in the inner harbour. Overall, sediment concentrations of total alkanes in this study were comparable to those found in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong and are higher than those found in Xiamen Harbour, China. Concentrations of total PAHs in inner Kaohsiung Harbour sediments were relatively lower than those found in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong and Xiamen Harbour, China, but comparable to those found in Hsin-ta Harbour, Taiwan and Incheon Harbour, Korea. In comparison with several effect-based sediment quality guidelines, most PAH concentrations found in samples taken from inner harbour stations exceeded the Threshold Effect Level of Florida indicating a slight possibility of adverse effects.

  20. Chemical tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Román, A.; García, M.

    2009-04-01

    Particle emissions from transport-related activities are known as one of the most important sources contributing to the PM mass concentrations in urban environments. However, only limited information is currently available in the literature on the contribution to PM levels by specific transport related sources such as shipping emissions, even though according to the latest IPCC report (Ribeiro et al., 2007), shipping emissions are receiving increased scrutiny by international and regional regulatory agencies because of their potential impact on air quality and human health in communities downwind from major shipping lanes and ports (Dominguez et al., 2008). One of the main reasons for this lack of information is the complexity in the detection of shipping emissions, given that no specific emission tracers have so far been identified as a consequence of the vast variability of combustion fuels burnt by vessels. The city of Melilla was selected for the study of shipping emissions due to its location on the South-Western sector of the Mediterranean basin, on the Northern coast of Morocco and less than 200 km from the Gibraltar Strait (35°17´40" N, 2°56´30" W). The city covers an extension of 13.4 km2, with a population of 70000 inhabitants. The monitoring station selected for the present study is representative of urban background levels, and it is located at approximately 150 m from the Melilla harbour. The harbour is mainly characterised by commercial traffic (passanger and container), although minerals and other loose materials are also stocked on the docks located farthest away from the monitoring site. PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 levels were determined on an hourly basis between 12/01/2008 and 19/12/2008 using a GRIMM laser spectrometer, which produced more than 8000 data points for each size fraction (24000 data points in total). In addition, PM10 and PM2.5 levels were sampled on quartz fibre filter substrates (Munktell) by means of high-volume samplers (PM1025 MCV

  1. Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm on harbour porpoises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-09-01

    Horns Reef offshore wind farm was established in 2002. It consists of 80 2 MW wind turbines, mounted on steel monopile foundations. A harbour porpoise monitoring program was set up in connection with the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wind farm project. This monitoring program started in 1999 with collection of baseline data and has continued though construction and operational period. The program continues through 2005. Baseline studies showed that harbour porpoises are abundant in the area, including the area where the wind farm is now located. Significant effects on behaviour and distribution of the porpoises were observed during the construction of the wind farm. Changes could be linked to pile driving operations, where monopile foundations were rammed into the seabed. This procedure produced high levels of underwater noise and mitigation procedures in the form of a ramp up procedure and deployment of acoustic alarms were employed. During the construction period very few animals were observed inside the wind farm area. Acoustic monitoring data showed a significant increase in waiting time between porpoise encounters in connection with pile driving operations, followed by a rapid return to levels normal for the construction period as a whole. However, when the entire construction period was considered as a whole, T-POD activity increased relative to baseline. Observations during operation of the wind farm in 2003 showed a return to baseline levels on most of the indicators derived from the acoustic monitoring and animals were again seen inside the wind farm area. (au)

  2. An Evolutionary Approach for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Goodman, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces a robust design method for layout synthesis of MEM resonators subject to inherent geometric uncertainties such as the fabrication error on the sidewall of the structure. The robust design problem is formulated as a multi-objective constrained optimisation problem after certain...... assumptions and treated with multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA), a special type of evolutionary computing approaches. Case study based on layout synthesis of a comb-driven MEM resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less...

  3. AN ALGORITHM FOR ASSEMBLING A COMMON IMAGE OF VLSI LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Lankevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider problem of assembling a common image of VLSI layout. Common image is composedof frames obtained by electron microscope photographing. Many frames require a lot of computation for positioning each frame inside the common image. Employing graphics processing units enables acceleration of computations. We realize algorithms and programs for assembling a common image of VLSI layout. Specificity of this work is to use abilities of CUDA to reduce computation time. Experimental results show efficiency of the proposed programs.

  4. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and layout

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2011-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need a quick tutorial on how to use the software and who need in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the software package. There are two goals the book aims to reach:The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Layout. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Layout is used to design the circuit board so that

  5. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-06

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  6. The numismatic evidence on the Roman harbour of Patrai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Papageorgiadou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Patrai, where Augustus founded a roman colony held a favorable position for the control not only of the northern Peloponnesian coastline but also the routes in the Aetolia and Locris.Although a maritime trade station, the references to its harbour is very scanty, while its ancient remains are almost totally destroyed by the modern city’s expansion. However, the installations of an important harbour can be attested in the numismatic evidence, offered by two issues dated to the reign of Commodus and Geta, which coincide with the archaeological one supporting the idea of a project to restore, enlarge or reconstruct the port during the reign of Commodus. This is perhaps the cause for the more realistic and more detailed rendering of the monuments depicted. The issues struck under Geta, in a more elliptic artistic rendering, might have been commemorative, to honour his predecessor’s benefaction to the colony.It is worth noticing that some of the buildings and statues which are shown can be identified to similar types depicted on other issues of the city, not only dated to the reigns of Commodus and Geta, but to other periods as well .Few Greek cities depict their harbours on their coins, most of them located in the region of the Peloponnese and dated to the Antonine and the Severi period. Their harbours underwent extensive reconstructions during Roman times and were transformed into major centres in the naval and commercial network of the period.In fact, it seems that the flourishing of a net of cities in the northern Peloponnesian coast as commercial centres was the trigger for the issuing of these coins promoting their predominance in the sea routes and commemorating actual construction works in their ports. The scarcity of the coins depicting harbours and the limited numbersofissues could confirm that these pieces were meant to celebrate or commemorate a construction program referring to

  7. A Novel DBC Layout for Current Imbalance Mitigation in SiC MOSFET Multichip Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel direct bonded copper (DBC) layout for mitigating the current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in multichip power modules. Compared to the traditional layout, the proposed DBC layout significantly reduces the circuit mismatch and current coupling effect......, which consequently improves the current sharing among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in power module. Mathematic analysis and circuit model of the DBC layout are presented to elaborate the superior features of the proposed DBC layout. Simulation and experimental results further verify the theoretical...... analysis and current balancing performance of the proposed DBC layout....

  8. A Novel DBC Layout for Current Imbalance Mitigation in SiC MOSFET Multichip Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel Direct Bonded Copper (DBC) layout for mitigating the current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in multichip power modules. Compared to the traditional layout, the proposed DBC layout significantly reduces the circuit mismatch and current coupling effect......, which consequently improves the current sharing among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in power module. Mathematic analysis and circuit model of the DBC layout are presented to elaborate on the superior features of the proposed DBC layout. Simulation and experimental results further verify the theoretical...... analysis and current balancing performance of the proposed DBC layout....

  9. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  10. Creating a Single South African Keyboard Layout to Promote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    frequently, the high frequency characters could be placed on keys which are easy to reach. This would create the best keyboard for speed of typing in a given language. The current QWERTY keyboard layout was designed to slow people down when using the first mechanical typewriters; it was not designed for speed.

  11. Seismic analysis of a reactor building with eccentric layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, T.; Deng, D.Z.F.; Lui, K.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional design for a reactor building in a high seismic area has adopted an essentially concentric layout in response to fear of excessive torsional effect due to horizontal seismic load on an eccentric plant. This concentric layout requirement generally results in an inflexible arrangement of the plant facilities and thus increases the plant volume. This study is performed to investigate the effect of eccentricity on the overall seismic structural response and to provide technical information in this regard to substantiate the volume reduction of the overall power plant. The plant layout is evolved from the Bechtel standard plan of a PWR plant by integrating the reactor building and the auxiliary building into a combined building supported on a common basemat. This plant layout is optimized for volume utilization and to reduce the length of piping systems. The mass centers at various elevations of the combined building do not coincide with the rigidity center (RC) of the respective floor and the geometric center of the basemat, thus creating an eccentric response of the building in a seismic environment. Therefore, the torsional effects of the structure have to be taken into account in the seismic analysis

  12. An online planning tool for designing terrace layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A web-based conservation planning tool, WebTERLOC (web-based Terrace Location Program), was developed to provide multiple terrace layout options using digital elevation model (DEM) and geographic information systems (GIS). Development of a terrace system is complicated by the time-intensive manual ...

  13. Offshore Wind Farm Layout Design Considering Optimized Power Dispatch Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind farm has drawn more and more attention recently due to its higher energy capacity and more freedom to occupy area. However, the investment is higher. In order to make a cost-effective wind farm, the wind farm layout should be optimized. The wake effect is one of the dominant factors...

  14. Why multicamp layouts? | BR | African Journal of Range and Forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it has become standard practice in Southern Africa to recommend grazing systems based on a maximum of five camps, there are indications that the use of multicamp layouts, employing a greater number of camps per herd, may increase the efficiency of animal production from natural veld. The basic advantage of ...

  15. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are

  16. Hydrodynamic Modelling and Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé

    2017-01-01

    in various positions and orientations are finally investigated. This thesis intends in this way to offer a practical approach to the analysis of wave energy converters when they operate together as an array and the optimal design of array layouts. The topics covered by the text include propagation of waves...

  17. Representing Spatial Layout According to Intrinsic Frames of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Shiyi; Tao, Weidong; Wei, Yiping; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated. The experiments further indicated that with a single view at study, participants could represent the layout from either an egocentric orientation or a different orientation, according to experimental instructions. Together, these results suggest that environmental reference frames and intrinsic axes can influence performance for novel headings, but their role in spatial memory depends on egocentric experience, layout regularity, and instructions.

  18. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthold, W.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the conceptual design document for the follow-on to the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor, known as the ABC type reactor. It addresses blanket design options, containment options, off-gas systems, drainage systems, and components/layouts of the primary, secondary, and tertiary systems, and it contains a number of diagrams for the configuration of the major systems

  19. CONTROLLABILITY OF TRADITIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD AND ITS SIMPLIFIED LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salim Ferwati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Street hierarchy, as a way of presenting intended information, conforms to social rules that underlay architectural and urban designs to create public, semi-public, and semi-private. These social rules have the responsibility to convey necessary information about place to outsiders as well as to insiders. This research looks at urban spaces as physical structures that represent foci of attention of users and that are collectively a part of the social pattern framework. The argument of this study is that connectivity and forms of streets house certain social rules that intended to serve users, so that any changes in the street layout lead to changes in its social rules. As a case study, the complexity of a walled Arab neighborhood was examined through Sur Lawatyia, located in Muscat Governorate, Oman. By replacing the curvilinear and broken streets of this neighborhood with straight ones; a simplified street layout was derived. Then, a comparison of both street layouts was carried out through mapping, tabulation, charts, correlation test, and with reliance on the method of measurement of street control values introduced by Hillier and Hanson in 1984. The result was that the simple form is far short to be the representation of the space syntax of the traditional street layout.

  20. How to Choose the Network Layout That's Right for You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines major network structures and provides criteria for selecting the best layout. Describes daisy-chain, star, bus, tree, ring, and token ring topologies. Discusses factors to consider when connecting computers, including user needs, printing demands, modem and file sharing, user grouping, the physical plant, and connective equipment. (AEF)

  1. The Influence of Facility Layout on Operations Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, E.; Mobach, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of an office canteen layout on operations, specifically on customer behaviour before checkout, waiting times, and congestion. Design/methodology/approach – The current study was made in the context of discovery and exemplification. The

  2. Automated Layout Generation of Analogue and Mixed-Signal ASIC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Rene

    The research and development carried out in this Ph.D. study focusses on two key areas of the design flow for analogue and mixed-signal integrated circuit design, the mixed-signal floorplanning and the analogue layout generation.A novel approach to floorplanning is presented which provides true i...

  3. Performance evaluation of cellular layouts : extension to DRC system contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suresh, NC; Gaalman, GJC

    2000-01-01

    This study involves a comparison of the performance of functional layouts (FL) and cellular manufacturing (CM) systems in a dual-resource-constrained( DRC) system context. Past studies of FL and CM have been based mostly on single-resource-constrained( SRC) systems. Recent studies have included

  4. Generation of printed circuit board layout and artwork | Debretsion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Printed circuit board (PCB) design plays an important role on equipment performance and reliability. Constraint imposed on PCB size under severe environmental condition is focused. Guidelines for layout planning, its speedy execution, component· placements, and future growth/modifications have been addressed.

  5. A New Data Layout For Set Intersection on GPUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pagh, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    . However, GPUs require highly regular control flow and memory access patterns, and for this reason previous GPU methods for intersecting sets have used a simple bitmap representation. This representation requires excessive space on sparse data sets. In this paper we present a novel data layout, BATMAP...

  6. Layout considerations for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    The layout of the PSB H- injection system is described, including the arguments for the geometry and the required equipment performance parameters. The longitudinal positions of the main elements are specified, together with the injected and circulating beam axes. The assumptions used in determining the geometry are listed.

  7. Genetic algorithms for construction site layout in project planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawdesley, Michael J.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Yang, Hongbo

    2002-01-01

    Construction site layout is concerned with the existence, positioning, and timing of the temporary facilities that are used to carry out a construction project. Typically these problems are very complicated to formulate and difficult to solve. They are, however, very important to virtually any

  8. Integrated quadratic assignment and continuous facility layout problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated layout model has been considered to incorporate intra and inter-department layout. In the proposed model, the arrangement of facilities within the departments is obtained through the QAP and from the other side the continuous layout problem is implemented to find the position and orientation of rectangular shape departments on the planar area. First, a modified version of QAP with fewer binary variables is presented. Afterward the integrated model is formulated based on the developed QAP. In order to evaluate material handling cost precisely, the actual position of machines within the departments (instead of center of departments is considered. Moreover, other design factors such as aisle distance, single or multi row intra-department layout and orientation of departments have been considered. The mathematical model is formulated as mixed-integer programming (MIP to minimize total material handling cost. Also due to the complexity of integrated model a heuristic method has been developed to solve large scale problems in a reasonable computational time. Finally, several illustrative numerical examples are selected from the literature to test the model and evaluate the heuristic.

  9. Sydney harbourings, rehabilitations and the politics of procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine de Lorenzo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last three years Sydney has been transformed to an unprecedented extent by public art projects, most of which have been developed by government instrumentalities, agencies or partnerships. The central city council has initiated a Sculpture Walk through the streets and around the rocky foreshores of the inner city; the Sydney Olympic site at Homebush Bay is home to a number of public art works; the government’s water utility company has sponsored an annual, temporary art installation walk along a spectacularly rugged ocean escarpment linking several medium-density suburbs; another instrumentality recently established to oversee the reuse of abandoned heavy industrial sites in the harbour, has established the ‘Promenart’ program along fifteen kilometres of harbour foreshores; and a government-appointed statutory authority responsible for the redevelopment of an extensive and highly polluted former industrial site between the CDB and the airport, has worked closely with designers and artists to develop comprehensive briefs addressing environmental rehabilitation and social interaction. This impressive list is by no means exhaustive. The surge in bureaucratic and artistic creative energy demands critical evaluation. In this paper I will contrast two sets of projects. This first concerns actual projects, in or near the spectacular Sydney Harbour setting, which are premised on placemaking principles and on the whole elicit actual or imagined histories for the delight and reverie of the promenader. Despite the popular and aesthetic success of these projects, one of them, the ambitious Sculpture Walk, is currently being re-evaluated. The second set, in more mundane suburban environments and centred on toxic waterways, concerns projects that at this stage are either being implemented or nearing commencement by interdisciplinary groups of artists, designers, engineers, environmentalists, community representatives, and other specialists. Their

  10. Applying a New Adaptive Genetic Algorithm to Study the Layout of Drilling Equipment in Semisubmersible Drilling Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new selection method called trisection population for genetic algorithm selection operations. In this new algorithm, the highest fitness of 2N/3 parent individuals is genetically manipulated to reproduce offspring. This selection method ensures a high rate of effective population evolution and overcomes the tendency of population to fall into local optimal solutions. Rastrigin’s test function was selected to verify the superiority of the method. Based on characteristics of arc tangent function, a genetic algorithm crossover and mutation probability adaptive methods were proposed. This allows individuals close to the average fitness to be operated with a greater probability of crossover and mutation, while individuals close to the maximum fitness are not easily destroyed. This study also analyzed the equipment layout constraints and objective functions of deep-water semisubmersible drilling platforms. The improved genetic algorithm was used to solve the layout plan. Optimization results demonstrate the effectiveness of the improved algorithm and the fit of layout plans.

  11. Layout pattern analysis using the Voronoi diagram of line segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sandeep Kumar; Cheilaris, Panagiotis; Gabrani, Maria; Papadopoulou, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of problematic patterns in very large scale integration (VLSI) designs is of great value as the lithographic simulation tools face significant timing challenges. To reduce the processing time, such a tool selects only a fraction of possible patterns which have a probable area of failure, with the risk of missing some problematic patterns. We introduce a fast method to automatically extract patterns based on their structure and context, using the Voronoi diagram of line-segments as derived from the edges of VLSI design shapes. Designers put line segments around the problematic locations in patterns called "gauges," along which the critical distance is measured. The gauge center is the midpoint of a gauge. We first use the Voronoi diagram of VLSI shapes to identify possible problematic locations, represented as gauge centers. Then we use the derived locations to extract windows containing the problematic patterns from the design layout. The problematic locations are prioritized by the shape and proximity information of the design polygons. We perform experiments for pattern selection in a portion of a 22-nm random logic design layout. The design layout had 38,584 design polygons (consisting of 199,946 line segments) on layer Mx, and 7079 markers generated by an optical rule checker (ORC) tool. The optical rules specify requirements for printing circuits with minimum dimension. Markers are the locations of some optical rule violations in the layout. We verify our approach by comparing the coverage of our extracted patterns to the ORC-generated markers. We further derive a similarity measure between patterns and between layouts. The similarity measure helps to identify a set of representative gauges that reduces the number of patterns for analysis.

  12. Mumbai harbour, India: gateway for introduction of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, C A; Sawant, S S; Anil, A C; Venkat, K; Harkantra, S N

    2010-04-01

    Ships have been identified as one of the important vectors in the translocation of organisms from one bioregion to another leading to bioinvasion. In this context, harbours serve as a gateway for the introduction of alien species. Surveys were carried out in the vicinity of ports of Mumbai for macrobenthic fauna, zooplankton and hard substratum community on three different occasions during 2001-2002. The study shows that 14 polychaete species are recently introduced to this area. Mytilopsis sallei, a bivalve, which is an invasive species in the Indian context continued to be present but was restricted to enclosed docks, indicating preference for embayed water bodies. The polychaete Protula tubularia was abundant in the hard substratum community and is being reported as a possible ship-mediated introduction.

  13. Genetic population structure of harbour seals in the United Kingdom and neighbouring waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Islas, Valentina; Graves, Jeff A.; Onoufriou, Aubrie; Vincent, Cecile; Brasseur, Sophie; Frie, Anne Kirstine; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2017-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), several harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations have been declining over the past decade. In order to understand the effect of these changes in abundance, this study seeks to determine the population structure of harbour seals in the UK, and in Scotland in particular,

  14. Telemetry studies in harbour porpoises - An overview of the technical and practical state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucke, K.

    2013-01-01

    Information on the life functions and ecology of harbour porpoises is still scarce. Only a limited number of animals are available for research in controlled situations. Satellite tracking allows to gather information on individual movements of harbour porpoises, hence providing direct insight into

  15. Inter-species differences for polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine top predators from the Southern North Sea: Part 2. Biomagnification in harbour seals and harbour porpoises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, L.; Dirtu, A.C.; Das, K.; Gheorghe, A.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Neels, H.; Blust, R.; Covaci, A.

    2009-01-01

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) were found to differ in the ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Biomagnification factors (BMFs), calculated between both predators and their prey (sole - Solea

  16. Role of commercial harbours and recreational marinas in the spread of non-indigenous fouling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Jasmine; Caronni, Sarah; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Marchini, Agnese

    2017-09-01

    The role of commercial harbours as sink and source habitats for non-indigenous species (NIS) and the role of recreational boating for their secondary spread were investigated by analysing the fouling community of five Italian harbours and five marinas in the western Mediterranean Sea. It was first hypothesised that NIS assemblages in the recreational marinas were subsets of those occurring in commercial harbours. However, the data did not consistently support this hypothesis: the NIS pools of some marinas significantly diverged from harbours even belonging to the same coastal stretches, including NIS occurring only in marinas. This study confirms harbours as hotspots for marine NIS, but also reveals that numbers of NIS in some marinas is higher than expected, suggesting that recreational vessels effectively facilitate NIS spread. It is recommended that this vector of NIS introduction is taken into account in the future planning of sustainable development of maritime tourism in Europe.

  17. Improved Differential Evolution Based on Stochastic Ranking for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Liu, Jinchao; Sørensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm for robust layout synthesis of microelectromechanical system components subject to inherent geometric uncertainties. A case study of the layout synthesis of a combdriven microresonator shows that the approach proposed...

  18. A combined approach of simulation and analytic hierarchy process in assessing production facility layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Razamin; Cheng, Kok-Min

    2014-07-01

    One of the important areas of concern in order to obtain a competitive level of productivity in a manufacturing system is the layout design and material transportation system (conveyor system). However, changes in customers' requirements have triggered the need to design other alternatives of the manufacturing layout for existing production floor. Hence, this paper discusses effective alternatives of the process layout specifically, the conveyor system layout. Subsequently, two alternative designs for the conveyor system were proposed with the aims to increase the production output and minimize space allocation. The first proposed layout design includes the installation of conveyor oven in the particular manufacturing room based on priority, and the second one is the one without the conveyor oven in the layout. Simulation technique was employed to design the new facility layout. Eventually, simulation experiments were conducted to understand the performance of each conveyor layout design based on operational characteristics, which include predicting the output of layouts. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the newly and improved layout designs were assessed before the final selection was done. As a comparison, the existing conveyor system layout was included in the assessment process. Relevant criteria involved in this layout design problem were identified as (i) usage of space of each design, (ii) operator's utilization rates, (iii) return of investment (ROI) of the layout, and (iv) output of the layout. In the final stage of AHP analysis, the overall priority of each alternative layout was obtained and thus, a selection for final use by the management was made based on the highest priority value. This efficient planning and designing of facility layout in a particular manufacturing setting is able to minimize material handling cost, minimize overall production time, minimize investment in equipment, and optimize utilization of space.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction... Steel Erection § 1926.752 Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence. (a... strength or sufficient strength to support the loads imposed during steel erection. (c) Site layout. The...

  20. 77 FR 55896 - Notice of Release Effecting Federal Grant Assurance Obligations Due to Airport Layout Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Grant Assurance Obligations Due to Airport Layout Plan Revision at Mather Airport, Sacramento, CA AGENCY... application for an Airport Layout Plan revision effecting approximately 422 acres of airport property at... will not be conveyed by the Air Force to the County. As a result, the existing Airport Layout Plan will...

  1. Rearrangement of the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector using the Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alexsandro Turati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct physical layout is relevant to the operational efficiency of the company. This study proposes rearranging the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector, which is located in Araras/SP, aiming to improve the production workflow. The Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP was used, with the field research divided into steps: obtaining detailed information about the process and the product; meetings with stakeholders; determining inter-related activities; analyzing space requirements; developing a new layout. The new layout has space allocated for the purchasing of new machinery, the existing machinery has been redistributed by specialty, and the unloading of raw materials has been transferred to the shed, maximizing the use of overhead cranes and keeping the stock close to the warehouse. In addition, forklift traffic flow has decreased; new movement corridors were demarcated; and painting areas were isolated. In conclusion, the SLP method proved efficient in creating a layout.

  2. Protocol: Material flow risk evaluation for layout design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Sáez Más

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need of design new layouts or redesign current situation to manufacture new products has increased principally due to changes in customer demand, on both variety aspects and quantity (Lu, Shpitalni, and Gadh, 1999. The complexity increase is also associated with the traffic generated by material handling equipment. This situation can be described as unsafe for workers. Many authors defend that during layout design/redesign a risk analysis is necessary. In contrast others believe that material flow analysis should be a mainly task during this step. Therefore, in this research both considerations have been integrated. So that it is proposed a protocol to evaluate the risk generated by material flow with handling equipment in manufacturing plants. This methodology identify the process steps and propose dimensions, measurables, tools and suggestions in order to analyse and reduce risk correctly. All the above aspects are validated in a case study of a complex assembly plant in the automotive sector.

  3. Document understanding using layout styles of title page images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Louis H., II; Manns, Basil

    1992-08-01

    An important problem in the application of compound document architectures is the input of data from raster images. One technique is to use visual, syntactic cues found in the layout of the raster document to infer its logical structure or semantics. Another is to use context derived from characters recognized within a given block of raster data. Both character- and image- based information are considered here. A well-constrained environment is defined for use in developing rules that can be applied to basic book title page understanding. This paper identifies the attributes of title page layout objects which aid in mapping them into the fields of a simple bibliographic format. Using as input the raster images of the title page and the verso of the title page along with the ASCII output of a generic character recognition engine from these same images, a system of rules is defined for generating a marked-up text wherein key bibliographic fields may be identified.

  4. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  5. Dish layouts analysis method for concentrative solar power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinshan; Gan, Shaocong; Li, Song; Ruan, Zhongyuan; Chen, Shengyong; Wang, Yong; Gui, Changgui; Wan, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Designs leading to maximize the use of sun radiation of a given reflective area without increasing the expense on investment are important to solar power plants construction. We here provide a method that allows one to compute shade area at any given time as well as the total shading effect of a day. By establishing a local coordinate system with the origin at the apex of a parabolic dish and z -axis pointing to the sun, neighboring dishes only with [Formula: see text] would shade onto the dish when in tracking mode. This procedure reduces the required computational resources, simplifies the calculation and allows a quick search for the optimum layout by considering all aspects leading to optimized arrangement: aspect ratio, shifting and rotation. Computer simulations done with information on dish Stirling system as well as DNI data released from NREL, show that regular-spacing is not an optimal layout, shifting and rotating column by certain amount can bring more benefits.

