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Sample records for deep geological structures

  1. Problems of solidificated radioactive wastes burial into deep geological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Shishcits, I.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    Perspectives are noted of the radioactive wastes burial into deep geopogical structures. For these purposes it has been proposed to investigate severap types of rocks, which do not have intensive gas-generation when beeng heated; salt deposits and clays. Basing on the results of calculations it has been shown that the dimentions of zones of substantial deformations in the case of the high-level radioactive wastes burial to not exceed several hundreds of meters. Conclusion is made that in the case of choosing the proper geotogicat structure for burial and ir the case of inclusion in the structure of the burial site a zone of sanitary alienation, it is possible to isolate wastes safely for all the period of preservation. Preliminary demands have been formulated to geological structures and underground burial sites. As main tasks for optimizatiop of burial sited are considered: determination of necessary types, number and reliability of barriers which ensure isolation of wastes; to make prognoses of the stressed and deformed state of a geological massif on the influence of thermal field; investigation in changes of chemical and physical properties of rocks under heat, radiative and chemical influence; estimation of possible diffusion of radioactivity in a mountin massif; development of a rational mining-thechnological schemes of the burual of wastes of different types. A row of tasks in the farmeworks of this probtem are sotved successfutty. Some resutts are given of the theoretical investigations in determination of zones of distructions of rocks because of heat-load [ru

  2. Study on the Geological Structure around KURT Using a Deep Borehole Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    To characterize geological features in study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing the several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drilling since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep borehole of 500 m depths was drilled to confirm and validate the geological model at the left research module of the KURT. The objective of this research was to identify the geological structures around KURT using the data obtained from the deep borehole investigation. To achieve the purpose, several geological investigations such as geophysical and borehole fracture surveys were carried out simultaneously. As a result, 7 fracture zones were identified in deep borehole located in the KURT. As one of important parts of site characterization on KURT area, the results will be used to revise the geological model of the study area

  3. Application of AMT in detecting deep geological structures in Lejia district of Xiangshan uranium ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shuxin; Liu Hu

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, exploration in Xiangshan uranium ore field shows that the intersection of faults and the interface of different rock formation and the basement is an important sign of deep ore- prospecting. In order to evaluate deep uranium resource in Lejia district, audio magnetotelluric method (AMT) was undertaken to carry out profile investigation. With that method, we discerned the interface of different rock formation and the basement successfully, and faults in the deep, which provides a good basis for the prediction of deep uranium resource. Drilling results show that AMT method has an obvious advantage in detecting deep geological structures in Xiangshan. (authors)

  4. Modelling of radionuclide transport along the underground access structures of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [SAM Switzerland GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Hayek, M. [AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    The arrangement and sealing of the access routes to a deep geological repository for radioactive waste should ensure that any radionuclide release from the emplacement rooms during the post closure phase does not by-pass the geological barriers of the repository system to a significant extent. The base case of the present study, where realistic values for the hydraulic properties of the seals and the associated excavation damage zones were assumed, assesses to what extent this is actually the case for different layout variants (ramp and shaft access and shaft access only). Furthermore, as a test of robustness of system performance against uncertainties related to such seals and the associated excavation damage zones, the present study also considers a broad spectrum of calculation cases including the hypothetical possibility that the seals perform much more poorly than expected and to check whether, consequently, the repository tunnel system and the access structures may provide significant release pathways. The study considers a generic repository system for high-level waste (HLW repository) and for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW repository), both with Opalinus Clay as the host rock. It also considers the alternative possibilities of a ramp or a shaft as the access route for material transport (waste packages, etc.) to the underground facilities. Additional shafts, e.g. for the transport of persons and for ventilation, are included in both cases. The overall modelling approach consists of three broad steps: (a) the network of tunnels and access structures is implemented in a flow model, which serves to calculate water flow rates along the tunnels and through the host rock; (b) all relevant transport paths are implemented in a radionuclide release and transport model, the water flow rates being obtained from the preceding flow model calculations; (c) individual effective dose rates arising from the radionuclides released from the considered repository

  5. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, Simone

    2010-09-01

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  6. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahland, Sandra; Hofmann, Michael; Bornemann, Otto; Heusermann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEO TM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  7. Topographic precursors and geological structures of deep-seated catastrophic landslides caused by Typhoon Talas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Tsou, Ching-Ying; Matsushi, Yuki; Hiraishi, Narumi; Matsuzawa, Makoto

    2013-11-01

    Typhoon Talas crossed the Japanese Islands between 2 and 5 September 2011, causing more than 70 deep-seated catastrophic landslides in a Jurassic to Paleogene-lower Miocene accretion complex. Detailed examination of the topographic features of 10 large landslides before the event, recorded on 1-m DEMs based on airborne laser scanner surveys, showed that all landslides had small scarps near their future crowns prior to the slide, and one landslide had linear depressions along its future crown as precursor topographic features. These scarps and linear depressions were caused by gravitational slope deformation that preceded the catastrophic failure. Although the scarps may have been enlarged by degradation, their sizes relative to the whole slopes suggest that minimal slope deformation had occurred in the period immediately before the catastrophic failure. The scarp ratio, defined as the ratio of length of a scarp to that of the whole slope both measured along the slope line, ranged from 5% to 21%. Careful examination of aerial photographs from another four large landslides, for which no high-resolution DEMs were available, suggested that they also developed scarps at their heads beforehand. Twelve of the 14 landslides we surveyed in the field had sliding surfaces with wedge-shaped discontinuities that consisted of faults and bedding, suggesting that the buildup of pore pressure occurs readily on wedge-shaped discontinuities in a gravitationally deformed rock body. Most of the faults were undulatory and were probably thrust faults that formed during accretion. Other types of gravitational deformation were also active; e.g., flexural toppling and buckling were observed to have preceded one landslide.

  8. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  9. Formation of secondary phases during deep geological final disposal of research reactor fuel elements. Structure and phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    For the assessment of a confident und sustainable final disposal of high level radioactive waste - fuel elements of german research reactors also account for such waste - in suitable, deep geological facilities, processes of the alteration of the disposed of waste and therefore the formation of the corrosion products, i. e. secondary phases must be well understood considering an accident scenario of a potential water inflow. In order to obtain secondary phases non-irradiated research reactor fuel elements (FR-BE) consisting of UAl x -Al were subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine (brine 2, salt repository) and to clay pore solution, respectively and furthermore of the type U 3 Si 2 -Al were solely subjected to magnesium chloride rich brine. Considering environmental aspects of final repositories the test conditions of the corrosion experiments were adjusted in a way that the temperature was kept constant at 90 C and a reducing anaerobic environment was ensured. As major objective of this research secondary phases, obtained from the autoclave experiments after appropriate processing and grain size separation have been identified and quantified. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the application of Rietveld refinement methods allowed the identification of the corrosion products and a quantitative assessment of crystalline and amorphous contents. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were additionally applied as a complementary method for the characterisation of the secondary phases. The qualitative phase analysis of the preprocessed secondary phases of the systems UAl x -Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al in brine 2 shows many similarities. Lesukite - an aluminium chloro hydrate - was observed for the first time considering the given experimental conditions. Further on different layered structures of the LDH type, iron oxyhydroxide and possibly iron chlorides, uncorroded residues of nuclear fuel and elementary iron were identified as well. Depending on preceding

  10. Assessment of deep geological environment condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Han, Kyung Won; Joen, Kwan Sik

    2003-05-01

    The main tasks of geoscientific study in the 2nd stage was characterized focusing mainly on a near-field condition of deep geologic environment, and aimed to generate the geologic input data for a Korean reference disposal system for high level radioactive wastes and to establish site characterization methodology, including neotectonic features, fracture systems and mechanical properties of plutonic rocks, and hydrogeochemical characteristics. The preliminary assessment of neotectonics in the Korean peninsula was performed on the basis of seismicity recorded, Quarternary faults investigated, uplift characteristics studied on limited areas, distribution of the major regional faults and their characteristics. The local fracture system was studied in detail from the data obtained from deep boreholes in granitic terrain. Through this deep drilling project, the geometrical and hydraulic properties of different fracture sets are statistically analysed on a block scale. The mechanical properties of intact rocks were evaluated from the core samples by laboratory testing and the in-situ stress conditions were estimated by a hydro fracturing test in the boreholes. The hydrogeochemical conditions in the deep boreholes were characterized based on hydrochemical composition and isotopic signatures and were attempted to assess the interrelation with a major fracture system. The residence time of deep groundwater was estimated by C-14 dating. For the travel time of groundwater between the boreholes, the methodology and equipment for tracer test were established

  11. Deep geological disposal research in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninci Martinez, Carlos A.; Ferreyra, Raul E.; Vullien, Alicia R.; Elena, Oscar; Lopez, Luis E.; Maloberti, Alejandro; Nievas, Humberto O.; Reyes, Nancy C.; Zarco, Juan J.; Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Maset, Elvira R.; Jolivet, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    Argentina shall require a deep geological repository for the final disposal of radioactive wastes, mainly high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel produced at two nuclear power plants and two research reactors. In the period 1980-1990 the first part of feasibility studies and a basic engineering project for a radioactive high level waste repository were performed. From the geological point of view it was based on the study of granitic rocks. The area of Sierra del Medio, Province of Chubut, was selected to carry out detailed geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies. Nevertheless, by the end of the eighties the project was socially rejected and CNEA decided to stop it at the beginning of the nineties. That decision was strongly linked with the little attention paid to social communication issues. Government authorities were under a strong pressure from social groups which demanded the interruption of the project, due to lack of information and the fear it generated. The lesson learned was: social communication activities shall be carried out very carefully in order to advance in the final disposal of HLW at deep geological repositories (author)

  12. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  13. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Coulon, S.; Joulian, C.; Garrido, F.; Ollivier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  14. Deep Structure of the Zone of Tolbachik Fissure Eruptions (Kamchatka, Klyuchevskoy Volcano Group): Evidence from a Complex of Geological and Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugaenko, Yu. A.; Saltykov, V. A.; Gorvatikov, A. V.; Stepanova, M. Yu.

    2018-05-01

    With the use of the method of low-frequency microseismic sounding, the configuration of the magmatic feeding system of the Tolbachinsky Dol—a regional zone of areal basaltic volcanism in the southern part of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group in Kamchatka—is studied. The initial data are obtained by a stepby-step recording of the background microseismic noise in 2010-2015 within a thoroughly marked-out survey area covering the zones of fissure eruptions in 1975-1976 and 2012-2013 and, partly, the edifice of the Ploskii (flat) Tolbachik volcano. The depth sections reflecting the distributions of the relative velocities of seismic waves in the Earth's crust are constructed. For a more reliable interpretation of the revealed deep anomalies, the results of independent geological and geophysical studies are used. The ascertained low-velocity structures are closely correlated to the manifestations of present-day volcanism. It is shown that the feeding structure of the Tolbachinsky Dol is spatially heterogeneous, incorporating subvertical and lateral pipeshaped magma conduits, closely spaced magma feeding channels, and shallow magma reservoirs. A longlived local transcrustal magma conducting zone is revealed, and regularities in the deep structure of the feeding systems of fissure eruptions are identified. The configuration of the established subvertical magma conduits permits basalts moving to rise to the surface by different paths, which, inter alia, explains the contrasting magma compositions observed during a single eruption. Thus, based on the instrumental data, it is shown that the magmatic feeding structure of the Tolbachinsky Dol has a number of specific peculiarities and is significantly more complicated than has been previously thought about the areal volcanic fields.

  15. Technetium behaviour under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumata, M.; Vandergraaf, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The migration behaviour of technetium under deep geological conditions was investigated by performing column tests using groundwater and altered granitic rock sampled from a fracture zone in a granitic pluton at a depth of about 250 m. The experiment was performed under a pressure of about 0.7 MPa in a controlled atmosphere glove box at the 240 m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. The technetium was strongly sorbed on the dark mafic minerals in the column. With the exception of a very small unretarded fraction that was eluted with the tritiated water, no further breakthrough of technetium was observed. This strong sorption of technetium on the mineral surface was caused by reduction of Tc(VII), probably to Tc(IV) even though the groundwater was only mildly reducing. (author) 5 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs

  16. Nuclides migration tests under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumata, M.; Vandergraaf, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    Migration behaviour of technetium and iodine under deep geological conditions was investigated by performing column tests under in-situ conditions at the 240 m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) constructed in a granitic batholith near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. 131 I was injected with tritiated water into the column. Tritium and 131 I were eluted simultaneously. Almost 100 % of injected 131 I was recovered in the tritium breakthrough region, indicating that iodine moved through the column almost without retardation under experimental conditions. On the other hand, the injected technetium with tritium was strongly retarded in the column even though the groundwater was mildly reducing. Only about 7 % of injected 95m Tc was recovered in the tritium breakthrough region and the remaining fraction was strongly sorbed on the dark mafic minerals of column materials. This strong sorption of technetium on the column materials had not been expected from the results obtained from batch experiments carried out under anaerobic conditions. (author)

  17. Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2005-01-01

    This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the

  18. Regional and site geological frameworks : proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Bruce County, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, K.; Sterling, S.; Gaines, S.; Wigston, A. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Frizzell, R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is conducting geoscientific studies on behalf of Ontario Power Generation into the proposed development of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L and ILW) at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario. This paper presented a regional geological framework for the site that was based on a review of regional drilling; structural geology; paleozoic stratigraphy and sedimentology; a 3D geological framework model; a DGR geological site characterization model; bedrock stratigraphy and marker beds; natural fracture frequency data; and formation predictability. The studies have shown that the depth, thickness, orientation and rock quality of the 34 rock formations, members or units that comprise the 840 m thick Paleozoic bedrock sequence at the Bruce site are very uniform and predictable over distances of several kilometres. The proposed DGR will be constructed as an engineered facility comprising a series of underground emplacement rooms at a depth of 680 metres below ground within argillaceous limestones. The geoscientific studies are meant to provide a basis for the development of descriptive geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical models of the DGR site that will facilitate environmental and safety assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Microbial investigations of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Joulian, C.; Coulon, S.; Le Marrec, C.; Garrido, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep sedimentary rocks are now considered to contain a significant part of the total bacterial population, but are microbiologically unexplored. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned and sub-sampled on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible, the nine cores: two in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, two in the Dogger, five in the Triassic compartments. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the five Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized bars chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the core by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analysed. The microbial exploration we started can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for six metabolic groups to try to find microbial cells still viable. This type of experiment is difficult because of the small proportion of cultivable species, especially in these extreme environmental samples. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. Here, the limits are the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. The five Triassic samples were partly crushed in powder and inoculated in the six culture media with four NaCl concentrations, because this type of rock is known as saline or hyper-saline, and incubated at three temperatures: 30 deg. C, 55 deg. C under agitation and 70 deg. C. First results will be presented. The direct extraction of DNA needs a complete method optimisation to adapt existent procedures (using commercial kit and classical

  20. Installation of borehole seismometer for earthquake characteristics in deep geological environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Hee; Choi, Weon Hack; Cho, Sung Il; Chang, Chun Joong [KHNP CRI, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Deep geological disposal is currently accepted as the most appropriate method for permanently removing spent nuclear fuel from the living sphere of humans. For implementation of deep geological disposal, we need to understand the geological changes that have taken place over the past 100,000 years, encompassing active faults, volcanic activity, elevation, ubsidence, which as yet have not been considered in assessing the site characteristics for general facilities, as well as to investigate and analyze the geological structures, fracture systems and seismic responses regarding deep geological environment about 500 meters or more underground. In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) have installed the deep borehole earthquake observatory at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep geological environment on June, 2014 in Andong area. This paper will show the status of deep borehole earthquake observatory and the results of background noise response characteristics of these deep borehole seismic data as a basic data analysis. We present here the status of deep borehole seismometer installation by KHNP. In order to basic data analysis for the borehole seismic observation data, this study shows the results of the orientation of seismometer and background noise characteristics by using a probability density function. Together with the ground motion data recorded by the borehole seismometers can be utilized as basic data for seismic response characteristics studies with regard to spent nuclear fuel disposal depth and as the input data for seismic hazard assessment that

  1. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system near "Boulder Zone" deep wells in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, acquired, processed, and interpreted seismic-reflection data near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields to determine if geologic factors may contribute to the upward migration of injected effluent into that upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an underground source of drinking water. The depth of the Boulder Zone at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields ranges from about 2,750 to 3,300 feet below land surface (ft bls), whereas overlying permeable zones used as alternative drinking water supply range in depth from about 825 to 1,580 ft bls at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structures imaged on seismic-reflection profiles created for the study describe the part of the Floridan aquifer system overlying and within the Boulder Zone. Features of the Floridan aquifer system underlying the Boulder Zone were not studied because seismic-reflection profiles acquired near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields lacked adequate resolution at such depths.

  2. Retrievability in the Deep Geological Disposal motivation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Polo, J. J.; Aneiros, J. M.; Alonso, J.

    2000-01-01

    The final disposal of High Level Wastes (HLW) in a repository without the intention of retrieval has been the conceptual basis used by most countries to define their deep geological disposal concepts. As a result, current disposal concepts allow, but do not facilitate, the retrieval of the waste. The concept of retrievability has been introduced in the stepwise development process of the deep geological disposal for a series of ethical, socio-political, and technological reasons, which have structured a great deal of attention in the international community. At present, although no clear definition has been given to the term retrievability there seems to be a general consensus in respect of its interpretation as the capacity to retrieve waste from the underground facilities of the repository up to several years after its closure. The retrieval of the HLW packages from the disposal cells entails tackling a series of technological and operational constraints stemming, on the one hand, from the configuration and state of the repository at the time of retrieval and, on the other, from the environmental conditions of temperature and radiation in which such operations have to be carried out. Most countries, Spain included, are assessing the technical feasibility of retrieving waste during the different stages of the repository lifetime, exploring at the same time the possibility of implementing some changes in the repository's design, construction and operation without affecting its long-term safety. The purpose of this paper is three-fold (1) to identify the motivations that have led the international community to consider retrievability in the repository's stepwise development process, (2) to analyse, qualitatively, the different implications this has on current repository concepts, and (3) to state the current Spanish position. (Author)

  3. Radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits. Associated research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the research associated problems for radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits such granites, clays or salt deposits. After a brief description of the underground disposal, the author studies the rheology of sedimentary media and proposes rheological models applied to radioactive wastes repositories. Waste-rock interactions, particularly thermal effects and temperature distribution versus time. 17 refs., 14 figs

  4. Study on geology and geological structure based on literature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Hironori; Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazuharu

    2005-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is proceeding with underground research laboratory (URL) project for the sedimentary rock in Horonobe, Hokkaido. This project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. Surface-based investigations (Phase 1) have been conducted for the present. The purposes of the Phase 1 are to construct the geological environment model (geological-structural, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical models) and to confirm the applicability of investigation technologies for the geological environment. The geological-structural model comprises the base for the hydrogeological and hydrochemical models. We constructed the geological-structural model by mainly using data obtained from literature studies. Particulars regarding which data the model is based on and who has performed the interpretation are also saved for traceability. As a result, we explain the understanding of degree and the need of information on stratigraphy and discontinuous structure. (author)

  5. Deep geological disposal system development; mechanical structural stability analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister under the internal/external pressure variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwen, Y. J.; Kang, S. W.; Ha, Z. Y. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This work constitutes a summary of the research and development work made for the design and dimensioning of the canister for nuclear fuel disposal. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term(usually 10,000 years) safe repository for spent fuel disposal should be securred. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. The canister construction type introduced here is a solid structure with a cast iron insert and a corrosion resistant overpack, which is designed for spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep repository in the crystalline bedrock, which entails an evenly distributed load of hydrostatic pressure from undergroundwater and high pressure from swelling of bentonite buffer. Hence, the canister must be designed to withstand these high pressure loads. Many design variables may affect the structural strength of the canister. In this study, among those variables array type of inner baskets and thicknesses of outer shell and lid and bottom are tried to be determined through the mechanical linear structural analysis, thicknesses of outer shell is determined through the nonlinear structural analysis, and the bentonite buffer analysis for the rock movement is conducted through the of nonlinear structural analysis Also the thermal stress effect is computed for the cast iron insert. The canister types studied here are one for PWR fuel and another for CANDU fuel. 23 refs., 60 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  6. Human intruder dose assessment for deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G. M.; Molinero, J.; Delos, A.; Valls, A.; Conesa, A.; Smith, K.; Hjerpe, T.

    2013-07-01

    For near-surface disposal, approaches to assessment of inadvertent human intrusion have been developed through international cooperation within the IAEA's ISAM programme. Other assessments have considered intrusion into deep geological disposal facilities, but comparable international cooperation to develop an approach for deep disposal has not taken place. Accordingly, the BIOPROTA collaboration project presented here (1) examined the technical aspects of why and how deep geological intrusion might occur; (2) considered how and to what degree radiation exposure would arise to the people involved in such intrusion; (3) identified the processes which constrain the uncertainties; and hence (4) developed and documented an approach for evaluation of human intruder doses which addresses the criteria adopted by the IAEA and takes account of other international guidance and human intrusion assessment experience. Models for radiation exposure of the drilling workers and geologists were developed and described together with compilation of relevant input data, taking into account relevant combinations of drilling technique, geological formation and repository material. Consideration has been given also to others who might be exposed to contaminated material left at the site after drilling work has ceased. The models have been designed to be simple and stylised, in accordance with international recommendations. The set of combinations comprises 58 different scenarios which cover a very wide range of human intrusion possibilities via deep drilling. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear waste and a deep geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, A.; Laciok, A.; Vasa, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic analysis of the individual areas of research into nuclear waste and deep geological disposal with emphasis on the contribution of Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc to such efforts within international projects, specifically the EURATOM 6th Framework Programme. Research in the area of new advanced fuel cycles with focus on waste minimisation is based on EU's REDIMPACT project. The individual fuel cycles, which are currently studied within the EU, are briefly described. Special attention is paid to fast breeders and accelerator-driven reactor concepts associated with new spent fuel reprocessing technologies. Results obtained so far show that none even of the most advanced fuel cycles, currently under consideration, would eliminate the necessity to have a deep geological repository for a safe storage of residual radioactive waste. As regards deep geological repository barriers, the fact is highlighted that the safety of a repository is assured by complementary engineered and natural barriers. In order to demonstrate the safety of a repository, a deep insight must be gained into any and all of the individual processes that occur inside the repository and thus may affect radioactivity releases beyond the repository boundaries. The final section of the paper describes methods of radioactive waste conditioning for its disposal in a repository. Research into waste matrices used for radionuclide immobilisation is also highlighted. (author)

  8. Deep geological repository: Starting communication at potentially suitable sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, Vera

    2001-01-01

    The siting of a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic is and will be a complicated process, since it is the first siting process of a nuclear facility designed from the start to be located at non-nuclear sites and to be organised under democratic conditions. This presentation describes the concept of radioactive waste and spent nuclear management in the Czech Republic, Communication activities of Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) with local representatives and lessons learned

  9. The use of interaction matrices for identification, structuring and ranking of FEPs in a repository system. Application on the far-field of a deep geological repository for spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K; Wiborgh, M [Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden); Stroem, A [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-11-01

    The basic device in the Rock Engineering Systems approach, the interaction matrix, has been used to identify, structure and rank Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) describing barrier performance and radionuclide behaviour in the far-field of a deep geologic repository for spent fuel. The result is a first version of the Process System (PS), for the far-field of a deep repository, structured in an interaction matrix with supporting documentation. The documentation is compiled in databases, one containing matrix specific information and one containing general FEP descriptions. The study has shown that an interaction matrix is feasible to use both for the structuring of the PS and for visualisation of the PS. The developed documentation system increases the transparency of the system description and makes it possible to trace back the judgements made during the construction of the matrix. This will facilitate review work and future revisions as well as consistent treatment of different issues in the system. This study is a first step in the application of a systematic method to establish a structured description of the PS for a deep repository for spent fuel. The work could be seen as a part of the preparation for the forthcoming performance and safety analysis. The next step would be to develop the PS for the remaining parts of the repository system to the same level as has been done for the far-field system. Before the PS is evaluated for different selected system premises, a scientific review of the contents of the PS for the whole repository system would be beneficial. 5 refs.

  10. The use of interaction matrices for identification, structuring and ranking of FEPs in a repository system. Application on the far-field of a deep geological repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Stroem, A.

    1995-11-01

    The basic device in the Rock Engineering Systems approach, the interaction matrix, has been used to identify, structure and rank Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) describing barrier performance and radionuclide behaviour in the far-field of a deep geologic repository for spent fuel. The result is a first version of the Process System (PS), for the far-field of a deep repository, structured in an interaction matrix with supporting documentation. The documentation is compiled in databases, one containing matrix specific information and one containing general FEP descriptions. The study has shown that an interaction matrix is feasible to use both for the structuring of the PS and for visualisation of the PS. The developed documentation system increases the transparency of the system description and makes it possible to trace back the judgements made during the construction of the matrix. This will facilitate review work and future revisions as well as consistent treatment of different issues in the system. This study is a first step in the application of a systematic method to establish a structured description of the PS for a deep repository for spent fuel. The work could be seen as a part of the preparation for the forthcoming performance and safety analysis. The next step would be to develop the PS for the remaining parts of the repository system to the same level as has been done for the far-field system. Before the PS is evaluated for different selected system premises, a scientific review of the contents of the PS for the whole repository system would be beneficial. 5 refs

  11. Geological investigations for geological model of deep underground geoenvironment at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Tagami, Masahiko; Amano, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Arata; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Koike, Katsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing a geoscientific research project, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project, in order to establish scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The MIU is located in crystalline rock environment, in Mizunami City, central Japan. Field investigations include geological mapping, reflection seismic surveys, several borehole investigations and geological investigations in the research galleries to identify the distribution and heterogeneity of fractures and faults that are potential major flowpaths for groundwater. The results of these field investigations are synthesized and compiled for the purpose of geological modeling. The field investigations indicate that the Main Shaft at the MIU intersected low permeability NNW oriented faults. A high permeability fracture zone in the granite, a significant water inflow point, was observed in the Ventilation Shaft. Development of the geological model focusing 3D spatial relationships at different scales and evolution of the geoenvironment are underway. This paper describes geological investigations applied in the MIU project, focusing on the evaluation of their effectiveness to understand for deep underground geoenvironment. (author)

  12. Kincardine deep geologic repository proposal and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, T.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' In 2002, the Municipality of Kincardine and OPG signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) regarding the long-term management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The purpose of the MOU was for OPG, in consultation with Kincardine, to develop a plan for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste at OPG's Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) located on the Bruce site. An independent assessment, which included geotechnical feasibility and safety analyses, a community attitude survey and interviews with local residents, businesses and tourists, and economic modeling to determine the potential benefits and impacts, was completed in February 2004. Ultimately, Kincardine Council endorsed a resolution (Kincardine Council no. 2004-232) to: 'endorse the opinion of the Nuclear Waste Steering Committee and select the 'Deep Rock Vault' option as the preferred course of study in regards to the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste'. The surrounding municipalities of Saugeen Shores, Brockton, Arran-Elderslie, and Huron-Kinloss expressed their support for the Deep Geologic Repository proposal. This presentation discusses the history, major steps and public processes surrounding the Kincardine Deep Geologic Repository proposal. (author)

  13. Geological aspects of the deep disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Various environments have been selected throughout the world for the potential deep disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. The selection of these environments has been carried out using a variety of methods, some of them more logical and defensible than others. The 'raison d'etre' for their selection also varies from country to country. Important lessons have been learnt from the site selection programmes, the site characterisation activities and the accompanying performance assessments that have been carried out concerning the suitability of geological environments for the disposal of long-lived waste. These lessons are the subject of this paper. 24 refs

  14. Deep geologic disposal. Lessons learnt from recent performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Andersson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment (PA) studies are part of the decision basis for the siting, operation, and closure of deep repositories of long-lived nuclear wastes. In 1995 the NEA set up the Working Group on Integrated Performance Assessments of Deep Repositories (IPAG) with the goals to analyse existing PA studies, learn about what has been produced to date, and shed light on what could be done in future studies. Ten organisations submitted their most recent PA study for analysis and discussion, including written answers to over 70 questions. Waste management programmes, disposal concepts, geologies, and different types and amounts of waste offered a unique opportunity for exchanging information, assessing progress in PA since 1990, and identifying recent trends. A report was completed whose main lessons are overviewed. (author)

  15. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas [and others

    2012-11-15

    Within this project strategies and methods to build a safety case for deep geological repositories are further developed. This includes also the scientific fundamentals as a basis of the safety case. In the international framework the methodology of the Safety Case is frequently applied and continuously improved. According to definitions from IAEA and NEA the Safety Case is a compilation of arguments and facts, which describe, quantify and support the safety and the degree of confidence in the safety of the geological repository. The safety of the geological repository should be demonstrated by the safety case. The safety case is the basis for essential decisions during a repository programme. It comprises the results of safety assessments in combination with additional information like multiple lines of evidence and a discussion of robustness and quality of the repository, its design and the quality of all safety assessments including the basic assumptions. A crucial element of the Safety Case is the long-term safety analysis, i.e. the systematic analysis of the hazards connected with the facility and the capability of site and repository design to ensure the required safety functions and to fulfill the technical claims. Long-term safety analysis requires a powerful and qualified programme package, which contains appropriate hardware and software as well as well trained and experienced modellers performing the model calculations. The calculation tools used within safety cases need to be checked and verified and continuously adapted to the state-of-the-art science and technology. Especially it needs to be applicable to a real repository system. For the assessment of safety a deep process understanding is necessary. The R and D work performed within this project will contribute to the improvement of process and system understanding as well as to the further development of methods and strategies applied in the safety case. Emphasis was put on the following aspects

  16. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Within this project strategies and methods to build a safety case for deep geological repositories are further developed. This includes also the scientific fundamentals as a basis of the safety case. In the international framework the methodology of the Safety Case is frequently applied and continuously improved. According to definitions from IAEA and NEA the Safety Case is a compilation of arguments and facts, which describe, quantify and support the safety and the degree of confidence in the safety of the geological repository. The safety of the geological repository should be demonstrated by the safety case. The safety case is the basis for essential decisions during a repository programme. It comprises the results of safety assessments in combination with additional information like multiple lines of evidence and a discussion of robustness and quality of the repository, its design and the quality of all safety assessments including the basic assumptions. A crucial element of the Safety Case is the long-term safety analysis, i.e. the systematic analysis of the hazards connected with the facility and the capability of site and repository design to ensure the required safety functions and to fulfill the technical claims. Long-term safety analysis requires a powerful and qualified programme package, which contains appropriate hardware and software as well as well trained and experienced modellers performing the model calculations. The calculation tools used within safety cases need to be checked and verified and continuously adapted to the state-of-the-art science and technology. Especially it needs to be applicable to a real repository system. For the assessment of safety a deep process understanding is necessary. The R and D work performed within this project will contribute to the improvement of process and system understanding as well as to the further development of methods and strategies applied in the safety case. Emphasis was put on the following aspects

  17. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea

  18. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea.

  19. Status and development of deep geological repository in Slovak republic from geological point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Franzen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the operation of Slovak NPPs, production of approximately 2,300 metric tons of spent fuel expressed as heavy metal (18,654 spent fuel assemblies is expected. In addition, about 5000 metric tons of radioactive waste unfit for near surface repository at Mochovce and destined for a deep geological disposal. The safe and long-term solution of back-end fuel cycle is so highly required.One of the most favorable solutions is Deep Geological Repository (DGR. The site for a DGR, along with repository design and the engineered barrier system must ensure long-term safety of the disposal system.A preliminary set of site-selection criteria for a DGR was proposed in Slovakia, based on worldwide experience and consistent with IAEA recommendations. Main groups of criteria are: 1 geological and tectonic stability of prospective sites; 2 appropriate characteristics of host rock (lithological homogeneity, suitable hydrogeological and geochemical conditions, favourable geotechnical setting, absence of mineral resources, etc.; 3 conflict of interests (natural resources, natural and cultural heritage, protected resources of thermal waters, etc..Based on the previous geological investigations, three distinct areas (five localities were determined as the most prospective sites for construction of a DGR so far. Three of them are built by granitoids rock (Tribeč Mts., Veporske vrchy Mts. and Stolicke vrchy Mts., other consist of sedimentary rock formations (Cerova vrchovina Upland and Rimavska kotlina Basin. Objective for the next investigation stage is to perform more detailed geological characterization of the prospective sites.

  20. Behavior of colloids in radionuclide migration in deep geologic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takuji

    1994-01-01

    In case high level waste is isolated in deep strata, it is important to elucidate the behavior of movement that radionuclides take in the strata. Recently, it has been recognized that the participation of colloids is very important, and it has been studied actively. In this study, as to the mechanism of the adsorption of colloids to geological media or buffers, analysis was carried out for a number of systems, and it was clarified in what case they are caught or they move without being caught. Also it is considered what research is necessary hereafter. First, the kinds of colloids are shown. As the properties of colloids that control the movement of colloids in groundwater in deep strata, the surface potential, shape, size and so on of colloids are conceivable. These properties are briefly discussed. As the interaction of colloids and geological media, the interaction by electrostatic attraction, the fast and slow movement of colloids through rock crevices, and the filtration of colloids in buffers and porous media are described. The experimental results on the movement of colloids are reported. (K.I.)

  1. The safety case for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a 'safety case' for a deep geological repository for radioactive waste was first introduced by the NEA Expert Group on Integrated Performance Assessment (IPAG). It was further developed in the NEA report entitled Confidence in the Long-term Safety of Deep Geological Repositories (1999), and since then it has been taken up in international safety standards as promulgated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 2006, 2011) and more recently in recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection on the application of the system of radiological protection in geological disposal (ICRP, 2013). Many national radioactive waste disposal programmes and regulatory guides are also applying this concept. The NEA has used the safety case as a guide in several international peer reviews of national repository programmes and safety documentation. In Europe, the EU Directive 2011/70/ Euratom (EU, 2011) establishes a framework to ensure responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste by member states that, inter alia, requires a decision-making process based on safety evidence and arguments that mirror the safety case concept. In 2007, the NEA, the IAEA and the European Commission (EC) organised a symposium on Safety Cases for the Deep Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where Do We Stand? Since this time, however, there have been some major developments in a number of national geological disposal programmes and significant experience in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating geological repositories. A symposium on The Safety Case for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: 2013 State of the Art was thus organised to assess developments since 2007 in the practice, understanding and roles of the safety case, as applied internationally at all stages of repository development, including the interplay of technical, regulatory and societal issues. The symposium

  2. Study on geologic structure of hydrogenic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The problem of studying geologic structure of hydrogenic uranium deposits developed by underground leaching (UL), is elucidated. Geologic maps of the surface are used to characterize engineering and geologic conditions. Main geologoic papers are maps drawn up according to boring data. For total geologic characteristic of the deposit 3 types of maps are usually drawn up: structural maps of isohypses or isodepths, lithologic-facies maps on the horizon and rhythm, and maps of epigenetic alterations (geochemmcal). Besides maps systems of sections are drawn up. Problems of studying lithologic-facies and geohemical peculiarities of deposits, epigenotic alterations, substance composition of ores and enclosing rocks, documentation and core sampting, are considered in details

  3. Characteristics of Chinese petroleum geology. Geological features and exploration cases of stratigraphic, foreland and deep formation traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Chengzao [PetroChina Company Limited, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-01

    The first book of this subject in the recent 10 years. ''Characteristics of Chinese Petroleum Geology: Geological Features and Exploration Cases of Stratigraphic, Foreland and Deep Formation Traps'' systematically presents the progress made in petroleum geology in China and highlights the latest advances and achievements in oil/gas exploration and research, especially in stratigraphic, foreland and deep formation traps. The book is intended for researchers, practitioners and students working in petroleum geology, and is also an authoritative reference work for foreign petroleum exploration experts who want to learn more about this field in China.

  4. Study of microorganisms present in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, H.; Lion, R.; Bianchi, A.; Garcin, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work has been executed in the scope of the studies on high activity radioactive wastes storage in deep geological environments. The authors make reference to an as complete as possible literature on the existence of microorganisms in those environments or under similar conditions. Then they describe the equipment and methods they have implemented to perform their study of the populations present in three deep-reaching drill-holes in Auriat (France), Mol (Belgique) and Troon (Great Britain). The results of the study exhibit the presence of a certain biological activity, well adapted to that particular life environment. Strains appear to be very varied from the taxonomic point of view and seemingly show an important potential of mineral alteration when provided with an adequate source of energy. Complementary studies, using advanced techniques such as those employed during the work forming the basis of this paper, seem necessary for a more accurate evaluation of long-term risks of perturbation of a deep storage site [fr

  5. Proceedings of the 1996 international conference on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 September International Conference on Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste was held in Winnipeg, Canada. Speakers from many countries that have or are developing geological disposal technologies presented the current research and implementation strategies for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Special sessions focused on International Trends in Geological Disposal and Views on Confidence Building in Radioactive Waste Management; Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) Workshop; Educator's Program and Workshop and a Roundtable on Social Issues in Siting

  6. Geologic structure of Semipalatinsk test site territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaliev, G.Kh.; Myasnikov, A.K.; Nikitina, O.I.; Sergeeva, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    This article gives a short description of the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. Poor knowledge of the region is noted, and it tells us about new data on stratigraphy and geology of Paleozoic layers, obtained after termination of underground nuclear explosions. The paper contains a list a questions on stratigraphy, structural, tectonic and geologic formation of the territory, that require additional study. (author)

  7. Communication on the Safety Case for a Deep Geological Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy; Bernier, Frederik; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Cunado, Miguel; Ilett, Doug; Kwong, Gloria; ); Noseck, Ulrich; Roehlig, Klaus; Van Luik, Abe; Weber, Jan; Weetjens, Eef

    2017-01-01

    Communication has a specific role to play in the development of deep geological repositories. Building trust with the stakeholders involved in this process, particularly within the local community, is key for effective communication between the authorities and the public. There are also clear benefits to having technical experts hone their communication skills and having communication experts integrated into the development process. This report has compiled lessons from both failures and successes in communicating technical information to non-technical audiences. It addresses two key questions in particular: what is the experience base concerning the effectiveness or non-effectiveness of different tools for communicating safety case results to a non-technical audience and how can communication based on this experience be improved and included into a safety case development effort from the beginning? (authors)

  8. Safety assessments for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of safety assessment for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes is to evaluate how well the engineered barriers and geological setting inhibit radionuclide migration and prevent radiation dose to man. Safety assessment is influenced through interaction with the regulatory agencies, research groups, the public and the various levels of government. Under the auspices of the IAEA, a generic disposal system description has been developed to facilitate international exchange and comparison of data and results, and to enable development and comparison of performance for all components of the disposal system. It is generally accepted that a systems modelling approach is required and that safety assessment can be considered on two levels. At the systems level, all components of the system are taken into account to evaluate the risk to man. At the systems level, critical review and quality assurance on software provide the major validation techniques. Risk is a combination of dose estimate and probability of that dose. For analysis of the total system to be practical, the components are usually represented by simplified models. Recently, assessments have been taking uncertainties in the input data into account. At the detailed level, large-scale, complex computer programs model components of the system in sufficient detail that validation by comparison with field and laboratory measurements is possible. For example, three-dimensional fluid-flow, heat-transport and solute-transport computer programs have been used. Approaches to safety assessment are described, with illustrations from safety assessments performed in a number of countries. (author)

  9. Topographic precursors and geological structures of deep-seated catastrophic landslides caused by typhoon Talas, determined from the analysis of high-resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Tsou, Ching-Ying; Matsushi, Yuki

    2013-04-01

    Typhoon Talas crossed the Japanese Islands between 2 and 5 September 2011, causing more than 70 deep-seated catastrophic landslides in a Jurassic to Paleogene-Early Miocene accretion complex. Detailed examination of the topographic features of 10 large landslides before the event, recorded on DEMs with a resolution of 1 m (based on airborne laser scanner surveys), showed that all of the landslides had small scarplets near their future crowns prior to the slide, and one landslide had linear depressions along its future crown as precursor topographic features. These scarplets and linear depressions were caused by gravitational slope deformation that preceded the catastrophic failure. Strains, defined by the ratio of the length of a scarplet to the length of the whole slope (as measured along the slope line), ranged from 5% to 21%, and are the first reliable numerical data relating to the topographic precursor features of large and catastrophic landslides. Careful examination of aerial photographs from another four large landslides, for which no high-resolution DEMs were available, suggested that they also developed scarplets at their heads beforehand, which are not precisely quantified. Twelve of the 14 landslides we surveyed in the field had sliding surfaces with wedge-shaped discontinuities that consisted of faults, shear surfaces that formed during accretion, and bedding, suggesting that the buildup of pore pressure occurs readily in a gravitationally deformed rock body containing wedge-shaped discontinuities. Other types of gravitational deformation were also active; e.g., flexural toppling and buckling were each observed to have preceded one landslide.

  10. Search for and characterization of microorganisms in deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the scientific community has shown a growing interest for deep geological compartments. However, these ecosystems remain largely unknown due to their inaccessibility. The aim of the present thesis was double; the first aim was to characterize, from a microbiological perspective, four terrestrial Triassic sedimentary formations located between 1700 and 2000 m depth in the Parisian Basin and collected by the ANDRA during a deep drilling campaign in 2008, and the second aim was to study the combined effects of temperature, pressure and salinity on the metabolic activity of anaerobic prokaryotes in order to predict their reaction to geological burial. Incubations in a large variety of media were carried out in order to stimulate the growth of the main trophic types found in such environments such as methanogens, fermenters and bacteria reducing sulphur compounds, however, no viable and cultivable microorganisms could be isolated. In parallel, a molecular approach was used to i) compare the efficacy of several DNA extractions methods and ii) analyse the bacterial diversity, using DGGE (Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning, present in rock inner cores conserved either at atmospheric pressure or under pressure, in their initial states and following incubations in various media. The genetic exploration of these samples revealed a very low biomass and a poor diversity composed mainly of aerobic and mesophilic members of the Bacteria domain, a priori unadapted to such a deep, hot, saline and anoxic environment. This unexpected microbial community also found in many subsurface ecosystems as well as in extreme ecosystems could have partially originated from a paleo-recharge of the Trias aquifer with cold waters coming from the melting of ice formed during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The second objective was to study the combined effects of temperature (40, 55 and 70 C), pressure (1, 90 and 180 bars) and salinity (13, 50, 110, 180

  11. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 486-493 E-ISSN 2391-5471 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : deep geological repository * earthquake * seismicity * neo-deterministic analysis * probabilistic seismic hazard assessment Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure; DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Environmental and geological engineering, geotechnics; Environmental and geological engineering, geotechnics (GFU-E) Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/phys.2017.15.issue-1/phys-2017-0055/phys-2017-0055.pdf

  12. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  13. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  14. Final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers. Digging deeper for safety. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido; Hurst, Stephanie; Merkel, Broder; Mueller, Birgit; Schilling, Frank

    2016-03-15

    The proceedings of the workshop on final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers - digging deeper for safety include contributions on the following topics: international status and safety requirements; geological and physical barriers; deep drilling - shaft building; technical barriers and emplacement technology for high P/T conditions; recovery (waste retrieval); geochemistry and monitoring.

  15. Reversible deep storage: reversibility options for storage in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the definition approach to reversibility conditions, presents the main characteristics of high-activity and intermediate-activity long-lived wastes, describes the storage in deep geological formations (safety functions, general description of the storage centre), discusses the design options for the different types of wastes (container, storage module, handling processes, phenomenological analysis, monitoring arrangements) and the decision process in support reversibility (steering of the storage process, progressive development and step-by-step closing), and reports and discusses the researches concerning the memory of the storage site

  16. System to provide 3D information on geological anomaly zone in deep subsea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kwon, O.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    The study on building the ultra long and deep subsea tunnel of which length is 50km and depth is 200m at least, respectively, is underway in Korea. To analyze the geotechnical information required for designing and building subsea tunnel, topographic/geologiccal information analysis using 2D seabed geophysical prospecting and topographic, geologic, exploration and boring data were analyzed comprehensively and as a result, automation method to identify the geological structure zone under seabed which is needed to design the deep and long seabed tunnel was developed using geostatistical analysis. In addition, software using 3D visualized ground information to provide the information includes Gocad, MVS, Vulcan and DIMINE. This study is intended to analyze the geological anomaly zone for ultra deep seabed l and visualize the geological investigation result so as to develop the exclusive system for processing the ground investigation information which is convenient for the users. Particularly it's compatible depending on file of geophysical prospecting result and is realizable in Layer form and for 3D view as well. The data to be processed by 3D seabed information system includes (1) deep seabed topographic information, (2) geological anomaly zone, (3) geophysical prospecting, (4) boring investigation result and (5) 3D visualization of the section on seabed tunnel route. Each data has own characteristics depending on data and interface to allow interlocking with other data is granted. In each detail function, input data is displayed in a single space and each element is selectable to identify the further information as a project. Program creates the project when initially implemented and all output from detail information is stored by project unit. Each element representing detail information is stored in image file and is supported to store in text file as well. It also has the function to transfer, expand/reduce and rotate the model. To represent the all elements in

  17. Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Disposal - No New Taxes - 12469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, James [RJLee Group, Inc., Pasco WA 509.205.7541 (United States); Wright, Judith [UFA Ventures, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    formation, i.e., how well it performs on its own for millions of years with little engineering assistance from humans. It is critical that the states most affected by this issue (WA, SC, ID, TN, NM and perhaps others) develop an independent multi-state agreement in order for a successful program to move forward. Federal approval would follow. Unknown to most, the United States has a successful operating deep permanent geologic nuclear repository for high and low activity waste, called the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Its success results from several factors, including an optimal geologic and physio-graphic setting, a strong scientific basis, early regional community support, frequent interactions among stakeholders at all stages of the process, long-term commitment from the upper management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over several administrations, strong New Mexico State involvement and oversight, and constant environmental monitoring from before nuclear waste was first emplaced in the WIPP underground (in 1999) to the present. WIPP is located in the massive bedded salts of the Salado Formation, whose geological, physical, chemical, redox, thermal, and creep-closure properties make it an ideal formation for long-term disposal, long-term in this case being greater than 200 million years. These properties also mean minimal engineering requirements as the rock does most of the work of isolating the waste. WIPP has been operating for twelve years, and as of this writing, has disposed of over 80,000 m{sup 3} of nuclear weapons waste, called transuranic or TRU waste (>100 nCurie/g but <23 Curie/1000 cm{sup 3}) including some high activity waste from reprocessing of spent fuel from old weapons reactors. All nuclear waste of any type from any source can be disposed in this formation better, safer and cheaper than in any other geologic formation. At the same time, it is critical that we complete the Yucca Mountain license application

  18. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poller, A.; Mayer, G.; Darcis M; Smith, P.

