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Sample records for deduced mass asymmetric

  1. Postglacial species displacement in Triturus newts deduced from asymmetrically introgressed mitochondrial DNA and ecological niche models

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    Wielstra Ben

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If the geographical displacement of one species by another is accompanied by hybridization, mitochondrial DNA can introgress asymmetrically, from the outcompeted species into the invading species, over a large area. We explore this phenomenon using the two parapatric crested newt species, Triturus macedonicus and T. karelinii, distributed on the Balkan Peninsula in south-eastern Europe, as a model. Results We first delimit a ca. 54,000 km2 area in which T. macedonicus contains T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA. This introgression zone bisects the range of T. karelinii, cutting off a T. karelinii enclave. The high similarity of introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes with those found in T. karelinii suggests a recent transfer across the species boundary. We then use ecological niche modeling to explore habitat suitability of the location of the present day introgression zone under current, mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum conditions. This area was inhospitable during the Last Glacial Maximum for both species, but would have been habitable at the mid-Holocene. Since the mid-Holocene, habitat suitability generally increased for T. macedonicus, whereas it decreased for T. karelinii. Conclusion The presence of a T. karelinii enclave suggests that T. karelinii was the first to colonize the area where the present day introgression zone is positioned after the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequently, we propose T. karelinii was outcompeted by T. macedonicus, which captured T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA via introgressive hybridization in the process. Ecological niche modeling suggests that this replacement was likely facilitated by a shift in climate since the mid-Holocene. We suggest that the northwestern part of the current introgression zone was probably never inhabited by T. karelinii itself, and that T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA spread there through T. macedonicus exclusively. Considering the spatial distribution of the

  2. Coronal mass ejection kinematics deduced from white light (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) and radio (Wind/WAVES) observations

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    Reiner, M. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Webb, D. F.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2005-09-01

    White-light and radio observations are combined to deduce the coronal and interplanetary kinematics of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that was ejected from the Sun at about 1700 UT on 2 November 2003. The CME, which was associated with an X8.3 solar flare from W56°, was observed by the Mauna Loa and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) coronagraphs to 14 R⊙. The measured plane-of-sky speed of the LASCO CME was 2600 km s-1. To deduce the kinematics of this CME, we use the plane-of-sky white light observations from both the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) all-sky camera on board the Coriolis spacecraft and the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, as well as the frequency drift rate of the low-frequency radio data and the results of the radio direction-finding analysis from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft. In agreement with the in situ observations for this event, we find that both the white light and radio observations indicate that the CME must have decelerated significantly beginning near the Sun and continuing well into the interplanetary medium. More specifically, by requiring self-consistency of all the available remote and in situ data, together with a simple, but not unreasonable, assumption about the general characteristic of the CME deceleration, we were able to deduce the radial speed and distance time profiles for this CME as it propagated from the Sun to 1 AU. The technique presented here, which is applicable to mutual SMEI/WAVES CME events, is expected to provide a more complete description and better quantitative understanding of how CMEs propagate through interplanetary space, as well as how the radio emissions, generated by propagating CME/shocks, relate to the shock and CME. This understanding can potentially lead to more accurate predictions for the onset times of space weather events, such as those that were observed during this unique period of intense solar activity.

  3. Search for asymmetric rotors in mass region A∼100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihari, Chhail; Singh, Yuvraj; Varshney, A.K.; Singh, M.; Gupta, K.K.; Gupta, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Recently in mass region a∼120-140 xenon and barium nuclei have been studied and the energy systematics have been drawn with excellent correlations in mass coefficient and rotation vibration interaction parameter with product of valance nucleons NpNn using three mass coefficients one each for yrast, odd and even γ-bands within the framework of general asymmetric rotor model. Interestingly in the mass region A ∼ 100 ruthenium nuclei have been dealt using similar approach but only one mass coefficient (B γ = B rot ) was found sufficient to reproduce the striking correlations among various parameters. The purpose of the present work is to study whether one mass coefficient works well in describing the inter band transitions in other nuclei in mass region a ∼ 100. We consider Mo, Ru and Pd nuclei and calculate the B(E2) values using asymmetric rotor model

  4. Orientation of X Lines in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection-Mass Ratio Dependency

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    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.

    2015-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the X line orientation of magnetic reconnection in an asymmetric configuration. A spatially localized perturbation is employed to induce a single X line, which has sufficient freedom to choose its orientation in three-dimensional systems. The effect of ion to electron mass ratio is investigated, and the X line appears to bisect the magnetic shear angle across the current sheet in the large mass ratio limit. The orientation can generally be deduced by scanning through the corresponding 2-D simulations to find the reconnection plane that maximizes the peak reconnection electric field. The deviation from the bisection angle in the lower mass ratio limit is consistent with the orientation shift of the most unstable linear tearing mode in an electron-scale current sheet.

  5. Asymmetric mass models of disk galaxies. I. Messier 99

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    Chemin, Laurent; Huré, Jean-Marc; Soubiran, Caroline; Zibetti, Stefano; Charlot, Stéphane; Kawata, Daisuke

    2016-04-01

    Mass models of galactic disks traditionally rely on axisymmetric density and rotation curves, paradoxically acting as if their most remarkable asymmetric features, such as lopsidedness or spiral arms, were not important. In this article, we relax the axisymmetry approximation and introduce a methodology that derives 3D gravitational potentials of disk-like objects and robustly estimates the impacts of asymmetries on circular velocities in the disk midplane. Mass distribution models can then be directly fitted to asymmetric line-of-sight velocity fields. Applied to the grand-design spiral M 99, the new strategy shows that circular velocities are highly nonuniform, particularly in the inner disk of the galaxy, as a natural response to the perturbed gravitational potential of luminous matter. A cuspy inner density profile of dark matter is found in M 99, in the usual case where luminous and dark matter share the same center. The impact of the velocity nonuniformity is to make the inner profile less steep, although the density remains cuspy. On another hand, a model where the halo is core dominated and shifted by 2.2-2.5 kpc from the luminous mass center is more appropriate to explain most of the kinematical lopsidedness evidenced in the velocity field of M 99. However, the gravitational potential of luminous baryons is not asymmetric enough to explain the kinematical lopsidedness of the innermost regions, irrespective of the density shape of dark matter. This discrepancy points out the necessity of an additional dynamical process in these regions: possibly a lopsided distribution of dark matter.

  6. Use of nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS to deduce selectivity of reaction in glycoside hydrolases

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    Kai eDeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemically synthesized nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS probes derivatized with tetrasaccharides were used to study the reactivity of representative Clostridium thermocellum β-glucosidase, endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolase. Diagnostic patterns for reactions of these different classes of enzymes were observed. Results show sequential removal of glucose by the β-glucosidase and a progressive increase in specificity of reaction from endoglucanases to cellobiohydrolase. Time-dependent reactions of these polysaccharide-selective enzymes were modeled by numerical integration, which provides a quantitative basis to make functional distinctions among a continuum of naturally evolved catalytic properties. Consequently, our method, which combines automated protein translation with high-sensitivity and time-dependent detection of multiple products, provides a new approach to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic trees with functional measurements.

  7. The asymmetric rotator model applied to odd-mass iridium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepenbring, R.

    1980-04-01

    The method of inversion of the eigenvalue problem previously developed for nuclei with axial symmetry is extended to asymmetric equilibrium shapes. This new approach of the asymmetric rotator model is applied to the odd-mass iridium isotopes. A satisfactory and coherent description of the observed energy spectra is obtained, especially for the lighter isotopes

  8. Limits on the production of large transverse momentum direct photons deduced from the measurement of low-mass electron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.H.; Iwata, S.; Palmer, R.B.; Rahm, D.C.; Rehak, P.; Stumer, I.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fowler, E.; Mannelli, I.; Mouzourakis, P.; Nakamura, K.; Nappi, A.; Willis, W.J.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Moneti, G.C.; Lankford, A.J.; Kourkoumelis, C.

    1978-01-01

    The hadronic production of electron pairs with masses between 200 and 500 MeV and large transverse momentum has been measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). The expected relation between low-mass electron pairs and real photons is used to determine the direct hadronic production of photons. Contrary to indications from some previous experiments, the observed spectrum is consistent with expectations from the decay of known mesons, and leads to a value for the ratio of direct photons to π 0 of γ/π 0 =(0.55+-0.92)% for 2 = 55 GeV. (Auth.)

  9. Heavy residues from very mass asymmetric heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanold, K.A.

    1994-08-01

    The isotopic production cross sections and momenta of all residues with nuclear charge (Z) greater than 39 from the reaction of 26, 40, and 50 MeV/nucleon 129 Xe + Be, C, and Al were measured. The isotopic cross sections, the momentum distribution for each isotope, and the cross section as a function of nuclear charge and momentum are presented here. The new cross sections are consistent with previous measurements of the cross sections from similar reaction systems. The shape of the cross section distribution, when considered as a function of Z and velocity, was found to be qualitatively consistent with that expected from an incomplete fusion reaction mechanism. An incomplete fusion model coupled to a statistical decay model is able to reproduce many features of these reactions: the shapes of the elemental cross section distributions, the emission velocity distributions for the intermediate mass fragments, and the Z versus velocity distributions. This model gives a less satisfactory prediction of the momentum distribution for each isotope. A very different model based on the Boltzman-Nordheim-Vlasov equation and which was also coupled to a statistical decay model reproduces many features of these reactions: the shapes of the elemental cross section distributions, the intermediate mass fragment emission velocity distributions, and the Z versus momentum distributions. Both model calculations over-estimate the average mass for each element by two mass units and underestimate the isotopic and isobaric widths of the experimental distributions. It is shown that the predicted average mass for each element can be brought into agreement with the data by small, but systematic, variation of the particle emission barriers used in the statistical model. The predicted isotopic and isobaric widths of the cross section distributions can not be brought into agreement with the experimental data using reasonable parameters for the statistical model

  10. Dirac Particle for the Position Dependent Mass in the Generalized Asymmetric Woods-Saxon Potential

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    Soner Alpdoğan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dirac equation with position dependent mass in the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential is solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The transmission and reflection coefficients are obtained by considering the one-dimensional electric current density for the Dirac particle and the equation describing the bound states is found by utilizing the continuity conditions of the obtained wave function. Also, by using the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential solutions, the scattering states are found out without making calculation for the Woods-Saxon, Hulthen, cusp potentials, and so forth, which are derived from the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential and the conditions describing transmission resonances and supercriticality are achieved. At the same time, the data obtained in this work are compared with the results achieved in earlier studies and are observed to be consistent.

  11. Seeking asymmetric rotors in mass region A∼100-110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Mani; Gupta, D K; Singh, M; Singh, Yuvraj; Bihari, Chhail; Varshney, A K; Gupta, K K

    2011-01-01

    The staggering indices S(I, I-1, I-2) versus spin (I) graphs have been plotted using known experimental data along with empirical calculations of Varshney et al (2007 Phys. Scr. 75 451) in some nuclei of mass region A∼100-110. Most of the transional nuclei of Mo, Ru and Pd isotopes have been found to be triaxial. The known B(E2) values of these nuclei are also close to the triaxial rotor model predictions (Davydov A S and Filippov G F 1958 Nucl. Phys. 8 237).

  12. Comparison of Asymmetric and Ice-cream Cone Models for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

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    Na, H.; Moon, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are major cause of the geomagnetic storms. To minimize the projection effect by coronagraph observation, several cone models have been suggested: an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model etc. These models allow us to determine the three dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone. In this study, we compare these parameters obtained from different models using 48 well-observed HCMEs from 2001 to 2002. And we obtain the root mean square error (RMS error) between measured projection speeds and calculated projection speeds for both cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with each other (R = 0.86), and the correlation coefficient of angular width is 0.6. The correlation coefficient of the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone is 0.31, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be due to the fact that the source locations of the asymmetric cone model are distributed near the center, while those of the ice-cream cone model are located in a wide range. The average RMS error of the asymmetric cone model (85.6km/s) is slightly smaller than that of the ice-cream cone model (87.8km/s).

  13. On the study of rotational effects in mass asymmetric colliding nuclei at intermediate energies

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    Kaur, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suneel

    2018-05-01

    The rotational dynamics has been studied for different mass asymmetric systems 49122In + 50126Sn, 48114Cs + 54134In, 40100Mo + 64148Gd, 3686Kr + 67162Ho, 3171Ga + 71177Lu, 2860Ni + 76188Os and 2450Cr + 78198 Pt for incident energies between 40 MeV/nucleon and 400 MeV/nucleon for impact parameter range 0.25 free protons have been compared successfully with IQMD model calculations. The rotational flow of free protons with increasing incident energies and elliptic flow (calculated from the fits of azimuthal distributions of free protons) dependence with energy has also been investigated.

  14. High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry for mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Kristian E; Moritz, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that separates gas-phase ions by their behavior in strong and weak electric fields. FAIMS is easily interfaced with electrospray ionization and has been implemented as an additional separation mode between liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) in proteomic studies. FAIMS separation is orthogonal to both LC and MS and is used as a means of on-line fractionation to improve the detection of peptides in complex samples. FAIMS improves dynamic range and concomitantly the detection limits of ions by filtering out chemical noise. FAIMS can also be used to remove interfering ion species and to select peptide charge states optimal for identification by tandem MS. Here, the authors review recent developments in LC-FAIMS-MS and its application to MS-based proteomics.

  15. High Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) for Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Kristian E.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY High field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that separates gas-phase ions by their behavior in strong and weak electric fields. FAIMS is easily interfaced with electrospray ionization and has been implemented as an additional separation mode between liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) in proteomic studies. FAIMS separation is orthogonal to both LC and MS and is used as a means of on-line fractionation to improve detection of peptides in complex samples. FAIMS improves dynamic range and concomitantly the detection limits of ions by filtering out chemical noise. FAIMS can also be used to remove interfering ion species and to select peptide charge states optimal for identification by tandem MS. Here, we review recent developments in LC-FAIMS-MS and its application to MS-based proteomics. PMID:23194268

  16. Left ventricular dimensions, systolic functions, and mass in term neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Bahar; Sert, Ahmet; Gokmen, Zeynel; Aypar, Ebru; Aslan, Eyup; Odabas, Dursun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated structural changes in the heart and cardiac dysfunction in foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. There are no available data that evaluated left ventricular dimensions and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate left ventricular dimensions, systolic functions, and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. We also assessed associated maternal risk factors, and compared results with healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates. In all, 62 asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, 39 symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, and 50 healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. The asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters and posterior wall diameter in systole and diastole than the control group. The symmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-diastolic diameter than the control group. All left ventricular dimensions were lower in the asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates compared with symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates (p>0.05), but not statistically significant except left ventricular posterior wall diameter in diastole (3.08±0.83 mm versus 3.54 ±0.72 mm) (pintrauterine growth restriction groups had significantly lower relative posterior wall thickness (0.54±0.19 versus 0.48±0.13 versus 0.8±0.12), left ventricular mass (9.8±4.3 g versus 8.9±3.4 g versus 22.2±5.7 g), and left ventricular mass index (63.6±29.1 g/m2 versus 54.5±24.4 g/m2 versus 109±28.8 g/m2) when compared with the control group. Our study has demonstrated that although neonates with both symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction had lower left ventricular dimensions, relative

  17. Intermediate-mass Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Reveal Neutron Star Kicks by Asymmetric Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Morii, Mikio; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei; Mori, Koji; Müller, Ewald; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The birth properties of neutron stars (NSs) yield important information about the still-debated physical processes that trigger the explosion as well as on intrinsic neutron-star physics. These properties include the high space velocities of young neutron stars with average values of several 100 km s‑1, with an underlying “kick” mechanism that is not fully clarified. There are two competing possibilities that could accelerate NSs during their birth: anisotropic ejection of either stellar debris or neutrinos. Here we present new evidence from X-ray measurements that chemical elements between silicon and calcium in six young gaseous supernova remnants are preferentially expelled opposite to the direction of neutron star motion. There is no correlation between the kick velocities and magnetic field strengths of these neutron stars. Our results support a hydrodynamic origin of neutron-star kicks connected to asymmetric explosive mass ejection, and they conflict with neutron-star acceleration scenarios that invoke anisotropic neutrino emission caused by particle and nuclear physics in combination with very strong neutron-star magnetic fields.

  18. A new peak detection algorithm for MALDI mass spectrometry data based on a modified Asymmetric Pseudo-Voigt model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijetunge, Chalini D; Saeed, Isaam; Boughton, Berin A; Roessner, Ute; Halgamuge, Saman K

    2015-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry (MS) is a ubiquitous analytical tool in biological research and is used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of bio-molecules. Peak detection is the essential first step in MS data analysis. Precise estimation of peak parameters such as peak summit location and peak area are critical to identify underlying bio-molecules and to estimate their abundances accurately. We propose a new method to detect and quantify peaks in mass spectra. It uses dual-tree complex wavelet transformation along with Stein's unbiased risk estimator for spectra smoothing. Then, a new method, based on the modified Asymmetric Pseudo-Voigt (mAPV) model and hierarchical particle swarm optimization, is used for peak parameter estimation. Using simulated data, we demonstrated the benefit of using the mAPV model over Gaussian, Lorentz and Bi-Gaussian functions for MS peak modelling. The proposed mAPV model achieved the best fitting accuracy for asymmetric peaks, with lower percentage errors in peak summit location estimation, which were 0.17% to 4.46% less than that of the other models. It also outperformed the other models in peak area estimation, delivering lower percentage errors, which were about 0.7% less than its closest competitor - the Bi-Gaussian model. In addition, using data generated from a MALDI-TOF computer model, we showed that the proposed overall algorithm outperformed the existing methods mainly in terms of sensitivity. It achieved a sensitivity of 85%, compared to 77% and 71% of the two benchmark algorithms, continuous wavelet transformation based method and Cromwell respectively. The proposed algorithm is particularly useful for peak detection and parameter estimation in MS data with overlapping peak distributions and asymmetric peaks. The algorithm is implemented using MATLAB and the source code is freely available at http://mapv.sourceforge.net.

  19. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part II: asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.

  20. Fully developed natural convection heat and mass transfer in a vertical annular porous medium with asymmetric wall temperatures and concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the effects of the modified Darcy number, the buoyancy ratio and the inner radius-gap ratio on the fully developed natural convection heat and mass transfer in a vertical annular non-Darcy porous medium with asymmetric wall temperatures and concentrations. The exact solutions for the important characteristics of fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are derived by using a non-Darcy flow model. The modified Darcy number is related to the flow resistance of the porous matrix. For the free convection heat and mass transfer in an annular duct filled with porous media, increasing the modified Darcy number tends to increase the volume flow rate, total heat rate added to the fluid, and the total species rate added to the fluid. Moreover, an increase in the buoyancy ratio or in the inner radius-gap ratio leads to an increase in the volume flow rate, the total heat rate added to the fluid, and the total species rate added to the fluid

  1. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, Hans; Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bemmel, van Greet; Herrera Rivera, Zahira; Wagner, Stephan; Kammer, von der Frank; Tromp, Peter C.; Hofmann, Thilo; Weigel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass

  2. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Peters, R.J.B.; Bemmel, M.E.M. van; Rivera, Z.E.H.; Wagner, S.; Kammer, F. von der; Tromp, P.C.; Hofmann, T.; Weigel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

  3. Characterization Of Commonly Encountered Explosives Using Highfield Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry Coupled With Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    symptoms depending on the relative concentration, even leading to death.32 2.4. Instrument Settings Both positive and negative ions can be formed...Detection Technology, pp. 619-633, 1992. 7. Osorio, Celia ; Gomez, Lewis M.; Hernandez, Samuel P.; Castro, Miguel E., Time-of- flight Mass Spectroscopy...vol. 15, pp. 1950-1952. 34. Federal Facilities Assessment Branch, Public Health Assessment, US Army Umatilla Depot Activity, Centers for Disease

  4. Neutrino mass and oscillation angle phenomena within the asymmetric left-right models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkin, O.; Rein, D.

    1994-07-01

    The light and heavy Majorana neutrinos which appear naturally in SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L model are investigated. The exact solutions are presented for the system of two neutrinos with multipole moments propagating through magnetic and matter fields. The cross section of the reaction e - e - → W - k W - n calculated and its dependence on the mass of the right-handed neutrino and the oscillation angle is investigated. The process e + e - → W + k W - n is also included in our analysis. (author). 26 refs, 9 figs

  5. 1: Mass asymmetric fission barriers for 98Mo; 2: Synthesis and characterization of actinide-specific chelating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeck, A.C.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1996-08-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for complex fragment emission from the compound nucleus 98 Mo, produced by the reaction of 86 Kr with 12 C. Mass asymmetric fission barriers have been obtained by fitting the excitation functions with a transition state formalism. The extracted barriers are ∼ 5.7 MeV higher, on average, than the calculations of the Rotating Finite Range Model (RFRM). These data clearly show an isospin dependence of the conditional barriers when compared with the extracted barriers from 90 Mo and 94 Mo. Eleven different liquid/liquid extractants were synthesized based upon the chelating moieties 3,2-HOPO and 3,4-HOPO; additionally, two liquid/liquid extractants based upon the 1,2-HOPO chelating moiety were obtained for extraction studies. The Pu(IV) extractions, quite surprisingly, yielded results that were very different from the Fe(III) extractions. The first trend remained the same: the 1,2-HOPOs were the best extractants, followed closely by the 3,2-HOPOs, followed by the 3,4-HOPOs; but in these Pu(IV) extractions the 3,4-HOPOs performed much better than in the Fe(III) extractions. 129 refs

  6. Effect of Lowering Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA on Vascular Pathology in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice with Reduced Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the impact of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and its degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH1, on atherosclerosis in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX ApoE-deficient mice. Male DDAH1 transgenic mice (TG, n = 39 and C57Bl/6J wild-type littermates (WT, n = 27 with or without the deletion of the ApoE gene underwent SNX at the age of eight weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 12 months of age, and blood chemistry, as well as the extent of atherosclerosis within the entire aorta were analyzed. Sham treated (no renal mass reduction ApoE-competent DDAH1 transgenic and wild-type littermates (n = 11 served as a control group. Overexpression of DDAH1 was associated with significantly lower ADMA levels in all treatment groups. Surprisingly, SNX mice did not exhibit higher ADMA levels compared to sham treated control mice. Furthermore, the degree of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice with SNX was similar in mice with or without overexpression of DDAH1. Overexpression of the ADMA degrading enzyme, DDAH1, did not ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient SNX mice. Furthermore, SNX in mice had no impact on ADMA levels, suggesting a minor role of this molecule in chronic kidney disease (CKD in this mouse model.

  7. 1: Mass asymmetric fission barriers for {sup 98}Mo; 2: Synthesis and characterization of actinide-specific chelating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeck, A.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst. for Transactinium Science]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

    1996-08-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for complex fragment emission from the compound nucleus {sup 98}Mo, produced by the reaction of {sup 86}Kr with {sup 12}C. Mass asymmetric fission barriers have been obtained by fitting the excitation functions with a transition state formalism. The extracted barriers are {approximately} 5.7 MeV higher, on average, than the calculations of the Rotating Finite Range Model (RFRM). These data clearly show an isospin dependence of the conditional barriers when compared with the extracted barriers from {sup 90}Mo and {sup 94}Mo. Eleven different liquid/liquid extractants were synthesized based upon the chelating moieties 3,2-HOPO and 3,4-HOPO; additionally, two liquid/liquid extractants based upon the 1,2-HOPO chelating moiety were obtained for extraction studies. The Pu(IV) extractions, quite surprisingly, yielded results that were very different from the Fe(III) extractions. The first trend remained the same: the 1,2-HOPOs were the best extractants, followed closely by the 3,2-HOPOs, followed by the 3,4-HOPOs; but in these Pu(IV) extractions the 3,4-HOPOs performed much better than in the Fe(III) extractions. 129 refs.

  8. Large Mass Flux Differences for Opposite Flow Directions of a Condensable Gas through an Asymmetric Porous Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uchytil, Petr; Loimer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 470, NOV 15 (2014), s. 451-457 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12AT010; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AT011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : condensation * vapor permeation * asymmetric membrane s Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.056, year: 2014

  9. Superior performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on a directly grown commercial mass 3D Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 core-shell electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chun-hua; Yin, Xuesong; Gong, Hao

    2013-11-13

    Pseudocapacitors based on fast surface Faradaic reactions can achieve high energy densities together with high power densities. Usually, researchers develop a thin layer of active materials to increase the energy density by enhancing the surface area; meanwhile, this sacrifices the mass loading. In this work, we developed a novel 3D core-shell Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 electrode that can provide high energy density with very high mass loading. Core-shell porous nanowires (Co3O4@Ni(OH)2) were directly grown on a Ni current collector as an integrated electrode/collector for the supercapacitor anode. This Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanoarchitectured electrode exhibits an ultrahigh areal capacitance of 15.83 F cm(-2). The asymmetric supercapacitor prototypes, assembled using Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 as the anode, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or active carbon (AC) as the cathode, and 6 M aqueous KOH as the electrolyte, exhibit very high energy densities falling into the energy-density range of Li-ion batteries. Because of the large mass loading and high energy density, the prototypes can drive a minifan or light a bulb even though the size is very small. These results indicate that our asymmetric supercapacitors have outstanding potential in commercial applications. Systematic study and scientific understanding were carried out.

  10. Analysis of asymmetric resonance response of thermally excited silicon micro-cantilevers for mass-sensitive nanoparticle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertke, Maik; Hamdana, Gerry; Wu, Wenze; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Uhde, Erik; Peiner, Erwin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the asymmetric resonance frequency (f 0) responses of thermally in-plane excited silicon cantilevers for a pocket-sized, cantilever-based airborne nanoparticle detector (Cantor) are analysed. By measuring the shift of f 0 caused by the deposition of nanoparticles (NPs), the cantilevers are used as a microbalance. The cantilever sensors are low cost manufactured from silicon by bulk-micromachining techniques and contain an integrated p-type heating actuator and a sensing piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge. f 0 is tracked by a homemade phase-locked loop (PPL) for real-time measurements. To optimize the sensor performance, a new cantilever geometry was designed, fabricated and characterized by its frequency responses. The most significant characterisation parameters of our application are f 0 and the quality factor (Q), which have high influences on sensitivity and efficiency of the NP detector. Regarding the asymmetric resonance signal, a novel fitting function based on the Fano resonance replacing the conventionally used function of the simple harmonic oscillator and a method to calculate Q by its fitting parameters were developed for a quantitative evaluation. To obtain a better understanding of the resonance behaviours, we analysed the origin of the asymmetric line shapes. Therefore, we compared the frequency response of the on-chip thermal excitation with an external excitation using an in-plane piezo actuator. In correspondence to the Fano effect, we could reconstruct the measured resonance curves by coupling two signals with constant amplitude and the expected signal of the cantilever, respectively. Moreover, the phase of the measurement signal can be analysed by this method, which is important to understand the locking process of the PLL circuit. Besides the frequency analysis, experimental results and calibration measurements with different particle types are presented. Using the described analysis method, decent results to optimize a next

  11. Combining asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with light-scattering and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection for characterization of nanoclay used in biopolymer nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Petersen, Jens Højslev; Koch, C. Bender

    2009-01-01

    mechanical and barrier properties and be more suitable for a wider range of food-packaging applications. Natural or synthetic clay nanofillers are being investigated for this purpose in a project called NanoPack funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council. In order to detect and characterize the size...... of clay nanoparticulates, an analytical system combining asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with multi-angle light-scattering detection (MALS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is presented. In a migration study, we tested a biopolymer nanocomposite consisting...... of polylactide (PLA) with 5% Cloisite®30B (a derivatized montmorillonite clay) as a filler. Based on AF4-MALS analyses, we found that particles ranging from 50 to 800 nm in radius indeed migrated into the 95% ethanol used as a food simulant. The full hyphenated AF4-MALS-ICP-MS system showed, however, that none...

  12. Fractionation and Characterization of High Aspect Ratio Gold Nanorods Using Asymmetric-Flow Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao M. Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs are of particular interest for biomedical applications due to their unique size-dependent longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band in the visible to near-infrared. Purified GNRs are essential for the advancement of technologies based on these materials. Used in concert, asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F and single particle inductively coupled mass spectrometry (spICP-MS provide unique advantages for fractionating and analyzing the typically complex mixtures produced by common synthetic procedures. A4F fractions collected at specific elution times were analyzed off-line by spICP-MS. The individual particle masses were obtained by conversion of the ICP-MS pulse intensity for each detected particle event, using a defined calibration procedure. Size distributions were then derived by transforming particle mass to length assuming a fixed diameter. The resulting particle lengths correlated closely with ex situ transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to our previously reported observations on the fractionation of low-aspect ratio (AR GNRs (AR < 4, under optimal A4F separation conditions the results for high-AR GNRs of fixed diameter (≈20 nm suggest normal, rather than steric, mode elution (i.e., shorter rods with lower AR generally elute first. The relatively narrow populations in late eluting fractions suggest the method can be used to collect and analyze specific length fractions; it is feasible that A4F could be appropriately modified for industrial scale purification of GNRs.

  13. Detection of chlorinated and brominated byproducts of drinking water disinfection using electrospray ionization-high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, B; Barnett, D A; Froese, K; Purves, R W; Hrudey, S; Guevremont, R

    1999-10-15

    The lower limit of detection for low molecular weight polar and ionic analytes using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is often severely compromised by an intense background that obscures ions of trace components in solution. Recently, a new technique, referred to as high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), has been shown to separate gas-phase ions at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. A FAIMS instrument is an ion filter that may be tuned, by control of electrical voltages, to continuously transmit selected ions from a complex mixture. This capability offers significant advantages when FAIMS is coupled with ESI, a source that generates a wide variety of ions, including solvent clusters and salt adducts. In this report, the tandem arrangement of ESI-FAIMS-MS is used for the analysis of haloacetic acids, a class of disinfection byproducts regulated by the US EPA. FAIMS is shown to effectively discriminate against background ions resulting from the electrospray of tap water solutions containing the haloacetic acids. Consequently, mass spectra are simplified, the selectivity of the method is improved, and the limits of detection are lowered compared with conventional ESI-MS. The detection limits of ESI-FAIMS-MS for six haloacetic acids ranged between 0.5 and 4 ng/mL in 9:1 methanol/tap water (5 and 40 ng/mL in the original tap water samples) with no preconcentration, derivatization, or chromatographic separation prior to analysis.

  14. Combined Multipoint Remote and In Situ Observations of the Asymmetric Evolution of a Fast Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    OpenAIRE

    Rollett, T.; Moestl, C.; Temmer, M.; Frahm, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Veronig, A. M.; Vrsnak, B.; Amerstorfer, U. V.; Farrugia, C. J.; Zic, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012 March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the...

  15. Identification of N-nitrosamines in treated drinking water using nanoelectrospray ionization high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan Yuan; Liu, Xin; Boyd, Jessica M; Qin, Feng; Li, Jianjun; Li, Xing-Fang

    2009-01-01

    We report a nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) with high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) method for determination of small molecules of m/z 50 to 200 and its potential application in environmental analysis. Integration of nESI with FAIMS and MS-MS combines the advantages of these three techniques into one method. The nESI provides efficient sample introduction and ionization and allows for collection of multiple data from only microliters of samples. The FAIMS provides rapid separation, reduces or eliminates background interference, and improves the signal-to-noise ratio as much as 10-fold over nESI-MS-MS. The tandem quadrupole time-of-flight MS detection provides accurate mass and mass spectral measurements for structural identification. Characteristics of FAIMS compensation voltage (CV) spectra of seven nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), were analyzed. The optimal CV of the nitrosamines (at DV -4000 V) were: -1.6 V, NDBA; 2.6 V, NDPA; 6.6 V, NPip; 8.8 V, NDEA; 13.2 V, NPyr; 14.4 V, NMEA; and 19.4 V, NDMA. Fragmentation patterns of the seven nitrosamines in the nESI-FAIMS-MS-MS were also obtained. The specific CV and MS-MS spectra resulted in positive identification of NPyr and NPip in a treated water sample, demonstrating the potential application of this technique in environmental analysis.

  16. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Johannes P F G; Peters, Ruud J B; van Bemmel, Margaretha E M; Rivera, Zahira E Herrera; Wagner, Stephan; von der Kammer, Frank; Tromp, Peter C; Hofmann, Thilo; Weigel, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for chemical characterization. The aF4-ICPMS conditions were optimised and validated for linearity, limit of detection, recovery, repeatability and reproducibility, all indicating good performance. Multi-element detection with aF4-ICPMS showed that some commercial pigments contained zirconium co-eluting with titanium in aF4. The other two TiMs, NM103 and NM104, contained aluminium as integral part of the titanium peak eluting in aF4. The materials were characterised using various size determination techniques: retention time in aF4, aF4 hyphenated with multi-angle laser light spectrometry (MALS), single particle ICPMS (spICPMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle tracking analysis (PTA). PTA appeared inappropriate. For the other techniques, size distribution patterns were quite similar, i.e. high polydispersity with diameters from 20 to >700 nm, a modal peak between 200 and 500 nm and a shoulder at 600 nm. Number-based size distribution techniques as spICPMS and SEM showed smaller modal diameters than aF4-UV, from which mass-based diameters are calculated. With aF4-MALS calculated, light-scattering-based "diameters of gyration" (Øg) are similar to hydrodynamic diameters (Øh) from aF4-UV analyses and diameters observed with SEM, but much larger than with spICPMS. A Øg/Øh ratio of about 1 indicates that the TiMs are oblate spheres or fractal aggregates. SEM observations confirm the latter structure. The rationale for differences in modal peak diameter is discussed.

  17. COMBINED MULTIPOINT REMOTE AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS OF THE ASYMMETRIC EVOLUTION OF A FAST SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollett, T.; Möstl, C.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Amerstorfer, U. V. [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Frahm, R. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Vršnak, B.; Žic, T. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, 1000 Zagreb (Croatia); Farrugia, C. J. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Zhang, T. L., E-mail: tanja.rollett@gmx.at [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2014-07-20

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012  March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind, and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the novel constrained self-similar expansion method. In addition, we used a drag-based model to investigate the influence of the ambient solar wind on the CME's propagation. We found that two preceding CMEs heading in different directions disturbed the overall shape of the CME and influenced its propagation behavior. While the Venus-directed segment underwent a gradual deceleration (from ∼2700 km s{sup –1} at 15 R {sub ☉} to ∼1500 km s{sup –1} at 154 R {sub ☉}), the Earth-directed part showed an abrupt retardation below 35 R {sub ☉} (from ∼1700 to ∼900 km s{sup –1}). After that, it was propagating with a quasi-constant speed in the wake of a preceding event. Our results highlight the importance of studies concerning the unequal evolution of CMEs. Forecasting can only be improved if conditions in the solar wind are properly taken into account and if attention is also paid to large events preceding the one being studied.