  6. A new dynamical layout algorithm for complex biochemical reaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kummer Ursula; Wegner Katja

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background To study complex biochemical reaction networks in living cells researchers more and more rely on databases and computational methods. In order to facilitate computational approaches, visualisation techniques are highly important. Biochemical reaction networks, e.g. metabolic pathways are often depicted as graphs and these graphs should be drawn dynamically to provide flexibility in the context of different data. Conventional layout algorithms are not sufficient for every k...

  7. Impact of risk analysis on ITER nuclear buildings layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabathe, Laurent; Lignini, Franck; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Uzan-Elbez, Joelle; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The internal layout of ITER nuclear buildings (Tokamak, Tritium, Hot cell and Radwaste buildings) is the result of an iterative process. Notwithstanding civil engineering requirements, technical and functional requirements for the processes housed in the buildings, the internal layout must also take into account safety requirements and workers protection requirements in normal, incidental and accidental conditions. Potential hazards and constraints result in the definition of various zonings. Each room is classified depending on the level of the risks induced by normal and incidental or accidental conditions: - radiological exposure to tritium, and activated products → radiological zoning; - exposure to beryllium (vacuum vessel blankets) → beryllium zoning; - exposure to electromagnetic fields during plasma shots → electromagnetic zoning; - fire hazard: fire compartmentalization; ·explosion hazard: anti-blast zoning; - waste treatment → waste zoning. Prevention of common mode failure due to internal hazards (fire, flooding, load drop...) for redundant safety important components is also taken into account by geographical separation or by installation of protections between components (either in the same room or preferably when possible by segregation in different rooms). The designer has also taken into account access requirements to equipments and circulation rules for personal, material and substances in ITER nuclear buildings. Risk analyses are performed in the Preliminary Safety Report in order to demonstrate that the layout of ITER nuclear buildings allows meeting the safety objectives and takes into account the requirements associated with the zonings classifications and complies with the regulation. When necessary, modifications are implemented in the design. For example, recent layout modifications are been studied in the tritium building: utility rooms (electrical supply) were transferred outside the radiological hazard zones. A direct access from

  8. Analysis tools for the interplay between genome layout and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyioukos, Costas; Elati, Mohamed; Képès, François

    2016-06-06

    Genome layout and gene regulation appear to be interdependent. Understanding this interdependence is key to exploring the dynamic nature of chromosome conformation and to engineering functional genomes. Evidence for non-random genome layout, defined as the relative positioning of either co-functional or co-regulated genes, stems from two main approaches. Firstly, the analysis of contiguous genome segments across species, has highlighted the conservation of gene arrangement (synteny) along chromosomal regions. Secondly, the study of long-range interactions along a chromosome has emphasised regularities in the positioning of microbial genes that are co-regulated, co-expressed or evolutionarily correlated. While one-dimensional pattern analysis is a mature field, it is often powerless on biological datasets which tend to be incomplete, and partly incorrect. Moreover, there is a lack of comprehensive, user-friendly tools to systematically analyse, visualise, integrate and exploit regularities along genomes. Here we present the Genome REgulatory and Architecture Tools SCAN (GREAT:SCAN) software for the systematic study of the interplay between genome layout and gene expression regulation. SCAN is a collection of related and interconnected applications currently able to perform systematic analyses of genome regularities as well as to improve transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and gene regulatory network predictions based on gene positional information. We demonstrate the capabilities of these tools by studying on one hand the regular patterns of genome layout in the major regulons of the bacterium Escherichia coli. On the other hand, we demonstrate the capabilities to improve TFBS prediction in microbes. Finally, we highlight, by visualisation of multivariate techniques, the interplay between position and sequence information for effective transcription regulation.

  9. Impact of risk analysis on ITER nuclear buildings layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabathe, Laurent [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France)], E-mail: laurent.sabathe@areva.com; Lignini, Franck [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France)], E-mail: franck.lignini@areva.com; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina [EFDA-CSU Barcelona and Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Uzan-Elbez, Joelle [Agence ITER-France, Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France); Girard, Jean-Philippe [ITER-JWS, Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France)

    2007-10-15

    The internal layout of ITER nuclear buildings (Tokamak, Tritium, Hot cell and Radwaste buildings) is the result of an iterative process. Notwithstanding civil engineering requirements, technical and functional requirements for the processes housed in the buildings, the internal layout must also take into account safety requirements and workers protection requirements in normal, incidental and accidental conditions. Potential hazards and constraints result in the definition of various zonings. Each room is classified depending on the level of the risks induced by normal and incidental or accidental conditions: - radiological exposure to tritium, and activated products {yields} radiological zoning; - exposure to beryllium (vacuum vessel blankets) {yields} beryllium zoning; - exposure to electromagnetic fields during plasma shots {yields} electromagnetic zoning; - fire hazard: fire compartmentalization; {center_dot}explosion hazard: anti-blast zoning; - waste treatment {yields} waste zoning. Prevention of common mode failure due to internal hazards (fire, flooding, load drop...) for redundant safety important components is also taken into account by geographical separation or by installation of protections between components (either in the same room or preferably when possible by segregation in different rooms). The designer has also taken into account access requirements to equipments and circulation rules for personal, material and substances in ITER nuclear buildings. Risk analyses are performed in the Preliminary Safety Report in order to demonstrate that the layout of ITER nuclear buildings allows meeting the safety objectives and takes into account the requirements associated with the zonings classifications and complies with the regulation. When necessary, modifications are implemented in the design. For example, recent layout modifications are been studied in the tritium building: utility rooms (electrical supply) were transferred outside the radiological

  10. Proximity search heuristics for wind farm optimal layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Monaci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A heuristic framework for turbine layout optimization in a wind farm is proposed that combines ad-hoc heuristics and mixed-integer linear programming. In our framework, large-scale mixed-integer programming models are used to iteratively refine the current best solution according to the recently-......-proposed proximity search paradigm. Computational results on very large scale instances involving up to 20,000 potential turbine sites prove the practical viability of the overall approach....

  11. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  12. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  13. CiSE: a circular spring embedder layout algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogrusoz, Ugur; Belviranli, Mehmet E; Dilek, Alptug

    2013-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic layout of clustered graphs using a circular style. The algorithm tries to determine optimal location and orientation of individual clusters intrinsically within a modified spring embedder. Heuristics such as reversal of the order of nodes in a cluster and swap of neighboring node pairs in the same cluster are employed intermittently to further relax the spring embedder system, resulting in reduced inter-cluster edge crossings. Unlike other algorithms generating circular drawings, our algorithm does not require the quotient graph to be acyclic, nor does it sacrifice the edge crossing number of individual clusters to improve respective positioning of the clusters. Moreover, it reduces the total area required by a cluster by using the space inside the associated circle. Experimental results show that the execution time and quality of the produced drawings with respect to commonly accepted layout criteria are quite satisfactory, surpassing previous algorithms. The algorithm has also been successfully implemented and made publicly available as part of a compound and clustered graph editing and layout tool named CHISIO.

  14. Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management

  15. Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin

    2013-04-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n ≤ 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).

  16. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Vibrio spp. within the Sydney Harbour Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Balaraju, Varunan; Carney, Richard; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio are a genus of marine bacteria that have substantial environmental and human health importance, and there is evidence that their impact may be increasing as a consequence of changing environmental conditions. We investigated the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community within the Sydney Harbour estuary, one of the most densely populated coastal areas in Australia, and a region currently experiencing rapidly changing environmental conditions. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approaches we observed significant spatial and seasonal variation in the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community. Total Vibrio spp. abundance, derived from qPCR analysis, was higher during the late summer than winter and within locations with mid-range salinity (5–26 ppt). In addition we targeted three clinically important pathogens: Vibrio cholerae, V. Vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus. While toxigenic strains of V. cholerae were not detected in any samples, non-toxigenic strains were detected in 71% of samples, spanning a salinity range of 0–37 ppt and were observed during both late summer and winter. In contrast, pathogenic V. vulnificus was only detected in 14% of samples, with its occurrence restricted to the late summer and a salinity range of 5–26 ppt. V. parahaemolyticus was not observed at any site or time point. A Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach revealed clear shifts in Vibrio community composition across sites and between seasons, with several Vibrio operational taxonomic units (OTUs) displaying marked spatial patterns and seasonal trends. Shifts in the composition of the Vibrio community between seasons were primarily driven by changes in temperature, salinity and NO2, while a range of factors including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) explained the observed spatial variation. Our evidence for the presence of a spatiotemporally dynamic Vibrio community

  17. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Simpevarp, Layout D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    This report is a compilation of the results of the underground design work carried out in design phase D1 of the Repository Design Project within the Deep Repository Project for the Simpevarp site. Similar reports are also being produced for the Laxemar and Forsmark sites. The design phase coincides with the initial site investigation phase. The main purpose of phase D1 is to answer the question 'Can a final repository be accommodated within the designated site', but also to test the design methodology and provide feedback to the modelling project. Design was carried out in accordance with the methodology described in UDP (Underground Design Premises), SKB R-04-60, and was based on preliminary data from various disciplines in the site modelling project. The preliminary input data used were then cross-checked against data in the final Site Descriptive Model SDM v 1.2 and significant differences were integrated in the design work. The design results from each design topic were presented by the designer at presentation meetings for SKB's design management and the reviewers engaged by SKB for the specific topic. After the presentation meeting the designer wrote up the work reports for the topic in question. The work reports were then reviewed by SKB's review team. The results of the review were compiled in a statement that was submitted to the designer to be dealt with. In the statement the designer documented which comments were dealt with and how. This report is a compilation of the entire design phase D1 for Simpevarp. The 3D layout with coordinate lists for deposition holes and tunnels that was drawn to illustrate a possible layout was used in the Preliminary safety evaluation of the Simpevarp subarea and the hydro modelling of the Open Repository, both activities within the Deep Repository Project. According to current plans for the Swedish nuclear programme, the minimum required number of canister positions in the repository is estimated to be

  18. Correlation between the seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and their prey in the Sound, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Andreasen, Heidi; Mouritsen, Kim N.

    2012-01-01

    Low densities of harbour porpoises in winter (November–March) and high densities in summer (April–October) were found in the Sound, connecting the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Due to their high energy requirements, it is hypothesized that the density of harbour porpoises is related to local prey...... herring and Atlantic cod were equally important during the low-density season. Prey availability and predictability are suggested as the main drivers for harbour porpoise distribution, and this could be caused by the formation of frontal zones in spring in the northern part of the Sound, leading to prey...

  19. OPINIONS REGARDING THE TOURISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE DANUBIAN HARBOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MATEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of European integration, the creation of transnational tourism products represents the brand of an inter-state collaboration, which, based on a common strategy, implies objectives that aim at achieving the global development of a destination, making thus possible an efficient and effective allocation of resources, in order to achieve a sustainable development, both from a touristic point of view and from an economic, social, cultural, technological, etc. one. The route of the Danube could represent one of the most important European destinations, appertaining to more than one country; therefore, in order to develop and sustain its touristic potential, a common strategy is necessary, with an integrated marketing image, associated to a consistent tourism product, inspiring common values, regardless of the territory of the country it is located in. In this direction, a quantitative marketing research, conducted on 992 respondents, aged 18-24, in order to determine the opinions concerning the touristic potential of the Danubian harbours – as a fundamental element, precursory to the market analysis.

  20. Multispecies reactive transport modelling of electrokinetic remediation of harbour sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato

    2017-03-15

    We implemented a numerical model to simulate transport of multiple species and geochemical reactions occurring during electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated porous media. The main phenomena described by the model were: (1) species transport by diffusion, electromigration and electroosmosis, (2) pH-dependent buffering of H + , (3) adsorption of metals onto particle surfaces, (4) aqueous speciation, (5) formation and dissolution of solid precipitates. The model was applied to simulate the electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Ni) from marine harbour sediments, characterized by a heterogeneous solid matrix, high buffering capacity and aged pollution. A good agreement was found between simulations of pH, electroosmotic flow and experimental results. The predicted residual metal concentrations in the sediment were also close to experimental profiles for all of the investigated metals. Some removal overestimation was observed in the regions close to the anode, possibly due to the significant metal content bound to residual fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Particular intervention plan of Cherbourg's military harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the public version of the Particular intervention plan of the military harbour of Cherbourg (Manche, France) which hosts several nuclear facilities devoted to the construction and dismantling of nuclear submarines (without weapons)

  2. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) can steer by the stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Björn; Gläser, Nele; Schlosser, Wolfhard; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2008-10-01

    Offshore orientation in marine mammals is still a mystery. For visual orientation during night-time foraging and travelling in the open seas, seals cannot rely on distant terrestrial landmarks, and thus might use celestial cues as repeatedly shown for nocturnally migrating birds. Although seals detect enough stars to probably allow for astronavigation, it was unclear whether they can orient by the night sky. The widely accepted cognitive mechanism for bird night-time orientation by celestial cues is a time-independent star compass with learned geometrical star configurations used to pinpoint north as the rotational centre of the starry sky while there is no conclusive evidence for a time-compensated star compass or true star navigation. Here, we present results for two harbour seals orienting in a custom made swimming planetarium. Both seals learned to highly accurately identify a lodestar out of a pseudo-randomly oriented, realistic projection of the northern hemisphere night sky. Providing the first evidence for star orientation capability in a marine mammal, our seals' outstanding directional precision would allow them to steer by following lodestars of learned star courses, a celestial orientation mechanism that has been known to be used by Polynesian navigators but has not been considered for animals yet.

  3. Analytical Tools for Functional Assessment of Architectural Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Functional layout of the building, understood as a layout or set of the facility rooms (or groups of rooms) with a system of internal communication, creates an environment and a place of mutual relations between the occupants of the object. Achieving optimal (from the occupants’ point of view) spatial arrangement is possible through activities that often go beyond the stage of architectural design. Adopted in the architectural design, most often during trial and error process or on the basis of previous experience (evidence-based design), functional layout is subject to continuous evaluation and dynamic changing since the beginning of its use. Such verification of the occupancy phase allows to plan future, possible transformations, as well as to develop model solutions for use in other settings. In broader terms, the research hypothesis is to examine whether and how the collected datasets concerning the facility and its utilization can be used to develop methods for assessing functional layout of buildings. In other words, if it is possible to develop an objective method of assessing functional layouts basing on a set of buildings’ parameters: technical, technological and functional ones and whether the method allows developing a set of tools enhancing the design methodology of complex functional objects. By linking the design with the construction phase it is possible to build parametric models of functional layouts, especially in the context of sustainable design or lean design in every aspect: ecological (by reducing the property’s impact on environment), economic (by optimizing its cost) and social (through the implementation of high-performance work environment). Parameterization of size and functional connections of the facility become part of the analyses, as well as the element of model solutions. The “lean” approach means the process of analysis of the existing scheme and consequently - finding weak points as well as means for eliminating these

  4. Extractable organics in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.; Bhosle, N.B.; Kadam, A.N.

    Considerable variations in hydrocarbon and fatty acid levels in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour were observed Sediments from the westernside nearshore locations yielded higher values The residues were characterised by infrared...

  5. Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Dhaktode, S.S.; Kadam, A.N.

    The surface sediment samples were collected by van Veen grab sampler during premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary Moisture content of the samples ranges from 36 to 67.5...

  6. Investigations on oil patches around 'M.T.Lajpatrai' Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    Samples from three oil patches observed around the burning tanker 'M. T. Lajpatrai' at Bombay Harbour were characterised using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMR). Two of them were found to be from used lubricating oils. As indicated by gas...

  7. The impact of selected sea level rise scenarios in the vicinity of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    The physical response of selected sea level rise scenarios on a stretch of barrier beach in the vicinity of Cochin harbour, India are investigated with a thrust on quantifying landward displacement of the land/water interface. To model shoreline...

  8. A new species of Acartia (Copepoda, Calanoida) from Cochin Harbour, India, and adjacent areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abraham, S.

    During the course of a study of the family Acartiidae of Cochin harbour and its neighbourhood, a species of Acartia different from all other known species of Acartia, was found. Its characteristics, habitat and seasonal distribution form the theme...

  9. Macrobenthic assemblage in the soft sediment of Marmugao Harbour, Goa (central west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kanti, A.; Gracias, E.S.

    Survey of the macroinvertebrate fauna in soft sediment of 18 stations in the Marmugao Harbour revealed spatial heterogeneity based on environmental parameters and benthic assemblage. Based on the presence/absence of the families five associations...

  10. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  11. Radioactivity concentrations and their radiological significance in sediments of the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin O. Botwe; Antonio Schirone; Ivana Delbono; Mattia Barsanti; Roberta Delfanti; Peter Kelderman; Elvis Nyarko; Piet N.L. Lens

    2017-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity in tropical Africa are scarce. Therefore, a baseline study of natural (238U, 210Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th, 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides was carried out on Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana) surface sediments and on their radiological significance. Grab surface sediment samples were collected from 21 stations within the Tema Harbour and their radioactivity concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. The mean sediment radioactivity...

  12. Uncovering governance mechanisms surrounding harbour porpoise conservation in the Danish Skagerrak Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kirk; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the focus of a range of conservation efforts and policies, including the Habitats Directive, aimed at reducing the bycatch of non-target species in gillnet fisheries. This paper describes the governance process and analyses the governance mechanisms....... The paper questions the overall approach to managing the harbour porpoise bycatch issue in light of Natura 2000 and discusses the role of science and its high level of influence in this planning process...

  13. A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sivadas, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Sautya, S.; Nag, A.

    activities like fisheries, industries and tourism occurs in and around the area that may have an impact on the environment. The harbours are characterised by reduced dissolved oxygen level and higher concentration of pollutants in water and sediment... harbour of Montevideo, Uruguay. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44, 554– 565. 11. Dauvin, J.C. & Ruellet, T. (2007). Polychaete/amphipod ratio revisited. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 55(1-6), 215-224. 12. Franz, D.R. & Tanacredi, J.T. (1999). Secondary...

  14. Effects of Optimizing the Scan-Path on Scanning Keyboards with QWERTY-Layout for English Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnes, Frode Eika; Medola, Fausto Orsi

    2017-01-01

    Scanning keyboards can be essential tools for individuals with reduced motor function. However, most research addresses layout optimization. Learning new layouts is time-consuming. This study explores the familiar QWERTY layout with alternative scanning paths intended for English text. The results show that carefully designed scan-paths can help QWERTY nearly match optimized layouts in performance.

  15. Geochemical assessment of sediment in Cape Town harbour, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Okoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical assessment of marine sediments collected from Cape Town harbour was carried out using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, Fourier-Transform-infrared and X-ray diffractrometry techniques. The clay mineral phase consists of biotites, kaolinites and halites. The ranges of concentrations (mg/kg of trace metals were: Cd (1.69±0.075 – 0.080±0.002, Si (0.37±0.11 – 0.023±0.012, Fe (30.01±2.04 – 2.23±0.12, Cu (1462±39 – 1.51±0.11, Al (19.92±2.24 – 1.25±0.13, Sn (63.98±4.97 – 1.15±0.38, Pb (252±29 – 8.73±1.06, Hg (1.002±0.168 – 0.049±0.005 and Zn (1.26±0.07 – 0.022±0.004 mg kg-1. The enrichment factors of Sn, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Al and Hg revealed anthropogenic inputs of these metals into the marine environment. The enrichment factor of Cu was less than 1 and this suggests that its presence was largely due to natural changes. The results are indications of the contributions of trace metals contained in the runoffs from the domestic and urban drains, as well as the inflow storm water. Ship repair activities appeared to constitute a major factor responsible for the higher metal contamination in the dockyard areas. The geomineral analyses revealed the presence of quartz, pyrite, and calcite and carrolite minerals as the main constituents of the marine sediments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i1.3

  16. Characterization of the novel In1059 harbouring VIM gene cassette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongguo Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VIM-type enzyme encodes the most widely acquired metallo-β-lactamases in Gram- negative bacteria. To obtain current epidemiological data for integrons from enterobacteriae in hospital, the study characterizes the genetic structure in In1059 by comparison with In846 integrons harbouring VIM gene and other class 1 integrons including In37, In62, In843 and In1021 with the aim of identifying the putative mechanisms involved integron mobilization and infer evolution of relevant integrons. Methods Six of 69 recombinant plasmids from clinical strains were found to be class 1 integrons by digestion with BamHI, drug susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, PCR amplification, integron cloning and sequencing, genome comparison, and detection of carbapenemase activity. Results The sequences of the six recombinant plasmids encoding In1021, In843, In846, In37, In62, and the novel In1059 integron had approximate lengths of ~4.8-, 4.1-, 5.1-, 5.3-, 5.3- and 6.6- kb, respectively. The genetic structures of these integrons were mapped and characterized, and the carbapenemase activities of their parental strains were assessed. Conclusions Our results suggest that the six variable integron structures and regular variations that exist in the gene cassettes provide a putative mechanism for the integron changes. Our study has also shown that the genetic features in the integrons named above fall within a scheme involving the stepwise and parallel evolution of class 1 integron variation likely under antibiotic selection pressure in clinical settings.

  17. [Land layout for lake tourism based on ecological restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ying; Li, Jiang-Feng; Zou, Li-Lin; Liu, Shi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To avoid the decrease and deterioration of lake wetlands and the other ecological issues such as lake water pollution that were caused by the unreasonable exploration of lake tourism, a land layout for the tourism development of Liangzi Lake with the priority of ecological security pattern was proposed, based on the minimal cumulative resistance model and by using GIS technology. The study area was divided into four ecological function zones, i. e., core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecotone zone, and human activity zone. The core protection zone was the landscape region of ecological source. In the protection zone, new tourism land was forbidden to be increased, and some of the existing fundamental tourism facilities should be removed while some of them should be upgraded. The ecological buffer zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 0 to 4562. In the buffer zone, expansion of tourism land should be forbidden, the existing tourism land should be downsized, and human activities should be isolated from ecological source by converting the human environment to the natural environment as far as possible. The ecotone zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 4562 to 30797. In this zone, the existing tourism land was distributed in patches, tourism land could be expanded properly, and the lake forestry ecological tourism should be developed widely. The human activity zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 30797 to 97334, which would be the key area for the land layout of lake tourism. It was suggested that the land layout for tourism with the priority of landscape ecological security pattern would be the best choice for the lake sustainable development.

  18. Wendelstein 7-X Torus Hall Layout and System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.; Damiani, C.; Hartfuss, H.-J.; Krampitz, R.; Neuner, U.

    2006-01-01

    Wendelstein 7-X is an experimental fusion device presently under construction in Greifswald, Germany, to study the stellarator concept at reactor relevant parameters und steady-state conditions. The heart of the machine consists of the torus that houses the superconducting coils and the plasma vacuum vessel. It is located nearly in the center of a 30 m x 30 m x 20 m hall. A large number of components need to be placed in close proximity of the torus to provide the system with the required means, e.g. cryogenic gases, cooling water, electricity, and to integrate it with the peripheral diagnostic and heating components. The arrangement of these components has to be supported by suitable structures, and has to be optimized to allow for installation, maintenance, and repair. In addition, space has to be provided for escape routes and for sufficient distance between components that could negatively influence each other's performance, etc. The layout of the components has been done over many years using 3D CAD software. It was based on simple geometric models of the components and of the additionally required space. Presently the layout design is being detailed and updated by replacing the original coarse models with more refined estimates or - in some cases - with as-built models. All interface requirements are carefully taken into account. Detailed routing was specified for the cryo and cooling water supply lines whose design and installation is outsourced. Due to the limited space available and severely restricted access during experimental campaigns, the requirement to put auxiliary components like electronic racks into the torus hall is being queried. The paper summarizes the present state of the component layout in the torus hall, and how the peripheral supply, diagnostics, and heating systems are integrated into the machine. (author)

  19. The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chloe Wing-yee; Ip, Carman Ching-man; Zhang Gan; Shin, Paul K.S.; Qian Peiyuan; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    Victoria Harbour has received substantial loadings of pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewater discharged since the 1950s. Inputs of contaminants have declined dramatically during the last two decades as a result of better controls at the source and improved wastewater treatment facilities. To assess the spatial and temporal changes of metal contaminants in sediments in Victoria Harbour, core and grab sediments were collected. The central harbour areas were generally contaminated with heavy metals. The spatial distribution of trace metals can probably be attributed to the proximity of major urban and industrial discharge points, and to the effect of tidal flushing in the harbour. In the sediment cores, the highest concentrations of trace metals were observed to have accumulated during the 1950s-1980s, corresponding with the period of rapid urban and industrial development in Hong Kong. From the late 1980s, there has been a major decline in the concentrations of trace metals, due to a reduction in industrial activities and to the enactment of wastewater pollution controls in the territory. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments revealed the anthropogenic inputs of Pb to the harbour. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios varied from 1.154 to 1.190, which were lower than those of background geological materials in Hong Kong ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb: 1.201-1.279). The data also indicated that the Pb in the harbour sediments most likely originated from mixed sources, including the leaded gasoline used in the past and other anthropogenic sources

  20. High-Quality Ultra-Compact Grid Layout of Grouped Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoghourdjian, Vahan; Dwyer, Tim; Gange, Graeme; Kieffer, Steve; Klein, Karsten; Marriott, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Prior research into network layout has focused on fast heuristic techniques for layout of large networks, or complex multi-stage pipelines for higher quality layout of small graphs. Improvements to these pipeline techniques, especially for orthogonal-style layout, are difficult and practical results have been slight in recent years. Yet, as discussed in this paper, there remain significant issues in the quality of the layouts produced by these techniques, even for quite small networks. This is especially true when layout with additional grouping constraints is required. The first contribution of this paper is to investigate an ultra-compact, grid-like network layout aesthetic that is motivated by the grid arrangements that are used almost universally by designers in typographical layout. Since the time when these heuristic and pipeline-based graph-layout methods were conceived, generic technologies (MIP, CP and SAT) for solving combinatorial and mixed-integer optimization problems have improved massively. The second contribution of this paper is to reassess whether these techniques can be used for high-quality layout of small graphs. While they are fast enough for graphs of up to 50 nodes we found these methods do not scale up. Our third contribution is a large-neighborhood search meta-heuristic approach that is scalable to larger networks.