    2016-12-01

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  19. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Darcis M [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden-Dättwil, (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  20. Generic description of facilities at the shaft head (auxiliary entrance installations) of deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-10-01

    In a deep geological repository, the access structures function as the link between the surface and the installations and structures at the disposal level. In the planned implementation scenarios, at least two access structures will be in operation up to the time of closure of the repository. The radioactive waste will be transported via the main access from the surface to the disposal level during emplacement operations. For the construction and operation of a deep geological repository, additional access structures are required. These auxiliary accesses and the associated surface infrastructure (e.g. shaft head installations) form the subject of this report. To provide as broad and comprehensive a description as possible, seven types of auxiliary access facilities are defined; these are characterised in line with the current status of planning and their functions and impacts are described. During construction, operation and dismantling of auxiliary access facilities, the usual conventional safety measures (inter alia) have to be observed (e.g. groundwater protection, fire prevention, facility security, accident prevention). Regarding the 'Ordinance on Protection against Major Accidents' no large quantities of hazardous materials, i.e. above the corresponding threshold quantities, are to be expected in the auxiliary access facilities. Proper handling and compliance with applicable regulations in all phases will ensure no hazard to humans and the environment. As no handling of radioactive materials is foreseen in the auxiliary access facilities, and because exhaust air and waste water from the controlled zones of a repository will, in principle, be removed via the main access and not the auxiliary accesses, a safety-relevant emission of radioactive substances and transport of contaminated material can be ruled out for the auxiliary access facilities during both normal operation and also in the case of an accident. Based on the information presented in

  1. Iapetus: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Many papers have been written about the surface of Iapetus, but most of these have discussed either the nature of the strongly contrasting light and dark materials or the cratering record. Little has been said about other geologic features on Iapetus, such as tectonic structures, which would provide constraints on Iapetus' thermal history. Most references have suggested that there is no conclusive evidence for any tectonic activity, even when thermal history studies indicate that there should be. However, a new study of Iapetus' surface involving the use of stereo pairs, an extensive tectonic network has been recognized. A few new observations concerning the craters and dark material were also made. Thus the geology and geologic history of Iapetus can be more fully outlined than before. The tectonic network is shown along with prominent craters and part of the dark material in the geologic/tectonic sketch map. The topology of crater rims and scarps are quite apparent and recognizable in the different image pairs. The heights and slopes of various features given are based on comparison with the depths of craters 50 to 100 km in diameter, which are assumed to have the same depths as craters of similar diameter on Rhea and Titania.

  2. A study on site characterization of the deep geological environment around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kw; Kim, Gy; Koh, Yk; Kim, Ks; Choi, Jw

    2009-01-01

    KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) is a small scale research tunnel which was constructed from 2005 to 2006 at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). To understand the deep geological environment around KURT area, the surface geological surveys such as lineaments analysis and geophysical survey and borehole investigation were performed. For this study, a 3 dimensional geological model has been constructed using the surface and borehole geological data. The regional lineaments were determined using a topographical map and the surface geophysical survey data were collected for the geological model. In addition, statistical methods were applied to fracture data from borehole televiewer loggings to identify fracture zones in boreholes. For a hydro geological modeling, fixed interval hydraulic tests were carried out for all boreholes. The results of the hydraulic tests were analyzed and classified by the fracture zone data of geological model. At result, the hydrogeological elements were decided and the properties of each element were assessed around the KURT area

  3. What safety indicators for a storage in deep geologic deposit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouail, P.; Schneider, T.; Mure, J.M.; Voinis, S.

    1999-01-01

    Indicators must allow to discriminate and compare different options of facility conception and help the decision-makers in their choices. In the case of a deep storage, these indicators can also allow a comparison in terms of impact with other existing industrial systems (thermal or nuclear power plants, uranium ores) or even the natural radioactivity. Through Swedish and Canadian examples, the presentation makes an inventory of indicators that could be kept in a safety analysis of a deep storage. (N.C.)

  4. New developments in measurements technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, N.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents new developments in measurement technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste disposal during all phases of development, i.e., site selection, site characterization, construction, operation, and decommission. Emphasis has been placed on geophysics and geotechnics with special attention to those techniques applicable to bedded salt. The techniques are grouped into sections as follows: tectonic environment, state of stress, subsurface structures, fractures, stress changes, deformation, thermal properties, fluid transport properties, and other approaches. Several areas that merit further research and developments are identified. These areas are: in situ thermal measurement techniques, fracture detection and characterization, in situ stress measurements, and creep behavior. The available instrumentations should generally be improved to have better resolution and accuracy, enhanced instrument survivability, and reliability for extended time periods in a hostile environment

  5. Geological-geochemical evidence for deep fluid action in Daqiaowu uranium deposit, Zhejiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Linfei; Ou Guangxi; Zhang Jianfeng; Zhang Min; Jin Miaozhang; Wang Binghua

    2009-01-01

    Through the contrast study of petrography, micro thermometry and laser Raman ingredient analysis of fluid inclusion, this paper has verified the basic nature of ore-forming fluid (temperature, salinity and ingredient) in daqiaowu uranium deposit, discussed the origin of the ore-forming fluid with its structure character and geology-geochemistry character. The testing results indicats that ore-forming temperature of this deposit is between 200 degree C and 250 degree C in main metallogenetic period, which belongs to middle temperature hydrothermal. The ore-forming fluids are of middle-high salinity and rich in valatility suchas CO 2 , H 2 , CH 4 . To sum up, the deposit mineralization process should be affected by the deep fluid primarily, and the ore-forming fluid is mainly the mantle fluid.(authors)

  6. New developments in measurements technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in bedded salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, N. H.; Ramirez, A. L.

    1980-10-01

    Developments in measurement technology are presented which are relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste disposal during all phases of development, i.e., site selection, site characterization, construction, operation, and decommission. Emphasis was placed on geophysics and geotechnics with special attention to those techniques applicable to bedded salt. The techniques are grouped into sections as follows: tectonic environment, state of stress, subsurface structures, fractures, stress changes, deformation, thermal properties, fluid transport properties, and other approaches. Several areas that merit further research and developments are identified. These areas are: in situ thermal measurement techniques, fracture detection and characterization, in situ stress measurements, and creep behavior. The available instrumentations should generally be improved to have better resolution and accuracy, enhanced instrument survivability, and reliability for extended time periods in a hostile environment.

  7. Structural geologic study of southeastern Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satterfield, I.R.; Ward, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    A geologic map at 1:62,500 scale was prepared of the Cretaceous (Mesozoic) and Tertiary (cenozoic) sediments and seven major units were recognized with emphasis on faulting. Faulted sediments of Pliocene age (possibly Pleistocene) were observed and younger units are suspected to be involved. Data from hand-augered holes plus water well data were logged and plotted. The feasibility of using physical data (size analysis and pH) as a correlation tool for determining structural disturbance in loess deposits was established

  8. Mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattman, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    The use of ERTS-1 imagery for mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys is discussed. Four categories of ERTS imagery application are defined and explained. The types of information obtained by the various multispectral band scanners are analyzed. Samples of land use maps and tectoning and metallogenic models are developed. It is stated that the most striking features visible on ERTS imagery are regional lineaments, or linear patterns in the topography, which reflect major fracture zones extending upward from the basement of the earth.

  9. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste - An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    This article provides a condensed summary of a presentation given by the author in June 2015. Various types of disposal facilities are reviewed, ranging from very limited natural barriers through to sophisticated, multi-barrier systems. Advantages, disadvantages and costs of the various disposal options are discussed. In particular, solutions used worldwide are listed in a comprehensive table. The simpler solutions range from open, non-engineered barriers through to simple geological barriers on the surface and underground. Multi-barrier systems in Sweden, Finland, France, Switzerland and Canada are listed and discussed. These include geological barriers through to engineered confinements in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Links to relevant internet web sites are quoted.

  10. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautschi, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a condensed summary of a presentation given by the author in June 2015. Various types of disposal facilities are reviewed, ranging from very limited natural barriers through to sophisticated, multi-barrier systems. Advantages, disadvantages and costs of the various disposal options are discussed. In particular, solutions used worldwide are listed in a comprehensive table. The simpler solutions range from open, non-engineered barriers through to simple geological barriers on the surface and underground. Multi-barrier systems in Sweden, Finland, France, Switzerland and Canada are listed and discussed. These include geological barriers through to engineered confinements in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Links to relevant internet web sites are quoted

  11. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, A.

    2009-09-01

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes

  12. Deep geologic repository for low and intermediate radioactive level waste in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianqin; Li Honghui; Sun Qinghong; Yang Zhongtian

    2012-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is undergoing a project for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste (LILW)-a deep geologic repository (DGR) project for low and intermediate level waste. The waste source term disposed, geologic setting, repository layout and operation, and safety assessment are discussed. It is expected to provide reference for disposal of low and intermediate level waste that contain the higher concentration of long-lived radionuclides in China. (authors)

  13. Microbes in deep geological systems and their possible influence on radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J M; McKinley, I G; Chapman, N A [Institute of Geological Sciences, Harwell (UK). Environmental Protection Unit

    1982-09-01

    Although the fact is often overlooked, proposed nuclear waste repositories in geological formations would exist in an environment quite capable of sustaining microbial life which could considerably affect containment of radionuclides. In this paper a brief review of biological tolerance of extreme environments is presented with particular reference to studies of the microbiology of deep geological formations. The possible influence of such organisms on the integrity of a waste repository and subsequent transport of radionuclides to the surface is discussed.

  14. Drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), is drilling a deep geologic test well at Hilton Head Island, S.C. The test well is scheduled to run between mid-March and early May 2011. When completed, the well will be about 1,000 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Hilton Head area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  15. Safety assessment methodology for waste repositories in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Lewi, J.; Pradel, J.; Queniart, D.; Raimbault, P.; Assouline, M.

    1986-06-01

    The long term safety of a nuclear waste repository relies on the evaluation of the doses which could be transferred to man in the future. This implies a detailed knowledge of the medium where the waste will be confined, the identification of the basic phenomena which govern the migration of the radionuclides and the investigation of all possible scenarios that may affect the integrity of the barriers between the waste and the biosphere. Inside the Institute of protection and nuclear safety of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/IPSN), the Department of the Safety Analysis (DAS) is currently developing a methodology for assessing the safety of future geological waste repositories, and is in charge of the modelling development, while the Department of Technical Protection (DPT) is in charge of the geological experimental studies. Both aspects of this program are presented. The methodology for risk assessment stresses the needs for coordination between data acquisition and model development which should result in the obtention of an efficient tool for safety evaluation. Progress needs to be made in source and geosphere modelling. Much more sophisticated models could be used than the ones which is described; however sensitivity analysis will determine the level of sophistication which is necessary to implement. Participation to international validation programs are also very important for gaining confidence in the approaches which have been chosen

  16. Siting of the Swedish deep geological repository - experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Backblom, G.; Thegerstrom, C.; Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.

    1996-01-01

    The paper provides a brief overview of the Swedish siting programme for a deep repository. A stepwise process is a key element in the planning and implementation of deep disposal of long-lived waste in Sweden. The local siting work is made in cooperation with the affected and concerned municipalities. The programs, decisions and results that so far have been reported and ongoing feasibility studies is a solid platform for the continuing siting work. It can be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. Careful considerations on how to proceed to develop the necessary background material must therefore be made. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process that has started in conjunction with feasibility studies are judged to play an important role in the future. In this process, with extensive local involvement, critical issues can be detected at an early stage and sound ideas on both the process itself and on technical issues can be incorporated. To facilitate information exchange and cooperation between the municipalities involved and to coordinate liaison between the municipalities and county administrative boards affected by the studies, the Swedish government has appointed a National Coordinator for nuclear waste disposal. The government also has decided to provide the concerned municipalities with funding for their participation in the process. (author)

  17. Petroleum geological features and exploration prospect of deep marine carbonate rocks in China onshore: A further discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wenzhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep marine carbonate rocks have become one of the key targets of onshore oil and gas exploration and development for reserves replacement in China. Further geological researches of such rocks may practically facilitate the sustainable, steady and smooth development of the petroleum industry in the country. Therefore, through a deep investigation into the fundamental geological conditions of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, we found higher-than-expected resource potential therein, which may uncover large oil or gas fields. The findings were reflected in four aspects. Firstly, there are two kinds of hydrocarbon kitchens which were respectively formed by conventional source rocks and liquid hydrocarbons cracking that were detained in source rocks, and both of them can provide large-scale hydrocarbons. Secondly, as controlled by the bedding and interstratal karstification, as well as the burial and hydrothermal dolomitization, effective carbonate reservoirs may be extensively developed in the deep and ultra-deep strata. Thirdly, under the coupling action of progressive burial and annealing heating, some marine source rocks could form hydrocarbon accumulations spanning important tectonic phases, and large quantity of liquid hydrocarbons could be kept in late stage, contributing to rich oil and gas in such deep marine strata. Fourthly, large-scale uplifts were formed by the stacking of multi-episodic tectonism and oil and gas could be accumulated in three modes (i.e., stratoid large-area reservoir-forming mode of karst reservoirs in the slope area of uplift, back-flow type large-area reservoir-forming mode of buried hill weathered crust karst reservoirs, and wide-range reservoir-forming mode of reef-shoal reservoirs; groups of stratigraphic and lithologic traps were widely developed in the areas of periclinal structures of paleohighs and continental margins. In conclusion, deep marine carbonate strata in China onshore contain the conditions for

  18. Deep geologic storage of high level radioactive wastes: conceptual generic designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the studies on deep geologic storage of radioactive wastes and specially for the high-level radioactive wastes. The study is focussed to the geotechnical assessment and generic-conceptual designs. Methodology analysis, geotechnical feasibility, costs and operation are studied

  19. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; El Amin, Mohamed F.; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since

  20. Data to Support Development of Geologic Framework Models for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This report summarizes work conducted in FY2017 to identify and document publically available data for developing a Geologic Framework Model (GFM) for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). Data was collected for all four of the sites being considered in 2017 for a DBFT site.

  1. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Granites petrology, structure, geological setting, and metallogeny

    CERN Document Server

    Nédélec, Anne; Bowden, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original French edition Pétrologie des Granites (2011) is a modern presentation of granitic rocks from magma genesis to their crystallization at a higher level into the crust. Segregation from the source, magma ascent and shapes of granitic intrusions are also discussed, as well as the eventual formation of hybrid rocks by mingling/mixing processes and the thermomechanical aspects in country rocks around granite plutons. Modern techniques for structural studies of granites are detailed extensively. Granites are considered in their geological spatial and temporal frame, in relation with plate tectonics and Earth history from the Archaean eon. A chapter on granite metallogeny explains how elements of economic interest are concentrated during magma crystallization, and examples of Sn, Cu, F and U ore deposits are presented. Mi...

  3. Geological aspects of a deep underground disposal facility in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopovy, J.; Woller, F.

    1997-01-01

    The basic requirements for the geological situation at a deep underground radioactive waste disposal site are highlighted, a survey of candidate host sites worldwide is presented, and the situation in the Czech Republic is analyzed. A 'General Project of Geological Activities Related to the Development of a Deep Underground Disposal Site for Radioactive Wastes and Spent Fuel in the Czech Republic' has been developed by the Nuclear Research Institute and approved and financed by the authorities. The Project encompasses the following stages: (i) preliminary study and research; (ii) examination of the seismicity, neotectonics, and geodynamics; (iii) search and critical assessment of archived geological information; (iv) non-destructive survey; and (v) destructive survey. The Project should take about 30 years and its scope will be updated from time to time. (P.A.)

  4. Confinement and migration of radionuclides in deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2007-07-01

    Disposing high level nuclear waste in deep disposal repository requires to understand and to model the evolution of the different repository components as well as radionuclides migration on time-frame which are well beyond the time accessible to experiments. In particular, robust and predictive models are a key element to assess the long term safety and their reliability must rely on a accurate description of the actual processes. Within this framework, this report synthesizes the work performed by Ch. Poinssot and has been prepared for the defense of his HDR (French university degree to Manage Research). These works are focused on two main areas which are (i) the long term evolution of spent nuclear fuel and the development of radionuclide source terms models, and (ii) the migration of radionuclides in natural environment. (author)

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Students' Understanding of Conventional Time and Deep (Geologic) Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2013-07-01

    Many geologic processes occur in the context of geologic or deep time. Students of all ages demonstrate difficulty grasping this fundamental concept which impacts their ability to acquire other geoscience concepts. A concept of deep time requires the ability to sequence events on an immense temporal scale (succession) and to judge the durations of geologic processes based on the rates at which they occur. The twin concepts of succession and duration are the same ideas that underlie a concept of conventional time. If deep time is an extension of conventional time and not qualitatively different from it, students should display similar reasoning patterns when dealing with analogous tasks over disparate temporal periods. Thirty-five US students aged 13-24 years participated in individual task-based interviews to ascertain how they thought about succession and duration in conventional and deep time. This is the first attempt to explore this relationship in the same study in over 30 years. Most students successfully completed temporal succession tasks, but there was greater variability in responses on duration tasks. Conventional time concepts appear to impact how students reason about deep time. The application of spatial reasoning to temporal tasks sometimes leads to correct responses but in other instances does not. Implications for future research and teaching strategies are discussed.

  6. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada's radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro's used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  7. Study of delayed behaviour of clays in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.; Bazargan, B.; Ouvry, J.F.; Bouilleau, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study is a cost-sharing contract with the European Atomic Energy Community within the framework of Research and Development Program on Management, Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal. The aim of the work presented in this report is to study the time-dependent behaviour of deep clays in Laboratory or in situ, by means of tests of similar geometry, in order to get easy comparisons and to study scale effect. The cylindrical geometry has been chosen as it resembles in situ works (tunnels, galleries) more closely. The first part of the study concerns a new test on hollow-cylinder. The experimental system, set up specially for this study, has allowed to conduct experiments in which 3 loading parameters may be controlled independently. Different types of experiments can therefore be conducted to study various aspects of mechanical behavior of rocks. A comprehensive experimental program was conducted in the particular case of Boom clay. In the second part of the report devoted to in situ creep or relaxation dilatometer tests, by using new techniques or loading paths, it was shown that time-dependent convergence of boreholes can reach significant values, and is dependent on the direction of the borehole. The anisotropy of the initial state of stress was also put in evidence. The proposed constitutive model (part III) appears to be very suitable to explain the behavior of the Boom clay, in view of the experimental results. In particular, the scale effect is low for Boom clay. 15 refs., 58 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Assessment of Deep Geological Environmental Condition for HLW Disposal in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kweon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su

    2010-04-01

    The research developed methods to study and evaluate geological factors and items to select radioactive waste disposal site, which should meet the safety requirements for radioactive waste disposal repositories according to the guidelines recommended by IAEA. A basic concept of site evaluation and selection for high level radioactive waste disposal and develop systematic geological data management with geological data system which will be used for site selection in future are provided. We selected 36 volcanic rock sites and 26 gneissic sites as the alternative host rocks for high level radioactive waste disposal and the geochemical characteristics of groundwaters of the four representative sites were statistically analyzed. From the hydrogeological and geochemical investigation, the spatial distribution characteristics were provided for the disposal system development and preliminary safety assessment. Finally, the technology and scientific methods were developed to obtain accurate data on the hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of the deep geological environments

  9. Architecture Design Issues of a Reversible Deep Geological Repository for HL and IL/LL Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.; Londe, L.; Poisson, J.B. [Andra (France)

    2009-06-15

    In accordance with the Planning Act of 28 June 2006, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - ANDRA) is currently investigating the possibility of disposing of high-level (HL) and intermediate-level long-lived (IL/LL) radioactive waste in a deep geological formation. The waste inventory intended for geological disposal is significant and represents approximately 80,000 m{sup 3} of primary waste. The required drifts and cells for such disposal are developing in a long and complex network, with plans calling for a total of about 300 km of drifts to be opened over the next century. This paper describes various issues relating to the architecture design and the way they are integrated. Long-term safety is at the basis of the major principles not only for dividing the different waste categories into separate disposal areas, but also for identifying the relevant constraints involving the topology of the network (fragmentation of disposal areas into modules, dead-end architecture) and the orientation of certain structures. In the case of exothermal waste, since the control over the phenomenological evolution also leads to selecting a thermal criterion in the geological layer in contact with the waste, there is an impact on the density of the repository and, consequently, on its architecture. Operational security and safety issues are reflected in ventilation needs and in personnel-evacuation requirements in case of fire, both of which require additional intersections and drifts. The section of drifts is also conditioned often by those security aspects. Nuclear zoning may also induce requirements for special structures having a potential impact on the architecture. Operation, taken into its broader sense encompassing construction and nuclear activities, imposes its own share of constraints quite independently from any security or safety considerations. Impacted areas include structure slopes, the

  10. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEvoy, F.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Shaw, R.P.; Norris, S.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1 million years into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200 ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. - Highlights: • Natural processes are key to developing a safety case for geological disposal. • Key factors include plate tectonic and climate-mediated processes. • Process variability is a challenge to predicting the natural environment. • We highlight the challenges for geological disposal programs using

  11. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, F.M., E-mail: fmcevoy@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Schofield, D.I. [British Geological Survey, Tongwynlais, CF15 7NE (United Kingdom); Shaw, R.P. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Norris, S. [Radioactive Waste Management Limited, B587, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1 million years into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200 ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. - Highlights: • Natural processes are key to developing a safety case for geological disposal. • Key factors include plate tectonic and climate-mediated processes. • Process variability is a challenge to predicting the natural environment. • We highlight the challenges for geological disposal programs using

  12. The Mizunami underground research laboratory in Japan - programme for study of the deep geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Hideki; Sugihara, Kozo; Koide, Kaoru; Mikake, Shinichiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the PNC's Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project in Mizunami City, central Japan. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory now will succeed the Kamaishi Mine as the main facility for the geoscientific study of the crystalline environment. The site will never be considered as a site for a repository. The surface-based investigations, planned to continue for some 5 years commenced in the autumn 1997. The construction of the facility to the depth of 1000 m is currently planned to: Develop comprehensive investigation techniques for geological environment; Acquire data on the deep geological environment and to; Develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. Besides PNC research, the facility will also be used to promote deeper understanding of earthquakes, to perform experiments under micro-gravity conditions etc. The geology of the site is shortly as follows: The sedimentary overburden some 20 - 100 m in thickness is of age 2 - 20 million years. The basement granite is approx. 70 million years. A reverse fault is crosscutting the site. The identified fault offers interesting possibilities for important research. Part of the work during the surface-based investigations, is to drill and test deep boreholes to a planned depth up to 2000 m. Based on the investigations, predictions will be made what geological environment will be encountered during the Construction Phase. Also the effect of construction will be predicted. Methodology for evaluation of predictions will be established

  13. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Nagra’s proposals for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. The procedure proposed for the selection process is explained. The four sites for possible repositories of high-level radioactive waste as well as for low and intermediate-level wastes are described and rated with respect to the various safety factors involved. The reasons for the long-term safety measures proposed and the geological barriers involved are discussed. The four proposals for depository sites are looked at in more detail. The paper is well illustrated with several diagrams and tables

  14. Identification of scenarios in the safety assessment of a deep geological site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1990-01-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them corresponding to a type of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an underground laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events. 4 refs., 1 tab [fr

  15. Methodology for the biosphere analysis in the evaluation of deep geological repositories for high radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Pinedo, P.; Aguero, A.; Simon, I.; Torres, C.; Robles, B.; Smith, G.M.; Little, R.; Watkings, B.; Brice, A.; Jaen, J.A.; Coronado, S.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overal R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropiate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and proactical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better proactical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methologoy. This Methodology is widely based on an international working group on Reference Biospheres part national work for ENRESA has been supported under a collaborative agreement with QuantiSci Ltd. Specific software development have been carried out in collaboration with QuantiSci Ltd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. Most of the items included within the Methodology and moreover the Methodology as a whole, follows a continuos progressive development. It is increasinaly recognized that assessment capabilities, establisment of safety criteria and regulatory framework and the steps in a

  16. Nuclear structure in deep-inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concentrates on recent deep inelastic experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory and the nuclear structure effects evident in reactions between super heavy nuclei. Experiments indicate that these reactions evolve gradually from simple transfer processes which have been studied extensively for lighter nuclei such as 16 O, suggesting a theoretical approach connecting the one-step DWBA theory to the multistep statistical models of nuclear reactions. This transition between quasi-elastic and deep inelastic reactions is achieved by a simple random walk model. Some typical examples of nuclear structure effects are shown. 24 refs., 9 figs

  17. Swiss plans for deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes - Basics for communication at the localities affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the concept of how information concerning deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes should be presented and communicated to those in the areas which have been designated as potential sites for the repositories. Communication basics based on scientific knowledge in this area are discussed. The importance of a concept for general communication and risk-communication as a particular challenge are discussed. Trust and transparency are quoted as being indispensable in this connection. Ways of dealing with various target audiences and the media are examined. The report is concluded with a check-list that deals with important questions arising from the process of communicating information on deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes

  18. Site selection of a deep repository of HLRW in relation to geological conditions of Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, M.; Kovacikova, M.; Madaras, J.; Vandlikova, M.

    1996-01-01

    All countries which use nuclear energy to generate electricity face the problem of high level radioactive waste (HLRW) and spent fuel. Until 1987, this problem was addressed in Czechoslovakia by transferring the material to the former USSR. After the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989 and the division of Czechoslovakia into two states in 1993, Slovakia independently faced the complex problem of creating its own deep repository. Although Slovakia has begun to solve the problem of HLRW and spent fuel only recently, it can take advantage of the theoretical and practical knowledge of other countries in this field. The geological aspects of the setting of the deep repository of HLRW have been studied within the project R epositories of radioactive and hazardous wastes in geological environment. The assessment of the Slovak Republic for creating a repository of HLRW was based on the application of internationally determined and applied criteria

  19. Reference spent fuel and its characteristics for the concept development of a deep geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C. H.; Choi, J. W.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, Y. M.; Park, J. H.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. K.

    1997-09-01

    The total amount of spent fuel arisen from the nuclear power plant to be planned by 2010 at the basis of the long-term power development plan announced by MOTIE (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy Resource) in 1995 is estimated to derive the disposal capacity of a deep geological repository is derived. The reference spent fuel whose characteristics could be planned is selected by analysing the characteristic data such as initial enrichment, discharge burnup, geometry, dimension, gross weight, etc. Also isotopic concentration, radioactivity, decay heat, hazard index and radiation intensity of a reference spent fuel are quantitatively identified and summarized in order to apply in the concept developing works of a deep geological disposal system. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 14 figs

  20. Reference spent fuel and its characteristics for the concept development of a deep geological disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, C. H.; Choi, J. W.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, Y. M.; Park, J. H.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. K.

    1997-09-01

    The total amount of spent fuel arisen from the nuclear power plant to be planned by 2010 at the basis of the long-term power development plan announced by MOTIE (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy Resource) in 1995 is estimated to derive the disposal capacity of a deep geological repository is derived. The reference spent fuel whose characteristics could be planned is selected by analysing the characteristic data such as initial enrichment, discharge burnup, geometry, dimension, gross weight, etc. Also isotopic concentration, radioactivity, decay heat, hazard index and radiation intensity of a reference spent fuel are quantitatively identified and summarized in order to apply in the concept developing works of a deep geological disposal system. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 14 figs.

  1. Deep drilling in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohn, G.S.; Koeberl, C.; Miller, K.G.; Reimold, W.U.

    2009-01-01

    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure lies buried at moderate depths below Chesapeake Bay and surrounding landmasses in southeastern Virginia, USA. Numerous characteristics made this impact structure an inviting target for scientific drilling, including the location of the impact on the Eocene continental shelf, its threelayer target structure, its large size (??85 km diameter), its status as the source of the North American tektite strewn field, its temporal association with other late Eocene terrestrial impacts, its documented effects on the regional groundwater system, and its previously unstudied effects on the deep microbial biosphere. The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project was designed to drill a deep, continuously cored test hole into the central part of the structure. A project workshop, funding proposals, and the acceptance of those proposals occurred during 2003-2005. Initial drilling funds were provided by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Supplementary funds were provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate, ICDP, and USGS. Field operations were conducted at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, by Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) and the project staff during September-December 2005, resulting in two continuously cored, deep holes. The USGS and Rutgers University cored a shallow hole to 140 m in April-May 2006 to complete the recovered section from land surface to 1766 m depth. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of crater materials and 444 m of overlying postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. The crater section consists of, from base to top: basement-derived blocks of crystalline rocks (215 m); a section of suevite, impact melt rock, lithic impact breccia, and cataclasites (154 m); a thin interval of quartz sand and lithic blocks (26 m); a

  2. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  3. Effects of heat from high-level waste on performance of deep geological repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the effects of heat on the deep geological repository systems and its different components. The report is focussed specifically on effects due to thermal energy release solely from high-level waste or spent fuel. It reviews the experimental data and theoretical models of the effects of heat both on the behaviour of engineered and natural barriers. A summary of the current status of research and repository development including underground test facilities is presented

  4. In situ experiments for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report reviews the current status of in-situ experiments undertaken to assess various concepts for disposal of spent fuel and reprocessed high-level waste in deep geological formations. Specifically it describes in-situ experiments in three geological formations - clay, granite and domed salt. The emphasis in this report is on the in-situ experiments which deal with the various issues related to the near-field effects in a repository and the geological environment immediately surrounding the repository. These near-field effects are due to the disturbance caused by both the construction of the repository and the waste itself. The descriptions are drawn primarily from four underground research facilities: the Underground Experimental Facility, Belgium (clay), the Stripa Project, Sweden and the Underground Research Laboratory, Canada (granite) and the Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany (salt). 54 refs, figs and tab

  5. Deep storage of radioactive waste from a geological point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venzlaff, Helmut [Federal Institute for Geo-Sciences and Raw Materials, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    For a deep storage of radioactive waste geologists gave their preference to salt prior to other rock complexes such as clay or granite. Major deposits from pure rock salt are particularly suitable to safely seal radioactive wastes from the biosphere because due to their plasticity they are free from fissures in which liquids and gases could circulate and because their thermal conductivity is higher than of other rocks. The geological stability of salt domes can be shown by their geological evolution. Thus the salt dome in Gorleben was formed 100 million years ago and is older than the Atlantic, the Alps or the ascent of the low mountain range. During this long period it survived ocean floods, mountain formations, earthquakes, volcanism and ice ages without considerably changing its shape. There are no geological reasons, why it should not remain stable during the next million years.

  6. Deep storage of radioactive waste from a geological point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venzlaff, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    For a deep storage of radioactive waste geologists gave their preference to salt prior to other rock complexes such as clay or granite. Major deposits from pure rock salt are particularly suitable to safely seal radioactive wastes from the biosphere because due to their plasticity they are free from fissures in which liquids and gases could circulate and because their thermal conductivity is higher than of other rocks. The geological stability of salt domes can be shown by their geological evolution. Thus the salt dome in Gorleben was formed 100 million years ago and is older than the Atlantic, the Alps or the ascent of the low mountain range. During this long period it survived ocean floods, mountain formations, earthquakes, volcanism and ice ages without considerably changing its shape. There are no geological reasons, why it should not remain stable during the next million years.

  7. Hydrogen transfer experiments and modelization in clay rocks for radioactive waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, P.

    2008-10-01

    Gases will be generated by corrosion of high radioactive waste containers in deep geological repositories. A gas phase will be generated. Gas pressure will build up and penetrated the geological formation. If gases do not penetrate the geological barrier efficiently, the pressure build up may create a risk of fracturing and of creation of preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. The present work focuses on Callovo-Oxfordian argillites characterisation. An experiment, designed to measure very low permeabilities, was used with hydrogen/helium and analysed using the Dusty Gas Model. Argillites close to saturation have an accessible porosity to gas transfer that is lower than 0,1% to 1% of the porosity. Analysis of the Knudsen effect suggests that this accessible network should be made of 50 nm to 200 nm diameter pores. The permeabilities values were integrated to an ANDRA operating model. The model showed that the maximum pressure expected near the repository would be 83 bar. (author)

  8. Analysis of the processes defining radionuclide migration from deep geological repositories in porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazauskaite, A.; Poskas, P.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the danger of exposure arising from long-lived radionuclides to humans and environment, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) are not allowed to be disposed of in near surface repositories. There exists an international consensus that such high level and long-lived radioactive wastes are best disposed of in geological repositories using a system of engineered and natural barriers. At present, the geological repository of SNF and HLW has not been realized yet in any country but there is a lot of experience in the assessment of radionuclide migration from deep repositories, investigations of different processes related to the safety of a disposal system. The aim of this study was to analyze the processes related to the radionuclide migration from deep geological repositories in porous medium such as SNF matrix dissolution, release mechanism of radionuclides from SNF matrix, radionuclide solubility, sorption, diffusive, advective transport of radionuclides from the canister and through the engineered and natural barriers. It has been indicated that SNF matrix dissolution, radionuclide solubility and sorption are sensitive to ambient conditions prevailing in the repository. The approaches that could be used for modeling the radionuclide migration from deep repositories in porous medium are also presented. (author)

  9. The deep geologic repository technology programme: toward a geoscience basis for understanding repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Within the Deep Geologic Repository Technology Programme (DGRTP) several Geoscience activities are focused on advancing the understanding of groundwater flow system evolution and geochemical stability in a Canadian Shield setting as affected by long-term climate change. A key aspect is developing confidence in predictions of groundwater flow patterns and residence times as they relate to the safety of a deep geologic repository for used nuclear fuel waste. This is being achieved through a coordinated multi-disciplinary approach intent on: i) demonstrating coincidence between independent geo-scientific data; ii) improving the traceability of geo-scientific data and its interpretation within a conceptual descriptive model(s); iii) improving upon methods to assess and demonstrate robustness in flow domain prediction(s) given inherent flow domain uncertainties (i.e. spatial chemical/physical property distributions, boundary conditions) in time and space; and iv) improving awareness amongst geo-scientists as to the utility of various geo-scientific data in supporting a safety case for a deep geologic repository. This multi-disciplinary DGRTP approach is yielding an improved understanding of groundwater flow system evolution and stability in Canadian Shield settings that is further contributing to the geo-scientific basis for understanding and communicating aspects of DGR safety. (author)

  10. Time evolution of the Clay Barrier Chemistry in a HLW deep geological disposal in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, I.; Miguel, M. J.; Juncosa, R.

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of a high level waste geological disposal is to guarantee the waste isolation from the biosphere, locking them away into very deep geological formations. The best way to assure the isolation is by means of a multiple barrier system. These barriers, in a serial disposition, should assure the confinement function of the disposal system. Two kinds of barriers are considered: natural barriers (geological formations) and engineered barriers (waste form, container and backfilling and sealing materials). Bentonite is selected as backfilling and sealing materials for HLW disposal into granite formations, due to its very low permeability and its ability to fill the remaining spaces. bentonite has also other interesting properties, such as, the radionuclide retention capacity by sorption processes. Once the clay barrier has been placed, the saturation process starts. The granite groundwater fills up the voids of the bentonite and because of the chemical interactions, the groundwater chemical composition varies. Near field processes, such as canister corrosion, waste leaching and radionuclide release, strongly depends on the water chemical composition. Bentonite pore water composition is such a very important feature of the disposal system and its determination and its evolution have great relevance in the HLW deep geological disposal performance assessment. The process used for the determination of the clay barrier pore water chemistry temporal evolution, and its influence on the performance assessment, are presented in this paper. (Author)

  11. Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dobra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited by Hassi R`mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases. Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria.

  12. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, F M; Schofield, D I; Shaw, R P; Norris, S

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1millionyears into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Geologic Structures in Crater Walls on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Beck, A. W.; Ammannito, E.; Carsenty, U.; DeSanctis, M. C.; LeCorre, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Reddy, V.; Schroeder, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Framing Camera (FC) on the Dawn spacecraft has imaged most of the illuminated surface of Vesta with a resolution of apporpx. 20 m/pixel through different wavelength filters that allow for identification of lithologic units. The Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) has imaged the surface at lower spatial resolution but high spectral resolution from 0.25 to 5 micron that allows for detailed mineralogical interpretation. The FC has imaged geologic structures in the walls of fresh craters and on scarps on the margin of the Rheasilvia basin that consist of cliff-forming, competent units, either as blocks or semi-continuous layers, hundreds of m to km below the rims. Different units have different albedos, FC color ratios and VIR spectral characteristics, and different units can be juxtaposed in individual craters. We will describe different examples of these competent units and present preliminary interpretations of the structures. A common occurrence is of blocks several hundred m in size of high albedo (bright) and low albedo (dark) materials protruding from crater walls. In many examples, dark material deposits lie below coherent bright material blocks. In FC Clementine color ratios, bright material is green indicating deeper 1 m pyroxene absorption band. VIR spectra show these to have deeper and wider 1 and 2 micron pyroxene absorption bands than the average vestan surface. The associated dark material has subdued pyroxene absorption features compared to the average vestan surface. Some dark material deposits are consistent with mixtures of HED materials with carbonaceous chondrites. This would indicate that some dark material deposits in crater walls are megabreccia blocks. The same would hold for bright material blocks found above them. Thus, these are not intact crustal units. Marcia crater is atypical in that the dark material forms a semi-continuous, thin layer immediately below bright material. Bright material occurs as one or more layers. In

  14. Geological evidence for deep exploration in Xiazhuang uranium orefield and its periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijun; Huang Hongkun; Zeng Wenwei; Wu Jiguang

    2011-01-01

    This paper first discussed the ore-controlling role of deep structure, the origin of metallogenic matter and fluid, the relation of diabase to silicification zone, then summarized the achievement of Geophysical survey and drilling, and finally analysed the potential for deep exploration in Xiazhuang uranium orefield.(authors)

  15. A reappraaisal of the geology, geochemistry, structures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The largest segment of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt in Kenya occurs east of the north-south oriented Rift system. Geological works carried out in the country during the last few decades have progressively revealed the complexity of the geology, structures and tectonics of the Mozambique belt in the region.

  16. Reconnaissance Geology and Structure of the Coso Range, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    annual rainfall is slightly more than 2 inches in the valleys and 5 to 6 inches in the uplands; precipitation falls mostly from October through March...and Western Nevada. 1970. P. 42. (U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 623, UNCLASSIFIED.) 6 H. E. von Heiene. "Structural Geology and Gravimetry

  17. Qualitative acceptance criteria for radioactive wastes to be disposed of in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The present Safety Guide has to be seen as a companion document to the IAEA Safety Series No. 99. It is concerned with the waste form which is an important component of the overall disposal system. Because of the broad range of waste types and conditioned forms and variations in the sites, designs and constructional approaches being considered for deep geological repositories, this report necessarily approaches the waste acceptance criteria in a general way, recognizing that the assignment of quantitative limits to these criteria has to be the responsibility of national authorities. The main objective of this Safety Guide is to set out qualitative waste acceptance criteria as a basis for specifying quantitative limits for the waste forms and packages which are intended to be disposed of in deep geological repositories. It should serve as guidance for assigning such parameter values which would fully comply with the safety assessment and performance of a waste disposal system as a whole. This document is intended to serve both national authorities and regulatory bodies involved in the development of deep underground disposal systems. The qualitative waste acceptance criteria dealt with in the present Safety Guide are primarily concerned with the disposal of high level, intermediate level and long-lived alpha bearing wastes in deep geological repositories. Although some criteria are also applicable in other waste disposal concepts, it has to be borne in mind that the set of criteria presented here shall ensure the isolation capability of a waste disposal system for periods of time much longer than for other waste streams with shorter lifetimes. 51 refs, 1 tab

  18. Should the U.S. proceed to consider licensing deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The United States, as well as other countries facing the question of how to handle high-level nuclear waste, has decided that the most appropriate means of disposal is in a deep geologic repository. In recent years, the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the Nuclear Energy Agency has developed several position papers on the technical achievability of deep geologic disposal, thus demonstrating the serious consideration of deep geologic disposal in the international community. The Committee has not, as yet, formally endorsed disposal in a deep geologic repository as the preferred method of handling high-level nuclear waste. The United States, on the other hand, has studied the various methods of disposing of high-level nuclear waste, and has determined that deep geologic disposal is the method that should be developed. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the United States' decision on selecting deep geologic disposal as the preferred method of addressing the high-level waste problem. It presents a short history of the steps taken by the U.S. in determining what method to use, discusses the NRC's waste Confidence Decision, and provides information on other issues in the U.S. program such as reconsideration of the final disposal standard and the growing inventory of spent fuel in storage

  19. Deep earth fluids and huge metallogenetic belt and fatal geological disaster: 60th anniversary of Professor Du Le-tian engaging in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Guangxi; Tao Shizhen; Liu Yinhe

    2012-01-01

    Professor Du Le-tian has been researching for a long time on scientific relationship between deep earth fluids and hydrocarbon accumulation and metallogenesis, as well as gestation and prediction of disasters. He has contributed greatly to the development of that scientific field. From 6 to 8, July, 2012, 'Workshop on Deep Earth Fluids and Huge Metallogenetic Belt, Fatal Geological Disaster, as well as 60 th Anniversary of Professor Du Le-tian Engaging in Geology' was successfully convened in Beijing, totally with 76 delegates present who were experts, scholars or students from USA, Hong Kong, or various institutes, colleges or universities of China. In the workshop, the scientific presentations discussed were counted up to 49, on aspects of geological processes of deep earth fluids, relationship between earth degassing and hydrocarbon accumulation or metallogenesis, gestating mechanism of volcanic eruptions and strong earthquakes as well as their relations with mine gas outburst, high-temperature and high-pressure experimental earth science, etc.. (authors)

  20. Nuclear Waste Facing the Test of Time: The Case of the French Deep Geological Repository Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot-Delpech, Sophie; Raineau, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider the socio-anthropological issues raised by the deep geological repository project for high-level, long-lived nuclear waste. It is based on fieldwork at a candidate site for a deep storage project in eastern France, where an underground laboratory has been studying the feasibility of the project since 1999. A project of this nature, based on the possibility of very long containment (hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer), involves a singular form of time. By linking project performance to geology's very long timescale, the project attempts "jump" in time, focusing on a far distant future, without understanding it in terms of generations. But these future generations remain measurements of time on the surface, where the issue of remembering or forgetting the repository comes to the fore. The nuclear waste geological storage project raises questions that neither politicians nor scientists, nor civil society, have ever confronted before. This project attempts to address a problem that exists on a very long timescale, which involves our responsibility toward generations in the far future.

  1. Deep geological repositories. Safe operation and long-term safety in the prism of reversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espivent, Camille; Tichauer, Michael [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-07-01

    A deep geological repository is the reference solution enshrined in the French law for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. The current project is led by Andra, the French radioactive waste management organization. As a technical support organization, IRSN's mission is, on the basis of the safety case produced by Andra, to assess the safety of such a facility at its various stages of development, that is to say the design, construction, operation and post-closure phases of the facility. Such a facility will have to meet specific requirements, within different time frames as stated above. One of the requirements is ''reversibility'': in fact, French law poses that the geological disposal will have to be ''reversible'' for a certain time, yet not fully defined. Reversibility is nevertheless believed encompassing both the decision making process related to the waste emplacement process during operational phase and the ability to retrieve waste, should such a decision be made. Thus, underground structures have to be designed and operated to allow both waste emplacement and removal. Moreover, future decision making about the disposal process will have to rely on a sound technical basis. This implies a data collection scheme and a monitoring program of the facility to check if the disposal process is bound by limits, controls and conditions compatible with (i) a safe operation of the facility and (ii) the state of the facility that the operator wants to achieve at the time of its closure, so that long-term safety is guaranteed. Therefore, technical criteria and key parameters have to be selected and monitored during construction and operation, that is to say for decades. Then, reversibility have to make room for corrective actions, including the retrieval of waste, if something goes wrong and especially if the facility is not seen as safe anymore, especially in the perspective of long-term safety. To

  2. Deep geological repositories. Safe operation and long-term safety in the prism of reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espivent, Camille; Tichauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A deep geological repository is the reference solution enshrined in the French law for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. The current project is led by Andra, the French radioactive waste management organization. As a technical support organization, IRSN's mission is, on the basis of the safety case produced by Andra, to assess the safety of such a facility at its various stages of development, that is to say the design, construction, operation and post-closure phases of the facility. Such a facility will have to meet specific requirements, within different time frames as stated above. One of the requirements is ''reversibility'': in fact, French law poses that the geological disposal will have to be ''reversible'' for a certain time, yet not fully defined. Reversibility is nevertheless believed encompassing both the decision making process related to the waste emplacement process during operational phase and the ability to retrieve waste, should such a decision be made. Thus, underground structures have to be designed and operated to allow both waste emplacement and removal. Moreover, future decision making about the disposal process will have to rely on a sound technical basis. This implies a data collection scheme and a monitoring program of the facility to check if the disposal process is bound by limits, controls and conditions compatible with (i) a safe operation of the facility and (ii) the state of the facility that the operator wants to achieve at the time of its closure, so that long-term safety is guaranteed. Therefore, technical criteria and key parameters have to be selected and monitored during construction and operation, that is to say for decades. Then, reversibility have to make room for corrective actions, including the retrieval of waste, if something goes wrong and especially if the facility is not seen as safe anymore, especially in the perspective of long-term safety. To

  3. Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Jay R.; Eliason, Valerie L. C.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points, and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

  4. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  5. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The present report and its annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful discussion

  6. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  7. Radioactive waste disposal process geological structure for the waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Jaouen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The process described here consists to carry out the two phases of storage operation (intermediate and definitive) of radioactive wastes (especially the vitrified ones) in a geological dispositif (horizontal shafts) at an adequate deepness but suitable for a natural convection ventilation with fresh air from the land surface and moved only with the calorific heat released by the burried radioactive wastes when the radioactive decay has reached the adequate level, the shafts are totally and definitely occluded [fr

  8. Deep geological isolation of nuclear waste: numerical modeling of repository scale hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The Scope of Work undertaken covers three main tasks, described as follows: (Task 1) CDM provided consulting services to the University on modeling aspects of the study having to do with transport processes involving the local groundwater system near the repository and the flow of fluids and vapors through the various porous media making up the repository system. (Task 2) CDM reviewed literature related to repository design, concentrating on effects of the repository geometry, location and other design factors on the flow of fluids within the repository boundaries, drainage from the repository structure, and the eventual transport of radionucldies away from the repository site. (Task 3) CDM, in a joint effort with LLL personnel, identified generic boundary and initial conditions, identified processes to be modeled, and recommended a modeling approach with suggestions for appropriate simplifications and approximations to the problem and identifiying important parameters necessary to model the processes. This report consists of two chapters and an appendix. The first chapter (Chapter III of the LLL report) presents a detailed description and discussion of the modeling approach developed in this project, its merits and weaknesses, and a brief review of the difficulties anticipated in implementing the approach. The second chapter (Chapter IV of the LLL report) presents a summary of a survey of researchers in the field of repository performance analysis and a discussion of that survey in light of the proposed modeling approach. The appendix is a review of the important physical processes involved in the potential hydrologic transport of radionuclides through, around and away from deep geologic nuclear waste repositories

  9. An overview on the national strategy to implement a deep geological repository in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, G.; Ghitescu, P.; Dupleac, D.; Prisecaru, I.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1996 in Romania was started operation Candu 700 MW Unit 1 Cernavoda Nuclear Power Station and in 2007 begun operation of the Candu 700 MW Unit 2. The energy produced by nuclear units is accompanied by radioactive waste production. According with European Union requirements in Romania was created National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD) in 2003. ANDRAD business is radioactive waste management. ANDRAD, together with the stakeholders, worked the law of great radioactive waste generators contribution for radioactive waste management, which was approved by Governmental Ordinance in September 2007. ANDRAD is responsible manager of this fund. ANDRAD is responsible, also, with the National Strategy for radioactive waste management. Romania's National Strategy for Energy approved in 2007 by Government Ordinance says that a deep geological repository for spent fuel (SF) and High Level Waste (HLW) is to be put in operation around 2055. IAEA supported ANDRAD in a Technical Cooperation Project for a concept of a geological repository of radioactive waste. A strategy to implement o geological repository in Romania was drafted. There are problems with potential rocks and sites to host a geological repository. There are problems for funding this project and also sensitive and serious problems connected with social and political issues. Paper presents this strategy and all the problems arisen by implantation of this strategy. (authors)

  10. Mathematical modelling of heat production in deep geological repository of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanda, O.