  18. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers are reporting remarkable new findings that shed light on a decade-long debate about one kind of supernovae, the explosions that mark a star's final demise: does the star die in a slow burn or with a fast bang? From their observations, the scientists find that the matter ejected by the explosion shows significant peripheral asymmetry but a nearly spherical interior, most likely implying that the explosion finally propagates at supersonic speed. These results are reported today in Science Express, the online version of the research journal Science, by Lifan Wang, Texas A&M University (USA), and colleagues Dietrich Baade and Ferdinando Patat from ESO. "Our results strongly suggest a two-stage explosion process in this type of supernova," comments Wang. "This is an important finding with potential implications in cosmology." ESO PR Photo 44/06 ESO PR Photo 44/06 Clumpy Explosion (Artist's Impression) Using observations of 17 supernovae made over more than 10 years with ESO's Very Large Telescope and the McDonald Observatory's Otto Struve Telescope, astronomers inferred the shape and structure of the debris cloud thrown out from Type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are thought to be the result of the explosion of a small and dense star - a white dwarf - inside a binary system. As its companion continuously spills matter onto the white dwarf, the white dwarf reaches a critical mass, leading to a fatal instability and the supernova. But what sparks the initial explosion, and how the blast travels through the star have long been thorny issues. The supernovae Wang and his colleagues observed occurred in distant galaxies, and because of the vast cosmic distances could not be studied in detail using conventional imaging techniques, including interferometry. Instead, the team determined the shape of the exploding cocoons by recording the polarisation of the light from the dying stars. Polarimetry relies on the fact that light is composed of electromagnetic waves

  19. Differentiation and characterization of isotopically modified silver nanoparticles in aqueous media using asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation coupled to optical detection and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigault, Julien [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory, 100 Bureau Drive Stop 8520, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States); Hackley, Vincent A., E-mail: vince.hackley@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory, 100 Bureau Drive Stop 8520, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States)

    2013-02-06

    Highlights: ► Isotopically modified and unmodified AgNPs characterization by A4F-DAD-MALS–DLS-ICP-MS. ► Size-resolved characterization and speciation in simple or complex media. ► Capacity to detect stable isotope enriched AgNPs in a standard estuarine sediment. ► New opportunities to monitor and study fate and transformations of AgNPs. -- Abstract: The principal objective of this work was to develop and demonstrate a new methodology for silver nanoparticle (AgNP) detection and characterization based on asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F) coupled on-line to multiple detectors and using stable isotopes of Ag. This analytical approach opens the door to address many relevant scientific challenges concerning the transport and fate of nanomaterials in natural systems. We show that A4F must be optimized in order to effectively fractionate AgNPs and larger colloidal Ag particles. With the optimized method one can accurately determine the size, stability and optical properties of AgNPs and their agglomerates under variable conditions. In this investigation, we couple A4F to optical absorbance (UV–vis spectrometer) and scattering detectors (static and dynamic) and to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. With this combination of detection modes it is possible to determine the mass isotopic signature of AgNPs as a function of their size and optical properties, providing specificity necessary for tracing and differentiating labeled AgNPs from their naturally occurring or anthropogenic analogs. The methodology was then applied to standard estuarine sediment by doping the suspension with a known quantity of isotopically enriched {sup 109}AgNPs stabilized by natural organic matter (standard humic and fulvic acids). The mass signature of the isotopically enriched AgNPs was recorded as a function of the measured particle size. We observed that AgNPs interact with different particulate components of the sediment, and also self-associate to form

  20. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantification of quantum dots bioconjugation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Miranda, Mario; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Costa-Fernández, José M; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2015-11-27

    Hyphenation of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) to an on-line elemental detection (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS) is proposed as a powerful diagnostic tool for quantum dots bioconjugation studies. In particular, conjugation effectiveness between a "model" monoclonal IgG antibody (Ab) and CdSe/ZnS core-shell Quantum Dots (QDs), surface-coated with an amphiphilic polymer, has been monitored here by such hybrid AF4-ICP-MS technique. Experimental conditions have been optimized searching for a proper separation between the sought bioconjugates from the eventual free reagents excesses employed during the bioconjugation (QDs and antibodies). Composition and pH of the carrier have been found to be critical parameters to ensure an efficient separation while ensuring high species recovery from the AF4 channel. An ICP-MS equipped with a triple quadropole was selected as elemental detector to enable sensitive and reliable simultaneous quantification of the elemental constituents, including sulfur, of the nanoparticulated species and the antibody. The hyphenated technique used provided nanoparticle size-based separation, elemental detection, and composition analysis capabilities that turned out to be instrumental in order to investigate in depth the Ab-QDs bioconjugation process. Moreover, the analytical strategy here proposed allowed us not only to clearly identify the bioconjugation reaction products but also to quantify nanoparticle:antibodies bioconjugation efficiency. This is a key issue in future development of analytical and bioanalytical photoluminescent QDs applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in food products by atmospheric pressure ionization-high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakowski, Beata M; D'Agostino, Paul A; Chenier, Claude; Mester, Zoltán

    2007-11-01

    Flow injection high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS)-mass spectrometry (MS) methodology was developed for the detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) agents in spiked food products. The CW agents, soman (GD), sarin (GB), tabun (GA), cyclohexyl sarin (GF), and four hydrolysis products, ethylphosphonic acid (EPA), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (Pin MPA), and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) were separated and detected by positive ion and negative ion atmospheric pressure ionization-FAIMS-MS. Under optimized conditions, the compensation voltages were 7.2 V for GD, 8.0 V for GA, 7.2 V for GF, 7.6 V for GB, 18.2 V for EPA, 25.9 V for MPA, -1.9 V for PinMPA, and +6.8 V for IMPA. Sample preparation was kept to a minimum, resulting in analysis times of 3 min or less per sample. The developed methodology was evaluated by spiking bottled water, canola oil, cornmeal, and honey samples at low microgram per gram (or microg/mL) levels with the CW agents or CW agent hydrolysis products. The detection limits observed for the CW agents in the spiked food samples ranged from 3 to 15 ng/mL in bottled water, 1-33 ng/mL in canola oil, 1-34 ng/g in cornmeal, and 13-18 ng/g in honey. Detection limits were much higher for the CW agent hydrolysis products, with only MPA being detected in spiked honey samples.

  2. Asymmetric collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Colestock, P.; Goderre, G.; Johnson, D.; Martin, P.; Holt, J.; Kaplan, D.

    1993-01-01

    The study of CP violation in beauty decay is one of the key challenges facing high energy physics. Much work has not yielded a definitive answer how this study might best be performed. However, one clear conclusion is that new accelerator facilities are needed. Proposals include experiments at asymmetric electron-positron colliders and in fixed-target and collider modes at LHC and SSC. Fixed-target and collider experiments at existing accelerators, while they might succeed in a first observation of the effect, will not be adequate to study it thoroughly. Giomataris has emphasized the potential of a new approach to the study of beauty CP violation: the asymmetric proton collider. Such a collider might be realized by the construction of a small storage ring intersecting an existing or soon-to-exist large synchrotron, or by arranging collisions between a large synchrotron and its injector. An experiment at such a collider can combine the advantages of fixed-target-like spectrometer geometry, facilitating triggering, particle identification and the instrumentation of a large acceptance, while the increased √s can provide a factor > 100 increase in beauty-production cross section compared to Tevatron or HERA fixed-target. Beams crossing at a non-zero angle can provide a small interaction region, permitting a first-level decay-vertex trigger to be implemented. To achieve large √s with a large Lorentz boost and high luminosity, the most favorable venue is the high-energy booster (HEB) at the SSC Laboratory, though the CERN SPS and Fermilab Tevatron are also worth considering

  3. Dust-gas interaction deduced from Halley multicolour camera observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Delamere, W.A.; Keller, H.U.; Reitsema, H.J.; Schmidt, H.U.; Whipple, F.L.; Wilhelm, K.

    1986-01-01

    The dust and gas productions of Comet Halley were measured by the dust counter and the mass spectrometers on the Giotto spacecraft. These instruments give only little information about the spatial asymmetry of the activity. The asymmetry in the dust production is clearly evident from the dust jets seen in the Halley Multicolour Camera images. Since the dust is entrained by the gas, production must be similarly asymmetric. The intensity profiles along and across several dust jets are related to their source regions on the nucleus. Properties of the dust jets are investigated. A few compact, but highly active source regions on the nucleus produce most of the visible dust and can account for most of the gas produced by the comet. 2 refs

  4. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical...

  5. Deducing magnetic resonance neuroimages based on knowledge from samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuwei; Liu, Feng; Fan, Mingxia; Li, Xuzhou; Zhao, Zhiyong; Zeng, Zhaoling; Wang, Yi; Xu, Dongrong

    2017-12-01

    Because individual variance always exists, using the same set of predetermined parameters for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not be exactly suitable for each participant. We propose a knowledge-based method that can repair MRI data of undesired contrast as if a new scan were acquired using imaging parameters that had been individually optimized. The method employed a strategy called analogical reasoning to deduce voxel-wise relaxation properties using morphological and biological similarity. The proposed framework involves steps of intensity normalization, tissue segmentation, relaxation time deducing, and image deducing. This approach has been preliminarily validated using conventional MRI data at 3T from several examples, including 5 normal and 9 clinical datasets. It can effectively improve the contrast of real MRI data by deducing imaging data using optimized imaging parameters based on deduced relaxation properties. The statistics of deduced images shows a high correlation with real data that were actually collected using the same set of imaging parameters. The proposed method of deducing MRI data using knowledge of relaxation times alternatively provides a way of repairing MRI data of less optimal contrast. The method is also capable of optimizing an MRI protocol for individual participants, thereby realizing personalized MR imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Asymmetric Higgsino dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kfir; Efrati, Aielet; Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Riotto, Antonio

    2012-08-03

    In the supersymmetric framework, prior to the electroweak phase transition, the existence of a baryon asymmetry implies the existence of a Higgsino asymmetry. We investigate whether the Higgsino could be a viable asymmetric dark matter candidate. We find that this is indeed possible. Thus, supersymmetry can provide the observed dark matter abundance and, furthermore, relate it with the baryon asymmetry, in which case the puzzle of why the baryonic and dark matter mass densities are similar would be explained. To accomplish this task, two conditions are required. First, the gauginos, squarks, and sleptons must all be very heavy, such that the only electroweak-scale superpartners are the Higgsinos. With this spectrum, supersymmetry does not solve the fine-tuning problem. Second, the temperature of the electroweak phase transition must be low, in the (1-10) GeV range. This condition requires an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

  7. Systematic features of mass yield curves in low-energy fission of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagame, Yuichiro

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of mass yield curves in fission of wide range of nuclides from pre-actinides through transactinides are reviewed and the following points are discussed. (1) Systematic trends of the mass yield distributions in low-energy proton-induced fission of actinides and in spontaneous fission of actinides are discussed in terms of weighted mean mass numbers of the light and heavy asymmetric mass yield peaks and widths of the heavy asymmetric mass yields. (2) Gross features of the two kinds of mass yield curves, symmetric and asymmetric ones, as a function of a fissioning nucleus. (3) Competition between the symmetric and asymmetric fission as a function of not only Z (proton number) but also N (neutron number) of a fissioning nucleus. (4) Experimental verification of the existence of two kinds of deformation paths in low energy fission of actinides; the first path is initiated at higher threshold energy and ends with elongated scission configuration, giving a final mass yield distribution centered around the symmetric mass division, 'symmetric fission path'. In the second path, a fissioning nucleus experiences lower threshold energy and results in more compact scission configuration, which gives a double humped mass distribution always centered around A=140 for the heavier fragment, 'asymmetric fission path'. (5) Interpretation of the 'bimodal fission' observed in the spontaneous fission of heavy actinides as the presence of the two fission paths of the ordinary asymmetric one and a strongly shell-affected symmetric path from the systematic analysis of scission configurations. (6) A dynamical fission process deduced from the analysis of the experimental mass yield curves and the correlation data of neutron multiplicity and fragment mass and total kinetic energy. (7) Prediction of the characteristics of gross properties of fission in superheavy nuclei around 280 114. (8) Characteristics of highly asymmetric fission: formation cross section as a function of

  8. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  9. Synchronization of Two Asymmetric Exciters in a Vibrating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Ren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate synchronization of two asymmetric exciters in a vibrating system. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the two exciters (NDDETE. By using the condition of existence for the zero solutions of the NDDETE, the condition of implementing synchronization is deduced: the torque of frequency capture is equal to or greater than the difference in the output electromagnetic torque between the two motors. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we deduce the condition of stability of synchronization that the inertia coupling matrix of the two exciters is positive definite. A numeric result shows that the structural parameters can meet the need of synchronization stability.

  10. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties within the extended Brueckner theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassaneen, Khaled S.A. [Sohag University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag (Egypt); Taif University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    Microscopically, the equation of state (EOS) and other properties of asymmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature have been investigated extensively by adopting the non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) and the extended BHF approaches by using the self-consistent Green's function approach or by including a phenomenological three-body force. Once three-body forces are introduced, the phenomenological saturation point is reproduced and the theory is applied to the study of neutron star properties. We can calculate the total mass and radius for neutron stars using various equations of state at high densities in β-equilibrium without hyperons. A comparison with other microscopic predictions based on non-relativistic and density-dependent relativistic mean-field calculations has been done. It is found that relativistic EOS yields however larger mass and radius for neutron star than predictions based on non-relativistic approaches. Also the three-body force plays a crucial role to deduce the theoretical value of the maximum mass of neutron stars in agreement with recent measurements of the neutron star mass. (orig.)

  11. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  12. Intrinsic neutrino properties: As deduced from cosmology, astrophysics, accelerator and non-accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    I review the intrinsic properties of neutrinos as deduced from cosmological, astrophysical, and laboratory experiments. Bounds on magnetic moments and theoretical models which yield large moments but small masses are briefly discussed. The MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is reviewed in light of the existing data from the 37 Cl and Kamiokande II experiments. The combined data disfavor the adiabatic solution and tend to support either the large angle solution or the nonadiabatic one. In the former case the 71 Ga signal will be suppressed by the same factor as for 37 Cl, and in the latter case the suppression factor could be as large as 10 or more. 41 refs

  13. Principles of asymmetric synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Gawley, Robert E; Aube, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis, this book presents a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles governing stereoselective reactions, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Practical Aspects of Asymmetric Synthesis" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds, techniques for analysis of stereoisomers using chromatographic, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The authors then present an overview of the most important methods in contemporary asymmetric synthesis organized by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, one chapter on reductions...

  14. Vortex Dynamics of Asymmetric Heave Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Curtis; Maurer, Benjamin; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Heave plates can be used to provide reaction forces for wave energy converters, which harness the power in ocean surface waves to produce electricity. Heave plate inertia includes both the static mass of the heave plate, as well as the ``added mass'' of surrounding water accelerated with the object. Heave plate geometries may be symmetric or asymmetric, with interest in asymmetric designs driven by the resulting hydrodynamic asymmetry. Limited flow visualization has been previously conducted on symmetric heave plates, but flow visualization of asymmetric designs is needed to understand the origin of observed hydrodynamic asymmetries and their dependence on the Keulegan-Carpenter number. For example, it is hypothesized that the time-varying added mass of asymmetric heave plates is caused by vortex shedding, which is related to oscillation amplitude. Here, using direct flow visualization, we explore the relationship between vortex dynamics and time-varying added mass and drag. These results suggest potential pathways for more advanced heave plate designs that can exploit vortex formation and shedding to achieve more favorable hydrodynamic properties for wave energy converters.

  15. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2018-05-01

    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical constraints. Importantly, it incorporates a deep reason for why the dark matter mass scale is related to the proton mass, a key consideration in ADM models. Our starting point is the idea of mirror matter, which offers an explanation for dark matter by duplicating the standard model with a dark sector related by a Z2 parity symmetry. However, the dark sector need not manifest as a symmetric copy of the standard model in the present day. By utilizing the mechanism of "asymmetric symmetry breaking" with two Higgs doublets in each sector, we develop a model of ADM where the mirror symmetry is spontaneously broken, leading to an electroweak scale in the dark sector that is significantly larger than that of the visible sector. The weak sensitivity of the ordinary and dark QCD confinement scales to their respective electroweak scales leads to the necessary connection between the dark matter and proton masses. The dark matter is composed of either dark neutrons or a mixture of dark neutrons and metastable dark hydrogen atoms. Lepton asymmetries are generated by the C P -violating decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos in both sectors. These are then converted by sphaleron processes to produce the observed ratio of visible to dark matter in the universe. The dynamics responsible for the kinetic decoupling of the two sectors emerges as an important issue that we only partially solve.

  16. Immobilization of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 for efficient asymmetric reduction of ketones and biocatalyst recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiao-Hong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst with exclusive anti-Prelog stereoselectivity for the reduction of prochiral ketones that can be used to make valuable chiral alcohols such as (R-4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-ol. Although it has promising catalytic properties, its stability and reusability are relatively poor compared to other biocatalysts. Hence, we explored various materials for immobilizing the active cells, in order to improve the operational stability of biocatalyst. Results It was found that Ca-alginate give the best immobilized biocatalyst, which was then coated with chitosan to further improve its mechanical strength and swelling-resistance properties. Conditions were optimized for formation of reusable immobilized beads which can be used for repeated batch asymmetric reduction of 4′-chloroacetophenone. The optimized immobilized biocatalyst was very promising, with a specific activity of 85% that of the free-cell biocatalyst (34.66 μmol/min/g dw of cells for immobilized catalyst vs 40.54 μmol/min/g for free cells in the asymmetric reduction of 4′-chloroacetophenone. The immobilized cells showed better thermal stability, pH stability, solvent tolerance and storability compared with free cells. After 25 cycles reaction, the immobilized beads still retained >50% catalytic activity, which was 3.5 times higher than degree of retention of activity by free cells reused in a similar way. The cells could be recultured in the beads to regain full activity and perform a further 25 cycles of the reduction reaction. The external mass transfer resistances were negligible as deduced from Damkohler modulus Da η ∅ Conclusions Ca-alginate coated with chitosan is a highly effective material for immobilization of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 cells for repeated use in the asymmetric reduction of ketones. Only a small cost in terms of the slightly lower catalytic activity compared to

  17. ALMA Compact Array observations of the Fried Egg nebula: Evidence for large-scale asymmetric mass-loss from the yellow hypergiant IRAS 17163-3907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, S H J; Lagadec, E; Muller, S; Black, J H; Cox, N L J; Galván-Madrid, R; Justtanont, K; Longmore, S; Olofsson, H; Oudmaijer, R D; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Szczerba, R; Vlemmings, W; van Winckel, H; Zijlstra, A

    2017-01-10

    Yellow hypergiants are rare and represent a fast evolutionary stage of massive evolved stars. That evolutionary phase is characterised by a very intense mass loss, the understanding of which is still very limited. Here we report ALMA Compact Array observations of a 50″-mosaic toward the Fried Egg nebula, around one of the few Galactic yellow hypergiants IRAS 17163-3907. The emission from the 12 CO J=2-1 line, H30 α recombination line, and continuum is imaged at a resolution of ~8″, revealing the morphology of the molecular environment around the star. The continuum emission is unresolved and peaks at the position of the star. The radio recombination line H30 α shows unresolved emission at the star, with an approximately gaussian spectrum centered on a velocity of 21±3 km s -1 with a width of 57±6 km s -1 . In contrast, the CO 2-1 emission is complex and decomposes into several components beyond the contamination from interstellar gas in the line of sight. The CO spectrum toward the star is a broad plateau, centered at the systemic velocity of +18 km s -1 and with an expansion velocity of 100±10 km s -1 . Assuming isotropic and constant mass-loss, we estimate a mass-loss rate of 8±1.5 ×10 -5 M ⊙ yr -1 . At a radius of 25″ from the star, we detect CO emission associated with the dust ring previously imaged by Herschel . The kinematics of this ring, however, is not consistent with an expanding shell, but show a velocity gradient of v sys ±20 km s -1 . In addition, we find a puzzling bright feature radially connecting the star to the CO ring, at a velocity of +40 km s -1 relative to the star. This spur feature may trace a unidirectional ejection event from the star. Our ACA observations reveal the complex morphology around IRAS 17163 and illustrate the breakthroughs that ALMA will bring to the field of massive stellar evolution.

  18. Elemental ratios for characterization of quantum-dots populations in complex mixtures by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line coupled to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-08-11

    Separation and identification of nanoparticles of different composition, with similar particle diameter, coexisting in heterogeneous suspensions of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been thoroughly assessed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled on-line to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detectors. Chemical characterization of any previously on-line separated nanosized species was achieved by the measurement of the elemental molar ratios of every element involved in the synthesis of the QDs, using inorganic standards and external calibration by flow injection analysis (FIA). Such elemental molar ratios, strongly limited so far to pure single nanoparticles suspensions, have been achieved with adequate accuracy by coupling for the first time an ICP-QQQ instrument to an AF4 system. This hyphenation turned out to be instrumental to assess the chemical composition of the different populations of nanoparticles coexisting in the relatively complex mixtures, due to its capabilities to detect the hardly detectable elements involved in the synthesis. Interestingly such information, complementary to that obtained by fluorescence, was very valuable to detect and identify unexpected nanosized species, present at significant level, produced during QDs synthesis and hardly detectable by standard approaches. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Elemental ratios for characterization of quantum-dots populations in complex mixtures by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line coupled to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T.; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M.; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hyphenated system allows unequivocal identification of nanoparticle populations. • AF4 separation permitted detection of unexpected nanosized species in a sample. • ICP-QQQ provides elemental ratios with adequate accuracy in every nanoparticle. • Purity and chemical composition of different quantum dot samples were assessed. - Abstract: Separation and identification of nanoparticles of different composition, with similar particle diameter, coexisting in heterogeneous suspensions of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been thoroughly assessed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled on-line to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detectors. Chemical characterization of any previously on-line separated nanosized species was achieved by the measurement of the elemental molar ratios of every element involved in the synthesis of the QDs, using inorganic standards and external calibration by flow injection analysis (FIA). Such elemental molar ratios, strongly limited so far to pure single nanoparticles suspensions, have been achieved with adequate accuracy by coupling for the first time an ICP-QQQ instrument to an AF4 system. This hyphenation turned out to be instrumental to assess the chemical composition of the different populations of nanoparticles coexisting in the relatively complex mixtures, due to its capabilities to detect the hardly detectable elements involved in the synthesis. Interestingly such information, complementary to that obtained by fluorescence, was very valuable to detect and identify unexpected nanosized species, present at significant level, produced during QDs synthesis and hardly detectable by standard approaches

  20. Reflection asymmetric shapes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Emling, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data show that there is no even-even nucleus with a reflection asymmetric shape in its ground state. Maximum octupole- octupole correlations occur in nuclei in the mass 224 (N∼134, Z∼88) region. Parity doublets, which are the characteristic signature of octupole deformation, have been observed in several odd mass Ra, Ac and Pa nuclei. Intertwined negative and positive parity levels have been observed in several even-even Ra and Th nuclei above spin ∼8ℎ. In both cases, the opposite parity states are connected by fast El transitions. In some medium-mass nuclei intertwined negative and positive parity levels have also been observed above spin ∼7ℎ. The nuclei which exhibit octupole deformation in this mass region are 144 Ba, 146 Ba and 146 Ce; 142 Ba, 148 Ce, 150 Ce and 142 Xe do not show these characteristics. No case of parity doublet has been observed in the mass 144 region. 32 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  1. Temporal variability of TEC deduced from groundbased measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosert, M.; Ezquer, R.G.; Jadur, C.; Radicella, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the behaviour of the integrated total electron content (ITEC) deduced from electron density profiles of two Argentine stations: Tucuman (26.9 S; 294.6 E) and San Juan (31.5 S; 290.4 E). The ITEC values have been obtained by the technique proposed by Reinisch and Huang (2000). The database includes electron density profiles derived from ionograms recorded at 4 typical hours of the day (00.00, 06.00, 12.00 and 18.00 LT) during different seasonal and solar activity conditions. An analysis of the day to day variability of ITEC has also been done. (author)

  2. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Heick, Rune; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting...... the results in a natural language. The framework allows a fast exploration and integration of a variety of machine learning algorithms combined with data recovery mechanisms for improving the recognition’s accuracy. Consequently, the framework generates natural language reports of the user’s behavior from...

  3. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liewen; Cai, Baojun; Shen, Chun; Ko, Cheming; Xu, Jun; Li, Baoan

    2010-01-01

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent modified Gogny (MDI) interaction, the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach, and a phenomenological modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we have studied the incompressibility K sat (δ) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of K sat (δ) in powers of isospin asymmetry δ, i.e., K sat (δ) = K 0 + K sat,2 δ 2 + K sat,4 δ 4 + O(δ 6 ), the magnitude of the 4th-order K sat,4 parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order K sat,2 parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. Furthermore, the K sat,2 can be expressed as K sat,2 = K sym – 6L – J 0 /K 0 L in terms of the slope parameter L and the curvature parameter K sym of the symmetry energy and the third-order derivative parameter J 0 of the energy of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density, and we find the higher order J 0 contribution to K sat,2 generally cannot be neglected. Also, we have found a linear correlation between K sym and L as well as between J 0 /K 0 and K 0 . Using these correlations together with the empirical constraints on K 0 and L, the nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ0) at normal nuclear density, and the nucleon effective mass, we have obtained an estimated value of K sat,2 = -370 ± 120 MeV for the 2nd-order parameter in the isospin asymmetry expansion of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. (author)

  4. Quantifying social asymmetric structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanas, Antonio; Salafranca, Lluís; Riba, Carles; Sierra, Vicenta; Leiva, David

    2006-08-01

    Many social phenomena involve a set of dyadic relations among agents whose actions may be dependent. Although individualistic approaches have frequently been applied to analyze social processes, these are not generally concerned with dyadic relations, nor do they deal with dependency. This article describes a mathematical procedure for analyzing dyadic interactions in a social system. The proposed method consists mainly of decomposing asymmetric data into their symmetric and skew-symmetric parts. A quantification of skew symmetry for a social system can be obtained by dividing the norm of the skew-symmetric matrix by the norm of the asymmetric matrix. This calculation makes available to researchers a quantity related to the amount of dyadic reciprocity. With regard to agents, the procedure enables researchers to identify those whose behavior is asymmetric with respect to all agents. It is also possible to derive symmetric measurements among agents and to use multivariate statistical techniques.

  5. Asymmetrical field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  6. Systematics of criticality data of special actinide nuclides deduced through the Trombay criticality formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; SubbaRao, K.; Garg, S.B.; Acharya, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a number of interesting systematics and correlations deduced by analyzing the criticality data of special actinide nuclides using concepts embodied in the Trombay critically formula (TCF). The κ ∞ of fast metal actinide nuclides gives a remarkable linear correlation with the fissility parameter Z 2 /A. The neutron leakage probability of all fast metal cores characterized using a constant parameter σ std enables computation of the critical mass value of any unknown fissile nuclide knowing only its Z 2 /A value. Since the neutron leakage probability from dilute fissile solutions is primarily governed by the scattering/slowing down properties of the hydrogen present in water, critical masses and subcritical limits can be predicted for any water-reflected system at any specified hydrogen-to-actinide atomic ratio knowing only the κ ∞ value of the given fissile solution

  7. Asymmetric ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Alexander, Michael L.; Follansbee, James C.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  8. Fold catastrophe model of dynamic pillar failure in asymmetric mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Pan; Ai-wu Li; Yun-song Qi [Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao (China). College of Civil Engineering

    2009-01-15

    A rock burst disaster not only destroys the pit facilities and results in economic loss but it also threatens the life of the miners. Pillar rock burst has a higher frequency of occurrence in the pit compared to other kinds of rock burst. Understanding the cause, magnitude and prevention of pillar rock burst is a significant undertaking. Equations describing the bending moment and displacement of the rock beam in asymmetric mining have been deduced for simplified asymmetric beam-pillar systems. Using the symbolic operation software MAPLE 9.5 a catastrophe model of the dynamic failure of an asymmetric rock-beam pillar system has been established. The differential form of the total potential function deduced from the law of conservation of energy was used for this deduction. The critical conditions and the initial and final positions of the pillar during failure have been given in analytical form. The amount of elastic energy released by the rock beam at the instant of failure is determined as well. A diagrammatic form showing the pillar failure was plotted using MATLAB software. This graph contains a wealth of information and is important for understanding the behavior during each deformation phase of the rock-beam pillar system. The graphic also aids in distinguishing the equivalent stiffness of the rock beam in different directions. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  9. How Is Nature Asymmetric?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. How Is Nature Asymmetric? - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation ... Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  10. Exploring asymmetric catalytic transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guduguntla, Sureshbabu

    2017-01-01

    In Chapter 2, we report a highly enantioselective synthesis of β-alkyl-substituted alcohols through a one-pot Cu- catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents followed by reductive ozonolysis. The synthesis of γ-alkyl-substituted alcohols was also achieved through Cu-catalyzed

  11. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M A clones with fidelity F A and another set of M B clones with fidelity F B , the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N→M A +M B cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1→1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized

  12. Asymmetric information and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  13. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  14. Atmospheric response to Saharan dust deduced from ECMWF reanalysis increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, P.; Alpert, P.; Barkan, J.; Kirchner, I.; Machenhauer, B.

    2003-04-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric temperature response to dust deduced from a new source of data - the European Reanalysis (ERA) increments. These increments are the systematic errors of global climate models, generated in reanalysis procedure. The model errors result not only from the lack of desert dust but also from a complex combination of many kinds of model errors. Over the Sahara desert the dust radiative effect is believed to be a predominant model defect which should significantly affect the increments. This dust effect was examined by considering correlation between the increments and remotely-sensed dust. Comparisons were made between April temporal variations of the ERA analysis increments and the variations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aerosol index (AI) between 1979 and 1993. The distinctive structure was identified in the distribution of correlation composed of three nested areas with high positive correlation (> 0.5), low correlation, and high negative correlation (Forecast(ECMWF) suggests that the PCA (NCA) corresponds mainly to anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow, negative (positive) vorticity, and downward (upward) airflow. These facts indicate an interaction between dust-forced heating /cooling and atmospheric circulation. The April correlation results are supported by the analysis of vertical distribution of dust concentration, derived from the 24-hour dust prediction system at Tel Aviv University (website: http://earth.nasa.proj.ac.il/dust/current/). For other months the analysis is more complicated because of the essential increasing of humidity along with the northward progress of the ITCZ and the significant impact on the increments.

  15. Immobilization of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 for efficient asymmetric reduction of ketones and biocatalyst recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Lou, Wen-Yong; Li, Ying; Wu, Hong; Zong, Min-Hua; Smith, Thomas J; Chen, Xin-De

    2012-09-04

    The bacterium Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst with exclusive anti-Prelog stereoselectivity for the reduction of prochiral ketones that can be used to make valuable chiral alcohols such as (R)-4-(trimethylsilyl)-3-butyn-2-ol. Although it has promising catalytic properties, its stability and reusability are relatively poor compared to other biocatalysts. Hence, we explored various materials for immobilizing the active cells, in order to improve the operational stability of biocatalyst. It was found that Ca-alginate give the best immobilized biocatalyst, which was then coated with chitosan to further improve its mechanical strength and swelling-resistance properties. Conditions were optimized for formation of reusable immobilized beads which can be used for repeated batch asymmetric reduction of 4'-chloroacetophenone. The optimized immobilized biocatalyst was very promising, with a specific activity of 85% that of the free-cell biocatalyst (34.66 μmol/min/g dw of cells for immobilized catalyst vs 40.54 μmol/min/g for free cells in the asymmetric reduction of 4'-chloroacetophenone). The immobilized cells showed better thermal stability, pH stability, solvent tolerance and storability compared with free cells. After 25 cycles reaction, the immobilized beads still retained >50% catalytic activity, which was 3.5 times higher than degree of retention of activity by free cells reused in a similar way. The cells could be recultured in the beads to regain full activity and perform a further 25 cycles of the reduction reaction. The external mass transfer resistances were negligible as deduced from Damkohler modulus Da internal mass transfer restriction affected the reduction action but was not the principal rate-controlling step according to effectiveness factors η < 1 and Thiele modulus 0.3<∅ <1. Ca-alginate coated with chitosan is a highly effective material for immobilization of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 cells for repeated use in

  16. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvik, L.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Osnes, E.; Bao, G.; Oestgaard, E.

    1994-06-01

    Properties of neutron stars such as mass and radius, using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, are calculated. Modern meson-exchange potential models are used to evaluate the G-matrix for asymmetric nuclear matter. For pure neutron matter the maximum mass is found to be M max ∼ 2.4M for a radius R ∼ 12 km. With a proton fraction of 30% the result is M max ∼ 2.1M for a radius R ∼ 10.5 km, close to the experimental values. The implications are discussed. 20 refs., 3 figs

  17. Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation of Aqueous C60 Nanoparticles with Size Determination by Dynamic Light Scattering and Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Atmospheric Pressure Photo-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A size separation method was developed for aqueous C60 fullerene aggregates (aqu/C60) using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a dynamic light scattering detector in flow through mode. Surfactants, which are commonly used in AF4, were avoided as they may al...

  18. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p ' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p ' )-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities p x , p y and p z . The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√p x , √p y , √p z ) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  19. Physics-based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    knowledge and capabilities in the use and development of inverse problem techniques to deduce atmospheric parameters. WORK COMPLETED The research completed...please find the Final Technical Report with SF 298 for Dr. Erin E. Hackett’s ONR grant entitled Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine...From- To) 07/03/2017 Final Technica l Dec 2012- Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine

  20. Subglottic cysts and asymmetrical subglottic narrowing on neck radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinger, L.D.; Torium, D.M.; Anandappa, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    The congenital subglottic hemangioma typically appears as an asymmetric subglottic narrowing or mass on frontal neck radiograph. Therefore, soft tissue neck radiography has been advocated as a definitive non-operative approach for diagnosing these lesions. However, we have noted similar asymmetric subglottic narrowing in patients with acquired subglottic cysts. These retention cysts occur following long-term intubation in the neonate. The mechanism probably involves subglottic fibrosis which obstructs glands with subsequent cyst formation. Acquired subglottic cysts typically appear as an asymmetric narrowing on frontal or lateral soft tissue neck radiographs. These lesions may produce airway compromise but are effectively treated by forceps or laser removal. Acquired subglottic cysts must be included in the differential diagnosis of asymmetric subglottic narrowing. The definitive diagnosis is made by direct laryngoscopy, not soft tissue neck radiograph. (orig.)

  1. D mesons in asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Amruta; Mazumdar, Arindam

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the in-medium D and D meson masses in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter in an effective chiral model. The D and D mass modifications arising from their interactions with the nucleons and the scalar mesons in the effective hadronic model are seen to be appreciable at high densities and have a strong isospin dependence. These mass modifications can open the channels of the decay of the charmonium states (Ψ ' ,χ c ,J/Ψ) to DD pairs in dense hadronic matter. The isospin asymmetry in the doublet D=(D 0 ,D + ) is seen to be particularly appreciable at high densities and should show in observables such as their production and flow in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions in the compressed baryonic matter experiments in the future facility of FAIR, GSI. The results of the present work are compared to calculations of the D(D) in-medium masses in the literature using the QCD sum rule approach, quark meson coupling model, and coupled channel approach as well as to those from studies of quarkonium dissociation using heavy-quark potentials from lattice QCD at finite temperatures

  2. Origin of Asymmetric Charge Partitioning in the Dissociation of Gas-Phase Protein Homodimers

    OpenAIRE

    Jurchen, John C.; Williams, Evan R.

    2003-01-01

    The origin of asymmetric charge and mass partitioning observed for gas-phase dissociation of multiply charged macromolecular complexes has been hotly debated. These experiments hold the potential to provide detailed information about the interactions between the macromolecules within the complex. Here, this unusual phenomenon of asymmetric charge partitioning is investigated for several protein homodimers. Asymmetric charge partitioning in these ions depends on a number of factors, including ...

  3. Cinchona alkaloids in asymmetric organocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelli, T.; Hiemstra, H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the applications of cinchona alkaloids as asymmetric catalysts. In the last few years, characterized by the resurgence of interest in asymmetric organocatalysis, cinchona derivatives have been shown to catalyze an outstanding array of chemical reactions, often with remarkable

  4. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  5. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  6. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Cycloadditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    has gained broad recognition as it has found several applications in academia and industry. The [4+2] cycloaddition has also been performed in an enantioselective aminocatalytic fashion which allows the generation of optically active products. In this thesis it is demonstrated how trienamines can......Since the onset of the new millennium the field of organocatalysis has undergone a great expansion led by investigations in the field of aminocatalysis. This thesis will address some recent developments in aminocatalyzed cycloadditions and provide a theoretical background hereto. Cycloadditions...... undergo cascade reactions with different electron deficient dienophiles in Diels Alder – nucleophilic ring closing reactions. This methodology opens up for the direct asymmetric formation of hydroisochromenes and hydroisoquinolines which may possess interesting biological activities. It is also...

  7. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.

  8. Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Chen Ying; Meng Guozhan; Feng Xu; Gong Ming; He Song; Li Gang; Liu Chuan; Liu Yubin; Ma Jianping; Meng Xiangfei; Shen Yan; Zhang Jianbo

    2007-01-01

    We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Luescher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume

  9. Force on an Asymmetric Capacitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahder, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    .... At present, the physical basis for the Biefeld-Brown effect is not understood. The order of magnitude of the net force on the asymmetric capacitor is estimated assuming two different mechanisms of charge conduction between its electrodes...

  10. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong

    2017-01-01

    The employment of metal salts is quite limited in asymmetric catalysis, although it would provide an additional arsenal of safe and inexpensive reagents to create molecular functions with high optical purity. Cation chelation by polyethers increases the salts' solubility in conventional organic...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... highly enantioselective silylation reactions in polyether-generated chiral environments, and leading to a record-high turnover in asymmetric organocatalysis. This can lead to further applications by the asymmetric use of other inorganic salts in various organic transformations....