  1. Comparative study T-type and I-type layout of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Rudi Iswanto and Siti Alimah

    2010-01-01

    Determining plant layout is one of the five major stages during the life time of a nuclear power plant. Some important factors that affect in the selecting of plant layout are availability of infrastructure, economic aspects, social aspects, public and environment safety, and also easy to do. Another factor to be considered is requirements as seismic design, which refers to the principles of good security workers, communities and the environment of radiological risks. There are many layout types of nuclear power plant, two of them are T-type layout and I-type layout. Each type of the plant layout has advantage and disadvantage, therefore this study is to understand them. Good layout is able to provide a high level of security against earthquakes. In term of earthquake design, I-type layout has a higher security level than T-type layout. Therefore, I-type layout can be a good choice for PWR nuclear power plants 1000 MWe that will be built in Indonesia. (author)

  2. Silicon drift detector: device design and mask layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Pourus; Mishra, Vijay; Kataria, S.K.; Rao, Ramgopal

    2005-01-01

    The mask design of Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) to be fabricated at the fabrication lab of IIT Bombay has been done. The mask layout consists of 13 distinct designs of varying geometry and design parameters. The design rules related to the silicon fabrication facility at IITB have been strictly adhered to while designing the mask for SDD. Additional features like alignment marks, reference marks and scribe lines have also been incorporated to facilitate convenient fabrication and ease in dicing of devices after processing. The next step is to get the mask set fabricated commercially and subsequently proceed towards SDD fabrication. (author)

  3. A new dynamical layout algorithm for complex biochemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Katja; Kummer, Ursula

    2005-08-26

    To study complex biochemical reaction networks in living cells researchers more and more rely on databases and computational methods. In order to facilitate computational approaches, visualisation techniques are highly important. Biochemical reaction networks, e.g. metabolic pathways are often depicted as graphs and these graphs should be drawn dynamically to provide flexibility in the context of different data. Conventional layout algorithms are not sufficient for every kind of pathway in biochemical research. This is mainly due to certain conventions to which biochemists/biologists are used to and which are not in accordance to conventional layout algorithms. A number of approaches has been developed to improve this situation. Some of these are used in the context of biochemical databases and make more or less use of the information in these databases to aid the layout process. However, visualisation becomes also more and more important in modelling and simulation tools which mostly do not offer additional connections to databases. Therefore, layout algorithms used in these tools have to work independently of any databases. In addition, all of the existing algorithms face some limitations with respect to the number of edge crossings when it comes to larger biochemical systems due to the interconnectivity of these. Last but not least, in some cases, biochemical conventions are not met properly. Out of these reasons we have developed a new algorithm which tackles these problems by reducing the number of edge crossings in complex systems, taking further biological conventions into account to identify and visualise cycles. Furthermore the algorithm is independent from database information in order to be easily adopted in any application. It can also be tested as part of the SimWiz package (free to download for academic users at 1). The new algorithm reduces the complexity of pathways, as well as edge crossings and edge length in the resulting graphical representation

  4. A new dynamical layout algorithm for complex biochemical reaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummer Ursula

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study complex biochemical reaction networks in living cells researchers more and more rely on databases and computational methods. In order to facilitate computational approaches, visualisation techniques are highly important. Biochemical reaction networks, e.g. metabolic pathways are often depicted as graphs and these graphs should be drawn dynamically to provide flexibility in the context of different data. Conventional layout algorithms are not sufficient for every kind of pathway in biochemical research. This is mainly due to certain conventions to which biochemists/biologists are used to and which are not in accordance to conventional layout algorithms. A number of approaches has been developed to improve this situation. Some of these are used in the context of biochemical databases and make more or less use of the information in these databases to aid the layout process. However, visualisation becomes also more and more important in modelling and simulation tools which mostly do not offer additional connections to databases. Therefore, layout algorithms used in these tools have to work independently of any databases. In addition, all of the existing algorithms face some limitations with respect to the number of edge crossings when it comes to larger biochemical systems due to the interconnectivity of these. Last but not least, in some cases, biochemical conventions are not met properly. Results Out of these reasons we have developed a new algorithm which tackles these problems by reducing the number of edge crossings in complex systems, taking further biological conventions into account to identify and visualise cycles. Furthermore the algorithm is independent from database information in order to be easily adopted in any application. It can also be tested as part of the SimWiz package (free to download for academic users at 1. Conclusion The new algorithm reduces the complexity of pathways, as well as edge crossings

  5. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  6. Layout for Assessing Dynamic Posture: Development, Validation, and Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Sedrez, Juliana Adami; Vieira, Adriane; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    To determine the psychometric properties of the layout for assessing dynamic posture (LADy). The study was divided into 2 phases: (1) development of the instrument and (2) determination of validity and reproducibility. The LADy was designed to evaluate the position adopted in 9 dynamic postures. The results confirmed the validity and reproducibility of the instrument. From a total of 51 criteria assessing 9 postures, 1 was rejected. The reproducibility for each of the criteria was classified as moderate to excellent. The LADy constitutes a valid and reproducible instrument for the evaluation of dynamic postures in children 11 to 17 years old. It is low cost and applicable in the school environment.

  7. Wind conditions in urban layout - Numerical and experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poćwierz, Marta; Zielonko-Jung, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents research which compares the numerical and the experimental results for different cases of airflow around a few urban layouts. The study is concerned mostly with the analysis of parameters, such as pressure and velocity fields, which are essential in the building industry. Numerical simulations have been performed by the commercial software Fluent, with the use of a few different turbulence models, including popular k-ɛ, k-ɛ realizable or k-ω. A particular attention has been paid to accurate description of the conditions on the inlet and the selection of suitable computing grid. The pressure measurement near buildings and oil visualization were undertaken and described accordingly.

  8. DESIGNING OF TOWN SKYLINE ON THE STAGE OF GENERAL LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kishik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to consider an aggregation of such active elements of town structure as multistoreyed dominants to be used as a basis for designing skyline of a large town on the stage of its general layout. Some interrelated principles, namely: spatial integration, subordination, nature consistence, succession are formulated for improvement of their spatial organization. Every principle takes down any general property of the network of vertical accents which is formed as a system. The obtained principles of the system organization of the multistoreyed dominants are checked while designing Grodno skyline. 

  9. Layout of a cross-shaped inner tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Steinkamp, O

    2001-01-01

    The LHCb Technical Proposal described a tracking system in which the Inner Tracker covered a rectangular surface of 60\\,cm$\\times$40\\,cm around the beampipe. In the meantime, simulation studies have shown that the borderline between Inner and Outer Trackers has to be shifted further away from the beampipe in order to obtain acceptably low occupancies in the innermost regions of the Outer Tracker. In an effort to keep the surface covered by the relatively expensive Inner Tracker technology as small as possible, a new layout of the tracking stations has been proposed, in which the Inner Tracker covers a cross-shaped area around the beampipe. The layout described in LHCb note 2000-107, in which each Inner Tracker station consisted of two "L"-shaped detector boxes, would not be well suited to cover such a cross-shaped area. A more elegant solution is proposed here, in which each Inner Tracker station consists of four rectangular detector boxes, one above, one below and one on each side of the beampipe.

  10. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Layout and Nurses' Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doede, Megan; Trinkoff, Alison M; Gurses, Ayse P

    2018-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) remain one of the few areas in hospitals that still use an open bay (OPBY) design for patient stays greater than 24 hr, housing multiple infants, staff, and families in one large room. This creates high noise levels, contributes to the spread of infection, and affords families little privacy. These problems have given rise to the single-family room NICU. This represents a significant change in the care environment for nurses. This literature review answers the question: When compared to OPBY layout, how does a single family room layout impact neonatal nurses' work? Thirteen studies published between 2006 and 2015 were located. Many studies reported both positive and negative effects on nurses' work and were therefore sorted by their cited advantages and disadvantages. Advantages included improved quality of the physical environment; improved quality of patient care; improved parent interaction; and improvements in nurse job satisfaction, stress, and burnout. Disadvantages included decreased interaction among the NICU patient care team, increased nurse workload, decreased visibility on the unit, and difficult interactions with family. This review suggests that single-family room NICUs introduce a complex situation in which trade-offs occur for nurses, most prominently the trade-off between visibility and privacy. Additionally, the literature is clear on what elements of nurses' work are impacted, but how the built environment influences these elements, and how these elements interact during nurses' work, is not as well understood. The current level of research and directions for future research are also discussed.

  11. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the valu....... Lastly, we find that deep value episodes tend to cluster and a deep value trading strategy generates excess returns not explained by traditional risk factors.......We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the value...... premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  12. Aircraft Cockpit Ergonomic Layout Evaluation Based on Uncertain Linguistic Multiattribute Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxuan Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the view of the current cockpit information interaction, facilities and other characteristics are increasingly multifarious; the early layout evaluation methods based on single or partial components, often cause comprehensive evaluation unilateral, leading to the problems of long development period and low efficiency. Considering the fuzziness of ergonomic evaluation and diversity of evaluation information attributes, we refine and build an evaluation system based on the characteristics of the current cockpit man-machine layout and introduce the different types of uncertain linguistic multiple attribute combination decision making (DTULDM method in the cockpit layout evaluation process. Meanwhile, we also establish an aircraft cockpit ergonomic layout evaluation model. Finally, an experiment about cockpit layout evaluation is given, and the result demonstrates that the proposed method about cockpit ergonomic layout evaluation is feasible and effective.

  13. Study on comprehensive evaluation model for nuclear power plant control room layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yiming; Liu Yuan; Fan Huixian

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation model for layout of the main control room of nuclear power plants was proposed. Firstly the design scope and principle for the layout of the main control room were defined based on the standards, and then the index system for the comprehensive evaluation was established. Finally, comprehensive evaluation was carried out for the layout design by applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in the index system. (authors)

  14. Organo chlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminants in sediments from Karachi harbour, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Khan, S.H.; Amjad, S.; Muller, J.; Nizamani, S.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Mangrove swamps, inter tidal mud flats and creeks of backwaters represent main feature of Karachi harbour area. Karachi harbour sediment is under continuous influence of untreated industrial effluents and domestic waste discharged into the Harbour area via Lyari River. Sediment samples from sixteen locations were collected to evaluate the levels of contamination of organo chlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Karachi harbour and adjoining areas. It has been observed that residual concentrations of various organo chlorine pesticides were considerably higher in the semi-enclosed area of the upper Harbour in the vicinity of the discharge point of Lyari River. The residue of DDT mainly its metabolites (DDE and DDD) were widely distributed and have been detected in most of the sediment samples in relatively higher concentrations as compared to other OCPs. The higher levels of the DDTs would attribute to low tidal flushing of the area. The high proportion of pp'-DDE in the most sediment sampled (41-95%) suggested old inputs of DDTs in the environment. Ratio of sigma DDT and DDT was in the range of 0.04 - 0.24 at all locations which also reflects that the discharges of DDT were negligible in the Harbour area. This may be due to the restrictions being implemented on the use of DDTs and Pakistan has also switched over to natural pest control or using safer formulas. The data obtained during the study showed that concentration levels of other pesticides such as HCHs, HCB and Cyclodienes in the sediment were generally lower than the threshold levels known to harm wildlife by OCPs. The results clearly indicate that elevated concentration of organo chlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the marine sediment of Karachi harbour and adjoining area was localized and much lower than the concentrations reported from neighbouring and regional countries which suggests/confirms that the present use of pesticide in Pakistan is environmentally safe. (author)

  15. Estimation of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes in Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chun Ming; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Luo, Xin; Moore, Willard S.

    2012-01-01

    Tolo Harbour, located in the northeastern part of Hong Kong's New Territories, China, has a high frequency of algal blooms and red tides. An attempt was made to first quantify the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into Tolo Harbour using 226 Ra, and then to estimate the nutrient fluxes into the Harbour by this pathway. The total SGD was estimated to be 8.28 × 10 6 m 3 d −1 , while the fresh submarine groundwater discharge (FSGD) was estimated to be 2.31 × 10 5 m 3 d −1 . This showed that a large amount of SGD was contributed by recirculated seawater rather than fresh groundwater in the Harbour. Using the SGD and groundwater nutrient information around Tolo Harbour, the nutrient loading through SGD was estimated to be 1.1 × 10 6 mol d −1 for DIN, 1.4 × 10 4 mol d −1 for PO 4 3− –P and 1.4 × 10 6 mol d −1 for SiO 2 –Si, which was much more significant than its counterpart through the river discharge. Despite uncertainties in the estimation, the nutrient loading to Tolo Harbour by SGD is clearly significant. Thus, the current efforts for management of red tides in Tolo Harbour have to be reviewed and control of groundwater contamination is obviously required. -- Highlights: ► Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was estimated using 226 Ra. ► SGD-derived nutrient fluxes were much greater than the riverine ones. ► Significant nutrient inputs by SGD were identified. ► Control measures of groundwater contamination are required.

  16. Evolutionary approach for spatial architecture layout design enhanced by an agent-based topology finding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the automatic generation of a spatial architectural layout from a user-specified architectural program. The proposed approach binds a multi-agent topology finding system and an evolutionary optimization process. The former generates topology satisfied layouts for further optimization, while the latter focuses on refining the layouts to achieve predefined architectural criteria. The topology finding process narrows the search space and increases the performance in subsequent optimization. Results imply that the spatial layout modeling and the multi-floor topology are handled.

  17. Calculation of calibration factors and layout criteria for gamma scanning of waste drums from nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inder Schmitten, W.; Sohnius, B.; Wehner, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper present a procedure to calculate calibration factors for converting the measured gamma rate of waste drums into activity content and a layout and free release measurement criterion for waste drums. A computer program is developed that simulates drum scanning technique, which calculates calibration factors and eliminates laborious experimental measurements. The calculated calibration factors exhibit good agreement with experimentally determined values. By checking the calculated calibration factors for trial equipment layouts (including the waste drum and the scanning facility) using the layout and free release measurement criterion, a layout can be achieved that clearly determines whether there can be free release of a waste drum

  18. Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain: A preliminary study on a Gaussian hill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    One of the crucial problems for wind farm (WF) development is wind farm layout optimization. It seeks to find the optimal positions of wind turbines (WTs) inside a WF, so as to maximize and/or minimize a single objective or multiple objectives, while satisfying certain constraints. Although...... adaptive mechanisms and applied to solve the layout optimization problem of a WF on a Gaussian shape hill. The layout of the WF with a certain number of WTs is optimized to maximize the total power output, which obtained steady improvements over expert guess layouts....

  19. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Skands, Gustav Erik; Bertelsen, Christian Vinther

    2015-01-01

    This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested...... and compared to a chip with a conventional electrode layout. The improved chip was able to discriminate 0.5 mu m beads from 1 mu m as opposed to the conventional chip. Furthermore, finite element modeling was used to simulate the improvements in electrical field density and uniformity between the electrodes...... of the new electrode layout. Good agreement was observed between the model and the obtained experimental results....

  20. The performance of the ATLAS initial detector layout for B-physics channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, B.; Ghete, V.M.; Kuhn, D.; Zhang, Y.J.

    2004-01-01

    At the start-up of LHC one expects parts of the ATLAS detector to be missing. This layout is called initial layout, whereas the fully staged detector is called complete layout. B-physics channels were simulated, reconstructed and analyzed using the software tools of ATLAS data challenge-1 (DC1). The performance of the detector with respect to quantities relevant to the analysis of the B s → D s π channel and the validation of the full chain generation-simulation-reconstruction-analysis were evaluated for the initial and complete layout. (author)

  1. Impact of data layouts on the efficiency of GPU-accelerated IDW interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Gang; Tian, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on evaluating the impact of different data layouts on the computational efficiency of GPU-accelerated Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation algorithm. First we redesign and improve our previous GPU implementation that was performed by exploiting the feature of CUDA dynamic parallelism (CDP). Then we implement three versions of GPU implementations, i.e., the naive version, the tiled version, and the improved CDP version, based upon five data layouts, including the Structure of Arrays (SoA), the Array of Structures (AoS), the Array of aligned Structures (AoaS), the Structure of Arrays of aligned Structures (SoAoS), and the Hybrid layout. We also carry out several groups of experimental tests to evaluate the impact. Experimental results show that: the layouts AoS and AoaS achieve better performance than the layout SoA for both the naive version and tiled version, while the layout SoA is the best choice for the improved CDP version. We also observe that: for the two combined data layouts (the SoAoS and the Hybrid), there are no notable performance gains when compared to other three basic layouts. We recommend that: in practical applications, the layout AoaS is the best choice since the tiled version is the fastest one among three versions. The source code of all implementations are publicly available.

  2. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  3. Wave and tidal level analysis, maritime climate change, navigation's strategy and impact on the costal defences - Study case of São Paulo State Coastline Harbour Areas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredini, P.; Pezzoli, A.; Cristofori, E. I.; Dovetta, A.; Arasaki, E.

    2012-04-01

    São Paulo State Coastline Harbour Area concentrates around of 40% of Brazilian GNP, Santos Harbour is the America South Atlantic Hub Port and São Sebastião Oil Maritime Terminal is the most important oil and gas facility of PETROBRAS, the Brazilian National Petroleum Company. Santos Harbour had in the last decade increased rapidly the container handling rate, being the first in Latin America. In the last decade important oil and gas reserves were discovered in the Santos Oceanic Basin and São Paulo Coastline received a big demand for supplier ships harbours for the petroleum industry. Santos Metropolitan Region is one of the most important of Brazilian Coastline, also considering the turism. For that great economic growth scenario it is very important to have the main maritime hydrodynamics forcing processes, wave climate and tidal levels, well known, considering the sea hazards influence in ship operations. Since the hindcast just represents the deep water wave climate, to make time-series of the waves parameters in coastal waters, for evaluation of sea hazards and ship operations, it is necessary to take into acount the variations of those parameters in shallow waters with coastal instrumental data. Analysis of long term wave data-base (1957-2002) generated by a comparison between wave's data modeled by a "deep water model" (ERA40-ECMWF) and measured wave's data in the years 1982-1984 by a coastal buoy in Santos littoral (São Paulo State, Brazil) was made. Calibration coefficients according to angular sectors of wave's direction were obtained by the comparison of the instrument data with the modeled ones, and applied to the original scenarios. Validation checking procedures with instrumental measurements of storm surges made in other years than 1982-1984 shows high level of confidence. The analysis of the wave climate change on the extreme storm surge wave's conditions, selecting cases of Hs > 3,0 m, using that virtual data-base shows an increase in the Hs

  4. A fast and efficient method for device level layout analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, YaoQi; Zou, Elaine; Pang, Jenny; Huang, Lucas; Yang, Legender; Zhang, Chunlei; Du, Chunshan; Hu, Xinyi; Wan, Qijian

    2017-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for device level layout analysis, especially as technology advances. The analysis is to study standard cells by extracting and classifying critical dimension parameters. There are couples of parameters to extract, like channel width, length, gate to active distance, and active to adjacent active distance, etc. for 14nm technology, there are some other parameters that are cared about. On the one hand, these parameters are very important for studying standard cell structures and spice model development with the goal of improving standard cell manufacturing yield and optimizing circuit performance; on the other hand, a full chip device statistics analysis can provide useful information to diagnose the yield issue. Device analysis is essential for standard cell customization and enhancements and manufacturability failure diagnosis. Traditional parasitic parameters extraction tool like Calibre xRC is powerful but it is not sufficient for this device level layout analysis application as engineers would like to review, classify and filter out the data more easily. This paper presents a fast and efficient method based on Calibre equation-based DRC (eqDRC). Equation-based DRC extends the traditional DRC technology to provide a flexible programmable modeling engine which allows the end user to define grouped multi-dimensional feature measurements using flexible mathematical expressions. This paper demonstrates how such an engine and its programming language can be used to implement critical device parameter extraction. The device parameters are extracted and stored in a DFM database which can be processed by Calibre YieldServer. YieldServer is data processing software that lets engineers query, manipulate, modify, and create data in a DFM database. These parameters, known as properties in eqDRC language, can be annotated back to the layout for easily review. Calibre DesignRev can create a HTML formatted report of the results displayed in Calibre

  5. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  6. Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Goodkin, N.F.; Jones, R.; Lamborg, C.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Hughen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination in Castle Harbour, Bermuda, has been linked to the dissolution and leaching of contaminants from the adjacent marine landfill. This study expands the evidence for environmental impact of leachate from the landfill by quantitatively demonstrating elevated metal uptake over the last 30 years in corals growing in Castle Harbour. Coral Pb/Ca, Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and total Hg concentrations are elevated relative to an adjacent control site in John Smith's Bay. The temporal variability in the Castle Harbour coral records suggests that while the landfill has increased in size over the last 35 years, the dominant input of metals is through periodic leaching of contaminants from the municipal landfill and surrounding sediment. Elevated contaminants in the surrounding sediment suggest that resuspension is an important transport medium for transferring heavy metals to corals. Increased winds, particularly during the 1990s, were accompanied by higher coral metal composition at Castle Harbour. Coupled with wind-induced resuspension, interannual changes in sea level within the Harbour can lead to increased bioavailability of sediment-bound metals and subsequent coral metal assimilation. At John Smith's Bay, large scale convective mixing may be driving interannual metal variability in the coral record rather than impacts from land-based activities. Results from this study provide important insights into the coupling of natural variability and anthropogenic input of contaminants to the nearshore environment.

  7. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Forsmark, Layout D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantberger, Martin; Zetterqvist, Anders [Ramboell Sweden AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Torben [Ramboell Denmark A/S, Virum (Denmark); Olsson, Tommy [IandT Olsson AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Syrjaenen, Pauli [Gridpoint Oy, Helsinki (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    This report comprises the design step D1 related to the underground design for a deep repository located at the Forsmark site. The design is based on the Site Descriptive Model Forsmark v1.2. All studies have been focussed at an area southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant, which has been considered to be the most promising area for hosting the repository. SKB has developed guidelines for the design of the repository, which further describes the methodology applied for the studies. From these guidelines the following basic objectives for the design step D1 are summarized: to determine whether the final repository can be accommodated within the studied site; to identify site-specific facility critical issues; to test and evaluate the design methodology; to provide feedback to: the design organisation regarding additional studies that needs to be done; the site investigation and modelling organization regarding further investigations required; and the safety assessment team. The possible locations for a tentative deep repository are analysed in Chapter 3 of the report. The most promising area for the repository (denoted 'priority site') has been defined by SKB to be located southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant and northwest of the gently dipping deformation zone ZFMNE00A2. Regarding the repository depth, present knowledge acquired from the site investigations indicates that it is possible to locate the repository at all stipulated depths according to SKB, that is between 400 m and 700 m depth. The preliminary assessment made in Chapter 3 clearly demonstrates that the repository can be accommodated within the 'priority site'. The potential to accommodate the repository is essentially the same for both 400 m and 500 m depths. The design of the deposition areas is reported in Chapter 4, which includes the design of layout features for all tunnels and deposition holes, orientation of tunnels, calculation of anticipated loss of deposition holes due

  8. An efficient grid layout algorithm for biological networks utilizing various biological attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Mitsuru

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clearly visualized biopathways provide a great help in understanding biological systems. However, manual drawing of large-scale biopathways is time consuming. We proposed a grid layout algorithm that can handle gene-regulatory networks and signal transduction pathways by considering edge-edge crossing, node-edge crossing, distance measure between nodes, and subcellular localization information from Gene Ontology. Consequently, the layout algorithm succeeded in drastically reducing these crossings in the apoptosis model. However, for larger-scale networks, we encountered three problems: (i the initial layout is often very far from any local optimum because nodes are initially placed at random, (ii from a biological viewpoint, human layouts still exceed automatic layouts in understanding because except subcellular localization, it does not fully utilize biological information of pathways, and (iii it employs a local search strategy in which the neighborhood is obtained by moving one node at each step, and automatic layouts suggest that simultaneous movements of multiple nodes are necessary for better layouts, while such extension may face worsening the time complexity. Results We propose a new grid layout algorithm. To address problem (i, we devised a new force-directed algorithm whose output is suitable as the initial layout. For (ii, we considered that an appropriate alignment of nodes having the same biological attribute is one of the most important factors of the comprehension, and we defined a new score function that gives an advantage to such configurations. For solving problem (iii, we developed a search strategy that considers swapping nodes as well as moving a node, while keeping the order of the time complexity. Though a naïve implementation increases by one order, the time complexity, we solved this difficulty by devising a method that caches differences between scores of a layout and its possible updates

  9. Overview of the Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor building layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronje, J. M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Centurion (South Africa); Van Wyk, J. J.; Memmott, M. J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the third in a series of four papers, which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses in particular upon the plant building layout and modular design of the Westinghouse SMR. In the development of small modular reactors, the building layout is an area where the safety of the plant can be improved by applying new design approaches. This paper will present an overview of the Westinghouse SMR building layout and indicate how the design features improve the safety and robustness of the plant. The Westinghouse SMR is designed with no shared systems between individual reactor units. The main buildings inside the security fence are the nuclear island, the rad-waste building, the annex building, and the turbine building. All safety related equipment is located in the nuclear island, which is a seismic class 1 building. To further enhance the safety and robustness of the design, the reactor, containment, and most of the safety related equipment are located below grade on the nuclear island. This reduces the possibility of severe damage from external threats or natural disasters. Two safety related ultimate heat sink (UHS) water tanks that are used for decay heat removal are located above grade, but are redundant and physically separated as far as possible for improved safety. The reactor and containment vessel are located below grade in the center of the nuclear island. The rad-waste and other radioactive systems are located on the bottom floors to limit the radiation exposure to personnel. The Westinghouse SMR safety trains are completely separated into four unconnected quadrants of the building, with access between quadrants only allowed

  10. Superconducting resonators for telecommunication application based on fractal layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigiobbo, A [INFM-COHERENTIA-Dipartimento Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Barra, M [INFM-COHERENTIA-Dipartimento Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Cassinese, A [INFM-COHERENTIA-Dipartimento Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Cirillo, M [INFM-Dipartimento Scienze Fisiche Universita di Roma TorVergata, Rome (Italy); Marafioti, F [INFM-COHERENTIA-Dipartimento Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Russo, R [INFM-Dipartimento Scienze Fisiche Universita di Roma TorVergata, Rome (Italy); Vaglio, R [INFM-COHERENTIA-Dipartimento Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2004-05-01

    In this paper the performances of superconducting devices based on fractal layout are discussed. Depending on their shape, fractals are characterized by self-similarity and/or space-filling properties. The former allows the design of superconducting filters with highly reduced dimensions and no appreciable loss of performance, whereas the latter is the basis for the fabrication of multi-band antennas which hold promise for very interesting applications. Our attention was focused on the square Koch loop and the Sierpinski gasket geometries. In particular, prototype four pole filters for UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems) applications based on Koch resonators have been designed. Measurements performed on prototype devices fabricated by using double-sided superconducting thin films are reported and compared with simulations.