    2017-01-01

    Waste produced by nuclear industry requires special handling. Currently, there is a research taking place, focused at possibilities of nuclear waste storage in deep geological repositories, hosted in stable geological environment. The high-level nuclear waste produces significant amount of heat for a long time, which can affect either environment outside of or within the repository in a negative way. Therefore to reduce risks, it is desirable to know the principles of such heat production, which can be achieved using mathematical modeling. This thesis comes up with a general model of heat production-time dependency, dependable on initial composition of the waste. To be able to model real situations, output of this thesis needs to be utilized in an IT solution. (authors)

  11. Important processes affecting the release and migration of radionuclides from a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barátová, Dana; Nečas, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    The processes that affect significantly the transport of contaminants through the near field and far field of a deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel were studied. The processes can be generally divided into (i) processes related to the release of radionuclides from the spent nuclear fuel; (ii) processes related to the radionuclide transport mechanisms (such as advection and diffusion); and (iii) processes affecting the rate of radionuclide migration through the multi-barrier repository system. A near-field and geosphere model of an unspecified geological repository sited in a crystalline rock is also described. Focus of the treatment is on the effects of the different processes on the activity flow of the major safety-relevant radionuclides. The activity flow was simulated for one spent fuel cask by using the GoldSim simulation tool. (orig.)

  12. Deep geological radioactive waste disposal in Germany: Lessons learned and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempert, J.P.; Biurrun, E.

    2001-01-01

    As far back as in the seventies a fully developed, integrated concept for closing the nuclear fuel cycle was agreed upon in Germany between the Federal Government of that time and the electricity utilities. In the twenty years elapsed since then it was further developed as necessary to permanently fit the state of the art of science and technology. For management of spent fuel, the concept currently considers two equivalent alternatives: direct disposal of the spent fuel or reprocessing the fuel and recycling in thermal reactors. Interim storage of spent fuel and vitrified high level waste (HLW) to allow for decay heat generation to decrease to a convenient level is carried out in centralized installations. Radioactive waste disposal in pursuant to German regulations for all kinds of waste is to be carried out exclusively in deep geologic repositories. At present in the country, there are three centralized interim storage facilities for spent fuel, one of them can also accept vitrified HLW. Several facilities are in use for low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) storage at power plants and other locations. A pilot conditioning facility for encapsulating spent fuel and/or HLW for final disposal is now ready to be commissioned. Substantial progress has been achieved in realization of HLW disposal, including demonstration of all the needed technology and fabrication of a significant part of the equipment. With regard to deep geologic disposal of LLW and ILW, Germany has worldwide unique experience. The Asse salt mine was used as an experimental repository for some 10 years in the late sixties and seventies. After serving since then as an underground research facility, it is now being backfilled and sealed. The Morsleben deep geologic repository was in operation for more than 25 years until September 1998. (author)

  13. Report preceding the public debate on the Cigeo project of deep geological storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents and comments the inventory made by the ANDRA of materials and wastes which are to be stored in the Cigeo deep geological storage. It highlights the transparency of the decision process related to this project (public debate, investigations and expertise), and also outlines the opinions of some local representatives and associations committed in environment protection regarding the project preparation. Five recommendations are then made by the High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety (HCTISN). Additional information is provided in appendix about the material inventory, about the history of the decision process, and also about meetings and hearings held by the High Committee

  14. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - site selection process update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository, located in an informed and willing host. The process of site selection is an important milestone in this program. The NWMO describes its approach to working collaboratively with communities which expressed interest in exploring the project, as well as Aboriginal communities in the area and other surrounding communities. The project is designed to be implemented through a long-term partnership involving the interested community, Aboriginal communities and surrounding communities working with the NWMO. (author)

  15. Considerations on pressure build-up in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, Hans-Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Gas formation caused by corrosion of metals is a pivotal point with respect to the safety analysis of deep geological repositories. Solid corrosion products are formed unavoidably during the gas formation. The volumes of these solid corrosion products are multiples of the original waste volume. These solid corrosion products are chemically extremely stable and result in a pressure increase inside the repository. This pressure is considerably higher than that of the overlaying rock. The question that arises is, why this aspect is not considered in the consulted documents.

  16. Establishing and communicating confidence in the safety of deep geologic disposal. Approaches and arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Confidence among both technical experts and the public in the safety of deep geologic repositories for radioactive waste is a key element in the successful development of the repositories. This report presents the approaches and arguments that are currently used in OECD countries to establish and communicate confidence in their safety. It evaluates the state of the art for obtaining, presenting and demonstrating confidence in long-term safety, and makes recommendations on future directions and initiatives to be taken for improving confidence. (author)

  17. Annular air space effects on nuclear waste canister temperatures in a deep geologic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.E.; Cheung, H.; Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Air spaces in a deep geologic repository for nuclear high level waste will have an important effect on the long-term performance of the waste package. The important temperature effects of an annular air gap surrounding a high level waste canister are determined through 3-D numerical modeling. Air gap properties and parameters specifically analyzed and presented are the air gap size, surfaces emissivity, presence of a sleeve, and initial thermal power generation rate; particular emphasis was placed on determining the effect of these variables have on the canister surface temperature. Finally a discussion based on modeling results is presented which specifically relates the results to NRC regulatory considerations

  18. Underground storage. Study of radwaste storage in deep geological formations: environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoorelbeke, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (Andra) is to monitor the management methods and storage of radioactive waste produced in France. The agency has this undertaken a vast study program for the evaluation of the management conditions of long-life radwaste, which cannot be stored indefinitely in shallow-ground repositories. Underground laboratories are investigating the feasibility of a possible solution which is to store radwaste in a deep geological layer. However, there will be no decision on this type of storage before the year 2006. 7 figs

  19. Paleocorrosion studies in deep sea sediments and the geological disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, L.; Maurette, M.; Guichard, F.; Havette, A.; Monaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    Uncertainties still surround assessment of the safety of disposal of nuclear wastes incorporated into 'radwaste' matrices. This is mostly due to the long time required for radioactive decay of 237 Np. The present work explores the usefulness of an experimental approach in 'paleocorrosion', which should help in minimizing such uncertainties. In this approach, polished sections of sediments containing high concentrations of natural analogues of radwaste matrices are subjected to element micromapping. Thus it is possible to characterize the long-term interactions of such analogues in their geological repositories, and to identify which generate reaction aureoles and protective and/or unprotective coatings. These analogues include grains incorporated in deep sea sediments (uraninite and quartz from the Oklo uranium ore deposit; volcanic ash particles; magnetic cosmic spherules). The present results indicate that uraninite should be a much more durable radwaste matrix than any type of glass in deep sea sediments. (orig./TWO)

  20. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair and

  1. Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project Completes Coring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Scientific Staff of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project (CBIS Project completed its coring operations during September–December 2005 and April–May 2006. Cores were collected continuously to a total depth of 1766 m. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of impactites beneath 444 m of post-impact continental shelf sediments.The CBIS Project is a joint venture of the International Continental Scientifi c Drilling Program (ICDP and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS. Project activities began with a planning workshop in September 2003 attended by sixtythree scientists from ten countries. Field operations began with site preparation in July 2005, and coring began in September 2005. Drilling, Observation and Sampling of theEarth’s Continental Crust (DOSECC was the general contractor for the drilling operations throughout 2005.

  2. Bacterial Diversity in Bentonites, Engineered Barrier for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita; Cherkouk, Andrea; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar; Boon, Nico; Sanchez-Castro, Ivan; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2015-11-01

    The long-term disposal of radioactive wastes in a deep geological repository is the accepted international solution for the treatment and management of these special residues. The microbial community of the selected host rocks and engineered barriers for the deep geological repository may affect the performance and the safety of the radioactive waste disposal. In this work, the bacterial population of bentonite formations of Almeria (Spain), selected as a reference material for bentonite-engineered barriers in the disposal of radioactive wastes, was studied. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based approaches were used to study the bacterial community of the bentonite samples by traditional clone libraries and Illumina sequencing. Using both techniques, the bacterial diversity analysis revealed similar results, with phylotypes belonging to 14 different bacterial phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia and an unknown phylum. The dominant groups of the community were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A high diversity was found in three of the studied samples. However, two samples were less diverse and dominated by Betaproteobacteria.

  3. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible

  4. Deep Time Data Infrastructure: Integrating Our Current Geologic and Biologic Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolankowski, S. M.; Fox, P. A.; Ma, X.; Prabhu, A.

    2016-12-01

    As our knowledge of Earth's geologic and mineralogical history grows, we require more efficient methods of sharing immense amounts of data. Databases across numerous disciplines have been utilized to offer extensive information on very specific Epochs of Earth's history up to its current state, i.e. Fossil record, rock composition, proteins, etc. These databases could be a powerful force in identifying previously unseen correlations such as relationships between minerals and proteins. Creating a unifying site that provides a portal to these databases will aid in our ability as a collaborative scientific community to utilize our findings more effectively. The Deep-Time Data Infrastructure (DTDI) is currently being defined as part of a larger effort to accomplish this goal. DTDI will not be a new database, but an integration of existing resources. Current geologic and related databases were identified, documentation of their schema was established and will be presented as a stage by stage progression. Through conceptual modeling focused around variables from their combined records, we will determine the best way to integrate these databases using common factors. The Deep-Time Data Infrastructure will allow geoscientists to bridge gaps in data and further our understanding of our Earth's history.

  5. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  6. Alteration of R7T7-type nuclear glass in deep geological storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, G. de

    2007-02-01

    This PhD thesis is aimed to study the alteration of SON68 glass, French inactive glass of R7T7-type, in contact with near field materials of a deep geological storage (French concept from ANDRA) which are mainly metallic iron and Callovo-Oxfordian clay. Therefore, experiments involving a 'glass-iron-clay' system at lab-scale have been carried out. Interactions between glass, iron and clay have been characterised from submicron to millimeter scale by means of SEM, TEM, XRD and XAS and Raman spectroscopies in terms of chemistry and crystal-chemistry. In the mean time, a conceptual model of glass alteration has been developed to account for most of the experimental observations and known mechanisms of alteration. The model has been then transposed within the transport-chemistry code HYTEC, together with developed models of clay and iron corrosion, to simulate the experiments described above. This work is thus a contribution to the understanding of iron corrosion in Callovo-Oxfordian clay and subsequent glass alteration in the newly formed corrosion products, the whole process being considered as a lab-scale model of a deep geological storage of radioactive wastes. (author)

  7. A methodology for the geological and numerical modelling of CO2 storage in deep saline formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, R.; Moia, F.; Ciampa, G.; Cangiano, C.

    2009-04-01

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize and reduce the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 among which the most promising are the CCS technologies. The remedy proposed for large stationary CO2 sources as thermoelectric power plants is to separate the flue gas, capturing CO2 and to store it into deep subsurface geological formations. In order to support the identification of potential CO2 storage reservoirs in Italy, the project "Identification of Italian CO2 geological storage sites", financed by the Ministry of Economic Development with the Research Fund for the Italian Electrical System under the Contract Agreement established with the Ministry Decree of march 23, 2006, has been completed in 2008. The project involves all the aspects related to the selection of potential storage sites, each carried out in a proper task. The first task has been devoted to the data collection of more than 6800 wells, and their organization into a geological data base supported by GIS, of which 1911 contain information about the nature and the thickness of geological formations, the presence of fresh, saline or brackish water, brine, gas and oil, the underground temperature, the seismic velocity and electric resistance of geological materials from different logs, the permeability, porosity and geochemical characteristics. The goal of the second task was the set up of a numerical modelling integrated tool, that is the in order to allow the analysis of a potential site in terms of the storage capacity, both from solubility and mineral trapping points of view, in terms of risk assessment and long-term storage of CO2. This tool includes a fluid dynamic module, a chemical module and a module linking a geomechanical simulator. Acquirement of geological data, definition of simulation parameter, run control and final result analysis can be performed by a properly developed graphic user interface, fully integrated and calculation platform independent. The project is then

  8. The Swedish approach to siting of a deep geological repository and interaction with the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1993-01-01

    The planned process for siting of a deep geological repository for encapsulated spent nuclear fuel in Sweden was presented in the 1992 SKB R and D programme. A first phase of the repository operation will be limited to disposal of a small amount of encapsulated spent nuclear fuel (approximately 800 tons). This phase will be followed by an evaluation of experiences as well as alternative options before deciding if, when and how to proceed with disposal of the remaining amounts of spent fuel. During the first phase it will be possible to retrieve the waste. Siting is planned to be done in stages. The field studies and safety assessments performed strongly indicate that it is possible to find geological suitable sites within many regions of Sweden. The potential for fulfilling safety requirements will be a crucial factor in site-selection. Local interest in, and attitude to a repository siting will play an important role in the siting process. It is important that an atmosphere of trust and openness can be established. Extensive geological site characterization work will be carried out at the sites selected and studies of other technical, social, economical or political matters will be equally important. Public communication and local participation will form an essential part of the siting programme from the outset. 3 refs., 3 figs

  9. Study on structural plane characteristics of deep rock mass based on acoustic borehole TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiyong; Su Rui; Chen Liang; Tian Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Deep rock mass structural plane characteristics are one of the basic data for evaluating the quality of rock mass. Based on acoustic borehole TV, the structural plane quantity, density, attitude, dominant set, structural plane aperture of deep rock mass in boreholes BS15 # and BS16 # located in Beishan granite rock mass of Gansu Province have been calculated and compared with the results of geological documentation of drill core. The results indicate that acoustic borehole TV has the effect in study on characteristics of structural plane. But as a kind of technique of geophysical logging, the acoustic borehole TV has certain defect, and need to combine with the analysis of the other geological materials in applications. (authors)

  10. Definition imaging of anomalous geologic structure with radio waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarczyk, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Diamond core drilling from the surface and access drifts are routinely used in acquiring subsurface geologic data. Examination of core from a constellation of drillholes enables the characterization of the prevailing geology in the deposit. Similar geologic members in adjacent drillholes suggest that layered rock continuity exists between drillholes. Mineralogical and physical examination of core along with computer generated stratigraphic cross sections graphically represents the correlation and classification of the rock in the deposit. CW radio waves propagating on ray paths between drillholes have been used to validate the stratigraphic cross section and image anomalous geologic structure between drillholes. This paper compares the crosshole radio wave tomography images of faults in a nuclear waste repository site and a coal seam with the in-mine mapping results

  11. Safety- and performance indicators for a generic deep geological repository in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resele, G.; Niemeyer, M.; Wilhelm, St.; Heimer, St.; Mohlfeld, M.; Eilers, G.; Preuss, J.; Wollrath, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. As a first step of an impartial survey for an optimal site selection for a deep geological repository in Germany, potentially suitable regions shall be identified and localised according to their suitability. During the early phases of such a site selection procedure the information about the properties of the host rock and the geological situation at the potential sites is not very precise. As site investigation procedures are both expensive and time-consuming, it is essential to identify those properties of the geological barrier system that are most relevant for long-term safety. Furthermore, adequate indicators have to be chosen that allow a simple but efficient assessment of the suitability of the potential regions. Definition and application of 'exclusion criteria' based on single parameter values, e.g. the hydraulic conductivity of the host rock, is inadequate because the long-term safety depends on the interaction of many features and properties of the barrier system. In a research project, indicators have been developed which depend on the most relevant properties of the geological barriers and estimate the overall performance of a repository system. The application of these indicators on the barrier properties which have been found during the investigations of potential repository sites in clay located in Germany, Switzerland and France demonstrates how, for instance, an unfavourably high hydraulic permeability of the clay can be compensated by a large vertical extension of the clay layer and small hydraulic gradients. Other indicators evaluate the importance of hydraulic discontinuities and define the minimal requirements on technical barriers like seals and backfill of emplacement tunnels. When the information of the radionuclide inventory and the biosphere, especially the diluting aquifer is included, the indicators allow the estimation of the resulting dose which matches the result of a

  12. Recent activity of the regional geologic structures in western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Bavec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several important geological structures in the western Slovenia were identifiedas active and their activity was quantified. Geologic interpretation is based on the analysis of repeated leveling line campaigns data along the Sečovlje–Bled polygon. Taking intoaccount the limitations of the method – only the vertical component of displacement is measured – the following structures were identified as active:a juvenile syncline between Strunjan and Koper, the Kras Imbricate Structure, the Diva~a fault, the Ra{a fault, the Southalpine Front and the Julian Alps thrust. Vertical movement rate is relative, calculated with respect to the benchmark in Sečovlje. The largest uplift rate difference between Sečovlje and Bled is 7 mm/a.Vertical Geodynamic Activity (VGA is introduced as a link between geologic interpretation of geodetic measurements on one side and possible applications on the other as well as a mean of comparison between tectonically active regions.

  13. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling in Fractured Media Under Deep Geological Environment - 12211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Jivkov, A.P. [Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Modelling and Simulation Centre, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the

  14. Relationship between water quality of deep-groundwater and geology in non-volcanic areas in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yoichi; Takahashi, Masaaki; Tsukamoto, Hitoshi; Kazahaya, Kohei; Yasuhara, Masaya; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Noritoshi; Ohwada, Michiko; Shibahara, Akihiko; Inamura, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Geochemical characteristics in groundwater such as groundwater chemistry and physicochemical parameters are affected by their source and the interaction with rocks and minerals. We observed the relationships between groundwater chemistry of the deep-groundwater and the geology in non-volcanic areas in Japan using about 9300 of deep-groundwater data. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to extract data in non-volcanic areas and numbers of water data are about 5200. The data were further classified into four types of geology (sedimentary rock, accretionary complex, volcanic rock and plutonic rock). The pH, temperature and major ion concentrations among deep-groundwaters in each geology have been statistically analysed. Result shows that the total cation concentration of deep-groundwaters are significantly different between geology, and the average values are decreased in the order of the sedimentary rock (66.7 meq l -1 ), volcanic rock (43.0 meq l -1 ), accretionary complex (24.6 meq l -1 ), and plutonic rock (11.0 meq l -1 ). The average pH does not show the major difference between geology whereas the highest average temperature is found in volcanic rock. In addition, the all four major cations (Na, K, Mg, and Ca) show the highest average concentrations in sedimentary rock, within the highest average concentrations of major anions for Cl, SO 4 , and HCO 3 are found in sedimentary rock, volcanic rock and accretionary complex, respectively, indicating the difference of the influence on the anions varied with geology. The distribution of deep-groundwater that are dominated by each major anions implied that SO 4 -type groundwater in volcanic rocks are formed by the influence of Neogene volcanic rock (Green tuff). In addition, HCO 3 -type groundwater in accretionary complex found from Kinki to Shikoku regions are formed by the addition of CO 2 gases supplying not only from surface soil and carbonate minerals but from deep underground. (author)

  15. Mimas: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Mimas, the innermost of the major saturnian satellites, occupies an important place in comparative studies of icy satellites. It is the smallest icy satellite known to have a mostly spherical shape. Smaller icy objects like Hyperion and Puck are generally irregular in shape, while larger ones like Miranda and Enceladus are spherical. Thus Mimas is near the diameter where the combination of increasing surface gravity and internal heating begin to have a significant effect on global structure. The nature and extent of endogenic surface features provide important constraints on the interior structure and history of this transitional body. The major landforms on Mimas are impact craters. Mimas has one of the most heavily cratered surfaces in the solar system. The most prominent single feature on Mimas is Herschel, an unrelaxed complex crater 130 km in diameter. The only other recognized landforms on Mimas are tectonic grooves and lineaments. Groove locations were mapped by Schenk, but without analysis of groove structures or superposition relationships. Mimas' tectonic structures are remapped here in more detail than previously has been done, as part of a general study of tectonic features on icy satellites.

  16. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland - Overview and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnellmann, M.; Zuidema, P.; Gautschi, A.

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews the situation in Switzerland regarding the disposal of radioactive wastes. The development of the Swiss concept for wastes with high, medium and low levels of activity is reviewed, as detailed in the Sectorial Plan for Deep Geological Repositories published in 2008. The three stages involved are described in detail. Further investigations carried out in the Grimsel and Mont Terri underground laboratories are reported on. The state of current work is reviewed. A map is provided of the areas in northern Switzerland which have been selected for further, more intensive research, along with a review of the possible rock formations to be investigated. Data already obtained are reviewed and proposals for further investigations are discussed. In the upcoming stage 3 of the plan, the selection of one site per repository type will be made, leading to the submission of a general licence application.

  17. Obtaining reasonable assurance on geochemical aspects of performance assessment of deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, A.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Providing reasonable assurance that a deep geologic disposal system will perform as required by regulation involves, in part, the building of confidence by providing a sound scientific basis for the site characterization, engineered system design, and system performance modeling efforts. Geochemistry plays a role in each of these activities. Site characterization must result in a description of the in situ geochemical environment that will support the design of the engineered system and the modeling of the transport of specific radionuclides to the accessible environment. Judging the adequacy of this site characterization effort is a major aspect of providing reasonable assurance. Within site characterization, there are a number of geochemical issues that need to be addressed such as the usefulness of natural analog studies, and assessing the very long-term stability of the site geochemistry, given expected temperature and radiation conditions

  18. OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste - recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a status report on Canada's first project to build a permanent repository for the long-term management of radioactive waste. Ontario Power Generation has initiated a project to construct a deep geologic repository for low- and intermediate-level waste at the Bruce Nuclear Site, at a depth in the range of 600 to 800 m in an Ordovician-age argillaceous limestone formation. The project is currently undergoing an Environmental Assessment and consulting companies in the areas of environmental assessment, geoscientific site characterization, engineering and safety assessment have been hired and technical studies are underway. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling will be initiated in the fall of 2006. The next major milestone for the project is the submission of the Environmental Assessment report, currently scheduled for December 2008. (author)

  19. Surface facilities for geological deep repositories - Measures against dangers during construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the measures that are to be taken to address the dangers encountered during the construction and operation of deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes. Firstly, the operation of such repositories during the emplacement of nuclear wastes is discussed and examples of possible repositories for fuel rods and highly-radioactive waste are presented. Various emission-protection issues and safety measures to be taken during construction of such repositories are looked at as is the protection of ground water. Safety considerations during the operational phase are discussed, including inclusion methods used for the wastes and radiation protection. The handling of radioactive wastes, the recognition of dangers and measures to be taken to counteract them are discussed. Various possible accidents are looked at

  20. Proposal for the classification of scenarios for deep geological repositories in probability classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuth, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The provided report was elaborated in the framework of the project 3609R03210 ''Research and Development for Proof of the long-term Safety of Deep Geological Repositories''. It contains a proposal for a methodology that enables the assignment of developed scenarios in the frame of Safety Cases to defined probability classes. The assignment takes place indirectly through the categorization of the defining relevant factors (so-called FEP: Features, Events and Processes) of the respective scenarios also in probability classes. Therefore, decision trees and criteria were developed for the categorization of relevant factors in classes. Besides the description of the methodology another focal point of the work was the application of the method taking into account a defined scenario. By means of the scenario the different steps of the method and the decision criteria were documented, respectively. In addition, potential subjective influences along the path of decisions regarding the assignment of scenarios in probability classes were identified.

  1. Why every national deep-geological-isolation program needs a long-term science & technology component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to set down the rationale for a separate Science & Technology (S&T) Program within every national deep-geological-isolation program. The fundamental rationale for such a Program is to provide a dedicated focus for longer-term science and technology activities that ultimately will benefit the whole repository mission. Such a Program, separately funded and with a dedicated staff (separate from the ''mainline'' activities to develop the repository, the surface facilities, and the transportation system), can devote itself exclusively to the development and management of a long-term science and technology program. Broad experience in governments worldwide has demonstrated that line offices are unlikely to be able to develop and sustain both the appropriate longer-term philosophy and the specialized skills associated with managing longer-term science and technology projects. Accomplishing both of these requires a separate dedicated program office with its own staff

  2. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - the geoscientific site evaluation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfadhel, M.B.; Blyth, A.; Desroches, A.; Hirschorn, S.; Mckelvie, J.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Parmenter, A.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A., E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host the project. This paper describes the approach, methods and criteria being used to assess the geoscientific suitability of communities currently involved in the site selection process. The social, cultural and economic aspects of the assessment are discussed in a companion paper. (author)

  3. Postclosure safety assessment of a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, N.G.; Kremer, E.P.; Garisto, F.; Gierszewski, P.; Gobien, M.; Medri, C.L.D. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada); Avis, J.D. [Geofirma Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Chshyolkova, T.; Kitson, C.I.; Melnyk, W.; Wojciechowski, L.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on elements of a postclosure safety assessment performed for a conceptual design and hypothetical site for a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. Key features are the assumption of a copper used fuel container with a steel inner vessel, container placement in vertical in-floor boreholes, a repository depth of 500 m, and a sparsely fractured crystalline rock geosphere. The study considers a Normal Evolution Scenario together with a series of Disruptive Event Scenarios. The Normal Evolution Scenario is a reasonable extrapolation of present day site features and receptor lifestyles, while the Disruptive Event Scenarios examine abnormal and unlikely failures of the containment and isolation systems. Both deterministic and probabilistic simulations were performed. The results show the peak dose consequences occur far in the future and are well below the applicable regulatory acceptance criteria and the natural background levels. (author)

  4. 3D numerical modelling of the thermal state of deep geological nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, Yu. N.

    2017-09-01

    One of the important aspects of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological repositories is ensuring the integrity of the engineered barriers which is, among other phenomena, considerably influenced by the thermal loads. As the HLW produce significant amount of heat, the design of the repository should maintain the balance between the cost-effectiveness of the construction and the sufficiency of the safety margins, including those imposed on the thermal conditions of the barriers. The 3D finite-element computer code FENIA was developed as a tool for simulation of thermal processes in deep geological repositories. Further the models for mechanical phenomena and groundwater hydraulics will be added resulting in a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) solution. The long-term simulations of the thermal state were performed for two possible layouts of the repository. One was based on the proposed project of Russian repository, and another features larger HLW amount within the same space. The obtained results describe the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature filed inside the repository and in the surrounding rock for 3500 years. These results show that practically all generated heat was ultimately absorbed by the host rock without any significant temperature increase. Still in the short time span even in case of smaller amount of the HLW the temperature maximum exceeds 100 °C, and for larger amount of the HLW the local temperature remains above 100 °C for considerable time. Thus, the substantiation of the long-term stability of the repository would require an extensive study of the materials properties and behaviour in order to remove the excessive conservatism from the simulations and to reduce the uncertainty of the input data.

  5. Expandable tubulars for use in geologic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Jeffery A.; Svedeman, Steven; Walter, David; Mckeighan, Peter; Siebanaler, Shane; Dewhurst, Peter; Hobson, Steven; Foss, Doug; Wirz, Holger; Sharpe, Aaron; Apostal, Michael

    2014-08-12

    An expandable tubular includes a plurality of leaves formed from sheet material that have curved surfaces. The leaves extend around a portion or fully around the diameter of the tubular structure. Some of the adjacent leaves of the tubular are coupled together. The tubular is compressed to a smaller diameter so that it can be inserted through previously deployed tubular assemblies. Once the tubular is properly positioned, it is deployed and coupled or not coupled to a previously deployed tubular assembly. The tubular is useful for all types of wells and boreholes.

  6. The Deep Structure of Organizational Online Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Matthias; Richter, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    While research on organizational online networking recently increased significantly, most studies adopt quantitative research designs with a focus on the consequences of social network configurations. Very limited attention is paid to comprehensive theoretical conceptions of the complex phenomenon...... of organizational online networking. We address this gap by adopting a theoretical framework of the deep structure of organizational online networking with a focus on their emerging meaning for the employees. We apply and assess the framework in a qualitative case study of a large-scale implementation...... of a corporate social network site (SNS) in a global organization. We reveal organizational online networking as a multi-dimensional phenomenon with multiplex relationships that are unbalanced, primarily consist of weak ties and are subject to temporal change. Further, we identify discourse drivers...

  7. The study of fracture mineralization and relationship with high level radioactive waste of deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Cristina N.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive investigations of the Ordovician, Dinantian and Permo-Triassic rocks of the Sellafield area of northwest England were undertaken by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. as a possible national site for geological disposal of intermediate and low-level radioactive waste. Very detailed studies of fracture mineralisation at Sellafield were thus put in hand by Nirex Ltd. and the results summarised by the British Geological Survey. Deep (up to 2 km) boreholes were put down with excellent core recovery. It is generally agreed that the most significant pathway for the escape of all but a very few radionuclides is by solution in and advection of groundwater. In this context, rock fracture systems are particularly important because they offer a potentially rapid pathway to the surface and the biosphere. One striking aspect of this work is that the fracture mineralisation seemingly records major and rapid fluctuations in redox conditions -sometimes during apparently continuous precipitation of cements (ferroan and non-ferroan calcites, dolomite). Carbonate cements record variations in Fe 2+ availability. Fe(III) precipitates also as oxide (hematite) and Fe(II) as sulphide (pyrite). This study focuses on these elements and valence states and also on Mn; another element susceptible to redox controls but known to respond differently from Fe. Shallow sub-surface stores or repositories would be more likely to have oxidising or fluctuating redox conditions. The mineralisation sequences documented at Sellafield are potentially promising in this context. Ferroan carbonate cements are sensitive indicators of later movement of oxidising ground waters. (author)

  8. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  9. Use of Groundwater Lifetime Expectancy for the Performance Assessment of Deep Geologic Radioactive Waste Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaton, F.; Park, Y.; Normani, S.; Sudicky, E.; Sykes, J.

    2005-12-01

    Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, the safety of the host repository depends on two main barriers: the engineered barrier and the natural geological barrier. If radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate barrier that is relied upon to ensure safety. Consequently, an evaluation of radionuclide travel times from the repository to the biosphere is critically important in a performance assessment analysis. In this study, we develop a travel time framework based on the concept of groundwater lifetime expectancy as a safety indicator. Lifetime expectancy characterizes the time radionuclides will spend in the subsurface after their release from the repository and prior to discharging into the biosphere. The probability density function of lifetime expectancy is computed throughout the host rock by solving the backward-in-time solute transport equation subject to a properly posed set of boundary conditions. It can then be used to define optimal repository locations. In a second step, the risk associated with selected sites can be evaluated by simulating an appropriate contaminant release history. The proposed methodology is applied in the context of a typical Canadian Shield environment. Based on a statistically-generated three-dimension network of fracture zones embedded in the granitic host rock, the sensitivity and the uncertainty of lifetime expectancy to the hydraulic and dispersive properties of the fracture network, including the impact of conditioning via their surface expressions, is computed in order to demonstrate the utility of the methodology.

  10. Improvement of geological subsurface structure models for Kanto area, Japan, based on records of microtremor array and earthquake observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, A.; Senna, S.; Jin, K.; Cho, I.; Matsuyama, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2017-12-01

    To estimate damage caused by strong ground motions from a large earthquake, it is important to accurately evaluate broadband ground-motion characteristics in wide area. For realizing that, it is one of the important issues to model detailed subsurface structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.Here, we focus on Kanto area, including Tokyo, where there are thicker sedimentary layers. We, first, have ever collected deep bore-hole data, soil physical properties obtained by some geophysical explorations, geological information and existing models for deep ground from top surface of seismic bedrock to that of engineering bedrock, and have collected a great number of bore-hole data and surficial geological ones for shallow ground from top surface of engineering bedrock to ground surface. Using them, we modeled initial geological subsurface structure for each of deep ground and shallow one. By connecting them appropriately, we constructed initial geological subsurface structure models from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.In this study, we first collected a lot of records obtained by dense microtremor observations and earthquake ones in the whole Kanto area. About microtremor observations, we conducted measurements from large array with the size of hundreds of meters to miniature array with the size of 60 centimeters to cover both of deep ground and shallow one. And then, using ground motion characteristics such as disperse curves and H/V(R/V) spectral ratios obtained from these records, the initial geological subsurface structure models were improved in terms of velocity structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface in the area.We will report outlines on microtremor array observations, analysis methods and improved subsurface structure models.

  11. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  12. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository.

  13. From the repository to the deep geological repository - and back to the Terrain surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodynsky, R.

    2011-01-01

    How deep is 'safe'? How long is long-term? How and for how long will something be isolated? Which rock, which formation and which location are suitable? A repository constructed for the safekeeping of radioactive or highly toxic wastes can be erected either on the surface, near the surface or underground. Radioactive waste is currently often stored at near-surface locations. The storage usually takes place nearby of a nuclear power plant in pits or concrete tombs (vaults). However, repositories can also be found in restricted areas, e.g. near nuclear weapon production or reprocessing plants (WAA) or nuclear weapons test sites (including Tomsk, Russia, Hanford and Nevada desert, USA), or in extremely low rainfall regions (South Africa). In addition there are disused mines which are now used as underground repositories. Low-level and medium-active (SMA) but also high-level waste (HAA) are stored at these types of sites (NPP, WAA, test areas, former mines). In Russia (Tomsk, Siberia) liquid radioactive waste has been injected into deep geological formations for some time (Minatom, 2001). However, all these locations are not the result of a systematic, scientific search or a holistic process for finding a location, but the result of political decisions, sometimes ignoring scientific findings. Why underground storage is given preference over high-security landfill sites (HSD) often has economic reasons. While a low safety standard can significantly reduce the cost of an above-ground high-security landfill as a waste disposal depot, spending remains high, especially due to the need for capital formation to cover operating expenses after filling the HSD. In the case of underground storage, on the other hand, no additional expenses are required for the period after backfilling. The assumption of lower costs for a deep repository runs through the past decades and coincides with the assumption that the desired ideal underground conditions actually exist and will

  14. Drilling of deep boreholes and associated geological investigations. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.

    1983-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 metres in the winter of 1984. The choice of drilling method and equipment depends on the geological circumstances and the target of the investigation. The most common drilling methods used with the investigations of nuclear waste disposal are diamond core drilling and percussion drilling. The Precambrian bedrock outcropping in Finland exists also in Sweden and Canada, where deep boreholes have been done down to more than 1000 metres using diamond core drilling. This method can be also used in Finland and equipment for the drilling are available. One of the main targets of the investigation is to clarify the true strike and dip of fractures and other discontinuities. The methods used abroad are taking of oriented cores, borehole television survey and geophysical measurements. TV-survey and geophysical methods seem to be most favourable in deep boreholes. Also the accurate position (inclination, bearing) of the borehole is essential to know and many techniques are used for measuring of it. Investigations performed on the core samples include core logging and laboratory tests. For the core logging there is no uniform practice concerning the nuclear waste investigations. Different counries use their own classifications. All of these, however, are based on the petrography and fracture properties of the rock samples. Laboratory tests (petrographical and rock mechanical tests) are generally performed according to the recommendations of international standards. The large volumes of data obtained during investigations require computer techniques which allow more comprehensive collection, storage and processing of data. This kind of systems are already used in Sweden and Canada, for instance, and they could be utilize in Finland

  15. The deep structure of the Sichuan basin and adjacent orogenic zones revealed by the aggregated deep seismic profiling datum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Gao, R.; Li, Q.; Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The sedimentary basin and the orogenic belt are the basic two tectonic units of the continental lithosphere, and form the basin-mountain coupling system, The research of which is the key element to the oil and gas exploration, the global tectonic theory and models and the development of the geological theory. The Sichuan basin and adjacent orogenic belts is one of the most ideal sites to research the issues above, in particular by the recent deep seismic profiling datum. From the 1980s to now, there are 11 deep seismic sounding profiles and 6 deep seismic reflection profiles and massive seismic broadband observation stations deployed around and crossed the Sichuan basin, which provide us a big opportunity to research the deep structure and other forward issues in this region. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41104056) and the Fundamental Research Funds of the Institute of Geological Sciences, CAGS (No. J1119), we sampled the Moho depth and low-velocity zone depth and the Pn velocity of these datum, then formed the contour map of the Moho depth and Pn velocity by the interpolation of the sampled datum. The result shows the Moho depth beneath Sichuan basin ranges from 40 to 44 km, the sharp Moho offset appears in the western margin of the Sichuan basin, and there is a subtle Moho depression in the central southern part of the Sichuan basin; the P wave velocity can be 6.0 km/s at ca. 10 km deep, and increases gradually deeper, the average P wave velocity in this region is ca. 6.3 km/s; the Pn velocity is ca. 8.0-8.02 km/s in Sichuan basin, and 7.70-7.76 km/s in Chuan-Dian region; the low velocity zone appears in the western margin of the Sichuan basin, which maybe cause the cause of the earthquake.

  16. Deep Structures of The Angola Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M.; Contrucci, I.; Olivet, J.-L.; Aslanian, D.; Géli, L.; Sibuet, J.-C.

    1 Ifremer Centre de Brest, DRO/Géosciences Marines, B.P. 70, 29280 Plouzané cedex (France) mmoulin@ifremer.fr/Fax : 33 2 98 22 45 49 2 Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, Place Nicolas Copernic, 29280 Plouzane (France) 3 Total Fina Elf, DGEP/GSR/PN -GEOLOGIE, 2,place de la Coupole-La Defense 6, 92078 Paris la Defense Cedex Deep reflection and refraction seismic data were collected in April 2000 on the West African margin, offshore Angola, within the framework of the Zaiango Joint Project, conducted by Ifremer and Total Fina Elf Production. Vertical multichannel reflection seismic data generated by a « single-bubble » air gun array array (Avedik et al., 1993) were recorded on a 4.5 km long, digital streamer, while refraction and wide angle reflection seismic data were acquired on OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). Despite the complexity of the margin (5 s TWT of sediment, salt tectonics), the combination of seismic reflection and refraction methods results in an image and a velocity model of the ground structures below the Aptian salt layer. Three large seismic units appear in the reflection seismic section from the deep part on the margin under the base of salt. The upper seismic unit is layered with reflectors parallel to the base of the salt ; it represents unstructured sediments, filling a basin. The middle unit is seismically transparent. The lower unit is characterized by highly energetic reflectors. According to the OBS refraction data, these two units correspond to the continental crust and the base of the high energetic unit corresponds to the Moho. The margin appears to be divided in 3 domains, from east to west : i) a domain with an unthinned, 30 km thick, continental crust ; ii) a domain located between the hinge line and the foot of the continental slope, where the crust thins sharply, from 30 km to less than 7 km, this domain is underlain by an anormal layer with velocities comprising between 7,2 and 7

  17. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  18. A Safety Case Approach for Deep Geologic Disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in Bedded Salt - 13350

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David [Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs Group, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs Group, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Leigh, Christi D. [Defense Waste Management Programs Group, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Hansen, Frank D. [Geoscience Research and Applications Group, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and utility of developing a defensible safety case for disposal of United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) high-level waste (HLW) and DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a conceptual deep geologic repository that is assumed to be located in a bedded salt formation of the Delaware Basin [1]. A safety case is a formal compilation of evidence, analyses, and arguments that substantiate and demonstrate the safety of a proposed or conceptual repository. We conclude that a strong initial safety case for potential licensing can be readily compiled by capitalizing on the extensive technical basis that exists from prior work on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), other U.S. repository development programs, and the work published through international efforts in salt repository programs such as in Germany. The potential benefits of developing a safety case include leveraging previous investments in WIPP to reduce future new repository costs, enhancing the ability to effectively plan for a repository and its licensing, and possibly expediting a schedule for a repository. A safety case will provide the necessary structure for organizing and synthesizing existing salt repository science and identifying any issues and gaps pertaining to safe disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in bedded salt. The safety case synthesis will help DOE to plan its future R and D activities for investigating salt disposal using a risk-informed approach that prioritizes test activities that include laboratory, field, and underground investigations. It should be emphasized that the DOE has not made any decisions regarding the disposition of DOE HLW and DOE SNF. Furthermore, the safety case discussed herein is not intended to either site a repository in the Delaware Basin or preclude siting in other media at other locations. Rather, this study simply presents an approach for accelerated development of a safety case for a potential

  19. A Safety Case Approach for Deep Geologic Disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in Bedded Salt - 13350

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S. David; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and utility of developing a defensible safety case for disposal of United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) high-level waste (HLW) and DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a conceptual deep geologic repository that is assumed to be located in a bedded salt formation of the Delaware Basin [1]. A safety case is a formal compilation of evidence, analyses, and arguments that substantiate and demonstrate the safety of a proposed or conceptual repository. We conclude that a strong initial safety case for potential licensing can be readily compiled by capitalizing on the extensive technical basis that exists from prior work on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), other U.S. repository development programs, and the work published through international efforts in salt repository programs such as in Germany. The potential benefits of developing a safety case include leveraging previous investments in WIPP to reduce future new repository costs, enhancing the ability to effectively plan for a repository and its licensing, and possibly expediting a schedule for a repository. A safety case will provide the necessary structure for organizing and synthesizing existing salt repository science and identifying any issues and gaps pertaining to safe disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in bedded salt. The safety case synthesis will help DOE to plan its future R and D activities for investigating salt disposal using a risk-informed approach that prioritizes test activities that include laboratory, field, and underground investigations. It should be emphasized that the DOE has not made any decisions regarding the disposition of DOE HLW and DOE SNF. Furthermore, the safety case discussed herein is not intended to either site a repository in the Delaware Basin or preclude siting in other media at other locations. Rather, this study simply presents an approach for accelerated development of a safety case for a potential

  20. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - update on the site evaluation process and interweaving of aboriginal traditional knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, B.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Facella, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR) in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to seek an informed and willing community to host Canada's deep geological repository. As of April 2015, twenty-two communities expressed interest in learning more about the project. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria used in the assessments, focusing on geological and community well-being studies. Engagement and field activities to interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge with western science are also discussed. (author)

  1. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  2. The geological and structural characterization of the Olkiluoto site in a critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, J.; Jokinen, J.; Siivola, J.; Tiren, S.

    2003-05-01

    This report comments on aspects of Posiva's work relating to the interests of the IMGS (Investigations and Modelling of Geological Structures) Group who is concerned with the potential impact of the tectonic and geological setting of the Olkiluoto site, on the construction a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Since the Group's last report (IMGS 2002) a variety of relevant publications have been produced by Posiva. A number of issues have been identified in these documents relating to the procedure for updating the Bedrock model, factors influencing the location and layout of ONKALO, the mapping procedure planned for the access tunnel, the problem of oversimplification and uncertainties and the proposed extension of the repository. These are discussed in the present report. (orig.)

  3. Research into the effects of seawater velocity variation on migration imaging in deep-water geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at the problem that in deep water the migration quality is poor, and starts with the influence that velocity model accuracy has on migration, studying influence that variable seawater velocity makes on migration effect. At first, variable seawater velocity influenced by temperature, pressure and salinity is defined to replace the true seawater velocity. Then variable seawater velocity’s influence on interface migration location, layer sickness and migration energy focusing degree are analyzed in theory. And finally a deep water layered medium model containing variable seawater velocity, a syncline wedge shape model and a complex seafloor velocity model are constructed. By changing the seawater velocity of each model and comparing migration results of constant seawater-velocity model and variable seawater-velocity model, we can draw the conclusion: Under the condition of deep water, variable seawater-velocity’s impact on the quality of seismic migration is significant, which not only can change the location of geologic body migration result, but also can influence the resolution of geologic interface in the migration section and maybe can cause migration illusion.   Investigación de los efectos de la variación en la velocidad del agua marina sobre las imágenes de migración en la geología de aguas profundas Resumen Este artículo se enfoca en el problema de la baja calidad de la migración en aguas profundas. Se analiza la influencia que tiene el modelo de precisión de velocidad en la migración y se estudia el impacto que la variación de velocidad del agua marina tiene en el efecto de movimiento. En primera instancia, se define la variación de la velocidad del agua marina afectada por la temperatura, la presión y la salinidad para reemplazar la velocidad del agua marina actual. Luego se analiza la teoría de la influencia de la velocidad del agua marina sobre la interfaz de la ubicación de migración, el grosor de

  4. Hydrogeologic modelling in support of a proposed deep geologic repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste - 16264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Jonathan F.; Normani, Stefano D.; Yin, Yong; Sykes, Eric A.; Jensen, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site in Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation. This paper describes a regional-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVSOPG flow and transport model. This provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geo-scientific data that explains and illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier. In the geologic framework of the Province of Ontario, the Bruce DGR is located at the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin. Borehole logs covering Southern Ontario combined with site specific data have been used to define the structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock. The regional-scale domain encompasses an 18.500 km 2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing stagnant water having high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. The computational sequence involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Long-term simulations that consider future glaciation scenarios include the impact of ice thickness and permafrost. The selection of the performance measure used to evaluate a groundwater system is important. The traditional metric of average water particle travel time is inappropriate for geologic units such as the Ordovician where solute transport is

  5. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  6. Deep learning and the electronic structure problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kyle; Spanner, Michael; Tamblyn, Isaac

    In the past decade, the fields of artificial intelligence and computer vision have progressed remarkably. Supported by the enthusiasm of large tech companies, as well as significant hardware advances and the utilization of graphical processing units to accelerate computations, deep neural networks (DNN) are gaining momentum as a robust choice for many diverse machine learning applications. We have demonstrated the ability of a DNN to solve a quantum mechanical eigenvalue equation directly, without the need to compute a wavefunction, and without knowledge of the underlying physics. We have trained a convolutional neural network to predict the total energy of an electron in a confining, 2-dimensional electrostatic potential. We numerically solved the one-electron Schrödinger equation for millions of electrostatic potentials, and used this as training data for our neural network. Four classes of potentials were assessed: the canonical cases of the harmonic oscillator and infinite well, and two types of randomly generated potentials for which no analytic solution is known. We compare the performance of the neural network and consider how these results could lead to future advances in electronic structure theory.

  7. Geological Structure and Radon Hazards in Lublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Gazda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to show the relationship between the geological structure of the Lublin region (eastern Poland and radon concentrations in the ground air, and therefore, in the indoor environment of buildings located in that area. The study was based on the information pertaining to the geological structure of Lublin region available in the literature. The radon concentrations in buildings, caves, wells, as well as coal, phosphate and chalk mines were measured with both passive and active methods. Elemental analyses and uranium and lead isotope analyses of ground rocks were also performed. The conducted studies indicated that the sources of radon in Lublin region constitute Paleogene and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks rich in radionuclides. Application of radon remediation methods is recommended in the existing buildings located in the vicinity of these rocks, which are characterized by relatively high radon exhalations. On the other hand, the designed buildings should employ the measures protecting against harmful effects of radon presence.