  11. Materials dependence of mixed gas plasticization behavior in asymmetric membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Tymen; Masetto, N.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The mass transport of asymmetric membranes for the separation of carbon dioxide/methane mixtures is determined by competitive sorption and plasticization. With increasing feed pressure in mixed gas experiments, the selectivity decreases due to both effects. Distinction whether one or the other

  12. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  13. Asymmetric Gepner models (revisited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)] [IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-11

    We reconsider a class of heterotic string theories studied in 1989, based on tensor products of N=2 minimal models with asymmetric simple current invariants. We extend this analysis from (2,2) and (1,2) spectra to (0,2) spectra with SO(10) broken to the Standard Model. In the latter case the spectrum must contain fractionally charged particles. We find that in nearly all cases at least some of them are massless. However, we identify a large subclass where the fractional charges are at worst half-integer, and often vector-like. The number of families is very often reduced in comparison to the 1989 results, but there are no new tensor combinations yielding three families. All tensor combinations turn out to fall into two classes: those where the number of families is always divisible by three, and those where it is never divisible by three. We find an empirical rule to determine the class, which appears to extend beyond minimal N=2 tensor products. We observe that distributions of physical quantities such as the number of families, singlets and mirrors have an interesting tendency towards smaller values as the gauge groups approaches the Standard Model. We compare our results with an analogous class of free fermionic models. This displays similar features, but with less resolution. Finally we present a complete scan of the three family models based on the triply-exceptional combination (1,16{sup *},16{sup *},16{sup *}) identified originally by Gepner. We find 1220 distinct three family spectra in this case, forming 610 mirror pairs. About half of them have the gauge group SU(3)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sup 5}, the theoretical minimum, and many others are trinification models.

  14. Asymmetric chiral colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1990-01-01

    Chiral colour is considered in a general framework where the coupling constants associated with each SU(3) component are allowed to be different. To reproduce QCD at low energy, gluons and axigluons cannot then be maximally mixed. Present data form e + e - colliders contrains the axigluon mass to values between 50 GeV and 375 GeV whilst the mixing angle is bounded by 13deg and 45deg. The lower limit of the axigluon mass is a definite bound at 90% C.L., whereas the upper limit only applies if chiral colour is to explain the anomalously high rates of hadron production at TRISTAN. (orig.)

  15. Deducing T, C, and P invariance for strong interactions in topological particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown here how the separate discrete invariances [time reversal (T), charge conjugation (C), and parity (P)] in strong interactions can be deduced as consequences of other S-matrix requirements in topological particle theory

  16. Design of activated carbon/activated carbon asymmetric capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-Prado, Isabel; Salinas-Torres, David; Ruiz Rosas, Ramiro; Morallon, Emilia; Cazorla-Amoros, Diego

    2016-03-01

    Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that offer a high power density and a low energy density in comparison with batteries. Their limited energy density can be overcome by using asymmetric configuration in mass electrodes, where each electrode works within their maximum available potential window, rendering the maximum voltage output of the system. Such asymmetric capacitors must be optimized through careful electrochemical characterization of the electrodes for accurate determination of the capacitance and the potential stability limits. The results of the characterization are then used for optimizing mass ratio of the electrodes from the balance of stored charge. The reliability of the design largely depends on the approach taken for the electrochemical characterization. Therefore, the performance could be lower than expected and even the system could break down, if a well thought out procedure is not followed. In this work, a procedure for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors based on activated carbons is detailed. Three activated carbon materials with different textural properties and surface chemistry have been systematically characterized in neutral aqueous electrolyte. The asymmetric configuration of the masses of both electrodes in the supercapacitor has allowed to cover a higher potential window, resulting in an increase of the energy density of the three devices studied when compared with the symmetric systems, and an improved cycle life.

  17. Design of activated carbon/activated carbon asymmetric capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel ePiñeiro-Prado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that offer a high power density and a low energy density in comparison with batteries. Their limited energy density can be overcome by using asymmetric configuration in mass electrodes, where each electrode works within their maximum available potential window, rendering the maximum voltage output of the system. Such asymmetric capacitors must be optimized through careful electrochemical characterization of the electrodes for accurate determination of the capacitance and the potential stability limits. The results of the characterization are then used for optimizing mass ratio of the electrodes from the balance of stored charge. The reliability of the design largely depends on the approach taken for the electrochemical characterization. Therefore, the performance could be lower than expected and even the system could break down, if a well thought out procedure is not followed.In this work, a procedure for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors based on activated carbons is detailed. Three activated carbon materials with different textural properties and surface chemistry have been systematically characterized in neutral aqueous electrolyte. The asymmetric configuration of the masses of both electrodes in the supercapacitor has allowed to cover a higher potential window, resulting in an increase of the energy density of the three devices studied when compared with the symmetric systems, and an improved cycle life.

  18. New type of asymmetric fission in proton-rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, A N; Huyse, M; Van Duppen, P; Antalic, S; Barzakh, A; Bree, N; Cocolios, T E; Comas, V F; Diriken, J; Fedorov, D; Fedosseev, V; Franchoo, S; Heredia, J A; Ivanov, O; Koster, U; Marsh, B A; Nishio, K; Page, R D; Patronis, N; Seliverstov, M; Tsekhanovich, I; Van den Bergh, P; Van De Walle, J; Venhart, M; Vermote, S; Veselsky, M; Wagemans, C; Ichikawa, T; Iwamoto, A; Moller, P; Sierk, A J

    2010-01-01

    A very exotic process of ${\\beta}$-delayed fission of $^{180}$Tl is studied in detail by using resonant laser ionization with subsequent mass separation at ISOLDE (CERN). In contrast to common expectations, the fission-fragment mass distribution of the post-${\\beta}$-decay daughter nucleus $^{180}$Hg (N/Z=1.25) is asymmetric. This asymmetry is more surprising since a mass-symmetric split of this extremely neutron-deficient nucleus would lead to two $^{90}$Zr fragments, with magic N=50 and semimagic Z=40. This is a new type of asymmetric fission, not caused by large shell effects related to fragment magic proton and neutron numbers, as observed in the actinide region. The newly measured branching ratio for $\\beta$-delayed fission of $^{180}$Tl is 3.6(7)×10$^{-3}$%, approximately 2 orders of magnitude larger than in an earlier study.

  19. Does asymmetric correlation affect portfolio optimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Lukas

    2017-07-01

    The classical portfolio optimization problem does not assume asymmetric behavior of relationship among asset returns. The existence of asymmetric response in correlation on the bad news could be important information in portfolio optimization. The paper applies Dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) and his asymmetric version (ADCC) to propose asymmetric behavior of conditional correlation. We analyse asymmetric correlation among S&P index, bonds index and spot gold price before mortgage crisis in 2008. We evaluate forecast ability of the models during and after mortgage crisis and demonstrate the impact of asymmetric correlation on the reduction of portfolio variance.

  20. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193 Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 10 4 to 4 x 10 5 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s 2 7s 2 S/sub 1/2/ and 6s 2 6s 2 P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194 Tl. A large isomer shift in 193 Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2 - isomer than in the 1/2 + ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2 - band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2 - strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  1. Comparison of transcripts in Phalaenopsis bellina and Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae) flowers to deduce monoterpene biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Kuoh, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Tian-Hsiang; Wang, Hei-Chia; Wu, Tian-Shung; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2006-07-13

    Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization and for determining seed or fruit set. Research on plant scents has hampered mainly by the invisibility of this character, its dynamic nature, and complex mixtures of components that are present in very small quantities. Most progress in scent research, as in other areas of plant biology, has come from the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. Although volatile components have been identified in several orchid species, the biosynthetic pathways of orchid flower fragrance are far from understood. We investigated how flower fragrance was generated in certain Phalaenopsis orchids by determining the chemical components of the floral scent, identifying floral expressed-sequence-tags (ESTs), and deducing the pathways of floral scent biosynthesis in Phalaneopsis bellina by bioinformatics analysis. The main chemical components in the P. bellina flower were shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be monoterpenoids, benzenoids and phenylpropanoids. The set of floral scent producing enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) to geraniol and linalool were recognized through data mining of the P. bellina floral EST database (dbEST). Transcripts preferentially expressed in P. bellina were distinguished by comparing the scent floral dbEST to that of a scentless species, P. equestris, and included those encoding lipoxygenase, epimerase, diacylglycerol kinase and geranyl diphosphate synthase. In addition, EST filtering results showed that transcripts encoding signal transduction and Myb transcription factors and methyltransferase, in addition to those for scent biosynthesis, were detected by in silico hybridization of the P. bellina unigene database against those of the scentless species, rice and Arabidopsis. Altogether, we pinpointed 66% of the biosynthetic steps from G3P to geraniol, linalool and their derivatives. This systems biology program combined

  2. Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Aziridines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Harden, Adrian; Wyatt, Paul

    1996-01-01

    A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines)]. In the b......A series of chiral bis(aziridines) has been synthesised and evaluated as chelating ligands for a variety of asymmetric transformations mediated by metals [Os (dihydroxylation), Pd (allylic alkylation) Cu (cyclopropanation and aziridination, Li (1,2-addition of organolithiums to imines...

  3. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  4. CMB and the elementary particles structure deduced from QFT of non-dot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    In my paper ‘Planck Constant Deduced from Metrical Results of Doppler Effect of Moving Particle —Uncertainty Principle Caused by Collision of a Particle with CMB Photons and Virtual Photons (H05-0036-10)’ the absolute velocity is decided by CMB which as a mark of the vacuum. CMB come from the thermal radiation of stars via gravitational redshift about 10 (13) year (E14- 0032-08). In my paper ‘Quanta turn-advance ism, China Science && Technology Overview 131 192-210 (2011)’, QFT four-dimensional uncertainty principle and momentum-energy conservation law had been generalized as a five-dimensional equations: de Broglie wavelength as a position vector \\underline{q}= (i c t, r, s), momentum \\underline{P} = (i E / c, P, U c), \\underline{q} = i h / \\underline{P}, \\underline{q} \\underline{q} = 0, \\underline{P} \\underline{P} = 0, Sigma∑ \\underline{P} = \\underline{P} (0) . The five-dimensional time-space-spin had been quantized as a non-dot model basic cell, the lowest energy state vertical polarized left spin 1/2 neutrino and right spin 1/2 antineutrino are just the left, right advance unit quanta _{0}nuυ, nuυ _{0} and left, right back unit quanta (0) nuυ, nuυ (0) , it again compose into spin 1 unit advance photons _{0}nuυnuυ _{0} and back (0) nuυnuυ (0) , spin 0 unit rest mass nuυ _{0}nuυ (0) and anti-mass _{0}nuυ (0) nuυ, spin 0 unit positive charge _{0}nuυnuυ (0) and negative charge nuυ _{0} (0) nuυ. It accord to the high energy physics experimental results of the transformation among the photons, masses quanta and charges quanta. The physical vacuum is the even collocation of non-combinational nuυ _{0} or _{0}nuυ. QFT is no longer with divergence difficulty by the non-dot model. It is mathematically easy that from five-dimensional equations deduce out the Dirac, Klein-Gordan, Maxwell equations and Lorentz force formula, but appear some new results. The interactions between _{0}nuυ, nuυ _{0}, (0) nuυ, nuυ (0) , i.e., force f

  5. Asymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David E.; Luty, Markus A.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In these models a B-L asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transferred to the dark matter, which is charged under B-L. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. This explains the observed relation between the baryon and dark matter densities for the dark matter mass in the range 5-15 GeV. The symmetric component of the dark matter can annihilate efficiently to light pseudoscalar Higgs particles a or via t-channel exchange of new scalar doublets. The first possibility allows for h 0 →aa decays, while the second predicts a light charged Higgs-like scalar decaying to τν. Direct detection can arise from Higgs exchange in the first model or a nonzero magnetic moment in the second. In supersymmetric models, the would-be lightest supersymmetric partner can decay into pairs of dark matter particles plus standard model particles, possibly with displaced vertices.

  6. Asymmetric Penning trap coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernandez, David J.

    2010-01-01

    By using a matrix technique, which allows to identify directly the ladder operators, the coherent states of the asymmetric Penning trap are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. They are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator method.

  7. JET and COMPASS asymmetrical disruptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerasimov, S.N.; Abreu, P.; Baruzzo, M.; Drozdov, V.; Dvornova, A.; Havlíček, Josef; Hender, T.C.; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Kruezi, U.; Li, X.; Markovič, Tomáš; Pánek, Radomír; Rubinacci, G.; Tsalas, M.; Ventre, S.; Villone, F.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2015), s. 113006-113006 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * asymmetrical disruption * JET * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015

  8. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, pre...

  9. Method of estimating horizontal vectors of ionospheric electric field deduced from HF Doppler data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, M.; Ogawa, T.; Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H.W.; Hausman, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    An HF Doppler method for estimating the time variations of the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere is presented which takes into account, for long-lasting variations in the electric field, the effect of electron decay due to attachment and/or recombination processes. The method is applied to an isolated substorm event, using equivalent ionospheric current systems deduced from worldwide magnetometer data in the estimations. The present results are found to agree with data deduced from current systems and high latitude electrojet activity. 18 references

  10. Gamma ray constraints on flavor violating asymmetric dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, I.; Panci, P.; Sannino, F.

    2012-01-01

    We show how cosmic gamma rays can be used to constrain models of asymmetric Dark Matter decaying into lepton pairs by violating flavor. First of all we require the models to explain the anomalies in the charged cosmic rays measured by PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S.; performing combined fits we...... determine the allowed values of the Dark Matter mass and lifetime. For these models, we then determine the constraints coming from the measurement of the isotropic gamma-ray background by Fermi for a complete set of lepton flavor violating primary modes and over a range of DM masses from 100 GeV to 10 Te......V. We find that the Fermi constraints rule out the flavor violating asymmetric Dark Matter interpretation of the charged cosmic ray anomalies....

  11. Cyclodextrins in Asymmetric and Stereospecific Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliur Macaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, cyclodextrins have widely been used as green and easily available alternatives to promoters or catalysts of different chemical reactions in water. This review covers the research and application of cyclodextrins and their derivatives in asymmetric and stereospecific syntheses, with their division into three main groups: (1 cyclodextrins promoting asymmetric and stereospecific catalysis in water; (2 cyclodextrins’ complexes with transition metals as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts; and (3 cyclodextrins’ non-metallic derivatives as asymmetric and stereospecific catalysts. The scope of this review is to systematize existing information on the contribution of cyclodextrins to asymmetric and stereospecific synthesis and, thus, to facilitate further development in this direction.

  12. Asymmetric nuclear matter in a modified quark meson coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.N.; Sahoo, H.S.; Panda, P.K.; Barik, N.

    2014-01-01

    In an earlier attempt we have successfully used this model in developing the nuclear equation of state and analysed various other bulk properties of symmetric nuclear matter with the dependence of quark masses. In the present work we want to apply the model to analyze asymmetric nuclear matter with the variation of the asymmetry parameter y p as well as analyze the effects of symmetry energy and the slope of the symmetry energy L

  13. Asymmetric Dark Matter Models and the LHC Diphoton Excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of dark matter (DM) and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are persistent indications that the SM is incomplete. More recently, the ATLAS and CMS experiments have observed an excess of diphoton events with invariant mass of about 750 GeV. One interpretation of this excess is decays...... have for models of asymmetric DM that attempt to account for the similarity of the dark and visible matter abundances....

  14. Kinetic energies of charged fragments resulting from multifragmentation and asymmetric fission of the C60 molecule in collisions with monocharged ions (2-130 keV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentenier, A; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D; Moretto-Capelle, P; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A

    2003-01-01

    Multifragmentation and asymmetric fission (AF) of the C 60 molecule induced by H + , H 2 + , H 3 + and He + ions at medium collision energies (2-130 keV) are considered. Momenta and kinetic energies of C n + fragment ions (n = 1- 12) are deduced from an analysis of time-of-flight spectra. In multifragmentation processes, momenta are found to be approximately constant when n > 2, a behaviour which explains that the most probable kinetic energy, as well as the width of the kinetic energy distributions, is found to be inversely proportional to the fragment size n; both momenta and kinetic energies are independent of the velocity and nature of the projectile, and hence of the energy deposit. A specific study of the AF shows that the kinetic energies of C 2 + , C 4 + and C 6 + fragments are also independent of the collision velocity and projectile species; a quantitative agreement is found with values deduced from kinetic energy release measurements by another group in electron impact experiments, and the observed decrease when the mass of the light fragment increases is also reproduced. A quantitative comparison of AF and multifragmentation for the n = 2, 4 and 6 fragment ions shows that kinetic energies in AF exceed that in multifragmentation, a result which explains the oscillations observed when momenta or kinetic energies of fragments are plotted against the n-value. The AF yield is also found to scale with the energy deposit in the collision velocity range extending below the velocity at the maximum of the electronic stopping power; except for protons, it remains negligible with respect to multifragmentation as soon as the total energy deposit exceeds about 100 eV

  15. Electron Jet of Asymmetric Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retino, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E(sub parallel lines) amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV/m and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  16. Comparison of transcripts in Phalaenopsis bellina and Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae flowers to deduce monoterpene biosynthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tian-Shung

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization and for determining seed or fruit set. Research on plant scents has hampered mainly by the invisibility of this character, its dynamic nature, and complex mixtures of components that are present in very small quantities. Most progress in scent research, as in other areas of plant biology, has come from the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. Although volatile components have been identified in several orchid species, the biosynthetic pathways of orchid flower fragrance are far from understood. We investigated how flower fragrance was generated in certain Phalaenopsis orchids by determining the chemical components of the floral scent, identifying floral expressed-sequence-tags (ESTs, and deducing the pathways of floral scent biosynthesis in Phalaneopsis bellina by bioinformatics analysis. Results The main chemical components in the P. bellina flower were shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be monoterpenoids, benzenoids and phenylpropanoids. The set of floral scent producing enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P to geraniol and linalool were recognized through data mining of the P. bellina floral EST database (dbEST. Transcripts preferentially expressed in P. bellina were distinguished by comparing the scent floral dbEST to that of a scentless species, P. equestris, and included those encoding lipoxygenase, epimerase, diacylglycerol kinase and geranyl diphosphate synthase. In addition, EST filtering results showed that transcripts encoding signal transduction and Myb transcription factors and methyltransferase, in addition to those for scent biosynthesis, were detected by in silico hybridization of the P. bellina unigene database against those of the scentless species, rice and Arabidopsis. Altogether, we pinpointed 66% of the biosynthetic steps from G3P to geraniol, linalool and their derivatives

  17. Variable angle asymmetric cut monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-09-01

    A variable incident angle, asymmetric cut, double crystal monochromator was tested for use on beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). For both undulator and wiggler beams the monochromator can expand area of footprint of beam on surface of the crystals to 50 times the area of incident beam; this will reduce the slope errors by a factor of 2500. The asymmetric cut allows one to increase the acceptance angle for incident radiation and obtain a better match to the opening angle of the incident beam. This can increase intensity of the diffracted beam by a factor of 2 to 5 and can make the beam more monochromatic, as well. The monochromator consists of two matched, asymmetric cut (18 degrees), silicon crystals mounted so that they can be rotated about three independent axes. Rotation around the first axis controls the Bragg angle. The second rotation axis is perpendicular to the diffraction planes and controls the increase of the area of the footprint of the beam on the crystal surface. Rotation around the third axis controls the angle between the surface of the crystal and the wider, horizontal axis for the beam and can make the footprint a rectangle with a minimum. length for this area. The asymmetric cut is 18 degrees for the matched pair of crystals, which allows one to expand the footprint area by a factor of 50 for Bragg angles up to 19.15 degrees (6 keV for Si[111] planes). This monochromator, with proper cooling, will be useful for analyzing the high intensity x-ray beams produced by both undulators and wigglers at the APS

  18. Asymmetric information and bank runs

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chao

    2007-01-01

    It is known that sunspots can trigger panic-based bank runs and that the optimal banking contract can tolerate panic-based runs. The existing literature assumes that these sunspots are based on a publicly observed extrinsic randomizing device. In this paper, I extend the analysis of panic-based runs to include an asymmetric-information, extrinsic randomizing device. Depositors observe different, but correlated, signals on the stability of the bank. I find that if the signals that depositors o...

  19. Asymmetric information and macroeconomic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Aoki, Masanao; Roy Frieden, B.

    2010-09-01

    We show how macroeconomic dynamics can be derived from asymmetric information. As an illustration of the utility of this approach we derive the equilibrium density, non-equilibrium densities and the equation of motion for the response to a demand shock for productivity in a simple economy. Novel consequences of this approach include a natural incorporation of time dependence into macroeconomics and a common information-theoretic basis for economics and other fields seeking to link micro-dynamics and macro-observables.

  20. Asymmetric Synthesis of Apratoxin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhuo-Ya; Si, Chang-Mei; Liu, Yi-Wen; Dong, Han-Qing; Wei, Bang-Guo; Lin, Guo-Qiang

    2016-10-21

    An efficient method for asymmetric synthesis of apratoxin E 2 is described in this report. The chiral lactone 8, recycled from the degradation of saponin glycosides, was utilized to prepare the non-peptide fragment 6. In addition to this "from nature to nature" strategy, olefin cross-metathesis (CM) was applied as an alternative approach for the formation of the double bond. Moreover, pentafluorophenyl diphenylphosphinate was found to be an efficient condensation reagent for the macrocyclization.

  1. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250...

  2. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  3. High-speed Dynamic Gait Generation Based on Asymmetrization of Impact Posture Using Telescopic Legs

    OpenAIRE

    浅野, 文彦

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for generating a dynamic gait based on anterior-posterior asymmetric impact posture tilting the robo's center of mass forward. The primary purpose of this method is to asymmetrize the impact posture by actuating the robot's telescopic-legs to make overcoming the potential barrier at mid-stance easy, and the mechanical energy is accordingly restored. First, we introduce a planar rimless wheel model with telescopic legs, and investigate the validity of the sta...

  4. Constraining Asymmetric Dark Matter through observations of compact stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We put constraints on asymmetric dark matter candidates with spin-dependent interactions based on the simple existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. For a wide range of the parameters (WIMP mass and WIMP-nucleon cross section), WIMPs can be trapped in progenitors in large...... numbers and once the original star collapses to a white dwarf or a neutron star, these WIMPs might self-gravitate and eventually collapse forming a mini-black hole that eventually destroys the star. We impose constraints competitive to direct dark matter search experiments, for WIMPs with masses down...

  5. Early Universe synthesis of asymmetric dark matter nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Moira I.; Lou, Hou Keong; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2018-02-01

    We compute the mass function of bound states of asymmetric dark matter—nuggets—synthesized in the early Universe. We apply our results for the nugget density and binding energy computed from a nuclear model to obtain analytic estimates of the typical nugget size exiting synthesis. We numerically solve the Boltzmann equation for synthesis including two-to-two fusion reactions, estimating the impact of bottlenecks on the mass function exiting synthesis. These results provide the basis for studying the late Universe cosmology of nuggets in a future companion paper.

  6. Synthesis method of asymmetric gold particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Bong-Hyun; Murata, Michael; Hahm, Eunil; Lee, Luke P

    2017-06-07

    Asymmetric particles can exhibit unique properties. However, reported synthesis methods for asymmetric particles hinder their application because these methods have a limited scale and lack the ability to afford particles of varied shapes. Herein, we report a novel synthetic method which has the potential to produce large quantities of asymmetric particles. Asymmetric rose-shaped gold particles were fabricated as a proof of concept experiment. First, silica nanoparticles (NPs) were bound to a hydrophobic micro-sized polymer containing 2-chlorotritylchloride linkers (2-CTC resin). Then, half-planar gold particles with rose-shaped and polyhedral structures were prepared on the silica particles on the 2-CTC resin. Particle size was controlled by the concentration of the gold source. The asymmetric particles were easily cleaved from the resin without aggregation. We confirmed that gold was grown on the silica NPs. This facile method for synthesizing asymmetric particles has great potential for materials science.

  7. LG tools for asymmetric wargaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Alex; Yakhnis, Vladimir

    2002-07-01

    Asymmetric operations represent conflict where one of the sides would apply military power to influence the political and civil environment, to facilitate diplomacy, and to interrupt specified illegal activities. This is a special type of conflict where the participants do not initiate full-scale war. Instead, the sides may be engaged in a limited open conflict or one or several sides may covertly engage another side using unconventional or less conventional methods of engagement. They may include peace operations, combating terrorism, counterdrug operations, arms control, support of insurgencies or counterinsurgencies, show of force. An asymmetric conflict can be represented as several concurrent interlinked games of various kinds: military, transportation, economic, political, etc. Thus, various actions of peace violators, terrorists, drug traffickers, etc., can be expressed via moves in different interlinked games. LG tools allow us to fully capture the specificity of asymmetric conflicts employing the major LG concept of hypergame. Hypergame allows modeling concurrent interlinked processes taking place in geographically remote locations at different levels of resolution and time scale. For example, it allows us to model an antiterrorist operation taking place simultaneously in a number of countries around the globe and involving wide range of entities from individuals to combat units to governments. Additionally, LG allows us to model all sides of the conflict at their level of sophistication. Intelligent stakeholders are represented by means of LG generated intelligent strategies. TO generate those strategies, in addition to its own mathematical intelligence, the LG algorithm may incorporate the intelligence of the top-level experts in the respective problem domains. LG models the individual differences between intelligent stakeholders. The LG tools make it possible to incorporate most of the known traits of a stakeholder, i.e., real personalities involved in

  8. Asymmetric supernova explosions and the origin of binary pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author investigates the effect of asymmetric supernova explosions on the orbital parameters of binary systems with a compact component. Such explosions are related to the origin of binary pulsars. The degree of asymmetry of the explosion is represented by the kick velocity gained by the exploding star due to the asymmetric mass ejection. The required kick velocity to produce the observed parameters of the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 should be larger than approximately 80 km s -1 if the mass of the exploding star is larger than approximately 4 solar masses. The mean survival probability of the binary system ( ) is examined for various degrees of asymmetry in the explosion. The rare occurrence of a binary pulsar does not neccessarily imply that such a probability is low since not all pulsars have originated in a binary system. Assuming the birth rate of pulsars by Taylor and Manchester (1977), it is derived that would be as high as 0.25. Such values of can be obtained if the mass of the exploding stars is, in general, not large (< approximately 10 solar masses). (Auth.)

  9. Asymmetric effects in customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füller, Johann; Matzler, Kurt; Faullant, Rita

    2006-01-01

    The results of this study on customer satisfaction in snowboard areas show that the relationship between an attribute and overall satisfaction can indeed be asymmetric. A 30-item self-administered survey was completed by snowboarders (n=2526) in 51 areas in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Italy....... Results show that waiting time is a dissatisfier; it has a significant impact on overall customer satisfaction in the low satisfaction condition and becomes insignificant in the high satisfaction situation. Restaurants and bars are hybrids, i.e. importance does not depend on performance. Slopes, fun...

  10. Asymmetric Formal Synthesis of Azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Naoki; Kitahara, Takeshi; Mori, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidenori

    2015-12-01

    An asymmetric formal synthesis of azadirachtin, a potent insect antifeedant, was accomplished in 30 steps to Ley's synthetic intermediate (longest linear sequence). The synthesis features: 1) rapid access to the optically active right-hand segment starting from the known 5-hydroxymethyl-2-cyclopentenone scaffold; 2) construction of the B and E rings by a key intramolecular tandem radical cyclization; 3) formation of the hemiacetal moiety in the C ring through the α-oxidation of the six-membered lactone followed by methanolysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  12. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of “arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle” biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Pirillo, Paola; Carraro, Silvia; Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro; Baraldi, Eugenio; Giordano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous quantification of “arginine-ADMA cycle” metabolites developed in EBC. ► EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. ► Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. ► Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC–MS/MS method. ► EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC–MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to “Arginine-ADMA cycle”, using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r 2 ) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was −1 ), measured in EBC samples of asthmatic adolescents are significantly increased (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls (0.0040 ± 0.0021 vs. 0.0012 ± 0.0005 and 0.0020 ± 0.0015 vs. 0.0002 ± 0.0001, respectively), as well the ADMA/Tyr (0.34 ± 0.09 vs. 0.12 ± 0.02, p < 0.0001) and the SDMA/Tyr ratio (0.10 ± 0.04 vs. 0.015 ± 0.004, p < 0.0001). Conclusions

  13. Heavy-ion optical potential for sub-barrier fusion deduced from a dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.T.; Kim, H.C.; Park, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The heavy-ion energy-dependent optical potentials for the 16 O+ 208 Pb system are deduced from a dispersion relation. These potentials are used to analyze the elastic scattering, fusion, and spin distributions of compound nuclei for the system in a unified way based on the direct reaction theory. It turns out that the energy dependence of the optical potential is essential in explaining the data at near- and sub-barrier energies. The real part of the energy-dependent optical potential deduced was also used in calculating the elastic and fusion cross sections by the conventional barrier penetration model using an incoming wave boundary condition. The predictions of the elastic scattering, fusion cross sections, and the spin distributions of compound nuclei are not satisfactory compared with those from the direct reaction approach. It seems to originate from the fact that this model neglects absorption around the Coulomb barrier region

  14. Asymmetric criticality of ionic solution containing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 2-propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xianshuo; Xu, Chen; Zheng, Peizhu; Yin, Tianxiang; Shen, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid–liquid equilibrium of {2-propanol + RTIL} binary solution was measured. • The critical exponents were deduced and showed well agreements with 3D-Ising universality. • Asymmetry of the coexistence curve was analyzed by the complete scaling theory. • RPM-rescaled critical parameters were calculated. - Abstract: The liquid–liquid coexistence curve for binary solution {2-propanol + 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C_6mim][BF_4])} has been measured. The isobaric heat capacities per unit volume were obtained in both critical and non-critical regions. The critical exponents α and β were deduced and showed good agreement with those predicted for the 3D-Ising universality class. The asymmetric behaviour of the diameter of the coexistence curve was analysed based on the complete scaling theory, which indicated that the heat capacity related term plays an important role in describing the asymmetric behaviour of the coexistence curve. Furthermore, the RPM (restricted primitive model)-rescaled critical parameters were calculated and suggested the solvophobic criticality for this system.

  15. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  16. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  17. Comparisons of Satellite-Deduced Overlapping Cloud Properties and CALIPSO CloudSat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to the overlapped cloud properties derived from polar-orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (GOES-12, -13, Meteosat-8, -9, etc.) meteorological satellites, which are produced at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) cloud research & development team (NASA lead scientist: Dr. Patrick Minnis). Comparison of the LaRC CERES MODIS Edition-3 overlapped cloud properties to the CALIPSO and the CloudSat active sensing data. High clouds and overlapped clouds occur frequently as deduced by CALIPSO (44 & 25%), CloudSat (25 & 4%), and MODIS (37 & 6%). Large fractions of optically-thin cirrus and overlapped clouds are deduced from CALIPSO, but much smaller fractions are from CloudSat and MODIS. For overlapped clouds, the averaged upper-layer CTHs are about 12.8 (CALIPSO), 10.9 (CloudSat) and 10 km (MODIS), and the averaged lower-layer CTHs are about 3.6 (CALIPSO), 3.2 (CloudSat) and 3.9 km (MODIS). Based on comparisons of upper and lower-layer cloud properties as deduced from the MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat data, more enhanced passive satellite methods for retrieving thin cirrus and overlapped cloud properties are needed and are under development.

  18. Coupling constants deduced for the resonances in kaon photo-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheoun, M. K.; Kim, K. S.; Choi, T. K.

    2004-01-01

    We deduced the coupling constants of nucleon and hyperon resonances, which participate in kaon productions as intermediate states that are formed by electro-magnetic probes and that finally decay into hadronic final states. We used an isobaric model based on an effective Lagrangian approach to describe the processes, in which relevant coupling constants regarding related resonances are effectively determined by fitting available experimental data. Our scheme to deduce the coupling constants was as follows: First, we calculated the lower and the upper limits on the coupling constants by using the experimental decay data available until now and/or theoretical predictions, such as those from quark models and SU(3) symmetry. Second, we exploited those limits as physical constraints on our fitting scheme for the kaon photo-production data. Finally, the deduced values and regions of the coupling constants, which satisfy not only the reaction data but also the decay data, are presented as figures with respect to the strong and the electro-magnetic coupling constants, and their multiplicative values. Our results for the coupling constants give physical values that are more restricted than those allowed by the experimental data nowadays.

  19. The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  1. Photophysics of the variable quantum yield of asymmetric bilirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Bilirubin (BR), responsible for neonatal jaundice, is a molecule containing two pyrromethenone chromophores conjoined by a 'saturated' carbon CH 2 group. Because this disease is cured by phototherapy, BR has been extensively studied by laser means. When the chromophores in each half of the molecule are identical, we have symmetrical BR (SBR); when they are not, we have asymmetric BR (ASBR). The quantum yield of the photoproducts in simple organic solution from SBR is not wavelength-dependent, while that from ASBR is. Because of the proximity of the two chromophores, both the SBR and ASBR systems are subject to Davidoff (dynamic electric dipole) splitting of the chromophore excited states. A quantum mechanical calculation shows that when the two (ASBR) chromophore states are not degenerate, the higher Davidoff state is preferentially occupied by the chromophore with the 'original' higher energy, and the lower Davidoff state by the chromophore of 'original' lower energy. This is just what is required for the quantum yield to vary with wavelength. If the variation of the quantum yield of ASBR in the presence of human serum albumen is approximated by a square-wave (narrow line approximation), the deduced ratio of the short wavelength photoproduct yield with the long wavelength one is in agreement with accepted values for the 'original' energy difference of the chromophores, and the Davidoff splitting parameter. A previous explanation has involved variation of relaxation processes with wavelength, but only qualitatively. The quantum yields for SBRs bonded to HSA are not yet published, but show wavelength variation, possibly from asymmetric bonding. In 0.1% ammonia/methanol however, there is no such variation for the SBRs, while for ASBR, there is, and the photoproduct ratios for long and short wavelength are reciprocals of one another, as predicted by our theory

  2. Field factors for asymmetric collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.R.; Butler, A.P.H.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years manufacturers have been supplying linear accelerators with either a single pair or a dual pair of collimators. The use of a model to relate off-axis field factors to on-axis field factors obviates the need for repeat measurements whenever the asymmetric collimators are employed. We have investigated the variation of collimator scatter Sc, with distance of the central ray x from the central axis for a variety of non square field sizes. Collimator scatter was measured by in-air measurements with a build-up cap. The Primaty-Off-Centre-Ratio (POCR) was measured in-air by scanning orthogonally across the beam with an ionization chamber. The result of the investigation is the useful prediction of off-axis field factors for a range of rectangular asymmetric fields using the simple product of the on-axis field factor and the POCR in air. The effect of asymmetry on the quality of the beam and hence the percent depth dose will be discussed. (author)

  3. Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Parental Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, R.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tops, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts

  4. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  5. Mechanochemistry assisted asymmetric organocatalysis: A sustainable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chauhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ball-milling and pestle and mortar grinding have emerged as powerful methods for the development of environmentally benign chemical transformations. Recently, the use of these mechanochemical techniques in asymmetric organocatalysis has increased. This review highlights the progress in asymmetric organocatalytic reactions assisted by mechanochemical techniques.

  6. Designing asymmetric multiferroics with strong magnetoelectric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuezeng; Xiang, Hongjun; Rondinelli, James; Materials Theory; Design Group Team

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature need much more study. Here, we propose the concept of an alternative type of multiferroics, namely, the ``asymmetric multiferroic.'' In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from first principles that a Fe-Cr-Mo superlattice with the LiNbO3-type structure is such an asymmetric multiferroic. The strong ferrimagnetism, high ferroelectric polarization, and significant dependence of the magnetic transition temperature on polarization make this asymmetric multiferroic an ideal candidate for realizing electric-field control of magnetism at room temperature. Our study suggests that the asymmetric multiferroic may provide an alternative playground for voltage control of magnetism and find its applications in spintronics and quantum computing.

  7. A case of asymmetrical arthrogryposis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, G.; Vette, J.K.; Willemse, J.

    1983-01-01

    Following the introduction of the conception that arthrogryposis is a symptom and not a clinical entity, a case of the very rare asymmetric form of neurogenic arthrogryposis is presented. The asymmetry of congenital contractures and weakness is associated with hemihypotrophy. The value of muscular CT-scanning prior to muscle biopsy is demonstrated. Muscular CT-scanning shows the extension of adipose tissue, which has replaced damaged muscles and therby indicates the exact site for muscle biopsy. Since orthopaedic treatment in arthrogryposis can be unrewarding due to severe muscular degeneration, preoperative scanning may provide additional important information on muscular function and thus be of benefit for surgery. The advantage of muscular CT-scanning in other forms of arthrogryposis requires further determination. The differential diagnosis with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease is discussed. (author)

  8. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, precise measurements of the number of relativistic species, such as those expected from the Planck satellite, can provide information on the structure of the dark sector. We also discuss the constraints of the interactions between DM and Dark Radiation from their imprint in the matter power spectrum

  9. Influence of fault asymmetric dislocation on the gravity changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Hurong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement along the fractures as a result of earth movement. Large faults within the Earth’s crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes. The relationship between unevenness dislocation and gravity changes was studied on the theoretical thought of differential fault. Simulated observation values were adopted to deduce the gravity changes with the model of asymmetric fault and the model of Okada, respectively. The characteristic of unevennes fault momentum distribution is from two end points to middle by 0 according to a certain continuous functional increase. However, the fault momentum distribution in the fault length range is a constant when the Okada model is adopted. Numerical simulation experiments for the activities of the strike-slip fault, dip-slip fault and extension fault were carried out, respectively, to find that both the gravity contours and the gravity variation values are consistent when either of the two models is adopted. The apparent difference lies in that the values at the end points are 17. 97% for the strike-slip fault, 25. 58% for the dip-slip fault, and 24. 73% for the extension fault.