  11. Methodology for bus layout for topological quantum error correcting codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnitzka, Martin; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.; DiVincenzo, David P. [RWTH Aachen University, JARA Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Most quantum computing architectures can be realized as two-dimensional lattices of qubits that interact with each other. We take transmon qubits and transmission line resonators as promising candidates for qubits and couplers; we use them as basic building elements of a quantum code. We then propose a simple framework to determine the optimal experimental layout to realize quantum codes. We show that this engineering optimization problem can be reduced to the solution of standard binary linear programs. While solving such programs is a NP-hard problem, we propose a way to find scalable optimal architectures that require solving the linear program for a restricted number of qubits and couplers. We apply our methods to two celebrated quantum codes, namely the surface code and the Fibonacci code. (orig.)

  12. The CERN-SPL Chopper Concept and Final Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Genest, J; Haase, M; Paoluzzi, M; Teixeira, A

    2004-01-01

    The fast chopper for the CERN SPL (Superconducting Proton Linac) consists of a double meander structure with β = v/c of 8 % printed on an alumina substrate for the deflecting plates. Each chopper unit is 50 cm long and housed in a quadrupole magnet surrounding the vacuum chamber. The deflecting plates are operated simultaneously in a dual mode, namely traveling wave mode for frequencies above about 10 MHz and as quasi electrostatic deflectors below. The deflecting structures are water-cooled to handle heating from beam losses as well as from the deflecting signal. A detailed mechanical layout is presented including the tri-axial feeding and termination technique as well as a discussion of the drive amplifier.

  13. A New Data Layout For Set Intersection on GPUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pagh, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Set intersection is the core in a variety of problems, e.g. frequent itemset mining and sparse boolean matrix multiplication. It is well-known that large speed gains can, for some computational problems, be obtained by using a graphics processing unit (GPU) as a massively parallel computing device....... However, GPUs require highly regular control flow and memory access patterns, and for this reason previous GPU methods for intersecting sets have used a simple bitmap representation. This representation requires excessive space on sparse data sets. In this paper we present a novel data layout, BATMAP....... The main finding is that our method is able to achieve speedups over both Apriori and FP-growth when the number of distinct items is large, and the density of the problem instance is above 1%. Previous implementations of frequent itemset mining on GPU have not been able to show speedups over the best...

  14. Chemometric Analysis for Pollution Source Assessment of Harbour Sediments in Arctic Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Pollution levels, pollutant distribution and potential source assessments based on multivariate analysis (chemometrics) were made for harbour sediments from two Arctic locations; Hammerfest in Norway and Sisimiut in Greenland. High levels of heavy metals were detected in addition to organic...... pollutants. Preliminary assessments based on principal component analysis (PCA) revealed different sources and pollutant distribution in the sediments of the two harbours. Tributyltin (TBT) was, however, found to originate from point source(s), and the highest concentrations of TBT in both harbours were...... indicated relation primarily to German, Russian and American mixtures in Hammerfest; and American, Russian and Japanese mixtures in Sisimiut. PCA was shown to be an important tool for identifying pollutant sources and differences in pollutant composition in relation to sediment characteristics....

  15. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in the North Atlantic: Distribution and genetic population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Wesley Andersen

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The known geographical distribution (based on ship surveys, aerial surveys, incidental sightings, stranding and bycatch data and the population genetic structure obtained from mitochondria DNA and nuclear DNA (isozymes and microsatellites data analyses of the harbour porpoise in the North Atlantic have recently been reviewed and revised by the International Whaling Commission. The present review builds on these documents by integrating more recent genetic and distributional studies. Studies of the genetic structure of harbour porpoise populations tend to be concentrated in areas where samples are available which coincide with areas where incidental or directed catches or stranding take place. Nevertheless, recently, several genetic studies on the population structure have been able to reveal a more comprehensive picture of the harbour porpoise population structure in the Northwest and Northeast Atlantic, although not all areas have been subjected to analyses.

  16. Deep Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Morten O. Ravn; Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes the standard habit formation model to an environment in which agents form habits over individual varieties of goods as opposed to over a composite consumption good. We refer to this preference specification as ‘deep habit formation’. Under deep habits, the demand function faced by individual producers depends on past sales. This feature is typically assumed ad-hoc in customer market and brand switching cost models. A central result of the paper is that deep habits giv...

  17. Studies of Inner Detector Layouts with 5 Pixel layers for the Phase-II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia-Sciveres, M

    2013-01-01

    This note describes a study of Inner Detector layouts for the phase-II upgrade. Starting from the LOI layout the impact of adding a 5th pixel layer, and shortening the pixel and/or SCT barrel layers is studied.

  18. Multi-Criteria Layout Synthesis of MEMS Devices Using Memetic Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Fan, Zhun

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-objective optimization approach for layout synthesis of MEMS components. A case study of layout synthesis of a comb-driven micro-resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results accommodating two design objectives, i.e. simultaneous...

  19. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout and...

  20. Extracting 3D layout from a single image using global image structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhongyu; Gevers, Theo; Hu, Ninghang

    2015-10-01

    Extracting the pixel-level 3D layout from a single image is important for different applications, such as object localization, image, and video categorization. Traditionally, the 3D layout is derived by solving a pixel-level classification problem. However, the image-level 3D structure can be very beneficial for extracting pixel-level 3D layout since it implies the way how pixels in the image are organized. In this paper, we propose an approach that first predicts the global image structure, and then we use the global structure for fine-grained pixel-level 3D layout extraction. In particular, image features are extracted based on multiple layout templates. We then learn a discriminative model for classifying the global layout at the image-level. Using latent variables, we implicitly model the sublevel semantics of the image, which enrich the expressiveness of our model. After the image-level structure is obtained, it is used as the prior knowledge to infer pixel-wise 3D layout. Experiments show that the results of our model outperform the state-of-the-art methods by 11.7% for 3D structure classification. Moreover, we show that employing the 3D structure prior information yields accurate 3D scene layout segmentation.

  1. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. 238.447 Section 238.447 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance...

  2. 33 CFR 127.1105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG. 127.1105 Section 127.1105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction § 127.1105 Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG. Each new waterfront facility...

  3. Design aspects of the alpha repository. II. Conceptual layouts of underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Five conceptual repository layouts are presented: linear repository, 1 panel; bow tie repository, 2 panels; maltese cross repository, 4 panels; snowflake repository; 5 panels, and sash window repository, 8 panels. The layouts are compared with respect to excavation requirements, haulage distances, ventilation flow path designs, and safety features

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of WEC Array Layout Parameters Effect on the Power Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the effect that the array layout choice has on the power performance. To this end, a sensitivity analysis is carried out with six array layout parameters, as the simulation inputs, the array power performance (q-factor), as the simulation output, and a simulation model specially...

  5. Layout level design for testability strategy applied to a CMOS cell library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, F.C.; Oliver, J.; Rullan, M.; Ferrer, C.

    1993-01-01

    The layout level design for testability (LLDFT) rules used here allow to avoid some hard to detect faults or even undetectable faults on a cell library by modifying the cell layout without changing their behavior and achieving a good level of reliability. These rules avoid some open faults or reduce

  6. A Novel Energy Yields Calculation Method for Irregular Wind Farm Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing size of offshore wind farm, the impact of the wake effect on energy yields become more and more evident. The Seafloor topography would limit the layout of the wind farm so that irregular layout is usually adopted inlarge scale offshore wind farm. However, the calculation...

  7. The changing pages of comics : Page layouts across eight decades of American superhero comics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pederson, Kaitlin; Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Page layouts are one of the most overt features of comics’ structure. We hypothesized that American superhero comics have changed in their page layout over eight decades, and investigated this using a corpus analysis of 40 comics from 1940 through 2014. On the whole, we found that comics pages

  8. Designing with Space Syntax : A configurative approach to architectural layout, proposing a computational methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, P.; Rezvani, S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design methodology and a toolkit developed as a parametric CAD program for configurative design of architectural plan layouts. Using this toolkit, designers can start plan layout process with sketching the way functional spaces need to connect to each other. A tool draws an

  9. A Tool for the Automated Design and Evaluation of Habitat Interior Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of space habitat design is to minimize mass and system size while providing adequate space for all necessary equipment and a functional layout that supports crew health and productivity. Unfortunately, development and evaluation of interior layouts is often ignored during conceptual design because of the subjectivity and long times required using current evaluation methods (e.g., human-in-the-loop mockup tests and in-depth CAD evaluations). Early, more objective assessment could prevent expensive design changes that may increase vehicle mass and compromise functionality. This paper describes a new interior design evaluation method to enable early, structured consideration of habitat interior layouts. This interior layout evaluation method features a comprehensive list of quantifiable habitat layout evaluation criteria, automatic methods to measure these criteria from a geometry model, and application of systems engineering tools and numerical methods to construct a multi-objective value function measuring the overall habitat layout performance. In addition to a detailed description of this method, a C++/OpenGL software tool which has been developed to implement this method is also discussed. This tool leverages geometry modeling coupled with collision detection techniques to identify favorable layouts subject to multiple constraints and objectives (e.g., minimize mass, maximize contiguous habitable volume, maximize task performance, and minimize crew safety risks). Finally, a few habitat layout evaluation examples are described to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and tool to influence habitat design.

  10. Yearbook and Magazine Layout, English, Journalism. Language Arts: 5113.200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marlene E.

    Developed as a quinmester unit for the high school on yearbook and magazine layout, this guide provides the teacher with suggested teaching strategies for a study of the theory and practice of page layout, photo cropping and editing, use of color and special effects, copy fitting and headline writing and fitting, and principles of typography.…

  11. Layout Geometry in the Selection of Intrinsic Frames of Reference from Multiple Viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Zhao, Mintao; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the roles of layout geometry in the selection of intrinsic frames of reference in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of objects in a room from 2 or 3 viewing perspectives. One view corresponded to the axis of bilateral symmetry of the layout, and the other view(s) was (were) nonorthogonal to the axis…

  12. The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chloe Wing-yee; Ip, Carman Ching-man [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Shin, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Qian Peiyuan [Department of Biology and Coastal Marine Laboratory, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk

    2008-07-01

    Victoria Harbour has received substantial loadings of pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewater discharged since the 1950s. Inputs of contaminants have declined dramatically during the last two decades as a result of better controls at the source and improved wastewater treatment facilities. To assess the spatial and temporal changes of metal contaminants in sediments in Victoria Harbour, core and grab sediments were collected. The central harbour areas were generally contaminated with heavy metals. The spatial distribution of trace metals can probably be attributed to the proximity of major urban and industrial discharge points, and to the effect of tidal flushing in the harbour. In the sediment cores, the highest concentrations of trace metals were observed to have accumulated during the 1950s-1980s, corresponding with the period of rapid urban and industrial development in Hong Kong. From the late 1980s, there has been a major decline in the concentrations of trace metals, due to a reduction in industrial activities and to the enactment of wastewater pollution controls in the territory. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments revealed the anthropogenic inputs of Pb to the harbour. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios varied from 1.154 to 1.190, which were lower than those of background geological materials in Hong Kong ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb: 1.201-1.279). The data also indicated that the Pb in the harbour sediments most likely originated from mixed sources, including the leaded gasoline used in the past and other anthropogenic sources.

  13. Lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals and molecular characterisation of marine mammal MSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Arlena Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are frequently infected with the lungworms Otostrongylus circumlitus and Parafilaroides gymnurus. The infection is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can cause severe bronchopneumonia and even death in affected animals. Hitherto, the detection of lungworm infections was based on post mortem investigations from animals collected within stranding networks and a valid detection method for live free-ranging harbour seals was not available. Recently, an ELISA was developed for detecting lungworm antibodies in harbour seal serum, using major sperm protein (MSP of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus as recombinant diagnostic antigen. To determine lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals, serum was taken from four different seal age groups (n = 313 resulting in an overall prevalence of 17.9% (18.9% of males, 16.7% of females. 0.7% of harbour seals up to six weeks of age were seropositive, as were 89% of seals between six weeks and six months, 53.6% between six and 18 months and 24.2% of seals over 18 months of age. In the 18 months and over age group, seropositive animals showed statistically significant reductions in body weight (P = 0.003 and length (P < 0.001. Sera from lungworm infected harbour seals in rehabilitation (n = 6 revealed that duration of antibody persistence may be similar to that of lungworm infected cattle, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Phylogenetic analyses of MSP sequences of different marine and terrestrial mammal parasitic nematodes revealed that lungworm MSP of the genus Dictyocaulus (superfamily Trichostrongyloidea is more closely related to metastrongylid marine mammal lungworms than to trichostrongylid nematodes of terrestrial hosts.

  14. Year-round spatiotemporal distribution of harbour porpoises within and around the Maryland wind energy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Jessica E; O'Brien, Michael; Lyubchich, Vyacheslav; Roberts, Jason J; Halpin, Patrick N; Rice, Aaron N; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Offshore windfarms provide renewable energy, but activities during the construction phase can affect marine mammals. To understand how the construction of an offshore windfarm in the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA) off Maryland, USA, might impact harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), it is essential to determine their poorly understood year-round distribution. Although habitat-based models can help predict the occurrence of species in areas with limited or no sampling, they require validation to determine the accuracy of the predictions. Incorporating more than 18 months of harbour porpoise detection data from passive acoustic monitoring, generalized auto-regressive moving average and generalized additive models were used to investigate harbour porpoise occurrence within and around the Maryland WEA in relation to temporal and environmental variables. Acoustic detection metrics were compared to habitat-based density estimates derived from aerial and boat-based sightings to validate the model predictions. Harbour porpoises occurred significantly more frequently during January to May, and foraged significantly more often in the evenings to early mornings at sites within and outside the Maryland WEA. Harbour porpoise occurrence peaked at sea surface temperatures of 5°C and chlorophyll a concentrations of 4.5 to 7.4 mg m-3. The acoustic detections were significantly correlated with the predicted densities, except at the most inshore site. This study provides insight into previously unknown fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns in distribution of harbour porpoises offshore of Maryland. The results can be used to help inform future monitoring and mitigate the impacts of windfarm construction and other human activities.

  15. Effects of wind farms on harbour porpoise behaviour and population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Tougaard, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    We developed an individual-based simulation model in order to study the cumulative impacts of wind farms and ship traffic on the long-term survival and population dynamics of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Kattegat and the Belt Seas. The model is based on knowl- edge of the porpoises...... at distances >1 km. Our simulations suggest that operating wind farms and wind farms under construction do not affect the size or dynamics of the harbour porpoise population in Kattegat. Ship traffic may, in contrast, cause the population size to decrease....

  16. Codes of Practice related to Harbour and Coastal Engineering in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Codes of practice for building and civil engineering works have been produced since 1893 by the "Danish Society of Engineers". Among the early codes are: Reinforces concrete structures (1908, 1943), calculation of reinforced concrete structures in harbour works (1926), Harbour Works (1927), Steel...... structures (1941). The codes were based on the principle of allowable stresses. However, already in 1948 a Danish consulting engineer used a partial safety factor concept for a power station design in order to secure satisfactory safety. The concept was in fact old as it was used by Gerber in his design...

  17. Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population - computer code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    PorpoiseModel v.1.0: an individual-based model used for evaluating cumulative effects of by-catch and noise on the harbour porpoise population in the inner Danish waters. This was the model used to generage the results presented in the scientific publication: Nabe-Nielsen, J., Sibly, R.M., Tougaard......, J., Teilmann, J. & Sveegaard, S. (2014) "Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population". Ecological Modelling, 272, 242–251. Please refer to this publication for the full documentation....

  18. An innovative early warning system for floods and operational risks in harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Steven; Bolle, Annelies; Mollaert, Justine; Buitrago, Saul; Gruwez, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are nowadays becoming fairly standard in river flood forecasting or in large scale hydrometeorological predictions. For complex coastal morphodynamic problems or in the vicinity of complex coastal structures, such as harbours, EWS are much less used because they are both technically and computationally still very challenging. To advance beyond the state-of-the-art, the EU FP7 project Risc-KIT (www.risc-kit.eu) is developing prototype EWS which address specifically these topics. This paper describes the prototype EWS which IMDC has developed for the case study site of the harbour of Zeebrugge. The harbour of Zeebrugge is the largest industrial seaport on the coast of Belgium, extending more than 3 km into the sea. Two long breakwaters provide shelter for the inner quays and docks for regular conditions and frequent storms. Extreme storms surges and waves can however still enter the harbour and create risks for the harbour operations and infrastructure. The prediction of the effects of storm surges and waves inside harbours are typically very complex and challenging, due to the need of different types of numerical models for representing all different physical processes. In general, waves inside harbours are a combination of locally wind generated waves and offshore wave penetration at the port entrance. During extreme conditions, the waves could overtop the quays and breakwaters and flood the port facilities. Outside a prediction environment, the conditions inside the harbour could be assessed by superimposing processes. The assessment can be carried out by using a combination of a spectral wave model (i.e. SWAN) for the wind generated waves and a Boussinesq type wave model (i.e. Mike 21 BW) for the wave penetration from offshore. Finally, a 2D hydrodynamic model (i.e. TELEMAC) can be used to simulate the overland flooding inside the port facilities. To reproduce these processes in an EWS environment, an additional challenge is to cope

  19. A New Layout for English Letters on the Keyboard Using Evolutionary Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Poorhajikazam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the keyboard is the primary device of entering text into a computer, a keyboard with letters on the proper layout of high performance is essential. Obtaining a suitable arrangements for the letters on the keyboard is an optimization problem which different methods have been proposed to solve it and its answer is the most appropriate permutation for letters on the keyboard which is 26 letters for English keyboard. In this paper, a new English keyboard layout has been proposed using evolutionary strategy which aims to increase typing speed and rectify some problems of current layout. To this end, a fitness function is used which includes parameters such as keys distance, fingers switch, frequency of use of both hands and etc. Different experiments have been conducted to evaluate the proposed approach and the results indicate that the obtained layout acts better than the current and other proposed layouts in the literature.

  20. Young children reorient by computing layout geometry, not by matching images of the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2011-02-01

    Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the 3D layout: bumps and ridges that protruded only slightly off the floor, producing edges with low contrast. Moreover, children failed to reorient by prominent brightness contours in continuous layouts with no distinctive 3D structure. The findings provide evidence that geometric layout representations support children's reorientation.

  1. Economy analysis on vertical layout of conventional island of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefeng; Liu Xiaoyun; Liu Jinwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the aboveground layout scheme and integral sinking layout scheme of conventional island of nuclear power plants. Technological-economic analysis formula are given, as a result, main factors influencing scheme selection is obtained. Determination of the layout scheme selection and optimization direction through the curve between the accumulative NPV and related factors is brought forward. The paper carries out the technological-economic comparison to the two schemes referred to a 1000 MW level nuclear power project as the example, getting the curve between the accumulative NPV and the plant ground elevation, and offering the method of selecting the vertical layout scheme of conventional island and vertical layout optimization direction. (authors)

  2. Using the clustered circular layout as an informative method for visualizing protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, David C Y; Wilkins, Marc R; Hart, David; Hong, Seok-Hee

    2010-07-01

    The force-directed layout is commonly used in computer-generated visualizations of protein-protein interaction networks. While it is good for providing a visual outline of the protein complexes and their interactions, it has two limitations when used as a visual analysis method. The first is poor reproducibility. Repeated running of the algorithm does not necessarily generate the same layout, therefore, demanding cognitive readaptation on the investigator's part. The second limitation is that it does not explicitly display complementary biological information, e.g. Gene Ontology, other than the protein names or gene symbols. Here, we present an alternative layout called the clustered circular layout. Using the human DNA replication protein-protein interaction network as a case study, we compared the two network layouts for their merits and limitations in supporting visual analysis.

  3. A Layout for the Carbon Capture with Aqueous Ammonia without Salt Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonalumi, Davide; Valenti, Gianluca; Lillia, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Super Critical power plant. Two layouts are simulated with Aspen Plus employing the recently recalibrated Extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic model. The first one operates at chilling conditions, which yield to salt precipitation, and is taken as reference because already analyzed in previous studies....... The second layout operates at cooled conditions, which does not yield any salt precipitation. The Chilled layout reveals low specific heat duty and SPECCA equal to 2.2 and 2.86 MJ/kgco2, respectively. In contrast, the Cooled layout presents a higher specific heat duty of almost 3 MJ/kgco2 but, importantly......, a lower SPECCA of 2.58 MJ/kgco2. The latter layout is a better choice also from the perspective of the plant operation since it does not present the salt precipitation....

  4. Creating a Single South African Keyboard Layout to Promote Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne Bailey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this case study, a description is given of a keyboard layout designed to address the input needs of South African languages, specifically Venda, a language which would otherwise be impossible to type on a computer. In creating this keyboard, the designer, Translate.org.za, uses a practical intervention that transforms technology from a means harming a language into one ensuring the creation and preservation of good language resources for minority languages. The study first looks at the implications and consequences of this missing keyboard, and then follows the process from conception, strategy, research and design to the final user response. Not only are problems such as researching the orthographies, key placement and keyboard input options examined, but strategic objectives such as ensuring its wide adoption and creating a multilingual keyboard for all South African languages are also discussed. The result is a keyboard that furthers multilingualism and ensures the capturing of good data for future research. Finally it is a tool helping to boost and bolster the vitality of a language.

    Keywords: KEYBOARD, MULTILINGUALISM, VENDA, AFRIKAANS, TSWANA, NORTH-ERN SOTHO, ZULU, SOURCE, FREE SOFTWARE, LAYOUT

    Opsomming: Die skep van 'n enkelvoudige Suid-Afrikaanse toetsborduit-leg om taal te bevorder. In hierdie gevallestudie word 'n beskrywing gegee van die ontwerp van 'n sleutelborduitleg vir die hantering van die insetbehoeftes van Suid-Afrikaanse tale, veral Venda, 'n taal wat andersins onmoontlik op 'n rekenaar getik sou kon word. Deur die skep van hierdie sleutelbord gebruik die ontwerper, Translate.org.za, 'n praktiese ingryp wat tegnologie verander van 'n middel wat 'n taal benadeel tot een wat die skep en bewaring van nuttige taal-hulpbronne vir minderheidstale verseker. Die studie kyk eers na die implikasies en gevolge van hierdie ontbrekende sleutelbord, en volg dan die proses van konsepsie, strategie, navorsing en

  5. A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Mackenzie River delta, Northwest Territories, Canada (Notes on Cetacea, Delphinoidea VIII)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Sergeant, D.E.; Hoek, W.

    1977-01-01

    A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, taken from near Shallow Bay, Mackenzie River Delta, Northwest Territories (68°48’ N 136°35’ W) in July 1973 represents a range extension 800 km eastwards from the previous extreme northeastern record on the north Alaskan coast. All 12 Harbour Porpoises so far

  6. Fishing for food : feeding ecology of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins are the most common small cetaceans in the North Sea and Dutch coastal waters. The distribution and relative abundance of harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins from the Dutch coastal waters has changed significantly over the past decades. This

  7. Fishing for food : feeding ecology of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins are the most common small cetaceans in the North Sea and Dutch coastal waters. The distribution and relative abundance of harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins from the Dutch coastal waters has changed significantly over the past decades. This thesis

  8. Impact of water quality changes on harbour environment due to port activities along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Vethamony, P.

    in Mormugao harbour, the coastal water enters the estuarine mouth from north and flows out towards south and transports the contaminants to the coastal water, augmented by E-W flowing tidal currents. In New Mangalore harbour, the strong seasonal currents...

  9. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier; Gibert, Oriol; Marti, Vicens; Diez, Sergi; Romo, Javier; Bayona, Josep Maria; Pablo, Joan de

    2007-01-01

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour

  10. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset.

  11. The Westward Movement of Chinese Export Harbour Views : Significant Paintings with a Social Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Article (Chapter) in proceedings of the First Rombouts Graduate Conference Globalization and Glocalization in China, at Leiden University, held in Leiden on 6 and 7 September 2011. This article offers a closer examination of Chinese export harbour views and, in doing so, reveals that waterfronts and

  12. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W G; van Elk, Cornelis E; Bunskoek, Paulien E; van de Vijver, David A M C; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset.

  13. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Wave Energy Converters Installed as Breakwaters in Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, B.; Margheritini, Lucia; Gambles, L.

    2009-01-01

    loads on the structure, i.e. better survivability. Nevertheless these devices must comply with the requirements of harbour protection structures and thus cope with problems due to reflection of incoming waves, i.e. dangerous sea states close to harbors entrances and intensified sediment scour, which can...