  8. Study on systemizing technology on investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. Japanese fiscal year, 2007 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Keiji; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Aoki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kunio; Nishigaki, Makoto; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Jun; Tochiyama, Osamu; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Nishio, Kazuhisa

    2009-03-01

    In this year, the following studies were carried out with the aim of systemizing the technology on the investigation and analysis to understand the deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R and D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis for the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. The results obtained from the studies are as follows: Regarding (1), the specific investigations, measurements and numerical and chemical analyses were performed particularly for research subjects: 1) engineering technology and 2) geological environment. Based on the results on (1), 3) tasks of collaboration research on intermediate area between the research fields, including the safety assessment field, were selected. Also redefinition of the NFC (Near Field Concept) were discussed. Regarding (2), based on the extracted tasks of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) research project, the study was implemented considering previous R and D results and detailed research at the research field was carried out. This study contributed to the R and D development for its practical application. Concurrently, information exchange and discussion on the 2nd phase (the Construction Phase) of the MIU (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory) research program were often held. (author)

  9. Confidence in the long-term safety of deep geological repositories. Its development and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The technical aspects of confidence have been the subject of considerable debate, especially the concept of model validation. The safety case that is provided at a particular stage in the planning, construction, operation or closure of a deep geological repository is a part of a broader decision basis that guides the repository-development process. The basic steps for deriving the safety case at various stages of repository development involve: a safety assessment; and the documentation of the safety assessment, a statement of confidence in the safety indicated by the assessment, and the confirmation of the appropriateness of the safety strategy. The approaches to establish confidence in the evaluation of safety should aim to ensure that the decisions taken within the incremental process of repository development are well-founded. Various aspects of confidence in the evaluation of safety, and their integration within a safety case, are presented in detail in the present report. When communicating confidence in the findings of a safety assessment, clarity in the communication of concepts is always required. Consistent with this requirement, key concepts are specifically defined in the main text of the report. (R.P.)

  10. Demonstrating the sealing of a deep geologic repository: the RECAP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Kozak, E.T.; Bilinsky, D.M.; Thompson, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has operated an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for twenty-three years (1982-2005). The URL was designed and constructed to carry out in situ geotechnical R and D needed for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. The facility is now being closed, the final of several phases that have included siting, site evaluation, construction and operation. The closure phase presents a unique opportunity to develop and demonstrate the methodologies needed for closure and site restoration of a deep geologic repository for used nuclear fuel. A wealth of technical background and characterization data, dating back to before the first excavation work was carried out, are available to support closure activities. A number of closure-related activities are being proposed as part of a REpository Closure And Post-closure (RECAP) project. The RECAP project is proposed to include demonstrations of shaft and borehole sealing and monitoring as well as fracture sealing (grouting), room closure and monitoring system decommissioning, all activities that would occur when closing an actual repository. In addition to the closure-related activities, the RECAP project could provide a unique opportunity to conduct intrusion-monitoring demonstrations as part of a repository safeguards demonstration. (author)

  11. Environmental assessment for OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, D.; Rawlings, M.; Beal, A.

    2011-01-01

    The environmental assessment process for the Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) Project was initiated very early in the planning stages. Feasibility studies were initiated in 2003, after Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and the Municipality of Kincardine signed a Memorandum of Understanding agreeing to assess options for long-term management of low and intermediate level waste (L and ILW) options at the Bruce nuclear site. The location of the DGR, in the Municipality of Kincardine, is based on a willing and informed host community. The preferred approach, the DGR at the Bruce nuclear site, was advanced based on results of feasibility studies which looked at a number of options for long-term management of L&ILW and support from the local community and their elected representatives. The federal environmental assessment of the project was initiated following the signing of a Host Community Agreement and completion of a telephone poll, the results of which indicated that the majority of Municipality of Kincardine residents support the project. The environmental assessment began in 2006 as a comprehensive study and was ultimately referred to a joint review panel process in 2009. The environmental assessment considers the potential near-term effects of the construction and operations of the proposed project. Because of the nature of the project, the assessment of effects also considers long-term effects extending out to the million year time-frame, including effects of climate change, glaciations and seismic activity. (author)

  12. Effects of gas overpressurisation on the geological environment of a deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, P.J.; Rodwell, W.R.

    1990-04-01

    The effect of gas generated from the deep burial of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes is being assessed. Significant volumes of gas are expected to be produced by anaerobic corrosion of metals and microbial degradation of organic materials. Work is being carried out to determine how easily the gas generated can move away from the repository, since if its flow were impeded the pressure in the repository would rise. If the flow were sufficiently impeded then the pressure rise could ultimately lead to fracturing of the vault or the flow field environment, possibly providing pathways that could accelerate the movement of radionuclides to the surface. This study considers the effects of such an overpressurisation on the integrity of the geological environment containing the repository. It attempts to quantify the pore fluid pressures at which fracturing of hard rock masses may occur by investigating a number of models of rock failure in homogeneously stressed rock and the effects of the presence of an idealised vault on the stress field. A crack opening model has also been developed which considers the effect of the overpressurisation on the dimensions of existing cracks within the rock and hence on the value of its permeability. (Author)

  13. Draft directive on the management of radioactive wastes based on deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission works on a legal framework to assure that all the member states apply the same standards in all the stages of the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes till their definitive disposal. The draft propositions are the following. The standards to follow are those proposed by the IAEA. First, each member state has to set a national program dedicated to the management of radioactive wastes. This program will have to detail: the chosen solution, the description of the project, a time schedule, costs and financing. Secondly, the exportation of nuclear wastes for definitive disposal is not allowed unless the 2 countries have agreed to build a common nuclear waste disposal center. Thirdly, the population will have to be informed on the project and will have to take part in the decision process. Fourthly, the standards set by IAEA will be enforced by law. There is a broad consensus between scientists and international organizations like IAEA to consider that the disposal in deep geological layers of high-level radioactive wastes is the most adequate solution. (A.C.)

  14. Safety guidebook relative to the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) initiated in 2003 a revision process of the objectives to be considered during the research and work steps of the implementation of a radioactive waste storage facility in deep geologic formations. The purpose of this document is to define the safety objectives that have to be retained at each step of this implementation, from the site characterization to the closure of the facility. This update takes into account the works carried out by the ANDRA (French national agency of radioactive wastes) in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991, and the advices of the permanent experts group about these works. It takes also into consideration the international research works in this domain and the choices defined in the program law no 2006-739 from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The main modifications concern: the notion of reversibility, the definition of the safety functions of disposal components, the safety goals and the design principles assigned to waste packages, the control of nuclear materials and the monitoring objectives of the facility. The documents treats of the following points: 1 - the objectives of public health and environment protection; 2 - the safety principles and the safety-related design bases of the facility; and 3 - the method used for demonstrating the disposal safety. (J.S.)

  15. Advances in the self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste seeks to utilize the radioactive decay heat emitted by the wastes to melt rock and allow descent by gravity into crystalline rock for isolation. Logan developed the governing equations for the self-disposal process in a paper published in 1973 and 1974 showing that moderate waste concentrations in capsules 1 to 2 m in diameter could descend through granite or basalt to considerable depths, in some cases grater than 10 km. Safety considerations related to filling, handling, and initial cooling of such large capsules prior to release, plus the severe container material environment, has prevented use of the concept. Byalko in Russia recently proposed using a sulfur-filled borehole as a conduit for conveying small capsules down to an accumulation zone at a safe depth of several kilometers. This advance in the self-burial concept overcomes previous problems with self-burial. First, capsules of 0.3 m or less in diameter are relatively simple to fill and handle. Second, investigations indicate that once emplaced at an initial accumulation depth, rock-melting can proceed without an enveloping waste container

  16. Scenarios used for the evaluations of the safety of a site for adioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1989-11-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them coppresponding to a type, of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an undergound laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events [fr

  17. PyGPlates - a GPlates Python library for data analysis through space and deep geological time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon; Cannon, John; Qin, Xiaodong; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    A fundamental consideration for studying the Earth through deep time is that the configurations of the continents, tectonic plates, and plate boundaries are continuously changing. Within a diverse range of fields including geodynamics, paleoclimate, and paleobiology, the importance of considering geodata in their reconstructed context across previous cycles of supercontinent aggregation, dispersal and ocean basin evolution is widely recognised. Open-source software tools such as GPlates provide paleo-geographic information systems for geoscientists to combine a wide variety of geodata and examine them within tectonic reconstructions through time. The availability of such powerful tools also brings new challenges - we want to learn something about the key associations between reconstructed plate motions and the geological record, but the high-dimensional parameter space is difficult for a human being to visually comprehend and quantify these associations. To achieve true spatio-temporal data-mining, new tools are needed. Here, we present a further development of the GPlates ecosystem - a Python-based tool for geotectonic analysis. In contrast to existing GPlates tools that are built around a graphical user interface (GUI) and interactive visualisation, pyGPlates offers a programming interface for the automation of quantitative plate tectonic analysis or arbitrary complexity. The vast array of open-source Python-based tools for data-mining, statistics and machine learning can now be linked to pyGPlates, allowing spatial data to be seamlessly analysed in space and geological "deep time", and with the ability to spread large computations across multiple processors. The presentation will illustrate a range of example applications, both simple and advanced. Basic examples include data querying, filtering, and reconstruction, and file-format conversions. For the innovative study of plate kinematics, pyGPlates has been used to explore the relationships between absolute

  18. Determination of subsurface geological structure with borehole gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.R.; Hearst, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    Conventional gamma-gamma and gravimetric density measurements are routinely gathered for most holes used for underground nuclear tests. The logs serve to determine the subsurface structural geology near the borehole. The gamma-gamma density log measures density of the rock within about 15 cm of the borehole wall. The difference in gravity measured at two depths in a borehole can be interpreted in terms of the density of an infinite, homogeneous, horizontal bed between those depths. When the gravimetric density matches the gamma-gamma density over a given interval it is assumed that the bed actualy exists, and that rocks far from the hole must be the same as those encountered adjacent to the borehole. Conversely, when the gravimetric density differs from the gamma-gamma density it is apparent that the gravimeter is being influenced by a rock mass of different density than that at the hole wall. This mismatch can be a powerful tool to deduce the local structural geology. The geology deduced from gravity mesurements in emplacement hole, U4al, and the associated exploratory hole, UE4al, is an excellent example of the power of the method

  19. A Methodology to analyze the biosphere in the assessment of deep geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overall R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with the Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropriate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and practical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better practical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methodology. This methodology is widely based on an international working group on ''Reference Biospheres'', part of the BIOMOVS II Project. Specific software developments have been carried out in collaboration with Qunti Sci Itd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. (Author)

  20. The hydrogeologic environment for a proposed deep geologic repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste - 59285

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Jonathan F.; Normani, Stefano D.; Yin, Yong; Jensen, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the Bruce nuclear site in Ontario, Canada. As proposed the DGR would be constructed at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation. This paper describes the hydrogeology of the DGR site developed through both site characterization studies and regional-scale numerical modelling analysis. The analysis provides a framework for the assembly and integration of the site-specific geo-scientific data and examines the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier. Flow system evolution was accomplished using both the density-dependent FRAC3DVS-OPG flow and transport model and the two-phase gas and water flow computational model TOUGH2-MP. In the geologic framework of the Province of Ontario, the DGR is located on the eastern flank of the Michigan Basin. Borehole logs covering Southern Ontario combined with site-specific data from 6 deep boreholes have been used to define the structural contours and hydrogeologic properties at the regional-scale of the modelled 31 sedimentary strata that may be partially present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock. The regional-scale domain encompasses an approximately 18500 km 2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The groundwater zone below the Devonian includes units containing stagnant water having high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/L. The Ordovician sediments are significantly under-pressured. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Cobourg limestone is estimated to be 2x10 -14 m/s based on straddle-packer hydraulic tests. The low advective velocities in the Cobourg and other Ordovician units result in solute transport that is diffusion dominant with Peclet numbers less than 0:003 for a characteristic length of unity. Long

  1. Combined NLCG/SBI magnetotelluric data inversion for recognition of complex geological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal Stefaniuk

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Geological interpretation of magnetotelluric data is a subject of some misunderstandings. Simplified geometrically and well contrasted in resistivity models do not response for real geological environment. The aim of outstripping magnetotelluric works widely made in Polish Outer Carpathians, is general structural and lithological recognising of geological environment and distinguishing of areas where oil prospection will be projected. The geological medium is formed by sedimentary formations, strongly deformed and containing relatively thin layers with essentially differentiated parameters, overlying rather flat, high resistivity basement. Application of simplified strongly contrasted interpretation model with fluently changing parameters gives frequently results not corresponding with geological reality. Presented analysis is based on surveys located in marginal zone of Carpathianst in the area relatively well recognised, where interpreted structural and lithologic model rather well reflects real geological medium. Then, it was used as reference model for obtained results of MT data inversion. Magnetotelluric continuous profiling located along reflection seismic profile, between two deep boreholes was made. Set of results of computations allows to evaluate of effectiveness of used procedures and suggest optimum way of dealing. First stage of data interpretation was based on 1D and EMAP inversion. The section was then applied as starting model for 2D NLCG inversion. Results of this method give rather generalized resistivity distribution well reflecting structure of flysch cover but not adequate for the basement. This models was applied as starting models for SBI inversion constrained by borehole data. Results of SBI procedure well reflects relatively flat complexes of the basement, but are rather unrealistic for folded flysch cover. The another NLCG inversion was computed with stabilised model of basement obtained from SBI

  2. Ontario Power Generation's proposed L and ILW deep geologic repository: geo-scientific assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mark; Raven, Ken; Leech, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) on behalf of Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has conducted multi-disciplinary geo-scientific studies at the Bruce nuclear site to confirm the suitability of the site to host a proposed Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L and ILW) from OPG owned or operated nuclear generating facilities. An Environmental Assessment for the proposed DGR is currently underway in accordance with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Bruce nuclear site, situated 225 km northwest of Toronto on the eastern shore of Lake Huron, is underlain by an 850 m thick sedimentary sequence of Cambrian to Devonian age near-horizontally layered, weakly deformed shales, carbonates and evaporites of the Michigan Basin. Within this sedimentary pile, the proposed DGR would be excavated within the low permeability argillaceous limestone of the Cobourg Formation at a depth of 680 m, which is overlain by 200 m of Upper Ordovician shale formations (Figure 1). A key aspect of the DGR Safety Case is the predictable nature and long-term stability and integrity of the sedimentary sequence to contain and isolate L and ILW at time frames on the order of 1 Ma. Early in the project, geo-scientific studies that considered regional and site-specific public domain data sets indicated favourable geologic conditions for implementation of the DGR concept (Golder, 2003; Mazurek, 2004). Geo-scientific studies for the DGR were initiated in 2006 following decision by the Municipality of Kincardine to support the DGR concept. Geo-scientific activities were divided into two key areas; i) Site-specific geo-scientific studies of the Bruce nuclear site (i.e., Descriptive Geosphere Site Model); and ii) a Geo-synthesis to convey an understanding of past, present and future evolution of Geosphere enclosing the DGR relevant to communicating notions of

  3. Application of deep geophysical data to the discussion on the relationship between deep faults, concealed over thrust napped structure and uranium metallogenesis in central-southern Jiangxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jinyuan; Qi Liang

    1999-01-01

    Based on the comparative analysis and study on 10 profiles of telluric electromagnetic sounding (MT) and regional gravimetric, magnetic data and Moho surface, the deep geological-tectonic pattern of the central-southern Jiangxi is discussed. It is suggested that: the studied region belongs to the Soyth-China block; in the area along Pingxiang-Guangfeng, at the border with Yangzi block an approximately EW-trending mantle concave-mantle slope zone occurs; the NNE-NE trending mantle uplift-mantle slope-mantle concave structure is developed within the South-China block; deep fault zones are represented by variation sites of Moho surface. Then, a series of deep structures is inferred including the approximately EW-striking Pingxian-Guangfeng deep fault zone, the NNE-striking Fuzhou-Anyuan deep fault zone, the NNE-trending Fengcheng-Dayu deep fault zone, as well as the NE-striking Yudu-Ningdu over thrust napped and sliding thrust structural systems, the approximately E W-trending Le'an-Nancheng over thrust napped structural systems etc. According to the distribution of known uranium mineralizations it is confirmed that close time-space relation exists between the uranium metallogenesis and variations of Moho surface, and over thrust napped structures, providing clues for locating concealed uranium deposits

  4. Method of magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. Experimental measurements for geologic structures determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delrive, C.

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation of the safety of a deep geologic repository for dangerous materials requires the knowledge of the interstitial system of the surrounding host rock. A method is proposed for the determination of geologic structures (in particular fractures) from the magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated using a SQUID magneto-gradient meter. A measurement tool using a new magnetic susceptibility captor and a testing bench have been developed. This tool allows the measurement of rocks with a magnetic susceptibility greater than 10 -5 SI units and can generate magnetic susceptibility maps with 4 x 4 mm 2 pixels. A magnetic visibility criterion has been defined which allows to foresee if a structure is visible or not. According to the measurements done, it is shown that any centimeter-scale structure with a sufficient magnetic contrast (20%) with respect to the matrix is visible. Therefore, the dip and the orientation of such structure can be determined with a 3 degree and a 5 degree precision, respectively. The position of the structure along the core axis is known with a 4 mm precision. On the other hand, about half of the magnetic contrasts observed do not correspond to the visual analyses and can be explained by very small variations of the mineralogic composition. This last point offers some interesting ways for future research using magnetic susceptibility mapping. (J.S.). 31 refs., 90 figs., 18 tabs., 2 photos., 6 appends

  5. Efficiency analyses of the CANDU spent fuel repository using modified disposal canisters for a deep geological disposal system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho, D.K.; Lee, M.S.; Kook, D.H.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W.; Wang, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A reference disposal concept for spent nuclear fuels in Korea has been reviewed. ► To enhance the disposal efficiency, alternative disposal concepts were developed. ► Thermal analyses for alternative disposal concepts were performed. ► From the result of the analyses, the disposal efficiency of the concepts was reviewed. ► The most effective concept was suggested. - Abstract: Deep geological disposal concept is considered to be the most preferable for isolating high-level radioactive waste (HLW), including nuclear spent fuels, from the biosphere in a safe manner. The purpose of deep geological disposal of HLW is to isolate radioactive waste and to inhibit its release of for a long time, so that its toxicity does not affect the human beings and the biosphere. One of the most important requirements of HLW repository design for a deep geological disposal system is to keep the buffer temperature below 100 °C in order to maintain the integrity of the engineered barrier system. In this study, a reference disposal concept for spent nuclear fuels in Korea has been reviewed, and based on this concept, efficient alternative concepts that consider modified CANDU spent fuels disposal canister, were developed. To meet the thermal requirement of the disposal system, the spacing of the disposal tunnels and that of the disposal pits for each alternative concept, were drawn following heat transfer analyses. From the result of the thermal analyses, the disposal efficiency of the alternative concepts was reviewed and the most effective concept suggested. The results of these analyses can be used for a deep geological repository design and detailed analyses, based on exact site characteristics data, will reduce the uncertainty of the results.

  6. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Deep Convolutional Neural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Peng, Jian; Ma, Jianzhu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-11

    Protein secondary structure (SS) prediction is important for studying protein structure and function. When only the sequence (profile) information is used as input feature, currently the best predictors can obtain ~80% Q3 accuracy, which has not been improved in the past decade. Here we present DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) for protein SS prediction. DeepCNF is a Deep Learning extension of Conditional Neural Fields (CNF), which is an integration of Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and shallow neural networks. DeepCNF can model not only complex sequence-structure relationship by a deep hierarchical architecture, but also interdependency between adjacent SS labels, so it is much more powerful than CNF. Experimental results show that DeepCNF can obtain ~84% Q3 accuracy, ~85% SOV score, and ~72% Q8 accuracy, respectively, on the CASP and CAMEO test proteins, greatly outperforming currently popular predictors. As a general framework, DeepCNF can be used to predict other protein structure properties such as contact number, disorder regions, and solvent accessibility.

  7. Geological and structural interpretation of Peninsular Malaysia by marine and aeromagnetic data: Some preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrudin, Nurul Fairuz Diyana Binti; Hamzah, Umar

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic data were processed to interpret the geology of Peninsular Malaysia especially in delineating the igneous bodies and structural lineament trends by potential field geophysical method. A total of about 32000 magnetic intensity data were obtained from Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) covering an area of East Sumatra to part of South China Sea within 99° E to 105° E Longitude and 1° N to 7°N Latitude. These data were used in several processing stages in generating the total magnetic intensity (TMI), reduce to equator (RTE), total horizontal derivative (THD) and total vertical derivative (TVD). Values of the possible surface and subsurface magnetic sources associated to the geological features of the study area. The magnetic properties are normally corresponding to features like igneous bodies and faults structures. The anomalies obtained were then compared to the geological features of the area. In general, the high magnetic anomalies of the TMI-RTE are closely matched with major igneous intrusion of Peninsular Malaysia such as the Main Range, Eastern Belt and the Mersing-Johor Bahru stretch. More dense lineaments of magnetic structures were observed in the THD and TVD results indicating the presence of more deep and shallow magnetic rich geological features. The positions of Bukit Tinggi, Mersing and Lepar faults are perfectly matched with the magnetic highs while the presence of Lebir and Bok Bak faults are not clearly observed in the magnetic results. The high magnetic values of igneous bodies may have concealed and obscured the magnetic values representing these faults.

  8. Preliminary geologic framework developed for a proposed environmental monitoring study of a deep, unconventional Marcellus Shale drill site, Washington County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Robert G.

    2018-06-08

    completed. This was done for three principal reasons. First, there was an immediate need to know the distribution of the relatively undisturbed surface to near-surface bedrock geology and unconsolidated materials for the collection of baseline surface data prior to drill site development (drill pad access road, drill pad leveling) and later during monitoring associated with well drilling, well development, and well production. Second, it was necessary to know the bedrock geology to support the siting of: (1) multiple shallow groundwater monitoring wells (possibly as many as four) surrounding and located immediately adjacent to the drill pad, and (2) deep groundwater monitoring wells (possibly two) located at distance from the drill pad with one possibly being sited along one of the deviated production drill legs. Lastly, the framework geology would provide the lateral extent, thickness, lithology, and expected discontinuities of geologic units (to be parsed or grouped as hydrostratigraphic units) and regional structure trends as inputs into the groundwater model.This report provides the methodology of geologic data accumulation and aggregation, and its integration into a geographic information system (GIS) based program. The GIS program will allow multiple data to be exported in various formats (shapefiles [.shp], database files [.dbf], and Keyhole Markup Language files [.KML]) for use in surface and subsurface geologic site characterization, for sampling strategies, and for inputs for groundwater modeling.

  9. Finite element code FENIA verification and application for 3D modelling of thermal state of radioactive waste deep geological repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, U. N.

    2017-11-01

    The verification of the FENIA finite element code on some problems and an example of its application are presented in the paper. The code is being developing for 3D modelling of thermal, mechanical and hydrodynamical (THM) problems related to the functioning of deep geological repositories. Verification of the code for two analytical problems has been performed. The first one is point heat source with exponential heat decrease, the second one - linear heat source with similar behavior. Analytical solutions have been obtained by the authors. The problems have been chosen because they reflect the processes influencing the thermal state of deep geological repository of radioactive waste. Verification was performed for several meshes with different resolution. Good convergence between analytical and numerical solutions was achieved. The application of the FENIA code is illustrated by 3D modelling of thermal state of a prototypic deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The repository is designed for disposal of radioactive waste in a rock at depth of several hundred meters with no intention of later retrieval. Vitrified radioactive waste is placed in the containers, which are placed in vertical boreholes. The residual decay heat of radioactive waste leads to containers, engineered safety barriers and host rock heating. Maximum temperatures and corresponding times of their establishment have been determined.

  10. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE's investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4)

  11. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  12. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects

  13. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  14. Production, consumption and transport of gases in deep geological repositories according to the Swiss disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diomidis, N; Cloet, V.; Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Poller, A.; Stein, M.

    2016-12-01

    In a deep geological repository for radioactive waste, in absence of oxygen and in presence of water, corrosion of various metals and alloys will lead to the formation of hydrogen. If present, organic materials may slowly degrade and generate carbon dioxide, methane and other gaseous species. Depending on local conditions, gaseous species can be consumed by chemical reactions and by microbial activity. If the resulting rate of gas generation exceeds the rate of migration of dissolved gas molecules in the pores of the engineered barriers or the host rock, the solubility limit of the gas will eventually be exceeded and the formation of a discrete gas phase will occur. Gases could continue to accumulate until the pressure becomes sufficient to be released in gaseous form. This report deals with the evolution of gas-related processes that can influence the long-term behaviour and safety of low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW) repositories in Opalinus Clay. The main aim is to present a synthesis of processes and phenomena related to repository-produced gases and to assess their influence on repository performance. A current overview of gas sources, reactions and interactions, generation, consumption, and transport is provided. Furthermore, current scientific understanding is used to define safety function indicators and criteria, which are employed to evaluate the potential influence of repository-generated gas on safety-relevant properties of engineered and natural barriers. The assessment of gas generation, consumption and transport is addressed separately for the HLW and the L/ILW deep geological repositories. The employed methodology, which is common for both repository types, consists of the description and quantification of the potential gas sources, which include the waste, barrier components such as disposal canisters and other gas-generating repository components, and of the processes and reactions leading to the generation or

  15. Production, consumption and transport of gases in deep geological repositories according to the Swiss disposal concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diomidis, N; Cloet, V.; Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Poller, A.; Stein, M.

    2016-12-15

    In a deep geological repository for radioactive waste, in absence of oxygen and in presence of water, corrosion of various metals and alloys will lead to the formation of hydrogen. If present, organic materials may slowly degrade and generate carbon dioxide, methane and other gaseous species. Depending on local conditions, gaseous species can be consumed by chemical reactions and by microbial activity. If the resulting rate of gas generation exceeds the rate of migration of dissolved gas molecules in the pores of the engineered barriers or the host rock, the solubility limit of the gas will eventually be exceeded and the formation of a discrete gas phase will occur. Gases could continue to accumulate until the pressure becomes sufficient to be released in gaseous form. This report deals with the evolution of gas-related processes that can influence the long-term behaviour and safety of low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW) repositories in Opalinus Clay. The main aim is to present a synthesis of processes and phenomena related to repository-produced gases and to assess their influence on repository performance. A current overview of gas sources, reactions and interactions, generation, consumption, and transport is provided. Furthermore, current scientific understanding is used to define safety function indicators and criteria, which are employed to evaluate the potential influence of repository-generated gas on safety-relevant properties of engineered and natural barriers. The assessment of gas generation, consumption and transport is addressed separately for the HLW and the L/ILW deep geological repositories. The employed methodology, which is common for both repository types, consists of the description and quantification of the potential gas sources, which include the waste, barrier components such as disposal canisters and other gas-generating repository components, and of the processes and reactions leading to the generation or

  16. Presumption of the distribution of the geological structure based on the geological survey and the topographic data in and around the Horonobe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshihiro; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment in sedimentary rock, is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Horonobe-cho in Northern Hokkaido, Japan. One of the main goals of the URL project is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment. JAEA constructed the geologic map and the database of geological mapping in Horonobe-cho in 2005 based on the existing literatures and 1/200,000 geologic maps published by Geological Survey of Japan, and then updated the geologic map in 2007 based on the results of various investigations which were conducted around the URL as the surface based investigation phase of the URL project. On the other hand, there are many geological survey data which are derived from natural resources (petroleum, natural gas and coal, etc.) exploration in and around Horonobe-cho. In this report, we update the geologic map and the database of the geological mapping based on these geological survey and topographical analysis data in and around the Horonobe area, and construct a digital geologic map and a digital database of geological mapping as GIS. These data can be expected to improve the precision of modeling and analyzing of geological environment including its long-term evaluation. The digital data is attached on CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)

  17. Anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel under unsaturated conditions in a nuclear waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, G.; Wang, St.; Newman, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Anaerobic corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in humid conditions, but not submerged in aqueous solution, was studied based on hydrogen generation. Initial tests monitored the hydrogen evolution from carbon steel in a high humidity environment (≥ 75% RH) at near-ambient temperature (30 C) using a high sensitivity pressure gauge system (sensitivity of 0.01 μm.a -1 ). The presence of hydrogen in test runs that showed no, or minimal, pressure increase was confirmed by a solid-state potentiometric hydrogen sensor which has the capability of detecting hydrogen partial pressure as low as 10 -6 bar or a corrosion rate of 1.5 * 10 -4 μm.a -1 . Preliminary results indicate that a corrosion rate as high as 0.2 μm.a -1 can be sustained for steel coated with salt at 100% RH. Higher corrosion rates (as high as 0.8 μm.a -1 ) were obtained in less humid environment (71% RH). Without a salt deposit, pickled steel in humid environment (as high as 100% RH) also showed detectable corrosion for a period up to 800 hours, during which 0.8 kPa of hydrogen was accumulated prior to the apparent arrest of corrosion, representing a metal loss of 3 nm. Corrosion scales are also identified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as by mass change monitoring using a quartz crystal microbalance. Corrosion mechanisms and prediction for longer-term exposure will be discussed. Results will be useful in predicting long-term carbon steel corrosion behaviour and improving the current knowledge of hydrogen gas evolution in a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. (authors)

  18. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  19. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-11-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Corrosion of high purity copper as engineering barrier in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Maité; Rodríguez Martín, A.; Farina Silvia, B.

    2013-01-01

    Pure copper with oxygen content below 5 ppm (to minimize segregation at grain boundaries) and doped with phosphorus (to increase creep resistance) is the chosen material for the corrosion-resistant barrier of the High Level Radioactive 2 Wastecontainers in the Swedish and Finnish repository models. These models include the construction of the repository below the water table, which is a reducing environment in which copper has excellent resistance to general and localized corrosion in aqueous electrolytes. The aim of this work is contribute to determine the durability of the material, given that deep geological repositories of HLW are designed to ensure the protection of the environment for periods of hundreds of thousands years. As a first step in a more general analysis the effects of chloride, one of the main aggressive species of corrosion, are evaluated. To this purpose corrosion potential was determined and anodic polarization curves were performed in deaerated solutions varying the chloride concentration between 0.01 and 1M and the temperature between 30 and 90°C. Several electrochemical techniques were used: the evolution of corrosion potential was measured, anodic polarization curves were obtained and electrochemical impedance tests were performed. The analysis was complemented with microscopic observations of the type of corrosive attack, as well as determinations of the eventual corrosion products formed using Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDS). Results show that the corrosion potential decreases with the increase of temperature and with the increase of chloride concentration. A correlation of the corrosion potential as a function of temperature and chloride concentration was obtained, with the purpose of making predictions in variable conditions.The current density increases both with temperature and with chloride concentration. A pitting potential is observed in certain conditions. (author)

  1. Redox reactions induced by hydrogen in deep geological nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truche, L.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the abiotic hydrogen reactivity in deep geological nuclear waste storage. One crucial research interest concerns the role of H 2 as a reducing agent for the aqueous/mineral oxidised species present in the site. Preliminary batch experiments carried out with Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, synthetic pore water and H 2 gas lead to an important H 2 S production, in only few hours at 250 C to few months at 90 C. In order to explore whether H 2 S can originate from sulphate or pyrite (few percents of the argillite) reduction we performed dedicated experiments. Sulphate reduction experimented in di-phasic systems (water+gas) at 250-300 C and under 4 to 16 bar H 2 partial pressure exhibits a high activation energy (131 kJ/mol) and requires H 2 S initiation and low pH condition as already observed in other published TSR experiments. The corresponding half-life is 210,000 yr at 90 C (thermal peak of the site). On the contrary, pyrite reduction into pyrrhotite by H 2 occurs in few days at temperature as low as 90 C at pH buffered by calcite. The rate of the reaction could be described by a diffusion-like rate law in the 90-180 C temperature interval. The obtained results suggest that pyrite reduction is a process controlled both by the H 2 diffusion across the pyrrhotite pits increasing during reaction progress and the reductive dissolution of pyrite. These new kinetics data can be applied in computation modelling, to evaluate the degree and extent of gas pressure buildup by taking into account the H 2 reactive geochemistry. (author)

  2. Strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    A strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China is proposed in this paper. A '3-step technical strategy': site selection and site characterization-site specific underground research laboratory-final repository, is proposed for the development of China's high level radioactive waste repository. The activities related with site selection and site characterization for the repository can be combined with those for the underground research laboratory. The goal of the strategy is to build China's repository around 2040, while the activities can be divided into 4 phases: 1) site selection and site characterization; 2) site confirmation and construction of underground research laboratory, 3) in-situ experiment and disposal demonstration, and 4) construction of repository. The targets and tasks for each phase are proposed. The logistic relationship among the activities is discussed. It is pointed out that the site selection and site characterization provide the basis for the program, the fundamental study and underground research laboratory study are the key support, the performance assessment plays a guiding role, while the construction of a qualified repository is the final goal. The site selection can be divided into 3 stages: comparison among pre-selected areas, comparison among pre-selected sites and confirmation of the final site. According to this strategy, the final site for China's underground research laboratory and repository will be confirmed in 2015, where the construction of an underground laboratory will be started. In 2025 the underground laboratory will have been constructed, while in around 2040, the construction of a final repository is to be completed

  3. Structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-E-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-06-26

    The phenomenological expressions for the structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering are proposed and are shown to satisfy the experimental data as well as a number of sum rules.

  4. Spatial Abilities of High-School Students in the Perception of Geologic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…

  5. Deuteron structure in the deep inelastic regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A.; Tarutina, T. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP/CONICET y Departamento de Fisica, La Plata (Argentina); Vento, V. [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica-IFIC, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    We study nuclear effects in the deuteron in the deep inelastic regime using the newest available data. We put special emphasis on their Q{sup 2} dependence. The study is carried out using a scheme which parameterizes, in a simple manner, these effects by changing the proton and neutron stucture functions in medium. The result of our analysis is compared with other recent proposals. We conclude that precise EMC ratios cannot be obtained without considering the nuclear effects in the deuteron. (orig.)

  6. Plume Migration of Different Carbon Dioxide Phases During Geological Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the plume migration of mobile supercritical phase (flowing, aqueous phase (dissolved, and ionic phase CO2 (bicarbonate, and evaluates the spatial distribution of immobile supercritical phase (residual and mineral phase CO2 (carbonates when CO2 was sequestered. This utilized a simulation, in an anticline structure of a deep saline aquifer in the Tiechenshan (TCS field, Taiwan. All of the trapping mechanisms and different CO2 phases were studied using the fully coupled geochemical equation-of-state GEM compositional simulator. The mobile supercritical phase CO2 moved upward and then accumulated in the up-dip of the structure because of buoyancy. A large amount of immobile supercritical phase CO2 was formed at the rear of the moving plume where the imbibition process prevailed. Both the aqueous and ionic phase CO2 finally accumulated in the down-dip of the structure because of convection. The plume volume of aqueous phase CO2 was larger than that of the supercritical phase CO2, because the convection process increased vertical sweep efficiency. The up-dip of the structure was not the major location for mineralization, which is different from mobile supercritical phase CO2 accumulation.

  7. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  8. ON DISCRETE STRUCTURE OF GEOLOGIC MEDIUM AND CONTINUAL APPROACH TO MODELING ITS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. A. Mukhamediev

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the structure of a geologic medium represented by accessible lithified rocks and provides an overview of methods used to describe its movements. Two basic opinions are considered in the framework of the discussion: (1) an initially homogeneous and continuous geologic medium acquires the structure composed of blocks in the process of the geologic medium’s deformation/destruction/degradation, and (2) a geologic medium is composed of blocks (and often has hierarchic, active,...

  9. Survey of naturally occurring hazardous materials in deep geologic formations: a perspective on the relative hazard of deep burial of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.A.; Cohen, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Hazards associated with deep burial of solidified nuclear waste are considered with reference to toxic elements in naturally occurring ore deposits. This problem is put into perspective by relating the hazard of a radioactive waste repository to that of naturally occurring geologic formations. The basis for comparison derives from a consideration of safe drinking water levels. Calculations for relative toxicity of FBR waste and light water reactor (LWR) waste in an underground repository are compared with the relative toxicity indices obtained for average concentration ore deposits. Results indicate that, over time, nuclear waste toxicity decreases to levels below those of naturally occurring hazardous materials

  10. Santos Basin Geological Structures Mapped by Cross-gradient Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilinski, P.; Fontes, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction We mapped regional-scale geological structures localized in offshore zone Santos Basin, South-East Brazilian Coast. The region is dominated by transition zone from oceanic to continental crust. Our objective was to determine the imprint of deeper crustal structures from correlation between bathymetric, gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. The region is extensively studied for oil and gas deposits including large tectonic sub-salt traps. Our method is based on gradient directions and their magnitudes product. We calculate angular differences and cross-product and access correlation between properties and map structures. Theory and Method We used angular differences and cross-product to determine correlated region between bathymetric, free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. This gradient based method focuses on borders of anomalies and uses its morphological properties to access correlation between their sources. We generated maps of angles and cross-product distribution to locate correlated regions. Regional scale potential fields maps of FA and MA are a reflection of the overlaying and overlapping effects of the adjacent structures. Our interest was in quantifying and characterizing the relation between shapes of magnetic anomalies and gravity anomalies. Results Resulting maps show strong correlation between bathymetry and gravity anomaly and bathymetry and magnetic anomaly for large strictures including Serra do Mar, shelf, continental slope and rise. All maps display the regional dominance of NE-SW geological structures alignment parallel to the shore. Special interest is presented by structures transgressing this tendency. Magnetic, gravity anomaly and bathymetry angles map show large correlated region over the shelf zone and smaller scale NE-SW banded structures over abyssal plane. From our interpretation the large band of inverse correlation adjacent to the shore is generated by the gravity effect of Serra do Mar. Disrupting structures including

  11. The Strabo digital data system for Structural Geology and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil; Newman, Julie; Walker, J. Doug; Williams, Randy; Michels, Zach; Andrews, Joseph; Bunse, Emily; Ash, Jason; Good, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    We are developing the Strabo data system for the structural geology and tectonics community. The data system will allow researchers to share primary data, apply new types of analytical procedures (e.g., statistical analysis), facilitate interaction with other geology communities, and allow new types of science to be done. The data system is based on a graph database, rather than relational database approach, to increase flexibility and allow geologically realistic relationships between observations and measurements. Development is occurring on: 1) A field-based application that runs on iOS and Android mobile devices and can function in either internet connected or disconnected environments; and 2) A desktop system that runs only in connected settings and directly addresses the back-end database. The field application also makes extensive use of images, such as photos or sketches, which can be hierarchically arranged with encapsulated field measurements/observations across all scales. The system also accepts Shapefile, GEOJSON, KML formats made in ArcGIS and QGIS, and will allow export to these formats as well. Strabo uses two main concepts to organize the data: Spots and Tags. A Spot is any observation that characterizes a specific area. Below GPS resolution, a Spot can be tied to an image (outcrop photo, thin section, etc.). Spots are related in a purely spatial manner (one spot encloses anther spot, which encloses another, etc.). Tags provide a linkage between conceptually related spots. Together, this organization works seamlessly with the workflow of most geologists. We are expanding this effort to include microstructural data, as well as to the disciplines of sedimentology and petrology.

  12. Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weon Shik; McPherson, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO 2 storage: CO 2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO 2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO 2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO 2 , CO 2 -brine, and CO 2 -oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO 2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO 2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO 2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO 2 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO 2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO 2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO 2 and crude oil is ∼100 kg/m 3 and between CO 2 and brine is ∼350 kg/m 3 ); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO 2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m 3 ); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO 2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing

  13. Role of waste packages in the safety of a high level waste repository in a deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretheau, F.; Lewi, J.

    1990-06-01

    The safety of a radioactive waste disposal facility lays on the three following barriers placed between the radioactive materials and the biosphere: the waste package; the engineered barriers; the geological barrier. The function assigned to each of these barriers in the performance assessment is an option taken by the organization responsible for waste disposal management (ANDRA in France), which must show that: expected performances of each barrier (confinement ability, life-time, etc.) are at least equal to those required to fulfill the assigned function; radiation protection requirements are met in all situations considered as credible, whether they be the normal situation or random event situations. The French waste management strategy is based upon two types of disposal depending on the nature and activity of waste packages: - surface disposal intended for low and medium level wastes having half-lives of about 30 years or less and alpha activity less than 3.7 MBq/kg (0.1 Ci/t), for individual packages and less than 0.37 MBq/kg (0.01 Ci/t) in the average. Deep geological disposal intended for TRU and high level wastes. The conditions of acceptance of packages in a surface disposal site are subject to the two fundamental safety rules no. I.2 and III.2.e. The present paper is only dealing with deep geological disposal. For deep geological repositories, three stages are involved: stage preceding definitive disposal (intermediate storage, transportation, handling, setting up in the disposal cavities); stage subsequent to definitive sealing of the disposal cavities but prior to the end of operation of the repository; stage subsequent to closure of the repository. The role of the geological barrier has been determined as the essential part of long term radioactivity confinement, by a working group, set up by the French safety authorities. Essential technical criteria relating to the choice of a site so defined by this group, are the following: very low permeability

  14. Automation method to identify the geological structure of seabed using spatial statistic analysis of echo sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O.; Kim, W.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recently construction of subsea tunnel has been increased globally. For safe construction of subsea tunnel, identifying the geological structure including fault at design and construction stage is more than important. Then unlike the tunnel in land, it's very difficult to obtain the data on geological structure because of the limit in geological survey. This study is intended to challenge such difficulties in a way of developing the technology to identify the geological structure of seabed automatically by using echo sounding data. When investigation a potential site for a deep subsea tunnel, there is the technical and economical limit with borehole of geophysical investigation. On the contrary, echo sounding data is easily obtainable while information reliability is higher comparing to above approaches. This study is aimed at developing the algorithm that identifies the large scale of geological structure of seabed using geostatic approach. This study is based on theory of structural geology that topographic features indicate geological structure. Basic concept of algorithm is outlined as follows; (1) convert the seabed topography to the grid data using echo sounding data, (2) apply the moving window in optimal size to the grid data, (3) estimate the spatial statistics of the grid data in the window area, (4) set the percentile standard of spatial statistics, (5) display the values satisfying the standard on the map, (6) visualize the geological structure on the map. The important elements in this study include optimal size of moving window, kinds of optimal spatial statistics and determination of optimal percentile standard. To determine such optimal elements, a numerous simulations were implemented. Eventually, user program based on R was developed using optimal analysis algorithm. The user program was designed to identify the variations of various spatial statistics. It leads to easy analysis of geological structure depending on variation of spatial statistics

  15. Elements of the geological structure of the Western Siberian platform determined from a review of fine-scale satellite photographs in oil and gas prospecting research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovskii, V V; Klopov, A L; Peskovskii, I D; Podsosova, L L

    1980-01-01

    Dislocations with breaks in continuity and annular objects are identified on fine-scale satellite photographs within the region of the Western Siberian platform. Based on an integrated interpretation of the geological and geophysical data, it is predicted that there exists a relation between the annular objects and the geological structure of deep portions of the earth's crust, the pre-Jurassic basement, and certain levels of the platform mantle. Procedural techniques for the use of magnetic and gravitional data for the purpose of obtaining information about the geological nature of the identified objects are considered.

  16. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Liliana; Shestopalov, Vyacheslav

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  17. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  18. Geological Structures in the WaIls of Vestan Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David; Nathues, A.; Beck, A. W.; Hoffmann, M.; Schaefer, M.; Williams, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compelling case can be made that Vesta is the parent asteroid for the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites [1], although this interpretation has been questioned [2]. Generalized models for the structure of the crust of Vesta have been developed based on petrologic studies of basaltic eucrites, cumulate eucrites and diogenites. These models use inferred cooling rates for different types of HEDs and compositional variations within the clan to posit that the lower crust is dominantly diogenitic in character, cumulate eucrites occur deep in the upper crust, and basaltic eucrites dominate the higher levels of the upper crust [3-5]. These models lack fine-scale resolution and thus do not allow for detailed predictions of crustal structure. Geophysical models predict dike and sill intrusions ought to be present, but their widths may be quite small [6]. The northern hemisphere of Vesta is heavily cratered, and the southern hemisphere is dominated by two 400-500 km diameter basins that excavated deep into the crust [7-8]. Physical modeling of regolith formation on 300 km diameter asteroids predicts that debris layers would reach a few km in thickness, while on asteroids of Vesta's diameter regolith thicknesses would be less [9]. This agrees well with the estimated =1 km thickness of local debris excavated by a 45 km diameter vestan crater [10]. Large craters and basins may have punched through the regolith/megaregolith and exposed primary vestan crustal structures. We will use Dawn Framing Camera (FC) [11] images and color ratio maps from the High Altitude and Low Altitude Mapping Orbits (HAMO, 65 m/pixel; LAMO, 20 m/pixel) to evaluate structures exposed on the walls of craters: two examples are discussed here.

  19. Geologic structure in California: Three studies with ERTS-1 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of three early applications of imagery from the NASA Earth Resources Technology Satellite to geologic studies in California. In the Coast Ranges near Monterey Bay, numerous linear drainage features possibly indicating unmapped fracture zones were mapped within one week after launch of the satellite. A similar study of the Sierra Nevada near Lake Tahoe revealed many drainage features probably formed along unmapped joint or faults in granitic rocks. The third study, in the Peninsular Ranges, confirmed existence of several major faults not shown on published maps. One of these, in the Sawtooth Range, crosses in Elsinore fault without lateral offset; associated Mid-Cretaceous structures have also been traced continuously across the fault without offset. It therefore appears that displacement along the Elsinore fault has been primarily of a dip-slip nature, at least in this area, despite evidence for lateral displacement elsewhere.

  20. Factors affecting the release of radioactivity to the biosphere during deep geologic disposal of radioactive solids through underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomah, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical alteration formed by ground water on the solidified radioactive waste during deep geologic disposal represents the most likely mechanism by which dangerous radioactive species could be reintroduced into the biosphere. Knowing the geologic history of the repository, the chemistry of the ground water and the mechanisms involved in the corrosion of the radioactive solids can provide help to predict the long-term stability of these materials. The factors that must be considered in order to assess the safety and the risk associated with such a disposal strategy are presented. The leaching behavior of a solidified radioactive waste form called SYNROC-B (SYNthetic ROCks) is discussed. Different simulated ground water brines similar to those of the repository sites were prepared and used as the leaching media in leaching experiments

  1. Source-book of International Activities Related to the Development of Safety Cases for Deep Geological Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    All national radioactive waste management authorities recognise today that a robust safety case is essential in developing disposal facilities for radioactive waste. To improve the robustness of the safety case for the development of a deep geological repository, a wide variety of activities have been carried out by national programs and international organisations over the past years. The Nuclear Energy Agency, since first introducing the modern concept of the 'safety case', has continued to monitor major developments in safety case activities at the international level. This Source-book summarises the activities being undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Agency, the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning the safety case for the operational and post-closure phases of geological repositories for radioactive waste that ranges from low-level to high-level waste and for spent fuel. In doing so, it highlights important differences in focus among the three organisations

  2. A preliminary study on the regional fracture systems for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kown; Park, Byoung Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is essential to characterize the fracture system in rock mass which has a potential pathways of nuclide. Currently, none of research results are in classification and detailed properties for the fracture system in Korea. This study aims to classify and describe the regional fracture system in lithological and geotectonical point of view using literature review, shaded relief map, and aeromagnetic survey data. This report contains the following: - Theoretical review of the fracture development mechanism. - Overall fault and fracture map. - Geological description on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zone) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical province. 122 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  3. Deep inelastic singlet structure functions and scaling violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-zhu, Li; Bing-xun, Hu

    1984-02-01

    The flavour singlet structure functions of deep inelastic scattering processes can yield more decisive tests of QCD than the non-singlet. We give analytical expression for flavour singlet structure functions through analysing the lepton-nucleon deep inelastic scattering processes by means of QCD and using Jacobi polynomials. This expression contains 4 to 5 parameters and shows the changes of the singlet structure functions with x and Q/sup 2/ very well. In QCD leading order, the conclusion is in reasonable agreement with experimental data.