  10. Dotaciones para la recuperación de activos revertibles como deducibles del impuesto sobre sociedades

    OpenAIRE

    Duplá Marín, María José

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo final que nos propusimos con este trabajo de investigación fue profundizar en el estudio jurídico-tributario de las dotaciones al fondo de reversión como gasto deducible para determinar la base imponible del impuesto sobre sociedades, en aquellas sociedades concesionarias de servicios públicos con cláusula de reversión de activos, partiendo de su realidad contable.En consecuencia el trabajo se ciñe al estudio crítico de la regulación jurídica del fondo de reversión como gasto fisc...

  11. SOLAR CONSTRAINTS ON ASYMMETRIC DARK MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Ilidio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2012-10-01

    The dark matter content of the universe is likely to be a mixture of matter and antimatter, perhaps comparable to the measured asymmetric mixture of baryons and antibaryons. During the early stages of the universe, the dark matter particles are produced in a process similar to baryogenesis, and dark matter freezeout depends on the dark matter asymmetry and the annihilation cross section (s-wave and p-wave annihilation channels) of particles and antiparticles. In these {eta}-parameterized asymmetric dark matter ({eta}ADM) models, the dark matter particles have an annihilation cross section close to the weak interaction cross section, and a value of dark matter asymmetry {eta} close to the baryon asymmetry {eta}{sub B}. Furthermore, we assume that dark matter scattering of baryons, namely, the spin-independent scattering cross section, is of the same order as the range of values suggested by several theoretical particle physics models used to explain the current unexplained events reported in the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST experiments. Here, we constrain {eta}ADM by investigating the impact of such a type of dark matter on the evolution of the Sun, namely, the flux of solar neutrinos and helioseismology. We find that dark matter particles with a mass smaller than 15 GeV, a spin-independent scattering cross section on baryons of the order of a picobarn, and an {eta}-asymmetry with a value in the interval 10{sup -12}-10{sup -10}, would induce a change in solar neutrino fluxes in disagreement with current neutrino flux measurements. This result is also confirmed by helioseismology data. A natural consequence of this model is suppressed annihilation, thereby reducing the tension between indirect and direct dark matter detection experiments, but the model also allows a greatly enhanced annihilation cross section. All the cosmological {eta}ADM scenarios that we discuss have a relic dark matter density {Omega}h {sup 2} and baryon asymmetry {eta}{sub B} in agreement with

  12. SOLAR CONSTRAINTS ON ASYMMETRIC DARK MATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The dark matter content of the universe is likely to be a mixture of matter and antimatter, perhaps comparable to the measured asymmetric mixture of baryons and antibaryons. During the early stages of the universe, the dark matter particles are produced in a process similar to baryogenesis, and dark matter freezeout depends on the dark matter asymmetry and the annihilation cross section (s-wave and p-wave annihilation channels) of particles and antiparticles. In these η-parameterized asymmetric dark matter (ηADM) models, the dark matter particles have an annihilation cross section close to the weak interaction cross section, and a value of dark matter asymmetry η close to the baryon asymmetry η B . Furthermore, we assume that dark matter scattering of baryons, namely, the spin-independent scattering cross section, is of the same order as the range of values suggested by several theoretical particle physics models used to explain the current unexplained events reported in the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST experiments. Here, we constrain ηADM by investigating the impact of such a type of dark matter on the evolution of the Sun, namely, the flux of solar neutrinos and helioseismology. We find that dark matter particles with a mass smaller than 15 GeV, a spin-independent scattering cross section on baryons of the order of a picobarn, and an η-asymmetry with a value in the interval 10 –12 -10 –10 , would induce a change in solar neutrino fluxes in disagreement with current neutrino flux measurements. This result is also confirmed by helioseismology data. A natural consequence of this model is suppressed annihilation, thereby reducing the tension between indirect and direct dark matter detection experiments, but the model also allows a greatly enhanced annihilation cross section. All the cosmological ηADM scenarios that we discuss have a relic dark matter density Ωh 2 and baryon asymmetry η B in agreement with the current WMAP measured values, Ω DM h 2 = 0

  13. Instantaneous sediment transport model for asymmetric oscillatory sheet flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available On the basis of advanced concentration and velocity profiles above a mobile seabed, an instantaneous analytical model is derived for sediment transport in asymmetric oscillatory flow. The applied concentration profile is obtained from the classical exponential law based on mass conservation, and asymmetric velocity profile is developed following the turbulent boundary layer theory and the asymmetric wave theory. The proposed model includes two parts: the basic part that consists of erosion depth and free stream velocity, and can be simplified to the total Shields parameter power 3/2 in accordance with the classical empirical models, and the extra vital part that consists of phase-lead, boundary layer thickness and erosion depth. The effects of suspended sediment, phase-lag and asymmetric boundary layer development are considered particularly in the model. The observed instantaneous transport rate proportional to different velocity exponents due to phase-lag is unified and summarised by the proposed model. Both instantaneous and half period empirical formulas are compared with the developed model, using extensive data on a wide range of flow and sediment conditions. The synchronous variation in instantaneous transport rate with free stream velocity and its decrement caused by increased sediment size are predicted correctly. Net transport rates, especially offshore transport rates with large phase-lag under velocity skewed flows, which existing instantaneous type formulas failed to predict, are predicted correctly in both direction and magnitude by the proposed model. Net sediment transport rates are affected not only by suspended sediment and phase-lag, but also by the boundary layer difference between onshore and offshore.

  14. Chaos of several typical asymmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jingjing; Zhang Qichang; Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    The threshold for the onset of chaos in asymmetric nonlinear dynamic systems can be determined using an extended Padé method. In this paper, a double-well asymmetric potential system with damping under external periodic excitation is investigated, as well as an asymmetric triple-well potential system under external and parametric excitation. The integrals of Melnikov functions are established to demonstrate that the motion is chaotic. Threshold values are acquired when homoclinic and heteroclinic bifurcations occur. The results of analytical and numerical integration are compared to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the analytical method.

  15. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  16. Kinetic energies of charged fragments resulting from multifragmentation and asymmetric fission of the C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with monocharged ions (2-130 keV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentenier, A; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D; Moretto-Capelle, P; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A [Laboratoire CAR-IRSAMC, UMR 5589 CNRS - Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2003-04-28

    Multifragmentation and asymmetric fission (AF) of the C{sub 60} molecule induced by H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} and He{sup +} ions at medium collision energies (2-130 keV) are considered. Momenta and kinetic energies of C{sub n}{sup +} fragment ions (n = 1- 12) are deduced from an analysis of time-of-flight spectra. In multifragmentation processes, momenta are found to be approximately constant when n > 2, a behaviour which explains that the most probable kinetic energy, as well as the width of the kinetic energy distributions, is found to be inversely proportional to the fragment size n; both momenta and kinetic energies are independent of the velocity and nature of the projectile, and hence of the energy deposit. A specific study of the AF shows that the kinetic energies of C{sub 2}{sup +}, C{sub 4}{sup +} and C{sub 6}{sup +} fragments are also independent of the collision velocity and projectile species; a quantitative agreement is found with values deduced from kinetic energy release measurements by another group in electron impact experiments, and the observed decrease when the mass of the light fragment increases is also reproduced. A quantitative comparison of AF and multifragmentation for the n = 2, 4 and 6 fragment ions shows that kinetic energies in AF exceed that in multifragmentation, a result which explains the oscillations observed when momenta or kinetic energies of fragments are plotted against the n-value. The AF yield is also found to scale with the energy deposit in the collision velocity range extending below the velocity at the maximum of the electronic stopping power; except for protons, it remains negligible with respect to multifragmentation as soon as the total energy deposit exceeds about 100 eV.

  17. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  18. Asymmetric Supercapacitor Electrodes and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Nitin; Li, Chao; Moore, Julian; Nagaiah, Narasimha; Zhai, Lei; Jung, Yeonwoong; Thomas, Jayan

    2017-06-01

    The world is recently witnessing an explosive development of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices that demand more-reliable power sources that combine higher energy density and longer-term durability. Supercapacitors have become one of the most promising energy-storage systems, as they present multifold advantages of high power density, fast charging-discharging, and long cyclic stability. However, the intrinsically low energy density inherent to traditional supercapacitors severely limits their widespread applications, triggering researchers to explore new types of supercapacitors with improved performance. Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) assembled using two dissimilar electrode materials offer a distinct advantage of wide operational voltage window, and thereby significantly enhance the energy density. Recent progress made in the field of ASCs is critically reviewed, with the main focus on an extensive survey of the materials developed for ASC electrodes, as well as covering the progress made in the fabrication of ASC devices over the last few decades. Current challenges and a future outlook of the field of ASCs are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Bioinspired smart asymmetric nanochannel membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-22

    Bioinspired smart asymmetric nanochannel membranes (BSANM) have been explored extensively to achieve the delicate ionic transport functions comparable to those of living organisms. The abiotic system exhibits superior stability and robustness, allowing for promising applications in many fields. In view of the abundance of research concerning BSANM in the past decade, herein, we present a systematic overview of the development of the state-of-the-art BSANM system. The discussion is focused on the construction methodologies based on raw materials with diverse dimensions (i.e. 0D, 1D, 2D, and bulk). A generic strategy for the design and construction of the BSANM system is proposed first and put into context with recent developments from homogeneous to heterogeneous nanochannel membranes. Then, the basic properties of the BSANM are introduced including selectivity, gating, and rectification, which are associated with the particular chemical and physical structures. Moreover, we summarized the practical applications of BSANM in energy conversion, biochemical sensing and other areas. In the end, some personal opinions on the future development of the BSANM are briefly illustrated. This review covers most of the related literature reported since 2010 and is intended to build up a broad and deep knowledge base that can provide a solid information source for the scientific community.

  20. Lift production through asymmetric flapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalikop, Shreyas; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2009-11-01

    At present, there is a strong interest in developing Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for applications like disaster management and aerial surveys. At these small length scales, the flight of insects and small birds suggests that unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings can offer many advantages over fixed wing flight, such as hovering-flight, high maneuverability and high lift at large angles of attack. Various lift generating mechanims such as delayed stall, wake capture and wing rotation contribute towards our understanding of insect flight. We address the effect of asymmetric flapping of wings on lift production. By visualising the flow around a pair of rectangular wings flapping in a water tank and numerically computing the flow using a discrete vortex method, we demonstrate that net lift can be produced by introducing an asymmetry in the upstroke-to-downstroke velocity profile of the flapping wings. The competition between generation of upstroke and downstroke tip vortices appears to hold the key to understanding this lift generation mechanism.

  1. Reactive solute transport in an asymmetrical fracture-rock matrix system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjie; Zhan, Hongbin

    2018-02-01

    The understanding of reactive solute transport in a single fracture-rock matrix system is the foundation of studying transport behavior in the complex fractured porous media. When transport properties are asymmetrically distributed in the adjacent rock matrixes, reactive solute transport has to be considered as a coupled three-domain problem, which is more complex than the symmetric case with identical transport properties in the adjacent rock matrixes. This study deals with the transport problem in a single fracture-rock matrix system with asymmetrical distribution of transport properties in the rock matrixes. Mathematical models are developed for such a problem under the first-type and the third-type boundary conditions to analyze the spatio-temporal concentration and mass distribution in the fracture and rock matrix with the help of Laplace transform technique and de Hoog numerical inverse Laplace algorithm. The newly acquired solutions are then tested extensively against previous analytical and numerical solutions and are proven to be robust and accurate. Furthermore, a water flushing phase is imposed on the left boundary of system after a certain time. The diffusive mass exchange along the fracture/rock matrixes interfaces and the relative masses stored in each of three domains (fracture, upper rock matrix, and lower rock matrix) after the water flushing provide great insights of transport with asymmetric distribution of transport properties. This study has the following findings: 1) Asymmetric distribution of transport properties imposes greater controls on solute transport in the rock matrixes. However, transport in the fracture is mildly influenced. 2) The mass stored in the fracture responses quickly to water flushing, while the mass stored in the rock matrix is much less sensitive to the water flushing. 3) The diffusive mass exchange during the water flushing phase has similar patterns under symmetric and asymmetric cases. 4) The characteristic distance

  2. An efficient catalyst for asymmetric Reformatsky reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rate enantioselectivity using N,N-dialkylnorephedrines as chiral ligands. ..... temperatures also, there was no product conversion. ... Optimization of reaction conditions for asymmetric Reformatsky reaction between benzaldehyde and α-.

  3. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-15

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  4. Asymmetrical Representation of Gender in Amharic1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    in its grammar. Gender representation in this language is asymmetrical heavily ..... In dictionaries where. Amharic appears either as the target or the source language, verbs are entered ...... The Dialects of Amharic Revisited. Semitica et.

  5. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e + - e - colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II)

  6. Congenital asymmetric crying face: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital asymmetric crying face is an anomalia caused by unilateral absence or weakness of depressor anguli oris muscle The major finding of the disease is the absence or weakness in the outer and lower movement of the commissure during crying. The other expression muscles are normal and the face is symmetric at rest. The asymmetry in congenital asymmetric crying face is most evident during infancy but decreases by age. Congenital asymmetric crying face can be associated with cervicofacial, musclebone, respiratory, genitourinary and central nervous system anomalia. It is diagnosed by physical examination. This paper presents a six days old infant with Congenital asymmetric crying face and discusses the case in terms of diagnosis and disease features.

  7. Asymmetric total synthesis of cladosporin and isocladosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaiji; Zhao, Changgui; Fang, Bowen; Jing, Peng; Yang, Juan; Xie, Xingang; She, Xuegong

    2012-07-06

    The first asymmetric total syntheses of cladosporin and isocladosporin were accomplished in 8 steps with 8% overall yield and 10 steps with 26% overall yield, respectively. The relative configuration of isocladosporin was determined via this total synthesis.

  8. Magnetically Modified Asymmetric Supercapacitors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is for the development of an asymmetric supercapacitor that will have improved energy density and cycle life....

  9. Asymmetric systems described by a pair of local covariant wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1979-07-16

    A class of asymmetric solutions of the integrability conditions for systems obeying the Leutwyler-Stern pair of covariant wave equations is obtained. The class of unequal-mass systems described by these solutions does not embed the particle-antiparticle system behaving as a relativistic harmonic oscillator.

  10. Asymmetric electron cyclotron emission from superthermal electrons in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Measurements of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency on the high and low magnetic field side of the TFR Tokamak are reported. In the presence of a superthermal electron component the measured intensities are asymmetric. A theoretical explanation based on the combined effects of the electron relativistic mass variation and the 1/R variation of the tokamak magnetic field is discussed

  11. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  12. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  13. Asymmetric fission and evaporation of C{sub 60}{sup r+} (r = 2-4) fullerene ions in ion-C{sub 60} collisions: I. Proton results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentenier, A; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A; Moretto-Capelle, P; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D [LCAR-IRSAMC, UMR 5589 Universite Paul Sabatier-CNRS, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2004-06-28

    A quantitative description of the asymmetric fission (AF) of C{sub 60}{sup r+} fullerene ions (r = 2-4), using a multistop coincidence technique between both fragment ions, is presented. Charged light fragment (LF) and heavy fragment (HF) size distributions are discussed together with the corresponding averaged sizes. Complete AF distributions are reported for the first time for C{sub 60}{sup 2+} ions. Simple dependences of the more probable channels and averaged fragment sizes on the partner size are found and discussed. The LF ones are not very sensitive to the parent fullerene ion charge r and vary linearly with the HF size at least for the largest ones. On the other hand the HF ones present an oscillating dependence against the LF size, the odd-numbered LFs being correlated to a smaller HF size, and depend on r. In the comparison of branching ratios between AF and the competing pure neutral evaporation channel, some emphasis is given to the behaviour of the unimolecular processes with r which are compared with the evolution of the activation energies and fission barriers. From a close examination of the individual HF distributions the production mechanisms of odd-n fragments are discussed, and the most probable dissociation channels of even-numbered C{sub n}{sup +} excited carbon clusters identified. Finally, an analysis of the neutral channels is also presented for the first time, the total neutral mass N (in carbon units) being deduced from the mass conservation law. Surprising similarities between the charged LF- and N-distributions are found. AF processes are also identified where light neutrals and ions play a symmetrical role. These findings lead us to suggest that a concerted emission of ions and heavy neutrals is probably a fission mechanism to be considered to understand the AF process of the C{sub 60} molecule in addition to the often assumed multistep fragmentation cascade scheme.

  14. Asymmetric fission and evaporation of C60r+ (r = 2-4) fullerene ions in ion-C60 collisions: I. Proton results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentenier, A; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A; Moretto-Capelle, P; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative description of the asymmetric fission (AF) of C 60 r+ fullerene ions (r = 2-4), using a multistop coincidence technique between both fragment ions, is presented. Charged light fragment (LF) and heavy fragment (HF) size distributions are discussed together with the corresponding averaged sizes. Complete AF distributions are reported for the first time for C 60 2+ ions. Simple dependences of the more probable channels and averaged fragment sizes on the partner size are found and discussed. The LF ones are not very sensitive to the parent fullerene ion charge r and vary linearly with the HF size at least for the largest ones. On the other hand the HF ones present an oscillating dependence against the LF size, the odd-numbered LFs being correlated to a smaller HF size, and depend on r. In the comparison of branching ratios between AF and the competing pure neutral evaporation channel, some emphasis is given to the behaviour of the unimolecular processes with r which are compared with the evolution of the activation energies and fission barriers. From a close examination of the individual HF distributions the production mechanisms of odd-n fragments are discussed, and the most probable dissociation channels of even-numbered C n + excited carbon clusters identified. Finally, an analysis of the neutral channels is also presented for the first time, the total neutral mass N (in carbon units) being deduced from the mass conservation law. Surprising similarities between the charged LF- and N-distributions are found. AF processes are also identified where light neutrals and ions play a symmetrical role. These findings lead us to suggest that a concerted emission of ions and heavy neutrals is probably a fission mechanism to be considered to understand the AF process of the C 60 molecule in addition to the often assumed multistep fragmentation cascade scheme

  15. Deducing the kinetics of protein synthesis in vivo from the transition rates measured in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Rudorf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular machinery of life relies on complex multistep processes that involve numerous individual transitions, such as molecular association and dissociation steps, chemical reactions, and mechanical movements. The corresponding transition rates can be typically measured in vitro but not in vivo. Here, we develop a general method to deduce the in-vivo rates from their in-vitro values. The method has two basic components. First, we introduce the kinetic distance, a new concept by which we can quantitatively compare the kinetics of a multistep process in different environments. The kinetic distance depends logarithmically on the transition rates and can be interpreted in terms of the underlying free energy barriers. Second, we minimize the kinetic distance between the in-vitro and the in-vivo process, imposing the constraint that the deduced rates reproduce a known global property such as the overall in-vivo speed. In order to demonstrate the predictive power of our method, we apply it to protein synthesis by ribosomes, a key process of gene expression. We describe the latter process by a codon-specific Markov model with three reaction pathways, corresponding to the initial binding of cognate, near-cognate, and non-cognate tRNA, for which we determine all individual transition rates in vitro. We then predict the in-vivo rates by the constrained minimization procedure and validate these rates by three independent sets of in-vivo data, obtained for codon-dependent translation speeds, codon-specific translation dynamics, and missense error frequencies. In all cases, we find good agreement between theory and experiment without adjusting any fit parameter. The deduced in-vivo rates lead to smaller error frequencies than the known in-vitro rates, primarily by an improved initial selection of tRNA. The method introduced here is relatively simple from a computational point of view and can be applied to any biomolecular process, for which we have

  16. Impact of Secondary Interactions in Asymmetric Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frölander, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with secondary interactions in asymmetric catalysis and their impact on the outcome of catalytic reactions. The first part revolves around the metal-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reaction and how interactions within the catalyst affect the stereochemistry. An OH–Pd hydrogen bond in Pd(0)–π-olefin complexes of hydroxy-containing oxazoline ligands was identified by density functional theory computations and helped to rationalize the contrasting results obtained emplo...

  17. Engineered Asymmetric Composite Membranes with Rectifying Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liping; Xiao, Kai; Sainath, Annadanam V Sesha; Komura, Motonori; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xie, Ganhua; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Ye; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-27

    Asymmetric composite membranes with rectifying properties are developed by grafting pH-stimulus-responsive materials onto the top layer of the composite structure, which is prepared by two novel block copolymers using a phase-separation technique. This engineered asymmetric composite membrane shows potential applications in sensors, filtration, and nanofluidic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N eff , we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  19. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Cui, Yanou [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Shelton, Jessie [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-06-06

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N{sub eff}, we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  20. Chilly dark sectors and asymmetric reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Peter; Cui, Yanou; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-01

    In a broad class of theories, the relic abundance of dark matter is determined by interactions internal to a thermalized dark sector, with no direct involvement of the Standard Model (SM). We point out that these theories raise an immediate cosmological question: how was the dark sector initially populated in the early universe? Motivated in part by the difficulty of accommodating large amounts of entropy carried in dark radiation with cosmic microwave background measurements of the effective number of relativistic species at recombination, N eff , we aim to establish which admissible cosmological histories can populate a thermal dark sector that never reaches thermal equilibrium with the SM. The minimal cosmological origin for such a dark sector is asymmetric reheating, when the same mechanism that populates the SM in the early universe also populates the dark sector at a lower temperature. Here we demonstrate that the resulting inevitable inflaton-mediated scattering between the dark sector and the SM can wash out a would-be temperature asymmetry, and establish the regions of parameter space where temperature asymmetries can be generated in minimal reheating scenarios. Thus obtaining a temperature asymmetry of a given size either restricts possible inflaton masses and couplings or necessitates a non-minimal cosmology for one or both sectors. As a side benefit, we develop techniques for evaluating collision terms in the relativistic Boltzmann equation when the full dependence on Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac phase space distributions must be retained, and present several new results on relativistic thermal averages in an appendix.

  1. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  2. Deducing the pathogenic contribution of recessive ABCA4 alleles in an outbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Emily I; Nylen, Erik L; Ko, Audrey C; Affatigato, Louisa M; Heggen, Andrew C; Wang, Kai; Sheffield, Val C; Stone, Edwin M

    2010-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the pathogenic effects of specific genotypes is important for the design and execution of clinical trials as well as for meaningful counseling of individual patients. However, for many autosomal recessive diseases, it can be difficult to deduce the relative pathogenic contribution of individual alleles because relatively few affected individuals share the same two disease-causing variations. In this study, we used multiple regression analysis to estimate the pathogenicity of specific alleles of ABCA4 in patients with retinal phenotypes ranging from Stargardt disease to retinitis pigmentosa. This analysis revealed quantitative allelic effects on two aspects of the visual phenotype, visual acuity (P disease and will also aid in the optimal selection of subjects for clinical trials of new therapies.

  3. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-02-15

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist.

  4. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; del Real, R. P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vá zquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  5. Asymmetric fission of 47V induced by the 23Na+24Mg reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.; Djerroud, B.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R.M.; Hachem, A.; Heusch, B.; Morsad, A.; Vuillet-A-Cilles, M.; Sanders, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The properties of fully energy-damped processes (deep-inelastic orbiting, fusion-evaporation, and fusion-fission processes) have been investigated in the nearly mass-symmetric entrance-channel 23 Na + 24 Mg reaction leading to the 47 V compound nucleus. By comparison with previous data for the mass-asymmetric 35 Cl + 12 C reaction forming the same compound system at the same excitation energy, no entrance-channel effects are observed in either the evaporation residue or the fusion-fission yields. This is in contrast to the situation with the 28 Si + 12 C and 24 Mg + 16 O reactions where an orbiting process is evident. The asymmetrical elemental distributions of the fusion-fission fragments of the massA=47 system are well described by a transition-state model that accounts for the spin and mass-asymmetry dependence of the fission saddle point

  6. Study of 235U very asymmetric thermal fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sida, J.L.

    1989-12-01

    The fission fragment separator Lohengrin of the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble was used to determine the yields of the very asymmetric light fission products (A=84-69) as a function of A, Z, and the kinetic energy E. The proton pairing effect causes fine structures in the mass distribution, in the mean nuclear charge anti Z and its variance σ z , and in the mean kinetic energies of the elements. The neutron pairing effect in the production yields is found for the first time of the same order of magnitude than the proton pairing effect. In the mass region investigated both are the largest observed in fission of 235 U. A decrease in the mean kinetic energy for the isotopes of Ni and Cu was observed. It points to a large deformation at scission. Our results support the view that very asymmetric low-energy fission is a weakly dissipative process. The highly deformed transient system breaks by a slow necking-in process [fr

  7. Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch provides the origin of planetary nebulae. This paper reviews several relevant aspects of AGB evolution: pulsation properties, mass loss formalisms and time variable mass loss, evidence for asymmetries on the AGB, binarity, ISM interaction, and mass loss at low metallicity. There is growing evidence that mass loss on the AGB is already asymmetric, but with spherically symmetric velocity fields. The origin of the rings may be in pulsational instabilities...

  8. Inclined asymmetric librations in exterior resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    Librational motion in Celestial Mechanics is generally associated with the existence of stable resonant configurations and signified by the existence of stable periodic solutions and oscillation of critical (resonant) angles. When such an oscillation takes place around a value different than 0 or π , the libration is called asymmetric. In the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, asymmetric librations have been identified for the exterior mean motion resonances (MMRs) 1:2, 1:3, etc., as well as for co-orbital motion (1:1). In exterior MMRs the massless body is the outer one. In this paper, we study asymmetric librations in the three-dimensional space. We employ the computational approach of Markellos (Mon Not R Astron Soc 184:273-281, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/184.2.273, 1978) and compute families of asymmetric periodic orbits and their stability. Stable asymmetric periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space by domains of initial conditions which correspond to stable evolution and librating resonant angles. Our computations were focused on the spatial circular restricted three-body model of the Sun-Neptune-TNO system (TNO = trans-Neptunian object). We compare our results with numerical integrations of observed TNOs, which reveal that some of them perform 1:2 resonant, inclined asymmetric librations. For the stable 1:2 TNO librators, we find that their libration seems to be related to the vertically stable planar asymmetric orbits of our model, rather than the three-dimensional ones found in the present study.

  9. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-06-20

    We demonstrate a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on the principle of elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique. The device of an array of linear polarizers is introduced to achieve linear truncation on the spatially resolved elliptical polarization distribution during image encryption. This encoding process can be characterized as confusion-based optical cryptography that involves no Fourier lens and diffusion operation. Based on the Jones matrix formalism, the intensity transmittance for this truncation is deduced to perform elliptical polarized light reconstruction based on two intensity measurements. Use of a quick response code makes the proposed cryptosystem practical, with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance. Both simulation and preliminary experimental results that support theoretical analysis are presented. An analysis of the resistance of the proposed method on a known public key attack is also provided.

  10. Vibration analysis of paper machine's asymmetric tube roll supported by spherical roller bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Janne E.; Ghalamchi, Behnam; Viitala, Raine; Sopanen, Jussi; Juhanko, Jari; Mikkola, Aki; Kuosmanen, Petri

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a simulation method that is used to study subcritical vibrations of a tube roll in a paper machine. This study employs asymmetric 3D beam elements based on the Timoshenko beam theory. An asymmetric beam model accounts for varying stiffness and mass distributions. Additionally, a detailed rolling element bearing model defines the excitations arising from the set of spherical roller bearings at both ends of the rotor. The results obtained from the simulation model are compared against the results from the measurements. The results indicate that the waviness of the bearing rolling surfaces contributes significantly to the subcritical vibrations while the asymmetric properties of the tube roll have only a fractional effect on the studied vibrations.

  11. Asymmetric transmission of acoustic waves in a layer thickness distribution gradient structure using metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-San Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an innovative asymmetric transmission design using alternate layers of water and metamaterial with complex mass density. The directional transmission behavior of acoustic waves is observed numerically inside the composite structure with gradient layer thickness distribution and the rectifying performance of the present design is evaluated. The layer thickness distributions with arithmetic and geometric gradients are considered and the effect of gradient thickness on asymmetric wave propagation is systematically investigated using finite element simulation. The numerical results indicate that the maximum pressure density and transmission through the proposed structure are significantly influenced by the wave propagation direction over a wide range of audible frequencies. Tailoring the thickness of the layered structure enables the manipulation of asymmetric wave propagation within the desired frequency range. In conclusion, the proposed design offers a new possibility for developing directional-dependent acoustic devices.

  12. Reversal modes in asymmetric Ni nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, B.; Pereira, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J., E-mail: jescrigm@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile)

    2012-11-15

    We have investigated the evolution of the magnetization reversal mechanism in asymmetric Ni nanowires as a function of their geometry. Circular nanowires are found to reverse their magnetization by the propagation of a vortex domain wall, while in very asymmetric nanowires the reversal is driven by the propagation of a transverse domain wall. The effect of shape asymmetry of the wire on coercivity and remanence is also studied. Angular dependence of the remanence and coercivity is also addressed. Tailoring the magnetization reversal mechanism in asymmetric nanowires can be useful for magnetic logic and race-track memory, both of which are based on the displacement of magnetic domain walls. Finally, an alternative method to detect the presence of magnetic drops is proposed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asymmetry strongly modifies the magnetic behavior of a wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very asymmetric nanowires reverse their magnetization by a transverse domain wall. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alternative method to detect the presence of magnetic drops is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tailoring the reversal mode in asymmetric nanowires can be useful for potential applications.

  13. Proteomics analysis for asymmetric inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kusunoki, Shunta; Ishibashi, Yuko; Kito, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited. The aim of this study is to propose a proteomics strategy for asymmetrical inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells. During synchronous culture for one generation, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with stable isotope amino acids to discriminate preexisting proteins originally expressed in mother cells, followed by separation of mother and daughter cells using a conventional method based on biotin labeling. Isotope incorporation ratios for individual proteins were quantified using mass spectrometry. We successfully identified 21 proteins whose preexisting versions were asymmetrically inherited in mother cells, including plasma membrane transporter involved in the aging process and organelle-anchoring proteins related to the stress response to misfolded proteins. Thus, our approach would be useful for making catalog of asymmetrically inherited proteins. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Renewable resource management under asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Andersen, Peder; Nielsen, Max

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric information between fishermen and the regulator is important within fisheries. The regulator may have less information about stock sizes, prices, costs, effort, productivity and catches than fishermen. With asymmetric information, a strong analytical tool is principal-agent analysis....... In this paper, we study asymmetric information about productivity within a principal-agent framework and a tax on fishing effort is considered. It is shown that a second best optimum can be achieved if the effort tax is designed such that low-productivity agents rent is exhausted, while high-productivity agents...... receive an information rent. The information rent is equivalent to the total incentive cost. The incentive costs arise as we want to reveal the agent's type....

  15. Asymmetric synthesis II more methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    After the overwhelming success of 'Asymmetric Synthesis - The Essentials', narrating the colorful history of asymmetric synthesis, this is the second edition with latest subjects and authors. While the aim of the first edition was mainly to honor the achievements of the pioneers in asymmetric syntheses, the aim of this new edition was bringing the current developments, especially from younger colleagues, to the attention of students. The format of the book remained unchanged, i.e. short conceptual overviews by young leaders in their field including a short biography of the authors. The growing multidisciplinary research within chemistry is reflected in the selection of topics including metal catalysis, organocatalysis, physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and its applications in total synthesis. The prospective reader of this book is a graduate or undergraduate student of advanced organic chemistry as well as the industrial chemist who wants to get a brief update on the current developments in th...

  16. Radial plasma drifts deduced from VLF whistler mode signals - A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, E. M.; Andrews, M. K.; Bailey, G. J.; Moffett, R. J.

    1984-05-01

    VLF whistler mode signals have previously been used to infer radial plasma drifts in the equatorial plane of the plasmasphere and the field-aligned ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes. Physical models of the plasmasphere consisting of O(+) adn H(+) ions along dipole magnetic field lines, and including radial E x B drifts, are applied to a mid-latitude flux tube appropriate to whistler mode signals received at Wellington, New Zealand, from the fixed frequency VLF transmitter NLK (18.6 kHz) in Seattle, U.S.A. These models are first shown to provide a good representation of the recorded Doppler shift and group delay data. They are then used to simulate the process of deducing the drifts and fluxes from the recorded data. Provided the initial whistler mode duct latitude and the ionospheric contributions are known, the drifts at the equatorial plane can be estimated to about + or - 20 m/s (approximately 10-15 percent), and the two hemisphere ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes to about + or - 10 to the 12th/sq m-sec (approximately 40 percent).

  17. Geodynamical behavior of some active area in Egypt, as deduced from geodetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issawy, E.; Mrlina, J.; Radwan, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.

    2009-04-01

    Temporal gravity variation in parallel with the space geodetic technique (GPS) had been started in Egypt for real campaigns in 1997. The geodetic networks around the High Dam, Aswan area was the first net to be measured. More than five measurement epochs were performed. The results had a considerable limit of coincidence between gravity and GPS observations. The trend of gravity changes indicated a positive stress and had the vertical displacement observed for leveling points. The lowest gravity changes along Kalabsha fault reflect extensional and/or strike component of the stress field. Also, the areas around Cairo (Greater Cairo) and due to the occurrence of an earthquake of 1992, such type of measurements were useful for monitoring the recent activity. The data of the geodetic network around Cairo after 5 campaigns showed that, the estimated horizontal velocities for almost all points are 5.5± mm/year in approximately NW-SE direction. The non-tidal changes can explain the dynamic process within the upper crust related to the development of local stress conditions. The trends of gravity changes are more or less coincident with that deduced from GPS deformation analysis and the occurrence of the main shocks in the area. In additions, in 2005 the geodetic network around the southern part of Sinai and the Gulf of Suez were established. One campaign of measurements had been performed and the gravity values were obtained.

  18. Atmospheric response to Saharan dust deduced from ECMWF reanalysis (ERA) temperature increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, P.; Alpert, P.; Barkan, J.; Kirchner, I.; Machenhauer, B.

    2003-09-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric temperature response to dust deduced from a new source of data the European Reanalysis (ERA) increments. These increments are the systematic errors of global climate models, generated in the reanalysis procedure. The model errors result not only from the lack of desert dust but also from a complex combination of many kinds of model errors. Over the Sahara desert the lack of dust radiative effect is believed to be a predominant model defect which should significantly affect the increments. This dust effect was examined by considering correlation between the increments and remotely sensed dust. Comparisons were made between April temporal variations of the ERA analysis increments and the variations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aerosol index (AI) between 1979 and 1993. The distinctive structure was identified in the distribution of correlation composed of three nested areas with high positive correlation (>0.5), low correlation and high negative correlation (Forecast (ECMWF) suggest that the PCA (NCA) corresponds mainly to anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow, negative (positive) vorticity and downward (upward) airflow. These findings are associated with the interaction between dust-forced heating/cooling and atmospheric circulation. This paper contributes to a better understanding of dust radiative processes missed in the model.

  19. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, J.L.; Driscoll, C.E.; LeVan, K.M.; Goldberg, E.