  14. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, E.; Begeman, L.; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M.; Tulden, van P.W.; Wiersma, L.; Hiemstra, S.; Ruuls, R.; Gröne, A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Giessen, van der J.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  15. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  16. Radioactivity concentrations and their radiological significance in sediments of the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin O. Botwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on environmental radioactivity in tropical Africa are scarce. Therefore, a baseline study of natural (238U, 210Pb, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th, 40K and anthropogenic (137Cs radionuclides was carried out on Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana surface sediments and on their radiological significance. Grab surface sediment samples were collected from 21 stations within the Tema Harbour and their radioactivity concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. The mean sediment radioactivity concentrations (Bq kg−1 dw were 34 for 238U, 210 for 210Pb, 14 for 226Ra, 30 for 232Th, 29 for 228Ra, 31 for 228Th, 320 for 40K, and 1.5 for 137Cs. Large 238U/226Ra disequilibria were observed in the harbour sediments and a complex dynamics of several mixed sources of sediments within the Tema Harbour can be inferred from the spatial variations in the radioactivity concentrations. The estimated total absorbed dose rate in air (D, radium equivalent activity (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE indicated no significant radiological risks from the sediment radioactivity concentrations. Application of the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants Assessment and Management tool (ERICA confirmed that the potential dose rates to biota from the sediment radioactivity concentrations are unlikely to pose appreciable ecological risks. The radioactivity levels are compared with levels reported in sediments from other coastal areas of the world.

  17. Detection and direction discrimination of single vortex rings by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Yvonne; Hanke, Wolf; Miersch, Lars; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2018-02-27

    Harbour seals possess highly sensitive vibrissae that enable them to track hydrodynamic trails left behind by a swimming fish. Most of these trails contain vortex rings as a main hydrodynamic component. They may reveal information about their generator as the trails differ depending on the fish species, the fish's body shape, size, and swimming style. Additionally, fish generate single vortex rings in diverse natural situations. In this study, the ability of blindfolded stationary harbour seals to detect and analyse single vortex rings regarding directional information has been investigated. In three different behavioural experiments, the animals were trained to respond to single artificially generated vortex rings. The results show that harbour seals are able to respond to a variety of different vortex rings upon vibrissal stimulation. The investigation of the minimum hydrodynamically perceivable angle revealed that it is at least as small as 5.7°, which was the smallest adjustable angle. Moreover, harbour seals are capable of analysing the travel direction of a vortex ring perceived by the mystacial pads irrespective of whether the vibrissae were stimulated ipsilaterally or contralaterally. In situations in which no complex hydrodynamic trail is available, it is advantageous for a hunting seal to be able to extract information from a single vortex ring. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. A visual and acoustic survey for harbour porpoises off North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in southern Europe and along the Atlantic African coast is poorly understood, with tentative assessments suggesting a discrete West African population with a northern limit around the Straits of Gibraltar. This study describes visual and acoustic surveys for porpoises ...

  19. Stressors affecting the macrobenthic community in Rapallo Harbour (Ligurian Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabella Covazzi Harriague

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual survey was carried out in Rapallo Harbour (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean to study the main stressors affecting the macrobenthic communities. The harbour was characterised by a relevant organic enrichment (between 51.9 mg g–1 and 109.6 mg g–1, which did not affect the water column oxygenation, and low but detectable heavy-metal contamination (on average Cu=135.0 µg g–1 and V=23.8 µg g–1. The seasonal changes in the heavy metal concentrations suggested a significant increase in tourist activities (i.e. boat movements during summer and autumn. In the inner, more protected sampling site, the harbour structures and the vessel movements increased both organic enrichment and sediment instability, resulting in macrobenthic communities dominated by indicator species associated with these stressors. In addition, during summer and autumn, despite a relevant chlorophyll-a flux to the sediment, the settling material was dominated by phaeopigments and refractory proteins, which reduced its trophic value for benthic consumers. In the outer part of the harbour the main stressor was a polluted freshwater inflow, as indicated by the dominance of indicator species such as Capitella spp. (on average 79.5%, Neanthes caudata, Malacoceros girardi and Diopatra neapolitana.

  20. Genetic variation in Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal) revealed by DNA fingerprinting and RAPDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; van de Zande, L.; Vedder, E.J.; Bijlsma, R.; van Delden, Wilke

    Genetic variation in two harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations from the Dutch Wadden Sea and Scotland was examined by RAPD analysis and DNA fingerprinting. For comparison a population of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) was studied. The RAPD method revealed a very low number of polymorphic bands.

  1. The first case of conjoined twin harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompanje, Erwin J.O.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Leopold, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the smallest and most abundant cetacean in NW European continental shelf waters. Their global abundance numbers at least ~700,000 individuals. Within the North Sea, total abundance has recently been estimated at approximately 345,000 animals. The species

  2. Plastic ingestion by harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in the Netherlands: Establishing a standardised method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van Jan A.; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L.; Hesse, Eileen; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L.; Kühn, Susanne; Leopold, Mardik; Mielke, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Stomach contents of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) collected in the Netherlands between 2003 and 2013 were inspected for the presence of plastic and other man-made litter. In 654 stomach samples the frequency of occurrence of plastic litter was 7% with less than 0.5% additional presence of

  3. Harbour seals are regaining top-down control in a coastal ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, G.M.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Poos, J.J.; Schop, Jessica; Kirkwood, R.J.; Kooten, van T.; Mul, Evert; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Tulp, I.Y.M.

    2018-01-01

    Historic hunting has led to severe reductions of many marine mammal species across the globe. After hunting ceased, some populations have recovered to pre-exploitation levels, and may again act as a top-down regulatory force on marine ecosystems. Also the harbour seal population in the international

  4. Planning a census of the Harbour Seal (Phoca vitulina L.) on the coasts of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1956-01-01

    Scientific research into the occurrence and population density of the Harbour Seal ( Phoca vitulina L.) in the coastal regions of the Netherlands, necessary for any efficacious nature conservancy programme, was started in September 1953 by the author. A reliable calculation of the total number of

  5. Determination of caffeine and paracetamol in Bristol harbour water by LC/MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Y.; Bowdler, P.; Honeychurch, K.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic inputs such as caffeine and paracetamol can be used as possible chemical markers of sewage pollution as their presence can be presumed to result from human sewage inputs. \\ud In this present investigation we determined the concentrations of caffeine and paracetamol at five sample points within Bristol Floating Harbour, UK and compared these with the levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) present.

  6. Detection of grey seal Halichoerus grypus DNA in attack wounds on stranded harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Blijswijk, Judith; Begeman, Lineke; Witte, H.; IJsseldijk, Lonneke; Brasseur, Sophie; Gröne, Andrea; Leopold, Mardik F

    2014-01-01

    DNA was analysed from external wounds on 3 dead harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena that were stranded in the Netherlands. Puncture wounds as well as the edges of large open wounds were sampled with sterile cotton swabs. With specific primers that target the mtDNA control region of grey seal

  7. An ancient harbour at Dwarka: Study based on the recent underwater explorations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    at the eastern side of Dwarka, served as a safe harbour till the 19th century AD. Offshore explorations have brought to light a large number of stone structures, which appear to be the remains of an ancient jetty. This hypothesis is supported also...

  8. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port ...

  9. Measurements of boat motion in waves at Durban harbour for qualitative validation of motion model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosikare, OR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available in Waves at Durban Harbour for Qualitative Validation of Motion Model O.R. Mosikare1,2, N.J. Theron1, W. Van der Molen 1 University of Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 2Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Meiring Naude Rd, Brummeria, 0001...

  10. Establishment of gravity stations and inference of crustal thickness around Mormugao Harbour and NIO

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.

    Complete descriptions and basic facts of nine gravity stations of Marmugao Harbour, Goa, India are presented. They exhibit a maximum Bouguer difference of 2.12 mGal in an overall distance of about 2 km. Keeping in view the limited amount of data...

  11. Metal contamination in harbours impacts life-history traits and metallothionein levels in snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bighiu

    Full Text Available Harbours with limited water exchange are hotspots of contaminant accumulation. Antifouling paints (AF contribute to this accumulation by leaching biocides that may affect non-target species. In several leisure boat harbours and reference areas in the Baltic Sea, chronic exposure effects were evaluated using caging experiments with the snail Theodoxus fluviatilis. We analysed variations in ecologically relevant endpoints (mortality, growth and reproduction in concert with variation in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP levels. The latter is a biomarker of exposure to metals, such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, which are used in AF paints as active ingredient and stabilizer, respectively. In addition, environmental samples (water, sediment were analysed for metal (Cu and Zn and nutrient (total phosphorous and nitrogen concentrations. All life-history endpoints were negatively affected by the exposure, with higher mortality, reduced growth and lower fecundity in the harbours compared to the reference sites. Metal concentrations were the key explanatory variables for all observed adverse effects, suggesting that metal-driven toxicity, which is likely to stem from AF paints, is a source of anthropogenic stress for biota in the harbours.

  12. Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; VaraPrasad, S.J.D.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Sudhakar, U.

    High concentrations of PHC were observed in the inner channels (viz. South lighter canal, Northern arm, North Western arm and Western arm) of Visakhapatnam Harbour, Andhra Pradesh, India. The estimation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr...

  13. Comparative sensitivity of harbour and grey seals to several environmental contaminants using in vitro exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, M.M.; Frouin, H.; Pillet, S.; Lesage, V.; De Guise, S.; Fournier, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), mercury chloride (HgCl 2 ), methylmercury chloride (CH 3 HgCl), and PCBs on lymphocyte proliferation in phocids. PBMCs isolated from harbour and grey seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of contaminants. A reduction of viability occurred when cells were exposed to 10 -4 M HgCl 2 or CH 3 HgCl or to 50 ppm of Aroclor 1254. In both grey and harbour seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was suppressed when their cells were incubated with 5 x 10 -5 M CdCl 2 or 10 -4 M HgCl 2 . An inhibition of proliferation occurred with CH 3 HgCl from 10 -6 M in grey seals and from 10 -5 M in harbour seals. In grey seals, Aroclor 1254 reduced lymphocyte proliferation at 15 ppm. In both harbour and grey seals, CH 3 HgCl was ten times more immunotoxic that HgCl 2 . From IC 50 , chemicals were ranked in terms of toxicity as followed: CH 3 HgCl > CdCl 2 > HgCl 2 > Aroclor 1254.

  14. Coastal Changes due to the Construction of Artificial Harbour Entrances and Practical Solutions, including Beach Replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.; Van der Leijé, J.P.; Pilon, J.J.; Svasek, J.N.; In 't Veld, J.K.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    When longshore sediment transport is interrupted by a construction along a coast, e.g harbour moles or a dredged approach channel, the equilibrium of the coastline may be disturbed. When the disruption is caused by breakwaters, the longshore transport that is held back will cause accretion updrift

  15. Setting Maximum Mortality Limits for Harbour Porpoises in Dutch Waters to Achieve Conservation Objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheidat, M.; Leaper, R.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Winship, A.

    2013-01-01

    Harbour porpoises in the North Sea are protected under national and EU legislation, and under the regional agreement ASCOBANS, within the UN Convention on Migratory Species. As yet, no methods exist to quantify the cumulative impacts of direct anthropogenic mortality (e.g. by-catch) and indirect

  16. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. LADS: Optimizing Data Transfers using Layout-Aware Data Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    While future terabit networks hold the promise of signifi- cantly improving big-data motion among geographically distributed data centers, significant challenges must be overcome even on today s 100 gigabit networks to real- ize end-to-end performance. Multiple bottlenecks exist along the end-to-end path from source to sink. Data stor- age infrastructure at both the source and sink and its in- terplay with the wide-area network are increasingly the bottleneck to achieving high performance. In this paper, we identify the issues that lead to congestion on the path of an end-to-end data transfer in the terabit network en- vironment, and we present a new bulk data movement framework called LADS for terabit networks. LADS ex- ploits the underlying storage layout at each endpoint to maximize throughput without negatively impacting the performance of shared storage resources for other users. LADS also uses the Common Communication Interface (CCI) in lieu of the sockets interface to use zero-copy, OS-bypass hardware when available. It can further im- prove data transfer performance under congestion on the end systems using buffering at the source using flash storage. With our evaluations, we show that LADS can avoid congested storage elements within the shared stor- age resource, improving I/O bandwidth, and data transfer rates across the high speed networks.

  18. LAYOUT AND DESIGN OF ELECTROMOBILE CHARGING STATIONS AS URBAN ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Chovan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is dedicated to the processing of the problems of the insufficient charging for the electric vehicles within the concrete urbanistic centre. It brings a different perspective on the mobility, which is shown in the form of electric energy as the alternative for the needs of urbanization of the cities. It analyses electromobility, new technologies in the field of electric vehicles and the charging stations as the elements of the urbanism. In terms of the solution, the contribution is focused on the Košice city and the location of the public charging stations. Košice do not have sufficient amount of the public charging stations and until the 2014 there was only one public charging station. The contribution is focused on the designing of the parking places with the charging station placed on the appropriate parking places. The resulting design is created in the CAD system, it brings the view of the layout of the charging station at the shopping centre in the open space and in the parking house.

  19. Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriner, H.; Davies, B.; Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Allen, J.; Shepard, C.

    1998-05-01

    Research and development in the design and manufacture of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is growing at an enormous rate. Advances in MEMS design tools and fabrication processes at Sandia National Laboratories` Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) have broadened the scope of MEMS applications that can be designed and manufactured for both military and commercial use. As improvements in micromachining fabrication technologies continue to be made, MEMS designs can become more complex, thus opening the door to an even broader set of MEMS applications. In an effort to further research and development in MEMS design, fabrication, and application, Sandia National Laboratories has launched the Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program or SAMPLES program. The SAMPLES program offers potential partners interested in MEMS the opportunity to prototype an idea and produce hardware that can be used to sell a concept. The SAMPLES program provides education and training on Sandia`s design tools, analysis tools and fabrication process. New designers can participate in the SAMPLES program and design MEMS devices using Sandia`s design and analysis tools. As part of the SAMPLES program, participants` designs are fabricated using Sandia`s 4 level polycrystalline silicon surface micromachine technology fabrication process known as SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology). Furthermore, SAMPLES participants can also opt to obtain state of the art, post-fabrication services provided at Sandia such as release, packaging, reliability characterization, and failure analysis. This paper discusses the components of the SAMPLES program.

  20. Automatic pattern localization across layout database and photolithography mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Philippe; Brault, Frederic; Beisser, Eric; Ache, Oliver; Röth, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Advanced process photolithography masks require more and more controls for registration versus design and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). The distribution of the measurement points should be distributed all over the whole mask and may be denser in areas critical to wafer overlay requirements. This means that some, if not many, of theses controls should be made inside the customer die and may use non-dedicated patterns. It is then mandatory to access the original layout database to select patterns for the metrology process. Finding hundreds of relevant patterns in a database containing billions of polygons may be possible, but in addition, it is mandatory to create the complete metrology job fast and reliable. Combining, on one hand, a software expertise in mask databases processing and, on the other hand, advanced skills in control and registration equipment, we have developed a Mask Dataprep Station able to select an appropriate number of measurement targets and their positions in a huge database and automatically create measurement jobs on the corresponding area on the mask for the registration metrology system. In addition, the required design clips are generated from the database in order to perform the rendering procedure on the metrology system. This new methodology has been validated on real production line for the most advanced process. This paper presents the main challenges that we have faced, as well as some results on the global performances.

  1. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  2. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  3. Monitoring effects of offshore windfarms on harbour porpoises using PODs (porpoise detectors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Enviroment, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, Jacob [National Environmental Res. Lab., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [Ornis Consult A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-02-15

    The areas designated for offshore windfarms in Denmark, are all known habitats for harbour porpoises. It is possible that some of the activities involved in erection and operation of offshore windfarms will have a negative impact on the harbour porpoises in and around the windfarms. The most significant sources of these effects are thought to be the physical presence and the noise from ships and construction work as well as temporary and even permanent loss of suitable habitats near the windfarms. The noise from existing offshore windturbines has been measured and a detection distance of 20 m was calculated in the EIA study regarding the Roedsand windfarm. In order to study possible effects from the erection and operation of windfarms on harbour porpoises a number of studies were suggested as part of the EIA background study on harbour porpoises. Among these suggestions was the use of acoustic dataloggers (PODs). The POD is recording click sounds of short duration. It is programmable and can be set to specifically record the echolocation signals that harbour porpoises uses for orientation and foraging. This method will potentially give data on harbour porpoise activity in a specific area on a diurnal and year-round basis. The construction work will take place over several months and since there is no available information on the seasonal sensitivity of porpoises to disturbance, the data necessary to detect and evaluate the effect of the windfarm would need to cover all seasons. No other method is feasible to provide data on the presence of harbour porpoises year round in a particular area. However, this method has its limitations in that only porpoises echolocating are recorded. No data exists on the seasonal, diurnal and area specific use of echolocation but since echolocation is believed to be the primary sense for porpoises we expect that porpoises used their echolocation most of the time and that it is correlated to the density of porpoises. However, the actual

  4. Monitoring effects of offshore windfarms on harbour porpoises using PODs (porpoise detectors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Carstensen, Jacob; Skov, H.

    2002-02-01

    The areas designated for offshore windfarms in Denmark, are all known habitats for harbour porpoises. It is possible that some of the activities involved in erection and operation of offshore windfarms will have a negative impact on the harbour porpoises in and around the windfarms. The most significant sources of these effects are thought to be the physical presence and the noise from ships and construction work as well as temporary and even permanent loss of suitable habitats near the windfarms. The noise from existing offshore windturbines has been measured and a detection distance of 20 m was calculated in the EIA study regarding the Roedsand windfarm. In order to study possible effects from the erection and operation of windfarms on harbour porpoises a number of studies were suggested as part of the EIA background study on harbour porpoises. Among these suggestions was the use of acoustic dataloggers (PODs). The POD is recording click sounds of short duration. It is programmable and can be set to specifically record the echolocation signals that harbour porpoises uses for orientation and foraging. This method will potentially give data on harbour porpoise activity in a specific area on a diurnal and year-round basis. The construction work will take place over several months and since there is no available information on the seasonal sensitivity of porpoises to disturbance, the data necessary to detect and evaluate the effect of the windfarm would need to cover all seasons. No other method is feasible to provide data on the presence of harbour porpoises year round in a particular area. However, this method has its limitations in that only porpoises echolocating are recorded. No data exists on the seasonal, diurnal and area specific use of echolocation but since echolocation is believed to be the primary sense for porpoises we expect that porpoises used their echolocation most of the time and that it is correlated to the density of porpoises. However, the actual

  5. Development of a Layout Model Suitable for the Food Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. C. Wanniarachchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The food processing industry is a subset of the manufacturing sector with unique challenges. Among these, ensuring food hygiene and preventing contamination are two issues of prime importance. Hence, designers have to overcome such challenges when designing facilities suitable for food processing. The paper formulates a model that simplifies the layout planning process for the food processing facilities (FPF in order to help the designers. A generalised framework that helps to visualise the Facilities Layout Problem (FLP was initially developed. A layout model for FPF was then developed considering the unique features that need to be present in the layout. The model classifies the areas of FPF into five: primary, secondary, utilities, warehouse, and administration based on the activities and the level of risk present in food processing. It further proposes specific locations for the five sections in the factory layout. In order to test the performance of the framework and the model, a case study was conducted in a malted milk powder processing facility in Sri Lanka by changing its layout according to the proposed model. The framework and the model showed promise in its implementation. However, the approach and the layout model need to be evaluated in further cases in order to ascertain their usability and performance.

  6. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design

  7. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design

  8. Application of approximate pattern matching in two dimensional spaces to grid layout for biochemical network maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Shimozono, Shinichi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor) algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.

  9. Application of approximate pattern matching in two dimensional spaces to grid layout for biochemical network maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Inoue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. RESULTS: We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.

  10. Evaluation of trophic state and plankton abundance from the environmental parameters of Visakhapatnam Harbour and near-shore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathy, S.C.; KusumaKumari, B.A.V.L.; Sarma, V.V.; Murty, T.V.R.

    The present work describes the nutrient indices of the Visakhapatnam harbour and near-shore waters. The inner channels of Visakhapatnam harbour are considered to be eutrophic while near-shore waters (coastal and inshore waters) associated...

  11. The stress analysis evaluation and pipe support layout for pressurizer discharge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Wang Wei; Zhang Yixiong

    2000-01-01

    The author presents the stress analysis and evaluation of pipe layout and support adjustment process for Qinshan phase II pressurizer discharge system. Using PDL-SYSPIPE INTERFACE software, the characteristic parameters of the system are gained from 3-D CAD engineering design software PDL and outputted as the input date file format of special pipe stress analysis program SYSPIPE. Based on that, SYSPIPE program fast stress analysis function is applied in adjusting pipe layout , support layout and support types. According to RCC-M standard, the pipe stress analysis and evaluation under deadweight, internal pressure, thermal expansion, seismic, pipe rupture and discharge loads are fulfilled

  12. Layout Capacitive Coupling and Structure Impacts on Integrated High Voltage Power MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2016-01-01

    -to-layer coupling and the comparison of the layout impacts have not been well established. This paper presents modeling of parasitic mutual coupling to analyze the parasitic capacitance directly coupled between two on-chip metal wires. The accurate 3D field solver analysis for the comparable dimensions shows...... that the layer-to-layer coupling can contribute higher impacts than the well-known side-by-side coupling. Four layout structures are then proposed and implemented in a 0.18 µm partial SOI process for 100 V integrated power MOSFETs with a die area 2.31 mm2. The post-layout comparison using an industrial 2D...

  13. Mathematical programming models for solving in equal-sized facilities layout problems. A genetic search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper present unequal-sized facilities layout solutions generated by a genetic search program. named Layout Design using a Genetic Algorithm) 9. The generalized quadratic assignment problem requiring pre-determined distance and material flow matrices as the input data and the continuous plane model employing a dynamic distance measure and a material flow matrix are discussed. Computational results on test problems are reported as compared with layout solutions generated by the branch - and bound algorithm a hybrid method merging simulated annealing and local search techniques, and an optimization process of an enveloped block

  14. An emergent computation approach to the problem of polygon layout with performance constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhendong; Xiao, Renbin

    2013-10-01

    We address the two-dimensional satellite irregular polygons layout problem (TDSIPLP). By mapping the layout problem to a physical system, we present a self-organization emergence algorithm (SEA) based on a multi-agent system (MAS). SEA uses information on the local energy of agents and neighborhood rules to guide interactions between the agents and the environment. System self-organization evolves at a microcosmic level and eventually yields a layout that meets the performance constraints for a satellite. Experiments show that SEA can provide much better performance than other optimization techniques, such as generalized simulated annealing (GSA).

  15. A case study of printing industry plant layout for effective production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswajit, T.; Teja, T. Ravi; Deepthi, Y. P.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the overall picture of the processes happening in printing industry. This research is aimed to improve the plant layout of existing plant. The travel time was reduced by relocating machinery. Relocation is based on systematic layout planning (SLP). The complete process of raw material entering the industry to dispatching of finished product is shown in 3-D Flow diagram. The process happening in each floor explained in detail using Flow Process chart. Travel time is reduced by 25% after modifying existing plant layout.

  16. Solving the wind farm layout optimization problem using random search algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Wind farm (WF) layout optimization is to find the optimal positions of wind turbines (WTs) inside a WF, so as to maximize and/or minimize a single objective or multiple objectives, while satisfying certain constraints. In this work, a random search (RS) algorithm based on continuous formulation...... by expert guesses or other optimization methods, and as an optimization tool to find the optimal layout of WF with a certain number of WTs. A new strategy to evaluate layouts is also used, which can largely save the computation cost. This method is first applied to a widely studied ideal test problem...

  17. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  18. Layout design process in conventional Brazilian supermarkets Proceso de formulación de layouts en supermercados convencionales en Brasil Processo de formulação de layouts em supermercados convencionais no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Machado Toaldo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the layout is well known in the performance of supermarket companies. However since there are very few studies on the subject, this research sought to understand the layout design process in conventionally sized supermarkets in the South of Brazil. For this reason an exploratory study was carried out. The choice of this methodology was due to scarceness of accumulated and systematized knowledge. Data were collected by in-depth interviews with a layout supervisor and a store manager in three supermarket chains in the South of Brazil. Results confirm that layout has considerable influence on company performance. A variety of strategies is used by the companies in layouts to make the customer remain in the store longer, make his stay more enjoyable and consequently encourage spending thus bringing about greater profitability. Finally, a theoretical structure of design layout was proposed. The intention of this study is not to be definitive, but to shed light on the subject, which while important, has never been emphasized in marketing studies.Es evidente la importancia del layout en el desempeño de las empresas supermercadistas. Sin embargo, faltan estudios sobre el tema. Pensando en esa laguna, esta investigación tuvo el objetivo principal de entender como es el proceso de formulación de layouts en supermercados de porte convencional en el Sur brasileño. Para eso, se realizó un estudio exploratorio. La decisión de escoger esa metodología fue en consecuencia de la escasez de conocimiento acumulado y sistematizado. Los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de entrevistas en profundidad realizadas con dos informantes en tres redes supermercadistas del sur de Brasil: un supervisor de layout y un gerente de tienda. Los resultados muestran que el layout tiene mucha influencia en el desempeño de la empresa. Por su intermedio, utilizándose una serie de estrategias, las empresas buscan los siguientes objetivos: hacer con que el

  19. Genetic algorithm optimization for dynamic construction site layout planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmakis Panagiotis M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic construction site layout planning (DCSLP problem refers to the efficient placement and relocation of temporary construction facilities within a dynamically changing construction site environment considering the characteristics of facilities and work interrelationships, the shape and topography of the construction site, and the time-varying project needs. A multi-objective dynamic optimization model is developed for this problem that considers construction and relocation costs of facilities, transportation costs of resources moving from one facility to another or to workplaces, as well as safety and environmental considerations resulting from facilities’ operations and interconnections. The latter considerations are taken into account in the form of preferences or constraints regarding the proximity or remoteness of particular facilities to other facilities or work areas. The analysis of multiple project phases and the dynamic facility relocation from phase to phase highly increases the problem size, which, even in its static form, falls within the NP (for Nondeterministic Polynomial time- hard class of combinatorial optimization problems. For this reason, a genetic algorithm has been implemented for the solution due to its capability to robustly search within a large solution space. Several case studies and operational scenarios have been implemented through the Palisade’s Evolver software for model testing and evaluation. The results indi­cate satisfactory model response to time-varying input data in terms of solution quality and computation time. The model can provide decision support to site managers, allowing them to examine alternative scenarios and fine-tune optimal solutions according to their experience by introducing desirable preferences or constraints in the decision process.