  4. Seismic activity and deep conductivity structure\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováčiková, Světlana; Logvinov, I. M.; Nazarevych, A.; Nazarevych, L.; Pek, Josef; Tarasov, V.; Kalenda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2016), s. 280-296 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : seismic ity * conductivity structure * Earth´s crust * Eastern Carpathians Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2016

  5. Generic description of facilities at the shaft head (auxiliary entrance installations) of deep geological repositories; Generische Beschreibung von Schachtkopfanlagen (Nebenzugangsanlagen) geologischer Tiefenlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-10-15

    In a deep geological repository, the access structures function as the link between the surface and the installations and structures at the disposal level. In the planned implementation scenarios, at least two access structures will be in operation up to the time of closure of the repository. The radioactive waste will be transported via the main access from the surface to the disposal level during emplacement operations. For the construction and operation of a deep geological repository, additional access structures are required. These auxiliary accesses and the associated surface infrastructure (e.g. shaft head installations) form the subject of this report. To provide as broad and comprehensive a description as possible, seven types of auxiliary access facilities are defined; these are characterised in line with the current status of planning and their functions and impacts are described. During construction, operation and dismantling of auxiliary access facilities, the usual conventional safety measures (inter alia) have to be observed (e.g. groundwater protection, fire prevention, facility security, accident prevention). Regarding the 'Ordinance on Protection against Major Accidents' no large quantities of hazardous materials, i.e. above the corresponding threshold quantities, are to be expected in the auxiliary access facilities. Proper handling and compliance with applicable regulations in all phases will ensure no hazard to humans and the environment. As no handling of radioactive materials is foreseen in the auxiliary access facilities, and because exhaust air and waste water from the controlled zones of a repository will, in principle, be removed via the main access and not the auxiliary accesses, a safety-relevant emission of radioactive substances and transport of contaminated material can be ruled out for the auxiliary access facilities during both normal operation and also in the case of an accident. Based on the information presented in

  6. Construction and Operation of a Deep Geological Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden; Some Regulatory Aspects and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a deep geological spent fuel disposal concept in Sweden poses challenges on both implementer and regulator in many aspects. One such challenge is the application of the regulatory framework in a different situation compared to conventional process type nuclear facilities. A specific challenge in this regard is how to understand and address constraints from post-closure safety related to the construction and operation of the repository. The maybe most challenging aspect, however, is the unusually long time frame, i.e. many generations, for realization of the project. This paper addresses some of these challenges from a regulatory perspective. (authors)

  7. Radiological impact of a spent fuel disposal in a deep geological granite formation - results of the european spa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, P.; Gay, D.; Certes, C.; Serres, C.

    2000-01-01

    The SPA project (Spent fuel disposal Performance Assessment) is the latest of four integrated performance assessment exercises on nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, carried out in the framework of the European Community 'Nuclear Fission' Research Programmes. The SPA project, which was undertaken by ENRESA, GRS, IPSN, NRG, SCK.CEN and VTT between May 1996 and April 1999, was devoted to the study of disposal of spent fuel in various host rock formations (clay, crystalline rocks and salt formation). This project is a direct continuation of the efforts made by the European Community since 1982 to build a common understanding of the methods applicable to deep disposal performance assessment. (authors)

  8. A deep structural ridge beneath central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Thakur, N. K.; Negi, J. G.

    A joint-inversion of magnetic satellite (MAGSAT) and free air gravity data has been conducted to quantitatively investigate the cause for Bouguer gravity anomaly over Central Indian plateaus and possible fold consequences beside Himalayan zone in the Indian sub-continent due to collision between Indian and Eurasian plates. The appropriate inversion with 40 km crustal depth model has delineated after discriminating high density and magnetisation models, for the first time, about 1500 km long hidden ridge structure trending NW-SE. The structure is parallel to Himalayan fold axis and the Indian Ocean ridge in the Arabian Sea. A quantitative relief model across a representative anomaly profile confirms the ridge structure with its highest point nearly 6 km higher than the surrounding crustal level in peninsular India. The ridge structure finds visible support from the astro-geoidal contours.

  9. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB's application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth

  10. Geophysical investigations of geology and structure at the Martis Creek Dam, Truckee, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, P.A.; Burton, B.L.; Powers, M.H.; Minsley, B.J.; Phillips, J.D.; Hunter, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    A recent evaluation of Martis Creek Dam highlighted the potential for dam failure due to either seepage or an earthquake on nearby faults. In 1972, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed this earthen dam, located within the Truckee Basin to the north of Lake Tahoe, CA for water storage and flood control. Past attempts to raise the level of the Martis Creek Reservoir to its design level have been aborted due to seepage at locations downstream, along the west dam abutment, and at the base of the spillway. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a comprehensive suite of geophysical investigations aimed at understanding the interplay between geologic structure, seepage patterns, and reservoir and groundwater levels. This paper concerns the geologic structure surrounding Martis Creek Dam and emphasizes the importance of a regional-scale understanding to the interpretation of engineering-scale geophysical data. Our studies reveal a thick package of sedimentary deposits interbedded with Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows; both the deposits and the flows are covered by glacial outwash. Magnetic field data, seismic tomography models, and seismic reflections are used to determine the distribution and chronology of the volcanic flows. Previous estimates of depth to basement (or the thickness of the interbedded deposits) was 100 m. Magnetotelluric soundings suggest that electrically resistive bedrock may be up to 2500 m deep. Both the Polaris Fault, identified outside of the study area using airborne LiDAR, and the previously unnamed Martis Creek Fault, have been mapped through the dam area using ground and airborne geophysics. Finally, as determined by direct-current resistivity imaging, time-domain electromagnetic sounding, and seismic refraction, the paleotopography of the interface between the sedimentary deposits and the overlying glacial outwash plays a principal role both in controlling groundwater flow and in the distribution of the

  11. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, S.A. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB`s application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth. 46 refs, 30 figs, 18 tabs.

  12. SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.; Beckholmen, M.; Askling, P.; Voss, C.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

  13. Application of Ga-Al discrimination plots in identification of high strength granitic host rocks for deep geological repository of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.; Trivedi, R.K.; Purohit, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The permanent disposal of vitrified high level wastes and in some cases even spent fuel, is being planned in specifically designed and built deep geological repository located in the depth range of 500-600m in appropriate host rock at carefully selected sites. Such facilities are expected to provide very long term isolation and confinement to the disposed waste by means of long term mechanical stability of such structures that results from very high strength and homogeneity of the chosen rock, geochemical compatible environment around the disposed waste and general lack of groundwater. In Indian geological repository development programme, granites have been selected as target host rock and large scale characterization studies have been undertaken to develop database of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and rock mechanical characteristics. The paper proposes a new approach for demarcation of high strength homogeneous granite rocks from within an area of about 100 square kilometres wherein a cocktail of granites of different origins with varying rock mass characteristics co exists. The study area is characterised by the presence of A, S and I type granites toughly intermixed. The S type granites are derived from sedimentary parent material and therefore carry relics of parent fabric and at times undigested material with resultant reduction in their strength and increased inhomogeneity. On the other hand I type varieties are derived from igneous parents and are more homogeneous with sufficient strength. The A type granites are emplaced as molten mass in a complete non-tectonic setting with resultant homogeneous compositions, absence of tectonic fabric and very high strength. Besides they are silica rich with less vulnerability to alterations with time. Thus A type granites are most suited for construction of Deep Geological Repository. For developing a geochemical approach for establishing relation between chemical compositions and rock strength parameters, a

  14. A study on the groundwater flow system for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The basic framework of groundwater flow is defined as a conceptual 3-D unit of groundwater system based on hydrogeological environments. The fundamental parameters consisting of groundwater system should include topography, geology and climatic conditions. Climatic conditions control the distribution and amounts of groundwater in an interesting study area. The driving forces responsible for groundwater movement are mainly determined by topographic characteristics. The configuration of groundwater system is also controlled by topography. The geological setting and structures control the reservoir size and groundwater flow path. The hydrogeological setting in Korea was classified by primarily topographic characteristics and considered by geological structures and tectonic division. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitude. 35 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs. (Author)

  15. Waste package transfer, emplacement and retrievability in the French deep geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, Alain; Delort, Daniel; Herve, Jean Francois; Bosgiraud, Jean Michel; Guenin, Jean Jacques [Technical Department ANDRA (France)

    2009-06-15

    Safe, reliable and reversible handling of waste is a significant issue related to the design and safety assessment of deep geological repository in France. The first step taken was to study various waste handling solutions. ANDRA also decided to fabricate and demonstrate industrial scale handling equipment for HLW (since 2003) and for ILW-LL wastes (since 2008). We will review the main equipment developed for the transfer process in the repository, for both types of waste, and underline the benefits of developing industrial demonstrators within the framework of international cooperation agreements. Waste retrieval capability will be simultaneously examined. Two types of waste have to be handled underground in Andra's repository. The HLW disposal package for vitrified waste is a 2 ton carbon steel cylindrical canister with a diameter of 600 mm. The weight of ILW-LL concrete disposal packages range from a minimum of 6 tonnes to over 20 tonnes, and their volume from approximately 5 to 10 m3. The underground transfer to the disposal drift requires moving the disposal package within a shielded transfer cask placed on a trailer. Transfer cask design has evolved since 2005, due to optimisation studies and as a result of industrial feedback from SKB. For HLW handling equipment two design options have been studied. In the first solution (Andra's Dossier 2005), the waste package are emplaced, one at a time, in the disposal drift by a pushing robot. Successive steps in design and proto-typing have lead to improve the design of the equipment and to gain confidence. Recently a fully integrated process has been successfully demonstrated, at full scale, (in a 100 m long mock up drift) as part of the EC funded ESDRED Project. This demonstrator is now on display in Andra's Technology Centre at Saudron, near the Bure Underground Laboratory. The second disposal option which has been investigated is based on a concept of utilising an external apparatus to push a row of

  16. Long term behaviour of glass and steel in interaction with argillites in deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.; Lartigue, J.E.; Devallois, V.; Pointeau, V.; Trotignon, L.; Michau, N.; Cochepin, B.; Munier, I.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The concept developed in France for the disposal of vitrified high level waste in deep geological repository includes the containment in steel canisters, designed to prevent contact between glass and water and to maintain mechanical stability, and the confinement at ca. 500 m into an argillaceous host rock. After canister disposal and repository closure, the site will progressively re-saturate in non-isothermal conditions and the alteration of the different materials will start: corrosion of the canisters, degradation of concrete plugs, and ultimately, the alteration of glass waste. These perturbations will affect the properties of the different materials present in the near field and the lifetime of the glass matrix. Several scenarios are investigated which all involve (1) the geochemical interactions between iron and clay-rich materials, and (2) the alteration of glass in the presence of corrosion products. The evolution of the near field system is complex since geochemical and transport processes are highly coupled. Steel corrosion and glass alteration produce an increase of pH which in turn affects the rate of glass dissolution. The concentration of dissolved silica is also one key to the rate of glass alteration and, along with the concentration of other elements such as iron and aluminum, it determines the nature of steel corrosion and clay alteration products. These interactions may also lead to partial dissolution of the initial clay minerals potentially affecting the overall confinement properties such as swelling and capacity to exchange cations. Coupled reaction-transport simulations with the Crunch code was used to assess the impact of steel corrosion and glass alteration phases in the presence of corrosion products (CP), looking at mass transfer for chemical elements, especially iron and silicon, pH, porosity change. A first set of calculations based on a reference case in isothermal conditions (90 deg

  17. Methods for Enhancing Geological Structures in Spectral Spatial Difference-Based on Remote-Sensing Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@In this paper, some image processing methods such as directional template (mask) matching enhancement, pseudocolor or false color enhancement, K-L transform enhancement are used to enhance a geological structure, one of important ore-controlling factors, shown in the remote-sensing images.This geological structure is regarded as image anomaly in the remote-sensing image, since considerable differences, based on the spatial spectral distribution pattern, in gray values (spectral), color tones and texture, are always present between the geological structure and background. Therefore,the enhancement of the geological structure in the remotesensing image is that of the spectral spatial difference.

  18. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that

  19. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J.

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km 3 . Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the

  20. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  1. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [1-]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria) in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic. In order to evaluate seismicity and to assess the impact of seismic effects at depths of hypothetical deep geological repository for the next time period, the neo-deterministic method was selected as an extension of the probabilistic method. Each one out of the seven survey areas were assessed by the neo-deterministic evaluation of the seismic wave-field excited by selected individual events and determining the maximum loading. Results of seismological databases studies and neo-deterministic analysis of Čihadlo locality are presented.

  2. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  3. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system

  4. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D. A.; Boergesson, L.; Gunnarsson, D.; Hansen, J.

    2009-11-01

    Regardless of the emplacement geometry selected in a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, there will be a requirement for the access tunnels to remain open while repository operations are ongoing. The period of repository operation will stretch for many years (decades to more than a century depending on disposal concept and number of canisters to be installed). Requirements for extended monitoring of the repository before final closure may further extend the period over which the tunnels must remain open. The intersection of the emplacement rooms/drifts and the access tunnels needs to be physically closed in order to ensure that the canisters remain undisturbed and that no undesirable hydraulic conditions are allowed to develop within the backfilled volume. As a result of these requirements, generic guidelines and design concepts have been developed for 'Plugs' that are intended to provide mechanical restraint, physical security and hydraulic control functions over the short-term (repository operational and pre-closure monitoring periods). This report focuses on the role and requirements of plugs to be installed at emplacement room/ tunnel/drift entrances or in other locations within the repository that may require installation of temporary mechanical or hydraulic control structures. These plugs are not necessarily a permanent feature of the repository and may, if required, be removed for later installation of a permanent seal. Room/Drift plugs are also by their defined function, physically accessible during repository operation so their performance can be monitored and remedial actions taken if necessary (e.g. increased seepage past the plug). A considerable number of sealing demonstrations have been undertaken at several research laboratories that are focussed on development of technologies and materials for use in isolation of spent nuclear fuel and these are briefly reviewed in this report. Additionally, technologies developed for non

  5. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A. (AECL, Chalk River (Canada)); Boergesson, L. (Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, D. (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hansen, J. (Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    Regardless of the emplacement geometry selected in a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, there will be a requirement for the access tunnels to remain open while repository operations are ongoing. The period of repository operation will stretch for many years (decades to more than a century depending on disposal concept and number of canisters to be installed). Requirements for extended monitoring of the repository before final closure may further extend the period over which the tunnels must remain open. The intersection of the emplacement rooms/drifts and the access tunnels needs to be physically closed in order to ensure that the canisters remain undisturbed and that no undesirable hydraulic conditions are allowed to develop within the backfilled volume. As a result of these requirements, generic guidelines and design concepts have been developed for 'Plugs' that are intended to provide mechanical restraint, physical security and hydraulic control functions over the short-term (repository operational and pre-closure monitoring periods). This report focuses on the role and requirements of plugs to be installed at emplacement room/ tunnel/drift entrances or in other locations within the repository that may require installation of temporary mechanical or hydraulic control structures. These plugs are not necessarily a permanent feature of the repository and may, if required, be removed for later installation of a permanent seal. Room/Drift plugs are also by their defined function, physically accessible during repository operation so their performance can be monitored and remedial actions taken if necessary (e.g. increased seepage past the plug). A considerable number of sealing demonstrations have been undertaken at several research laboratories that are focussed on development of technologies and materials for use in isolation of spent nuclear fuel and these are briefly reviewed in this report. Additionally, technologies developed for non

  6. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Wang; Xu Guoqing; Guo Yonghai

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  7. Teaching and Learning Structural Geology Using SketchUp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    The books and maps we read, the posters we pin on our walls, the TV sets and computer monitors we spend hours watching, the white (or black) boards we use to teach, all reduce our world into planar images. As a result, and through years of oblivious practice, our brain is conditioned to understand the world in two dimensions (2D) only. As structural geologists, we know that the most challenging aspect of teaching and learning structural geology is that we need to be able to mentally manipulate 2D and three-dimensional (3D) objects. Although anyone can learn through practice the art of spatial visualisation, the fact remains that the initial stages of learning structural geology are for many students very challenging, as we naively use 2D images to teach 3D concepts. While interactive 3D holography is not far away, some inexpensive tools already exist allowing us to generate interactive computer images, the free rotation, scaling and manipulation of which can help students to quickly grasp the geometry and internal architecture of 3D objects. Recently, I have experimented with SketchUp (works on Mac and Windows). SketchUp was initially released in 2000 by @Last Software, as a 3D modelling tool for architects, designers and filmmakers. It was acquired by Google in 2006 to further the development of GoogleEarth. Google released SketchUp for free, and provided a portal named 3D Warehouse for users to share their models. Google sold SketchUp to Trimble Navigation in 2012, which added Extension Warehouse for users to distribute add-ons. SketchUp models can be exported in a number of formats including .dae (digital asset exchange) useful to embed interactive 3D models into iBooks and html5 documents, and .kmz (keyhole markup language zipped) to embed interactive 3D models and cross-sections into GoogleEarth. SketchUp models can be exported into 3D pdf through the add-on SimLab, and .stl for 3D printing through the add-on SketchUp STL. A free licence is available for

  8. Guidelines for the operation and closure of deep geological repositories for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The operation and closure of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes is a long term project involving many disciplines. This unique combination of nuclear operations in a deep underground location will require careful planning by the operating organization. The basic purpose of the operation stage of the deep repository is to ensure the safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. The purpose of the closure stage is to ensure that the wastes are safely isolated from the biosphere, and that the surface region can be returned to normal use. During these two stages of operation and closure, it is essential that both workers and the public are safely protected from radiation hazards, and that workers are protected from the hazards of working underground. For these periods of the repository, it is essential to carry out monitoring for purposes of radiological protection, and to continue testing and investigations to provide data for repository performance confirmation and for final safety assessment. Over the lengthy stages of operation and closure, there will be substantial feedback of experience and generation of site data. These will lead both to improved quality of operation and a better understanding of the site characteristics, thereby enhancing the confidence in the ability of the repository system to isolate the waste and protect future generations. 15 refs

  9. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  10. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schiavone

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  11. The deep structure of Axial Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael Edwin

    The subsurface structure of Axial Volcano, near the intersection of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain in the northeast Pacific, is imaged from an active source seismic experiment. At a depth of 2.25 to 3.5 km beneath Axial lies an 8 km x 12 km region of very low seismic velocities that can only be explained by the presence of magma. In the center of this magma storage chamber at 2--3.5 km below sea floor, the crust is at least 10--20% melt. At depths of 4--5 km there is evidence of additional low concentrations of magma (a few percent) over a larger area. In total, 5--11 km3 of magma are stored in the mid-crust beneath Axial. This is more melt than has been positively identified under any basaltic volcano on Earth. It is also far more than the 0.1--0.2 km3 emplaced during the 1998 eruption. The implied residence time in the magma reservoir of a few hundred to a few thousand years agrees with geochemical trends which suggest prolonged storage and mixing of magmas. The large volume of melt bolsters previous observations that Axial provides much of the material to create crust along its 50 km rift zones. A high velocity ring-shaped feature sits above the magma chamber just outside the caldera walls. This feature is believed to be the result of repeated dike injections from the magma body to the surface during the construction of the volcanic edifice. A rapid change in crustal thickness from 8 to 11 km within 15 km of the caldera implies focused delivery of melt from the mantle. The high flux of magma suggests that melting occurs deeper in the mantle than along the nearby ridge. Melt supply to the volcano is not connected to any plumbing system associated with the adjacent segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This suggests that, despite Axial's proximity to the ridge, the Cobb hot spot currently drives the supply of melt to the volcano.

  12. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks: Structure, Feature Extraction and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namatēvs Ivars

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs are aimed at processing data that have a known network like topology. They are widely used to recognise objects in images and diagnose patterns in time series data as well as in sensor data classification. The aim of the paper is to present theoretical and practical aspects of deep CNNs in terms of convolution operation, typical layers and basic methods to be used for training and learning. Some practical applications are included for signal and image classification. Finally, the present paper describes the proposed block structure of CNN for classifying crucial features from 3D sensor data.

  13. Retrievability from waste repositories in deep geological formation and how it can be guaranteed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper considers retrievability in the context of a facility type termed deep interim storage, convertible to permanent disposal. Such a facility isolates the waste in a reliable manner while keeping several options open. Options are obtained at cost and cannot be indefinitely left open. Various aspects for pursuing this concept are discussed. (author)

  14. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?; Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Warum gerade hier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieser, A

    2009-09-15

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes.

  15. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.; Belfadhel, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking high-level screenings of site suitability. The paper provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The paper will outline how NWMO sought to develop a socially-acceptable site selection process as a firm foundation for future decisions on siting. Through a two-year collaborative process, NWMO sought to understand the expectations of

  16. Biogeography in deep time - What do phylogenetics, geology, and paleoclimate tell us about early platyrrhine evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Molecular data have converged on a consensus about the genus-level phylogeny of extant platyrrhine monkeys, but for most extinct taxa and certainly for those older than the Pleistocene we must rely upon morphological evidence from fossils. This raises the question as to how well anatomical data mirror molecular phylogenies and how best to deal with discrepancies between the molecular and morphological data as we seek to extend our phylogenies to the placement of fossil taxa. Here I present parsimony-based phylogenetic analyses of extant and fossil platyrrhines based on an anatomical dataset of 399 dental characters and osteological features of the cranium and postcranium. I sample 16 extant taxa (one from each platyrrhine genus) and 20 extinct taxa of platyrrhines. The tree structure is constrained with a "molecular scaffold" of extant species as implemented in maximum parsimony using PAUP with the molecular-based 'backbone' approach. The data set encompasses most of the known extinct species of platyrrhines, ranging in age from latest Oligocene (∼26 Ma) to the Recent. The tree is rooted with extant catarrhines, and Late Eocene and Early Oligocene African anthropoids. Among the more interesting patterns to emerge are: (1) known early platyrrhines from the Late Oligocene through Early Miocene (26-16.5Ma) represent only stem platyrrhine taxa; (2) representatives of the three living platyrrhine families first occur between 15.7 Ma and 13.5 Ma; and (3) recently extinct primates from the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola) are sister to the clade of extant platyrrhines and may have diverged in the Early Miocene. It is probable that the crown platyrrhine clade did not originate before about 20-24 Ma, a conclusion consistent with the phylogenetic analysis of fossil taxa presented here and with recent molecular clock estimates. The following biogeographic scenario is consistent with the phylogenetic findings and climatic and geologic evidence: Tropical South

  17. Deep Interior: Probing the Structure of Primitive Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Scheeres, Daniel; Safaeinili, Ali

    Deep Interior is a mature Discovery-class mission concept focused on probing the geophysical behavior of primitive bodies, from the mechanics of their exterior materials to the structures of their interiors. Its theme is to discover how small bodies work - to learn the natural origin and evolution of asteroids, comets and other primitive bodies through radar reflection tomography and through detailed observations of the local and global effects of cratering. Learning the structure and mechanical response of asteroids and comets is also a precursor to resource utilization and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Overall the mission is aligned with NASA strategic sub-goal 3C, to advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ... and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. Deep Interior deploys no complex landers or sub-spacecraft; the scientific instruments are a radar and a camera. A blast cratering experiments triggered by grenades leads to a low cost seismological investigation which complements the radar investigation. A desired addition is an imaging spectrometer. The science instruments are high heritage, as are the navigation techniques for orbiting and station-keeping. The mission conducts the following investigations at one or more asteroids: Radar Reflection Tomography (RRT). The first science phase is to operate a penetrating radar during each several-month rendezvous, deployed in reflection mode in the manner of ongoing radar investigations underway by Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Kaguya. The RRT technique (Safaeinili et al., MAPS 2002) is analogous to performing a "CAT scan" from orbit: closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior dielectric properties. Deep Interior utilizes a polar orbit (or station keeping) while the asteroid spins underneath; the result is to "peel the apple" with thousands of unique

  18. Electronic structure properties of deep defects in hBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Pratibha; Prdm Collaboration

    In recent years, the search for room-temperature solid-state qubit (quantum bit) candidates has revived interest in the study of deep-defect centers in semiconductors. The charged NV-center in diamond is the best known amongst these defects. However, as a host material, diamond poses several challenges and so, increasingly, there is an interest in exploring deep defects in alternative semiconductors such as hBN. The layered structure of hBN makes it a scalable platform for quantum applications, as there is a greater potential for controlling the location of the deep defect in the 2D-matrix through careful experiments. Using density functional theory-based methods, we have studied the electronic and structural properties of several deep defects in hBN. Native defects within hBN layers are shown to have high spin ground states that should survive even at room temperature, making them interesting solid-state qubit candidates in a 2D matrix. Partnership for Reduced Dimensional Material (PRDM) is part of the NSF sponsored Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (PREM).

  19. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaláb Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [10]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic.

  20. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ( 18 O, 2 H, 13 C, 34 S, 87 Sr, 15 N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs

  1. Decommissioning of surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1978-11-01

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the decommissioning of the surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. A cost/risk index (figure of merit), expressed as $/manrem, is proposed as an evaluation criteria. On the basis of this cost/risk index, we gain insight into the advisability of adapting certain decontamination design options into the original facility. Three modes are considered: protective storage, entombment, and dismantlement. Cost estimates are made for the direct labor involved in each of the alternative modes for a baseline design case. Similarly, occupational radiation exposures are estimated, with a larger degree of uncertainty, for each of the modes. Combination of these estimates produces the cost/risk index. To illustrate the methodology, an example using a preliminary baseline repository design is discussed

  2. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 15}N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  3. Containers and overpacks for high-level radioactive waste in deep geological disposal. Conditions: French Corrosion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusset, D.; Plas, F.; Santarini, G.

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of the act of French law dated 31 December, 1991, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for conducting the feasibility study on disposal of reversible and irreversible high-level or long-life radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Consequently, ANDRA is carrying out research on corrosion of the metallic materials envisaged for the possible construction of overpacks for vitrified waste packages or containers for spent nuclear fuel. Low-alloy or unalloyed steels and the passive alloys (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo) constitute the two families of materials studied and ANDRA has set up a research programme in partnership with other research organisations. The 'broad outlines' of the programme, which includes experimental and modelling operations, are presented. (authors)

  4. Effect Of Up-Scaling On The Study Of The Steel/Bentonite Interface In A Deep Geological Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Alvarez, Elena; Turrero, Maria Jesus; Martin, Pedro Luis; Escribano, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Deep geological disposal is the most accepted management option for High Level Nuclear Wastes. The multi-barrier system for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste includes the concept of the spent fuel encapsulated in canisters of carbon steel. Corrosion phenomena affect the integrity of the canister and can modify the chemical environment either at the interface or in the bentonite pore water. The experimental studies conducted by CIEMAT are focused on the iron canister corrosion products interaction with the bentonite system and are based on a series of short term and medium term experiments conceived at different scales, from conventional laboratory experiments and experiments in cylindrical cells, to those specifically designed 3D mock up experiments, the so called 'GAME (Geochemical Mock up experiments) scale'. The results obtained from the up-scaling could be a useful tool to understand the key processes at the steel/bentonite interface and the later modelling work. (authors)

  5. New developments in measurement technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in domed salt and basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Mao, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report briefly describes recent geophysical and geotechnical instrumentation developments relevant to the studies of deep geologic repositories. Special emphasis has been placed on techniques that appear to minimize measurement problems associated with repositories constructed in basalt or domed salt. Included in the listing are existing measurement capabilities and deficiencies that have been identified by a few authors and instrumentation workshops that have assessed the capabilities of existing instrumentation with respect to repository applications. These deficiencies have been compared with the reported advantages and limitations of the new developments described. Based on these comparisons, areas that merit further research and development have been identified. The report is based on a thorough literature review and on discussions with several instrumentation specialists involved in instrumentation development

  6. Effect Of Up-Scaling On The Study Of The Steel/Bentonite Interface In A Deep Geological Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Alvarez, Elena; Turrero, Maria Jesus; Martin, Pedro Luis; Escribano, Alicia [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Deep geological disposal is the most accepted management option for High Level Nuclear Wastes. The multi-barrier system for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste includes the concept of the spent fuel encapsulated in canisters of carbon steel. Corrosion phenomena affect the integrity of the canister and can modify the chemical environment either at the interface or in the bentonite pore water. The experimental studies conducted by CIEMAT are focused on the iron canister corrosion products interaction with the bentonite system and are based on a series of short term and medium term experiments conceived at different scales, from conventional laboratory experiments and experiments in cylindrical cells, to those specifically designed 3D mock up experiments, the so called 'GAME (Geochemical Mock up experiments) scale'. The results obtained from the up-scaling could be a useful tool to understand the key processes at the steel/bentonite interface and the later modelling work. (authors)

  7. Retrievability in the Deep Geological Disposal motivation and implications; La recuperabiliidad de los residuos en el almacenamiento geologico profundo: motivacion y repercusiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Polo, J. J.; Aneiros, J. M. [Empresarios Agrupados, A. I. E. Madrid (Spain); Alonso, J. [ENRESA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The final disposal of High Level Wastes (HLW) in a repository without the intention of retrieval has been the conceptual basis used by most countries to define their deep geological disposal concepts. As a result, current disposal concepts allow, but do not facilitate, the retrieval of the waste. The concept of retrievability has been introduced in the stepwise development process of the deep geological disposal for a series of ethical, socio-political, and technological reasons, which have structured a great deal of attention in the international community. At present, although no clear definition has been given to the term retrievability there seems to be a general consensus in respect of its interpretation as the capacity to retrieve waste from the underground facilities of the repository up to several years after its closure. The retrieval of the HLW packages from the disposal cells entails tackling a series of technological and operational constraints stemming, on the one hand, from the configuration and state of the repository at the time of retrieval and, on the other, from the environmental conditions of temperature and radiation in which such operations have to be carried out. Most countries, Spain included, are assessing the technical feasibility of retrieving waste during the different stages of the repository lifetime, exploring at the same time the possibility of implementing some changes in the repository's design, construction and operation without affecting its long-term safety. The purpose of this paper is three-fold (1) to identify the motivations that have led the international community to consider retrievability in the repository's stepwise development process, (2) to analyse, qualitatively, the different implications this has on current repository concepts, and (3) to state the current Spanish position. (Author)

  8. Tectonics, Deep-Seated Structure and Recent Geodynamics of the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatashvili, I.; Adamia, Sh.; Lursmanashvili, N.; Sadradze, N.; Meskhia, V.; Koulakov, I.; Zabelina, I.; Jakovlev, A.

    2012-04-01

    The tectonics and deep-seated structure of the Caucasus are determined by its position between the still converging Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates, within a wide zone of continental collision. The region in the Late Proterozoic - Early Cenozoic belonged to the Tethys Ocean and its Eurasian and Africa-Arabian margins. During Oligocene-Middle Miocene and Late Miocene-Quaternary time as a result of collision back-arc basins were inverted to form fold-thrust mountain belts and the Transcaucasian intermontane lowlands. The Caucasus is divided into platform and fold-thrust units, and forelands superimposed mainly on the rigid platform zones. The youngest structural units composed of Neogene-Quaternary continental volcanic formations of the Armenian and Javakheti highlands and extinct volcanoes of the Great Caucasus. As a result of detailed geophysical study of the gravity, magnetic, seismic, and thermal fields, the main features of the deep crustal structure of the Caucasus have been determined. Knowledge on the deep lithospheric structure of the Caucasus region is based on surface geology and deep and super deep drilling data combined with gravity, seismic, heat flow, and magnetic investigations. Close correlation between the geology and its deep-seated structures appears in the peculiarities of spatial distribution of gravitational, thermal and magnetic fields, particularly generally expressed in orientation of regional anomalies that is in good agreement with general tectonic structures. In this study we present two tomographic models derived for the region based on two different tomographic approaches. In the first case, we use the travel time data on regional seismicity recorded by networks located in Caucasus. The tomographic inversion is based on the LOTOS code which enables simultaneous determination of P and S velocity distributions and source locations. The obtained model covers the crustal and uppermost mantle depths. The second model, which is constructed

  9. Combined constraints on the structure and physical properties of the East Antarctic lithosphere from geology and geophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, A. M.; Staal, T.; Halpin, J.; Whittaker, J. M.; Morse, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The lithosphere of East Antarctica is one of the least explored regions of the planet, yet it is gaining in importance in global scientific research. Continental heat flux density and 3D glacial isostatic adjustment studies, for example, rely on a good knowledge of the deep structure in constraining model inputs.In this contribution, we use a multidisciplinary approach to constrain lithospheric domains. To seismic tomography models, we add constraints from magnetic studies and also new geological constraints. Geological knowledge exists around the periphery of East Antarctica and is reinforced in the knowledge of plate tectonic reconstructions. The subglacial geology of the Antarctic hinterland is largely unknown but the plate reconstructions allow the well-posed extrapolation of major terranes into the interior of the continent, guided by the seismic tomography and magnetic images. We find that the northern boundary of the lithospheric domain centred on the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains has a possible trend that runs south of the Lambert Glacier region, turning coastward through Wilkes Land. Other periphery-to-interior connections are less well constrained and the possibility of lithospheric domains that are entirely sub-glacial is high. We develop this framework to include a probabilistic method of handling alternate models and quantifiable uncertainties. We also show first results in using a Bayesian approach to predicting lithospheric boundaries from multivariate data.Within the newly constrained domains, we constrain heat flux (density) as the sum of basal heat flux and upper crustal heat flux. The basal heat flux is constrained by geophysical methods while the upper crustal heat flux is constrained by geology or predicted geology. In addition to heat flux constraints, we also consider the variations in friction experienced by moving ice sheets due to varying geology.

  10. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.)

  11. Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)

    1989-10-02

    We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).

  12. Investigation of the deep structure of the Sivas Basin (innereast Anatolia, Turkey) with geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, K. Mert; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Aydemir, Attila; Ates, Abdullah

    2008-11-01

    Sivas Basin is the easternmost and third largest basin of the Central Anatolian Basins. In this study, gravity, aeromagnetic and seismic data are used to investigate the deep structure of the Sivas Basin, together with the well seismic velocity data, geological observations from the surface and the borehole data of the Celalli-1 well. Basement depth is modeled three-dimensionally (3D) using the gravity anomalies, and 2D gravity and magnetic models were constructed along with a N-S trending profile. Densities of the rock samples were obtained from the distinct parts of the basin surface and in-situ susceptibilities were also measured and evaluated in comparison with the other geophysical and geological data. Additionally, seismic sections, in spite of their low resolution, were used to define the velocity variation in the basin in order to compare depth values and geological cross-section obtained from the modeling studies. Deepest parts of the basin (12-13 km), determined from the 3D model, are located below the settlement of Hafik and to the south of Zara towns. Geometry, extension and wideness of the basin, together with the thickness and lithologies of the sedimentary units are reasonably appropriate for further hydrocarbon exploration in the Sivas Basin that is still an unexplored area with the limited number of seismic lines and only one borehole.

  13. Shallow geological structures triggered during the Mw 6.4 Meinong earthquake, southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryline Le Béon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Meinong earthquake generated up to ~10 cm surface displacement located 10 - 35 km west of the epicenter and monitored by InSAR and GPS. In addition to coseismic deformation related to the deep earthquake source, InSAR revealed three sharp surface displacement gradients. One of them is extensional and is inconsistent with the westward interseismic shortening of ~45 mm yr-1 in this region. The gradient sharpness suggests slip triggering on shallow structures, some of which were not well documented before. To characterize these shallow structures, we investigated potential surface ruptures in the field. Sets of ~NS tension cracks distributed over 25 - 300 m width, with cumulative extension in the same order as InSAR observations, were found along 5.5 km distance along the extensional gradient and are interpreted as surface rupture. We build two E-W regional balanced cross-sections, based on surface geology, subsurface data, and coseismic and interseismic geodetic data. From the Coastal Plain to the east edge of the coseismic deformation area, we propose a series of three active west-dipping backthrusts: the Houchiali fault, the Napalin-Pitou backthrust, and the Lungchuan backthrust. They all root on the 3.5 - 4.0 km deep Tainan detachment located near the base of the 3-km-thick Gutingkeng mudstone. Further east, the detachment would ramp down to ~7 km depth. Coseismic surface deformation measurements suggest that, in addition to the deeper (15 - 20 km main rupture plane, mostly the ramp, the Lungchuan backthrust, and the Tainan detachment were activated during or right after the earthquake. Local extension is considered as transient deformation at the west edge of the shallow main slip zone.

  14. NUMO-RMS: a practical requirements management system for the long-term management of the deep geological disposal project - 16304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Satoru; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Oyamada, Kiyoshi; Yashio, Shoko; White, Matt; Wilmot, Roger

    2009-01-01

    NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) has the responsibility for implementing deep geological disposal of high-level (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the Japanese nuclear programme. A formal Requirements Management System (RMS) is planned to efficiently and effectively support the computerised implementation of the management strategy and the methodology required to drive the step-wise siting processes, and the following repository operational phase,. The RMS will help in the comprehensive management of the decision-making processes in the geological disposal project, in change management as the disposal system is optimised, in driving projects such as the R and D programme efficiently, and in maintaining structured records regarding past decisions, all of which lead to soundness of the project in terms of long-term continuity. The system is planned to have information handling and management functions using a database that includes the decisions/requirements in the programme under consideration, the way in which these are structured in terms of the decision-making process and other associated information. A two-year development programme is underway to develop and enhance an existing trial RMS to a practical system. Functions for change management, history management and association with the external timeline management system are being implemented in the system development work. The database format is being improved to accommodate the requirements management data relating to the facility design and to safety assessment of the deep geological repository. This paper will present an outline of the development work with examples to demonstrate the system's practicality. In parallel with the system/database developments, a case research of the use of requirements management in radioactive waste disposal projects was undertaken to identify key issues in the development of an RMS for radioactive waste disposal and specify a number of

  15. Safety and performance indicators for the assessment of long-term safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.; Schneider, J.W.; Dorp, F. van; Zuidema, P.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of the ability to isolate radioactive waste and the assessment of the long-term safety of a deep geological repository is usually done in terms of the calculated dose and/or risk for an average individual of the population which is potentially most affected by the potential impacts of the repository. At present, various countries and international organisations are developing so-called complementary indicators to supplement such calculations. These indicators are called ''safety indicators'' if they refer to the safety of the whole repository system; if they address the isolation capability of individual system components or the whole system from a more technical perspective, they are called ''performance indicators''. The need for complementary indicators follows from the long time frames which characterise the safety assessment of a geological repository, and the corresponding uncertainty of the calculated radiation dose. The main reason for these uncertainties is associated with the uncertain long-term prognosis of the surface environment and the related human behaviour. (orig.)

  16. The structural integrity of high level waste containers for deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keer, T.J.; Martindale, N.J.; Haijtink, B.

    1990-01-01

    Most countries with a nuclear power program are developing plans to dispose of high level waste in deep geological repositories. These facilities are typically in the range 500-1000m below ground. Although long term safety analyses mainly rely on the isolation function of the geological barrier, for the medium term (between 500 and 1000 years) a barrier such as a container (overpack) may play an important role. This paper addresses the mechanical/structural behavior of these structures under extreme geological pressures. The work described in the paper was conducted within the COMPAS project (Container Mechanical Performance Assessment) funded by the Commission of the European Communities and the United Kingdom Department of the Environment. The work was aimed at predicting the modes of failure and failure pressures which characterize the heavy, thick walled mild steel containers which might be considered for the disposal of vitrified waste. The work involved a considerable amount of analytical work, using 3-D non-linear finite element techniques, coupled with a large parallel program of experimental work. The experimental work consisted of a number of scale model tests in which the response of the containers was examined under external pressures as high as 120MPa. Extensive strain-gauge instrumentation was used to record the behavior of the models as they were driven to collapse. A number of comparative computer calculations were carried out by organizations from various European countries. Correlations were established between experimental and analytical data and guidelines regarding the choice of suitable software were established. The work concluded with a full 3-D simulation of the behavior of a container under long-term disposal conditions. In this analysis, non-linearities due to geological effects and material/geometry effects in the container were properly accounted for. 6 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Structural damage detection using deep learning of ultrasonic guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Joseph; Alguri, K. Supreet; Deemer, Chris; Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    Structural health monitoring using ultrasonic guided waves relies on accurate interpretation of guided wave propagation to distinguish damage state indicators. However, traditional physics based models do not provide an accurate representation, and classic data driven techniques, such as a support vector machine, are too simplistic to capture the complex nature of ultrasonic guide waves. To address this challenge, this paper uses a deep learning interpretation of ultrasonic guided waves to achieve fast, accurate, and automated structural damaged detection. To achieve this, full wavefield scans of thin metal plates are used, half from the undamaged state and half from the damaged state. This data is used to train our deep network to predict the damage state of a plate with 99.98% accuracy given signals from just 10 spatial locations on the plate, as compared to that of a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved a 62% accuracy.

  18. Geological Interpretation of the Structure and Stratigraphy of the A/M Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Aadland, R.K.; Cumbest, R.J.; Stephenson, D.E.; Syms, F.H.

    1997-12-01

    The geological interpretation of the structure and stratigraphy of the A/M Area was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of deeper Cretaceous aged geological strata and structure on shallower Tertiary horizons.

  19. Geological Interpretation of the Structure and Stratigraphy of the A/M Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.; Aadland, R.K.; Cumbest, R.J.; Stephenson, D.E.; Syms, F.H.

    1997-12-01

    The geological interpretation of the structure and stratigraphy of the A/M Area was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of deeper Cretaceous aged geological strata and structure on shallower Tertiary horizons

  20. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize significant recent results on the deep structure and origin of the active volcanoes in mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by dehydration of the subducting slab and by corner flow in the mantle wedge, whereas the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate. The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs’ deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab’s deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab–plume interactions.

  1. Location of geologic structures from interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, R. W.; Barton, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Possible geologic structures in the basin sediments of Carbon County and vicinity were located by interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery. These same structures are not evident on existing conventional geologic maps of the area. Subsequent field checks confirmed much of the geologic interpretation, but revealed that two apparent closed structures identified on the ERTS-1 imagery were actually topographic pseudostructures in flat or homoclinal sediments. Stereoscopic coverage (where available) allows the interpreter to avoid such misinterpretations.

  2. ENSI's view on NTB-10-01 'Evaluation of the geological documents for the provisional safety assessment in SGT Stage 2' - Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    As a preliminary action ahead of Stage 2 in the Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal' ('Sachplan Geologische Tiefenlager': SGT) the bodies in charge of the management of the radioactive wastes have to determine, together with the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), which complementary investigations are needed for the provisional safety assessment of the foreseen repositories. In particular, comparisons between the different sites must be possible. If some doubts remain, new investigations have to be conducted. In SGT Stage 1 the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) stated that a time period of 100'000 years shall be considered for the storage of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (SMA) and of 1 million years for the storage of high-level wastes (HAA). In SGT Stage 2, considerations about possible modifications of the biosphere during the considered time periods for SMA as well as for HAA have to be included. In what regards the host rock, ENSI declares that the dataset describing the Opalinus clay is sufficient for the site-specific safety analyses. What regards the Wellenberg site for a SMA repository, ENSI has earlier analysed the license request of the NAGRA. For the Mergel formations of the Helveticum, NAGRA conducted a complete safety analysis. ENSI considers the knowledge acquired for these rock types as sufficient for the technical safety comparisons in SGT Stage 2. The knowledge of the rock 'Brauner Dogger' is correct but some more information about the lithostratigraphy and the biostratigraphy is requested. The understanding of the effect of the rock density reduction on the hydraulic conductibility of Opalinus clay and Mergel formations is accurate enough for the comparisons in SGT Stage 2. For the 'Brauner Dogger', comparable data are missing, but the proposed thickness of 300 m of the host rock offers a sufficient protection against density reduction effects. Concerning the behaviour of the

  3. Surface analogue outcrops of deep fractured basement reservoirs in extensional geological settings. Examples within active rift system (Uganda) and proximal passive margin (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The important role of extensive brittle faults and related structures in the development of reservoirs has already been demonstrated, notably in initially low-porosity rocks such as basement rocks. Large varieties of deep-seated resources (e.g. water, hydrocarbons, geothermal energy) are recognized in fractured basement reservoirs. Brittle faults and fracture networks can develop sufficient volumes to allow storage and transfer of large amounts of fluids. Development of hydraulic model with dual-porosity implies the structural and petrophysical characterization of the basement. Drain porosity is located within the larger fault zones, which are the main fluid transfer channels. The storage porosity corresponds both to the matrix porosity and to the volume produced by the different fractures networks (e.g. tectonic, primary), which affect the whole reservoir rocks. Multi-scale genetic and geometric relationships between these deformation features support different orders of structural domains in a reservoir, from several tens of kilometers to few tens of meters. In subsurface, 3D seismic data in basement can be sufficient to characterize the largest first order of structural domains and bounding fault zones (thickness, main orientation, internal architecture, …). However, lower order structural blocks and fracture networks are harder to define. The only available data are 1D borehole electric imaging and are used to characterize the lowest order. Analog outcrop studies of basement rocks fill up this resolution gap and help the understanding of brittle deformation, definition of reservoir geometries and acquirement of reservoir properties. These geological outcrop studies give information about structural blocks of second and third order, getting close to the field scale. This allows to understand relationships between brittle structures geometry and factors controlling their development, such as the structural inheritance or the lithology (e.g. schistosity, primary

  4. Mining and engineering aspects and variants for the underground construction of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milchev, M.; Michailov, B.; Nanovska, E.; Harizanov, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present report is to investigate and to describe systematically the foreign experience, scientific and technical achievements and stages of development concerning the mining and engineering aspects and variants for underground construction of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste (RAW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The ideal solution in managing the problems with harmful wastes seems to be either to remove them permanently from Earth (which is related with high risks and high costs) or to transform long-lived radionuclides to short-lived radionuclides using nuclear transmutation processes in a reactor or a particle accelerator. The latter is also a complex and immensely costly process and it can only reduce the quantities of some long-lived radionuclides, which can be then disposed in a geological repository. At present, the deep geological disposal remains the only solution for solving the problem with the hazard of storing radioactive wastes. The report submits a brief description and systematization of the performed investigations, accompanied by analysis of the scientific and technical level on world scale. The analysis is related with the particular geological conditions and the existing scientific studies available so far in Bulgaria. The main conclusions are that the complex scientific-technical and engineering problems related with the construction of a deep geological repository for RAW and SNF require long-term scientific investigations and preliminary complex works and it is high time to launch them in Bulgaria. (authors)

  5. A preliminary study on the long-term geologic stability for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Geology of the Korean peninsula could be grouped by 7 rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses, metasedimentary rocks, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, porous and massive volcanic rocks. The plutonic rock type is the largest rock groups occupying about 35.2% over the peninsula. Tectonic movement could be classified as four great stages as Precambrian, Songnim, Daebo and Bulkuksa even though the ambiguous of prior Songnim. It would be supposed to deep relationship between tectonic movement, orogeny and magmatism. And also, the magmatism within the peninsula could be divided into 5 stages such as 1st stage of Precambrian(>570Ma), 2nd stage of late Paleozoic(>250Ma), 3rd stage of early to mid Mesozoic(200-300Ma), 4th stage of late Mesozoic(135-60Ma) and 5th stage of post early Tertiary(50Ma>). In the seismicities, the peninsula has some characteristics that of the intra-plate seismic characteristics located at south eastern part of the Eurasian plate apart from the boundary of the Pacific and Philippine plate. Eurasian plate is under the two stress direction acting eastward stresses induced the collision of Indo- Australlian plate and westward stresses due to the subduction of due the Pacific and Philippine plate. For the purpose of the quantitative analysis for the safety assessment of HLW disposal, it would be desired to have the long range approach concept for the characterization of FEPs such as upper stated including climate, sae level change, uplift and subsidence, erosion and sedimentation. 38 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  6. Geological Structures Mapping of Bukit Bunuh using 2-D Resistivity Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Amalina, M. K. A.; Nordiana, M. M.; Rahman, Nazrin; Saidin, Mokhtar; Masnan, S. S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The geological area of Bukit Bunuh is very complex due to the meteorite impact that has occurred millions years ago at Lenggong, Perak. The lithology of the study area consists of alluvium, tephra dust, and granitic rock. The geological contact, fault and fracture zone were found at the study area may indicate the geological process that undergoes at a place locally or regionally. These important features have led to the further research on 2-D resistivity imaging method (2-D RIM) to study the geological features. This method can provide the subsurface image that will delineate the geological structures. The surveys include three separate lines of different length which depend on the accessibility. The surveys were done by using Pole-Dipole array and 10 m of electrodes spacing. The objectives of this research are to determine the subsurface geological contact and to determine the existence of fault/fracture zones at the contact zone. The results from 2-D inversion profiles have successfully signified the types of geological structural such as fault, contact, and fractures. Hence, the results from 2-D RIM were used to draw the geological lineaments of Bukit Bunuh. The discontinuity of the lineaments may indicate the structures present.