    1987-01-01

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase [LDHC 4 , LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD + oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27] has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC 4 is as different from rodent LDHC 4 (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA 4 (76% homology) and porcine LDHB 4 (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC 4 and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC 4 reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC 4 sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine

  20. Modal effects on amplitude perturbations on subionospheric signals (trimpis) deduced from two-frequency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowden, R.L.; Adams, C.D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Interference between the first two modes of Earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation at the high end of the VLF band (> 18 kHz) increases with distance from the transmitter out to very large distances and can add amplitude perturbations to the phase perturbations (trimpis) produced by lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) on the great circle path. Since the two modes have slightly different phase velocities, an interference pattern or standing wave is formed which is shifted slightly along the propagation path by the LEP-induced change in differential phase velocity. The model effect at the receiver depends on the local gradient (along the great circle path) of amplitude with respect to the differential phase. Since this differential or mode beat phase varies with frequency, measurement of the resultant amplitude at two close frequencies enables an estimation of the modal effects. In this study, measurements were made at Dunedin at the two MSK frequencies, 22,250 Hz and 22,350 Hz, of the transmitter NWC, during a night of frequent one-dimensional trimpis (i.e., those produced by large-area LEP occurring close to the great circle path) and of strong and varying modal interference. Modal generation or modification of trimpi amplitude was related to the local gradient of amplitude as expected. From these results it was deduced that modal modification of echo trimpis (those produced by small area LEP occurring well off the great circle path), even under extreme conditions, is insignificant

  1. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  2. Supercritical fluid in the mantle transition zone deduced from H-D interdiffusion of wadsleyite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yoshino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of water in the Earth's mantle is key to understanding the mantle convection and geochemical evolution of the Earth. As wadsleyite and ringwoodite can incorporate large amounts of water in their crystal structures, proton conduction has been invoked to account for the widespread conductive anomalies observed in the mantle wedge, where descending slab stagnates at the transition zone. However, there is a lot of controversy on whether proton conduction by itself is able to explain such anomalies, because of large discrepancy in the extent of the water effect deduced from previous electrical conductivity measurements on hydrous polycrystalline wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Here we report the hydrogen self-diffusion coefficient obtained from H-D interdiffusion experiments in wadsleyite single-crystal couples. Our results demonstrate that the effect of water on the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite is limited and hydrous wadsleyite by itself is unable to explain conductive anomalies in the transition zone. In contrast, the expected hydrogen effective diffusion does not allow the wide propagation of water between the stagnant slab and surrounding mantle, probably leading to persistence of local water saturation and continuous release of supercritical fluids at the stagnant slab roof on geological time scales. This phenomenon provides an alternative explanation for both the high-conductivity and seismic-velocity anomalies observed in the mantle wedge at the transition-zone depth.

  3. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  4. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong-xiang, E-mail: jsdxshx@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yuan, Shou-qi, E-mail: Shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Shu-yi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  5. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-01-01

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices

  6. AUI&GIV: Recommendation with Asymmetric User Influence and Global Importance Value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Zhao

    Full Text Available The user-based collaborative filtering (CF algorithm is one of the most popular approaches for making recommendation. Despite its success, the traditional user-based CF algorithm suffers one serious problem that it only measures the influence between two users based on their symmetric similarities calculated by their consumption histories. It means that, for a pair of users, the influences on each other are the same, which however may not be true. Intuitively, an expert may have an impact on a novice user but a novice user may not affect an expert at all. Besides, each user may possess a global importance factor that affects his/her influence to the remaining users. To this end, in this paper, we propose an asymmetric user influence model to measure the directed influence between two users and adopt the PageRank algorithm to calculate the global importance value of each user. And then the directed influence values and the global importance values are integrated to deduce the final influence values between two users. Finally, we use the final influence values to improve the performance of the traditional user-based CF algorithm. Extensive experiments have been conducted, the results of which have confirmed that both the asymmetric user influence model and global importance value play key roles in improving recommendation accuracy, and hence the proposed method significantly outperforms the existing recommendation algorithms, in particular the user-based CF algorithm on the datasets of high rating density.

  7. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2012-01-01

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical differentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  8. Standards vs. labels with imperfect competition and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    I demonstrate that providing information about product quality is not necessarily the best way to address asymmetric information problems when markets are imperfectly competitive. In a vertical dierentiation model I show that a Minimum Quality Standard, which retains asymmetric information...

  9. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-11-18

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use.

  10. Mixed gas plasticization phenomena in asymmetric membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Tymen

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the thorough investigation of mixed gas transport behavior of asymmetric membranes in the separation of feed streams containing plasticizing gases in order to gain more insights into the complicated behavior of plasticization. To successfully employ gas separation membranes in

  11. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  12. MHD stability of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhed, H.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    The ideal MHD stability properties of a special class of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria are examined. The calculations confirm that no major new physical effects are introduced and the modifications can be understood by conventional arguments. The results indicate that significant departures from up-down symmetry can be tolerated before the reduction in β becomes important for reactor operation

  13. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the alkaloid (+)-myrtine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzuti, Maria Gabriefla; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    A new protocol for the asymmetric synthesis of trans-2,6-disubstituted-4-piperidones has been developed using a catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition reaction in combination with a diastereoselective lithiation-substitution sequence; an efficient synthesis of (+)-myrtine has been achieved

  14. Asymmetric Aminalization via Cation-Binding Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sang Yeon; Liu, Yidong; Oh, Joong Suk

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, in principle, can generate "chiral" anionic nucleophiles, where the counter cations are coordinated within chiral environments. Nitrogen-nucleophiles are intrinsically basic, therefore, its use as nucleophiles is often challenging and limiting the scope of the...

  15. Volume inequalities for asymmetric Wulff shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Franz E.; Weberndorfer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Sharp reverse affine isoperimetric inequalities for asymmetric Wulff shapes and their polars are established, along with the characterization of all extremals. These new inequalities have as special cases previously obtained simplex inequalities by Ball, Barthe and Lutwak, Yang, and Zhang. In particular, they provide the solution to a problem by Zhang.

  16. Quantum optics of lossy asymmetric beam splitters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uppu, Ravitej; Wolterink, Tom; Tentrup, Tristan Bernhard Horst; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate quantum interference of two single photons at a lossy asymmetric beam splitter, the most general passive 2×2 optical circuit. The losses in the circuit result in a non-unitary scattering matrix with a non-trivial set of constraints on the elements of the scattering

  17. Motion in an Asymmetric Double Well

    OpenAIRE

    Brizard, Alain J.; Westland, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of the motion of a particle in an asymmetric double well is solved explicitly in terms of the Weierstrass and Jacobi elliptic functions. While the solution of the orbital motion is expressed simply in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function, the period of oscillation is more directly expressed in terms of periods of the Jacobi elliptic functions.

  18. Asymmetric output profile of Xe Laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, F.J.; Rubin, P.L.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Witteman, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    A new set of asymmetric modes was recently revealed in a Xe slab laser with pronounced lens effects originating from gas heating in the discharge. The appearance of these modes is a threshold effect. Their domain of existence in the Xe laser is discussed. It is shown that mode competition can result

  19. Computing modal dispersion characteristics of radially Asymmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We developed a matrix theory that applies to with non-circular/circular but concentric layers fibers. And we compute the dispersion characteristics of radially unconventional fiber, known as Asymmetric Bragg fiber. An attempt has been made to determine how the modal characteristics change as circular Bragg fiber is ...

  20. Seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Myneni, R.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple evidences of widespread greening and increasing terrestrial carbon uptake have been documented. In particular, enhanced gross productivity of northern vegetation has been a critical role leading to observed carbon uptake trend. However, seasonal photosynthetic activity and its contribution to observed annual carbon uptake trend and interannual variability are not well understood. Here, we introduce a multiple-source of datasets including ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple process-based global vegetation models to understand how seasonal variation of land surface vegetation controls a large-scale carbon exchange. Our analysis clearly shows a seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity in growing season during last decades. Particularly, increasing gross productivity in late spring and early summer is obvious and dominant driver explaining observed trend and variability. We observe more asymmetric productivity enhancement in warmer region and this spatially varying asymmetricity in northern vegetation are likely explained by canopy development rate, thermal and light availability. These results imply that continued warming may facilitate amplifying asymmetric vegetation activity and cause these trends to become more pervasive, in turn warming induced regime shift in northern land.

  1. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  2. Characteristics of Turbulent Airflow Deduced from Rapid Surface Thermal Fluctuations: An Infrared Surface Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Milad; Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2017-12-01

    The intermittent nature of turbulent airflow interacting with the surface is readily observable in fluctuations of the surface temperature resulting from the thermal imprints of eddies sweeping the surface. Rapid infrared thermography has recently been used to quantify characteristics of the near-surface turbulent airflow interacting with the evaporating surfaces. We aim to extend this technique by using single-point rapid infrared measurements to quantify properties of a turbulent flow, including surface exchange processes, with a view towards the development of an infrared surface anemometer. The parameters for the surface-eddy renewal (α and β ) are inferred from infrared measurements of a single-point on the surface of a heat plate placed in a wind tunnel with prescribed wind speeds and constant mean temperatures of the surface. Thermally-deduced parameters are in agreement with values obtained from standard three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer measurements close to the plate surface (e.g., α = 3 and β = 1/26 (ms)^{-1} for the infrared, and α = 3 and β = 1/19 (ms)^{-1} for the sonic-anemometer measurements). The infrared-based turbulence parameters provide new insights into the role of surface temperature and buoyancy on the inherent characteristics of interacting eddies. The link between the eddy-spectrum shape parameter α and the infrared window size representing the infrared field of view is investigated. The results resemble the effect of the sampling height above the ground in sonic anemometer measurements, which enables the detection of larger eddies with higher values of α . The physical basis and tests of the proposed method support the potential for remote quantification of the near-surface momentum field, as well as scalar-flux measurements in the immediate vicinity of the surface.

  3. Deducing Electronic Unit Internal Response During a Vibration Test Using a Lumped Parameter Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    During random vibration testing of electronic boxes there is often a desire to know the dynamic response of certain internal printed wiring boards (PWBs) for the purpose of monitoring the response of sensitive hardware or for post-test forensic analysis in support of anomaly investigation. Due to restrictions on internally mounted accelerometers for most flight hardware there is usually no means to empirically observe the internal dynamics of the unit, so one must resort to crude and highly uncertain approximations. One common practice is to apply Miles Equation, which does not account for the coupled response of the board in the chassis, resulting in significant over- or under-prediction. This paper explores the application of simple multiple-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter modeling to predict the coupled random vibration response of the PWBs in their fundamental modes of vibration. A simple tool using this approach could be used during or following a random vibration test to interpret vibration test data from a single external chassis measurement to deduce internal board dynamics by means of a rapid correlation analysis. Such a tool might also be useful in early design stages as a supplemental analysis to a more detailed finite element analysis to quickly prototype and analyze the dynamics of various design iterations. After developing the theoretical basis, a lumped parameter modeling approach is applied to an electronic unit for which both external and internal test vibration response measurements are available for direct comparison. Reasonable correlation of the results demonstrates the potential viability of such an approach. Further development of the preliminary approach presented in this paper will involve correlation with detailed finite element models and additional relevant test data.

  4. The Sidebands of the Equatorial Electrojet: General Characteristic of the Westward Currents, as Deduced From CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Lühr, Hermann; Alken, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Based on 5 years (2001-2005) of magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite, latitudinal profiles of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) have been derived. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the reverse current EEJ sidebands. These westward currents peak at ±5° quasi-dipole latitude with typical amplitudes of 35% of the main EEJ. The diurnal amplitude variation is quite comparable with that of the EEJ. Similarly to the EEJ, the intensity is increasing with solar EUV flux, but with a steeper slope, indicating that not only the conductivity plays a role. For the longitude distribution we find, in general, larger amplitudes in the Western than in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is presently a common understanding that the reverse current EEJ sidebands are generated by eastward zonal winds at altitudes above about 120 km. In particular, a positive vertical gradient of wind speed generates westward currents at magnetic latitudes outside of 2° dip latitude. Interesting information about these features can be deduced from the sidebands' tidal characteristics. The longitudinal variation of the amplitude is dominated by a wave-1 pattern, which can primarily be attributed to the tidal components SPW1 and SW3. In case of the hemispheric amplitude differences these same two wave-1 components dominate. The ratio between sideband amplitude and main EEJ is largely controlled by the tidal features of the EEJ. The longitudinal patterns of the latitude, where the sidebands peak, resemble to some extent those of the amplitude. Current densities become larger when the peaks move closer to the magnetic equator.

  5. Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown...... component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton...... flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric....

  6. Effect of dynamic and static friction on an asymmetric granular piston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Julian; Viot, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the influence of dry friction on an asymmetric, granular piston of mass M, composed of two materials, undergoing inelastic collisions with bath particles of mass m. Numerical simulations of the Boltzmann-Lorentz equation reveal the existence of two scaling regimes depending on the friction strength. In the large friction limit, we introduce an exact model giving the asymptotic behavior of the Boltzmann-Lorentz equation. For small friction and for large mass ratio M/m, we derive a Fokker-Planck equation for which the exact solution is also obtained. Static friction attenuates the motor effect and results in a discontinuous velocity distribution. © 2012 American Physical Society

  7. Turbulent mixed convection in asymmetrically heated vertical channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokni Ameni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an investigation of mixed convection from vertical heated channel is undertaken. The aim is to explore the heat transfer obtained by adding a forced flow, issued from a flat nozzle located in the entry section of a channel, to the up-going fluid along its walls. Forced and free convection are combined studied in order to increase the cooling requirements. The study deals with both symmetrically and asymmetrically heated channel. The Reynolds number based on the nozzle width and the jet velocity is assumed to be 3 103 and 2.104; whereas, the Rayleigh number based on the channel length and the wall temperature difference varies from 2.57 1010 to 5.15 1012. The heating asymmetry effect on the flow development including the mean velocity and temperature the local Nusselt number, the mass flow rate and heat transfer are examined.

  8. A proposed experimental search for chameleons using asymmetric parallel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Stevenson, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Light scalar fields coupled to matter are a common consequence of theories of dark energy and attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem. The chameleon screening mechanism is commonly invoked in order to suppress the fifth forces mediated by these scalars, sufficiently to avoid current experimental constraints, without fine tuning. The force is suppressed dynamically by allowing the mass of the scalar to vary with the local density. Recently it has been shown that near future cold atoms experiments using atom-interferometry have the ability to access a large proportion of the chameleon parameter space. In this work we demonstrate how experiments utilising asymmetric parallel plates can push deeper into the remaining parameter space available to the chameleon.

  9. Asymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis from pseudoscalar inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cado, Yann; Sabancilar, Eray, E-mail: yann.cado@epfl.ch, E-mail: eray.sabancilar@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    We show that both the baryon asymmetry of the Universe and the dark matter abundance can be explained within a single framework that makes use of maximally helical hypermagnetic fields produced during pseudoscalar inflation and the chiral anomaly in the Standard Model. We consider a minimal asymmetric dark matter model free from anomalies and constraints. We find that the observed baryon and the dark matter abundances are achieved for a wide range of inflationary parameters, and the dark matter mass ranges between 7–15 GeV . The novelty of our mechanism stems from the fact that the same source of CP violation occurring during inflation explains both baryonic and dark matter in the Universe with two inflationary parameters, hence addressing all the initial condition problems in an economical way.

  10. Asymmetric dark matter and the hadronic spectra of hidden QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Schroor, Martine; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2017-09-01

    The idea that dark matter may be a composite state of a hidden non-Abelian gauge sector has received great attention in recent years. Frameworks such as asymmetric dark matter motivate the idea that dark matter may have similar mass to the proton, while mirror matter and G ×G grand unified theories provide rationales for additional gauge sectors which may have minimal interactions with standard model particles. In this work we explore the hadronic spectra that these dark QCD models can allow. The effects of the number of light colored particles and the value of the confinement scale on the lightest stable state, the dark matter candidate, are examined in the hyperspherical constituent quark model for baryonic and mesonic states.

  11. A proposed experimental search for chameleons using asymmetric parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Stevenson, James A., E-mail: Clare.Burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: ed.copeland@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: james.stevenson@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Light scalar fields coupled to matter are a common consequence of theories of dark energy and attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem. The chameleon screening mechanism is commonly invoked in order to suppress the fifth forces mediated by these scalars, sufficiently to avoid current experimental constraints, without fine tuning. The force is suppressed dynamically by allowing the mass of the scalar to vary with the local density. Recently it has been shown that near future cold atoms experiments using atom-interferometry have the ability to access a large proportion of the chameleon parameter space. In this work we demonstrate how experiments utilising asymmetric parallel plates can push deeper into the remaining parameter space available to the chameleon.

  12. Neutrino masses and ordering via multimessenger astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langæble, Kasper; Meroni, Aurora; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We define the theoretical framework and deduce the conditions under which multi-messenger astronomy can provide useful information about neutrino masses and their ordering. The framework uses time differences between the arrival of neutrinos and the other light messenger, i.e. the graviton, emitted...

  13. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  14. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  15. Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    1993-01-01

    When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum

  16. Heat capacities and asymmetric criticality of the (liquid + liquid) coexistence curves for {dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane, or n-tridecane}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Shi, Aiqin; Liu, Shixia; Yin, Tianxiang; Shen, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coexistence curves of dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane (or + n-tridecane) were measured. • Isobaric heat capacity per unit volume of critical binary solutions dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane (or + n-tridecane) were determined. • The critical exponent β are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. • The asymmetry of the coexistence curves were discussed by the complete scaling theory. - Abstract: The (liquid + liquid) coexistences and the critical behavior of isobaric heat capacity per unit volume for critical binary solutions {dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane, or n-tridecane} have been studied. The critical exponents β and α were deduced and found to be consistent with the 3D-Ising values. The critical amplitudes were determined and used to test the asymmetric criticality of coexistence curves. It was found that the heat capacity does play an important role in describing the asymmetric criticality of the coexistence curves

  17. Finite-size effects in the three-state quantum asymmetric clock model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlen, G. v.; Rittenberg, V.

    1983-04-01

    The one-dimensional quantum Hamiltonian of the asymmetric three-state clock model is studied using finite-size scaling. Various boundary conditions are considered on chains containing up to eight sites. We calculate the boundary of the commensurate phase and the mass gap index. The model shows an interesting finite-size dependence in connexion with the presence of the incommensurate phase indicating that for the infinite system there is no Lifshitz point. (orig.)

  18. Direct catalytic asymmetric aldol-Tishchenko reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Vijay; Horiuchi, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Takashi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2004-06-30

    A direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of propionate equivalent was achieved via the aldol-Tishchenko reaction. Coupling an irreversible Tishchenko reaction to a reversible aldol reaction overcame the retro-aldol reaction problem and thereby afforded the products in high enantio and diastereoselectivity using 10 mol % of the asymmetric catalyst. A variety of ketones and aldehydes, including propyl and butyl ketones, were coupled efficiently, yielding the corresponding aldol-Tishchenko products in up to 96% yield and 95% ee. Diastereoselectivity was generally below the detection limit of 1H NMR (>98:2). Preliminary studies performed to clarify the mechanism revealed that the aldol products were racemic with no diastereoselectivity. On the other hand, the Tishchenko products were obtained in a highly enantiocontrolled manner.

  19. Brownian Motion of Asymmetric Boomerang Colloidal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Ayan; Konya, Andrew; Wang, Feng; Selinger, Jonathan; Sun, Kai; Wei, Qi-Huo

    2014-03-01

    We used video microscopy and single particle tracking to study the diffusion and local behaviors of asymmetric boomerang particles in a quasi-two dimensional geometry. The motion is biased towards the center of hydrodynamic stress (CoH) and the mean square displacements of the particles are linear at short and long times with different diffusion coefficients and in the crossover regime it is sub-diffusive. Our model based on Langevin theory shows that these behaviors arise from the non-coincidence of the CoH with the center of the body. Since asymmetric boomerangs represent a class of rigid bodies of more generals shape, therefore our findings are generic and true for any non-skewed particle in two dimensions. Both experimental and theoretical results will be discussed.

  20. Dynamics of asymmetric kinetic Ising systems revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haiping; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of an asymmetric kinetic Ising model is studied. Two schemes for improving the existing mean-field description are proposed. In the first scheme, we derive the formulas for instantaneous magnetization, equal-time correlation, and time-delayed correlation, considering the correlation between different local fields. To derive the time-delayed correlation, we emphasize that the small-correlation assumption adopted in previous work (Mézard and Sakellariou, 2011 J. Stat. Mech. L07001) is in fact not required. To confirm the prediction efficiency of our method, we perform extensive simulations on single instances with either temporally constant external driving fields or sinusoidal external fields. In the second scheme, we develop an improved mean-field theory for instantaneous magnetization prediction utilizing the notion of the cavity system in conjunction with a perturbative expansion approach. Its efficiency is numerically confirmed by comparison with the existing mean-field theory when partially asymmetric couplings are present. (paper)

  1. Bianisotropic metamaterials based on twisted asymmetric crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Avendaño, J A; Sampedro, M P; Juárez-Ruiz, E; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    The effective bianisotropic response of 3D periodic metal-dielectric structures, composed of crosses with asymmetrically-cut wires, is investigated within a general homogenization theory using the Fourier formalism and the form-factor division approach. It is found that the frequency dependence of the effective permittivity for a system of periodically-repeated layers of metal crosses exhibits two strong resonances, whose separation is due to the cross asymmetry. Besides, bianisotropic metamaterials, having a base of four twisted asymmetric crosses, are proposed. The designed metamaterials possess negative refractive index at frequencies determined by the cross asymmetry, the gap between the arms of adjacent crosses lying on the same plane, and the type of Bravais lattice. (papers)

  2. Improved DFIG Capability during Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In the wind power application, different asymmetrical types of the grid fault can be categorized after the Y/d transformer, and the positive and negative components of a single-phase fault, phase-to-phase fault, and two-phase fault can be summarized. Due to the newly introduced negative and even...... the natural component of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) stator flux during the fault period, their effects on the rotor voltage can be investigated. It is concluded that the phase-to-phase fault has the worst scenario due to its highest introduction of the negative stator flux. Afterwards......, the capability of a 2 MW DFIG to ride through asymmetrical grid faults can be estimated at the existing design of the power electronics converter. Finally, a control scheme aimed to improve the DFIG capability is proposed and the simulation results validate its feasibility....

  3. Scaling Effect of Phosphorene Nanoribbon - Uncovering the Origin of Asymmetric Current Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yawei; Chang, Sheng; Huang, Qijun; Wang, Hao; He, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) are theoretically studied using a multiscale simulation flow from the ab initio level to the tight binding (TB) level. The scaling effects of both armchair PNRs (aPNRs) and zigzag PNRs (zPNRs) from material properties to device properties are explored. The much larger effective mass of holes compared to that of electrons in zPNR is responsible for its asymmetric transport. However, in aPNR, not only the effective mass difference but also the non-equal density of state (DOS) distributions near valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) lead to the asymmetric transport. This non-equal distribution phenomenon is caused by energy band degeneracies near the VBM. Based on these two different mechanisms, PNRs’ asymmetric transport characteristics at the device level are explained, and it is shown that this behaviour can be ameliorated well by reducing the ribbon width in an aPNR MOSFET. Calculation results also indicate that aPNR’s effective mass is comparable to that of a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) at the same bandgap; however, aPNR’s band gap variation is more stable and regular than that of GNR, making it a good candidate for use in low-dimensional nano devices. PMID:27897230

  4. Asymmetric volatility connectedness on the forex market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2017), s. 39-56 ISSN 0261-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14179S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : volatility * connectedness * asymmetric effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Finance Impact factor: 1.853, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/barunik-0478477.pdf

  5. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  6. Isospin dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, P. Roy; Basu, D. N.; Samanta, C.

    2009-01-01

    The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy is determined from a systematic study of the isospin dependent bulk properties of asymmetric nuclear matter using the isoscalar and the isovector components of density dependent M3Y interaction. The incompressibility $K_\\infty$ for the symmetric nuclear matter, the isospin dependent part $K_{asy}$ of the isobaric incompressibility and the slope $L$ are all in excellent agreement with the constraints recently extracted from measured isotopic de...

  7. Asymmetric flow events in a VEER 1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.; Kennett, R.J.; Shier, W.; Guppy, J.G.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the simulation of asymmetric loss of flow events in Russian designed VVER-1000 reactors using the RETRAN-02 Mod4 computer code. VVER-1000 reactors have significant differences from United States pressurized water reactors including multi-level emergency response systems and plant operation at reduced power levels with one or more main circulation pumps inoperable. The results of these simulations are compared to similar analyses done by the designers for the Rovno plant

  8. Two particle states in an asymmetric box

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Liu, Chuan

    2004-01-01

    The exact two-particle energy eigenstates in an asymmetric rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions in all three directions are studied. Their relation with the elastic scattering phases of the two particles in the continuum are obtained. These results can be viewed as a generalization of the corresponding formulae in a cubic box obtained by L\\"uscher before. In particular, the s-wave scattering length is related to the energy shift in the finite box. Possible applications of these f...

  9. Symmetric vs. asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph; Goerg, Sebastian J.; Yu, Gaoneng

    2012-01-01

    In major legal orders such as UK, the U.S., Germany, and France, bribers and recipients face equally severe criminal sanctions. In contrast, countries like China, Russia, and Japan treat the briber more mildly. Given these differences between symmetric and asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery, one may wonder which punishment strategy is more effective in curbing corruption. For this purpose, we designed and ran a lab experiment in Bonn (Germany) and Shanghai (China) with exactly the same...

  10. Refractive index modulation based on excitonic effects in GaInAs-InP coupled asymmetric quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Carsten

    1995-01-01

    The effect of excitons in GaInAs-InP coupled asymmetric quantum wells on the refractive index modulation, is analyzed numerically using a model based on the effective mass approximation. It is shown that two coupled quantum wells brought in resonance by an applied electric field will, due...

  11. Prediction of fission mass-yield distributions based on cross section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; G.Vladuca; Tudora, Anabella; Oberstedt, S.; Ruskov, I.

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, fission mass-yield distributions have been predicted based on an extended statistical model for fission cross section calculations. In this model, the concept of the multi-modality of the fission process has been incorporated. The three most dominant fission modes, the two asymmetric standard I (S1) and standard II (S2) modes and the symmetric superlong (SL) mode are taken into account. De-convoluted fission cross sections for S1, S2 and SL modes for 235,238 U(n, f) and 237 Np(n, f), based on experimental branching ratios, were calculated for the first time in the incident neutron energy range from 0.01 to 5.5 MeV providing good agreement with the experimental fission cross section data. The branching ratios obtained from the modal fission cross section calculations have been used to deduce the corresponding fission yield distributions, including mean values also for incident neutron energies hitherto not accessible to experiment

  12. Predicting tensorial electrophoretic effects in asymmetric colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    We formulate a numerical method for predicting the tensorial linear response of a rigid, asymmetrically charged body to an applied electric field. This prediction requires calculating the response of the fluid to the Stokes drag forces on the moving body and on the countercharges near its surface. To determine the fluid's motion, we represent both the body and the countercharges using many point sources of drag known as Stokeslets. Finding the correct flow field amounts to finding the set of drag forces on the Stokeslets that is consistent with the relative velocities experienced by each Stokeslet. The method rigorously satisfies the condition that the object moves with no transfer of momentum to the fluid. We demonstrate that a sphere represented by 1999 well-separated Stokeslets on its surface produces flow and drag force like a solid sphere to 1% accuracy. We show that a uniformly charged sphere with 3998 body and countercharge Stokeslets obeys the Smoluchowski prediction [F. Morrison, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 210 (1970), 10.1016/0021-9797(70)90171-2] for electrophoretic mobility when the countercharges lie close to the sphere. Spheres with dipolar and quadrupolar charge distributions rotate and translate as predicted analytically to 4% accuracy or better. We describe how the method can treat general asymmetric shapes and charge distributions. This method offers promise as a way to characterize and manipulate asymmetrically charged colloid-scale objects from biology (e.g., viruses) and technology (e.g., self-assembled clusters).

  13. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  14. Diagnostic implications of asymmetrical mammographic patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, M.; Ania, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the effect of asymmetrical mammographic patterns of the diagnosis of breast cancer. In a series of 6, 476 patients referred to a Breast Imaging Diagnosis Unit, we excluded males, women with previous breast surgery, and cases in which mammography was not performed, which left 5,203 women included. Each breast was classified according to one of four patterns of mammographic parenchymal density. Asymmetry was considered to exist when a patient's breasts had different patterns. Breast cancer was confirmed histologically in 282 (5.4%) women. The mammographic pattern was asymmetrical in 8% of the women with cancer and in 2% of the women without cancer (p<0.001). Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 78% and 96% (p=0.04), respectively, of the women with and without mammographic asymmetry who had neoplasms, and in 33% and 22% (p=0.02), respectively, of the women with and without mammographic asymmetry who did not have neoplasms. Asymmetrical mammographic pattern was four times more frequent in the women with breast cancer. This asymmetry decreased the frequency of needle biopsy in women with cancer, but increased the frequency of needle biopsy in women without cancer. (Author) 11 refs

  15. Simulation of Phenix EOL Asymmetric Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Kwi Seok; Lee, Kwi Lim; Choi, Chi Woong; Kang, Seok Hun; Chang, Won Pyo; Jeong, Hae Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The asymmetric test of End-Of-Life (EOL) tests on the Phenix plant was used for the evaluation of the MARS-LMR in the Generation IV frame as a part of the code validation. The purpose of the test is to evaluate the ability of the system code to describe asymmetric situations and to identify important phenomena during asymmetrical transient such as a three dimensional effect, buoyancy influence, and thermal stratification in the hot and cold pools. 3-dimensional sodium coolant mixing in the pools has different characteristics from the one dimensional full instantaneous mixing. The velocities and temperatures at the core outlet level differ at each sub-assembly and the temperature in the center of the hot pool may be high because the driver fuels are located at the center region. The temperatures in the hot pool are not the same in the radial and axial locations due to the buoyancy effect. The temperatures in the cold pool also differ along with the elevations and azimuthal directions due to the outlet location of IHX and the thermal stratification

  16. Flatfish: an asymmetric perspective on metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Alexander M

    2013-01-01

    The most asymmetrically shaped and behaviorally lateralized of all the vertebrates, the flatfishes are an endless source of fascination to all fortunate enough to study them. Although all vertebrates undergo left-right asymmetric internal organ placement during embryogenesis, flatfish are unusual in that they experience an additional period of postembryonic asymmetric remodeling during metamorphosis, and thus deviate from a bilaterally symmetrical body plan more than other vertebrates. As with amphibian metamorphosis, all the developmental programs of flatfish metamorphosis are ultimately under the control of thyroid hormone. At least one gene pathway involved in embryonic organ lateralization (nodal-lefty-pitx2) is re-expressed in the larval stage during flatfish metamorphosis. Aspects of modern flatfish ontogeny, such as the gradual translocation of one eye to the opposite side of the head and the appearance of key neurocranial elements during metamorphosis, seem to elegantly recapitulate flatfish phylogeny. This chapter highlights the current state of knowledge of the developmental biology of flatfish metamorphosis with emphases on the genetic, morphological, behavioral, and evolutionary origins of flatfish asymmetry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Verifiable origin of neutrino mass at TeV scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    The physics responsible for neutrino mass may reside at or below the TeV energy scale. The neutrino mass matrix in the (ν e ν μ ν gt ) basis may then be deduced from future high-energy accelerator experiments. The newly observed excess in the muon anomalous magnetic moment may also be related

  18. Physics and design issues of asymmetric storage ring colliders as B-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1989-08-01

    This paper concentrates on generic R ampersand D and design issues of asymmetric colliders via a specific example, namely a 9 GeV x 3 GeV collider based on PEP at SLAC. An asymmetric e + -e - collider at the Y(4s) and with sufficiently high luminosity (10 33 -10 34 cm -2 s -1 ) offers the possibility of studying mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B bar B meson system, as well as ''beautiful'' tau-charm physics, and has certain qualitative advantages from detection and machine design points of view. These include: the energy constraint; clean environment (∼25% B + B - , B 0 bar B 0 ); large cross section (1 nb); vertex reconstruction (from the time development of space-time separated B and bar B decays due to moving center-of-mass); reduced backgrounds; greatest sensitivity to CP violation in B → CP eigenstate; the possibility of using higher collision frequencies, up to 100 MHz, in a head-on colliding mode using magnetic separation. It is estimated that for B → ΨK s , an asymmetric collider has an advantage equivalent to a factor of five in luminosity relative to a symmetric one. There are, however, questions with regard to the physics of the asymmetric beam-beam coulomb interaction that may limit the intrinsic luminosity and the possibility of realizing the small beam pipes necessary to determine the vertices. 16 refs., 2 figs

  19. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokli, Ami; Neuman, Jeremy; Lukse, Ruby; Koshy, June [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Kong, Fanyi [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  20. Asymmetric electrochemical supercapacitor, based on polypyrrole coated carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polypyrrole (PPy) coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared. • New method is based on the use of new electrochemically active dopants for PPy. • The dopans provided dispersion of MWCNT and promoted PPy coating formation. • Symmetric PPy–MWCNT supercapacitors showed high capacitance and low resistance. • Asymmetric PPy–MWCNT/VN–MWCNT devices and modules allowed larger voltage window. - Abstract: Conductive polypyrrole (PPy) polymer – multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were synthesized using sulfanilic acid azochromotrop (SPADNS) and sulfonazo III sodium salt (CHR-BS) as anionic dopants for chemical polymerization of PPy. The composites were tested for application in electrodes of electrochemical supercapacitors (ES). Sedimentation tests, electrophoretic deposition experiments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations showed that strong adsorption of anionic CHR-BS on MWCNT provided MWCNT dispersion. The analysis of scanning and transmission electron microscopy data demonstrated that the use of CHR-BS allowed the formation of PPy coatings on MWCNT. As a result, the composites, prepared using CHR-BS, showed higher capacitance, compared to the composites, prepared using SPADNS. The electrodes, containing MWCNT, coated with PPy showed a capacitance of 179 F g −1 for active mass loading of 10 mg cm −2 , good capacitance retention at scan rates in the range of 2–100 mV s −1 and excellent cyclic stability. Asymmetric ES devices, containing positive PPy–MWCNT electrodes and negative vanadium nitride (VN)–MWCNT electrodes showed significant improvement in energy storage performance, compared to the symmetric ES due to the larger voltage window. The low impedance and high capacitance of the individual cells paved the way to the development of modules with higher voltage, which showed good electrochemical performance

  1. Influence of asymmetrical drawing radius deviation in micro deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimizu, T.; Yang, M.; Vollertsen, F.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, an increasing demand for small metal parts in electronic and automotive industries can be observed. Deep drawing is a well-suited technology for the production of such parts due to its excellent qualities for mass production. However, the downscaling of the forming process leads to new challenges in tooling and process design, such as high relative deviation of tool geometry or blank displacement compared to the macro scale. FEM simulation has been a widely-used tool to investigate the influence of symmetrical process deviations as for instance a global variance of the drawing radius. This study shows a different approach that allows to determine the impact of asymmetrical process deviations on micro deep drawing. In this particular case the impact of an asymmetrical drawing radius deviation and blank displacement on cup geometry deviation was investigated for different drawing ratios by experiments and FEM simulation. It was found that both variations result in an increasing cup height deviation. Nevertheless, with increasing drawing ratio a constant drawing radius deviation has an increasing impact, while blank displacement results in a decreasing offset of the cups geometry. This is explained by different mechanisms that result in an uneven cup geometry. While blank displacement leads to material surplus on one side of the cup, an unsymmetrical radius deviation on the other hand generates uneven stretching of the cups wall. This is intensified for higher drawing ratios. It can be concluded that the effect of uneven radius geometry proves to be of major importance for the production of accurately shaped micro cups and cannot be compensated by intentional blank displacement.

  2. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokli, Ami; Neuman, Jeremy; Lukse, Ruby; Koshy, June; Kong, Fanyi; Laor, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of the far asymmetric region in 252Cf(sf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    1997-01-01

    A twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber has been used to measure the fission fragment mass, kinetic-energy and angular correlations for 252 Cf(sf). In total 2.5 x 10 8 events were collected. The focus was in the far asymmetric mass region, where enhancements in the yield had been found earlier. It could be shown, that these findings are due to false events, coming from either close geometries not properly taking into account the angular-dependent energy loss in the sample and backing, from a too large angular cone selected in case of studies employing ionization chambers, or even from poor target qualities. (orig.)

  4. Asymmetrical sabotage tactics, nuclear facilities/materials, and vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The emerging paradigm of a global community wherein post-modern political violence is a fact of life that must be dealt with by safety and security planners is discussed. This paradigm shift in the philosophy of terrorism is documented by analysis of the emerging pattern of asymmetrical tactics being employed by terrorists. Such philosophical developments in violent political movements suggest a shift in the risks that security and safety personnel must account for in their planning for physical protection of fixed site nuclear source facilities like power generation stations and the eventual storage and transportation of the by-products of these facilities like spent nuclear fuel and other high level wastes. This paper presents a framework for identifying these new political realities and related threat profiles, suggests ways in which security planners and administrators can design physical protection practices to meet these emerging threats, and argues for global adoption of standards for the protection of nuclear facilities that could be used as a source site from which terrorists could inflict a mass contamination event and for standards related to the protection of the waste materials that can be used in the production of radiological weapons of mass victimization. (author)

  5. Observation of asymmetric electromagnetic field profiles in chiral metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamoto, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sawada, Kei; Tomita, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally observe asymmetric electromagnetic field profiles along two-dimensional chiral metamaterials. The asymmetric field profiles depending on the chirality and the operation frequency have been reproduced well by the numerical simulation. Around a chiral meta-atom, distribution of a Poynting vector is found to be shifted asymmetrically. These results are explained in terms of an analogy with the side-jump mechanism in the electronic anomalous Hall systems.