  20. Macro- and meiofaunal community features in the critical environmental system of a tourist harbour (Rapallo, Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriague, Anabella Covazzi; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Misic, Cristina

    2012-03-01

    Two samplings were carried out in a tourist harbour, during low and high touristic activity periods, to study the macro- and meiofaunal communities in relation to the environmental features. A multivariate analysis showed close relationships: the maritime traffic disturbance and the food quality and availability drive the spatial differences of the assemblages, dividing the area into three sub-areas: the area near the Boate torrent that empties into the harbour, the harbour proper, and the external area (just outside the harbour). Macro- and meiofauna showed notably different temporal trends, indicating competition for the resources and the higher sensitivity of the macrofauna to environmental pressures. The macrofauna strongly decreased as a response to heavier harbour activities, with increasing turbidity also affecting the external station outside the harbour. Finally, comparing the macrofaunal communities to those sampled in the same area 10 years before, we found that their abundance, richness and biomass had notably decreased, highlighting the worsening of the harbour environment due to the increased organic load and turbidity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of planar element formulation and numerical integration order on checkerboard material layouts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of selected planar finite element formulations, and their associated integration schemes, on the stiffness of a checkerboard material layout are investigated. Standard 4-node bilinear elements, 8- and 9-node quadratic elements, as well...

  2. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Hyttel Clausen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested and compared to a chip with a conventional electrode layout. The improved chip was able to discriminate 0.5 μm beads from 1 μm as opposed to the conventional chip. Furthermore, finite element modeling was used to simulate the improvements in electrical field density and uniformity between the electrodes of the new electrode layout. Good agreement was observed between the model and the obtained experimental results.

  3. An AI-based layout design system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Kikuo; Akagi, Shinsuke; Nakatogawa, Tetsundo; Tanaka, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    An AI-based layout design system for nuclear power plants has been developed. The design of the layout of nuclear power plants is a time-consuming task requiring expertise, in which a lot of machinery and equipment must be arranged in a plant building considering various kinds of design constraints, i.e. spatial, functional, economical etc. Computer aided layout design systems have been widely expected and the application of AI technology is expected as a promising approach for the synthesis phase of this task. In this paper, we present an approach to the layout design of nuclear power plants based on a constraint-directed search; one of the AI techniques. In addition, we show how it was implemented with an object-oriented programming technique and give an example of its application. (author)

  4. Navigating comics: an empirical and theoretical approach to strategies of reading comic page layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eCohn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Like the sequence of words in written language, comic book page layouts direct images into a deliberate reading sequence. Conventional wisdom would expect that comic panels follow the order of text: left-to-right and down—a Z-path—though several layouts can violate this order, such as Gestalt groupings of panels that deny a Z-path of reading. To examine how layouts pressure readers to choose pathways deviating from the Z-path, we presented participants with comic pages empty of content, and asked them to number the panels in the order they would read them. Participants frequently used strategies departing from both the traditional Z-path and Gestalt groupings. These preferences reveal a system of constraints that organizes panels into hierarchic constituents, guiding readers through comic page layouts.

  5. Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company: simple projects, big solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Eckhardt, Moacir; da Motta, Giordano Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The posture, a good organization and the proper layout of the environment and workplaces have a positive influence on the income of an employee. To develop the work it is used a methodology that addressed the study phases of the theory involving the subject, description of the current situation, preparation of conceptions, choice of design, implementation and reporting of results. Through the project of "Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company" there was an intervention in these reported aspects providing improvements in the office, regarding ergonomic, layout, workplace and lighting issues, bringing welfare to the official, with the intent to improve its performance within the company and facilitating its actions, as the company's customer service. The results provided improvements in layout, in the workplace and especially in comfort for the human resources that perform their activities.

  6. Layout Optimization of Structures with Finite-size Features using Multiresolution Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellappa, S.; Diaz, A. R.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for layout optimization in structures with multiple finite-sized heterogeneities is presented. Multiresolution analysis is used to compute reduced operators (stiffness matrices) representing the elastic behavior of material distributions with heterogeneities of sizes that are comparable...

  7. Organizing vertical layout environments: a forward-looking development strategy for high-rise building projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magay, A. A.; Bulgakova, E. A.; Zabelina, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article highlights issues surrounding development of high rise buildings. With the rapid increase of the global population there has been a trend for people to migrate into megacities and has caused the expansion of big city territories. This trend, coupled with the desire for a comfortable living environment, has resulted in numerous problems plaguing the megacity. This article proposes that a viable solution to the problems facing megacities is to create vertical layout environments. Potential options for creating vertical layout environments are set out below including the construction of buildings with atriums. Further, the article puts forth suggested spatial organization of the environment as well as optimal landscaping of high-rise buildings and constructions for the creation of vertical layout environments. Finally, the persuasive reasons for the adoption of vertical layout environments is that it will decrease the amount of developed urban areas, decrease traffic and increase environmental sustainability.

  8. A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

    2012-01-01

    Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design.

  9. Navigating comics: an empirical and theoretical approach to strategies of reading comic page layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Like the sequence of words in written language, comic book page layouts direct images into a deliberate reading sequence. Conventional wisdom would expect that comic panels follow the order of text: left-to-right and down - a "Z-path" - though several layouts can violate this order, such as Gestalt groupings of panels that deny a Z-path of reading. To examine how layouts pressure readers to choose pathways deviating from the Z-path, we presented participants with comic pages empty of content, and asked them to number the panels in the order they would read them. Participants frequently used strategies departing from both the traditional Z-path and Gestalt groupings. These preferences reveal a system of constraints that organizes panels into hierarchic constituents, guiding readers through comic page layouts.

  10. Study of LED layout in indoor visible light communication and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaan; Che, Ying; Wang, Xinlan; Guo, Linyang; Li, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Light emitting diodes(LED) could provide both illumination and data communication in indoor visible light communication(VLC) that owns the modulation bandwith from several from several MHz to seneral hundreds of MHz. The layout of LED plays an important role in maintaining a steady optical power distribution over the receiving plane. The existing rectangular LED layout does not provide a full coverage on the receiving plane leaving receiving optical power outage area, which in turn affects the best performance of the VLC system. This paper design a circular layout scheme of LED in 5mX5mX3m room based on the criterion of the illumination minimum mean square deviation. The influence of the distribution of the intensity of illumination with the radius of 1m and 1.5m,for including the wall reflection and not including the wall reflection, and make a comparison with rectangular LED layout of illumination distribution, when the number of LEDs with rectangular layout as same as circular layout. Including the number of LEDs are 4 and 16.For a specific simulation parameters as following:height of receiving plane is 0.85m,a single LEDs is composed of 60X60 LED chips, the parameters of a single chip is that transmitting power is 20mW,center luminous intensity is 0.73cd.semiangle at half power is 70deg.The parameters of concentrator is that photodiode area is 1cm2,photodiode responsivity is 0.4,field of view at the receiver is 85deg.Other parameters are that reflective index of concentrator is 1.5,reflectivity of wall is 0.8.Circular layout and rectangular layout are analyzed through simulation of the received optical power distribution, signal noise ratio distribution in non line of sight(including the wall reflection) and line of sight(not including the wall reflection),when the number of the LED is different. It is clear from the results that the received optical power distribution of non line of sight is better than line of sight, when the number of the LED are same, but

  11. Validation of the Data Consolidation in Layout Database for the LHC Tunnel Cryogenics Controls Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Blanco, E; Fortescue-Beck, E; Fluder, C; Inglese, V; Pezzetti, M; Gomes, P; Wolak, T; Dudek, M; Frassinelli, F; Drozd, A; Zapolski, M

    2014-01-01

    The control system of the Large Hadron Collider cryogenics manages over 34’000 instrumentation and actuator channels. The complete information on their characteristics and parameters can be extracted from a set of views on the Layout database, to generate the specifications of the control system; from these, the code to populate PLCs (Programmable Logic Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition) is automatically produced, within the UNICOS framework (Unified Industrial Control System). The Layout database is, since 2003, progressively integrating and centralizing information on the whole CERN Accelerator complex. It models topographical organization (layouts) as functional positions and relationships. After three years of machine operation, many parameters have been manually adjusted in SCADA and PLCs; they now differ from their original values in the Layout database. Furthermore, to accommodate the upgrade of the UNICOS Continuous Process Control package to version 6, some data stru...

  12. IC layout adjustment method and tool for improving dielectric reliability at interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Chan, Tuck Boon

    2018-03-20

    Method for adjusting a layout used in making an integrated circuit includes one or more interconnects in the layout that are susceptible to dielectric breakdown are selected. One or more selected interconnects are adjusted to increase via to wire spacing with respect to at least one via and one wire of the one or more selected interconnects. Preferably, the selecting analyzes signal patterns of interconnects, and estimates the stress ratio based on state probability of routed signal nets in the layout. An annotated layout is provided that describes distances by which one or more via or wire segment edges are to be shifted. Adjustments can include thinning and shifting of wire segments, and rotation of vias.

  13. The Comparison of Layout Arrangements for the Material Flow Ordering Planning in Production Systems through Simulation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AKSARAYLI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises have to make suitable location planning to decrease their product cost and to increase their productivity in our time. The aim of this study is to compare the basic layout types used in arranging inside facility layout with each other by using simulation. Especially in this study, material handling times between machines and ratio of these times in total times were interested. First of all a new production system is designed to the basic layout types used in arranging inside facility layout. And then in the designed production system, machines are arranged for each machine layout types. Machine layout types are transferred to PROMODEL simulation software. Then with the results of analysis, material handling times of different machine layout types and ratio of material handling times in total production time were compared and the results obtained from this analysis were given after commented on this study.

  14. Site Layout of the proposed new Hadrons' Injector Chain at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Baldy, J L; Evans, L; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Lindroos, M; López-Hernandez, L A; Maury, S; Poehler, M; Silari, M; Vretenar, M

    2008-01-01

    The replacement of almost all the LHC injector complex on the Meyrin-site of CERN (Linac2, PSB and PS) is planned within the next 10 years. The layout foreseen for the new accelerators is described in this paper, together with its compatibility with the existing experimental physics facilities. These machines can, after upgrade, supply with high beam power future physics facilities for radioactive ions and/or neutrinos. Their possible layout is also sketched in this document.

  15. REPOSITORY LAYOUT SUPPORTING DESIGN FEATURE NO.13 - WASTE PACKAGE SELF SHIELDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to develop a repository layout, for Feature No. 13, that will accommodate self-shielding waste packages (WP) with an areal mass loading of 25 metric tons of uranium per acre (MTU/acre). The scope of this analysis includes determination of the number of emplacement drifts, amount of emplacement drift excavation required, and a preliminary layout for illustrative purposes

  16. A study on three dimensional layout design by the simulated annealing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Ho

    2008-01-01

    Modern engineered products are becoming increasingly complicated and most consumers prefer compact designs. Layout design plays an important role in many engineered products. The objective of this study is to suggest a method to apply the simulated annealing method to the arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional component layout design problem. The suggested method not only optimizes the packing density but also satisfies constraint conditions among the components. The algorithm and its implementation as suggested in this paper are extendable to other research objectives

  17. Transport, mechanical and global migration data of multilayer copolyamide nanocomposite films with different layouts

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfato, P.; Garofalo, E.; Di Maio, L.; Incarnato, L.

    2017-01-01

    Transport, mechanical and global migration data concern multilayer food packaging films with different layouts, all incorporating a layered silicate/polyamide nanocomposite as oxygen barrier layer, and a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as moisture resistant layer in direct contact with food. The data are related to ?Tuning of co-extrusion processing conditions and film layout to optimize the performances of PA/PE multilayer nanocomposite films for food packaging? by?Garofalo et al. (2017) [1]...

  18. Layout Design for a Low Capacity Manufacturing Line: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    De Carlo, Filippo; Arleo, Maria Antonietta; Borgia, Orlando; Tucci, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The layout re‐arrangement of fashion production lines realizing many small batches is rarely deployed according to well‐known engineering procedures. In fact, it would often appear too complex to call a plant engineer for the proper layout design of such small production lines. Rather, it is preferred to apply empirical methodologies when considering, generally, factory know‐how, general business needs, safety requirements, and so on. In the present work, the results of a fashion manufacturin...

  19. Multi-objective random search algorithm for simultaneously optimizing wind farm layout and number of turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    A new algorithm for multi-objective wind farm layout optimization is presented. It formulates the wind turbine locations as continuous variables and is capable of optimizing the number of turbines and their locations in the wind farm simultaneously. Two objectives are considered. One is to maximize...... wind farm, the algorithm also obtains useful Pareto frontiers and provides a wide range of Pareto optimal layouts with different numbers of turbines for a real-life wind farm developer....

  20. Improvement of productivity in low volume production industry layout by using witness simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, V.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.; Rose, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    In almost all manufacturing industry, increased productivity and better efficiency of the production line are the most important goals. Most factories especially small scale factory has less awareness of manufacturing system optimization and lack of knowledge about it and uses the traditional way of management. Problems that are commonly identified in the factory are a high idle time of labour and also small production. This study is done in a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) low volume production company. Data collection and problems affecting productivity and efficiency are identified. In this study, Witness simulation software is being used to simulate the layout and the output is focusing on the improvement of layout in terms of productivity and efficiency. In this study, the layout is rearranged by reducing the travel time from a workstation to another workstation. Then, the improved layout is modelled and the machine and labour statistic of both, original and improved layout is taken. Productivity and efficiency are calculated for both layout and then being compared.

  1. a Preliminary Work on Layout Slam for Reconstruction of Indoor Corridor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baligh Jahromi, A.; Sohn, G.; Shahbazi, M.; Kang, J.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a real time indoor corridor layout estimation method based on visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). The proposed method adopts the Manhattan World Assumption at indoor spaces and uses the detected single image straight line segments and their corresponding orthogonal vanishing points to improve the feature matching scheme in the adopted visual SLAM system. Using the proposed real time indoor corridor layout estimation method, the system is able to build an online sparse map of structural corner point features. The challenges presented by abrupt camera rotation in the 3D space are successfully handled through matching vanishing directions of consecutive video frames on the Gaussian sphere. Using the single image based indoor layout features for initializing the system, permitted the proposed method to perform real time layout estimation and camera localization in indoor corridor areas. For layout structural corner points matching, we adopted features which are invariant under scale, translation, and rotation. We proposed a new feature matching cost function which considers both local and global context information. The cost function consists of a unary term, which measures pixel to pixel orientation differences of the matched corners, and a binary term, which measures the amount of angle differences between directly connected layout corner features. We have performed the experiments on real scenes at York University campus buildings and the available RAWSEEDS dataset. The incoming results depict that the proposed method robustly performs along with producing very limited position and orientation errors.

  2. Systematic Layout Planning of a Radiology Reporting Area to Optimize Radiologists' Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Guilherme Brittes; Fogliatto, Flavio Sanson; Cardoso, Ricardo Bertoglio; Torres, Felipe Soares; Faccin, Carlo Sasso; Dora, José Miguel

    2018-04-01

    Optimizing radiologists' performance is a major priority for managers of health services/systems, since the radiologists' reporting activity imposes a severe constraint on radiology productivity. Despite that, methods to optimize radiologists' reporting workplace layout are scarce in the literature. This study was performed in the Radiology Division (RD) of an 850-bed University-based general hospital. The analysis of the reporting workplace layout was carried out using the systematic layout planning (SLP) method, in association with cluster analysis as a complementary tool in early stages of SLP. Radiologists, architects, and hospital managers were the stakeholders consulted for the completion of different stages of the layout planning process. A step-by-step description of the proposed methodology to plan an RD reporting layout is presented. Clusters of radiologists were defined using types of exams reported and their frequency of occurrence as clustering variables. Sectors with high degree of interaction were placed in proximity in the new RD layout, with separation of noisy and quiet areas. Four reporting cells were positioned in the quiet area, grouping radiologists by subspecialty, as follows: cluster 1-abdomen; cluster 2-musculoskeletal; cluster 3-neurological, vascular and head & neck; cluster 4-thoracic and cardiac. The creation of reporting cells has the potential to limit unplanned interruptions and enhance the exchange of knowledge and information within cells, joining radiologists with the same expertise. That should lead to improvements in productivity, allowing managers to more easily monitor radiologists' performance.

  3. Exploring the Effects of Pitch Layout on Learning a New Musical Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer MacRitchie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although isomorphic pitch layouts are proposed to afford various advantages for musicians playing new musical instruments, this paper details the first substantive set of empirical tests on how two fundamental aspects of isomorphic pitch layouts affect motor learning: shear, which makes the pitch axis vertical, and the adjacency (or nonadjacency of pitches a major second apart. After receiving audio-visual training tasks for a scale and arpeggios, performance accuracies of 24 experienced musicians were assessed in immediate retention tasks (same as the training tasks, but without the audio-visual guidance and in a transfer task (performance of a previously untrained nursery rhyme. Each participant performed the same tasks with three different pitch layouts and, in total, four different layouts were tested. Results show that, so long as the performance ceiling has not already been reached (due to ease of the task or repeated practice, adjacency strongly improves performance accuracy in the training and retention tasks. They also show that shearing the layout, to make the pitch axis vertical, worsens performance accuracy for the training tasks but, crucially, it strongly improves performance accuracy in the transfer task when the participant needs to perform a new, but related, task. These results can inform the design of pitch layouts in new musical instruments.

  4. A PRELIMINARY WORK ON LAYOUT SLAM FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF INDOOR CORRIDOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baligh Jahromi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a real time indoor corridor layout estimation method based on visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. The proposed method adopts the Manhattan World Assumption at indoor spaces and uses the detected single image straight line segments and their corresponding orthogonal vanishing points to improve the feature matching scheme in the adopted visual SLAM system. Using the proposed real time indoor corridor layout estimation method, the system is able to build an online sparse map of structural corner point features. The challenges presented by abrupt camera rotation in the 3D space are successfully handled through matching vanishing directions of consecutive video frames on the Gaussian sphere. Using the single image based indoor layout features for initializing the system, permitted the proposed method to perform real time layout estimation and camera localization in indoor corridor areas. For layout structural corner points matching, we adopted features which are invariant under scale, translation, and rotation. We proposed a new feature matching cost function which considers both local and global context information. The cost function consists of a unary term, which measures pixel to pixel orientation differences of the matched corners, and a binary term, which measures the amount of angle differences between directly connected layout corner features. We have performed the experiments on real scenes at York University campus buildings and the available RAWSEEDS dataset. The incoming results depict that the proposed method robustly performs along with producing very limited position and orientation errors.

  5. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  6. Development in Harbour Construction, Infrastructure and Topography on the Eve of the Early Modern Age in the Baltic (1450-1600)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springmann, Maik Jens O R

    2016-01-01

    Ships are no Flying Dutchmen! They need a harbour. Therefore, the development of ship construction is pretty much connected with that of harbour construction, and beyond this, they influence the topography and infrastructure of a harbour. The transition between the Medieval period and the Early...... Modern Age is a period of great change in the development of larger ships, even in the Baltic. Furthermore, the internationalisation of Baltic trade took place. In Medieval times, ship construction followed conditions in the harbours. In the Early Modern Age, it was the other way round. Now, harbour...

  7. Environmental impacts of iron ore tailings—The case of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. H.

    1981-03-01

    Disposal of iron ore tailings along the shore of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong has altered the adjacent environment. Due to the ever-expanding population, the vast development of various industries, and the lack of sanitary control, the existing pollution problem of Tolo Harbour is serious. The iron ore tailings consist of a moderate amount of various heavy metals, e.g., copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and a lower level of macronutrients. A few living organisms have been found colonizing this manmade habitat. Higher metal contents were also found in the tissue of Paphia sp. (clam); Scopimera intermedia (crab); Chaetomorpha brychagona (green alga); Enteromorpha crinita (green alga); and Neyraudia reynaudiana (grass). The area can be reclaimed by surface amelioration using inert materials, soils, or organic substrates, and by direct seeding, using nontolerant and tolerant plant materials. Reclamation of the tailings would improve the amenity of the adjacent environment and also mitigate pollution escaping to the sea.

  8. Benthic assemblages, biodiversity and invasiveness in marinas and commercial harbours: an investigation using a bioindicator group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megina, Cesar; González-Duarte, Manuel M; López-González, Pablo J

    2016-01-01

    Fouling communities on artificial marine structures are generally different from benthic communities in natural rocky habitats. However, they may also differ among different types of artificial structures. Two artificial structures in direct contact with arriving vessels were compared: floating pontoons within recreational marinas, and sea-walls within commercial harbours. Natural rocky habitats were used as a reference, and the genus Eudendrium (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) was chosen as a bioindicator. The assemblages were different among the three types of habitat studied, with different species characterising each habitat. The probability of finding an invasive Eudendrium species was significantly higher on pontoons. Diversity was the lowest on pontoons, but it was not significantly different between sea-walls and natural rocks. In general, a barrier to the spread of exotic species exists between harbours and natural rocky habitats. Floating pontoons seem to be a less suitable habitat for native fauna and a key element in marine biological invasions.

  9. Disturbance-induced responses of VHF and satellite tagged harbour seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe May; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1. The response of individual harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to controlled and sporadic disturbances when hauled out in the Anholt seal reserve, Denmark, was studied. Sporadic disturbances from pedestrians, boats, low-flying aeroplanes and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were observed...... in or near the reserve. VHF and satellite transmitters were attached to eight harbour seals to determine post-disturbance and undisturbed behaviour during the pre-breeding period (25 April to 21 May 2008). 2. Both disturbed and undisturbed seals mostly returned to the haul-out site from dusk and throughout...... within 40 km from the haul-out site. The maximum extent of post-disturbance trips, however, varied among individuals and disturbance types, and was strongly correlated with the duration of trips. 3. Disturbed and undisturbed seals used the same areas, suggesting that these areas represent normal foraging...

  10. Screening of variable importance for optimizing electrodialytic remediation of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Using multivariate design and modelling, the optimal conditions for electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of heavy metals were determined for polluted harbour sediments from Hammerfest harbour located in the geographic Arctic region of Norway. The comparative importance of the variables, current......, it was shown that excluding the acidification time improved the PLS model, indicating the importance of applying a limited experimental domain that covers the removal phases of each heavy metal in the specific sediment. Based on PLS modelling, the optimal conditions for remediating the Hammerfest sediment were......) was computed and variable importance in the projection was used to assess the influence of the experimental variables. Current density and remediation time proved to have the highest influence on the remediation of the heavy metals Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the studied experimental domain. In addition...

  11. LIDAR TS for ITER core plasma. Part I: layout & hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, H.; Gowers, C.; Nielsen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The original time-of-flight design of the Thomson scattering diagnostic for the ITER core plasma has been shown up by ITER. This decision was justified by insufficiencies of some of the components. In this paper we show that with available, present day technology a LIDAR TS system is feasible which meets all the ITER specifications. As opposed to the conventional TS system the LIDAR TS also measures the high field side of the plasma. The optical layout of the front end has been changed only little in comparison with the latest one considered by ITER. The main change is that it offers an optical collection without any vignetting over the low field side. The throughput of the system is defined only by the size and the angle of acceptance of the detectors. This, in combination with the fact that the LIDAR system uses only one set of spectral channels for the whole line of sight, means that no absolute calibration using Raman or Rayleigh scattering from a non-hydrogen isotope gas fill of the vessel is needed. Alignment of the system is easy since the collection optics view the footprint of the laser on the inner wall. In the described design we use, simultaneously, two different wavelength pulses from a Nd:YAG laser system. Its fundamental wavelength ensures measurements of 2 keV up to more than 40 keV, whereas the injection of the second harmonic enables measurements of low temperatures. As it is the purpose of this paper to show the technological feasibility of the LIDAR system, the hardware is considered in Part I of the paper. In Part II we demonstrate by numerical simulations that the accuracy of the measurements as required by ITER is maintained throughout the given plasma parameter range. The effect of enhanced background radiation in the wavelength range 400 nm-500 nm is considered. In Part III the recovery of calibration in case of changing spectral transmission of the front end is treated. We also investigate how to improve the spatial resolution at the

  12. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  13. Supplementary investigation of radium on two built-on harbour sludge polders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, P.; Hiemstra, Y.S.; Lembrechts, J.F.M.M.