  7. The Folding and Fracturing of Rocks: A milestone publication in Structural Geology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, Richard; Bastida, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    In the field of structural geology, the textbook written by John G Ramsay in 1967, reprinted in 2004 and translated into Spanish and Chinese, is the one that has made the greatest research impact. With citations exceeding 4000 (Google Scholar) it far surpasses books by other authors on the subject, with this figure only being approached by his later book Modern Structural Geology (Ramsay and Huber 1983). In this paper we consider the factors that account for the book's success despite the fact that it is a research-level text beyond the comfort zone of most undergraduates. We also take stock of other measures of the book's success; the way it influenced the direction subsequent research effort. We summarize the major advances in structural geology that were prompted by Ramsay's book. Finally we consider the book's legacy. Before the publication of the book in 1967 structural geology had been an activity that had concentrated almost exclusively on geological mapping aimed at establishing the geometrical configuration of rock units. In fact, Ramsay himself has produced beautiful examples of such maps. However, the book made us aware that the geometrical pattern is controlled by the spatial variation of material properties, the boundary conditions, the deformation environment and the temporal variation of stresses. With the arrival of the book Structural Geology came of age as a modern scientific discipline that employed a range of tools such as those of physics, maths and engineering as well as those of geology.

  8. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - update on the site evaluation process and interweaving of aboriginal traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, B.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Facella, J., E-mail: bwatt@nwmo.ca, E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca, E-mail: jfacella@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR) in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to seek an informed and willing community to host Canada's deep geological repository. As of April 2015, twenty-two communities expressed interest in learning more about the project. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria used in the assessments, focusing on geological and community well-being studies. Engagement and field activities to interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge with western science are also discussed. (author)

  9. Conceptual design and cost inputs associated with co-disposal of the spent fuel and long lived radioactive wastes in the deep geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fako, R.; Sociu, F.; Nicolae, R.; Barariu, G

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to be an integrated approach for the containment and isolation of spent fuel and / or long lived radioactive wastes in a Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. Several scenarios could be defined for the management of spent fuel and long lived radioactive waste in Romania considering many specific constraints in Romania (political, geological, economic, demographic, etc.). This paper intends to be an upgrade of several Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) works performed by SITON specialists on this subject, taking into account also the conclusions of the Workshop ôCost estimation on spent nuclear fuel disposal in Romaniaö organized by IAEA in cooperation with ANDR at the beginning of this year in Romania.This paper is, also, addressed to decision makers with target on to adopt the best strategy for construction of Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. (authors)

  10. Deep reversible storage. Safety options for the storage in deep geological formation - High-medium activity, long living wastes 2009 milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This large document aims at presenting safety options which have been adopted for the current design status (notably for the installation architecture), elements of description of envisaged technical solutions and exploitation principles which are required for the control of risks (either internal or external) and uncertainties on a long term which could lead to radiological consequences for the project of storage of nuclear wastes in a deep geological formation. After a presentation of the context and of input data, this report discusses the principle of a modular construction and then discusses the safety approach. One part deals with risk analysis for surface installations and aims at showing how internal risks (handling, fire) and external risks (earthquake, plane crash) are taken into account in terms of design choices, processes and control measures. Another part deals with risk analysis for underground installations during the reversible exploitation phase (the considered risks are about the same as in the previous part). The next part addresses risk analysis after closing, and tries to describe how the location, storage construction elements and its architecture ensure a passive safety. Uncertainty management is presented in relationship with envisaged technical solutions and scientific knowledge advances. Additional elements (detailed study, researches and experimentations) for the establishment of the future creation authorization request are identified all along the report

  11. Deep reversible storage. Design options for the storage in deep geological formation - High-medium activity, long living wastes 2009 milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This report aims at presenting a synthesis of currently studied solutions for the different components of the project of deep geological radioactive waste storage centre. For each of these elements, the report indicates the main operational objectives to be taken into account in relationship with safety functions or with reversibility. It identifies the currently proposed design options, presents the technical solutions (with sometime several possibilities), indicates industrial references (in the nuclear sector, in underground works) and comments results of technological tests performed by the ANDRA. After a description of functionalities and of the overall organisation of storage components, the different following elements and aspects are addressed: surface installations, underground architecture, parcel transfer between the surface and storage cells, storage container for medium-activity long-life (MAVL) waste, storage cell for medium-activity long-life waste, handling of MAVL parcels in storage cells, storage container for high-activity (HA) waste, storage cell for HA waste, handling of HA parcels in storage cells, and works for site closing

  12. Leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized radioactive waste form under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi; Akimoto, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized waste form was studied to acquire data for the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of bituminized radioactive waste. Laboratory-scale leaching tests were performed for radioactive and non-radioactive waste specimens simulating bituminized waste of a French reprocessing company, COGEMA. The simulated waste was contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.03-mol/l KOH), and a saline solution (0.5-mol/l KCl) under atmospheric and anoxic conditions. The concentrations of Na, Ba, Cs, Sr, Np, Pu, NO 3 , SO 4 and I in the leachates were determined. Swelling of the bituminized waste progressed in deionized water and KOH. The release of the soluble components, Na and Cs, was enhanced by the swelling, and considered to be diffusion-controlled in the swelled layers of the specimens. The release of sparingly soluble components such as Ba and Np was solubility-limited in addition to the progression of leaching. Neptunium, a redox-sensitive element, showed a distinct difference in release between anoxic and atmospheric conditions. The elemental release from the bituminized waste specimens leached in the KCl was very low, which is likely due to the suppression of swelling of the specimens at high ionic strength. (author)

  13. Thermodynamic stability of actinide pyrochlore minerals in deep geologic repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, YIFENG; Xu, HUIFANG

    2000-01-01

    Crystalline phases of pyrochlore (e.g., CaPuTi 2 O 7 , CaUTi 2 O 7 ) have been proposed as a durable ceramic waste form for disposal of high level radioactive wastes including surplus weapons-usable plutonium. In this paper, the authors use a linear free energy relationship to predict the Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrochlore phases (CaMTi 2 O 7 ). The Pu-pyrochlore phase is predicted to be stable with respect to PuO 2 , CaTiO 3 , and TiO 2 at room temperatures. Pu-pyrochlore is expected to be stable in a geologic repository where silica and carbonate components are absent or limited. The authors suggest that a repository in a salt formation be an ideal environment for disposal of high level, pyrochlore-based ceramic wastes. In such environment, adding CaO as a backfill will make pyrochlore minerals thermodynamically stable and therefore effectively prevent actinide release from these mineral phases

  14. Development of Next-generation Technology for Integrated Site Characterization of Deep Geological Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, H.; Umeki, H.; Ota, K.; Hama, K.; Sawada, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Semba, T.; Takase, H.; McKinley, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    As site investigation proceeds and information obtained on geological environments increases, the characterization plan has to be iteratively reviewed and modified to reflect improved understanding. Such modification would also be needed when changes occur in technical or socio-political boundary conditions. JAEA teams involved in implementation of URL projects have used a geo-synthesis data flow diagram to integrate a huge amount of practical experience in order to carry out such management functions. However, much of this experience was gained in the past, when it was possible for staff to learn by taking leading roles in novel, complex and important projects and learn by successes - and mistakes - under boundary conditions that were much more casual than they are at present. It is necessary to transfer such tacit knowledge to implementing and regulatory organizations in a practical manner before it is lost with the retirement of senior staff. An option being examined involves application of advanced technology, termed the Information Synthesis and Interpretation System (ISIS), to capture experience using Knowledge Engineering methods. This is being tested for practical applicability in an exercise involving stepwise 'optimization' of a site characterization plan. (authors)

  15. Perspectives for deep geological formation disposal research in France beyond 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landais, P.

    2006-01-01

    One finalised aim underlies research conducted on the feasibility of geological disposal: the possibility of having a reversible disposal system available. A model has been drawn up to provide a framework for the analysis and propose possible research content between 2006 and 2015. This period will correspond to the move from the feasibility to a development, optimisation and detailed study phase. It aims at answering any questions raised by reviewers and develops forward the study of a repository. It will also correspond to the consolidation of scientific data, greater understanding of certain mechanisms and an approach of scientific and technical integration. Another goal of the period 2006-2015 would be to collect elements for a decision on the sitting issue through an extended survey. This phase of development includes confirmation of the data acquired during the previous phase and over relatively long periods, optimisation of repository concepts and detailed study of their main components, the production of full-scale mock-ups or simulations to validate the main technological design points and refining of data extrapolation methods. (author)

  16. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along

  17. Characterization of natural organic matter in bentonite clays for potential use in deep geological repositories for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Michaela H.M.; McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the composition of natural organic matter in bentonite clay. • Biomarker results indicate a predominance of plant-derived organic matter. • Aromatic and aliphatic compounds were observed in NMR spectra. • Degradation ratios suggest that organic matter is highly altered. • The natural organic matter in bentonite clay is predominantly recalcitrant. - Abstract: The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is developing a Deep Geological Repository (DGR) to contain and isolate used nuclear fuel in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 m. The design concept employs a multibarrier system, including the use of copper-coated used fuel containers, surrounded by a low-permeability, swelling clay buffer material within a low permeability, stable host rock environment. The natural organic matter (NOM) composition of the bentonite clays being considered for the buffer material is largely uncharacterized at the molecular-level. To gain a better understanding of the NOM in target clays from Wyoming and Saskatchewan, molecular-level methods (biomarker analysis, solid-state 13 C NMR and solution-state 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) were used to elucidate the structure and sources of NOM. Organic carbon content in three commercially available bentonites analyzed was low (0.11–0.41%). The aliphatic lipid distribution of the clay samples analyzed showed a predominance of higher concentration of lipids from vascular plants and low concentrations of lipids consistent with microbial origin. The lignin phenol vanillyl acid to aldehyde ratio (Ad/Al) for the National sample indicated an advanced state of lignin oxidation and NOM diagenesis. The 13 C NMR spectra were dominated by signals in the aromatic and aliphatic regions. The ratio of alkyl/O-alkyl carbon ranged from 7.6 to 9.7, indicating that the NOM has undergone advanced diagenetic alteration. The absence lignin-derived phenols commonly observed in CuO oxidation

  18. Crustal structure under the central High Atlas Mountains (Morocco) from geological and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Alvarez-Lobato, F.; Teixell, A.; Arboleya, M. L.; Tesón, E.; Julivert, M.; Charroud, M.

    2005-05-01

    Seismic wide angle and receiver function results together with geological data have been used as constraints to build a gravity-based crustal model of the central High Atlas of Morocco. Integration of a newly acquired set of gravity values with public data allowed us to undertake 2-2.5D gravity modelling along two profiles that cross the entire mountain chain. Modelling suggests moderate crustal thickening, and a general state of Airy isostatic undercompensation. Localized thickening appears restricted to the vicinity of a north-dipping crustal-scale thrust fault, that offsets the Moho discontinuity and defines a small crustal root which accounts for the minimum Bouguer gravity anomaly values. Gravity modelling indicates that this root has a northeasterly strike, slightly oblique to the ENE general orientation of the High Atlas belt. A consequence of the obliquity between the High Atlas borders and its internal and deep structure is the lack of correlation between Bouguer gravity anomaly values and topography. Active buckling affecting the crust, a highly elevated asthenosphere, or a combination of both are addressed as side mechanisms that help to maintain the high elevations of the Atlas mountains.

  19. Relationship between deep structure and oil-gas in the eastern Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changqing; Qu, Chen; Han, Jianguang

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim Basin is a large composite superimposed basin which developed in the Presinian continental basement. It is an important area for oil and gas replacement in China. In the eastern part of Tarim Basin, the exploration and research degree is very low and less system, especially in the study of tectonic evolution and physical property change. Basing on the study of geophysics, drilling and regional geological data in this area, analysis of comprehensive geophysical, geological and geophysical analysis comparison are lunched by new methods and new technology of geophysical exploration. Fault, tectonic evolution and change of deep character in the eastern Tarim Basin are analyzed in system. Through in-depth study and understanding of the deep structure and physical changes of the eastern region, we obtain the fault characteristics in the study area and the deep structure and physical change maps to better guide the oil and gas exploration in this area. The east area is located in the eastern Tarim Basin, west from the Garr Man depression, Well Kunan 1 - Well Gucheng 4 line to the East, north to Kuruketage uplift group near Qunke 1 wells, south to Cherchen fault zone, east to Lop Nor depression, an area of about 9 * 104 square kilometres, Including the East of Garr Man sag, Yingjisu depression, Kongquehe slope, Tadong low uplift and the Lop Nor uplift, five two grade tectonic units. The east area of Tarim is belonging to Tarim plate. It changes with the evolution of the Tarim plate. The Tarim plate is closely related to the collision between the Yining - the Junggar plate, the Siberia plate and the southern Qiangtang - the central Kunlun plate. Therefore, it creates a complex tectonic pattern in the eastern Tarim basin. Earth electromagnetic, gravity, deep seismic and other geophysical data are processed by a new generation of geophysical information theory and method, including multi-scale inversion of potential field inversion (Hou and Yang, 2011), 3D

  20. A Corner-Point-Grid-Based Voxelization Method for Complex Geological Structure Model with Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyu; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Liu, Gang

    2017-04-01

    3D voxelization is the foundation of geological property modeling, and is also an effective approach to realize the 3D visualization of the heterogeneous attributes in geological structures. The corner-point grid is a representative data model among all voxel models, and is a structured grid type that is widely applied at present. When carrying out subdivision for complex geological structure model with folds, we should fully consider its structural morphology and bedding features to make the generated voxels keep its original morphology. And on the basis of which, they can depict the detailed bedding features and the spatial heterogeneity of the internal attributes. In order to solve the shortage of the existing technologies, this work puts forward a corner-point-grid-based voxelization method for complex geological structure model with folds. We have realized the fast conversion from the 3D geological structure model to the fine voxel model according to the rule of isocline in Ramsay's fold classification. In addition, the voxel model conforms to the spatial features of folds, pinch-out and other complex geological structures, and the voxels of the laminas inside a fold accords with the result of geological sedimentation and tectonic movement. This will provide a carrier and model foundation for the subsequent attribute assignment as well as the quantitative analysis and evaluation based on the spatial voxels. Ultimately, we use examples and the contrastive analysis between the examples and the Ramsay's description of isoclines to discuss the effectiveness and advantages of the method proposed in this work when dealing with the voxelization of 3D geologic structural model with folds based on corner-point grids.

  1. Analysis of effects of geological structures in rock driving by TBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Tréfová

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Although mechanical properties belongs to important parameter for the excavation modelling, effect of geological structures on the rock massive fragmentation is often much higher than varying rock properties. This paper deals with the analysis of geological structures. It is focused on the schistosity orientation towards the tunnel azimuth. The aim is to define of schistosity effect on the penetration rate. It is a basis creating of fuzzy rules for the performance model full-profile tunnel boring machine

  2. Rift systems of the Russian Eastern Arctic shelf and Arctic deep water basins: link between geological history and geodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nikishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we have developed a new tectonic scheme of the Arctic Ocean, which is based mainly on seismic profiles obtained in the Arctic-2011, Arctic-2012 and Arctic-2014 Projects implemented in Russia. Having interpreted many seismic profiles, we propose a new seismic stratigraphy of the Arctic Ocean. Our main conclusions are drawn from the interpretation of the seismic profiles and the analysis of the regional geological data. The results of our study show that rift systems within the Laptev, the East Siberian and the Chukchi Seas were formed not earlier than Aptian. The geological structure of the Eurasian, Podvodnikov, Toll and Makarov Basins is described in this paper. Having synthesized all the available data on the study area, we propose the following model of the geological history of the Arctic Ocean: 1. The Canada Basin formed till the Aptian (probably, during Hauterivian-Barremian time. 2. During the Aptian-Albian, large-scale tectonic and magmatic events took place, including plume magmatism in the area of the De Long Islands, Mendeleev Ridge and other regions. Continental rifting started after the completion of the Verkhoyansk-Chukotka orogenу, and rifting occurred on the shelf of the Laptev, East Siberian, North Chukchi and South Chukchi basins, and the Chukchi Plateau; simultaneously, continental rifting started in the Podvodnikov and Toll basins. 3. Perhaps the Late Cretaceous rifting continued in the Podvodnikov and Toll basins. 4. At the end of the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, the Makarov basin was formed by rifting, although local spreading of oceanic crust during its formation cannot be excluded. 5. The Eurasian Basin started to open in the Early Eocene. We, of course, accept that our model of the geological history of the Arctic Ocean, being preliminary and debatable, may need further refining. In this paper, we have shown a link between the continental rift systems on the shelf and the formation history of the Arctic

  3. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Patton, P.

    2012-01-01

    'Full Text:' The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking screenings of site suitability. This panel presentation provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The panel presentation will be conducted in three parts: site selection process and engagement, Aboriginal engagement and Technical evaluations, followed by a discussion. The presentation will outline how NWMO sought

  4. Impact of long-term climate change on a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, G.S.; Kautsky, U.; Moren, L.; Wallroth, T.

    2001-05-01

    -driven process domains. The process domains defined are the glacial domain, the permafrost domain and the temperate/boreal domain. Within each of these domains different regimes and subregimes have been identified, reflecting significantly different combinations of typical basic processes. These domains, regimes and subregimes are meant to depict the prevailing conditions within a certain area during a certain time period. The evolution at a studied site can then be described as a series of domains, regimes and subregimes. The climate-driven environmental processes likely to be of greatest significance for the performance of the geological barrier are: freezing; loading by a glacier; enhanced rates of groundwater flow; changes in groundwater recharge chemistry; changes in relative level of the sea and its salinity. In this report the processes for each of the domains are described qualitatively and quantitatively as divided into biosphere, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical conditions. Especially, the impact on the geological barrier is described. The glaciation model has been applied to simulate the last 700,000 years and the next 200,000 years of environmental change along a flowline transect from the Norwegian coast, through Sweden and Denmark to northern Germany. The results are presented as domains and regimes in time and space and as properties such as ice thickness and basal temperature which vary continuously in time along the transect. Furthermore, site-specific climate-driven boundary conditions (ice thickness, head gradient, basal melt rate and basal temperature) have been calculated for an inland site and a Baltic coast site, respectively

  5. Impact of long-term climate change on a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G.S. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Kautsky, U.; Moren, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wallroth, T. [Bergab Consulting Geologists (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    climate-driven process domains. The process domains defined are the glacial domain, the permafrost domain and the temperate/boreal domain. Within each of these domains different regimes and subregimes have been identified, reflecting significantly different combinations of typical basic processes. These domains, regimes and subregimes are meant to depict the prevailing conditions within a certain area during a certain time period. The evolution at a studied site can then be described as a series of domains, regimes and subregimes. The climate-driven environmental processes likely to be of greatest significance for the performance of the geological barrier are: freezing; loading by a glacier; enhanced rates of groundwater flow; changes in groundwater recharge chemistry; changes in relative level of the sea and its salinity. In this report the processes for each of the domains are described qualitatively and quantitatively as divided into biosphere, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical conditions. Especially, the impact on the geological barrier is described. The glaciation model has been applied to simulate the last 700,000 years and the next 200,000 years of environmental change along a flowline transect from the Norwegian coast, through Sweden and Denmark to northern Germany. The results are presented as domains and regimes in time and space and as properties such as ice thickness and basal temperature which vary continuously in time along the transect. Furthermore, site-specific climate-driven boundary conditions (ice thickness, head gradient, basal melt rate and basal temperature) have been calculated for an inland site and a Baltic coast site, respectively.

  6. Deep disposal of high activity radioactive wastes: the study of engineered and geological barriers behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun; Cui; Delage, P.; Laure, E. de; Behrouz, Gatmiri; Sulem, J.; Anh Minh, Tang

    2008-09-01

    One option for the isolation of high activity and long lived radioactive wastes is the disposal of the vitrified waste containers in galleries dug inside impermeable rocks of the deep underground (granite, argillite, salt). The multi-barrier isolation concept is based on the use of successive barriers to avoid the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere (container envelope, engineered barrier made of compacted swelling clay, and host rock). In parallel to the works carried out in underground laboratories, experiments and simulation works are performed in order to understand the behaviour of storage facilities and barriers under the effects of constraints, water fluxes and temperature changes. In this context, the UR Navier geotechnical team (CERMES), a joint research unit of Ecole des Ponts ParisTech and LCPC, has been working for more than 15 years on this topic for various contractors. These works are based on original experimental devices allowing to identify the thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena and thereafter to model them. This dossier presents a summary of these works. (J.S.)

  7. Doses in various parts of the biosphere due to long-lived radionuclides originating from deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Karlsson, Sara; Nordlinder, S.

    1999-01-01

    Turnover of radionuclides and resulting doses to man were modelled for various parts of the biosphere. This was made for different scenarios of leakage of radionuclides from a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and other waste. In previous studies, the emphasis was on doses from contaminated ground water represented by a well or various surface waters. This was because radionuclides were assumed to be released directly to surface water, the use of which subsequently formed the major pathway for radionuclides to agricultural areas. In the present study, radionuclides were considered to reach lakes, running waters, coastal areas, agricultural areas and peat areas. The inflow of radionuclides to agricultural areas was supposed to be from below. Doses due to direct use of contaminated ground water from a well were also considered. Altogether 44 radionuclides contained in the waste were assumed to be released during 10,000 years, with a rate of 1 Bq/year of each radionuclide, to each of the above mentioned biospheric parts. During that time, the biospheric conditions were assumed to be the same as they are today. Doses to the critical group were calculated by exposure pathways specific for each entry-point All calculations were performed with estimation of confidence due to time-dependent parameter variation and uncertainty in input values. The results indicate that drinking water from wells is not a critical exposure pathway for all studied radionuclides. Instead, inflow of contaminated water to soil and peat bogs may be crucial for illustration of doses for geological high-level waste disposal. Improved knowledge of processes at the geosphere-biosphere interface is therefore important

  8. Aspects of governance in the practical implementation of the concept of reversibility for deep geological disposal. Report no. 308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaud, C.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.

    2010-01-01

    The European project COWAM in Practice (CIP) was aimed to lead for three years (2007-2009) a process of monitoring, analyzing and evaluating the governance linked with radioactive waste management. This project, in cooperation with a research group and stakeholders, was conducted in parallel in 5 European countries (Spain, France, United Kingdom, Romania, Slovenia). In France, the issue of reversibility for a deep geological disposal was introduced in the Act of December 30, 1991 on the possible options to manage radioactive waste. The Act of June 28, 2006 relative to sustainable management of materials and radioactive waste confirmed the option, by calling for a reversible waste disposal facility in a deep geological formation to be designed. The main issue is no longer to justify the adoption of reversibility, but to investigate the practical procedures for its implementation. The French stakeholder Group 4 involved in the European project COWAM In Practice (CIP) had identified several subjects for investigation: - The different aspects associated with the practical implementation of reversible disposal: technical aspects, and aspects relative to monitoring, safety and expertise, in terms of legal, financial, administrative and political, etc. responsibility related to the notion of reversibility. - The stakes of governance related to the processes of assessment and decision-making - The roles of local stakeholders in these processes. The analysis conducted by CEPN in cooperation with the French stakeholder group, facilitated by Mutadis, showed that the practical implementation of reversibility aims to maintain a capacity of choice between three options: to continue to maintain the reversibility, to retrieve packages or to initiate the closure of all or part the disposal facility. Maintaining this choice in the long term implies setting up specific institutional, financial and decision-making systems,etc,. that need to be jointly developed in advance by all the

  9. Hydrogeologic modelling in support of a proposed Deep Geologic Repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, J.F.; Normani, S.D.; Yin, Y. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Sykes, E.A.; Jensen, M.R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has proposed the construction of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste at the Bruce site on the shore of Lake Huron near Tiverton, Ontario. The DGR is to be excavated at a depth of about 680 m within argillaceous limestones of Ordovician age. A saturated regional-scale and site-scale numerical modelling study has been completed in order to evaluate the safety of storing radioactive waste at the site and to better understand the geochemistry and hydrogeology of the formations surrounding the proposed DGR. This paper reported on the regional-scale base-case modelling and analysis of the measured pressure profile in deep boreholes at the DGR site. The numerical modelling study provided a framework to investigate the groundwater flow system as it relates to, and potentially affects, the safety and long-term performance of the DGR. A saturated groundwater flow model was also developed using FRAC3DVS-OPG. The objective of regional-scale groundwater modelling of the Paleozoic sedimentary sequence underlying southwestern Ontario was to provide a basis for the assembly and integration of site-specific geoscientific data and to explain the influence of parameter and scenario uncertainty on predicted long-term geosphere barrier performance. The base-case analysis showed that solute transport in the Ordovician and lower Silurian is diffusion dominant. For the base-case parameters, the estimated mean life expectancy for the proposed DGR is more than 8 million years. The possible presence of a gas phase in the rock between the Cambrian and the Niagaran was not considered in the analyses of this paper. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Higher twist contributions to deep-inelastic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.

    2008-07-01

    We report on a recent extraction of the higher twist contributions to the deep inelastic structure functions F ep,ed 2 (x,Q 2 ) in the large x region. It is shown that the size of the extracted higher twist contributions is strongly correlated with the higher order corrections applied to the leading twist part. A gradual lowering of the higher twist contributions going from NLO to N 4 LO is observed, where in the latter case only the leading large x terms were considered. (orig.)

  11. A compilation of structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.; Whalley, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    A compilation of data on the structure functions F 2 , xF 3 , and R = σ L /σ T from lepton deep-inelastic scattering off protons and nuclei is presented. The relevant experiments at CERN, Fermilab and SLAC from 1985 are covered. All the data in this review can be found in and retrieved from the Durham-RAL HEP Databases (HEPDATA on the RAL and CERN VM systems and on DURPDG VAX/VMS) together with data on a wide variety of other reactions. (author)

  12. Electronic structure of deep impurity centers in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosten, A.B. van.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports an experimental study of deep level impurity centers in silicon, with much attention for theoretical interpretation of the data. A detailed picture of the electronic structure of several centers was obtained by magnetic resonance techniques, such as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and field scanned ENDOR (FSE). The thesis consists of two parts. The first part deals with chalcogen (sulfur, selenium and tellurium) related impurities, which are mostly double donors. The second part is about late transition metal (nickel, palladium and platinum) impurities, which are single (Pd,Pt) or double (Ni) acceptor centers. (author). 155 refs.; 51 figs.; 23 tabs

  13. Clayey cap-rocks reactivity in presence of CO2 in deep geological storage conditions: experimentation/modeling integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Credoz, A.

    2009-10-01

    CO 2 capture, transport and geological storage is one of the main solutions considered in the short and medium term to reduce CO 2 and others greenhouse gases emissions towards the atmosphere, by storing CO 2 in deeper geological reservoirs during 100 to 10 000 years. This Ph-D study offers a multi-scale vision of complex clayey cap-rocks reactivity and evolution. These formations are identified for the CO 2 containment and sealing into the reservoir. From the experimental scale on purified clay minerals to integrative modeling at high space and time scales, the strategy developed allowed identifying the main geochemical processes, to check the good agreement between experiment and modeling, and to lay emphasis the operational impacts on long-term cap-rocks integrity. Carbonated cements alteration is likely to open cap-rock porosity and to create preferential reactive pathway for reactive fluid flow. Besides, this could alter the cap-rock structure and the global geo-mechanic properties. Clay minerals alteration, including the illitization process, reduces the clay fraction volume but considerably limits the porosity increase. The illitization process in acidic conditions determined experimentally and by modeling at low and high scale, is coupled with silica precipitation. The final porosity increase control results of these two reactive processes balance. By a fundamental side, this study reveals new kinetic parameters of clay minerals and highlights new structural transformations. By an operational side, this study contributes to the acquisition of qualitative data (long-term reactive pathways of clayey cap-rocks, coupled reactivity carbonates/clays) and quantitative data (CO 2 penetration distance into the cap-rock) to partly answer to the performance and safety assessment CO 2 capture and geological storage. (author)

  14. Geological study of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Kitano, Koichi

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the stability and the barrier efficiency of the deep underground radioactive waste repositories become a subject of great concern. The purpose of this paper is to gather informations on the geology, engineering geology and hydrogeology in deep galleries in Japan. Conclusion can be summarised as follows: (1) The geological structure of deep underground is complicated. (2) Stress in deep underground is greatly affected by crustal movement. (3) Rock-burst phenomena occur in the deep underground excavations. (4) In spite of deep underground, water occasionally gush out from the fractured zone of rock mass. These conclusion will be useful for feasibility study of underground waste disposal and repositories in Japan. (author)

  15. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders in the development of a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) is to ensure the safe disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste. In order to fulfil this task RAWRA, in addition to the operation of radioactive waste repositories in the Czech Republic, coordinates all those activities relating to the construction of a deep geological repository. This long-term goal implies first creating and then building upon the public's confidence in the decision making process and the project as a whole as well as in RAWRA as a competent and efficient implementer since clearly public acceptance is an essential condition for a successful final outcome. Since its establishment in 1997 RAWRA has been looking for ways in which to inform the public about its activities and how to involve the various stakeholders in the development process. The communication tools employed to achieve this goal have, to date, depended on the specific stage of the process but RAWRA has aimed at a continuous improvement in its activities; consequently a large number of changes have been made to RAWRA's policy and approach in recent years. This paper, which aims to describe RAWRA's dialogue with stakeholders (mainly local communities), provides examples of the way in which issues raised by stakeholders concerning a repository are reflected in RAWRA's approach. (author)

  16. Local opposition and acceptance of a deep geological repository of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic: A frame analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocelík, Petr; Osička, Jan; Zapletalová, Veronika; Černoch, Filip; Dančák, Břetislav

    2017-01-01

    The article explores framing of the siting process of a deep geological repository of nuclear waste in the Czech Republic by the municipalities’ representatives in the pre-selected localities. Three distinguished frames have been reconstructed. The risk frame, which connects the project with a number of predominantly environmental threats, is counter-balanced by the responsibility frame that uses the ‘Not-In-My-Back-Yard’ label to delegitimize the local opposition. The third frame then portrays the siting process as a display of general distrust towards political elites and state institutions. It is argued that the distinguished frames stem from a deeper ideological conflict about the nature of democratic governance and the value attributed to environment, further stressing the importance of a siting process’ institutional arrangement that goes beyond technocratic solutions. - Highlights: • We have examined framing of nuclear waste management at the local level. • Three frames (Responsibility, Risk, and Dysfunctional state) were reconstructed. • The frames stem from ideological divisions on questions of governance and justice. • Participatory mechanisms should be used in policy-compromise building.

  17. Redox processes in the safety case of deep geological repositories of radioactive wastes. Contribution of the European RECOSY Collaborative Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, L.; Bruno, J.; Grivé, M.; Montoya, V.; Kienzler, B.; Altmaier, M.; Buckau, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The RECOSY project produced results relevant for the Safety Case of nuclear disposal. • We classify the safety related features where RECOSY has contributed. • Redox processes effect the retention of radionuclides in all repository subsystems. - Abstract: Redox processes influence key geochemical characteristics controlling radionuclide behaviour in the near and far field of a nuclear waste repository. A sound understanding of redox related processes is therefore of high importance for developing a Safety Case, the collection of scientific, technical, administrative and managerial arguments and evidence in support of the safety of a disposal facility. This manuscript presents the contribution of the specific research on redox processes achieved within the EURATOM Collaborative Project RECOSY (REdox phenomena COntrolling SYstems) to the Safety Case of nuclear waste disposal facilities. Main objectives of RECOSY were related to the improved understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release or retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and providing tools to apply the results to Performance Assessment and the Safety Case. The research developed during the project covered aspects of the near-field and the far-field aspects of the repository, including studies relevant for the rock formations considered in Europe as suitable for hosting an underground repository for radioactive wastes. It is the intention of this paper to highlight in which way the results obtained from RECOSY can feed the scientific process understanding needed for the stepwise development of the Safety Case associated with deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

  18. OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste - public participation and aboriginal engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG)'s Public Participation and Aboriginal Engagement Program for the proposed Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level waste (L and ILW) began with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in 2002 between OPG and the Municipality of Kincardine. The MOU set out the terms under which the two parties would jointly study the feasibility of different options for the long-term management of L and ILW at the Bruce nuclear site. A consultant, independent from both the Municipality of Kincardine and OPG, was retained to manage the assessment of options as well as a communication plan to ensure the public and Aboriginal peoples were kept apprised of all activities associated with the MOU. This early commitment to transparency and openness, with its ensuing opportunities for the public and Aboriginal peoples to become informed, ask questions, and engage in meaningful two-way dialogue about the early assessment of options, established the foundation and later became the hallmark of the DGR Project's Public Participation and Aboriginal Engagement program. This paper provides an overview of the development, nature and results of that program as it has evolved through the early investigative stages of options and through the environmental assessment and licencing process for the proposed DGR Project. (author)

  19. Use of natural analogues to support radionuclide transport models for deep geological repositories for long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Plans to dispose high level and long lived radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories have raised a number of unique problems, mainly due to the very long time-scales which have to be considered. An important way to help to evaluate performance and provide confidence in the assessment of safety in the long term is to carry out natural analogue studies. Natural analogues can be regarded as long term natural experiments the results or outcome of which can be observed, but which, by definition, are uncontrolled by humans. Studies of natural analogues have been carried out for more than two decades, although the application of information from them is only relatively recently becoming scientifically well ordered. This report is part of a the IAEA's programme on radioactive waste management dealing with disposal system technology for high level and long lived radioactive waste. It presents the current status of natural analogue information in evaluating models for radionuclide transport by groundwater. In particular, emphasis is given to the most useful aspects of quantitative applications for model development and testing (geochemistry and coupled transport models). The report provides an overview of various natural analogues as reference for those planning to develop a research programme in this field. Recommendations are given on the use of natural analogues to engender confidence in the safety of disposal systems. This report is a follow up of Technical Reports Series No. 304 on Natural Analogues in Performance Assessments for the Disposal of Long Lived Radioactive Waste (1989)

  20. Modelling of processes occurring in deep geological repository - development of new modules in the GoldSim environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopalka, D.; Lukin, D.; Vokal, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three new modules modelling the processes that occur in a deep geological repository have been prepared in the GoldSim computer code environment (using its Transport Module). These modules help to understand the role of selected parameters in the near-field region of the final repository and to prepare an own complex model of the repository behaviour. The source term module includes radioactive decay and ingrowth in the canister, first order degradation of fuel matrix, solubility limitation of the concentration of the studied nuclides, and diffusive migration through the surrounding bentonite layer controlled by the output boundary condition formulated with respect to the rate of water flow in the rock. The corrosion module describes corrosion of canisters made of carbon steel and transport of corrosion products in the near-field region. This module computes balance equations between dissolving species and species transported by diffusion and/or advection from the surface of a solid material. The diffusion module that includes also non-linear form of the interaction isotherm can be used for an evaluation of small-scale diffusion experiments. (author)

  1. Modelling of processes occurring in deep geological repository - Development of new modules in the GoldSim environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopálka, D.; Lukin, D.; Vokál, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three new modules modelling the processes that occur in a deep geological repository have been prepared in the GoldSim computer code environment (using its Transport Module). These modules help to understand the role of selected parameters in the near-field region of the final repository and to prepare an own complex model of the repository behaviour. The source term module includes radioactive decay and ingrowth in the canister, first order degradation of fuel matrix, solubility limitation of the concentration of the studied nuclides, and diffusive migration through the surrounding bentonite layer controlled by the output boundary condition formulated with respect to the rate of water flow in the rock. The corrosion module describes corrosion of canisters made of carbon steel and transport of corrosion products in the near-field region. This module computes balance equations between dissolving species and species transported by diffusion and/or advection from the surface of a solid material. The diffusion module that includes also non-linear form of the interaction isotherm can be used for an evaluation of small-scale diffusion experiments.

  2. The OPG/Kincardine hosting agreement for a deep geologic repository for OPG's low- and intermediate-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellan, A.G.; Barker, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    A Hosting Agreement has been reached between Ontario Power Generation and the Municipality of Kincardine for the purpose of siting a long-term management facility for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste at the Western Waste Management Facility. Following an independent review of the feasibility of three options for a long-term facility at the site, including a review of the safety, geotechnical feasibility, social and economic effects and potential environmental effects, Kincardine passed a resolution indicating their preference for a Deep Geologic Repository. A Host Community Agreement has been negotiated based on this preference, and on information that had been gathered from municipal authorities at other locations that have hosted similar facilities. The Hosting Agreement includes financial compensation, totalling $35.7 million (Canadian 2004) to the Municipality of Kincardine and to four surrounding municipalities. The financial aspects include lump sum payments based on achieving specific project milestones as well as annual payments to each of the municipalities. The payments are indexed to inflation, and are also contingent on the municipalities acting reasonably and in good faith during the licencing process of the proposed facility. In addition to the fees, the Agreement includes provision for a Property Value Protection Plan that would provide residents with compensation in the event that there is depreciation in property value shown to directly result from a release from the proposed facility. New permanent OPG jobs supporting the project would be located at the site. OPG and Kincardine will support a centre of nuclear excellence. (author)

  3. Multi-dimensional transport modelling of corrosive agents through a bentonite buffer in a Canadian deep geological repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Scott; McKelvie, Jennifer; Sleep, Brent; Krol, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    The use of a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel is an approach currently being investigated by several agencies worldwide, including Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Within the DGR, used nuclear fuel will be placed in copper-coated steel containers and surrounded by a bentonite clay buffer. While copper is generally thermodynamically stable, corrosion can occur due to the presence of sulphide under anaerobic conditions. As such, understanding transport of sulphide through the engineered barrier system to the used fuel container is an important consideration in DGR design. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) model of sulphide transport in a DGR was developed. The numerical model is implemented using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial finite element software package. Previous sulphide transport models of the NWMO repository used a simplified one-dimensional system. This work illustrates the importance of 3D modelling to capture non-uniform effects, as results showed locations of maximum sulphide flux are 1.7 times higher than the average flux to the used fuel container. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Unraveling African plate structure from elevation, geoid and geology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Dominique; Bajolet, Flora; Robert, Alexandra; Rouby, Delphine

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our project is to simulate the long-wavelength, flexural isostatic response of the African plate to sediment transfers due to Meso-Cenozoic erosion - deposition processes in order to extract the residual topography driven by mantle dynamics. Our work will be based on the reconstruction and subtraction of two continental-scale erosional-depositional surfaces of Eocene and Late Cretaceous ages and their offshore extensions. The first step of our project consists in computing crustal and lithospheric maps of the African plate considering its various crustal geological components (cratons, mobile belts, basins, rifts and passive margins of various ages and strengths). In order to consider these heterogeneities, we compute a 2D distribution of crustal densities and thermal parameters from geological data and use it as an input of our modeling. We combine elevation and geoid anomaly data using a thermal analysis, following the method of Fullea et al. (2007) in order to map crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In this approach, we assume local isostasy and consider a four-layer model made of crust and lithospheric mantle plus seawater and asthenosphere. In addition, we compare our results with crustal thickness datasets compiled from bibliography, existing global models such as CRUST 1.0, and tomographic lithospheric models. The obtained crustal thicknesses range from 30 to 45km, with the thickest crust confined to the northern part of the West African Craton, the Kaapvaal craton, and the Congo cuvette. The crust in the East African Rift appears unrealistically thick (40-45 km) as it is not isotatically compensated, highlighting the dynamic effect of the African superswell. The thinnest crust (30-35km) follows a central East-West trend coinciding with Cretaceous rifts and the Cameroon volcanic line. Pan-African mobile belts yield intermediate values of ca. 35-40 km. The lithosphere reaches 250 km beneath cratons, but remains globally thin (ca. 150-180 km

  5. Geological and Structural Inferences from Satellite Images in Parts of Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinarayana, Tirumalachetty; Borra, Veeraiah; Basava, Sharana; Suryabali, Singh

    In search of new areas for hydrocarbon exploration, integrated ground geophysical studies have been taken up in Central India with seismic, magnetotellurics, deep resistivity and gravity surveys. Since the region is covered with basalt and well known for its intensive tectonic activity, remote sensing method seems to have value addition to the subsurface information derived from geophysical, geological and tectonic studies. The Narmada and Tapti rift zone and Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India, stems from its complexity. A Resourcesat-1 (IRS- P6) LISS-III satellite images covering an area of approximately 250,000 sq. km corresponding to the region in and around Baroda(Vadodara), Indore, Nandurbar, Khandwa, Akot, Nasik, Aurangabad, Pune and Latur in Central India was digitally processed and interpreted to present a schematic map of the geology and elucidate the structural fabric of the region. From our study, the disposition of the intensive dyke system, various faults and other lineaments in the region are delineated. Ground truth studies have shown good correlation with lineaments/dykes indicated in remote sensing studies and have revealed distinct ENE-WSW trending lineaments, dykes which are more prominent near the Narmada and Tapti river course. Evolution of these features with Deccan volcanism is discussed with available geochronological data set. These findings are significant in relation to structural data and form a part of the geo-structural database for ground surveys.

  6. Geological structure of strata and the occurence of gas outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewing, K

    1977-10-20

    Geological conditions which may have an influence on gas outbursts are depth, rank, type of formation, tectonic stresses, and the petrological form of the neighboring rock. The risk of outbursts is greater if there are dirt bands in the seam, since the coal can slide on these. Tectonically disturbed zones in seams containing more than 9 cu m of gas per ton are especially dangerous. Tectonic stress is not necessarily an indication of the severity of outbursts. Gas and sandstone outbursts do not depend on tectonic disturbance; outburst-prone sandstones have a greater pore volume and lower strength than normal. Almost all outbursts from the floor occur where the strata immediately below are impervious to gas and sandstone is present lower down. (In German)

  7. Probing spin-1 diquarks in deep inelastic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, S.; Jaendel, M.; Larsson, T.

    1983-01-01

    Within the scope of a new diquark model for deep inelastic structure functions presented by us recently we use the existing data on F 1 sup(ep)(x,Q 2 ) to learn about the admixture of spin-1 diquarks in nucleons. It turns out that they are so rare, heavy and extended compared to spin-0 diquarks that they are presumably accidental and not dynamical. Their number and form factors can be understood qualitatively within this picture. Still, the spin-1 diquarks give interesting structures in data and, together with quarks and spin-0 diquarks, carry enough momentum to account for the full nucleon energy. A gluon component is hence not needed in the nucleon. (orig.)

  8. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed

  9. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

  10. Measurement method of the distribution coefficient on the sorption process. Basic procedure of the method relevant to the barrier materials used for the deep geological disposal: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This standard was approved by Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberation of the Subcommittee on the Radioactive Waste Management, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee and the Standard Committee, and after obtaining about 600 comments from specialists of about 30 persons. This document defines the basic measurement procedure of the distribution coefficient (hereafter referred as Kd) to judge the reliability, reproducibility and applications and to provide the requirements for inter-comparison of Kd for a variety of barrier materials used for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The basic measurement procedure of Kd is standardized, following the preceded standard, 'Measurement Method of the Distribution Coefficient on the Sorption Process - Basic Procedure of Batch Method Relevant to the Barrier Materials Used for the Shallow Land Disposal: 2002 (hereafter referred as Standard for the Shallow Land Disposal)', and considering recent progress after its publication and specific issues to the deep geological disposal. (J.P.N.)

  11. Melodie: a code for risk assessment of waste repositories in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Mejon-Goula, M.J.; Cernes, A.

    1988-10-01

    In order to perform the safety evaluation of nuclear waste repositories, a global model, called MELODIE, is currently developed at the CEA/IPSN, in collaboration with order CEA teams and non-CEA like ENSMP (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris). The version now in operation allows to assess the radiological consequences due to a repository located in a granitic formation on a period of several hundred thousands of years. The calculations are based on models which represent the physical and chemical phenomena in connection with: the release of the radionuclides from the waste matrixes and through the engineered barriers; their transfer through the geosphere; their behaviour in the biosphere. Three separate models have been developed for each of these subjects; they are integrated in the code through a modular flexible dataprocessing structure which calls these computational modules with their optimal time step and extracts the data from the data files where they are stored. In addition, a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis algorithm has been implemented into the code. It allows to evaluate the influence of the parameter values on the result and to assess the global uncertainty on it. After a quite general description of MELODIE, the calculations performed with it in the PAGIS (CCE) exercise: global dose calculations and ranking of the most important parameters through the sensitivity analysis, are presented. The studies performed only with the geosphere module of MELODIE (METIS), especially the participation to the HYDROCOIN (OECD/NEA) exercise, are also noticed. In addition, the main future development axes of MELODIE are outlined

  12. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  13. Investigating the Deep Seismic Structure of Volcan de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, M. D.; Reyes, T. D.; West, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    We present early-stage results from a novel seismic investigation at Volcan de Colima. The project is a collaboration between the Observatorio Vulcanologico de la Universidad de Colima and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. In January 2006, twenty broadband seismometers were deployed in a wide-aperture array around the volcano as part of the IRIS/PASSCAL-supported Colima Volcano Deep Seismic Experiment (CODEX). They are scheduled to be in the field for eighteen months. Data from the first several months of the deployment have been used to characterize both the regional seismicity and the seismicity of the volcano, as recorded by the temporary array. Colima volcano has an unusually well-distributed suite of earthquakes on the local, regional and teleseismic scale. Data recorded close to the edifice provide an opportunity to explore the daily explosive activity exhibited by the volcano. The diversity of regional and teleseismic earthquake source regions make Colima an ideal place to probe the deep magmatic structure of a prodigous volcanic center. Results will be interpreted in the context of pre-existing petrologic models to address the relative role of crust and mantle in governing the evolution of an andesitic arc volcano.