  6. Asymmetric forecasting and commitment policy in a robust control problem

    OpenAIRE

    Taro Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a piece of results regarding asymmetric forecasting and commitment monetary policy with a robust control algorithm. Previous studies provide no clarification of the connection between asymmetric preference and robust commitment policy. Three results emerge from general equilibrium modeling with asymmetric preference: (i) the condition for system stability implies an average inflation bias with respect to asymmetry (ii) the effect of asymmetry can be mitigated if policy mak...

  7. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: lj94172350@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: ejhwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  8. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  9. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  10. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Ieodomycin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangjie Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ieodomycin B, which shows in vitro antimicrobial activity, was isolated from a marine Bacillus species. A novel asymmetric total synthetic approach to ieodomycin B using commercially available geraniol was achieved. The approach involves the generation of 1,3-trans-dihydroxyl at C-3 and C-5 positions via a Crimmins-modified Evans aldol reaction and a chelation-controlled Mukaiyama aldol reaction of a p-methoxybenzyl-protected aldehyde, as well as the generation of a lactone ring in a deprotection–lactonization one-pot reaction.

  11. The Asymmetric Effects of Investor Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2016-01-01

    We use the returns on lottery-like stocks and a dynamic factor model to construct a novel index of investor sentiment. This new measure is highly correlated with other behavioral indicators, but more closely tracks speculative episodes. Our main new finding is that the effects of sentiment...... are asymmetric: During peak-to-trough periods of investor sentiment (sentiment contractions), high sentiment predicts low future returns for the cross section of speculative stocks and for the market overall, whereas the relationship between sentiment and future returns is positive but relatively weak during...... trough-to-peak episodes (sentiment expansions). Overall, these results match theories and anecdotal accounts of investor sentiment....

  12. On asymmetric causal relationships in Petropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Feyza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine whether the First Law of Petropolitics denominated by Friedman in 2006 is valid for OPEC countries. To do this, this paper analyses the relationship between political risk and oil supply by applying the asymmetric panel causality test suggested by Hatemi-J (2011 to these countries for the period 1984-2014. The results show that the First Law of Petropolitics is valid for Angola, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE, given that positive oil supply shocks significantly lead to negative political stability shocks, and negative oil supply shocks significantly lead to positive shocks in political stability.

  13. Two particle states in an asymmetric box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Liu Chuan

    2004-01-01

    The exact two-particle energy eigenstates in an asymmetric rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions in all three directions are studied. Their relation with the elastic scattering phases of the two particles in the continuum are obtained. These results can be viewed as a generalization of the corresponding formulae in a cubic box obtained by Luescher before. In particular, the s-wave scattering length is related to the energy shift in the finite box. Possible applications of these formulae are also discussed

  14. Clinical Characteristics of Asymmetric Bilateral Gynecomastia: Suggestion of Desirable Surgical Method Based on a Single-Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Lee, Seung Geun; Byun, Geon Young; Kim, Myoung Jin; Koo, Bum Hwan

    2018-06-01

    Asymmetric bilateral gynecomastia (ABGM) is uncommon, and reports on its characteristics are rare. In the present study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of ABGM. We conducted a retrospective study of 1159 patients with gynecomastia who underwent subcutaneous mastectomy with liposuction at Damsoyu Hospital from January 2014 to February 2016. We then analyzed differences in the characteristics and operative results between two groups of patients: those with asymmetric and symmetric gynecomastia. Asymmetric gynecomastia was defined as gynecomastia meeting both of the following criteria: (1) upon physical examination, the size of the palpable mass below the nipple-areolar complex was twice as large as the smaller one, and (2) upon ultrasonography, the depth of the glandular tissue under the nipple-areolar complex was twice as large as the smaller one. Fifty-four patients were diagnosed with asymmetric gynecomastia. Among them, 51 had ABGM and three had unilateral gynecomastia. In the asymmetric group, more patients had a larger left than right breast (33 patients, 64.7%). The incidence of true-type (entirely glandular) breasts was significantly higher in the asymmetric group (84.3%) than in the symmetric group (p < 0.001). The asymmetry ratios in the asymmetric and symmetric groups were 1.87 ± 2.07 and 0.20 ± 0.16, respectively (p < 0.001). Bilateral mastectomy provided an acceptable and symmetric cosmetic outcome in patients with ABGM. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  15. Analysis of Dynamical Characteristic of Piecewise-Nonlinear Asymmetric Hysteretic System Based on Incremental Harmonic Balance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering a sort of elastic mass with asymmetric hysteresis characteristic which widespread existing in engineering field, a piecewise-nonlinear dynamical equation, which contains asymmetric hysteretic loop, is established. By using the method of Incremental Harmonic Balance (IHB, the analytic linearized algebraic equation of the system is obtained. On the basis of this algebraic equation, the coefficients of the algebraic expression are figured out by the incremental procedure and the iterative process of the regulated variable. Through the emulation, the amplitude frequency response curve and the relation between the value of the harmonic component and the external excitation are researched; the bistable regions of the bifurcation diagram of the system under the variation of the excitation amplitude are studied. The above results can be used to guide the research of the asymmetric hysteretic system with polynomial expression.

  16. Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion and the ISR Asymmetrical Capacitator Thruster, Experimental Results and Improved Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Francis; Winet, Ed; Ice, Bob; Melcher, Cory; Pesavento, Phil; Holmes, Alan; Butler, Carey; Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The outline of this viewgraph presentation on asymmetrical capacitor thruster development includes: 1) Test apparatus; 2) Devices tested; 3) Circuits used; 4) Data collected (Time averaged, Time resolved); 5) Patterns observed; 6) Force calculation; 7) Electrostatic modeling; 8) Understand it all.

  17. Chiral ferrocenes in asymmetric catalysis: synthesis and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dai, Li-Xin; Hou, Xue-Long

    2010-01-01

    .... It provides a thorough overview of the synthesis and characterization of different types of chiral ferrocene ligands, their application to various catalytic asymmetric reactions, and versatile chiral...

  18. The 12C/13C Isotopic Ratio in Planetary Nebulae as Deduced from IUE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskey, C. L.; Feibelman, W. A.; Bruhweiler, F. C.

    2000-05-01

    The relative abundances of C, N, and O and the isotopic ratio of 12C/13C represent tracers of nucleosynthesis in intermediate stars with main-sequence masses between 0.6 and 8.0 solar masses in our Galaxy. Determining these abundances and the isotopic 12C/13C ratio in planetary nebulae (PNe) represent perhaps the best means to discern exactly how the ISM is enriched by CNO stellar nucleosynthesis. Walsh et al. (1996) and Clegg et al. (1997), using the Hubble Space Telescope, have derived the isotopic 12C/13C abundance ratio in the galactic carbon-rich PN, NGC 3918, and placed marginal constraints on it for the Magellanic PNe, N2 (SMC) and N122 (LMC). This was done using the well-known 12C 3P-1S (J=1-0 and J=2-0) transitions of C+2 at 1906.68 Angstroms and 1908.77 Angstroms and a J=0-0 transition at 1909.6 Angstroms, which is strictly forbidden in 12C. The finite nuclear spin of 13C (I=1/2) permits a corresponding F=1/2-1/2 electric dipole transition not seen in 12C. Since the 1909.6 Angstroms line is well separated from the other two 12C transitions, it provides an important means of determining 12C/13C in planetary nebulae. We have just completed a search of archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) high-dispersion spectra of approximately three dozen PNe, and derived 12C/13C ratios of 39 and 23 for the galactic PNe, NGC 2440 and NGC 6302, respectively. These are values much lower than the solar value of 89. In the other objects, the limited S/N of the IUE data indicate 12C/13C ratio upper limits much higher than 50. The implications of these results and their pertinence to stellar evolution are discussed.

  19. The effects of intense laser field and applied electric and magnetic fields on optical properties of an asymmetric quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: pfrire@eia.edu.co [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Envigado (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonóma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the results of the theoretical study of the effects of non-resonant intense laser field and electric and magnetic fields on the optical properties (the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficients) in an asymmetric quantum well. The electric field and intense laser field are applied along the growth direction of the asymmetric quantum well and the magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly. To calculate the energy and the wave functions of the electron in the asymmetric quantum well, the effective mass approximation and the method of envelope wave function are used. The asymmetric quantum well is constructed by using different aluminium concentrations in both right and left barriers. The confinement in the quantum well is changed drastically by either the effect of electric and magnetic fields or by the application of intense laser field. The optical properties are calculated using the compact density matrix approach. The results show that the effect of the intense laser field competes with the effects of the electric and magnetic fields. Consequently, peak position shifts to lower photon energies due to the effect of the intense laser field and it shifts to higher photon energies by the effects of electric and magnetic fields. In general, it is found that the concentration of aluminum, electric and magnetic fields and intense laser field are external agents that modify the optical responses in the asymmetric quantum well.

  20. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  2. On the Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, M.; Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Wang, S.; Chen, L.-J.

    2018-04-01

    A prediction of the steady state reconnection electric field in asymmetric reconnection is obtained by maximizing the reconnection rate as a function of the opening angle made by the upstream magnetic field on the weak magnetic field (magnetosheath) side. The prediction is within a factor of 2 of the widely examined asymmetric reconnection model (Cassak & Shay, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2795630) in the collisionless limit, and they scale the same over a wide parameter regime. The previous model had the effective aspect ratio of the diffusion region as a free parameter, which simulations and observations suggest is on the order of 0.1, but the present model has no free parameters. In conjunction with the symmetric case (Liu et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.085101), this work further suggests that this nearly universal number 0.1, essentially the normalized fast-reconnection rate, is a geometrical factor arising from maximizing the reconnection rate within magnetohydrodynamic-scale constraints.

  3. Evolutionary stability in the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhou He

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that in public goods games, contributors are either strong or weak players and each individual has an equal probability of exhibiting cooperation. It is difficult to explain why the public good is produced by strong individuals in some cooperation systems, and by weak individuals in others. Viewing the asymmetric volunteer's dilemma game as an evolutionary game, we find that whether the strong or the weak players produce the public good depends on the initial condition (i.e., phenotype or initial strategy of individuals. These different evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS associated with different initial conditions, can be interpreted as the production modes of public goods of different cooperation systems. A further analysis revealed that the strong player adopts a pure strategy but mixed strategies for the weak players to produce the public good, and that the probability of volunteering by weak players decreases with increasing group size or decreasing cost-benefit ratio. Our model shows that the defection probability of a "strong" player is greater than the "weak" players in the model of Diekmann (1993. This contradicts Selten's (1980 model that public goods can only be produced by a strong player, is not an evolutionarily stable strategy, and will therefore disappear over evolutionary time. Our public good model with ESS has thus extended previous interpretations that the public good can only be produced by strong players in an asymmetric game.

  4. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  5. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings

  6. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Oddone, P.; Ratcliff, B.; Roe, N.; Va'vra, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1991-09-01

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B 0 decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R ampersand D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Climatological aspects of aerosol physical characteristics in Tunisia deduced from sun photometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane, Mabrouk; Azri, Chafai; Medhioub, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric and climatic data measured at Thala site (Tunisia) for a long-time period (1977-2001) are used to analyse the monthly, seasonal, and annual variations of the aerosol optical depth at 1 μm wavelength. We have shown that aerosol and microphysical properties and the dominating aerosol types depend on seasons. A comparison of the seasonal cycle of aerosol optical characteristics at Thala site showed that the contribution of long-range transported particles is expected to be larger in summer as a consequence of the weather stability typical of this season. Also, the winter decrease in atmospheric turbidity may result from increases in relative humidity and decreases in temperature, leading to increased particle size and mass and increased fall and deposition velocities. The spring and autumn weather patterns usually carry fine dust and sand particles for the desert area to Thala region. The annual behaviour of the aerosol optical depth recorded a period of stead increase started in 1986 until 2001. Trends in atmospheric turbidity after 1988 could be explained other ways by the contribution of the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and by local or regional changes in climate or in aerosol emissions.

  8. Changes in electron precipitation inferred from spectra deduced from D region electron densities during a post--magnetic storm effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbriand, L.E.; Belrose, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of enhanced ionization after geomagnetic storms, commonly referred to as storm aftereffect, is investigated on the hypothesis that the enhancement is due to a 'drizzle' of energetic electrons from the radiation belts. The study utilized electron density-height profiles obtained from the partial reflection experiment at Ottawa and available information on the height profile of the steady state loss coefficient for energetic electron events in combination with the ion pair production treatments of Ress (1963) and Berger et al. (1974) to deduce two-component differential energy spectra of the electron drizzle. The period studied, December 13--20, 1970, was unique for examining poststorm effects in that the geomagnetic storm on December 14--15 was intense and brief, and it was preceded and followed by periods of geomagnetic calm. The results indicate that the drizzle deduced was minimal before the storm and on the storm day and maximized 2--3 days after the peak of the storm at a time when geomagnetic activity had returned to calm. The results also suggest that the spectrum was hardest shortly after the drizzle maximized. No satisfactory source for the enhanced ionization during the poststorm other than particle drizzle could be found that would produce both the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the effect observed, a conclusion which establishes the validity of the hypothesis made

  9. Ultrathin-skinned asymmetric membranes by immiscible solvents treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    Improved semipermeable asymmetric fluid separation membranes useful in gas, vapor and liquid separations are disclosed. The membranes are prepared by substantially filling the pores of asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membranes having a finely porous layer on one side thereof with a water immiscible organic liquid, followed by contacting the finely porous layer with water.

  10. A new convenient asymmetric approach to herbarumin Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Song Chen; Shi Jun Da; Li Hong Yang; Bo Yan Xu; Zhi Xiang Xie; Ying Li

    2007-01-01

    The asymmetric total synthesis of herbarumin Ⅲ 3, a naturally occurred phytotoxin, along with 8-epi-herbarumin Ⅲ 22, was succeeded in 12 steps from n-butyraldehyde based on Brown's asymmetric allylation, taking modified Julia olefination and Yamaguchi's macro-lactonization as key steps.

  11. Appropriate quantization of asymmetric games with continuous strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Gan; Chen Xi; Sun Min; Zhou Xianyi; Du Jiangfeng

    2005-01-01

    We establish a new quantization scheme to study the asymmetric Bertrand duopoly with differentiated products. This scheme is more efficient than the previous symmetric one because it can exactly make the optimal cooperative payoffs at quantum Nash equilibrium. It is also a necessary condition for general asymmetric games with continuous strategies to reach such payoffs

  12. An Evolving Asymmetric Game for Modeling Interdictor-Smuggler Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ASYMMETRIC GAME FOR MODELING INTERDICTOR-SMUGGLER PROBLEMS by Richard J. Allain June 2016 Thesis Advisor: David L. Alderson Second Reader: W...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN EVOLVING ASYMMETRIC GAME FOR MODELING INTERDICTOR- SMUGGLER PROBLEMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited AN EVOLVING

  13. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  14. Subcopula-based measure of asymmetric association for contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Kim, Daeyoung

    2017-10-30

    For the analysis of a two-way contingency table, a new asymmetric association measure is developed. The proposed method uses the subcopula-based regression between the discrete variables to measure the asymmetric predictive powers of the variables of interest. Unlike the existing measures of asymmetric association, the subcopula-based measure is insensitive to the number of categories in a variable, and thus, the magnitude of the proposed measure can be interpreted as the degree of asymmetric association in the contingency table. The theoretical properties of the proposed subcopula-based asymmetric association measure are investigated. We illustrate the performance and advantages of the proposed measure using simulation studies and real data examples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Asymmetric double Langmuir probe: Small signal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1987-11-01

    We discuss the asymmetric double Langmuir probe (ADLP) and demonstrate the possibility of using it to measure plasma temperature T/sub e/ and density n when it is operated in the region of small signal response. The area of one of the ADLP collectors is considerably larger than the other. This probe can be operated at a relatively low applied voltage, eV/sub a/T/sub e/ < 1, and still provides sufficient information to determine the plasma T/sub e/ and n. There is no need for a direct measurement of the ion saturation current, which can be on the order of a few amperes in large fusion devices. This reduces the requirements on the probe power supply. 6 refs., 6 figs

  16. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettendorf, L. [Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van der Geest, S. [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuper, G. [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-04-15

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find strong evidence for amount asymmetry. However, there is a faster reaction to upward changes in spot prices than to downward changes in spot prices. This implies timing or pattern asymmetry. This asymmetry starts three days after the change in the spot price and lasts for four days.

  17. Isospin dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, P. Roy; Basu, D. N.; Samanta, C.

    2009-07-01

    The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy is determined from a systematic study of the isospin dependent bulk properties of asymmetric nuclear matter using the isoscalar and isovector components of the density dependent M3Y interaction. The incompressibility K∞ for the symmetric nuclear matter, the isospin dependent part Kasy of the isobaric incompressibility, and the slope L are all in excellent agreement with the constraints recently extracted from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes, from the neutron skin thickness of nuclei, and from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. This work provides a fundamental basis for the understanding of nuclear matter under extreme conditions and validates the important empirical constraints obtained from recent experimental data.

  18. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  19. Baryon destruction by asymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Morrissey, David E.; Tulin, Sean; Sigurdson, Kris

    2011-01-01

    We investigate new and unusual signals that arise in theories where dark matter is asymmetric and carries a net antibaryon number, as may occur when the dark matter abundance is linked to the baryon abundance. Antibaryonic dark matter can cause induced nucleon decay by annihilating visible baryons through inelastic scattering. These processes lead to an effective nucleon lifetime of 10 29 -10 32 yrs in terrestrial nucleon decay experiments, if baryon number transfer between visible and dark sectors arises through new physics at the weak scale. The possibility of induced nucleon decay motivates a novel approach for direct detection of cosmic dark matter in nucleon decay experiments. Monojet searches (and related signatures) at hadron colliders also provide a complementary probe of weak-scale dark-matter-induced baryon number violation. Finally, we discuss the effects of baryon-destroying dark matter on stellar systems and show that it can be consistent with existing observations.

  20. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings

  1. Impact of Asymmetric Carbon Information on Supply Chain Decisions under Low-Carbon Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the establishment of the leading manufacturer Stackelberg game model under asymmetric carbon information, this paper investigates the misreporting behaviors of the supply chain members and their influences on supply chain performance. Based on “Benchmarking” allocation mechanism, three policies are considered: carbon emission trading, carbon tax, and a new policy which combined carbon quota and carbon tax mechanism. The results show that, in the three models, the leader in the supply chain, even if he has advantages of carbon information, will not lie about his information. That is because the manufacturer’s misreporting behavior has no effect on supply chain members’ performance. But the retailer will lie about the information when he has carbon information advantage. The high-carbon-emission retailers under the carbon trading policy, all the retailers under the carbon tax policy, and the high-carbon-emission retailers under combined quotas and tax policy would like to understate their carbon emissions. Coordination of revenue sharing contract is studied in supply chain to induce the retailer to declare his real carbon information. Optimal contractual parameters are deduced in the three models, under which the profit of the supply chain can be maximized.

  2. The asymmetric total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-trypargine via Noyori asymmetric transfer hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilli, Ronaldo A.; Rodrigues Junior, Manoel Trindade

    2009-01-01

    A concise and efficient total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-trypargine (6 steps and 38% overall yield), a 1-substituted β-carboline guanidine alkaloid isolated from the skin of the African frog K. senegalensis, was developed based on the construction of the b-carboline moiety via Bischler-Napieralski reaction and the enantioselective reduction of the dihydro-β-carboline intermediate via an asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reaction using Noyori's protocol. (author)

  3. Asymmetric dominance and asymmetric mate choice oppose premating isolation after allopatric divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefc, Kristina M; Hermann, Caroline M; Steinwender, Bernd; Brindl, Hanna; Zimmermann, Holger; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Postl, Lisbeth; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Assortative mating promotes reproductive isolation and allows allopatric speciation processes to continue in secondary contact. As mating patterns are determined by mate preferences and intrasexual competition, we investigated male-male competition and behavioral isolation in simulated secondary contact among allopatric populations. Three allopatric color morphs of the cichlid fish Tropheus were tested against each other. Dyadic male-male contests revealed dominance of red males over bluish and yellow-blotch males. Reproductive isolation in the presence of male-male competition was assessed from genetic parentage in experimental ponds and was highly asymmetric among pairs of color morphs. Red females mated only with red males, whereas the other females performed variable degrees of heteromorphic mating. Discrepancies between mating patterns in ponds and female preferences in a competition-free, two-way choice paradigm suggested that the dominance of red males interfered with positive assortative mating of females of the subordinate morphs and provoked asymmetric hybridization. Between the nonred morphs, a significant excess of negative assortative mating by yellow-blotch females with bluish males did not coincide with asymmetric dominance among males. Hence, both negative assortative mating preferences and interference of male-male competition with positive assortative preferences forestall premating isolation, the latter especially in environments unsupportive of competition-driven spatial segregation.

  4. Asymmetric supercapacitor based on graphene oxide/polypyrrole composite and activated carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Le-Qing; Liu, Gui-Jing; Wu, Ji-Huai; Liu, Lu; Lin, Jian-Ming; Wei, Yue-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Graphene oxide/polypyrrole (GO/PPy) composite is synthesized by in situ oxidation polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in the presence of GO and used for supercapacitor electrode. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observes that PPy nanoparticles are uniformly grown on the surfaces of GO sheets, leading to increase both the specific surface area and the electrical conductivity of material. GO/PPy composite exhibits better electrochemical performances than the pure individual components. When the mass ratio of GO to Py is 10:100, the GO/PPy composite electrode shows the highest capacitance of 332.6 F g −1 , and presents high rate capability. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated by using the optimized GO/PPy composite as positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as negative electrode. The asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in the voltage range of 0–1.6 V, and exhibits the maximum energy density of 21.4 Wh kg −1 at a power density of 453.9 W kg −1 . Furthermore, the GO/PPy//AC asymmetric supercapacitor displays good rate capability and excellent cyclic durability

  5. Asymmetric resonance frequency analysis of in-plane electrothermal silicon cantilevers for nanoparticle sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertke, Maik; Hamdana, Gerry; Wu, Wenze; Marks, Markus; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Peiner, Erwin

    2016-10-01

    The asymmetric resonance frequency analysis of silicon cantilevers for a low-cost wearable airborne nanoparticle detector (Cantor) is described in this paper. The cantilevers, which are operated in the fundamental in-plane resonance mode, are used as a mass-sensitive microbalance. They are manufactured out of bulk silicon, containing a full piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge and an integrated thermal heater for reading the measurement output signal and stimulating the in-plane excitation, respectively. To optimize the sensor performance, cantilevers with different cantilever geometries are designed, fabricated and characterized. Besides the resonance frequency, the quality factor (Q) of the resonance curve has a high influence concerning the sensor sensitivity. Because of an asymmetric resonance behaviour, a novel fitting function and method to extract the Q is created, different from that of the simple harmonic oscillator (SHO). For testing the sensor in a long-term frequency analysis, a phase- locked loop (PLL) circuit is employed, yielding a frequency stability of up to 0.753 Hz at an Allan variance of 3.77 × 10-6. This proposed asymmetric resonance frequency analysis method is expected to be further used in the process development of the next-generation Cantor.

  6. Asymmetric resonance frequency analysis of in-plane electrothermal silicon cantilevers for nanoparticle sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertke, Maik; Hamdana, Gerry; Wu, Wenze; Marks, Markus; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Peiner, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric resonance frequency analysis of silicon cantilevers for a low-cost wearable airborne nanoparticle detector (Cantor) is described in this paper. The cantilevers, which are operated in the fundamental in-plane resonance mode, are used as a mass-sensitive microbalance. They are manufactured out of bulk silicon, containing a full piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge and an integrated thermal heater for reading the measurement output signal and stimulating the in-plane excitation, respectively. To optimize the sensor performance, cantilevers with different cantilever geometries are designed, fabricated and characterized. Besides the resonance frequency, the quality factor ( Q ) of the resonance curve has a high influence concerning the sensor sensitivity. Because of an asymmetric resonance behaviour, a novel fitting function and method to extract the Q is created, different from that of the simple harmonic oscillator (SHO). For testing the sensor in a long-term frequency analysis, a phase- locked loop (PLL) circuit is employed, yielding a frequency stability of up to 0.753 Hz at an Allan variance of 3.77 × 10 -6 . This proposed asymmetric resonance frequency analysis method is expected to be further used in the process development of the next-generation Cantor. (paper)

  7. Effects of isospin and momentum dependent interactions on thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Ma Hongru; Chen Liewen; Li Baoan

    2008-01-01

    Thermal properties of asymmetric nuclear matter are studied within a self-consistent thermal model using an isospin and momentum-dependent interaction (MDI) constrained by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions, a momentum-independent interaction (MID), and an isoscalar momentum-dependent interaction (eMDYI). In particular, we study the temperature dependence of the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties, the mechanical and chemical instabilities, and liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter. Our results indicate that the temperature dependence of the equation of state and the symmetry energy are not so sensitive to the momentum dependence of the interaction. The symmetry energy at fixed density is found to generally decrease with temperature and for the MDI interaction the decrement is essentially due to the potential part. It is further shown that only the low momentum part of the single-particle potential and the nucleon effective mass increases significantly with temperature for the momentum-dependent interactions. For the MDI interaction, the low momentum part of the symmetry potential is significantly reduced with increasing temperature. For the mechanical and chemical instabilities as well as the liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter, our results indicate that the boundaries of these instabilities and the phase-coexistence region generally shrink with increasing temperature and are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy and the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction, especially at higher temperatures

  8. Potential of an asymmetrical agitation in industrial mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nishi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mixing is one of the most fundamental operations in chemical engineering. Stirred tanks are widely used in the manufacture of such materials as chemicals, paints, inks, electronics materials, ceramics, foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Suitable mixing is indispensable to the purpose achievement of a process. Eccentric mixing, in which an impeller installed at eccentric position in a vessel, is one of the traditional methods of promoting mixing. An asymmetrical flow which occurs in vessel is complicated, and it promotes mixing, distribution, and mass transfer. In this study, a new mixing method which eccentric mixing using a large type impeller which attracts attention in recent years is shown. The high performance of a large impeller can be combined with the advantages of an eccentric impeller by using the impeller at an eccentric position. The power consumption and mixing time for MAXBLEND, which is a type of large impeller, were investigated. The power consumption, P, and mixing time, θM, were measured under various eccentric conditions. The relation between the power number (Np and Reynolds number (Re and that between the dimensionless mixing time (nθM and Re were investigated. When eccentric mixing is used industrially, we should be concerned about the horizontal load to a agitating shaft. The large oscillating horizontal load causes serious problems, such as the falling off of the impeller or the breakage of the motor, mechanical seal or gearbox. It is, therefore, important to understand the relation between these values and the impeller rotational speed when designing the mixing equipment and determining the operating conditions. In this study, the torque and horizontal load were measured in eccentric mixing under various eccentric conditions. The averages of both, the torque and the horizontal load, and their standard deviations, corresponding to the amplitude of fluctuation, were shown.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.73-80 [How to cite this

  9. Use of activity measurements in the plume from Chernobyl to deduce fuel state before, during and after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, J.P.; Tobias, A.

    1986-07-01

    Work performed at Berkely Nuclear Laboratories both prior to the meeting in Vienna at which USSR gave full details of the Chernobyl accident and after that meeting is recorded. Plume data from Western Europe were used to deduce the likely damage to the fuel and its previous irradiation history. The note concludes that the source to the environment consisted of an initial dispersion of fuel particulate followed by a prolonged release at a lower rate, the total release being some 3% of the core inventory of fuel. Early and late in the release period it was enhanced in volatile species. Damage to the fuel was thus due both to mechanical disruption and to high temperatures. During the early dispersive event high temperatures (probably approaching fuel melting) were reached in some of the core, though the proportion of the fuel affected may have been small. (UK)

  10. Fracture-mechanics data deduced from thermal-shock and related experiments with LWR pressure-vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Canonico, D.A.; Iskander, S.K.; Bolt, S.E.; Holz, P.P.; Nanstad, R.K.; Stelzman, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are susceptible to certain types of hypothetical accidents that can subject the reactor pressure vessel to severe thermal shock, that is, a rapid cooling of the inner surface of the vessel wall. The thermal-shock loading, coupled with the radiation-induced reduction in the material fracture toughness, introduces the possibility of propagation of preexistent flaws and what at one time were regarded as somewhat unique fracture-oriented conditions. Several postulated reactor accidents have been analyzed to discover flaw behavior trends; seven intermediate-scale thermal-shock experiments with steel cylinders have been conducted; and corresponding materials characterization studies have been performed. Flaw behavior trends and related fracture-mechanics data deduced from these studies are discussed

  11. Deducing 2D Crystal Structure at the Solid/Liquid Interface with Atomic Resolution by Combined STM and SFG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Arthur; Ahn, Seokhoon; Matzger, Adam J.; Chen, Zhan

    2009-03-01

    Supplemented by computed models, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) can provide detailed structure of 2D crystals formed at the liquid/solid interface with atomic resolution. However, some structural information such as functional group orientations in such 2D crystals needs to be tested experimentally to ensure the accuracy of the deduced structures. Due to the limited sensitivity, many other experimental techniques such as Raman and infrared spectroscopy have not been allowed to provide such structural information of 2D crystals. Here we showed that Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (SFG) can measure average orientation of functional groups in such 2D crystals, or physisorbed monolayers, providing key experimental data to aid in the modeling and interpretation of the STM images. The usefulness of combining these two techniques is demonstrated with a phthalate diesters monolayer formed at the 1-phenyloctane/ highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) interface. The spatial orientation of the ester C=O of the monolayer was successfully determined using SFG.

  12. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the LewisX antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, Ana; Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus

    1997-01-01

    1 H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-α-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-β-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)[3-O-α-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, 13 C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The 1 H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The 13 C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the 1 H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS 2 . Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data

  13. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Compact bifluid hybrid stars: hadronic matter mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Basu, D.N. [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Atta, Debasis [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Government General Degree College, West Bengal (India); Imam, Kouser [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Aliah University, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Samanta, C. [Virginia Military Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, VA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    The masses and radii of non-rotating and rotating configurations of pure hadronic stars mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter are calculated within the two-fluid formalism of stellar structure equations in general relativity. The Equation of State (EoS) of nuclear matter is obtained from the density dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. We consider the dark matter particle mass of 1 GeV. The EoS of self-interacting dark matter is taken from two-body repulsive interactions of the scale of strong interactions. We explore the conditions of equal and different rotational frequencies of nuclear matter and dark matter and find that the maximum mass of differentially rotating stars with self-interacting dark matter to be ∝1.94 M {sub CircleDot} with radius ∝10.4 km. (orig.)

  15. Survey of beta-particle interaction experiments with asymmetric matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, J. David; Wu, Fei

    2018-05-01

    Asymmetry is a basic property found at multiple scales in the universe. Asymmetric molecular interactions are fundamental to the operation of biological systems in both signaling and structural roles. Other aspects of asymmetry are observed and useful in many areas of science and engineering, and have been studied since the discovery of chirality in tartrate salts. The observation of parity violation in beta decay provided some impetus for later experiments using asymmetric particles. Here we survey historical work and experiments related to electron (e-) or positron (e+) polarimetry and their interactions with asymmetric materials in gas, liquid and solid forms. Asymmetric interactions may be classified as: 1) stereorecognition, 2) stereoselection and 3) stereoinduction. These three facets of physical stereochemistry are unique but interrelated; and examples from chemistry and materials science illustrate these aspects. Experimental positron and electron interactions with asymmetric materials may be classified in like manner. Thus, a qualitative assessment of helical and polarized positron experiments with different forms of asymmetric matter from the past 40 years is presented, as well as recent experiments with left-hand and right-hand single crystal quartz and organic compounds. The purpose of this classification and review is to evaluate the field for potential new experiments and directions for positron (or electron) studies with asymmetric materials.

  16. Asymmetric WIMP Dark Matter in the presence of DM/anti-DM oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharijas, G.

    2014-01-01

    The general class of 'Asymmetric Dark Matter (DM)' scenarios assumes the existence of a primordial particle/anti-particle asymmetry in the dark matter sector related to the asymmetry in the baryonic one, as a way to achieve the observed similarity between the baryonic and dark matter energy densities today. Focusing on this framework we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its anti-particle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry. We calculate the evolution of the dark matter relic abundance and show how oscillations re-open the parameter space of asymmetric dark matter models, in particular in the direction of allowing large (WIMP-scale) DM masses. We found in particular that a typical WIMP with a mass at the EW scale (about 1 TeV) having a primordial asymmetry of the same order as the baryon asymmetry, naturally gets the correct relic abundance if the δm mass term is in the ∼ meV range. This turns out to be a natural value for fermionic DM arising from the higher dimensional operator H 2 DM 2 /Λ where H is the Higgs field and Λ ∼ M Pl . Finally, we constrain the parameter space in this framework by applying up-to-date bounds from indirect detection signals on annihilating DM

  17. Polaron effects on nonlinear optical rectification in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells with applied electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jinghe; Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    Polaron effects on nonlinear optical rectification in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells are studied by the effective mass approximation and the perturbation theory. The numerical results show that nonlinear optical rectification coefficients are strongly dependent on the barrier hight V 0 of the Gaussian potential quantum wells, the range L of the confinement potential and the electric field F. Besides, the numerical results show that no matter how V 0 , L and F change, taking into consideration polaron effects, the optical rectification coefficients χ 0 (2) get greatly enhanced.

  18. Consequences of DM/antiDM oscillations for asymmetric WIMP darkmatter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Panci, P.; Servant, G.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, a scenario usually dubbed Asymmetric Dark Matter (aDM), we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its antiparticle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry before freeze-out, which enable efficient...... a primordial asymmetry of the same order as the baryon asymmetry naturally gets the correct relic abundance if the DM-number-violating Delta(DM) = 2 mass term is in the similar to meV range. The re-establishment of annihilations implies that constraints from the accumulation of aDM in astrophysical bodies...

  19. Analysis of radial runout for symmetric and asymmetric HDD spindle motors with rotor eccentricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.-J.; Kim, K.-T.; Hwang, S.-M.; Lee, S.-B.; Park, N.-G.

    2001-01-01

    Radial runout of disk drive spindle is one of the major limiting factors in achieving higher track densities in hard disk drives. Mechanical, magnetic and their coupled origins, such as unbalanced mass, reaction forces and magnetic forces, introduce radial runout of spindle motors. In this paper, radial magnetic forces are calculated with respect to the various rotor eccentricities using analytic method. Based on the results of the radial magnetic forces, the radial runout of the spindle motor is analyzed using finite element and transfer matrices. Results show that an asymmetric motor has a worse performance on unbalanced magnetic forces and radial runout when mechanical and magnetic coupling exists

  20. Lattice-parameter-difference measurement of heteroepitaxial structures by means of extremely asymmetrical Bragg diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.; Borchard, W.

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of measurements of the lattice-parameter difference in monocrystalline heterostructures can be enhanced by use of an extremely asymmetrical diffraction geometry. If the angle of incidence is somewhat higher than the critical angle for total external reflection, the Bragg peak is shifted from the position calculated by kinematic theory. The amount of shift depends on the angle of incidence as well as on the mass density of the material used. For heteroepitaxial structures both the layer and the substrate peaks are shifted but by different amounts. Therefore it becomes possible to characterize layers of totally lattice-matched structures also. (orig.)

  1. Peristaltic flow of Johnson-Segalman fluid in asymmetric channel with convective boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H YASMIN; T HAYAT; A ALSAEDI; HH ALSULAMI

    2014-01-01

    This work is concerned with the peristaltic transport of the Johnson-Segalman fluid in an asymmetric channel with convective boundary conditions. The mathematical modeling is based upon the conservation laws of mass, linear momentum, and energy. The resulting equations are solved after long wavelength and low Reynolds number are used. The results for the axial pressure gradient, velocity, and temperature profiles are obtained for small Weissenberg number. The expressions of the pressure gra-dient, velocity, and temperature are analyzed for various embedded parameters. Pumping and trapping phenomena are also explored.