    1995-02-01

    An increasing concern for the risks from radon ( 222 Rn in particular) has caused the Ministry of VROM to ask for an investigation of the relation between the radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings and the radium content of the soil on which they have been built. The investigation should include not only natural soil types but also some artificial ones. The soils that were formed after polders were filled with sludge from the Rotterdam harbours (harbour sludge polders) are examples of a non-natural soil type with a radium content that is in some instances significantly higher than that of most natural soils in the Netherlands. In a definition study, the investigation of the radium contents of harbour sludge polders was divided into four phases, the first two of which have been concluded. Before the decision to commence the third phase can be made, a supplementary investigation was necessary. This report contains the results of this supplementary investigation of radium contents that was carried out at the locations Steendijkpolder-zuid, Maassluis (STPZ) and Woudhoek-noord, Schiedam (WH) as proposed as a result of phase two. The aim of this supplementary investigation is to determine whether the variation of the radium content within a harbour sludge polder with no topsoil (STPZ) is sufficient to enable quantification of the relation between the radium content of the soil and the radon concentration in dwellings. The second goal is to determine whether it is possible to determine the reduction factor of a topsoil (WH) for radon infiltration. The results show that in the STPZ the variation of the radium content within the polder is large enough to justify the expectation that corresponding variations in radon concentrations will be found. In WH the 'within'-variations are too small for this purpose. To assess the effect of the topsoil, WH should be compared to another location

  14. Displacement effects of pile driving during offshore wind farm construction on harbour porpoises (Phocoena Phocoena)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Miriam; Diederichs, Ansgar; Wollheim, Laura; Betke, Klaus; Nehls, Georg

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Noise emissions from pile driving during offshore wind farm construction may injure marine mammals in the vicinity and cause large-scale disturbance and habitat displacement. So far little is known about the responses of marine mammals to such noise emissions making it difficult to predict possible impacts on their population and conservation status. We investigated spatial and temporal responses of harbour porpoises to pile driving during construction of 92 mono-pile foundations in the Danish North Sea in 2008 and of 6 tripod and 6 jacket foundations in the German North Sea in 2009. We used passive acoustic monitoring devices that record harbour porpoise echolocation clicks (T-PODs), which were deployed at different distances from the construction site. Noise levels during pile driving were measured at various distances. We found a clear impact of pile driving on the recordings of harbour porpoises, which stayed below average normal levels for up to 72 hours after pile driving in the near vicinity. A negative impact could be detected out to a distance of about 18 km, while at 22 km no negative effect was found. Here porpoise recordings temporarily increased. This shows that effects of wind farm construction reach over considerable distances and last much longer than previously assumed. We further found some differences between the effects of the different types of construction, possibly linked to the varying pile driving durations that were necessary. These results should be considered for future spatial and temporal planning of offshore wind farm constructions. Suitable mitigation measures should be adopted to reduce such far and long reaching effects on harbour porpoises and possibly other marine mammals. (Author)

  15. Review on utilization and research on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlingur Hauksson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina have been harvested in Iceland since the first settlers arrived in the 9th century. Pups were generally netted, clubbed and harpooned until 1875 when general use of guns for hunting began. Seal-hunting has been traditional amongst the farms legal rights. Seal hunting was an important supplement to other economic resources. Harbour seal skins, salted ordried, were exported and large dataset of catch statistics is available from trading logbooks since the late 19th century. In the early 20th century catch was about 6,000. In the ‘bounty’ period 1982 – 1989, maximum catches were of 4,000 animals with about 350 hunters participated; in 2006 catches were only about 100 animals with 18 hunters. After 1989 the population continued to decline even though catches decreased markedly. Unreported by-catch in fishing gear, hunt for local consumption and shooting of seals swimming in salmon rivers estuaries may have kept the total removal from the stock above sustainable levels. A considerable Icelandic knowledge base had been compiled about the biology of the harbour seal since the late 16th century, with the first written reference in 1588-1589. In the last decades, research on various aspects of its biology and monitoring have been intensified, with focus on abundance, distribution, diet and nematode infestation. The main results show that the Icelandic harbour seal population - has declined annually about 5% in the period 1980-2006, - was most abundant on the NW-coast, - feeds mainly on sand-eels and gadoids, - and was less infected with anisakid nematodes than grey seals. Seal watching, as a low-consumptive indirect utilization, may represent a new economical opportunity if properly regulated.

  16. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  17. A note on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina distribution and abundance in France and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Hassani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The most southern European colonies of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are located in France, in three areas: Baie du Mont Saint Michel, Baie des Veys and Baie de Somme. The largest colony is situated at the Baie de Somme, with a maximum of 186 individuals recorded on one occasion in the summer of 2008. All colonies are regularly monitored by different organisations. Different monitoring methods are used, including land-based, air-based and ship-based survey techniques. The basic results of the monitoring indicate a regular increase in the population size since 1990, with the total count of hauled out harbour seals for the three colonies increasing from 24 in 1990 to 295 in 2008. During the last years, an increasing number of pregnant females, pups and postweaned seals have been observed. The recorded number of pups in 2008 was 53. Along the Belgian coast, no harbour seal colonies exist anymore, although individual animals and small groups are regularly observed at different locations. The high recreational use of Belgian beachesmay prevent the establishment of colonies or regularly used haulout sites.

  18. Impact of a harbour construction on the benthic community of two shallow marine caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepote, Ettore; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Morri, Carla; Ferrari, Marco; Montefalcone, Monica

    2017-01-15

    Marine caves are unique and vulnerable habitats, threatened by multiple global and local disturbances. Whilst the effects of climate change on marine caves have already been investigated, no information exists about the effects of local human impacts, such as coastal development, on these habitats. This study investigated the impact of the construction of a touristic harbour on two shallow underwater marine caves in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). As a standard methodology for monitoring marine caves does not exist yet, changes over time on the benthic community were assessed adopting two different non-taxonomic descriptors: trophic guilds and growth forms. Harbour construction caused an increase of sediment load within the caves, with a consequent decline of filter feeder organisms. Abundance of small organisms, such as encrusting and flattened sponges, was greatly reduced in comparison to organisms with larger and erect growth forms, such as domed mounds and pedunculated sponges. Our study indicated that growth forms and trophic guilds are effective descriptors for evaluating changes over time in marine caves, and could be easily standardised and applied in monitoring plans. In addition, as the harbour construction impacted differently according to the cave topography, the use of a systematic sampling in different zones of an underwater cave is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid reassessment of the eutrophication status of Kingston Harbour, Jamaica using the zooplankton community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice A. Francis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous extensive studies of zooplankton distribution in the eutrophic Kingston Harbour established that it was being continuously contaminated. We assessed the community in 2011, 17 years after a previous study and five years after the introduction of a tertiary waste water system. Sampling was conducted for four weeks at eight stations identical to those sampled in a previous study. We used horizontal surface tows with a 200µm net. A total of 73 zooplankton taxa were identified and copepods dominated with 20 species. Mean total abundances were high, ranging from a minimum of 2 383 animals m-3 in the southern region of Hunts Bay to 194 166 animals m-3at the Inner Harbour. Five zooplankton taxa (Acartia tonsa, Paracalanus spp., Temora turbinata, Penilia avirostris and Lucifer faxoni that were previously identified as indicators, were again important in the Harbour. The overall zooplankton abundances were similar and in some cases higher than the previous study. There was no significant improvement in the water quality since the introduction of the treatment system at Soapberry. This may be a result of unknown nutrient inputs or of nutrient remaining in the sediments.

  20. The newtonian approach in the meteorological tide waves forecasting: preliminary observations in the East Ligurian harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piangiamore

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea level oscillations are the superposition of many contributions, among which the main are astronomic and meteorological low-frequency tides. In Ligurian Sea meteo-tide components, being most ample than astronomic fluctuations, drive water exchange in harbours. The present note shows first results about port of Genoa concerning a coherency study between atmospheric variation and corresponding sea level adjustment (meteorological tide. The newtonian forecasting method of meteorological tides is based on measurements of time elapsing between barometric sea level unbalance (?g and its meteorological tide compensation (inverse barometer component. Meteorological tide component is independent on the Earth-Moon-Sun gravitational relationships, moreover parameters related to the shifted water mass are too many to describe the phenomenon analytically (basin topography, barometric strength position and time, chemical water quality, off-shore sea circulation, etc.; then, meteorological tide can’t be accurately foreseen by atmospheric pressure measurements only. A gravimeter can detect the geodetic unbalance starting time and a tide-gauge can detect the newtonian compensation (tide wave coming time. The difference between these two times is the meteorological tide delay. An opportune statistic of this delay provides an experimental law typical for each harbour to forecast the meteo-tide compensation wave delay. This paper describes the methodological procedure adopted and first evidences of the phenomenon in Genoa harbour.

  1. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  2. A compact self-recording pressure based sea level gauge suitable for deployments at harbour and offshore environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.; Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Naik, G.P.; Kumar, V.; Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Nagvekar, S.; Desai, S.P.

    A compact and lightweight self-recording pressure based sea level gauge has been designed to suit deployments from harbour and offshore environments. A novel hydraulic coupling device designed in-house was used to transfer the seawater pressure...

  3. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in recent sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India: Influence of environmental characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    The distribution and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent sediments from Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India was investigated and compared with sediment characteristics and physico-chemical variables of the overlying water column...

  4. New shipyard layout design for the preliminary phase & case study for the green field project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Joo; Woo, Jong Hun

    2013-03-01

    For several decades, Asian nations such as Korea, Japan and China have been leading the shipbuilding industry since the decline in Europe and America. However, several developing countries such as India, Brazil, etc. are going to make an entrance into the shipbuilding industry. These developing countries are finding technical partners or information providers because they are in situation of little experiences and technologies. Now, the shipbuilding engineering companies of shipbuilding advanced countries are getting a chance of engineering business against those developing countries. The starting point of this business model is green field project for the construction of new shipyard. This business model is started with a design of the shipyard layout. For the conducting of the shipyard layout design, four kinds of engineering parts are required. Those are civil engineering, building engineering, utility engineering and production layout engineering. Among these parts, production layout engineering is most important because its result is the foundation of the other engineering parts and it determines the shipyard capacity during the shipyard operation lifecycle. Previous researches about the shipyard layout design are out of the range from the business requirements because most research cases are in the tower of ivory, which means that there are little consideration of real ship and shipbuilding operation. In this paper, a shipyard layout design for preliminary phase is conducted for the target of newly planned shipyard at Venezuela of South America with an integrated method that is capable of dealing with actual master data from the shipyard. The layout design method of this paper is differentiated from the previous researches in that the actual product data from the target ship and the actual shipbuilding operation data are used for the required area estimation.

  5. Built environmental factors and adults' travel behaviors: Role of street layout and local destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Owen, Neville; Cole, Rachel; Mavoa, Suzanne; Oka, Koichiro; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-03-01

    Street layout is consistently associated with adults' travel behaviors, however factors influencing this association are unclear. We examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors: walking for transport (WT) and car use; and, the extent to which these relationships may be accounted for by availability of local destinations. A 24-h travel diary was completed in 2009 by 16,345 adult participants of the South-East Queensland Household Travel Survey, Australia. Three travel-behavior outcomes were derived: any home-based WT; over 30min of home-based WT; and, over 60min of car use. For street layout, a space syntax measure of street integration was calculated for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1, the smallest geographic unit in Australia). An objective measure of availability of destinations - Walk Score - was also derived for each SA1. Logistic regression examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors. Mediation analyses examined to what extent availability of destinations explained the associations. Street integration was significantly associated with travel behaviors. Each one-decile increment in street integration was associated with an 18% (95%CI: 1.15, 1.21) higher odds of any home-based WT; a 10% (95%CI: 1.06, 1.15) higher odds of over 30min of home-based WT; and a 5% (95%CI: 0.94, 0.96) lower odds of using a car over 60min. Local destinations partially mediated the effects of street layout on travel behaviors. Well-connected street layout contributes to active travel partially through availability of more local destinations. Urban design strategies need to address street layout and destinations to promote active travel among residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilization of reduced fuelling ripple set in ROP detector layout optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastanya, Doddy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ADORE is an ROP detect layout optimization algorithm in CANDU reactors. ► The effect of using reduced set of fuelling ripples in ADORE is assessed. ► Significant speedup can be realized by adopting this approach. ► The quality of the results is comparable to results from full set of ripples. - Abstract: The ADORE (Alternative Detector layout Optimization for REgional overpower protection system) algorithm for performing the optimization of regional overpower protection (ROP) for CANDU® reactors has been recently developed. This algorithm utilizes the simulated annealing (SA) stochastic optimization technique to come up with an optimized detector layout for the ROP systems. For each history in the SA iteration where a particular detector layout is evaluated, the goodness of this detector layout is measured in terms of its trip set point value which is obtained by performing a probabilistic trip set point calculation using the ROVER-F code. Since during each optimization execution thousands of candidate detector layouts are evaluated, the overall optimization process is time consuming. Since for each ROVER-F evaluation the number of fuelling ripples controls the execution time, reducing the number of fuelling ripples will reduce the overall execution time. This approach has been investigated and the results are presented in this paper. The challenge is to construct a set of representative fuelling ripples which will significantly speedup the optimization process while guaranteeing that the resulting detector layout has similar quality to the ones produced when the complete set of fuelling ripples is employed.

  7. Seals in motion. How movements drive population development of harbour seals and grey seals in the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The harbour seal Phoca vitulina and the grey seal Halichoerus grypus have been inhabitants of the Wadden Sea since millennia. Prehistoric findings indicate the presence of both species around 5000 BC. This changed dramatically in the mid Middle-Ages as around 1500 AC, the grey seal disappeared from the Wadden Sea as a consequence of persecution. With growing hunting pressure, especially in the 20th century and concurrent habitat destruction and pollution, the harbour seals reached all time lo...

  8. Fishing for food : feeding ecology of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris in Dutch waters

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins are the most common small cetaceans in the North Sea and Dutch coastal waters. The distribution and relative abundance of harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins from the Dutch coastal waters has changed significantly over the past decades. This thesis describes the past and present feeding ecology of these two species in Dutch coastal waters and investigates whether changes in abundance and relative distribution of porpoises reflect changes in ...

  9. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezza, M.; di Filippo, M.

    2009-04-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. This method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible near Via Lungolinea Pio VI. A large negative anomaly is situated in correspondence with "Montone". Gravity information shows an average density of the hill approximately 1.10 g/cm3, notably less than the recorded data relative to dry sand, approximately 1.6 g/cm3. The low value founds hits at the possibility of an "emptiness" in the subsoil of "Montone" hill, attribuiting to the possible

  10. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  11. The effect of Kingston Harbour outflow on the zooplankton populations of Hellshire, south-east coast, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Mona K.

    1991-06-01

    Zooplankton sampling was conducted at 16 stations located at the mouth of Kingston Harbour and throughout the Hellshire area from November 1985 to March 1987. Parameters examined included total biomass, total numbers and numbers of numerically important zooplankton species. Maximum values were recorded west of the Harbour mouth (station 1) and these gradually decreased with distance from the Harbour especially at the 'offshore' stations, producing a gradient effect in this area. Mean biomass and abundance for the period sampled ranged from 14 g m -3 and 16 313 individuals m -3 at the western side of the Harbour mouth to 0·4 g m -3 and 172 individuals m -3 at Wreck Reef. Stations within the bays of Hellshire occasionally had values similar to those recorded at the mouth of Kingston Harbour and here there was less evidence of a gradual decline. Considerable monthly fluctuation occurred in these parameters but there was no discernible seasonal pattern. Copepods dominated the population at most stations and the sergestid Lucifer faxoni also proved an important member at the western Harbour mouth station.

  12. Why should we pay more for layout designers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samee U.

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the Passive Optical Network (PON) deployment on an arbitrary grid with guarenteed p-1 equipment failure. We show that this problem in general is NP-hard. We propose an algorithm, which guarantees a solution of 4-approximation to the optimal deployment, and further argue that this is the best lower bound achievable in our case.A basic architecture of PON is shown in figure 1.The main component of PON is an optical splitter device. Depending on which direction the light is travelling, it splits the incoming light and distributes it to multiple fibers towards Optical Network Termination (ONT), or combines it into one towards Optical Line Terminal (OLT). The PON technology uses a double-star architecture. The first star topology centers at the OLT, and the second at the optical splitter. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION: We can formulate the problem of optimal p-1 fault-tolerent PON Network Layout (PNL)as a graph theoretical problem. Consider a graph G(V,E), such that V represent the physical locations of the subscriber's, CO, and another location acquired by the CO to expand its network, and E represent the communication lines between two Vi's. If there is no direct communication line c(i,j) between Vi and Vj, we consider the shortest path between them measured in terms of simple distance or cost constraints. Without the loss of generality we assume that c(i,j)=c(j,i). For simplicity we do not further sub-divide V into the obvious categories that represent the locations of OLT, ONT, CO, optical splitters and the subscribers. We can now formulate the PNL problem as follows: "Given an undirected graph G, find the locations of ONTs and splitters such that the cost of the equipment is minimized and for QoS the maximum distance from an ONT to the pth splitter and from a splitter to the pth OLT is minimized". We assume that the OLT is residing inside the CO. The problem definition does not consider the optimization of ONT to the customer premises. This is due

  13. Progress on building design and site layout, and preparation for procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haange, R.

    2004-01-01

    The ITER site layout and buildings retain many of the major features worked out for the original 1998 design of ITER. By mid-2001, the design had been adjusted to take account of the reductions in size of the tokamak and in the performance and capability of its supporting plant systems, with a view to providing a building construction cost reduction near the target of 50%. The present status of the site layout and buildings is that, with the exception of the hot cell building, designs are available for the ITER buildings and site layout, in different degrees of detail, ready for final review as soon as the drawings and 3D models have been updated. The ITER site layout is determined by the functions of the various plant systems provided in support of the ITER tokamak. These systems are located in different buildings on the ITER site. Changes in the plant layout inside buildings can, therefore, have an important impact on the overall site layout. The general layout of the site assumes electrical power comes in from the west, heat rejection is on the east, access into the main building for assembly is from the south, and removal of waste is from the north. These orientations are purely notional, determining only the relative positions. Both the European and Japanese potential ITER sites will most likely use seismic isolation of the main tokamak complex. As a result, the detailed design of these buildings and in particular the piping connections to them developed for the 'generic' ITER site will require redesign. Also, the footprint of the main tokamak complex will increase, and hence the layout of the utility tunnel network will have to be updated. A draft Site Facilities Procurement Specification has been written by the International Team. This will require considerable specific input when the site has been selected. Furthermore, the present site layout will have to be reviewed in detail. The generic site has been kept compact. Once a site is available, it may be

  14. Layout de teclado para uma prancha de comunicação alternativa e ampliada Keyboard layout for an augmentative and alternative communication board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Aparecida Liegel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever e discutir a proposta de um novo layout de teclado projetado especialmente para uma prancha de comunicação alternativa com acionamento mecânico e remoto, para ser utilizado por portadores de paralisia cerebral com capacidade cognitiva preservada. Para compor o layout do teclado de comunicação alternativa, realizou-se uma pesquisa envolvendo disposição e conteúdo das teclas. Participaram do estudo onze voluntárias, sendo: cinco professoras de educação especial, quatro pedagogas especializadas em educação especial e duas fonoaudiólogas. O layout é composto por 95 teclas dispostas em grupos de teclas: alfabéticas, de letras acentuadas, numéricas, de funções e de comunicação alternativa e ampliada. As teclas de comunicação alternativa, contêm ícones associados à palavras ou frases, além de teclas acentuadas. Os ícones contemplados fazem parte de uma linguagem visual brasileira de comunicação, em desenvolvimento. Para auxiliar na localização, tanto o tamanho de teclas e caracteres quanto as cores de fundo das teclas diferenciadas foram utilizadas. As teclas com letras acentuadas e as teclas de comunicação alternativa visam facilitar e acelerar a digitação das mensagens, reduzindo assim o tempo de digitação e conseqüentemente, a ocorrência de fadiga muscular.The aim of this article is to describe and discuss a novel layout proposal for keyboard especially designed for a communication board using mechanical and remote activation to be used by people with cerebral paralysis who present sufficient cognitive skills. In order to design the layout of the augmentative and alternative communication keyboard, a research study involving position and content of the keys was undertaken. Eleven volunteers participated in the study, and they were: five special education teachers, four pedagogues specialized in special education and two speech and language therapists. The layout is made up

  15. RELOCATION OF HOME APPLIANCES FACTORY BY USING SYSTEMATICAL LAYOUT PLANNING (SLP COMBINED WITH FLOW ANALYSIS AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Adji Baskoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every manufacturing company must have experiencing building a layout. Fred.E Meyers has stated that only death and taxes are certain, there exist a third certainty-a plant layout will change, thus many methods to generate layout are established and each has its own purposes and benefits. This research focused on the design of manufacturing facilities supported by in-depth analysis of Assembly process design with a high stresses on the Systematical Layout Planning ( SLP and Flow Analysis method to facilitate an outcome of layout accordingly to the system needs. This is a real case study conducts with an objective of generating a recommendation layout for Home Appliances Company specifically for television plant

  16. Spatial layout optimization design of multi-type LEDs lighting source based on photoelectrothermal coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyun; Li, Guang; Chen, Qingguang; Rao, Huanle; Xu, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Multiple LED-based spectral synthesis technology has been widely used in the fields of solar simulator, color mixing, and artificial lighting of plant factory and so on. Generally, amounts of LEDs are spatially arranged with compact layout to obtain the high power density output. Mutual thermal spreading among LEDs will produce the coupled thermal effect which will additionally increase the junction temperature of LED. Affected by the Photoelectric thermal coupling effect of LED, the spectrum of LED will shift and luminous efficiency will decrease. Correspondingly, the spectral synthesis result will mismatch. Therefore, thermal management of LED spatial layout plays an important role for multi-LEDs light source system. In the paper, the thermal dissipation network topology model considering the mutual thermal spreading effect among the LEDs is proposed for multi-LEDs system with various types of power. The junction temperature increment cased by the thermal coupling has the great relation with the spatial arrangement. To minimize the thermal coupling effect, an optimized method of LED spatial layout for the specific light source structure is presented and analyzed. The results showed that layout of LED with high-power are arranged in the corner and low-power in the center. Finally, according to this method, it is convenient to determine the spatial layout of LEDs in a system having any kind of light source structure, and has the advantages of being universally applicable to facilitate adjustment.

  17. Equipment Layout Improvement for Large-Scale Hot Cell Facility Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungnam Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents approaches to equipment layout improvement for a large-scale hot cell facility. First, the original facility layout and target process are introduced, including the basic information and specifications. Second, the flow of process materials is analyzed and the relationships are evaluated in detail using a “from-to chart” and a “relationship chart” for the original layout, and the logistics are simulated using the selected discrete event simulator to calculate the traveling distances of process materials handled by teleoperated material handling systems. Third, the original layout is modified using the total closeness rating (TCR, and the efficiency and usage of the material handling system are calculated and compared with the original case to evaluate the efficiency improvement of the modified layout. This modification process, which included load reduction, enabled those aspects of the material handling system that would need to be changed to be identified; these changes were suggested by a quantitative analysis of the logistics between each pair of stations and intuitive rearrangement based on charts and figures. These approaches could be an initial step in the large-scale hot cell design process, with future work to follow.

  18. Conversion of KEGG metabolic pathways to SBGN maps including automatic layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, Tobias; Wybrow, Michael; Marriott, Kim; Schreiber, Falk

    2013-08-16

    Biologists make frequent use of databases containing large and complex biological networks. One popular database is the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) which uses its own graphical representation and manual layout for pathways. While some general drawing conventions exist for biological networks, arbitrary graphical representations are very common. Recently, a new standard has been established for displaying biological processes, the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), which aims to unify the look of such maps. Ideally, online repositories such as KEGG would automatically provide networks in a variety of notations including SBGN. Unfortunately, this is non-trivial, since converting between notations may add, remove or otherwise alter map elements so that the existing layout cannot be simply reused. Here we describe a methodology for automatic translation of KEGG metabolic pathways into the SBGN format. We infer important properties of the KEGG layout and treat these as layout constraints that are maintained during the conversion to SBGN maps. This allows for the drawing and layout conventions of SBGN to be followed while creating maps that are still recognizably the original KEGG pathways. This article details the steps in this process and provides examples of the final result.

  19. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-09-04

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used.

  20. Study to optimize a disposal tunnel layout taking into account heterogeneous characteristics of the geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Yasuhiro; Toida, Masaru; Yanagizawa, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The geological environment has spatially heterogeneous characteristics with varied host rock types, fractures and so on. In this case the generic disposal tunnel layout, which has been designed by JNC, is not the most suitable for HLW disposal in Japan. The existence of spatially heterogeneous characteristics means that in the repository region there exist sub-regions that are more favorable from the perspective of long-term safety and ones that are less favorable. In order that the spatially heterogeneous environment itself may be utilized most effectively as an NBS, an alternative design of disposal tunnel layout is required. Focusing on the geological environment with spatially heterogeneous characteristics, the authors have developed an alternative design of disposal tunnel layout. The alternative design adopts an optimization approach using a 'variable disposal tunnel layout'. The optimization approach minimizes the number of locations where major water conducting fractures are intersected, and maximizes the number of emplacement locations for waste packages. This paper will outline the variable disposal tunnel layout and its applicability. (author)

  1. Impact of Furniture Layout on Indoor Daylighting Performance in Existing Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, home-based computing workspaces have developed substantially all over the world, especially in Malaysia. This growing trend attracts computer workers to run a business from their residential units. Hence, visual comfort needs to be considered in addition to thermal comfort for home workers in their residential working rooms. While such rooms are always occupied with furniture, the layout of the furniture may influence the indoor daylighting distribution. Several various furniture layouts can be arranged in a residential working room. However, to have better generalisation, this study focused on the impacts of mostly-used-furniture-layouts (MUFLs on indoor daylighting performance in residential working rooms. The field measurement was conducted in a typically furnished room under a tropical sky to validate the results of the simulation software under different sky conditions. Then, daylight ratio (DR, as a quantitative daylighting variable, and the illuminance uniformity ratio (IUR, CIE glare index (CGI, and Guth visual comfort probability (GVCP, as qualitative daylighting variables, were analysed through simulation experiments. In conclusion, by changing the furniture layout, daylight uniformity recorded the highest fluctuations in the case room among all variables. While various furniture layouts, in a residential working room in the tropics, may even slightly reduce the extreme indoor daylight quantity, they can worsen the indoor daylight quality compared to an unfurnished space. The paper shows that furniture as an interior design parameter cannot help to improve tropical daylighting performance in a building.