  14. Evaluation of structural behavior, geological and hydrogeological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Dae Hong; Choi, Kyu Sup

    1992-02-01

    In order to understand the behavior of an underground structure properly, this report includes the study on the structural behavior of rock masses surrounding underground openings considering the effect of excavation. Before analyzing the underground structure, the followings are studied: initial stress distribution before excavation, stress release and redistribution due to the sequential excavation, comparison of analysis methods, discussions on numerical simulation techniques for the sequential excavation and an numerical analysis modeling. The underground structure in then analyzed using the finite element and distinct element methods of analysis considering the effect of sequential excavation, Based on the results of the analysis, the followings are discussed: shape of the opening, distance between openings, method and sequence of excavation, and structural reinforcement. (Author)

  15. ON DISCRETE STRUCTURE OF GEOLOGIC MEDIUM AND CONTINUAL APPROACH TO MODELING ITS MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. A. Mukhamediev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the structure of a geologic medium represented by accessible lithified rocks and provides an overview of methods used to describe its movements. Two basic opinions are considered in the framework of the discussion: (1 an initially homogeneous and continuous geologic medium acquires the structure composed of blocks in the process of the geologic medium’s deformation/destruction/degradation, and (2 a geologic medium is composed of blocks (and often has hierarchic, active, energy-saturated features, and the continuity model is thus not valid for describing the geologic medium’s deformation. Proponents of the first point of view actively apply the standard or modified continuum model of a solid deformed body (SDB in estimations of the stress-strain state, but the input parameters of this model do not contain any information on discreteness in principle. Authors who support the second opinion, either explicitly or implicitly assume that the block structure of the geologic medium, which is detectable by geological methods, makes a direct and unambiguous impact on all other mechanical properties of the geologic medium and, above all, on the nature of its movements.Based on results obtained by interpreting the data collected in our long-term field studies of rock fracturing, mathematical processing of GPS-measurements, and theoretical models, we agree with the concept of the geologic medium’s block structure, but argue that the geologic block-structure property is not acquired but congenital. Regarding sedimentary rocks, it means that the discrete structure has been already embodied in the rock before sediment lithification, regardless of the intensity of macroscopic deformations. A discrete structure is the form of the geologic medium existence and a cause of the congenital anisotropy of the geologic medium’s strength characteristics. Due to subsequent deformation of the geologic medium, some elements of the structure can

  16. Ontario Power Generation's proposed L and ILW deep geologic repository : an overview of geoscientific studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M; Lam, T.; Luhowy, D.; McLay, J.; Semec, B.; Frizzell, R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a multi-disciplinary geoscientific study to confirm the suitability of storing low and intermediate level radioactive waste in a deep geologic repository (DGR). The study is being conducted by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization on behalf of Ontario Power Generation (OPG). The DGR would involve the excavation of waste emplacement rooms within the Ordovician age argillaceous limestones 680 m beneath OPG's Bruce site near Tiverton, Ontario. The repository would require the excavation of nearly 890,000 m{sup 3} of rock to accommodate 200,000 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste within a 28 Ha repository footprint. A concrete floor will be poured to provide a stable base for stacking the waste packages. The first phase of the geoscientific site characterisation plan (GSCP) was prepared in 2005. The GSCP provides a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed basis for DGR-related geoscientific studies. The GSCP describes surface and sub-surface site characterization activities required to evaluate the technical suitability of the proposed DGR concept. The GSCP also provides a geoscientific basis for the post-closure safety assessment and contributes to the development of an integrated DGR safety case describing the expected long-term safety and potential impacts of the DGR. Interim results have shown that the middle-upper Ordovician formations proposed to host and enclose the DGR comprise a stable, saline and extremely low permeability groundwater regime. This paper provided an overview of the coordinated site-specific and regional studies to characterize the Bruce site and support the DGR safety case. The work program is scheduled for completion in late 2010 in support of the submittal of an Environmental Impact Statement and regulatory site Preparation/Construction License application in early 2011. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Maximum flood hazard assessment for OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmrichter, P.; McClintock, J.; Peng, J.; Leung, H.

    2011-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has entered a process to seek Environmental Assessment and licensing approvals to construct a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) near the existing Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) at the Bruce nuclear site in the Municipality of Kincardine, Ontario. In support of the design of the proposed DGR project, maximum flood stages were estimated for potential flood hazard risks associated with coastal, riverine and direct precipitation flooding. The estimation of lake/coastal flooding for the Bruce nuclear site considered potential extreme water levels in Lake Huron, storm surge and seiche, wind waves, and tsunamis. The riverine flood hazard assessment considered the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) within the local watersheds, and within local drainage areas that will be directly impacted by the site development. A series of hydraulic models were developed, based on DGR project site grading and ditching, to assess the impact of a Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) occurring directly at the DGR site. Overall, this flood assessment concluded there is no potential for lake or riverine based flooding and the DGR area is not affected by tsunamis. However, it was also concluded from the results of this analysis that the PMF in proximity to the critical DGR operational areas and infrastructure would be higher than the proposed elevation of the entrance to the underground works. This paper provides an overview of the assessment of potential flood hazard risks associated with coastal, riverine and direct precipitation flooding that was completed for the DGR development. (author)

  18. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.

  19. The surface and deep structure of the waterfall illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J; Ziefle, Martina

    2008-11-01

    The surface structure of the waterfall illusion or motion aftereffect (MAE) is its phenomenal visibility. Its deep structure will be examined in the context of a model of space and motion perception. The MAE can be observed following protracted observation of a pattern that is translating, rotating, or expanding/contracting, a static pattern appears to move in the opposite direction. The phenomenon has long been known, and it continues to present novel properties. One of the novel features of MAEs is that they can provide an ideal visual assay for distinguishing local from global processes. Motion during adaptation can be induced in a static central grating by moving surround gratings; the MAE is observed in the static central grating but not in static surrounds. The adaptation phase is local and the test phase is global. That is, localised adaptation can be expressed in different ways depending on the structure of the test display. These aspects of MAEs can be exploited to determine a variety of local/global interactions. Six experiments on MAEs are reported. The results indicated that relational motion is required to induce an MAE; the region adapted extends beyond that stimulated; storage can be complete when the MAE is not seen during the storage period; interocular transfer (IOT) is around 30% of monocular MAEs with phase alternation; large field spiral patterns yield MAEs with characteristic monocular and binocular interactions.

  20. Origin and evolution of the deep thermochemical structure beneath Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, N; Williams, S; Müller, R D; Gurnis, M; Bower, D J

    2017-01-18

    A unique structure in the Earth's lowermost mantle, the Perm Anomaly, was recently identified beneath Eurasia. It seismologically resembles the large low-shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) under Africa and the Pacific, but is much smaller. This challenges the current understanding of the evolution of the plate-mantle system in which plumes rise from the edges of the two LLSVPs, spatially fixed in time. New models of mantle flow over the last 230 million years reproduce the present-day structure of the lower mantle, and show a Perm-like anomaly. The anomaly formed in isolation within a closed subduction network ∼22,000 km in circumference prior to 150 million years ago before migrating ∼1,500 km westward at an average rate of 1 cm year -1 , indicating a greater mobility of deep mantle structures than previously recognized. We hypothesize that the mobile Perm Anomaly could be linked to the Emeishan volcanics, in contrast to the previously proposed Siberian Traps.

  1. Magnetotelluric images of deep crustal structure of the Rehai geothermal field near Tengchong, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Denghai; Meju, Maxwell A.; Liao, Zhijie

    2001-12-01

    Broadband (0.004-4096s) magnetotelluric (MT) soundings have been applied to the determination of the deep structure across the Rehai geothermal field in a Quaternary volcanic area near the Indo-Eurasian collisional margin. Tensorial analysis of the data show evidence of weak to strong 3-D effects but for approximate 2-D imaging, we obtained dual-mode MT responses for an assumed strike direction coincident with the trend of the regional-scale faults and with the principal impedance azimuth at long periods. The data were subsequently inverted using different approaches. The rapid relaxation inversion models are comparable to the sections constructed from depth-converted invariant impedance phase data. The results from full-domain 2-D conjugate-gradient inversion with different initial models are concordant and evoke a picture of a dome-like structure consisting of a conductive (50-1000 Ωm) cap which is about 5-6km thick in the central part of the known geothermal field and thickens outwards to about 15-20km. The anomalous structure rests on a mid-crustal zone of 20-30 Ωm resistivity extending down to about 25km depth where there appears to be a moderately resistive (>30 Ωm) substratum. The MT images are shown to be in accord with published geological, isotopic and geochemical results that suggested the presence of a magma body underneath the area of study.

  2. Geology and stratigraphy of the San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well and its correlation to surrounding ranges, Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Morales-Casique, E.; Benowitz, J.

    2014-12-01

    The San Lorenzo Tezonco deep well stratigraphy records intense episodic volcanic activity in the Mexico Basin and surroundings during the past 20 Ma. The 2008-m deep lithological column is dominated by volcanic material, either as lava flows or pyroclastic deposits (97%), and only the upper most 70 m are composed of lacustrine deposits (3%). Based on geochronology and geochemistry, the lower part of the drill core is represented by rocks correlating to the Tepoztlán Formation (876-2008 m deep) that vary in composition from basaltic-andesite to rhyolite, and ages ranging from 13 to 21.2 Ma. On the surface this formation outcrops near the towns of Malinalco and Tepoztlán, ~43 km south of the deep well. Between depths of 581 and 875 m, volcanic rocks were recovered and are interpreted as lavas from the Sierra de las Cruces that vary in composition from andesite to dacite and range in age from 0.9 Ma to 5 Ma. Additionally, we documented rocks belonging to the Xochitepec Formation, outcropping around Xochimilco, in the Mexico City, with ages ranging from 1.2 and 1.7 Ma, in contrast with the Oligocene age proposed in previous works for these rocks. These new ages plus the chemical composition data, allow us to correlate the Xochitepec rocks with Sierra de las Cruces. Upward in the drill core (510-580 m) there are andesitic rocks that correlate with the 0.25 Ma Cerro de la Estrella volcanic center. The last volcanic package found in the well is correlated to the Santa Catarina basaltic andesites (70-120 m) that are younger than 0.25 Ma, and probably Holocene. Lacustrine deposits crown the stratigraphic column of the drill core with ages probably younger than 34 ka. The San Lorenzo Tezonco well is in a graben-like structure that was filled with more than 1900 m of volcanic products, suggesting that volcanism were intense in the Miocene to the Recent, and the south drainage of the Mexico Basin was closed probably in the early Pleistocene.

  3. Geologic structure of shallow maria. [topography of lunar maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Isopach maps and structural contour maps of the eastern mare basins (30 deg N to 30 deg S; 0 deg to 100 deg E), constructed from measurements of partially buried craters, are presented and discussed. The data, which are sufficiently scattered to yield gross thickness variations, are restricted to shallow maria with less than 1500-2000 m of mare basalts. The average thickness of basalt in the irregular maria is between 200 and 400 m. Correlations between surface topography, basalt thickness, and basin floor structure are apparent in most of the basins that were studied. The mare surface is commonly depressed in regions of thick mare basalts; mare ridges are typically located in regions of pronounced thickness changes; and arcuate mare rilles are confined to thin mare basalts. Most surface structures are attributed to shallow stresses developed within the mare basalts during consolidation and volume reduction.

  4. Two-dimensional magnetotelluric model of deep resistivity structure in the Bodie-Aurora district of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Magnetotelluric data were acquired during October 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of a study to examine the structural nature of basins in the transition zone between the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California and the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Magnetotelluric (MT) geophysical studies assist the mapping of geologic structure and the inference of lithologic packages that are concealed beneath the Earth's surface. The Basin and Range province has a complicated geologic history, which includes extension and compression of the Earth's crust to form the basins and ranges that blanket much of Nevada. The basins and ranges in the vicinity of this study trend northeastward and are bounded by steeply dipping strike slip faults. Interestingly, deep east-west magnetic trends occur in the aeromagnetic data of this study area indicating that the northeast-trending basins and ranges represent only thin-skinned deformation at the surface with an underlying east-west structure. To investigate this issue, MT data were acquired at seven stations in eastern California, 20 km east of Mono Lake. The purpose of this report is to present a two-dimensional apparent resistivity model of the MT data acquired for this study.

  5. Geological Structure, Seismic energy Release and Forecasting of Rockburst Occurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; Číž, Radim; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Vilhelm, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 16 (2000), s. 171-173 ISSN 1211-1910. [Czech - Polish - Slovak Symposium on Mining Geophysics /27./. Ramzová, 05.10.1999-07.10.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : seismoacustic emission * energy -frequency distribution * multichannel statistic extrapolation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  6. Deep Time Framework: A Preliminary Study of U.K. Primary Teachers' Conceptions of Geological Time and Perceptions of Geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Roger David

    2001-01-01

    Studies (n=51) inservice school teachers with regard to their orientations toward geoscience phenomena in general and deep time in particular. Aims to identify the nature of idiosyncratic conceptions of deep time and propose a curricular Deep Time Framework for teacher education. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  8. Bayesian Chance-Constrained Hydraulic Barrier Design under Geological Structure Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazan, Nima; Pham, Hai V; Tsai, Frank T-C

    2015-01-01

    The groundwater community has widely recognized geological structure uncertainty as a major source of model structure uncertainty. Previous studies in aquifer remediation design, however, rarely discuss the impact of geological structure uncertainty. This study combines chance-constrained (CC) programming with Bayesian model averaging (BMA) as a BMA-CC framework to assess the impact of geological structure uncertainty in remediation design. To pursue this goal, the BMA-CC method is compared with traditional CC programming that only considers model parameter uncertainty. The BMA-CC method is employed to design a hydraulic barrier to protect public supply wells of the Government St. pump station from salt water intrusion in the "1500-foot" sand and the "1700-foot" sand of the Baton Rouge area, southeastern Louisiana. To address geological structure uncertainty, three groundwater models based on three different hydrostratigraphic architectures are developed. The results show that using traditional CC programming overestimates design reliability. The results also show that at least five additional connector wells are needed to achieve more than 90% design reliability level. The total amount of injected water from the connector wells is higher than the total pumpage of the protected public supply wells. While reducing the injection rate can be achieved by reducing the reliability level, the study finds that the hydraulic barrier design to protect the Government St. pump station may not be economically attractive. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  9. A compilation of structure functions in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrmann, T.; Roberts, R.G.; Whalley, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A compilation of all the available data on the unpolarized structure functions F 2 and xF 3 , R=(σ L /σ T ), the virtual photon asymmetries A 1 and A 2 and the polarized structure functions g 1 and g 2 , from deep inelastic lepton scattering off protons, deuterium and nuclei is presented. The relevant experiments at CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC from 1991, the date of our earlier review [1], to the present day are covered. A brief general theoretical introduction is given followed by the data presented both in tabular and graphical form and, for the F 2 and xF 3 data, the predictions based on the MRST98 and CTEQ4 parton distribution functions are also displayed. All the data in this review, together with data on a wide variety of other reactions, can be found in and retrieved from the Durham-RAL HEP Databases on the World-Wide-Web (http://durpdg.dur.ac.uk/HEPDATA). (author)

  10. Structural geology practice and learning, from the perspective of cognitive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil; Ormand, Carol; Manduca, Cathy

    2013-09-01

    Spatial ability is required by practitioners and students of structural geology and so, considering spatial skills in the context of cognitive science has the potential to improve structural geology teaching and practice. Spatial thinking skills may be organized using three dichotomies, which can be linked to structural geology practice. First, a distinction is made between separating (attending to part of a whole) and combining (linking together aspects of the whole). While everyone has a basic ability to separate and combine, experts attend to differences guided by experiences of rock properties in context. Second, a distinction is made between seeing the relations among multiple objects as separate items or the relations within a single object with multiple parts. Experts can flexibly consider relations among or between objects to optimally reason about different types of spatial problems. Third, a distinction is made between reasoning about stationary and moving objects. Experts recognize static configurations that encode a movement history, and create mental models of the processes that led to the static state. The observations and inferences made by a geologist leading a field trip are compared with the corresponding observations and inferences made by a cognitive psychologist interested in spatial learning. The presented framework provides a vocabulary for discussing spatial skills both within and between the fields of structural geology and cognitive psychology.

  11. Geologic structure mapping database Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Information on over 2500 discontinuities mapped at the SFT-C is contained in the geologic structure mapping database. Over 1800 of these features include complete descriptions of their orientations. This database is now available for use by other researchers. 6 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  12. Deep divergences and extensive phylogeographic structure in a clade of lowland tropical salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovito Sean M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex geological history of Mesoamerica provides the opportunity to study the impact of multiple biogeographic barriers on population differentiation. We examine phylogeographic patterns in a clade of lowland salamanders (Bolitoglossa subgenus Nanotriton using two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. We use several phylogeographic analyses to infer the history of this clade and test hypotheses regarding the geographic origin of species and location of genetic breaks within species. We compare our results to those for other taxa to determine if historical events impacted different species in a similar manner. Results Deep genetic divergence between species indicates that they are relatively old, and two of the three widespread species show strong phylogeographic structure. Comparison of mtDNA and nuclear gene trees shows no evidence of hybridization or introgression between species. Isolated populations of Bolitoglossa rufescens from Los Tuxtlas region constitute a separate lineage based on molecular data and morphology, and divergence between Los Tuxtlas and other areas appears to predate the arrival of B. rufescens in other areas west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The Isthmus appears responsible for Pliocene vicariance within B. rufescens, as has been shown for other taxa. The Motagua-Polochic fault system does not appear to have caused population vicariance, unlike in other systems. Conclusions Species of Nanotriton have responded to some major geological events in the same manner as other taxa, particularly in the case of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The deep divergence of the Los Tuxtlas populations of B. rufescens from other populations highlights the contribution of this volcanic system to patterns of regional endemism, and morphological differences observed in the Los Tuxtlas populations suggests that they may represent an undescribed species of Bolitoglossa. The absence of phylogeographic structure in B

  13. Corrosion of several components of the in-situ test performed in a deep geological granite disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madina, Virginia; Azkarate, Inaki; Insausti, Mikel

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion damage experienced by different components in a deep geological disposal in a granite formation has been analysed. This in-situ test is part of the Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment project (FEBEX) carried out in Grimsel (Switzerland). Two heaters, simulating the canister and the heat generated, were installed horizontally inside the guide tubes or liners and surrounded by highly compacted bentonite blocks. Coupons of several candidate metals for manufacturing HLW containers were introduced in these bentonite blocks, as well as sensors in order to monitor different physicochemical parameters during the test. The in- situ test began in July 1996 and in June 2002 one of the heaters, a section of the liner, several corrosion coupons and four sensors were extracted. The studied heater is a carbon steel cylinder with welded lids, with a wall thickness of 100 mm and 4.54 m long. The liner consists of a perforated carbon steel tube, 970 mm in diameter and 15 mm thick. Corrosion coupons were made of carbon steel, stainless steel, titanium, copper and cupronickel alloys. Two extensometer type sensors with an outer protection tube made of austenitic stainless steel were also analysed. Visual inspection of the above mentioned components, optical and scanning electron microscope study, together with EDS and XRD analyses of corrosion products, have been performed in order to analyse the corrosion suffered by these components. This has been complemented with the chemical and microbiological characterisation of bentonite samples. Results obtained in the study indicate a slight generalised corrosion for the heater, liner and corrosion coupons. The low humidity content of the bentonite surrounding the liner and the corrosion coupons, is the responsible of this practical absence of corrosion. The sensors studied show, however, an important corrosion damage. The sulphur rich corrosion products, the presence of Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) in the bentonite

  14. Environmental and health impacts of February 14, 2014 radiation release from the nation's only deep geologic nuclear waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P; Lemons, B G; Ballard, S; Hardy, R

    2015-08-01

    The environmental impact of the February 14, 2014 radiation release from the nation's only deep geologic nuclear waste repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was assessed using monitoring data from an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC). After almost 15 years of safe and efficient operations, the WIPP had one of its waste drums rupture underground resulting in the release of moderate levels of radioactivity into the underground air. A small amount of radioactivity also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected above ground. It was the first unambiguous release from the WIPP repository. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio that matches the content of the breached drum. The accelerated air monitoring campaign, which began following the accident, indicates that releases were low and localized, and no radiation-related health effects among local workers or the public would be expected. The highest activity detected was 115.2 μBq/m(3) for (241)Am and 10.2 μBq/m(3) for (239+240)Pu at a sampling station located 91 m away from the underground air exhaust point and 81.4 μBq/m(3) of (241)Am and 5.8 μBq/m(3) of (239+240)Pu at a monitoring station located approximately one kilometer northwest of the WIPP facility. CEMRC's recent monitoring data show that the concentration levels of these radionuclides have returned to normal background levels and in many instances, are not even detectable, demonstrating no long-term environmental impacts of the recent radiation release event at the WIPP. This article presents an evaluation of almost one year of environmental monitoring data that informed the public that the levels of radiation that got out to the environment were very low and did not, and will not harm anyone or have any long-term environmental consequence. In terms of radiological risk at or in the vicinity of the

  15. Selection of the situations taken into account for the safety demonstration of a repository in deep geological formations - French regulatory guidance and IPSN modelling experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Greneche, D.

    1993-01-01

    A regulatory guidance has been recently set up in France for the safety assessment of radwaste deep geological disposal: the present paper deals with the methodology related to the safety demonstration of such a disposal, particularly the situations to be taken into account to address the potential evolution of the repository under natural or human induced events. This approach, based on a selection of events considered as reasonably envisageable, relies on a reference scenario characterized by a great stability of the geological formation and on hypothetical situations corresponding to the occurrence of random events of natural origin or of conventional nature. The implementation of this methodology within the framework of the IPSN (Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute, CEA) participation in the CEC EVEREST project is addressed. This programme consists in the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated to deep radwaste disposal systems to the different elements of the performance assessment (scenario characteristics, phenomena, physico-chemical parameters) in three types of geological formations (granite, salt and clay).(author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  16. The Guadalquivir Diapiric Ridge: Deep Tectonics and Related Gas Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Puga, M. C.; Somoza, L.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Magalhães, V.; Vázquez, J. T.; Díaz-del-Río, V.; Ivanov, M.

    sector, between 8zW and 7z40`W, that is caracterized by a series of mud mounds boundarying the Cadiz channel: Iberico, Cornide and Hormigas. In this area, abundant carbonate chimneys, slab and calcarenites were collected (ANAS00-DA10, ANAS01-DA1,DA2,DA15). All these seabed structures suggest high-pressure expul- sion of methane-enriched muds along thrusting faults. This research has been supported by the "TASYO" project (Tecto-sedimentary transfer 1 from shelf to Horseshoe and Seine abyssal plains in the Gulf of Cadiz) of the Spanish- funded Marine Science and Technology programme (CYTMAR 98-0209) in the frame of the Spanish-Portuguese agreement for scientific co-operation. References: Maldonado, A.,Somoza, L., Pallarés, L., 1999. The Betic orogen and the Iberian- African boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz : geological evolution (Central North Atlantic). Mar. Geol., 155, 9-43. Somoza, L., Maestro, A., Lowrie, A., 1999. Allochtonous Blocks as Hydrocarbon Traps in the Gulf of Cadiz. Offshore Technology Conference OTC 10889, 571-577. 2

  17. Geological Geophysical and structural studies in Mina Ratones (Pluton de Albala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Estaun, A.; Carbonell, R.; Marti, D.; Flecha, I.; Escuder Viruete, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mina Ratones environmental restoration project included petrological, structural,geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. The main objective of the geologic-structural and geophysical studies was the Albala granite structural characterization around the Mina Ratones uranium mine. The location of facies, fault zones (faults and dykes) as well as the distribution of some physical properties inside the rock massif was obtained for a granitic black of 900, 500, and 500 m. The geologic-structural and geophysical techniques applied to Mina Ratones provided a multidisciplinary approach for high resolution characterization of rock massif, and the structures potentially containing fluids,able to be applied to the hydrogeological modelling to a particular area. Geological studies included a detailed structural mapping of the area surrounding the mine (1:5,000 scale), the geometric, kinematics, and dynamics analysis of fractures of all scales, the petrology and geochemistry of fault rocks and altered areas surrounding fractures, and the microstructural studies of samples from surface and core lags. The construction of geostatistical models in two and three dimensions had helped to characterize the Mina Ratones rock massif showing the spatial distribution of fault zones, fracture intensity, granite composition heterogeneities, fluid-rock interaction zones, and physical properties. (Author)

  18. Determination of the scenarios to be included in the assessment of the safety of site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.; Izabel, C.

    1990-01-01

    The procedure for selection and qualification of a site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation began in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, working from a recommendation by the ANDRA, made a pre-selection of four sites, each of which corresponded to a particular type of geological formation - granite, clay, salt and shale. Within two years, one of these sites would be chosen as the location for an underground laboratory, intended to verify whether the site was suitable as a nuclear waste repository and to prepare for its construction. The safety analysis for site qualification makes use of evolutionary scenarios representing the repository and its environment, selected by means of a deterministic method. This analysis defines, with an appropriate level of detail, a 'reference' scenario and 'random events' scenarios. (author)

  19. Determination of the scenarios to be included in the assessment of the safety of site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalier des Orres, P; Devillers, C; Cernes, A; Izabel, C [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - ANDRA (France)

    1990-07-01

    The procedure for selection and qualification of a site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation began in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, working from a recommendation by the ANDRA, made a pre-selection of four sites, each of which corresponded to a particular type of geological formation - granite, clay, salt and shale. Within two years, one of these sites would be chosen as the location for an underground laboratory, intended to verify whether the site was suitable as a nuclear waste repository and to prepare for its construction. The safety analysis for site qualification makes use of evolutionary scenarios representing the repository and its environment, selected by means of a deterministic method. This analysis defines, with an appropriate level of detail, a 'reference' scenario and 'random events' scenarios. (author)

  20. Deep saltwater in Chalk of North-West Europe: origin, interface characteristics and development over geological time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Ellen Prip; Larsen, F.; Sonnenborg, T.O.

    2009-01-01

    High-concentration saltwaters occur in many places in the regional Chalk aquifers of North-West Europe; to investigate deep occurrences, profiles of interstitial porewater chemistry have been studied from three 250-450m deep cores drilled in the eastern parts of Zealand, Denmark. At the studied...

  1. Reflection of block neotectonics in geological structure of paleogene strata of Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.V.; Oleksandrova, N.V.; Khodorovs'kij, A.Ya.

    2014-01-01

    Neotectonic block differentiation of Chernobyl Exclusion zone area was fixed by the results of the geological and structure analysis of paleogene strata in complex with the space survey data interpretation. Structural plan of the latest tectonic movements had a block character; it was shown by the fracture systems, which represent the components of known regional tectonic zones of various trends and are found in the features of phanerozoic rock mass structure. The territory under study is divided into two parts - the northern one, where in the neotectonic movements are generally more intensive with manifestation practically all over the fracture zones, and the southern part, where in the newest breaks belong mainly to submeridional also to south-western regional fracture zones. The southern part of the Exclusion zone, as a whole, holds the greatest promise by comparison with the northern one in the view of neotectonic criteria regarding the geological repository siting for radioactive waste disposal

  2. Considerations on pressure build-up in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste; Betrachtungen zum Druckaufbau in einem geologischen Tiefenlager fuer radioaktive Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Hans-Frieder [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Gas formation caused by corrosion of metals is a pivotal point with respect to the safety analysis of deep geological repositories. Solid corrosion products are formed unavoidably during the gas formation. The volumes of these solid corrosion products are multiples of the original waste volume. These solid corrosion products are chemically extremely stable and result in a pressure increase inside the repository. This pressure is considerably higher than that of the overlaying rock. The question that arises is, why this aspect is not considered in the consulted documents.

  3. Monte-Carlo based comparison of the personal dose for emplacement scenarios of spent nuclear fuel casks in generic deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Hector Sauri; Becker, Franz; Metz, Volker [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE); Pang, Bo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE); Shenzhen Univ. (China). College of Physics and Energy

    2017-06-15

    In the operational phase of a deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste, the radiation field in the vicinity of a waste cask is influenced by the backscattered radiation of the surrounding walls of the emplacement drift. For a comparison of disposal of spent nuclear fuel in various host rocks, it is of interest to investigate the influence of the surrounding materials on the radiation field and the personal radiation exposure. In this generic study individual dosimetry of personnel involved in emplacement of casks with spent nuclear fuel in drifts in rock salt and in a clay formation was modelled.

  4. Impressed current cathodic protection of deep water structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.

    that the cathodic protection design approaches for shallow water may not be adequate for deeper water. This paper discusses on environmental factors encountered in deep water and their effect on cathodic protection behaviour of steel. Further, current CP design...

  5. Geophysical prospecting for the deep geothermal structure of the Zhangzhou basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaofeng; Liu, Shuang; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Guiling; Lin, Wenjing

    2017-04-01

    Zhangzhou basin located at the Southeast margins of Asian plate is one of the largest geothermal fields in Fujian province, Southeast China. High-temperature natural springs and granite rocks are widely distributed in this region and the causes of geothermal are speculated to be involved the large number of magmatic activities from Jurassic to Cretaceous periods. To investigate the deep structure of Zhangzhou basin, magnetotelluric and gravity measurements were carried out and the joint inversion of magnetotelluric and gravity data delineated the faults and the granites distributions. The inversion results also indicated the backgrounds of heat reservoirs, heat fluid paths and whole geothermal system of the Zhangzhou basin. Combining with the surface geological investigation, the geophysical inversion results revealed that the faults activities and magma intrusions are the main reasons for the formation of geothermal resources of the Zhangzhou basin. Upwelling mantle provides enormous heats to the lower crust leading to metamorphic rocks to be partially melt generating voluminous magmas. Then the magmas migration and thermal convection along the faults warm up the upper crust. So finally, the cap rocks, basements and major faults are the three favorable conditions for the formation of geothermal fields of the Zhangzhou basin.

  6. CONTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA IN GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE RESEARCH IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  7. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment; was kommt auf die regionen zu? Auswirkungen geologischer tiefenlager auf gesellschaft, wirtschaft und lebensraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair

  8. Enhanced recovery of subsurface geological structures using compressed sensing and the Ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2015-07-26

    Recovering information on subsurface geological features, such as flow channels, holds significant importance for optimizing the productivity of oil reservoirs. The flow channels exhibit high permeability in contrast to low permeability rock formations in their surroundings, enabling formulation of a sparse field recovery problem. The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation of subsurface parameters, such as permeability. However, the EnKF often fails to recover and preserve the channel structures during the estimation process. Compressed Sensing (CS) has shown to significantly improve the reconstruction quality when dealing with such problems. We propose a new scheme based on CS principles to enhance the reconstruction of subsurface geological features by transforming the EnKF estimation process to a sparse domain representing diverse geological structures. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed scheme provides an efficient mechanism to incorporate and preserve structural information in the estimation process and results in significant enhancement in the recovery of flow channel structures.

  9. Enhanced recovery of subsurface geological structures using compressed sensing and the Ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh; Katterbauer, Klemens; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Recovering information on subsurface geological features, such as flow channels, holds significant importance for optimizing the productivity of oil reservoirs. The flow channels exhibit high permeability in contrast to low permeability rock formations in their surroundings, enabling formulation of a sparse field recovery problem. The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation of subsurface parameters, such as permeability. However, the EnKF often fails to recover and preserve the channel structures during the estimation process. Compressed Sensing (CS) has shown to significantly improve the reconstruction quality when dealing with such problems. We propose a new scheme based on CS principles to enhance the reconstruction of subsurface geological features by transforming the EnKF estimation process to a sparse domain representing diverse geological structures. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed scheme provides an efficient mechanism to incorporate and preserve structural information in the estimation process and results in significant enhancement in the recovery of flow channel structures.

  10. Upper crustal structure of the northern part of the Bohemian ­Massif in ­rel­ation­ t­o geological, potential field data and new deep seismic data (Eger/Ohře Rift, Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skácelová, Z.; Mlčoch, B.; Novotný, Miroslav; Mrlina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-18 ISSN 0303-4534 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602; GA MŽP SB/630/3/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : upper crustal structure * Bohemian Massif * Eger/Ohře Rift * Saxothuringian Zone * Teplá-Barrandian Unit * Moldanubian Zone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  11. Basement-involved faults and deep structures in the West Philippine Basin: constrains from gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Sanzhong; Zhang, Huixuan; Lei, Jianping; Gao, Song; Zhao, Feiyu

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the basement-involved faults and deep structures of the West Philippine Basin (WPB), the gravitational responses caused by these faults are observed and analyzed based on the latest spherical gravity model: WGM2012 Model. By mapping the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, several main faults and some other linear structures are located and observed in the WPB. Then, by conducting a 2D discrete multi-scale wavelet decomposition, the Bouguer anomalies are decomposed into the first- to eighth-order detail and approximation fields (the first- to eighth-order Details and Approximations). The first- to third-order Details reflect detailed and localized geological information of the crust at different depths, and of which the higher-order reflects gravity field of the deeper depth. The first- to fourth-order Approximations represent the regional gravity fields at different depths of the crust, respectively. The fourth-order Approximation represents the regional gravity fluctuation caused by the density inhomogeneity of Moho interface. Therefore, taking the fourth-order Approximation as input, and adopting Parker-Oldenburg interactive inversion, We calculated the depth of Moho interface in the WPB. Results show that the Moho interface depth in the WPB ranges approximately from 8 to 12 km, indicating that there is typical oceanic crust in the basin. In the Urdaneta Plateau and the Benham Rise, the Moho interface depths are about 14 and 16 km, respectively, which provides a piece of evidence to support that the Banham Rise could be a transitional crust caused by a large igneous province. The second-order vertical derivative and the horizontal derivatives in direction 0° and 90° are computed based on the data of the third-order Detail, and most of the basement-involved faults and structures in the WPB, such as the Central Basin Fault Zone, the Gagua Ridge, the Luzon-Okinawa Fault Zone, and the Mindanao Fault Zone are interpreted by the gravity derivatives.

  12. Changing concepts of geologic structure and the problem of siting nuclear reactors: examples from Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The conflict between regulation and healthy evolution of geological science has contributed to the difficulties of siting nuclear reactors. On the Columbia Plateau in Washington, but for conservative design of the Hanford reactor facility, the recognition of the little-understood Olympic-Wallowa lineament as a major, possibly still active structural alignment might have jeopardized the acceptability of the site for nuclear reactors. On the Olympic Peninsula, evolving concepts of compressive structures and their possible recent activity and the current recognition of a subducting Juan de Fuca plate and its potential for generating great earthquakes - both concepts little-considered during initial site selection - may delay final acceptance of the Satsop site. Conflicts of this sort are inevitable but can be accommodated if they are anticipated in the reactor-licensing process. More important, society should be increasing its store of geologic knowledge now, during the current recess in nuclear reactor siting

  13. The growth of geological structures by repeated earthquakes, 1, conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G.C.P.; Stein, R.S.; Rundle, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    In many places, earthquakes with similar characteristics have been shown to recur. If this is common, then relatively small deformations associated with individual earthquake cycles should accumulate over time to create geological structures. It is shown that existing models developed to describe leveling line changes associated with the seismic cycle can be adapted to explain geological features associated with a fault. In these models an elastic layer containing the fault overlies a viscous half-space with a different density. Fault motion associated with an earthquake results in immediate deformation followed by a long period of readjustment as stresses relax in the viscous layer and isostatic equilibrium is restored. The flexural rigidity of the crust (or the apparent elastic thickness) provides the main control of the width of a structure. The loading due to erosion and deposition of sediment determines the ratio of uplift to subsidence between the two sides of the fault. -Authors

  14. The application of structure from motion (SfM) to identify the geological structure and outcrop studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Aditya; Rahardianto, Trias; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Adequate knowledge of geological structure is an essential for most studies in geoscience, mineral exploration, geo-hazard and disaster management. The geological map is still one the datasets the most commonly used to obtain information about the geological structure such as fault, joint, fold, and unconformities, however in rural areas such as Central Java data is still sparse. Recent progress in data acquisition technologies and computing have increased the interest in how to capture the high-resolution geological data effectively and for a relatively low cost. Some methods such as Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used to obtain this information, however, these methods need a significant investment in hardware, software, and time. Resolving some of those issues, the photogrammetric method structure from motion (SfM) is an image-based method, which can provide solutions equivalent to laser technologies for a relatively low-cost with minimal time, specialization and financial investment. Using SfM photogrammetry, it is possible to generate high resolution 3D images rock surfaces and outcrops, in order to improve the geological understanding of Indonesia. In the present contribution, it is shown that the information about fault and joint can be obtained at high-resolution and in a shorter time than with the conventional grid mapping and remotely sensed topographic surveying. The SfM method produces a point-cloud through image matching and computing. This task can be run with open- source or commercial image processing and 3D reconstruction software. As the point cloud has 3D information as well as RGB values, it allows for further analysis such as DEM extraction and image orthorectification processes. The present paper describes some examples of SfM to identify the fault in the outcrops and also highlight the future possibilities in terms of earthquake hazard assessment, based on

  15. Lower Paleozoic deep-water facies of the Medfra area, central Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.

    1999-01-01

    Deep-water facies, chiefly hemipelagic deposits and turbidites, of Cambrian through Devonian age are widely exposed in the Medfra and Mt. McKinley quadrangles. These strata include the upper part of the Telsitna Formation (Middle-Upper Ordovician) and the Paradise Fork Formation (Lower Silurian-Lower Devonian) in the Nixon Fork terrane, the East Fork Hills Formation (Upper Cambrian-Lower Devonian) in the East Fork subterrane of the Minchumina terrane, and the chert and argillite unit (Ordovician) and the argillite and quartzite unit (Silurian- Devonian? and possibly older) in the Telida subterrane of the Minchumina terrane.In the western part of the study area (Medfra quadrangle), both hemipelagic deposits and turbidites are largely calcareous and were derived from the Nixon Fork carbonate platform. East- ern exposures (Mt. McKinley quadrangle; eastern part of the Telida subterrane) contain much less carbonate; hemipelagic strata are mostly chert, and turbidites contain abundant rounded quartz and lesser plagioclase and potassium feldspar. Deep-water facies in the Medfra quadrangle correlate well with rocks of the Dillinger terrane exposed to the south (McGrath quadrangle), but coeval strata in the Mt. McKinley quadrangle are compositionally similar to rocks to the northeast (Livengood quadrangle). Petrographic data thus suggest that the Telida subterranes presently defined is an artificial construct made up of two distinct sequences of disparate provenance.Restoration of 90 and 150 km of dextral strike-slip on the Iditarod and Farewell faults, respectively, aligns the deep-water strata of the Minchumina and Dillinger terranes in a position east of the Nixon Fork carbonate platform. This restoration supports the interpretation that lower Paleozoic rocks in the Nixon Fork and Dillinger terranes, and in the western part of the Minchumina terrane (East Fork subterrane and western part of the Telida subterrane), formed along a single continental margin. Rocks in the

  16. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals)

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Snachev; E. P. Shchulkin

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5...

  17. Non-metric close range photogrammetric system for mapping geologic structures in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandow, V D

    1976-01-01

    A stereographic close-range photogrammetric method of obtaining structural data for mine roof stability analyses is described. Stereo pairs were taken with 70 mm and 35 mm non-metric cameras. Photo co-ordinates were measured with a stereo-comparator and reduced by the direct linear transformation method. Field trials demonstrate that the technique is sufficiently accurate for geological work and is a practical method of mapping.

  18. Influence of different geological structures on stress–strain state of hard rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetzov, NN; Fedotova, YuV

    2018-03-01

    The results of numerical simulation of stress–strain state in a hard rock mass area with the complex geological structures are presented. The variants of the stress value change are considered depending on the boundary conditions and physical properties of the model blocks. Furthermore, the possibility of in-situ stress formation under the influence of energy coming from the deeper Earth’s layers is demonstrated in terms of the Khibiny Massif.

  19. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Sularto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70 o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110 o - 130 o E the direction and 60 o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70 o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  20. Soil Structure Evaluation Across Geologic Transition Zones Using 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine C Anukwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes the electrical resistivity values obtained using 2-D Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI technique to evaluate the subsurface lithology across different geological units. The primary objective was to determine the effect of subsurface lithology on the integrity of a road pavement, which had developed cracks and potholes at various locations. The dipole-dipole configuration was utilized and a total of nine traverses were established in the study area, whose geology cuts across both the basement and sedimentary complexes. The inverted resistivity section obtained showed significant variation in resistivity along established traverses and also across the different rock units, with the resistivity value ranging from about 4 ohm-m to greater than 7000 ohm- m. The lithology as interpreted from the resistivity section revealed the presence topsoil, clay, sandy clay, sand, sand stones/basement rocks, with varying vertical and horizontal arrangements to a depth of 40m. Results suggest that the geologic sequence and structure might have contributed to the observed pavement failure. The capability of the 2D ERI as an imaging tool is observed, especially across the transition zones as depicted in this study. The study further stressed the ability of this technique if properly designed and implemented, to be capable of providing a wealth of information that could complement other traditional geotechnical and geologic techniques.

  1. Methodology for the development of scenarios for the evaluation of the behaviour of a deep geological repository for high-level radioactive waste in a granite formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Martin, A.; Alonso, J.; Gonzalez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In time, deep geological repositories for radioactive waste undergo significant environmental changes caused either by natural processes or by human actions. In view of a long-term safety analysis, it is fundamental to identify all the possible evolutions of the system. This process is denominated scenario development. This paper deals with the methodology used to generate scenarios within the framework of the AGP (Deep Geological Repository) project for assessing behaviour in granite medium. It begins with a brief description of the methodology used to identify the relevant factors for the safety analysis on the system. It then presents the details of the actual scenario-generating methodology which consists of dividing the entire system into barrier states or subsystems a graphic procedure by means of which the factors are represented in relation to their predictable impact or extent of their effect on the subsystems. This methodology is a good tool for displaying and grouping the most significant scenarios for the subsequent analysis of consequences. (Author)

  2. Potential collapse due to geological structures influence in Seropan Cave, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, B.; Pranantya, P. A.; Witjahjati, R.; Rofinus

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the potential collapse in the Seropan cave, based on the existing geological structure conditions in the cave. This is very necessary because in the Seropan cave will be built Microhydro installation for power plants. The electricity will be used to raise the underground river water in the cave to a barren soil surface, which can be used for surface irrigation. The method used is analysis the quality of rock mass along the cave. Analysis of rock mass quality using Geomechanical Classification or Rock Mass Rating (RMR), to determine the magnitude of the effect of geological structure on rock mass stability. The research path is divided into several sections and quality analysis is performed on each section. The results show that the influence of geological structure is very large and along the cave where the research there are several places that have the potential to collapse, so need to get serious attention in handling it. Nevertheless, the construction of this Microhydro installation can still be carried out by making a reinforcement on potentially collapsing parts

  3. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  4. Resolution of Singularities Introduced by Hierarchical Structure in Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Tohru

    2017-10-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of singular points of artificial deep neural networks, resulting in providing deep neural network models having no critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure. It is considered that such deep neural network models have good nature for gradient-based optimization. First, we show that there exist a large number of critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure in deep neural networks as straight lines, depending on the number of hidden layers and the number of hidden neurons. Second, we derive a sufficient condition for deep neural networks having no critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure, which can be applied to general deep neural networks. It is also shown that the existence of critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure is determined by the rank and the regularity of weight matrices for a specific class of deep neural networks. Finally, two kinds of implementation methods of the sufficient conditions to have no critical points are provided. One is a learning algorithm that can avoid critical points introduced by the hierarchical structure during learning (called avoidant learning algorithm). The other is a neural network that does not have some critical points introduced by the hierarchical structure as an inherent property (called avoidant neural network).

  5. Expectations, open questions to be addressed in the workshop within the context of a deep geological repository in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landais, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the clay properties in the various domains concerned by the construction feasibility, the exploitation phase of repository facilities, as well as the long term evolution of the waste and of its environment is of crucial importance in assessing the performance and the safety of the various radioactive waste disposal concepts. The knowledge to be acquired on clays as such goes well beyond solely the field of disposal of radioactive waste. For both, clay formations or bentonites in engineered barriers, the characterization in a continuous way from the nanometer to the micrometer, of their internal structure and the study of the associated physico-chemical phenomena is a fundamental issue. It aims for explaining: The 'Initial state' of the clays, in particular for the clay formations: the nature of the mechanical, hydraulic and geochemical processes, in a broad sense, and the way these processes were involved during the geological history of these formations, The fundamental processes involved by physico-chemical or hydraulic stresses, related to the evolution of the repository at the macroscopic scale. The choice of the characterization scale and relevant modeling is of first importance in the approaches leading to the establishment of the models of representation. Various research works pointed to experimental difficulties in quantifying the microstructure of the clay rocks at scales smaller than a micrometer, because of technical/instrumental limitations. This lack of knowledge at small scales does not allow to fully connect all the Thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) mechanisms and to integrate them into an up-scaling approach. There already exist conceptual models and experimental approaches to describe the microstructure of argillaceous formations in terms of porosity and texture. Examples on the undisturbed Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite are given in this paper. Questions and objectives to be addressed during the

  6. Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Rodrigo I; Reis, Fábio A G V; Gramani, Marcelo F; Giordano, Lucilia C; Zaine, José Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes) and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides.

  7. Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO I. CERRI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides.

  8. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoda; Kang Zili; Shen Jinrui; Jin Yushu

    1992-01-01

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geo-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  9. Aesthetics-based classification of geological structures in outcrops for geotourism purposes: a tentative proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, Anna V.; Nazarenko, Olesya V.; Ruban, Dmitry A.; Zayats, Pavel P.

    2017-03-01

    The current growth in geotourism requires an urgent development of classifications of geological features on the basis of criteria that are relevant to tourist perceptions. It appears that structure-related patterns are especially attractive for geotourists. Consideration of the main criteria by which tourists judge beauty and observations made in the geodiversity hotspot of the Western Caucasus allow us to propose a tentative aesthetics-based classification of geological structures in outcrops, with two classes and four subclasses. It is possible to distinguish between regular and quasi-regular patterns (i.e., striped and lined and contorted patterns) and irregular and complex patterns (paysage and sculptured patterns). Typical examples of each case are found both in the study area and on a global scale. The application of the proposed classification permits to emphasise features of interest to a broad range of tourists. Aesthetics-based (i.e., non-geological) classifications are necessary to take into account visions and attitudes of visitors.