  2. Probing the time scale of asymmetric fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamanin, D.

    1999-12-01

    The author describes the measurement of the mass-energy distributions of fission fragments in the reactions 197 Au( 14 N,X) at 34 A.MeV and 232 Th( 7 Li,X) at 43 A.MeV. He presents results on the mass-asymmetry and excitation energy sharing. (HSI)

  3. Neutrino mass | Nduka | Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It turns out that geometrization of matter is a necessary prerequisite for the resolution of many problems of considerable current interest. In this paper we discuss the geometrization of matter, and deduce therefore the mass of the neutrino. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 1-4 ...

  4. Effect of mass asymmetry on the mass dependence of balance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of the mass asymmetry on the balance energy (E bal ) by studying asymmetric reactions throughout the periodic table and over entire colliding geometry. Our results, which are almost independent of the system size and as well as of the colliding geometries indicate a sizeable effect of the asymmetry of the reaction on the balance energy.

  5. Synthesis of New Chiral Benzimidazolylidene–Rh Complexes and Their Application in Asymmetric Addition Reactions of Organoboronic Acids to Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel chiral N-heterocyclic carbene rhodium complexes (NHC–Rh based on benzimidazole have been prepared, and all of the NHC–Rh complexes were fully characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. These complexes could be used as catalysts for the asymmetric 1,2-addition of organoboronic acids to aldehydes, affording chiral diarylmethanols with high yields and moderate enantioselectivities.

  6. Asymmetric quantum well broadband thyristor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Jiaqi; Yu, Hongyan; Zhou, Xuliang; Chen, Weixi; Li, Zhaosong; Wang, Wei; Ding, Ying; Pan, Jiaoqing

    2017-11-01

    A broadband thyristor laser based on InGaAs/GaAs asymmetric quantum well (AQW) is fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The 3-μm-wide Fabry-Perot (FP) ridge-waveguide laser shows an S-shape I-V characteristic and exhibits a flat-topped broadband optical spectrum coverage of ~27 nm (Δ-10 dB) at a center wavelength of ~1090 nm with a total output power of 137 mW under pulsed operation. The AQW structure was carefully designed to establish multiple energy states within, in order to broaden the gain spectrum. An obvious blue shift emission, which is not generally acquired in QW laser diodes, is observed in the broadening process of the optical spectrum as the injection current increases. This blue shift spectrum broadening is considered to result from the prominent band-filling effect enhanced by the multiple energy states of the AQW structure, as well as the optical feedback effect contributed by the thyristor laser structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61604144, 61504137). Zhen Liu and Jiaqi Wang contributed equally to this work.

  7. Asymmetric Cherenkov acoustic reverse in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2014-09-01

    A general phenomenon of the Cherenkov radiation known in optics or acoustics of conventional materials is a formation of a forward cone of, respectively, photons or phonons emitted by a particle accelerated above the speed of light or sound in those materials. Here we suggest three-dimensional topological insulators as a unique platform to fundamentally explore and practically exploit the acoustic aspect of the Cherenkov effect. We demonstrate that by applying an in-plane magnetic field to a surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator one may suppress the forward Cherenkov sound up to zero at a critical magnetic field. Above the critical field the Cherenkov sound acquires pure backward nature with the polar distribution differing from the forward one generated below the critical field. Potential applications of this asymmetric Cherenkov reverse are in the design of low energy electronic devices such as acoustic ratchets or, in general, in low power design of electronic circuits with a magnetic field control of the direction and magnitude of the Cherenkov dissipation.

  8. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Naert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM load are discussed.

  9. Collaborative hierarchy maintains cooperation in asymmetric games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Pereda, María; Cronin, Katherine A; Tomassini, Marco; Sánchez, Angel

    2018-03-29

    The interplay of social structure and cooperative behavior is under much scrutiny lately as behavior in social contexts becomes increasingly relevant for everyday life. Earlier experimental work showed that the existence of a social hierarchy, earned through competition, was detrimental for the evolution of cooperative behaviors. Here, we study the case in which individuals are ranked in a hierarchical structure based on their performance in a collective effort by having them play a Public Goods Game. In the first treatment, participants are ranked according to group earnings while, in the second treatment, their rankings are based on individual earnings. Subsequently, participants play asymmetric Prisoner's Dilemma games where higher-ranked players gain more than lower ones. Our experiments show that there are no detrimental effects of the hierarchy formed based on group performance, yet when ranking is assigned individually we observe a decrease in cooperation. Our results show that different levels of cooperation arise from the fact that subjects are interpreting rankings as a reputation which carries information about which subjects were cooperators in the previous phase. Our results demonstrate that noting the manner in which a hierarchy is established is essential for understanding its effects on cooperation.

  10. Climate policy, asymmetric information and firm survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, C.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of different domestic climate policy instruments under asymmetric information when the regulator wants to secure the survival of a specific firm. It is a well-known result from economic theory that emission taxes lead to a cost-effective distribution of abatement across polluters. However, if the regulator wants to ensure the survival of a specific firm, it may need to design policy instruments that reduce the firm's cost of complying with an emission tax regime. The climate policy instruments considered in this paper are tradable emission permits with distribution of free permits, emission taxes in combination with a fixed subsidy, and two types of voluntary agreements. It demonstrates first that if distributing free tradable permits shall have a preventing effect, the allocation of permits has to be made contingent on production. It further shows that a voluntary agreement where a specific abatement target is set by the regulator can prevent a shutdown but leads to lower welfare than the use of emission taxes in combination with a fixed subsidy. And finally it illustrates that a voluntary agreement designed as a menu of abatement contracts increases social welfare compared to an emission tax regime

  11. Performance of an AGATA asymmetric detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, A.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ajboston@liv.ac.uk; Dimmock, M.R.; Unsworth, C.; Boston, H.C.; Cooper, R.J.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Jones, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Slee, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray detectors based on high-purity germanium crystals (HPGe) are one of the key workhorses of experimental nuclear science. The technical development of such detector technology has been dramatic in recent years. Large volume, high-granularity, electrically segmented HPGe detectors have been realised and a methodology to improve position sensitivity using pulse-shape analysis coupled with the novel technique of gamma-ray tracking has been developed. Collaborations have been established in Europe (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA)) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) [C.W. Beausang, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 204 (2003)] to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the first AGATA asymmetric detector that has been tested at the University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector.

  12. Asymmetric adaptations to energy price changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuper, G.H.; Van Soest, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of policies to reduce the use of energy depend on the elasticity of substitution between the various inputs and on the rate of technological progress. This paper presents a theoretical model emphasising energy investment characteristics of uncertainty and irreversibility that result in testable hypotheses concerning the relative values of substitution parameters and rates of technological change in periods of high and increasing energy prices and in periods of low prices. Estimation results for a panel of sectors of the Dutch economy show that the elasticity of substitution between energy and other inputs is low in periods of low energy prices, whereas it is significantly higher in the preceding period of high and increasing energy prices. Furthermore, energy-saving technological progress in periods of high and increasing energy prices is also significantly higher than if energy prices are low and falling. The regression results suggest that, due this asymmetric response of firms to changes in energy prices, taxing energy in the current period of low energy prices will not yield substantial reductions in energy use of Dutch industry. 21 refs

  13. Trade Credit Insurance and Asymmetric Information Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolovska Olena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of different risk factors in international trade gives evidence of the necessity of support in gaps that may affect exporters’ activity. To maximize the trade volumes and in the same time to minimize the exporters’ risks the stakeholders use trade credit insurance. The paper provides analysis of conceptual background of the trade credit insurance in the world. We analyzed briefly the problems, arising in insurance markets due to asymmetric information, such as adverse selection and moral hazard. Also we discuss the main stages of development of trade credit insurance in countries worldwide. Using comparative and graphical analysis we provide a brief evaluation of the dynamics of claims and recoveries for different forms of trade credit insurance. We found that the claims related to the commercial risk for medium and long trade credits in recent years exceed the recoveries, while with the political risk the reverse trend holds. And we originally consider these findings in terms of information asymmetry in the trade credit insurance differentiated by type of risk.

  14. Asymmetric sensory reweighting in human upright stance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logan

    Full Text Available To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface and vision is asymmetric.

  15. Micromagnetic simulation of Fe asymmetric nanorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, J.L.; Morales-Concha, C.; Leighton, B.; Altbir, D.; Escrig, J.

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade several methods to control the vortex chirality in nanodots have been proposed. One of them, the introduction of asymmetry in the geometry of the dots, originates interesting effects on the magnetic behavior of the particle. However, asymmetry in core-free structures is also interesting to investigate because of the reproducibility of their magnetic properties. In this work we report systematic changes in the coercivity and remanence in asymmetric nanorings. The angular dependence is also addressed. For specific geometries and magnetic field direction newly reversal modes appear associated with important changes in the coercivity and remanence of the rings. - Highlights: → We report that the existence of asymmetry strongly influences the coercivity and the remanence. → Magnetization reversal is driven by the nucleation of a C state and propagation of a vortex state. → We also conclude that the lack of a core contributes to the stability of the vortex state. → Asymmetry can be useful for tailoring specific magnetic characteristics of these systems.

  16. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show that in p......In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...

  17. Optimal multicopy asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiurášek, Jaromír; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states which produces M copies from N input replicas in such a way that the fidelity of each copy may be different. We show that the optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning can be performed with a single phase-insensitive amplifier and an array of beam splitters. We obtain a simple analytical expression characterizing the set of optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning machines and prove the optimality of these cloners using the formalism of Gaussian completely positive maps and semidefinite programming techniques. We also present an alternative implementation of the asymmetric cloning machine where the phase-insensitive amplifier is replaced with a beam splitter, heterodyne detector, and feedforward.

  18. Asymmetrical Polymer Vesicles for Drug delivery and Other Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have been attracted by polymersomes as versatile drug delivery systems since the last two decades. Polymersomes have the potential to be versatile drug delivery systems because of their tunable membrane formulations, stabilities in vivo, various physicochemical properties, controlled release mechanisms, targeting abilities, and capacities to encapsulate a wide range of drugs and other molecules. Asymmetrical polymersomes are nano- to micro-sized polymeric capsules with asymmetrical membranes, which means, they have different outer and inner coronas so that they can exhibit better endocytosis rate and endosomal escape ability than other polymeric systems with symmetrical membranes. Hence, asymmetrical polymersomes are highly promising as self-assembled nano-delivery systems in the future for in vivo therapeutics delivery and diagnostic imaging applications. In this review, we prepared a summary about recent research progresses of asymmetrical polymersomes in the following aspects: synthesis, preparation, applications in drug delivery and others.

  19. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Wang, Ruiqi; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid

  20. Outage Analysis of Asymmetric RF-FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the outage performance analysis of a dual-hop transmission system composed of asymmetric radio frequency (RF) channels cascaded with free-space optical (FSO) links is presented. The RF links are modeled by the Rayleigh fading

  1. Asymmetric H-D exchange reactions of fluorinated aromatic ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yujun; Lim, XiaoZhi; Pan, Yuanhang; Zong, Lili; Feng, Wei; Tan, Choonhong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Chiral bicyclic guanidine catalyzes the asymmetric H-D exchange reactions. Up to 30% ee was achieved. DFT calculations were employed to elucidate and explain the origin of the reaction's stereoselectivity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  3. Optimal multicopy asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the asymmetric Gaussian cloning of coherent states which produces M copies from N input replicas in such a way that the fidelity of each copy may be different. We show that the optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning can be performed with a single phase-insensitive amplifier and an array of beam splitters. We obtain a simple analytical expression characterizing the set of optimal asymmetric Gaussian cloning machines and prove the optimality of these cloners using the formalism of Gaussian completely positive maps and semidefinite programming techniques. We also present an alternative implementation of the asymmetric cloning machine where the phase-insensitive amplifier is replaced with a beam splitter, heterodyne detector, and feedforward

  4. Asymmetric continuum extreme processes in solids and fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Teisseyre, Roman

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with a class of basic deformations in asymmetric continuum theory. It describes molecular deformations and transport velocities in fluids, strain deformations in solids as well as the molecular transport, important in fracture processes.

  5. Asymmetric H-D exchange reactions of fluorinated aromatic ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Chiral bicyclic guanidine catalyzes the asymmetric H-D exchange reactions. Up to 30% ee was achieved. DFT calculations were employed to elucidate and explain the origin of the reaction\\'s stereoselectivity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Index profile measurement of asymmetrical elliptical preforms or fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitterswijk, van W.; Smit, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    An extension of the beam-deflection method to the case of elliptical preforms with eccentric core (asymmetrical elliptical preforms) is presented, which can be easily implemented on automatic measurement equipment

  7. Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, T.D.; Broniowski, W.

    1995-01-01

    The authors analyze the chiral limit in dense isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter

  8. Asymmetric periflexural exanthema: A report in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar V

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric periflexural exanthem (APE is a distinctive exanthem, probably viral in origin. It is largely a disease of childhood and is uncommon in adults. We report an adult man presenting with the typical clinical findings of APE.

  9. Fourier synthesis of asymmetrical optical potentials for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritt, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this work a dissipationless asymmetrical optical potential for cold atoms was produced. In a first step a new type of optical lattice was generated, whose spatial periodicity only corresponds to a quarter of the wavelength of the light used for the generation. This corresponds to the half of the periodicity of a conventional optical lattice, which is formed by the light of the same wavelength. The generation of this new type of optical lattice was reached by the use of two degenerated raman transitions. Virtual processes occur, in which four photons are involved. In conventional optical lattices however virtual two-photon processes occur. By spatially superimposing this optical lattice with a conventional optical lattice an asymmetrical optical potential could be formed. By diffraction of a Bose Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms at the transient activated asymmetrical potential the asymmetrical structure was proven. (orig.)

  10. Kinematics and Dynamics of an Asymmetrical Parallel Robotic Wrist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an asymmetrical parallel robotic wrist, which can generate a decoupled unlimited-torsion motion and achieve high positioning accuracy. The kinematics, dexterity, and singularities of the manipulator are investigated to visualize the performance contours of the manipulator...

  11. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  12. Vertical Control and Parallel Trade under Asymmetric Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Avenali

    2015-05-01

    profits from the manufacturer to the wholesaler. Therefore, in R&D-intensive industries, such as pharmaceuticals, policy makers should anticipate the likely consequences of PT under asymmetric information on the long-run incentives to innovate.

  13. A method of the asymmetric Abel's inversion in plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Tohru; Funahashi, Akimasa

    1975-09-01

    In the case of a noncylindrical plasma, axis symmetric components are drawn from observed projected intensities of physical quantities, assuming an asymmetric form. And the radial intensity distribution is determined by Abel's inversion method. The best fitting curve is obtained analytically from measured values by the least-square estimation of nonlinear parameters. The cylindrical symmetric Abel's inversion code ( ABELIC ) and the asymmetric Abel's inversion code ( ABELILSENP 2 ) are described. (auth.)

  14. Fluorescent nanohybrids based on asymmetrical cyanine dyes decorated carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Çavuşlar, Özge; Cavuslar, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we focused on imparting new optical properties to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to allow their optical detection and visualization in biomedical applications. We investigated the interactions of CNTs and DNA wrapped CNTs with asymmetrical cyanine dye molecules to study the applicability of resulting hybrid materials to fluorescent based systems. When CNTs interacted with asymmetrical cyanine dyes, they constructed a light absorbing nanoarray. However, the fluorescence emission of th...

  15. Asymmetric Effects on Escape Rates of Bistable System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Mei Dongcheng; Dai Zucheng

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric effects on the escape rates from the stable states x ± in the bistable system are analyzed. The results indicate that the multiplicative noise and the additive noise always enhance the particle escape from stable states x ± of bistable. However, the asymmetric parameter r enhances the particle escape from stable state x + , and holds back the particle escape from stable state x - . (general)

  16. Method development of damage detection in asymmetric buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Thambiratnam, David P.; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Nguyen, Andy

    2018-01-01

    Aesthetics and functionality requirements have caused most buildings to be asymmetric in recent times. Such buildings exhibit complex vibration characteristics under dynamic loads as there is coupling between the lateral and torsional components of vibration, and are referred to as torsionally coupled buildings. These buildings require three dimensional modelling and analysis. In spite of much recent research and some successful applications of vibration based damage detection methods to civil structures in recent years, the applications to asymmetric buildings has been a challenging task for structural engineers. There has been relatively little research on detecting and locating damage specific to torsionally coupled asymmetric buildings. This paper aims to compare the difference in vibration behaviour between symmetric and asymmetric buildings and then use the vibration characteristics for predicting damage in them. The need for developing a special method to detect damage in asymmetric buildings thus becomes evident. Towards this end, this paper modifies the traditional modal strain energy based damage index by decomposing the mode shapes into their lateral and vertical components and to form component specific damage indices. The improved approach is then developed by combining the modified strain energy based damage indices with the modal flexibility method which was modified to suit three dimensional structures to form a new damage indicator. The procedure is illustrated through numerical studies conducted on three dimensional five-story symmetric and asymmetric frame structures with the same layout, after validating the modelling techniques through experimental testing of a laboratory scale asymmetric building model. Vibration parameters obtained from finite element analysis of the intact and damaged building models are then applied into the proposed algorithms for detecting and locating the single and multiple damages in these buildings. The results

  17. Asymmetric Price Transmission in Indonesia's Wheat Flour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Gonzalo J.; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Data indicate that its domestic price in Indonesia has been increasing regardless of movements in the international price of wheat. A test for asymmetric price transmission from international wheat to domestic wheat flour markets is conducted using an error correction model and find the presence of asymmetric price transmission. The upward adjustment in the domestic price of wheat flour is much faster than its adjustment downward when it deviates from long-run equilibrium. Our results are rob...

  18. Project financing versus corporate financing under asymmetric information

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    In recent years financing through the creation of an independent project company or financing by non-recourse debt has become an important part of corporate decisions. Shah and Thakor (JET, 1987) argue that project financing can be optimal when asymmetric information exists between firm's insiders and market participants. In contrast to that paper, we provide an asymmetric information argument for project financing without relying on corporate taxes, costly information production or an assump...

  19. Asymmetric Shaped-Pattern Synthesis for Planar Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Bruintjes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to synthesize asymmetrically shaped beam patterns is developed for planar antenna arrays. As it is based on the quasi-analytical method of collapsed distributions, the main advantage of this procedure is the ability to realize a shaped (null-free region with very low ripple. Smooth and asymmetrically shaped regions can be used for Direction-of-Arrival estimation and subsequently for efficient tracking with a single output (fully analog beamformer.

  20. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  1. Conservation laws for a system of two point masses in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibaut; Deruelle, Nathalie

    1981-01-01

    We study the symmetries of the generalized lagrangian of two point masses, in the post-post newtonian approximation of General Relativity. We deduce, via Noether's theorem, conservation laws for energy, linear and angular momentum, as well as a generalisation of the center-of-mass theorem [fr

  2. Orientation- and position-controlled alignment of asymmetric silicon microrod on a substrate with asymmetric electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Akihide; Watanabe, Keiji; Sato, Takuya; Kotaki, Hiroshi; Schuele, Paul J.; Crowder, Mark A.; Zhan, Changqing; Hartzell, John W.; Nakatani, Ryoichi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the orientation-controlled alignment of asymmetric Si microrods on a glass substrate with an asymmetric pair of electrodes. The Si microrods have the shape of a paddle with a blade and a shaft part, and the pair of electrodes consists of a narrow electrode and a wide electrode. By applying AC bias to the electrodes, the Si microrods suspended in a fluid align in such a way to settle across the electrode pair, and over 80% of the aligned Si microrods have an orientation with the blade and the shaft of the paddle on the wide and the narrow electrodes, respectively. When Si microrods have a shell of dielectric film and its thickness on the top face is thicker than that on the bottom face, 97.8% of the Si microrods are aligned with the top face facing upwards. This technique is useful for orientation-controlled alignment of nano- and microsized devices that have polarity or a distinction between the top and bottom faces.

  3. Asymmetric Facial Bone Fragmentation Mirrors Asymmetric Distribution of Cranial Neuromasts in Blind Mexican Cavefish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Gross

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial asymmetry is a convergent trait widely distributed across animals that colonize the extreme cave environment. Although craniofacial asymmetry can be discerned easily, other complex phenotypes (such as sensory organ position and numerical variation are challenging to score and compare. Certain bones of the craniofacial complex demonstrate substantial asymmetry, and co-localize to regions harboring dramatically expanded numbers of mechanosensory neuromasts. To determine if a relationship exists between this expansion and bone fragmentation in cavefish, we developed a quantitative measure of positional symmetry across the left-right axis. We found that three different cave-dwelling populations were significantly more asymmetric compared to surface-dwelling fish. Moreover, cave populations did not differ in the degree of neuromast asymmetry. This work establishes a method for quantifying symmetry of a complex phenotype, and demonstrates that facial bone fragmentation mirrors the asymmetric distribution of neuromasts in different cavefish populations. Further developmental studies will provide a clearer picture of the developmental and cellular changes that accompany this extreme phenotype, and help illuminate the genetic basis for facial asymmetry in vertebrates.

  4. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  5. Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VI: the conference summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, O.

    2014-04-01

    The Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae conference series, now in its sixth edition, aims to resolve the shaping mechanism of PN. Eighty percent of PN have non spherical shapes and during this conference the last nails in the coffin of single stars models for non spherical PN have been put. Binary theories abound but observational tests are lagging. The highlight of APN6 has been the arrival of ALMA which allowed us to measure magnetic fields on AGB stars systematically. AGB star halos, with their spiral patterns are now connected to PPN and PN halos. New models give us hope that binary parameters may be decoded from these images. In the post-AGB and pre-PN evolutionary phase the naked post-AGB stars present us with an increasingly curious puzzle as complexity is added to the phenomenologies of objects in transition between the AGB and the central star regimes. Binary central stars continue to be detected, including the first detection of longer period binaries, however a binary fraction is still at large. Hydro models of binary interactions still fail to give us results, if we make an exception for the wider types of binary interactions. More promise is shown by analytical considerations and models driven by simpler, 1D simulations such as those carried out with the code MESA. Large community efforts have given us more homogeneous datasets which will yield results for years to come. Examples are the ChanPlaN and HerPlaNe collaborations that have been working with the Chandra and Herschel space telescopes, respectively. Finally, the new kid in town is the intermediate-luminosity optical transient, a new class of events that may have contributed to forming several peculiar PN and pre-PN.

  6. Asymmetric explosion of core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeroni, Remi

    2016-01-01

    A core-collapse supernova represents the ultimate stage of the evolution of massive stars.The iron core contraction may be followed by a gigantic explosion which gives birth to a neutron star.The multidimensional dynamics of the innermost region, during the first hundreds milliseconds, plays a decisive role on the explosion success because hydrodynamical instabilities are able to break the spherical symmetry of the collapse. Large scale transverse motions generated by two instabilities, the neutrino-driven convection and the Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI),increase the heating efficiency up to the point of launching an asymmetric explosion and influencing the birth properties of the neutron star. In this thesis, hydrodynamical instabilities are studied using numerical simulations of simplified models. These models enable a wide exploration of the parameter space and a better physical understanding of the instabilities, generally inaccessible to realistic models.The non-linear regime of SASI is analysed to characterize the conditions under which a spiral mode prevails and to assess its ability to redistribute angular momentum radially.The influence of rotation on the shock dynamics is also addressed. For fast enough rotation rates, a corotation instability overlaps with SASI and greatly impacts the dynamics. The simulations enable to better constrain the effect of non-axisymmetric modes on the angular momentum budget of the iron core collapsing into a neutron star. SASI may under specific conditions spin up or down the pulsar born during the explosion. Finally, an idealised model of the heating region is studied to characterize the non-linear onset of convection by perturbations such as those produced by SASI or pre-collapse combustion inhomogeneities. The dimensionality issue is examined to stress the beneficial consequences of the three-dimensional dynamics on the onset of the explosion. (author) [fr

  7. Affective privilege: Asymmetric interference by emotional distracters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eReeck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theories posit that affectively salient stimuli are privileged in their capacity to capture attention and disrupt ongoing cognition. Two underlying assumptions in this theoretical position are that the potency of affective stimuli transcends task boundaries (i.e., emotional distracters do not have to belong to a current task-set to disrupt processing and that there is an asymmetry between emotional and cognitive processing (i.e., emotional distracters disrupt cognitive processing, but not vice versa. These assumptions have remained largely untested, as common experimental probes of emotion-cognition interaction rarely manipulate task-relevance and only examine one side of the presumed asymmetry of interference. To test these propositions directly, a face-word Stroop protocol was adapted to independently manipulate (a the congruency between target and distracter stimulus features, (b the affective salience of distracter features, and (c the task-relevance of emotional compared to non-emotional target features. A three-way interaction revealed interdependent effects of distracter relevance, congruence, and affective salience. Compared to task-irrelevant distracters, task-relevant congruent distracters facilitated performance and task-relevant incongruent distracters impaired performance, but the latter effect depended on the nature of the target feature and task. Specifically, task-irrelevant emotional distracters resulted in equivalent performance costs as task-relevant non-emotional distracters, whereas task-irrelevant non-emotional distracters did not produce performance costs comparable to those generated by task-relevant emotional distracters. These results document asymmetric cross-task interference effects for affectively salient stimuli, supporting the notion of affective prioritization in human information processing.

  8. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Messeih, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T 4 were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T 4 as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r 2 = 0.84) and free T 4 (r 2 = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r 2 = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females

  9. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Messeih, P. L. [Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T{sub 4} were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T{sub 4} as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r{sup 2} = 0.84) and free T{sub 4} (r{sup 2} = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females.

  10. Isospin-dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in relativistic mean field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An

    2007-11-01

    Using various relativistic mean-field models, including nonlinear ones with meson field self-interactions, models with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and point-coupling models without meson fields, we have studied the isospin-dependent bulk and single-particle properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, we have determined the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy from these different relativistic mean-field models and compared the results with the constraints recently extracted from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions as well as from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes. Among the 23 parameter sets in the relativistic mean-field model that are commonly used for nuclear structure studies, only a few are found to give symmetry energies that are consistent with the empirical constraints. We have also studied the nuclear symmetry potential and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. We find that both the momentum dependence of the nuclear symmetry potential at fixed baryon density and the isospin splitting of the nucleon effective mass in neutron-rich nuclear matter depend not only on the nuclear interactions but also on the definition of the nucleon optical potential.

  11. The Asymmetric Nebula Surrounding the Extreme Red Supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Gehrz, Robert D.; Schuster, M. T.; Krautter, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 images plus ground-based infrared images and photometry of the very luminous OH/IR star VY Canis Majoris. Our WFPC2 data show a complex distribution of knots and filamentary arcs in the asymmetric reflection nebula around the obscured central star. The reflection arcs may result from multiple, asymmetric ejection episodes due to localized events on VY CMa's surface. Such events probably involve magnetic fields and convection, by analogy with solar activity. Surface photometry indicates that the star may have experienced enhanced mass loss over the past 1000 yr. We also demonstrate that the apparent asymmetry of the nebula results from a combination of high extinction and backscattering by dust grains. Thermal-infrared images reveal a more symmetric distribution, elongated along a nearly east-west direction. VY CMa probably has a flattened disklike distribution of dust with a northeast-southwest polar axis and may be experiencing activity analogous to solar prominences. The presence of an axis of symmetry raises interesting questions for a star the size of Saturn's orbit. Magnetic fields and surface activity may play an important role in VY CMa's mass-loss history. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. cDNA, deduced polypeptide structure and chromosomal assignment of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid, SPL(pVal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.; Clark, J.C.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Meuth, J.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In hyaline membrane disease of premature infants, lack of surfactant leads to pulmonary atelectasis and respiratory distress. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins of M/sub r/ = 5000-14,000 have been isolated from mammalian surfactants which enhance the rate of spreading and the surface tension lowering properties of phospholipids during dynamic compression. The authors have characterized the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of pulmonary proteolipids from ether/ethanol extracts of bovine, canine, and human surfactant. Two distinct peptides were identified and termed SPL(pVal) and SPL(Phe). An oligonucleotide probe based on the valine-rich amino-terminal amino acid sequence of SPL(pVal) was utilized to isolate cDNA and genomic DNA encoding the human protein, termed surfactant proteolipid SPL(pVal) on the basis of its unique polyvaline domain. The primary structure of a precursor protein of 20,870 daltons, containing the SPL(pVal) peptide, was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs. Hybrid-arrested translation and immunoprecipitation of labeled translation products of human mRNA demonstrated a precursor protein, the active hydrophobic peptide being produced by proteolytic processing. Two classes of cDNAs encoding SPL(pVal) were identified. Human SPL(pVal) mRNA was more abundant in the adult than in fetal lung. The SPL(pVal) gene locus was assigned to chromosome 8

  14. Deducing the temporal order of cofactor function in ligand-regulated gene transcription: theory and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward J; Guo, Chunhua; Simons, S Stoney; Chow, Carson C

    2012-01-01

    Cofactors are intimately involved in steroid-regulated gene expression. Two critical questions are (1) the steps at which cofactors exert their biological activities and (2) the nature of that activity. Here we show that a new mathematical theory of steroid hormone action can be used to deduce the kinetic properties and reaction sequence position for the functioning of any two cofactors relative to a concentration limiting step (CLS) and to each other. The predictions of the theory, which can be applied using graphical methods similar to those of enzyme kinetics, are validated by obtaining internally consistent data for pair-wise analyses of three cofactors (TIF2, sSMRT, and NCoR) in U2OS cells. The analysis of TIF2 and sSMRT actions on GR-induction of an endogenous gene gave results identical to those with an exogenous reporter. Thus new tools to determine previously unobtainable information about the nature and position of cofactor action in any process displaying first-order Hill plot kinetics are now available.

  15. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for branched chain acyltransferase with analysis of the deduced protein structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, K.B.; Litwer, S.; Bradford, A.P.; Aitken, A.; Danner, D.J.; Yeaman, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence was determined for a 1.6-kilobase human cDNA putative for the branched chain acyltransferase protein of the branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Translation of the sequence reveals an open reading frame encoding a 315-amino acid protein of molecular weight 35,759 followed by 560 bases of 3'-untranslated sequence. Three repeats of the polyadenylation signal hexamer ATTAAA are present prior to the polyadenylate tail. Within the open reading frame is a 10-amino acid fragment which matches exactly the amino acid sequence around the lipoate-lysine residue in bovine kidney branched chain acyltransferase, thus confirming the identity of the cDNA. Analysis of the deduced protein structure for the human branched chain acyltransferase revealed an organization into domains similar to that reported for the acyltransferase proteins of the pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. This similarity in organization suggests that a more detailed analysis of the proteins will be required to explain the individual substrate and multienzyme complex specificity shown by these acyltransferases

  16. Energy of vanishing flow in heavy-ion collisions: Role of mass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We aim to understand the role of Coulomb interactions as well as different equations of state on the disappearance of transverse flow for various asymmetric reactions leading to the same total mass. For the present study, the total mass of the system is kept constant (A_{\\text{TOT}} = 152) and mass asymmetry of the reaction ...

  17. Effective mass approximation for tunneling states with dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong; Wu Xiang.

    1987-08-01

    The dissipative tunneling in an asymmetric double-well potential is studied at low temperature. With effective mass approximation, the dissipation can be replaced by a temperature-dependent effective mass. The effective mass increases with decreasing temperature and becomes infinite at T=0. The partition function of the system is derived, which has the same form as that of a non-dissipative tunneling system. Some possible applications in glasses and heavy fermion system are also discussed. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  18. Oscillating asymmetric sneutrino dark matter from the maximally U(1L supersymmetric inverse seesaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Long Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The inverse seesaw mechanism provides an attractive approach to generate small neutrino mass, which origins from a tiny U(1L breaking. In this paper, we work in the supersymmetric version of this mechanism, where the singlet-like sneutrino could be an asymmetric dark matter (ADM candidate in the maximally U(1L symmetric limit. However, even a tiny δm, the mass splitting between sneutrino and anti-sneutrino as a result of the tiny U(1L breaking effect, could lead to fast oscillation between sneutrino and anti-sneutrino and thus spoils the ADM scenario. We study the evolution of this oscillation and find that a weak scale sneutrino, which tolerates a relatively larger δm∼10−5 eV, is strongly favored. We also investigate possible natural ways to realize that small δm in the model.

  19. Multi-resonant wideband energy harvester based on a folded asymmetric M-shaped cantilever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng; Mao, Haiyang; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Ruiwen; Ming, Anjie [Key laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Ou, Yi; Ou, Wen [Key laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Smart Sensor Engineering Center, Jiangsu R& D Center for Internet of Things, Wuxi 214315 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This article reports a compact wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester consisting of three proof masses and an asymmetric M-shaped cantilever. The M-shaped beam comprises a main beam and two folded and dimension varied auxiliary beams interconnected through the proof mass at the end of the main cantilever. Such an arrangement constitutes a three degree-of-freedom vibrating body, which can tune the resonant frequencies of its first three orders close enough to obtain a utility wide bandwidth. The finite element simulation results and the experimental results are well matched. The operation bandwidth comprises three adjacent voltage peaks on account of the frequency interval shortening mechanism. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester could be efficient and adaptive in practical vibration circumstance based on multiple resonant modes.

  20. Multi-resonant wideband energy harvester based on a folded asymmetric M-shaped cantilever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Meng; Mao, Haiyang; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Ruiwen; Ming, Anjie; Ou, Yi; Ou, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a compact wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester consisting of three proof masses and an asymmetric M-shaped cantilever. The M-shaped beam comprises a main beam and two folded and dimension varied auxiliary beams interconnected through the proof mass at the end of the main cantilever. Such an arrangement constitutes a three degree-of-freedom vibrating body, which can tune the resonant frequencies of its first three orders close enough to obtain a utility wide bandwidth. The finite element simulation results and the experimental results are well matched. The operation bandwidth comprises three adjacent voltage peaks on account of the frequency interval shortening mechanism. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric energy harvester could be efficient and adaptive in practical vibration circumstance based on multiple resonant modes

  1. Parallel coupling of symmetric and asymmetric exclusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekouras, K; Kolomeisky, A B

    2008-01-01

    A system consisting of two parallel coupled channels where particles in one of them follow the rules of totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEP) and in another one move as in symmetric simple exclusion processes (SSEP) is investigated theoretically. Particles interact with each other via hard-core exclusion potential, and in the asymmetric channel they can only hop in one direction, while on the symmetric lattice particles jump in both directions with equal probabilities. Inter-channel transitions are also allowed at every site of both lattices. Stationary state properties of the system are solved exactly in the limit of strong couplings between the channels. It is shown that strong symmetric couplings between totally asymmetric and symmetric channels lead to an effective partially asymmetric simple exclusion process (PASEP) and properties of both channels become almost identical. However, strong asymmetric couplings between symmetric and asymmetric channels yield an effective TASEP with nonzero particle flux in the asymmetric channel and zero flux on the symmetric lattice. For intermediate strength of couplings between the lattices a vertical-cluster mean-field method is developed. This approximate approach treats exactly particle dynamics during the vertical transitions between the channels and it neglects the correlations along the channels. Our calculations show that in all cases there are three stationary phases defined by particle dynamics at entrances, at exits or in the bulk of the system, while phase boundaries depend on the strength and symmetry of couplings between the channels. Extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations strongly support our theoretical predictions. Theoretical calculations and computer simulations predict that inter-channel couplings have a strong effect on stationary properties. It is also argued that our results might be relevant for understanding multi-particle dynamics of motor proteins

  2. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jaenike

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings between females of Drosophila subquinaria and males of D. recens result in high levels of offspring mortality, due to interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia infection of D. recens. Such hybrid inviability is not manifested in matings between D. recens females and D. subquinaria males. Here we ask whether the asymmetrical hybrid inviability is associated with a corresponding asymmetry in the level of reinforcement. The geographic ranges of D. recens and D. subquinaria were found to overlap across a broad belt of boreal forest in central Canada. Females of D. subquinaria from the zone of sympatry exhibit much stronger levels of discrimination against males of D. recens than do females from allopatric populations. In contrast, such reproductive character displacement is not evident in D. recens, consistent with the expected effects of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, there is substantial behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria, because females from populations sympatric with D. recens discriminate against allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from populations allopatric with D. recens show no discrimination against any conspecific males. Patterns of general genetic differentiation among populations are not consistent with patterns of behavioral discrimination, which suggests that the behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria results from selection against mating with Wolbachia-infected D. recens. Interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility may contribute not only to post-mating isolation, an effect already widely recognized, but also to

  3. The neutron star mass distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiziltan, Bülent [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thorsett, Stephen E., E-mail: bkiziltan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California and UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M {sub ☉} and 1.55 M {sub ☉}, suggesting significant mass accretion (Δm ≈ 0.22 M {sub ☉}) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ∼2.1 M {sub ☉} for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M {sub ☉} limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  4. Utilization of metabonomics to identify serum biomarkers in murine H22 hepatocarcinoma and deduce antitumor mechanism of Rhizoma Paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Yang, He; Fan, Wei; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-25

    Murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model is so popular to be used for the preclinical anticancer candidate's evaluation. However, the metabolic biomarkers of this model were not identified. Meanwhile, Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) as natural products have been found to show strong antitumor activity, while its anti-cancer mechanism is not clear. To search for potential metabolite biomarkers of this model, serum metabonomics approach was applied to detect the variation of metabolite biomarkers and the related metabolism genes and signaling pathway were used to deduce the antitumor mechanisms of RPS. As a result, ten serum metabolites were identified in twenty-four mice including healthy mice, non-treated cancer mice, RPS-treated cancer mice and RPS-treated healthy mice. RPS significantly decreased tumor weight correlates to down-regulating lactate, acetate, N-acetyl amino acid and glutamine signals (p < 0.05), which were marked metabolites screened according to the very important person (VIP), loading plot and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) tests. For the analysis of metabolic enzyme related genes, RPS reversed the aerobic glycolysis through activating tumor suppressor p53 and PTEN, and suppressed FASN to inhibit lipogenesis. What's more, RPS repressed Myc and GLS expression and decreased glutamine level. The regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and HIF-1α/Myc/Ras networks also participated in these metabolic changes. Taken together, RPS suppressed ATP product made the tumor growth slow, which indicated a good anti-cancer effect and new angle for understanding the mechanism of RPS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the utility of (1)H NMR metabolic profiles taken together with tumor weight and viscera index was a promising screening tool for evaluating the antitumor effect of candidates. In addition, RPS was a potent anticancer agent through inhibiting cancer cellular metabolism to suppress proliferation in hepatoma H22 tumor murine, which promoted the

  5. Deducing hybrid performance from parental metabolic profiles of young primary roots of maize by using a multivariate diallel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Feher

    Full Text Available Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL. Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass, but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles. Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids.