  2. Multiobjective Optimization for Fixture Locating Layout of Sheet Metal Part Using SVR and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixture plays a significant role in determining the sheet metal part (SMP spatial position and restraining its excessive deformation in many manufacturing operations. However, it is still a difficult task to design and optimize SMP fixture locating layout at present because there exist multiple conflicting objectives and excessive computational cost of finite element analysis (FEA during the optimization process. To this end, a new multiobjective optimization method for SMP fixture locating layout is proposed in this paper based on the support vector regression (SVR surrogate model and the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. By using ABAQUS™ Python script interface, a parametric FEA model is established. And the fixture locating layout is treated as design variables, while the overall deformation and maximum deformation of SMP under external forces are as the multiple objective functions. First, a limited number of training and testing samples are generated by combining Latin hypercube design (LHD with FEA. Second, two SVR prediction models corresponding to the multiple objectives are established by learning from the limited training samples and are integrated as the multiobjective optimization surrogate model. Third, NSGA-II is applied to determine the Pareto optimal solutions of SMP fixture locating layout. Finally, a multiobjective optimization for fixture locating layout of an aircraft fuselage skin case is conducted to illustrate and verify the proposed method.

  3. Improving Tumor Treating Fields Treatment Efficacy in Patients With Glioblastoma Using Personalized Array Layouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, Cornelia; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J.; Miranda, Pedro C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate tumors of different size, shape, and location and the effect of varying transducer layouts on Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) distribution in an anisotropic model. Methods and Materials: A realistic human head model was generated from MR images of 1 healthy subject. Four different virtual tumors were placed at separate locations. The transducer arrays were modeled to mimic the TTFields-delivering commercial device. For each tumor location, varying array layouts were tested. The finite element method was used to calculate the electric field distribution, taking into account tissue heterogeneity and anisotropy. Results: In all tumors, the average electric field induced by either of the 2 perpendicular array layouts exceeded the 1-V/cm therapeutic threshold value for TTFields effectiveness. Field strength within a tumor did not correlate with its size and shape but was higher in more superficial tumors. Additionally, it always increased when the array was adapted to the tumor's location. Compared with a default layout, the largest increase in field strength was 184%, and the highest average field strength induced in a tumor was 2.21 V/cm. Conclusions: These results suggest that adapting array layouts to specific tumor locations can significantly increase field strength within the tumor. Our findings support the idea of personalized treatment planning to increase TTFields efficacy for patients with GBM.

  4. Production facility layout by comparing moment displacement using BLOCPLAN and ALDEP Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambunan, M.; Ginting, E.; Sari, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    Production floor layout settings include the organizing of machinery, materials, and all the equipments used in the production process in the available area. PT. XYZ is a company that manufactures rubber and rubber compounds for retreading tire threaded with hot and cold cooking system. In the production of PT. XYZ is divided into three interrelated parts, namely Masterbatch Department, Department Compound, and Procured Thread Line Department. PT. XYZ has a production process with material flow is irregular and the arrangement of machine is complicated and need to be redesigned. The purpose of this study is comparing movement displacement using BLOCPLAN and ALDEP algorithm in order to redesign existing layout. Redesigning the layout of the production floor is done by applying algorithms of BLOCPLAN and ALDEP. The algorithm used to find the best layout design by comparing the moment displacement and the flow pattern. Moment displacement on the floor layout of the company’s production currently amounts to 2,090,578.5 meters per year and material flow pattern is irregular. Based on the calculation, the moment displacement for the BLOCPLAN is 1,551,344.82 meter per year and ALDEP is 1,600,179 meter per year. Flow Material resulted is in the form of straight the line.

  5. Efficient Digital Signage-Based Online Store Layout: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fazal Ijaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s era of information technology, human computer interaction and interface design are critical factors for a successful retail business. In a virtual world, the purpose of store layout is to create an environment that fascinates customers, entices them to spend more time in the store and encourages them to purchase from the store. The accomplishment of a successful retail business relies on a quick response and the adoption of new technologies that simplify the customer’s shopping experience. Virtual stores play a vital role in enhancing the success of a retail business. Nowadays, digital signage is widely used to publicize different store contents. The aim of this paper is to select a distinct layout that can be used in digital signage. To enhance Customer Relationship Management (CRM, digital signage can be installed in various contexts, such as metro stations, shopping centers, airplane terminals, and so on. The proposed system scans the Quick Response (QR code of a product, and the product then arrives at the user end. The tree, pipeline and guiding pathway layouts are employed in the context of digital signage. A questionnaire is used to determine customers’ opinions on the most efficient layout. The statistical results show that layout significantly affects customer’s behavior. Moreover, human computer interaction can help understand more about the customer’s interaction with digital signage.

  6. Layout of PWR in-core instrumentation system tubing and support structure with Bechtel 3D-CADD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, T.; Pfeifer, B.W.; Mulay, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization study of the PWR In-Core Instrumentation System (ICIS) tubing layout and support structure presented an opportunity to utilize the Bechtel 3D-CADD program to perform this task. This paper provides a brief summary of the Bechtel 3D-CADD program development and capabilities and outlines the process of developing and optimizing the ICIS tube layout. Specific aspects relating to the ICIS tube layout criteria, support, alignment, electronic interference check and erection sequence are provided. (orig.)

  7. Bosaso Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Toschi, P.B; Turrio, E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with some design and construction aspects related to the new port at Bosaso, which is the terminal of the newly completed road system which connects northern Somalia with Mogadishu in the south. The port and the road project was financed by The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Funding...

  8. Investigating Effects of Screen Layout Elements on Interface and Screen Design Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed Altaboli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent study suggested the use of the screen layout elements of balance, unity, and sequence as a part of a computational model of interface aesthetics. It is argued that these three elements are the most contributed terms in the model. In the current study, a controlled experiment was designed and conducted to systematically investigate effects of these three elements (balance, unity, and sequence on the perceived interface aesthetics. Results showed that the three elements have significant effects on the perceived interface aesthetics. Significant interactions were also found among the three elements. A regression model relating the perceived visual aesthetics to the three elements was constructed. When validating the model using standard questionnaire scores of real web pages, high correlations were found between the values computed by the model and scores of questionnaire items related to visual layout of the web pages, indicating that layout-based measures are good at assessing the classical dimension of website aesthetics.

  9. How high is visual short-term memory capacity for object layout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sellers, Eric; Mittelstadt, Jeff; Sulman, Noah

    2010-05-01

    Previous research measuring visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that the capacity for representing the layout of objects is fairly high. In four experiments, we further explored the capacity of VSTM for layout of objects, using the change detection method. In Experiment 1, participants retained most of the elements in displays of 4 to 8 elements. In Experiments 2 and 3, with up to 20 elements, participants retained many of them, reaching a capacity of 13.4 stimulus elements. In Experiment 4, participants retained much of a complex naturalistic scene. In most cases, increasing display size caused only modest reductions in performance, consistent with the idea of configural, variable-resolution grouping. The results indicate that participants can retain a substantial amount of scene layout information (objects and locations) in short-term memory. We propose that this is a case of remote visual understanding, where observers' ability to integrate information from a scene is paramount.

  10. Visualization of the Evolution of Layout Metrics for Business Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haisjackl, Cornelia; Burattin, Andrea; Soffer, Pnina

    2017-01-01

    Considerable progress regarding impact factors of process model understandability has been achieved. For example, it has been shown that layout features of process models have an effect on model understandability. Even so, it appears that our knowledge about the modeler’s behavior regarding...... the layout of a model is very limited. In particular, research focuses on the end product or the outcome of the process modeling act rather than the act itself. This paper extends existing research by opening this black box and introducing an enhanced technique enabling the visual analysis of the modeler......’s behavior towards layout. We demonstrate examples showing that our approach provides valuable insights to better understand and support the creation of process models. Additionally, we sketch challenges impeding this support for future research....

  11. Diagram Size vs. Layout Flaws: Understanding Quality Factors of UML Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2016-01-01

    , though, is our third goal of extending our analysis aspects of diagram quality. Method: We improve our definition of diagram size and add a (provisional) definition of diagram quality as the number of topographic layout flaws. We apply these metrics on 60 diagrams of the five most commonly used types...... of UML diagram. We carefully analyze the structure of our diagram samples to ensure representativeness. We correlate diagram size and layout quality with modeler performance data obtained in previous experiments. The data set is the largest of its kind (n-156). Results: We replicate earlier findings......, and extend them to two new diagram types. We provide an improved definition of diagram size, and provide a definition of topographic layout quality, which is one more step towards a comprehensive definition of diagram quality as such. Both metrics are shown to be objectively applicable. We quantify...

  12. Model-based strategy for cell culture seed train layout verified at lab scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Simon; Platas-Barradas, Oscar; Pörtner, Ralf; Frahm, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Cell culture seed trains-the generation of a sufficient viable cell number for the inoculation of the production scale bioreactor, starting from incubator scale-are time- and cost-intensive. Accordingly, a seed train offers potential for optimization regarding its layout and the corresponding proceedings. A tool has been developed to determine the optimal points in time for cell passaging from one scale into the next and it has been applied to two different cell lines at lab scale, AGE1.HN AAT and CHO-K1. For evaluation, experimental seed train realization has been evaluated in comparison to its layout. In case of the AGE1.HN AAT cell line, the results have also been compared to the formerly manually designed seed train. The tool provides the same seed train layout based on the data of only two batches.

  13. A spectral algorithm for fast de novo layout of uncorrected long nanopore reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Antoine; Brüls, Thomas; d'Aspremont, Alexandre

    2017-10-15

    New long read sequencers promise to transform sequencing and genome assembly by producing reads tens of kilobases long. However, their high error rate significantly complicates assembly and requires expensive correction steps to layout the reads using standard assembly engines. We present an original and efficient spectral algorithm to layout the uncorrected nanopore reads, and its seamless integration into a straightforward overlap/layout/consensus (OLC) assembly scheme. The method is shown to assemble Oxford Nanopore reads from several bacterial genomes into good quality (∼99% identity to the reference) genome-sized contigs, while yielding more fragmented assemblies from the eukaryotic microbe Sacharomyces cerevisiae. https://github.com/antrec/spectrassembler. antoine.recanati@inria.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Considering induction factor using BEM method in wind farm layout optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Dehghan, M.; Torabi, F.

    2014-01-01

    For wind farm layout optimization process, a simple linear model has been mostly used for considering the wake effect of a wind turbine on its downstream turbines. In this model, the wind velocity in the wake behind a turbine is obtained as a function of turbine induction factor which was conside......For wind farm layout optimization process, a simple linear model has been mostly used for considering the wake effect of a wind turbine on its downstream turbines. In this model, the wind velocity in the wake behind a turbine is obtained as a function of turbine induction factor which...... and consequently influences the farm layout in optimization process. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Effects of scene content and layout on the perceived light direction in 3D spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-08-01

    The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to investigate how the perception of the light direction is influenced by a scene's objects and their layout using real scenes. In the first experiment, we confirmed that the shape of the objects in the scene and the scene layout influence the perceived light direction. In the second experiment, we systematically investigated how specific shape properties influenced the estimation of the light direction. The results showed that increasing the number of visible faces of an object, ultimately using globally spherical shapes in the scene, supported the veridicality of the estimated light direction. Furthermore, symmetric arrangements in the scene improved the estimation of the tilt direction. Thus, human perception of light should integrally consider materials, scene content, and layout.

  16. Low Carbon Design Research on the Space Layout Types of Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing

    2018-01-01

    It is beneficial to find out the relationship of the spatial layout and low-carbon design in order to reduce buildings’ carbon emissions in the conceptual design phase. This paper analyzes and compares shape coefficient values, annual energy consumption and lighting performance of office buildings of different space layout types in Shanghai. Based on morphological characteristics of different types, the study also analyzes and presents low-carbon design strategies for each single type. This study assumes that architects should conduct passive and active design according to the specific building space layout, so that to make best use of the advantages and bypassing the disadvantages, in order to maximally reduce buildings’ carbon emissions.

  17. LAYOUT CELULAR: PROPOSTA E IMPLANTAÇÃO EM EMPRESA START-UP DE TECNOLOGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Almeida Dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A escolha correta de um layout proporciona à organização se adaptar para melhor utilizar seus recursos em busca da melhoria contínua. A presente pesquisa, apresenta a elaboração e implantação de um layout celular tendo por base o uso das ferramentas de processos, Fluxograma, 5W2H e Diagrama de causa e efeito, no apoio da tomada de decisão do melhor layout a ser implantado.  Diante do exposto, o escopo da pesquisa objetiva apresentar a implantação do layout celular em uma empresa start-up de tecnologia, bem como os resultados obtidos mediante a proposta apresentada. Como metodologia de pesquisa, definiu-se o presente estudo como um estudo de caso, onde foi possível realizar a análise da estrutura física que corresponde a 60 m² de área de produção, para implementar o layout celular. Como principal resultado obtido destaca-se o sucesso da implantação, onde, o mesmo atendeu todas as necessidades de fabricação do produto na organização pesquisada. Concomitantemente a evolução do layout, foram definidos quatro postos de trabalho, onde se tem a entrada de MP (matéria-prima em A e a saída do produto acabado em D, conforme exposto nos resultados.

  18. ALTERAÇÃO DE UM LAYOUT FUNCIONAL PARA LAYOUT CELULAR MOTIVADO PELOS FUNDAMENTOS DA MANUFATURA ENXUTA: ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DE TRANSFORMADORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Crisóstomo Gadelha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta o estudo de uma alteração de layout, de funcional para celular, motivado pelos fundamentos da manufatura enxuta. Tendo como objetivo verificar os benefícios de se utilizar a manufatura celular com fluxo enxuto (contínuo, apresenta como metodologia um estudo de caso, pós-fato, em uma indústria de transformadores, onde a mudança foi realizada. Para fundamentar o estudo, apresenta revisão dos temas: Sistema de Manufatura Enxuta e layout industrial, para, em seguida, trazer os dados apresentados por esta indústria, ainda em um arranjo físico funcional, antes da alteração, e, em seguida, nas células de manufatura com um fluxo enxuto, após a alteração, e realizar uma comparação entre ambos. Os resultados obtidos desta comparação apresentam ganhos como aumento de produção, em 20%, e produtividade, em 56%, redução de lead time, em 67%, mão de obra direta, em 30%, tempo de processamento, em 20%, e área fabril, em 24%, dentre outros, evidenciando os benefícios que a utilização de um layout celular e Manufatura Enxuta proporcionam.

  19. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Veronica A; Codi King, Susan; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of <0.10 to 6.29±0.16 ng/L while levels of androgenic activity ranged from dihydrotestosterone equivalency quotients (DHTEQs) of <3.50 to 138.23±3.71 ng/L. Environmental concentrations of organic microcontaminants were comparable to ranges reported from aquatic environments worldwide with sewage effluent discharges representing the dominant source of entry into Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Variable Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy in a family harbouring variants in both FZD4 and TSPAN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Patrik; Khan, Arif O

    2017-11-01

    To report a family affected by familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) in which more severe disease phenotypes segregated with digenic rather than monogenic variants in FEVR-related genes. Phenotype was documented with high-resolution imaging of retinal structure and wide-field fundus photography. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of known genes involved in FEVR was performed. Three affected individuals within a family with FEVR presented with variable disease severity. All three affected family members harboured mutation c.349T>C (p.Cys117Arg) in FZD4. In addition, the youngest family member, a 9-year-old boy, who presented with bilateral tractional retinal detachment, and his mother, who presented with retinal pigmentary alterations and bilateral dragging of the macula and atrophy, both harboured the variant c.565T>C (p.Cys189Arg) in TSPAN12. Both suffered from bilateral severe visual loss. On the other hand, the older sister who presented with mild visual loss, temporal avascularity in the right eye and dragging of the blood vessels over the disc and macula in the left eye did not harbour the variant p.Cys189Arg in TSPAN12. These data suggest variants in more than one FEVR-related gene can underlie variable expressivity for FEVR phenotypes in a single family. Further studies of phenotype-genotype correlation, including next-generation sequencing, in larger cohorts of patients with FEVR are needed to investigate whether changes in more than one gene coding for proteins in the Norrin-β-catenin pathway are a recurrent cause for variable expressivity in the disease. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Tabu search approaches for the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. Q.; Lai, K. K.

    2010-08-01

    A new multi-level warehouse layout problem, the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints (MLWLPAC), is investigated. The same item type is required to be located in adjacent cells, and horizontal and vertical unit travel costs are product dependent. An integer programming model is proposed to formulate the problem, which is NP hard. Along with a cube-per-order index policy based heuristic, the standard tabu search (TS), greedy TS, and dynamic neighbourhood based TS are presented to solve the problem. The computational results show that the proposed approaches can reduce the transportation cost significantly.

  2. Electrical Parasitics and Thermal Modeling for Optimized Layout Design of High Power SiC Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Dutta, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    and parasitic inductance models of SiC power modules. These models can replace the models by Finite Element Methods (FEM) to predict temperatures and electrical parasitics of power modules with much faster speed and acceptable errors and will be used for study of real operation of power modules. As a case study......, the presented models are verified by a conventional and an optimized power module layout. The optimized layout is designed based on the reduction of stray inductance and temperature in a P-cell and N-cell half-bridge module. The presented models are verified by FEM simulations and also experiment....

  3. Seismic and layout design for a tank-type fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, L.; Yamaki, Hideo; Davies, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    Hitachi Ltd. of Japan, with the assistance of the Bechtel Group, Inc. and the General Electric Company of the US, initiated a conceptual design study of a compact tank-type LMFBR. The Bechtel work concentrated on layout of the nuclear island (NI), and its orientation with respect to the Control (CB) and Turbine (TGB) Buildings. This joint effort was carried out during 1982 and 1983 in four steps. Each step produced improvements in the design and reduced the plant size and cost. This paper described the design evolution and the final result with respect to Bechtel's development of the NI layout

  4. Layout of NALM fiber laser with adjustable peak power of generated pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Ivanenko, Alexey; Kokhanovskiy, Alexey; Kemmer, Anna; Gervaziev, Mikhail

    2017-05-01

    The Letter proposes a new layout of a passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) with two stretches of active fiber and two independently controlled pump modules. In contrast with conventional NALM configurations using a single piece of active fiber that yields virtually constant peak power, the proposed novel laser features larger than a factor of 2 adjustment range of peak power of generated pulses. The proposed layout also provides independent adjustment of duration and peak power of generated pulses as well as power-independent control of generated pulse spectral width impossible in NALM lasers with a single piece of active fiber.

  5. Optimization of lens layout for THz signal free-space delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jimmy; Zhou, Wen

    2018-03-01

    We investigate how to extend the air-space distance for Terahertz (THz) signal by using optimized lens layout. After a delivery over 129.6 cm air-space we realize the BER of 10 Gb/s QPSK signal at 450 GHz smaller than 1 ×10-4 with this optimized lens layout. If only two lenses are employed, the BER is higher than forward error correction (FEC) threshold at the input power of 15 dBm into the photodiode.

  6. Effect of Asymmetric Layout of IGBT Modules on Reliability of Power Inverters in Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Vernica, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    An IGBT module has typically multiple power devices for some technical and cost advantages. This kind of configurations could have an asymmetric layout, which may lead to different thermal loadings and thereby lifetime difference of the power devices. Therefore, both the power rating and lifetime...... of inverters are limited by the most stressed devices. However, generally common data is provided for all devices and this may cause improper design of the inverters in terms of power rating and lifetime. In this paper, the effect of an asymmetric layout of IGBT modules on the reliability of power inverters...

  7. Note: Optimization of magnifying a polarization angle with Littrow layout blazed gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, H; Arakawa, H; Imazawa, R; Kawano, Y; Itami, K; Kubo, H

    2017-03-01

    Magnification of a polarization angle with Littrow layout gratings has been developed. High magnification with a factor of 7.7 using two gratings in Littrow layout was experimentally proved. The magnification range was investigated by calculation at a wavelength of 10.6 μm. The method can be applied for a high magnification factor >30. Larger groove numbers and smaller blaze angles are suitable for the large magnification. Statistical fluctuation of the diffracted polarization angle is compared with that of the incident polarization angle.

  8. The application of excess shear stress to the design of mine layouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, J.A.L.

    1987-12-01

    The application of excess shear stress as an aid to the design of mine layout is reviewed, and the critical parameters required to describe slip on a plane of weakness are noted. A design procedure that is required to model the cyclic build-up of excess shear stress is described. A number of simple examples of mine layouts on two reef planes intersecting a fault plane are then considered to illustrate the application of the design concept and to highlight some of the pitfalls that may be encountered. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The Characteristics Of Malay House Spatial Layout Of Pekanbaru In Accordance With Islamic Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Boby

    2017-12-01

    House is not only is a place to get rest and do activities bu also treated as a pride for the Malay community. The values contained in the spatial layout of the house have specific meaning to the owners. This makes the Malay house becomes the symbol of pride to uphold the “tuah” and dignity of the owner. This research is conducted using qualitative approach through management and data management available through several methods such as observation, interview, documentation and group discussion. This is expected to provide understanding of the perception of Islam dealing with the characteristics of the spatial layout of the Malay house of Pekanbaru.

  10. Layout Determining Features, their Influence Zones and Respect Distances at the Olkiluoto Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pere, T.; Ahokas, H.; Vaittinen, T.; Wikstroem, L.

    2012-12-01

    Fault zones located at the site of an underground nuclear waste repository may pose a risk to the repository by acting as potential hosts for earthquakes during the present day or future stress fields and having the possibility to induce secondary displacements on nearby large fractures, which may damage the nuclear waste canisters, if being intersected by such fractures. The fault zones may additionally provide possible flow routes, important for the transport of radionuclides and the chemical stability of the repository. It is therefore important to identify such structures, defined as layout determining features (LDF), and to assess their influence on the surrounding host rock and to determine respect volumes to the structures, which are avoided in the layout planning in order to mitigate the possible harmful effects to the repository. Fault zones with a trace length of 3 km or more are considered as layout determining features as these can potentially host an earthquake of a magnitude of 5.5 or more and may thus induce secondary displacements larger than 5 cm on nearby fractures, which is held as the current canister damage threshold premise. Fault zones with a size less than 3 km are considered unlikely candidates to induce secondary displacements of 5 cm or larger. In addition to the earthquake potential, hydrogeological zones with high T -value (geometrical mean T ≤ 10 -6 m 2 /s) and large dimensions (at least several hundred metres) are also defined as layout determining features. For each layout determining feature an influence zone is defined, depicting a volume around a fault zone or a hydrogeological zone with increased fracture density and permeability, often also called as damage zones in the scientific literature. Influence zones are therefore considered as mechanically weak and/or transmissive parts of the host rock, which may cause harmful effects to the performance of the repository if intersecting deposition tunnels or deposition holes. In

  11. Multivariate methods for evaluating the efficiency of electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemometrics was used to develop a multivariate model based on 46 previously reported electrodialytic remediation experiments (EDR) of five different harbour sediments. The model predicted final concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn as a function of current density, remediation time, stirring rate......, dry/wet sediment, cell set-up as well as sediment properties. Evaluation of the model showed that remediation time and current density had the highest comparative influence on the clean-up levels. Individual models for each heavy metal showed variance in the variable importance, indicating...

  12. Gas exchange and heart rate in the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, J.Z.; Chambers, C.; Hunter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The respiratory physiology, heart rates and metabolic rates of two captive juvenile male harbour porpoises (both 28 kg) were measured using a rapid-response respiratory gas analysis system in the laboratory. Breath-hold durations in the laboratory (12 +/- 0.3 s, mean +/- SEM) were shorter than...... field observations. although a few breath-holds of over 40 s were recorded. The mean percentage time spent submerged was 89 +/- 0.4%. Relative to similarly-sized terrestrial mammals, the respiratory frequency was low (4.9 +/- 0.19 breaths min(-1)) but with high tidal volumes (1.1 +/- 0.01 l), enabling...

  13. Cetacean noise criteria revisited in the light of proposed exposure limits for harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob; Wright, Andrew John; Madsen, Professor Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    that harbour and finless porpoises are more sensitive to sound than expected from extrapolations based on results from bottlenose dolphins. Furthermore, the results from TTS experiments and field studies of behavioural reactions to noise, suggest that response thresholds and TTS critically depend on stimulus...... frequency. Sound exposure levels for pure tones that induce TTS are reasonably consistent at about 100 dB above the hearing threshold for pure tones and sound pressure thresholds for avoidance reactions are in the range of 40–50 dB above the hearing threshold. We propose that frequency weighting...

  14. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frouin, Heloise; Lebeuf, Michel; Saint-Louis, Richard; Hammill, Mike; Pelletier, Emilien; Fournier, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  15. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie M J M Brasseur

    Full Text Available Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%, suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%. The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately

  16. Oil spills in open seas and harbours - impact on marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the environmental impacts of sea water near Karachi (Pakistan) harbour (Arabian Sea) are discussed. The water pollution is caused due to oil leakage from ships. The toxicity of various oils (crude oils and refined oils) to different species of marine varies greatly. The second main source of water is municipal waste water. For the control of sea water pollution, there must be education as lack of awareness of the public to ask for clean beaches and absence of coordination between concerned oil companies, tanker operating agencies, port authorities and government (A.B.)

  17. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouin, Heloise [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: heloise.frouin@iaf.inrs.ca; Lebeuf, Michel [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Saint-Louis, Richard [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Hammill, Mike [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  18. Harbour seal Phoca vitulina movement patterns in the high-Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Marie-Anne Ermeline; Lydersen, Christian; Ims, Rolf Anker; Lowther, Andrew D.; Kovacs, Kit

    2014-01-01

    Harbour seals Phoca vitulina are mainly considered a temperate species, but the world’s northernmost population resides year-round in the high-Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. In this study we document post-moulting at-sea movements of 30 individuals from this population using satellite relay data loggers deployed in the autumns of 2009 and 2010. All of the seals showed a strong preference for the west side of the archipelago, staying mainly in coastal areas (50%) but did occupy...

  19. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  20. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...