  10. A 3D visualization of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater chemical profile around Iwate volcano, Japan: based on the ARCGIS 3D Analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Ohwada, M.; Itoh, J.; Kazahaya, K.; Tsukamoto, H.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Oyama, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We established 3D geological and hydrological model around Iwate volcano to visualize 3D relationships between subsurface structure and groundwater profile. Iwate volcano is a typical polygenetic volcano located in NE Japan, and its body is composed of two stratovolcanoes which have experienced sector collapses several times. Because of this complex structure, groundwater flow around Iwate volcano is strongly restricted by subsurface construction. For example, Kazahaya and Yasuhara (1999) clarified that shallow groundwater in north and east flanks of Iwate volcano are recharged at the mountaintop, and these flow systems are restricted in north and east area because of the structure of younger volcanic body collapse. In addition, Ohwada et al. (2006) found that these shallow groundwater in north and east flanks have relatively high concentration of major chemical components and high 3He/4He ratios. In this study, we succeeded to visualize the spatial relationship between subsurface structure and chemical profile of shallow and deep groundwater system using 3D model on the GIS. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data and groundwater chemical profile, were reported. All these paper data are digitized and converted to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. We also inputted digital elevation model (DEM) around Iwate volcano issued by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan, and digital geological maps issued by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer.

  11. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  12. Solar illumination geometry and its influence on the observance of geological structures in orbital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Eduardo; Liu, Chan Chiang

    1991-04-01

    The geology of the westernmost part of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) is characterized by the conspicuous presence of the Alem Paraiba lineament, a large shear zone extending more than 200 km in N50-60E direction. Parts of Paraiba do Sul river and of the regional topography are strongly related to this geologic feature. Several other lineament directions complete the structural framework that can be seen on remote sensing products. According to well accepted theories of photointerpretation, LANDSAT images with low sun elevation angles should more clearly show those lineaments, because the shadow enhancement of the relief is greatest. Also, considering the high grade of relief conditionment by the Alem Paraiba lineament, it is expected that this structure could be clearly observed on LANDSAT images of all seasons. However, these hypotheses are not confirmed. The images with low sun elevation angles belong to the epoch (winter) in which the solar azimuths are nearly parallel to the regional structure, making its identification difficult. In summer, the images have high sun elevation angles but their solar azimuths, oblique to the regional structures, allow an adequate identification of the main structural trend.

  13. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit for Enhanced Recovery of Sparse Geological Structures With the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh; Katterbauer, Klemens; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the locations and the structures of subsurface channels holds significant importance for forecasting the subsurface flow and reservoir productivity. These channels exhibit high permeability and are easily contrasted from the low-permeability rock formations in their surroundings. This enables formulating the flow channels estimation problem as a sparse field recovery problem. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation and calibration of subsurface reservoir model parameters, such as permeability. However, the conventional EnKF framework does not provide an efficient mechanism to incorporate prior information on the wide varieties of subsurface geological structures, and often fails to recover and preserve flow channel structures. Recent works in the area of compressed sensing (CS) have shown that estimating in a sparse domain, using algorithms such as the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), may significantly improve the estimation quality when dealing with such problems. We propose two new, and computationally efficient, algorithms combining OMP with the EnKF to improve the estimation and recovery of the subsurface geological channels. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed algorithms provide efficient mechanisms to incorporate and preserve structural information in the EnKF and result in significant improvements in recovering flow channel structures.

  14. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit for Enhanced Recovery of Sparse Geological Structures With the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2016-02-23

    Estimating the locations and the structures of subsurface channels holds significant importance for forecasting the subsurface flow and reservoir productivity. These channels exhibit high permeability and are easily contrasted from the low-permeability rock formations in their surroundings. This enables formulating the flow channels estimation problem as a sparse field recovery problem. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation and calibration of subsurface reservoir model parameters, such as permeability. However, the conventional EnKF framework does not provide an efficient mechanism to incorporate prior information on the wide varieties of subsurface geological structures, and often fails to recover and preserve flow channel structures. Recent works in the area of compressed sensing (CS) have shown that estimating in a sparse domain, using algorithms such as the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), may significantly improve the estimation quality when dealing with such problems. We propose two new, and computationally efficient, algorithms combining OMP with the EnKF to improve the estimation and recovery of the subsurface geological channels. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed algorithms provide efficient mechanisms to incorporate and preserve structural information in the EnKF and result in significant improvements in recovering flow channel structures.

  15. Use of space imagery for studying geologic structure of the North-Ustyurtskaya oil and gas-bearing region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lion, Yu A; Solovyova, L I

    1981-01-01

    Overview of issues concerning landscape and geomorphologic analysis of space imagery and the subsequent interpretation of structural and geologic values with use of geophysical data. Examples of clues of different value structural elements on images of differing generalization levels. Potential for studying overall patterns for local structures on the basis of structural and geomorphologic zonation is discussed.

  16. Macro- and micro- geodynamic of Terebliya-Riksk geodetic man-caused polygon of Ukrainian Carpathians influenced by specificities of structure-geological and hydro-geological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchyzkyy, A.; Serebryannyy, Y.; Tretyak, K.; Trevogo, I.; Zadoroznnyy, V.

    2009-04-01

    Terebliya-Riksk diversion power station is located on two levels ( with difference of 180m ) of south mountainside of Ukrainian Carpathians and separate parts of this power station lie inside rock. Therefore influential parameters of it's stability are geological, tectonic and hydrogeological conditions in complex. Monitoring of intensity and nature of displacements of flow ( pressure) pipe and other objects of power station with geoditic methods indicates that fluctuations of water-level in reservoir caused bouth by natural and artificial efects are of great influence on objects mentioned. Based on geodetical high-precision observations made by LeicaTPS 1201 robotic total station short-periodic components of fundamental vibrations which result in their destructive deformation were determined. Mathematical apparatus ( which uses function of Fourie series and theory of cinematic coefficients ) for displacements determinations of pressure pipe was disigned. Complex of engineering-geological surveys gave an opportunity to define the origin of macro- and micro- geodynamics movements of Terebliya-Riksk diversion power station region. Engineering-geological conditions which influence on power station structure most of all were determined as following : small foldings and cleavage areas appearances, also fluctuations of level of underground water (refered to hydrogeological conditions). Periodic micro-displacemets appearances ( which operate on reducing-stretching scheme) fixed on power station structure are turned to be in direct relation on to what exend reservoir is filled up. Permanent macro- displacements appearances ( which operates in north-west direction ) fixed on pressure pipe are the result sum of residual micro-displacements caused by return periodic movements and are determined by structure-geological, engineering-geological and tectonic conditions.

  17. Structure-dependent interactions between alkali feldspars and organic compounds: implications for reactions in geologic carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Min, Yujia; Jun, Young-Shin

    2013-01-02

    Organic compounds in deep saline aquifers may change supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2))-induced geochemical processes by attacking specific components in a mineral's crystal structure. Here we investigate effects of acetate and oxalate on alkali feldspar-brine interactions in a simulated geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) environment at 100 atm of CO(2) and 90 °C. We show that both organics enhance the net extent of feldspar's dissolution, with oxalate showing a more prominent effect than acetate. Further, we demonstrate that the increased reactivity of Al-O-Si linkages due to the presence of oxalate results in the promotion of both Al and Si release from feldspars. As a consequence, the degree of Al-Si order may affect the effect of oxalate on feldspar dissolution: a promotion of ~500% in terms of cumulative Si concentration was observed after 75 h of dissolution for sanidine (a highly disordered feldspar) owing to oxalate, while the corresponding increase for albite (a highly ordered feldspar) was ~90%. These results provide new insights into the dependence of feldspar dissolution kinetics on the crystallographic properties of the mineral under GCS conditions.

  18. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  19. Use of structural geology in exploration for and mining of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2001-01-01

    Structural geology is an important component in regional-, district- and orebody-scale exploration and development of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits.Identification of timing of important structural events in an ore district allows analysis and classification of fluid conduits and construction of genetic models for ore formation.The most practical uses of structural geology deal with measurement and definition of various elements that comprise orebodies, which can then be directly applied to ore-reserve estimation,ground control,grade control, safety issues,and mine planning.District- and regional-scale structural studies are directly applicable to long-term strategic planning,economic analysis,and land ownership. Orebodies in sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits are discrete, hypogene, epigenetic masses usually hosted in a fault zone,breccia mass, or lithologic bed or unit. These attributes allow structural geology to be directly applied to the mining and exploration of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits. Internal constituents in orebodies reflect unique episodes relating to ore formation.The main internal constituents in orebodies are ore minerals, gangue, and alteration minerals that usually are mixed with one another in complex patterns, the relations among which may be used to interpret the processes of orebody formation and control.Controls of orebody location and shape usually are due to structural dilatant zones caused by changes in attitude, splays, lithologic contacts,and intersections of the host conduit or unit.In addition,conceptual parameters such as district fabric,predictable distances, and stacking also are used to understand the geometry of orebodies.Controls in ore districts and location and geometry of orebodies in ore districts can be predicted to various degrees by using a number of qualitative concepts such as internal and external orebody plunges,district plunge, district stacking, conduit classification, geochemical, geobarometric and

  20. Technical expertise on the safety of the proposed geological repository sites. Planning for geological deep repositories, step 1; Sicherheitstechnisches Gutachten zum Vorschlag geologischer Standortgebiete. Sachplan geologische Tiefenlager, Etappe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    On October 17, 2010, on request of those Swiss government institutions responsible for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) presented its project concerning geological sites for the foreseen disposal of radioactive wastes to the Federal Authorities. According to the present disposal concept, two types of repository are foreseen: one for highly radioactive wastes (HAA) and the other for low radioactive and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (SMA). If a site fulfils the necessary conditions for both HAA as well as for SMA, a combined site for both types of waste may be chosen. As a qualified control authority in Switzerland, the Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) has to examine the quality of the NAGRA proposals from the point of view of the nuclear safety of the sites. The project for deep underground waste disposal first defines the process and the criteria according to which sites for the geological storage of all types of radioactive wastes in Switzerland have to be chosen. The choice is based on the actual knowledge of Swiss geology. After dividing the wastes into SMA and HAA, some large-scale areas are to be identified according to their suitability from the geological and tectonic points of view. NAGRA's division of waste into SMA and HAA is based on calculations of the long-term safety for a broad range of different rock types and geological situations and takes the different properties of all waste types into account. As a conclusion, a small portion of SMA has to be stored with {alpha}-toxic wastes in the HAA repository. The estimation of the total volume of wastes to be stored is based on 60 years of operation of the actual nuclear power plants, augmented with the wastes from possible replacement plants with a total power of 5 GW{sub e} during a further 60 years. The safety concept of the repository is based on passive systems using technical and natural barriers. The

  1. Geological heterogeneity: Goal-oriented simplification of structure and characterization needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Heather; Kalbacher, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Rubin, Yoram

    2017-11-01

    Geological heterogeneity, i.e. the spatial variability of discrete hydrogeological units, is investigated in an aquifer analog of glacio-fluvial sediments to determine how such a geological structure can be simplified for characterization needs. The aquifer analog consists of ten hydrofacies whereas the scarcity of measurements in typical field studies precludes such detailed spatial models of hydraulic properties. Of particular interest is the role of connectivity of the hydrofacies structure, along with its effect on the connectivity of mass transport, in site characterization for predicting early arrival times. Transport through three realizations of the aquifer analog is modeled with numerical particle tracking to ascertain the fast flow channel through which early arriving particles travel. Three simplification schemes of two-facies models are considered to represent the aquifer analogs, and the velocity within the fast flow channel is used to estimate the apparent hydraulic conductivity of the new facies. The facies models in which the discontinuous patches of high hydraulic conductivity are separated from the rest of the domain yield the closest match in early arrival times compared to the aquifer analog, but assuming a continuous high hydraulic conductivity channel connecting these patches yields underestimated early arrivals times within the range of variability between the realizations, which implies that the three simplification schemes could be advised but pose different implications for field measurement campaigns. Overall, the results suggest that the result of transport connectivity, i.e. early arrival times, within realistic geological heterogeneity can be conserved even when the underlying structural connectivity is modified.

  2. Layer dividing and zone dividing of physical property of crust and deep structure in Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhua; Yang Yaxin; Gong Yuling; Huang Linping

    2001-01-01

    On the base of summing experiences both at home and abroad, the Bugar gravitative anomalies are studied by major means of data processing. According to the anomalous character, three layer crust models (surface layer, middle layer in region and material layer under crust) are built up, depth of upper and bottom surfaces for every layer is calculated quantitatively, their varied characters of depth are studied and deep geological tectonics are outlined. The 'density' and 'mass' of every layer are calculated, and according to these two parameters, the shallow geological tectonics are researched. The relation-factor R between the surface altitude and Bugar gravitative anomalies are calculated and the stable or unstable crust zones are divided. The favorable mine zones for uranium deposit in Jiangxi Province are outlined

  3. Field Investigation of Surface Deformation Induced by the 2016 Meinong Earthquake and its Implications to Regional Geological Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, De-Cheng; Chuang, Ray Y.; Lin, Ching-Weei

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate mapping results of a newly-identified active folding-associated fault in southwestern Taiwan, which was triggered by the distant ML 6.6 Meinong earthquake in 2016. The 14.6-km-deep main shock occurred in Meinong at 3:57 (GMT +08) on February 6th while a series of 21-27 km deep aftershocks were induced after 160 seconds in Guanmiao, where is 25km NW away from the epicenter of the main shock. The focal mechanism of the Meinong main shock shows a westward oblique thrust with the fault plane of 275°/42°/17° (strike/dip/rake) but Guanmiao aftershocks show the N-S striking eastward normal movement. The study area locates at an on-going fold-and-thrust belt close to the deformation front of Taiwan orogeny with high rates of convergence, uplift and erosion. The geology of SW Taiwan is characterized by the 3-km-thick mudstones with high fluid pressure underlying the loose sedimentary rocks forming mud diapirs or mud-core anticlines. The significance of the Meinong earthquake is (1) aftershocks are far away from the main shock, and (2) the surface cracks partially distributed systematically along lineaments observed from InSAR, which has never been recognized as geological structures before. This study aims to establish possible kinematic processes of shallow deformation induced by the Meinong earthquake. We mapped surface cracks around the lineaments by using hand-held GPS and measured surface cracks by the compass and vernier. Among 249 kinematic data measured from 244 observed surface cracks and ruptures, the type of deformation was mostly identified as dilation or lateral translation and only 4 data were compressional deformation. The overall surface displacement moved to the northwest and west, consistent with the regional coseismic movement. The opening of the surface cracks range from 0.5 to 105 mm and 85% of them are less than 10 mm. Preseismic deformed features such as failure of the retaining wall were also observed along the western and eastern

  4. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Snachev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5 g/t that allows suggesting the setting up of new gold deposit.

  5. Digital processing of orbital radar data to enhance geologic structure - Examples from the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, Penny M.; Harris, Jeff; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Blodget, Herbert W.

    1988-01-01

    Various digital enhancement techniques for SAR are compared using SIR-B and Seasat images of the Canadian Shield. The three best methods for enhancing geological structure were found to be: (1) a simple linear contrast stretch; (2) a mean or median low-pass filter to reduce speckle prior to edge enhancement or a K nearest-neighbor average to cosmetically reduce speckle; and (3) a modification of the Moore-Waltz (1983) technique. Three look directions were coregistered and several means of data display were investigated as means of compensating for radar azimuth biasing.

  6. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Some HCMM images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depends chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semi-arid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images were limited value, except in semi-arid regions.

  7. Geology and structure of the Malpaso caldera and El Ocote ignimbrite, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto-Obregon, Jorge; Aguirre-DIaz, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    A new caldera, named Malpaso, is reported west of the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico. The Malpaso caldera is a volcano-tectonic depression, highly fractured and faulted, and was filled by voluminous pyroclastic products related to the caldera collapse. Due to these characteristics it as a graben caldera. It is truncated by younger normal faults of the Calvillo and Aguascalientes grabens. In this work we present a summary of the geologic and structural observations on this caldera, as well as a description of the main caldera product, the high-grade El Ocote ignimbrite.

  8. Geology and structure of the Malpaso caldera and El Ocote ignimbrite, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto-Obregon, Jorge [Facultad de IngenierIa, UNAM, Coyoacan, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguirre-DIaz, Gerardo [Centro de Geociencias, UNAM, Campus Juriquilla, 76220, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)], E-mail: nieto@servidor.unam.mx, E-mail: ger@geociencias.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    A new caldera, named Malpaso, is reported west of the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico. The Malpaso caldera is a volcano-tectonic depression, highly fractured and faulted, and was filled by voluminous pyroclastic products related to the caldera collapse. Due to these characteristics it as a graben caldera. It is truncated by younger normal faults of the Calvillo and Aguascalientes grabens. In this work we present a summary of the geologic and structural observations on this caldera, as well as a description of the main caldera product, the high-grade El Ocote ignimbrite.

  9. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratesi, Sarah E.; Vacher, H. L.

    2008-01-01

    In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over…

  10. Probabilistic calculations and sensitivity analysis of parameters for a reference biosphere model assessing the potential exposure of a population to radionuclides from a deep geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Christian; Kaiser, Jan Christian [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, Munich (Germany); Proehl, Gerhard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Wagramerstrasse 5, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Radioecological models are used to assess the exposure of hypothetical populations to radionuclides. Potential radionuclide sources are deep geological repositories for high level radioactive waste. Assessment time frames are long since releases from those repositories are only expected in the far future, and radionuclide migration to the geosphere biosphere interface will take additional time. Due to the long time frames, climate conditions at the repository site will change, leading to changing exposure pathways and model parameters. To identify climate dependent changes in exposure in the far field of a deep geological repository a range of reference biosphere models representing climate analogues for potential future climate states at a German site were developed. In this approach, model scenarios are developed for different contemporary climate states. It is assumed that the exposure pathways and parameters of the contemporary biosphere in the far field of the repository will change to be similar to those at the analogue sites. Since current climate models cannot predict climate developments over the assessment time frame of 1 million years, analogues for a range of realistically possible future climate conditions were selected. These climate states range from steppe to permafrost climate. As model endpoint Biosphere Dose conversion factors (BDCF) are calculated. The radionuclide specific BDCF describe the exposure of a population to radionuclides entering the biosphere in near surface ground water. The BDCF are subject to uncertainties in the exposure pathways and model parameters. In the presented work, probabilistic and sensitivity analysis was used to assess the influence of model parameter uncertainties on the BDCF and the relevance of individual parameters for the model result. This was done for the long half-live radionuclides Cs-135, I-129 and U-238. In addition to this, BDCF distributions for nine climate reference regions and several scenarios were

  11. PC operated acoustic transient spectroscopy of deep levels in MIS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, P.; Jamnicky, I.

    1996-01-01

    A new version of acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy is presented to study the traps at the insulator-semiconductor interface. The acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy uses an acoustoelectric response signal produced by the MIS structure interface when a longitudinal acoustic wave propagates through a structure. The acoustoelectric response signal is extremely sensitive to external conditions of the structure and reflects any changes in the charge distribution, connected also with charged traps. In comparison with previous version of acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy that closely coincides with the principle of the original deep-level transient spectroscopy technique, the present technique is based on the computer-evaluated isothermal transients and represents an improved, more efficient and time saving technique. Many tests on the software used for calculation as well as on experimental setup have been performed. The improved acoustic deep-level transient spectroscopy method has been applied for the Si(p) MIS structures. The deep-level parameters as activation energy and capture cross-section have been determined. (authors)

  12. Redox front formation in an uplifting sedimentary rock sequence: An analogue for redox-controlling processes in the geosphere around deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Metcalfe, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Murakami, Y.; Hoshii, D.; Kanekiyo, A.; Naganuma, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Subsurface redox fronts control the mobilization and fixation of many trace elements, including potential pollutants such as certain radionuclides. Any safety assessment for a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes needs to take into account adequately the long-term redox processes in the geosphere surrounding the repository. To build confidence in understanding these processes, a redox front in a reduced siliceous sedimentary rock distributed in an uplifting area in Japan has been studied in detail. Geochemical analyses show increased concentrations of Fe and trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), at the redox front, even though concentrations of reduced rock matrix constituents show little change. Detailed SEM observations revealed that fossilized microorganisms composed of amorphous granules made exclusively of Fe and Si occur in the rock's pore space. Microbial 16S rDNA analysis suggests that there is presently a zonation of different bacterial groups within the redox band, and bacterial zonation played an important role in the concentration of Fe-oxyhydroxides at the redox front. These water-rock-microbe interactions can be considered analogous to the processes occurring in the redox fronts that would develop around geological repositories for radioactive waste. Once formed, the Fe-oxyhydroxides within such a front would be preserved even after reducing conditions resume following repository closure

  13. Redox front formation in an uplifting sedimentary rock sequence: An analogue for redox-controlling processes in the geosphere around deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, H. [Nagoya University Museum, Material Research Section, Furocho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: dora@num.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Metcalfe, R. [Quintessa Japan, Queen' s Tower A7-707, Minatomirai, Yokohama 220-6007 (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Nagoya University Museum, Material Research Section, Furocho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tono Geoscience Centre (Japan); Hoshii, D.; Kanekiyo, A.; Naganuma, T. [Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-4-4 (Japan); Hayashi, T. [Asahi University, Department of Dental Pharmacology, Hozumi, Gifu (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    Subsurface redox fronts control the mobilization and fixation of many trace elements, including potential pollutants such as certain radionuclides. Any safety assessment for a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes needs to take into account adequately the long-term redox processes in the geosphere surrounding the repository. To build confidence in understanding these processes, a redox front in a reduced siliceous sedimentary rock distributed in an uplifting area in Japan has been studied in detail. Geochemical analyses show increased concentrations of Fe and trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), at the redox front, even though concentrations of reduced rock matrix constituents show little change. Detailed SEM observations revealed that fossilized microorganisms composed of amorphous granules made exclusively of Fe and Si occur in the rock's pore space. Microbial 16S rDNA analysis suggests that there is presently a zonation of different bacterial groups within the redox band, and bacterial zonation played an important role in the concentration of Fe-oxyhydroxides at the redox front. These water-rock-microbe interactions can be considered analogous to the processes occurring in the redox fronts that would develop around geological repositories for radioactive waste. Once formed, the Fe-oxyhydroxides within such a front would be preserved even after reducing conditions resume following repository closure.

  14. A Deep Learning Network Approach to ab initio Protein Secondary Structure Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Matt; Eickholt, Jesse; Jianlin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio protein secondary structure (SS) predictions are utilized to generate tertiary structure predictions, which are increasingly demanded due to the rapid discovery of proteins. Although recent developments have slightly exceeded previous methods of SS prediction, accuracy has stagnated around 80 percent and many wonder if prediction cannot be advanced beyond this ceiling. Disciplines that have traditionally employed neural networks are experimenting with novel deep learning techniques in attempts to stimulate progress. Since neural networks have historically played an important role in SS prediction, we wanted to determine whether deep learning could contribute to the advancement of this field as well. We developed an SS predictor that makes use of the position-specific scoring matrix generated by PSI-BLAST and deep learning network architectures, which we call DNSS. Graphical processing units and CUDA software optimize the deep network architecture and efficiently train the deep networks. Optimal parameters for the training process were determined, and a workflow comprising three separately trained deep networks was constructed in order to make refined predictions. This deep learning network approach was used to predict SS for a fully independent test dataset of 198 proteins, achieving a Q3 accuracy of 80.7 percent and a Sov accuracy of 74.2 percent.

  15. Function and structure of the deep cervical extensor muscles in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacher, Jochen; Falla, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    The deep cervical extensors are anatomically able to control segmental movements of the cervical spine in concert with the deep cervical flexors. Several investigations have confirmed changes in cervical flexor muscle control in patients with neck pain and as a result, effective evidence-based therapeutic exercises have been developed to address such dysfunctions. However, knowledge on how the deep extensor muscles behave in patients with neck pain disorders is scare. Structural changes such as higher concentration of fat within the muscle, variable cross-sectional area and higher proportions of type II fibres have been observed in the deep cervical extensors of patients with neck pain compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest that the behaviour of the deep extensors may be altered in patients with neck pain. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent series of studies confirm that patients display reduced activation of the deep cervical extensors as well as less defined activation patterns. This article provides an overview of the various different structural and functional changes in the deep neck extensor muscles documented in patients with neck pain. Relevant recommendations for the management of muscle dysfunction in patients with neck pain are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Earthquakes - a danger to deep-lying repositories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at geological factors concerning earthquakes and the safety of deep-lying repositories for nuclear waste. The geological processes involved in the occurrence of earthquakes are briefly looked at and the definitions for magnitude and intensity of earthquakes are discussed. Examples of damage caused by earthquakes are given. The earthquake situation in Switzerland is looked at and the effects of earthquakes on sub-surface structures and deep-lying repositories are discussed. Finally, the ideas proposed for deep-lying geological repositories for nuclear wastes are discussed

  17. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  18. Probabilistic modelling of the damage of geological barriers of the nuclear waste deep storage - ENDOSTON project, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As the corrosion of metallic casings of radioactive waste storage packages releases hydrogen under pressure, and as the overpressure disturbs the stress fields, the authors report the development of methodologies and numerical simulation tools aimed at a better understanding of the mechanisms of development and propagation of crack networks in the geological barrier due to this overpressure. They present a probabilistic model of the formation of crack networks in rocks, with the probabilistic post-processing of a finite element calculation. They describe the modelling of crack propagation and damage in quasi-brittle materials. They present the ENDO-HETEROGENE model for the formation and propagation of cracks in heterogeneous media, describe the integration of the model into the Aster code, and report the model validation (calculation of the stress intensity factor, grid dependence). They finally report a test case of the ENDO-HETEROGENE model

  19. The Safety Case for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: 2013 State of the Art. Symposium Proceedings, 7-9 October 2013, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), in concert with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (EC), organised a Symposium, entitled 'Safety Cases for the Deep Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where Do We Stand?' (NEA, 2008). Since then, there have been major developments in a number of national geological disposal programmes and significant experience has been obtained in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating geological repositories. Especially, three national programmes are now, or will shortly be, at the stage of licence application for a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level and other long-lived radioactive waste. Thus, the purpose of this Symposium, 'The Safety Case for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: 2013 State of the Art', was to assess the practice, understanding and roles of the safety case, as applied internationally at all stages of repository development, including the interplay of technical, regulatory and societal issues, as they have developed since 2007. In particular, the symposium aims were: - to share experiences on preparing for, developing and documenting a safety case from both the implementer's and reviewer's perspectives; - to share developments in requirements, expectations and experience gained in judging the adequacy of safety cases; - to identify issues that may arise as repository programmes mature; - to understand the importance of a safety case in promoting and gaining societal confidence; - to gain experience from other fields of industry and technology in which concepts similar to the safety case are applied; - to receive indications useful to the future working programme of the NEA and other international organisations. The symposium was organised into main plenary sessions covering: - international activities and experience related to the safety case since 2007, including

  20. R and D program concerning radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formation (Study of an argilaceous formation in Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In 1974 it was decided to start up research with a view to safe disposal of conditioned waste in geological formations in Belgium. A first R and D programme was set up for study of the Boom clay in the Mol region. Multiple research projects have been undertaken; both experimental research in the field and in the laboratory and theoretical studies. Different exploratory drillings for geohydrological and geotechnical research were performed at the potential site. Teledetection and seismic prospection campaigns have provided data on the dimensions of the argillaceous layer and on the absence of major faults. Clay samples collected during drilling campaigns have been submitted to a number of analyses in laboratory as well as analyses of possible interactions between the clay and the conditioned waste to be stored. Some of these laboratory analyses, in particular, those concerning heat transfer and corrosion have been completed by more representative experiments in a clay pit. Various mathematical models have been developed and adapted with a view to better understanding of physical and physico-chemical phenomena like heat transfer, migration and retardation of radionuclides. A feasibility study was performed. Concerning safety analyses, a probabilistic study was undertaken on the behaviour of the geological barrier. The fault tree analysis technique was applied and the study was carried out in close collaboration with the Joint Rsearch Centre in Ispra. The underground experimental room at about 220 m depth was not yet relised but the technico-economical dossier has made such progress that the excavation can start in the very beginning of the next five-year programme

  1. Collaborative web-based annotation of video footage of deep-sea life, ecosystems and geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, R.; Ratmeyer, V.; Pop Ristov, A.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    More and more seagoing scientific expeditions use video-controlled research platforms such as Remote Operating Vehicles (ROV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), and towed camera systems. These produce many hours of video material which contains detailed and scientifically highly valuable footage of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of the oceans. Many of the videos contain unique observations of unknown life-forms which are rare, and which cannot be sampled and studied otherwise. To make such video material online accessible and to create a collaborative annotation environment the "Video Annotation and processing platform" (V-App) was developed. A first solely web-based installation for ROV videos is setup at the German Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (available at http://videolib.marum.de). It allows users to search and watch videos with a standard web browser based on the HTML5 standard. Moreover, V-App implements social web technologies allowing a distributed world-wide scientific community to collaboratively annotate videos anywhere at any time. It has several features fully implemented among which are: • User login system for fine grained permission and access control • Video watching • Video search using keywords, geographic position, depth and time range and any combination thereof • Video annotation organised in themes (tracks) such as biology and geology among others in standard or full screen mode • Annotation keyword management: Administrative users can add, delete, and update single keywords for annotation or upload sets of keywords from Excel-sheets • Download of products for scientific use This unique web application system helps making costly ROV videos online available (estimated cost range between 5.000 - 10.000 Euros per hour depending on the combination of ship and ROV). Moreover, with this system each expert annotation adds instantaneous available and valuable knowledge to otherwise uncharted

  2. Deep physical structure and geotectonic implications of the eastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The eastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP is the focus of studies on eastward lateral extrusion of the latter’s crustal material. This study aims to explore the structural response of the QTP’s eastern crust–mantle to the extrusion, and the basis for the latter’s geological structure. Data on long-period magnetotelluric sounding of cross-tectonic units and Bouguer gravity were used to determine the physical structure of the crust–mantle at the plateau’s eastern margin. The findings are as follows: (i the apparent density structure indicates extensive presence of a low-density material in the middle–lower crusts of the Songpan and Sichuan–Yunnan blocks at the QTP’s eastern margin. On the other hand, the Yangtze cratonic block (Sichuan Basin contains a material with a significantly higher density. To the west of the Longmenshan–Panxi tectonic zones, and along the lower crust at 40–50 km depth, is an obvious low-density zone aligned in a northeast–southwest orientation; (ii the electrical structural model spanning Songpan block–Longmenshan tectonic zone–Yangtze block reveals three distinct electrical structural units along the cross-section bounded by the Longmenshan tectonic zone. The first is the Songpan block, which has high and low resistivity at the shallow layer and middle–lower crusts, respectively. Next is the Yangtze craton, which has low and relatively higher resistivity at the shallow layer and middle–lower crusts, respectively. Third is the Longmenshan transitional tectonic zone, whose shallow layer and deep structure are characterized by an electrical structure with a thrust nappe towards the east, and a high-conductivity material extending to the lithospheric mantle, respectively; (iii the apparent density and electrical structures indicate that the Panxi tectonic zone has a weakened structure in the lower crust; and (iv physical properties of the QTP’s deep structure indicate that its

  3. How to observe simple structures in deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frascaria, N.

    1981-10-01

    Evidence is presented for the observation of simple structures at high excitation energy in the energy spectra of fragments from numerous ion reactions. Techniques employed in the single as well as in the coincidence experiments are discussed. The main characteristics of these structures are pointed out and some possible interpretations of the experimental observations are given

  4. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  5. Pineal organs of deep-sea fish: photopigments and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowmaker, James K; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2004-06-01

    We have examined the morphology and photopigments of the pineal organs from a number of mesopelagic fish, including representatives of the hatchet fish (Sternoptychidae), scaly dragon-fish (Chauliodontidae) and bristlemouths (Gonostomidae). Although these fish were caught at depths of between 500 and 1000 m, the morphological organisation of their pineal organs is remarkably similar to that of surface-dwelling fish. Photoreceptor inner and outer segments protrude into the lumen of the pineal vesicle, and the outer segment is composed of a stack of up to 20 curved disks that form a cap-like cover over the inner segment. In all species, the pineal photopigment was spectrally distinct from the retinal rod pigment, with lambdamax displaced to longer wavelengths, between approximately 485 and 503 nm. We also investigated the pineal organ of the deep demersal eel, Synaphobranchus kaupi, caught at depths below 2000 m, which possesses a rod visual pigment with lambdamax at 478 nm, but the pineal pigment has lambdamax at approximately 515 nm. In one species of hatchet fish, Argyropelecus affinis, two spectral classes of pinealocyte were identified, both spectrally distinct from the retinal rod photopigment.

  6. Geologic structure of the Yucaipa area inferred from gravity data, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Langenheim, V.E.; Morita, Andrew; Danskin, Wesley R.

    2016-09-30

    In the spring of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District, began working on a gravity survey in the Yucaipa area to explore the three-dimensional shape of the sedimentary fill (alluvial deposits) and the surface of the underlying crystalline basement rocks. As water use has increased in pace with rapid urbanization, water managers have need for better information about the subsurface geometry and the boundaries of groundwater subbasins in the Yucaipa area. The large density contrast between alluvial deposits and the crystalline basement complex permits using modeling of gravity data to estimate the thickness of alluvial deposits. The bottom of the alluvial deposits is considered to be the top of crystalline basement rocks. The gravity data, integrated with geologic information from surface outcrops and 51 subsurface borings (15 of which penetrated basement rock), indicated a complex basin configuration where steep slopes coincide with mapped faults―such as the Crafton Hills Fault and the eastern section of the Banning Fault―and concealed ridges separate hydrologically defined subbasins.Gravity measurements and well logs were the primary data sets used to define the thickness and structure of the groundwater basin. Gravity measurements were collected at 256 new locations along profiles that totaled approximately 104.6 km (65 mi) in length; these data supplemented previously collected gravity measurements. Gravity data were reduced to isostatic anomalies and separated into an anomaly field representing the valley fill. The ‘valley-fill-deposits gravity anomaly’ was converted to thickness by using an assumed, depth-varying density contrast between the alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock.To help visualize the basin geometry, an animation of the elevation of the top of the basement-rocks was prepared. The animation “flies over” the Yucaipa groundwater basin, viewing the land surface

  7. Confinement and migration of radionuclides in deep geological disposal; Confinement et migration des radionucleides en stockage geologique profond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch

    2007-07-15

    Disposing high level nuclear waste in deep disposal repository requires to understand and to model the evolution of the different repository components as well as radionuclides migration on time-frame which are well beyond the time accessible to experiments. In particular, robust and predictive models are a key element to assess the long term safety and their reliability must rely on a accurate description of the actual processes. Within this framework, this report synthesizes the work performed by Ch. Poinssot and has been prepared for the defense of his HDR (French university degree to Manage Research). These works are focused on two main areas which are (i) the long term evolution of spent nuclear fuel and the development of radionuclide source terms models, and (ii) the migration of radionuclides in natural environment. (author)

  8. Deep structure of crust and the upper mantle of the Mendeleev Rise on the Arktic­-2012 DSS profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kashubin, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Artemieva, Irina

    2016-01-01

    During high­latitude combined geological and geophysical expedition “Arctic­-2012”, deep seismic sounding (DSS) with ocean bottom seismometers were carried out in the Arctic Ocean along the line 740 km long, crossing the Mendeleev Rise at about 77° N. Crustal and upper mantle Vp­velocity and Vp...

  9. MUFOLD-SS: New deep inception-inside-inception networks for protein secondary structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Protein secondary structure prediction can provide important information for protein 3D structure prediction and protein functions. Deep learning offers a new opportunity to significantly improve prediction accuracy. In this article, a new deep neural network architecture, named the Deep inception-inside-inception (Deep3I) network, is proposed for protein secondary structure prediction and implemented as a software tool MUFOLD-SS. The input to MUFOLD-SS is a carefully designed feature matrix corresponding to the primary amino acid sequence of a protein, which consists of a rich set of information derived from individual amino acid, as well as the context of the protein sequence. Specifically, the feature matrix is a composition of physio-chemical properties of amino acids, PSI-BLAST profile, and HHBlits profile. MUFOLD-SS is composed of a sequence of nested inception modules and maps the input matrix to either eight states or three states of secondary structures. The architecture of MUFOLD-SS enables effective processing of local and global interactions between amino acids in making accurate prediction. In extensive experiments on multiple datasets, MUFOLD-SS outperformed the best existing methods and other deep neural networks significantly. MUFold-SS can be downloaded from http://dslsrv8.cs.missouri.edu/~cf797/MUFoldSS/download.html. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Automatic feature learning using multichannel ROI based on deep structured algorithms for computerized lung cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the ability of extracting automatically generated features using deep structured algorithms in lung nodule CT image diagnosis, and compare its performance with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems using hand-crafted features. All of the 1018 cases were acquired from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) public lung cancer database. The nodules were segmented according to four radiologists' markings, and 13,668 samples were generated by rotating every slice of nodule images. Three multichannel ROI based deep structured algorithms were designed and implemented in this study: convolutional neural network (CNN), deep belief network (DBN), and stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE). For the comparison purpose, we also implemented a CADx system using hand-crafted features including density features, texture features and morphological features. The performance of every scheme was evaluated by using a 10-fold cross-validation method and an assessment index of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The observed highest area under the curve (AUC) was 0.899±0.018 achieved by CNN, which was significantly higher than traditional CADx with the AUC=0.848±0.026. The results from DBN was also slightly higher than CADx, while SDAE was slightly lower. By visualizing the automatic generated features, we found some meaningful detectors like curvy stroke detectors from deep structured schemes. The study results showed the deep structured algorithms with automatically generated features can achieve desirable performance in lung nodule diagnosis. With well-tuned parameters and large enough dataset, the deep learning algorithms can have better performance than current popular CADx. We believe the deep learning algorithms with similar data preprocessing procedure can be used in other medical image analysis areas as well. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Alteration of French waste glass matrix of R7T7 type in deep geological disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, G. de

    2007-02-01

    The Geological disposal is a possible option for safe and long term management of long lived and highly radioactive wastes. In order to predict the release of radionuclides in the environment, the comprehensive knowledge of glass dissolution rates as well as the properties of near- and far-field in which migration will occur is necessary. This thesis is aimed to describe the alteration of SON68 glass, inactive analog of French R7T7 glass, in contact with disposal materials: metallic iron and Callovo-Oxfordian argilite. Therefore, original experiments have been carried out on a laboratory scaled system involving 'glass-iron-argilite' interactions. The transformations of chemistry and crystal-chemistry are investigated with multi-scale probing tools: SEM, TEM, XRD, XRF, EXAFS and Raman spectroscopies. In the same time, the glass alteration is modeled to obtain a source term in good agreement with the major phenomena observed in common experiments. As an end, geochemical models of iron and argilite transformations are also developed and set together in the transport-chemistry code HYTEC to simulate chemical reactions (iron corrosion, argilite evolution, and glass alteration). Simulations and comparison with experiments have improved the overall knowledge of the glass-iron-clay system. (author)

  12. Geologic continuous casting below continental and deep-sea detachment faults and at the striated extrusion of Sacsayhuaman, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    In the common type of industrial continuous casting, partially molten metal is extruded from a vessel through a shaped orifice called a mold in which the metal assumes the cross-sectional form of the mold as it cools and solidifies. Continuous casting can be sustained as long as molten metal is supplied and thermal conditions are maintained. I propose that a similar process produced parallel sets of grooves in three geologic settings, as follows: (1) corrugated metamorphic core complexes where mylonized mid-crustal rocks were exhumed by movement along low-angle normal faults known as detachment faults; (2) corrugated submarine surfaces where ultramafic and mafic rocks were exhumed by normal faulting within oceanic spreading centers; and (3) striated magma extrusions exemplified by the famous grooved outcrops at the Inca fortress of Sacsayhuaman in Peru. In each case, rocks inferred to have overlain the corrugated surface during corrugation genesis molded and shaped a plastic to partially molten rock mass as it was extruded from a moderate- to high-temperature reservoir.

  13. Transport of a solute pulse through the bentonite barrier of deep geological high-level waste storage facilities in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormenzana Lopez, J.L.; Alonso Diaz-Teran, J.; Gonzalez- Herranz, E.

    1997-01-01

    Spain like Sweden, Finland, Canada and other countries has opted for an open nuclear fuel cycle, and to store the unreprocessed spent fuel in a stable geological formation. Sweden, Finland and Canada have chosen granite rock for their high-level waste storage facilities. Their Performance Assessment of disposal systems have all obtained to the same result. The greatest annual doses are caused by I 129 in the gap between the fuel rods and the cladding. The reference concept for the Spanish high-level waste storage facility in granite provides for final storage in a granite mass at a depth of 500 m in carbon steel capsules in horizontal tunnels surrounded by a bentonite buffer. It the capsule fails due to generalised corrosion, an not giving credit for the cladding, the I 129 and other radionuclides in the gap would pass immediately into the surrounding water. This paper describes the modelling of the transport of the solute through the bentonite around the capsule to determine the fraction that crosses the bentonite each year. It also analyses the sensitivity of the results to the boundary condition adopted and changes in the values of the relevant parameters. (Author)

  14. The tunnel project. Drill hole logging and structural geologic studies in the Grualia, the Lunner county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvebakk, Harald; Braathen, Alvar; Roenning, Jan S.; Nordgulen, Oeystein

    2001-01-01

    confirmed and characterised. The testing of the geophysical techniques has so far shown promising results. The 2D resistivity measurements on the ground with subsequent drilling, drill hole logging, pumping and flow measurements would give a good characterisation of the ground where the rock construction is planned. With a good geological foundation (structural mapping) the above techniques would contribute with valuable information concerning what may be expected in front of the hand specimen in tunnel work

  15. Crustal structural survey for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, utilizing geophysical and geological information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralyi, N.L.E.; Hasui, Y.; Mioto, J.A.; Hamza, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity, Magnetic (airborne, Magnet and Magsat), heat flow and seismicity available data for the state of Minas Gerais and adjacent regions is here analyzed, discussed and integrated with geologic information. The Late Archean crustal structure is defined as blocks of granite-greenstone separated by belts of high-grade terrains. The belts in eastern and southern Minas Gerais represent the lower parts of the Vitoria, Sao Paulo and Parana Blocks, which were up thrusted over the Brasilia Block through low-angle ductile simple shear Zones. That regional structure is cut and somewhat displaced by NW, ENE, NE and Ns fault sets. These faults are mostly related to the Transamazonian Event, and their geological expression appears to be as high-angle ductile simple shear zones. The development of the Middle/upper proterozoic folded sequences, the incidence of the Brasiliano/Uruacuano thermo tectonic events and the geometry of the Sao Francisco Craton were highly influenced by the preexistent weakness zones. The high-grade terrains, the borders of the Brasilia Block and the Transamazonian lineaments have been preferentially affected. The tectono-magmatic manifestations of the Wealdenian Reactivation, related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, occurred mostly among the uplifted zones (Alto Paranaiba Uplift) that developed partially until the rift stage (Mantiqueira Uplift). These processes clearly reveal the influence of the old structures of the state of Minas Gerais. The Mantiqueira Uplift presents a more accentuated seismic activity and thermal flow regime than the neighboring regions, so corresponding to the present less stable area of Minas Gerais. (DJM) [pt

  16. Structural geology of the North and Middle Caspian sea on the new geophysical data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, V.S; Rais, V.Sh; Victor, L.U

    2002-01-01

    Full text:A structural and tectonic map of the North and Middle Caspian Sea is made on the basis of seismic and other geological and geophysical data analysis. According to the plotting results the total amplitude range of the heterogeneous basement depths are in the North Caspian Sea (Ukatnensky depression-over 12 km and Prorva depression-over 16 km). In the middle Caspian Sea the deppest basement point is supposed in Sulak basin (over 12 km). The least basement depths are marked in Karpinsky ridge,Buzachinky and Karabogazsky arches (1-3 km). On the whole the morphology and structure of the basement confirms the conclusion previously made by many researches that the Caspian Sea is a heterogeneous depression superimposed on the junction of regional tectonic elements of various ages.The ancient East-European platform represented by Pricaspiisky depression (Donetsko-Astrakhanskaya fault system limits the latter in the south) is situated on the North. The middle Caspian Sea is occupied with the offshore continuation of Terek-Caspian foredeep is represented by Sulak basin clearly limited in the south by a system of upthrusts and thrusts falling under North Caucasus foreland.Geological interpretation of the Yuzhmorgeologiya Center new geophysical data allows making an assumption about the biohermexistence within TriassicSea sediments on Kuma-Manychsky depression offshore continuation. Seismic exploration works show strike-slip faults and thrust structure development within the sedimentary cover on the offshore continuation of Karpinsky ridge.Some strike-slipped blocks are separated by left-side shifts of the northeast stretch.The pool location at the left-side (east) blocks of the shift areas is marked.

  17. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock

  18. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S.

    2002-02-01

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock

  19. Monte Carlo waveform inversion and deep continental structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzert, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study of the three dimensional structure of the earth is limited by the uneven distribution of earthquake sources and seismic stations. The distribution of the earthquakes is fixed as most earthquakes occur along the plate boundaries. The use of artificial sources can improve the distribution

  20. Monte Carlo waveform inversion and deep continental structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzert, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study of the three dimensional structure of the earth is limited by the uneven distribution of earthquake sources and seismic stations. The distribution of the earthquakes is fixed as most earthquakes occur along the plate boundaries. The use of artificial sources can improve the distribution of

  1. Structure analysis of 3104 aluminium alloy applied to deep drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyszewski, A.; Lech-Grega, M.; Zelechowski, J.; Szymanski, W. [Light Metals Div., Skawina (Poland). Inst. of Non-Ferrous Metals

    2000-07-01

    Optical and electron microscopy observations and X-ray investigations of 3104 aluminium alloy ingots and bands after experimental heat treatment were carried out. The influence of ingots homogenisation temperature and parameters of material heat treatment after hot rolling on structure, texture and earing of band 0.3 mm thick was analysed. (orig.)

  2. Acoustic emission localization on ship hull structures using a deep learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgoulas, George; Kappatos, Vassilios; Nikolakopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, deep belief networks were used for localization of acoustic emission events on ship hull structures. In order to avoid complex and time consuming implementations, the proposed approach uses a simple feature extraction module, which significantly reduces the extremely high dimension......In this paper, deep belief networks were used for localization of acoustic emission events on ship hull structures. In order to avoid complex and time consuming implementations, the proposed approach uses a simple feature extraction module, which significantly reduces the extremely high...

  3. The results of borehole acoustic imaging from a granite in the Jihlava District, Czech Republic: implications for structural geological research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie; Novák, P.; Brož, Milan; Sosna, K.; Pitrák, K.; Kasíková, J.; Rukavičková, L.; Maňák, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2012), s. 92-101 ISSN 1916-9779 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : acoustic borehole imaging * structural geology * paleostress analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  4. Nucleon deep-inelastic structure functions in a quark model with factorizability assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkevich, A.D.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    Formula for structure functions of deep-inelastic electron scattering on nucleon is derived. For this purpose the dynamic model of factorizing quark amplitudes is used. It has been found that with increase of Q 2 transferred pulse square at great values of x kinemastic variable the decrease of structure function values is observed. At x single values the increase of structure function values is found. The comparison With experimental data shows a good agreement of the model with experiment

  5. On mobilization of lead and arsenic in groundwater in response to CO2 leakage from deep geological storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Apps, J.A.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2009-07-01

    If carbon dioxide stored in deep saline aquifers were to leak into an overlying aquifer containing potable groundwater, the intruding CO{sub 2} would change the geoc