  6. Exospheric Neutral Density at the Earth's subsolar magnetopause deduced from the XMM-Newton X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H. K.; Carter, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Soft X-rays can be emitted when highly charged solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals exchange electrons. Astrophysics missions, such as XMM-Newton and ROSAT X-ray telescopes, have found that such solar wind charge exchange happens at the Earth's exosphere. The Earth's magnetosphere can be imaged via soft X-rays in order to understand its interaction with solar wind. Consequently, two soft X-ray telescope missions (CuPID and SMILE) are scheduled to launch in 2019 and 2021. They will provide wide field-of-view soft X-ray images of the Earth's dayside magnetosphere. The imagers will track the location and movement of the cusps, magnetopause, and bow shock in response to solar wind variations. To support these missions, an understanding of exospheric neutral density profile is needed. The neutral density is one of the controlling factors of soft X-ray signals. Strong neutral density can help to obtain high-resolution and high-cadence of soft X-ray images. In this study, we estimate the exospheric neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point using XMM X-ray observations, Cluster plasma observations, and OpenGGCM global magnetosphere - ionosphere MHD model. XMM-Newton observes line-of-sight, narrow field-of-view, integrated soft X-ray emissions when it looks through the dayside magnetosphere. OpenGGCM reproduces soft X-ray signals seen by the XMM spacecraft, assuming exospheric neutral density as a function of the neutral density at the 10RE subsolar point and the radial distance. Cluster observations are used to confirm OpenGGCM plasma results. Finally, we deduce the neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point by adjusting the model results to the XMM-Newton soft X-ray observations.

  7. Performance of JPEG Image Transmission Using Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi Mohammad Umar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of a simulation study on the performance of JPEG image transmission over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels using typical and proposed asymmetric turbo codes for error control coding. The baseline JPEG algorithm is used to compress a QCIF ( "Suzie" image. The recursive systematic convolutional (RSC encoder with generator polynomials , that is, (13/11 in decimal, and 3G interleaver are used for the typical WCDMA and CDMA2000 turbo codes. The proposed asymmetric turbo code uses generator polynomials , that is, (13/11; 13/9 in decimal, and a code-matched interleaver. The effect of interleaver in the proposed asymmetric turbo code is studied using weight distribution and simulation. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code for the frame length , code rate with Log-MAP decoder over AWGN channel are compared with the typical system. From the simulation results, it is observed that the image transmission using proposed asymmetric turbo code performs better than that with the typical system.

  8. Success Factors of Asymmetric Connections - Example of Large Slovenian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Vračar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available More and more companies realize the fact that networking or partner collaborations, which are based on partner relations between companies, are essential for their long-term existence. In today’s global competitive environment each company is included at least in some different connections. Very common connections occur between large and smaller enterprises, where the so called asymmetric connections occur, which may be understood as the ability of one organisation to establish power, influence and control over the other organisation and its resources. According to numerous statements, the connections between enterprises are very frequently uneffectivenessful, with opinions on the optimal nature of asymmetric connections being quite common as well, whereby it is, as a rule, a synergic complementing of missing content for both partners. To verify the thesis, that companies achieve more competitiveness and effectiveness through connections, whereby the so called asymmetric connections are common, a structural model of the evolution of asymmetric connection has been developed, which connects the theoretically identified factors and all dependent concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and effectiveness. The empirical research also attempts to further expose the factors of asymmetric connections, which affect efficiency and effectiveness of the connected enterprises.

  9. Time-Dependent-Asymmetric-Linear-Parsimonious Ancestral State Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Gilles

    2017-10-01

    The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is an ancestral state reconstruction method which extends the standard linear parsimony (a.k.a. Wagner parsimony) approach by taking into account both branch lengths and asymmetric evolutionary costs for reconstructing quantitative characters (asymmetric costs amount to assuming an evolutionary trend toward the direction with the lowest cost). A formal study of the influence of the asymmetry parameter shows that the time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony infers states which are all taken among the known states, except for some degenerate cases corresponding to special values of the asymmetry parameter. This remarkable property holds in particular for the Wagner parsimony. This study leads to a polynomial algorithm which determines, and provides a compact representation of, the parametric reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree, that is for all the unknown nodes, the set of all the possible reconstructed states associated with the asymmetry parameters leading to them. The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is finally illustrated with the parametric reconstruction of the body size of cetaceans.

  10. Deeply bound π- states in 207Pb formed in the 208Pb(d,3He) reaction. II. Deduced binding energies and widths and the pion-nucleus interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, K.; Oyama, K.; Hayano, R. S.; Gilg, H.; Gillitzer, A.; Knülle, M.; Münch, M.; Schott, W.; Kienle, P.; Geissel, H.; Iwasa, N.; Münzenberg, G.; Hirenzaki, S.; Toki, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    2000-08-01

    We find a remarkable agreement of the excitation energy spectrum of the 208Pb(d,3He) reaction measured at Td=600 MeV near the π- production threshold with its theoretical prediction. Their comparison leads us to assign the distinct narrow peak observed at about 5 MeV below the threshold to the formation of bound pionic states π-⊗207Pb of the quasisubstitutional configurations (2p)π-(3p3/2,3p1/2)-1n. A small bump observed on the tail of the peak is assigned to the pionic 1s state. The binding energies (Bnl) and the widths (Γnl) of the pionic orbitals are deduced to be B2p=5.13+/-0.02 (stat)+/-0.12 (syst) MeV and Γ2p=0.43+/-0.06 (stat)+/-0.06 (syst) MeV by decomposing the experimental spectrum into the pionic 1s and 2p components. While B2p and Γ2p are determined with small ambiguity, B1s and Γ1s are strongly correlated with each other, and are affected by the relative 1s/2p cross section ratio assumed, since the 1s component is observed only as an unresolved bump. Thus, we have to allow large uncertainties 6.6 MeVdeduce the effective π- mass in the nuclear medium.

  11. Behaviour of tetraalkylammonium ions in high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Kapron, James T

    2010-05-30

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an ion-filtering technique recently adapted for use with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to remove interferences during analysis of complex matrices. This is the first systematic study of a series of singly charged tetraalkylammonium ions by FAIMS-MS. The compensation voltage (CV) is the DC offset of the waveform which permits the ion to emerge from FAIMS and it was determined for each member of the series under various conditions. The electrospray ionization conditions explored included spray voltage, vaporizer temperature, and sheath and auxiliary gas pressure. The FAIMS conditions explored included carrier gas flow rate, electrode temperature and composition of the carrier gas. Optimum desolvation was achieved using sufficient carrier gas (flow rate > or = 2 L/min) to ensure stable response. Low-mass ions (m/z 100-200) are more susceptible to changes in electrode temperature and gas composition than high mass ions (m/z 200-700). As a result of this study, ions are reliably analyzed using standard FAIMS conditions (dispersion voltage -5000 V, carrier gas flow rate 3 L/min, 50% helium/50%nitrogen, inner electrode temperature 70 degrees C and outer electrode temperature 90 degrees C). Variation of FAIMS conditions may be of great use for the separation of very low mass tetraalkylammonium (TAA) ions from other TAA ions. The FAIMS conditions do not appear to have a major effect on higher mass ions. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. On the Mass Distribution of Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, Sidney; Clauset, Aaron; Schwab, David

    2009-03-01

    We develop a simple diffusion-reaction model to account for the broad and asymmetric distribution of adult body masses for species within related taxonomic groups. The model assumes three basic evolutionary features that control body mass: (i) a fixed lower limit that is set by metabolic constraints, (ii) a species extinction risk that is a weakly increasing function of body mass, and (iii) cladogenetic diffusion, in which daughter species have a slight tendency toward larger mass. The steady-state solution for the distribution of species masses in this model can be expressed in terms of the Airy function. This solution gives mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal species from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species.

  13. Asymmetric intermixing in Co/Ti bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suele, P.; Kotis, L.; Toth, L.; Menyhard, M.; Egelhoff, W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Recently we have studied the ion mixing of mass-anisotropic bilayer and found strong asymmetry depending on the succession of the layers [P. Suele, M. Menyhard, L. Kotis, J. Labar, W.F. Egelhoff Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 101 (2007) 043502]. The finding was explained by the mass difference of the constituents. To check the validity of explanation we studied the interface broadening of Co/Ti and Ti/Co bilayers due to low-energy ion bombardment. We have applied Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling and molecular dynamics simulation to determine the intermixing. Since the Co/Ti system is nearly mass isotropic the ballistic intermixing mechanism can be ruled out and no asymmetry is expected. In contrary to the expectation both methods showed asymmetry of intermixing at bombardment of 2 keV ion energy. The asymmetry vanishes progressively with decreasing ion energy. We suggest that atomic size-anisotropy could play some role in the enhancement of interdiffusion of Co in Ti

  14. Gravity-induced asymmetric distribution of a plant growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Momonoki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Dolk (1936) demonstrated that gravistimulation induced an asymmetric distribution of auxin in a horizontally-placed shoot. An attempt is made to determine where and how that asymmetry arises, and to demonstrate that the endogenous auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, becomes asymmetrically distributed in the cortical cells of the Zea mays mesocotyl during 3 min of geostimulation. Further, indole-3-acetic acid derived by hydrolysis of an applied transport form of the hormone, indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, becomes asymmetrically distributed within 15 min of geostimulus time. From these and prior data is developed a working theory that the gravitational stimulus induces a selective leakage, or secretion, of the hormone from the vascular tissue to the cortical cells of the mesocotyl.

  15. Best Speed Fit EDF Scheduling for Performance Asymmetric Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of a real-time system, asymmetric multiprocessors have been proposed. The benefits of improved system performance and reduced power consumption from such architectures cannot be fully exploited unless suitable task scheduling and task allocation approaches are implemented at the operating system level. Unfortunately, most of the previous research on scheduling algorithms for performance asymmetric multiprocessors is focused on task priority assignment. They simply assign the highest priority task to the fastest processor. In this paper, we propose BSF-EDF (best speed fit for earliest deadline first for performance asymmetric multiprocessor scheduling. This approach chooses a suitable processor rather than the fastest one, when allocating tasks. With this proposed BSF-EDF scheduling, we also derive an effective schedulability test.

  16. Lower Bounds in the Asymmetric External Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the asymmetric read and write costs of emerging non-volatile memory technologies, we study lower bounds for the problems of sorting, permuting and multiplying a sparse matrix by a dense vector in the asymmetric external memory model (AEM). Given an AEM with internal (symmetric) memory...... of size M, transfers between symmetric and asymmetric memory in blocks of size B and the ratio ω between write and read costs, we show Ω(min (N, ωN/B logω M/B N/B) lower bound for the cost of permuting N input elements. This lower bound also applies to the problem of sorting N elements. This proves...

  17. Electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric terahertz metamaterials with triangle microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Yanping; Qian, Yunan; Lin, Xingyue; Tang, Yunhai; Cheng, Xinli; Qin, Changfa; Shen, Jiaoyan; Zang, Taocheng; Ma, Chunlan

    2018-05-01

    We investigate terahertz transmission properties and electromagnetic resonance modes in the asymmetric triangle structures with the change of asymmetric distance and the direction of electric field. When the THz electric field is perpendicular to the split gap of triangle, the electric field can better excite the THz absorption in the triangle structures. Importantly, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) characteristics are observed in the triangle structures due to the destructive interference of the different excited modes. The distributions of electric field and surface current density simulated by finite difference time domain indicate that the bright mode is excited by the side of triangle structures and dark mode is excited by the gap-side of triangle. The present study is helpful to understand the electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric triangular metamaterials.

  18. Tourist Demand Reactions: Symmetric or Asymmetric across the Business Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Fred; de Hoog, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Economizing and spending priorities on different types of vacations are investigated during two periods: an economic downturn and returning prosperity. Two nation-wide samples of vacationers are used: one during a downturn, the other one at the start of the recovery period. Through comparing the results, conclusions can be drawn about symmetric or asymmetric tourist demand across the business cycle. The main summer holiday has an asymmetric profile: being fairly crisis-resistant during a recession and showing considerable growth during an expansion. This does not apply to short vacations and day trips, each having a symmetric profile: during a recession they experience substantial reductions and during expansion comparable growth. So when talking about tourist demand in general , one cannot say that it is symmetric or asymmetric across the business cycle: it depends on the type of vacation. Differences in tourist demand are best explained by the role of Quality-of-Life for vacationers.

  19. Two-channel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronina, Ekaterina; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2004-01-01

    Totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes, consisting of two coupled parallel lattice chains with particles interacting with hard-core exclusion and moving along the channels and between them, are considered. In the limit of strong coupling between the channels, the particle currents, density profiles and a phase diagram are calculated exactly by mapping the system into an effective one-channel totally asymmetric exclusion model. For intermediate couplings, a simple approximate theory, that describes the particle dynamics in vertical clusters of two corresponding parallel sites exactly and neglects the correlations between different vertical clusters, is developed. It is found that, similarly to the case of one-channel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes, there are three stationary state phases, although the phase boundaries and stationary properties strongly depend on inter-channel coupling. Extensive computer Monte Carlo simulations fully support the theoretical predictions

  20. Controllable asymmetric transmission via gap-tunable acoustic metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingyi; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we utilize the acoustic gradient metasurface (AGM) of a bilayer configuration to realize the controllable asymmetric transmission. Relying on the adjustable gap between the two composing layers, the metasurface could switch from symmetric transmission to asymmetric transmission at a certain gap value. The underlying mechanism is attributed to the interference between the forward diffracted waves scattered by the surface bound waves at two air-AGM interfaces, which is apparently influenced by the interlayer distance. We further utilize the hybrid acoustic elements to construct the desired gradient metasurface with a tunable gap and validate the controllable asymmetric transmission with full-wave simulations. Our work provides the solution for actively controlling the transmission property of an acoustic element, which shows potential application in acoustic communication as a dynamic tunable acoustic diode.

  1. Asymmetric adsorption of alanine by quartz powder from ethanol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Shozo; Sawada, Michio; Hachiya, Kinji; Morimoto, Tetsuo (Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1982-11-01

    The asymmetric adsorption of the racemic alanine by the optically active quartz from ethanol solution at 8/sup 0/C was studied by the /sup 14/C-tracer method and the newly developed /sup 14/C-tracer ninhydrin-colorimetry combination method. The preferential adsorption of L-alanine by levorotatory quartz (l-quartz) and D-alanine by dextrorotatory quartz (d-quartz) was confirmed. The asymmetric adsorptivity (Asub(s)) falls in the range of 1.1 - 1.3, which is comparable with the value determined at - 80/sup 0/C in the previous paper. The effects of water content in the ethanol solution and of the adsorption temperature upon the adsorption affinity of alanine to quartz were also measured. The cause for the asymmetric adsorption is discussed from the crystallographic point of view.

  2. Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Mikołaj; Salmonowicz, Hanna; Brown, Rachel; Turkowska, Joanna; Średniawa, Władysław; Pattabiraman, Sundararaghavan; Amen, Triana; Abraham, Ayelet-chen; Eichler, Noam; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Kaganovich, Daniel

    2014-06-03

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of several types of damage: in particular, damage to the proteome. Recent work points to a conserved replicative rejuvenation mechanism that works by preventing the inheritance of damaged and misfolded proteins by specific cells during division. Asymmetric inheritance of misfolded and aggregated proteins has been shown in bacteria and yeast, but relatively little evidence exists for a similar mechanism in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate, using long-term 4D imaging, that the vimentin intermediate filament establishes mitotic polarity in mammalian cell lines and mediates the asymmetric partitioning of damaged proteins. We show that mammalian JUNQ inclusion bodies containing soluble misfolded proteins are inherited asymmetrically, similarly to JUNQ quality-control inclusions observed in yeast. Mammalian IPOD-like inclusion bodies, meanwhile, are not always inherited by the same cell as the JUNQ. Our study suggests that the mammalian cytoskeleton and intermediate filaments provide the physical scaffold for asymmetric inheritance of dynamic quality-control JUNQ inclusions. Mammalian IPOD inclusions containing amyloidogenic proteins are not partitioned as effectively during mitosis as their counterparts in yeast. These findings provide a valuable mechanistic basis for studying the process of asymmetric inheritance in mammalian cells, including cells potentially undergoing polar divisions, such as differentiating stem cells and cancer cells.

  3. The rationality of EIA forecasts under symmetric and asymmetric loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2007-01-01

    The United States Energy Information Administration publishes annual forecasts of nationally aggregated energy consumption, production, prices, intensity and GDP. These government issued forecasts often serve as reference cases in the calibration of simulation and econometric models, which climate and energy policy are based on. This study tests for rationality of published EIA forecasts under symmetric and asymmetric loss. We find strong empirical evidence of asymmetric loss for oil, coal and electricity prices as well as natural gas consumption, electricity sales, GDP and energy intensity. (author)

  4. Data analysis of asymmetric structures advanced approaches in computational statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    Data Analysis of Asymmetric Structures provides a comprehensive presentation of a variety of models and theories for the analysis of asymmetry and its applications and provides a wealth of new approaches in every section. It meets both the practical and theoretical needs of research professionals across a wide range of disciplines and  considers data analysis in fields such as psychology, sociology, social science, ecology, and marketing. In seven comprehensive chapters this guide details theories, methods, and models for the analysis of asymmetric structures in a variety of disciplines and presents future opportunities and challenges affecting research developments and business applications.

  5. Current drive by asymmetrical heating in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahl, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the first experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions. A unidirectional fast Alfven wave launched by a slow-wave antenna inside the Texas Tech Tokamak, asymmetrically heated the ions. Measurements of the asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current with probes at the top and bottom of the toroidal plasma column confirmed the current generation indirectly. Current generation, obtained in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, is a phenomenon which had not been predicted previously. Calculations of the dispersion relation for the fast Alfven wave near the fundamental cyclotron resonance in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, using warm plasma theory, support the experimental results

  6. Climate agreements under limited participation, asymmetric information and market imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagem, Cathrine

    1996-12-31

    This thesis relates to climate agreements and cost efficiency by analysing the formation of a system of quota leading to distributed discharge of emissions between countries. Main fields concerned are the greenhouse effect, the political process, efficient and cost-effective climate agreements, and climate agreements under limited participation, asymmetric information and market imperfections covering fields like limited participation in climate agreements, limited participation and indirect impact on non-participating countries` emissions, limited participation and direct impact on non-participating countries` emissions under asymmetric information, and non-competitive market for tradeable quotas. 166 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Experimental research on photovoltaic module for asymmetrical compound parabolic concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jinshe; Wang, Mingyue [Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing (China). Department of Physics; Yang, Changmin [Xian University of Technology, Xian (China). Department of Applied Physics

    2008-07-01

    The photovoltaic module for the use of fixed asymmetrical CPC concentrator was designed and fabricated based on the performance of polycrystalline-silicon solar cells with back surface field (BSF) structure. The performance of the combination of the module and asymmetrical CPC concentrator was investigated. The results show its effective concentration ratio to be 2.46 and the output power of the PV-a-CPC system to be increased by 2.13 times compared with that of the module approximately. (orig.)

  8. Asymptotic behavior of observables in the asymmetric quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, J.; Kollar, M.

    2018-01-01

    The asymmetric quantum Rabi model with broken parity invariance shows spectral degeneracies in the integer case, that is when the asymmetry parameter equals an integer multiple of half the oscillator frequency, thus hinting at a hidden symmetry and accompanying integrability of the model. We study the expectation values of spin observables for each eigenstate and observe characteristic differences between the integer and noninteger cases for the asymptotics in the deep strong coupling regime, which can be understood from a perturbative expansion in the qubit splitting. We also construct a parent Hamiltonian whose exact eigenstates possess the same symmetries as the perturbative eigenstates of the asymmetric quantum Rabi model in the integer case.

  9. Testing for asymmetric pricing in the Canadian retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godby, R.; Lintner, A.M.; Stengos, T.; Wandschneider, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies a Threshold Regression model to test for asymmetric pricing in the retail gasoline market in Canada, using weekly data for the period January 1990 to December 1996. We present results for 13 Canadian cities for both premium and regular gasoline. Within the context of an error correction model we test for the presence of asymmetric price behaviour using average changes in crude prices as well as various lags for the change in crude as possible thresholds. We are unable to find any evidence to support this view. 23 refs

  10. Decoding Pure Rotational Molecular Spectra for Asymmetric Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cooke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotational spectroscopy can provide insights of unparalleled precision with respect to the wavefunctions of molecular systems that have relevance in fields as diverse as astronomy and biology. In this paper, we demonstrate how asymmetric molecular pure rotational spectra may be analyzed “pictorially” and with simple formulae. It is shown that the interpretation of such spectra relies heavily upon pattern recognition. The presentation of some common spectral line positions in near-prolate asymmetric rotational spectra provides a means by which spectral assignment, and approximate rotational constant determination, may be usefully explored. To aid in this endeavor we have created a supporting, free, web page and mobile web page.

  11. Ideal MHD beta-limits of poloidally asymmetric equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M.; Miller, A.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Okabayashi, M.; Dalhed, H.E. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The ideal MHD stability of poloidally asymmetric equilibria, which are typical of a tokamak reactor design with a single-null poloidal divertor is examined. As with symmetric equilibria, stability to non-axisymmetric modes improves with increasing triangularity and ellipticity, and with lower edge safety factor. Pressure profiles optimized with respect to ballooning stability are obtained for an asymmetric shape, resulting in ..beta../sub critical/ approx. = 5.7%. The corresponding value for an equivalent symmetric shape is ..beta../sub critical/ approx. = 6.5%.

  12. Axisymmetric stability of vertically asymmetric tokamaks at large beta poloidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Fishman, H.; Okabayashi, M.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of high-β vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria to rigid displacements is investigated analytically. It is found that vertical stability at large beta poloidal is mainly determined by a coupling between the shape of the plasma surface and the Shafranov shift of the magnetic axis. To the lowest order, symmetric components of the plasma surface shape are found to be the critical destabilizing elements. Asymmetric components have little effect. The inclusion of higher order terms in the high β tokamak expansion leads to further destabilization. Qualitative agreement between these analytic results and numerical stability calculations using the PEST code is demonstrated

  13. Ideal MHD beta-limits of poloidally asymmetric equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, A.M.M.; Miller, A.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Okabayashi, M.; Dalhed, H.E. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The ideal MHD stability of poloidally asymmetric equilibria, which are typical of a tokamak reactor design with a single-null poloidal divertor is examined. As with symmetric equilibria, stability to non-axisymmetric modes improves with increasing triangularity and ellipticity, and with lower edge safety factor. Pressure profiles optimized with respect to ballooning stability are obtained for an asymmetric shape, resulting in β/sub critical/ approx. = 5.7%. The corresponding value for an equivalent symmetric shape is β/sub critical/ approx. = 6.5%

  14. Electron Raman scattering in asymmetrical multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Riera, R; Rosas, R; Marin-Enriquez, I; Riera, R; Marin, J L

    2005-01-01

    Optical properties of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells for the construction of quantum cascade lasers are calculated, and expressions for the electronic states of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells are presented. The gain and differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process are obtained. Also, the emission spectra for several scattering configurations are discussed, and the corresponding selection rules for the processes involved are studied; an interpretation of the singularities found in the spectra is given. The electron Raman scattering studied here can be used to provide direct information about the efficiency of the lasers

  15. Six transformer based asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Poh Chiang, Loh; Chi, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Embedded/Asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters were proposed to maintain smooth input current/voltage across the dc source and within the impedance network, remain the shoot-through feature used to boost up the dc-link voltage without adding bulky filter at input side. This paper introduces a ...... a class of transformer based asymmetrical embedded Z-source inverters which keep the smooth input current and voltage while achieving enhanced voltage boost capability. The presented inverters are verified by laboratory prototypes experimentally....

  16. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-01-05

    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  17. The rationality of EIA forecasts under symmetric and asymmetric loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, 207 Giannini Hall 3310, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The United States Energy Information Administration publishes annual forecasts of nationally aggregated energy consumption, production, prices, intensity and GDP. These government issued forecasts often serve as reference cases in the calibration of simulation and econometric models, which climate and energy policy are based on. This study tests for rationality of published EIA forecasts under symmetric and asymmetric loss. We find strong empirical evidence of asymmetric loss for oil, coal and electricity prices as well as natural gas consumption, electricity sales, GDP and energy intensity. (author)

  18. An optical tweezer in asymmetrical vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotlyar, V. V.; Kovalev, A. A., E-mail: alexeysmr@mail.ru; Porfirev, A. P. [Image Processing Systems Institute, 151 Molodogvardeiskaya St., 443001 Samara (Russian Federation); Department of Technical cybernetics, Samara State Aerospace University, Samara 443086 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-14

    We study an optical micromanipulation that comprises trapping, rotating, and transporting 5-μm polystyrene microbeads in asymmetric Bessel-Gaussian (BG) laser beams. The beams that carry orbital angular momentum are generated by means of a liquid crystal microdisplay and focused by a microobjective with a numerical aperture of NA = 0.85. We experimentally show that given a constant topological charge, the rate of microparticle motion increases near linearly with increasing asymmetry of the BG beam. Asymmetric BG beams can be used instead of conventional Gaussian beam for trapping and transferring live cells without thermal damage.

  19. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Controller (MPC) developed is based on a model with individual blade pitching to utilize the LIDAR measurements. The MPC must also maintain a given power reference while satisfying a set of actuator constraints. The designed controller was tested on a 5 MW wind turbine in the FAST simulator and compared......Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...

  20. Dicer is dispensable for asymmetric RISC loading in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Juan G; Tomari, Yukihide

    2012-01-01

    In flies, asymmetric loading of small RNA duplexes into Argonaute2-containing RNA-induced silencing complex (Ago2-RISC) requires Dicer-2/R2D2 heterodimer, which acts as a protein sensor for the thermodynamic stabilities of the ends of small RNA duplexes. However, the mechanism of small RNA asymmetry sensing in mammalian RISC assembly remains obscure. Here, we quantitatively examined RISC assembly and target silencing activity in the presence or absence of Dicer in mammals. Our data show that, unlike the well-characterized fly Ago2-RISC assembly pathway, mammalian Dicer is dispensable for asymmetric RISC loading in vivo and in vitro.

  1. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...... formation on galactic scales. A `dark baryon' of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particles can solve the `solar composition problem'. The predicted small decrease in the low energy neutrino...

  2. Fission mass yields of excited medium heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Depta, K.; Herrmann, R.; Greiner, W.; Scheid, W.

    1985-01-01

    The mass distributions resulting from the fission of excited medium mass nuclei are discussed on the basis of the fragmentation theory. It is shown that very asymmetric fission events can be expected with rates which are only a few orders of magnitude smaller than the rates for symmetric fission. As an example a calculation of the fission mass distribution of the excited 172 Yb compound nucleus is presented. This mass distribution reveals observable structures over the entire range of the mass asymmetry due to valleys in the potential energy surface for fission fragments with closed proton and neutron shells

  3. Novel asymmetrical pyrene derivatives as light emitting materials: Synthesis and photophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Wang Dong; Wang Lei; Li Zhengqiang; Cui Qing; Zhang Haiquan; Yang Huai

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel substituted pyrene derivatives with asymmetrical groups have been successfully synthesized in excellent yield. Structures of the asymmetrical compound were fully characterized by 1 H-NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By introducing ethynyl functions to pyrene, we obtained highly efficient blue and green light emitting materials. It has been demonstrated that the emission characteristics of pyrene derivatives have been bathochromatically tuned in the visible region by extending the π-conjugation. The photophysical properties of these compounds were carefully examined in different organic solvents and different concentrations. The electrochemical properties and geometrical electronic structures of the new pyrene derivatives have been investigated by cyclic voltammograms and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. - Highlights: ► It is the first research about asymmetrial pyrene derivatives as highly efficient light emitting materials. ► The solvatochromism and concentration effect of the new compounds have been discussed. ► Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and geometrical electronic structures were also investigated in this paper.

  4. CFD simulation of a four-loop PWR at asymmetric operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jian-Ping; Yan, Li-Ming; Li, Feng-Chen, E-mail: lifch@hit.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • A CFD numerical simulation procedure was established for simulating RPV of VVER-1000. • The established CFD approach was validated by comparing with available data. • Thermal hydraulic characteristics under asymmetric operation condition were investigated. • Apparent influences of the shutdown loop on its neighboring loops were obtained. - Abstract: The pressurized water reactor (PWR) with multiple loops may have abnormal working conditions with coolant pumps out of running in some loops. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical study of the four-loop VVER-1000 PWR pressure vessel model was presented. Numerical simulations of the thermohydrodynamic characteristics in the pressure vessel were carried out at different inlet conditions with four and three loops running, respectively. At normal stead-state condition (four-loop running), different parameters were obtained for the full fluid domain, including pressure losses across different parts, pressure, velocity and temperature distributions in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and mass flow distribution of the coolant at the inlet of reactor core. The obtained results for pressure losses matched with the experimental reference values of the VVER-1000 PWR at Tianwan nuclear power plant (NPP). For most fuel assemblies (FAs), the inlet flow rates presented a symmetrical distribution about the center under full-loop operation conditions, which accorded with the practical distribution. These results indicate that it is now possible to study the dynamic transition process between different asymmetric operation conditions in a multi-loop PWR using the established CFD method.

  5. Neutron optical potentials in unstable nuclei and the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamatsu, K.; Iida, K.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron single particle potential is one of the basic macroscopic properties to describe structure and reactions of nuclei in nuclear reactors and in the universe. However, the potential is quite uncertain for unstable nuclei primarily because the equation of state (EOS) of asymmetric nuclear matter is not known well. The present authors studied systematically the empirical EOS of asymmetric nuclear matter using a macroscopic nuclear model; about two hundred EOS's having empirically allowed values of L (symmetry energy density derivative coefficient) and K 0 (incompressibility) were obtained from the fittings to masses and radii of stable nuclei. It was suggested that the L value could be determined from global (Z, A) dependence of nuclear radii. In the present study, the single particle potential is examined assuming kinetic energies of non-interacting Fermi gases. The potential in a nucleus can be calculated easily, once the density distribution is solved using the effective nuclear interaction (EOS). Neutron and proton single particle potentials are calculated systematically for 80 Ni using the two hundred EOS's. It is found that the neutron-proton potential difference has clear and appreciable L dependence, while the potential for each species does not show such simple dependence on L. (author)

  6. Anisotropic light emission of single CdSe/CdS tetrapods due to asymmetric electron localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, Thomas; Mauser, Christian; Como, Enrico da; Rogach, Andrey; Feldmann, Jochen [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Talapin, Dmitri V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-07-01

    We have recently reported on highly luminescent CdSe/CdS tetrapod heterostructures, where wurtzite CdS arms were grown on CdSe zinc-blend nuclei. Due to the peculiar energy band alignment the holes remain trapped in the CdSe core, whereas electrons in ideal tetrapods are expected to delocalize symmetrically into the four CdS arms. However, polarization dependent photoluminescence experiments on single tetrapods show asymmetric localization effects for electrons. Whereas in optical excitation nearly no polarization anisotropy is observed, high polarization degrees are present in the emission process. Calculations based on the effective mass approximation show that the electron wavefunction confinement is very sensitive to changes in the shape of the tetrapods. Breaking the symmetry by increasing the thickness of one arm gives rise to a strongly asymmetric localization of the electron and leads to high polarization degrees in emission. The related decrease in electron-hole wavefunction overlap results in a correlation between emission intensity and polarization anisotropy in agreement with our experimental findings.

  7. Calibration of nozzle for air mass flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jan; Kanta, Lukáš

    2017-09-01

    The effort to make calibration measurement of mass flow through a nozzle was not satisfying. Traversing across the pipe radius with Pitot probe was done. The presence of overshoot behind the bend in the pipe was found. The overshoot led to an asymmetric velocity profile.

  8. A maximally particle-hole asymmetric spectrum emanating from a semi-Dirac point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yundi; Pickett, Warren E.

    2018-02-01

    Tight binding models have proven an effective means of revealing Dirac (massless) dispersion, flat bands (infinite mass), and intermediate cases such as the semi-Dirac (sD) dispersion. This approach is extended to a three band model that yields, with chosen parameters in a two-band limit, a closed line with maximally asymmetric particle-hole dispersion: infinite mass holes, zero mass particles. The model retains the sD points for a general set of parameters. Adjacent to this limiting case, hole Fermi surfaces are tiny and needle-like. A pair of large electron Fermi surfaces at low doping merge and collapse at half filling to a flat (zero energy) closed contour with infinite mass along the contour and enclosing no carriers on either side, while the hole Fermi surface has shrunk to a point at zero energy, also containing no carriers. The tight binding model is used to study several characteristics of the dispersion and density of states. The model inspired generalization of sD dispersion to a general  ± \\sqrt{k_x2n +k_y2m} form, for which analysis reveals that both n and m must be odd to provide a diabolical point with topological character. Evolution of the Hofstadter spectrum of this three band system with interband coupling strength is presented and discussed.

  9. Autorefraction versus subjective refraction in a radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Jan Willem; Vrijman, Violette; Al-Saady, Rana; El-Saady, Rana; van der Meulen, Ivanka J.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether the automated refraction (AR) correlates with subjective manifest (MR) refraction in eyes implanted with radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOLs). This retrospective study evaluated 52 eyes (52 patients) implanted with a radially asymmetric multifocal IOL (LS-312

  10. Autorefraction versus subjective refraction in a radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Vrijman, V.; El-Saady, R.; Meulen, I.J. van der; Mourits, M.P.; Lapid-Gortzak, R.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the automated refraction (AR) correlates with subjective manifest (MR) refraction in eyes implanted with radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOLs). METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 52 eyes (52 patients) implanted with a radially asymmetric

  11. Mass determination of heavy nuclei by the (α, 8He) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Kubono, S.; Tanaka, M.H.

    1991-07-01

    The atomic mass excesses of 86 Zr, 88 Mo, 181 Re, 193 Au, and 200 Pb were determined from the Q-value measurements of the (α, 8 He) reaction on 90 Zr, 92 Mo, 185 Re, 197 Au, and 204 Pb. Further, the mass excesses of 181 Os, 193 Hg, 204 Po, 208 Rn, 212 Ra, and 216 Th were deduced from the measured mass excesses and the known Q values of alpha and beta decays. (author)

  12. Augmented asymmetrical visual field dependence in asymptomatic diabetics: evidence of subclinical asymmetrical bilateral vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Rima Abdul; Bagust, Jeffery; Docherty, Sharon; Hussein, Wiam; Al-Otaibi, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes negatively affects the vestibular system in many ways, with vestibular dysfunction (VD), a co-morbidity with a high prevalence in diabetics. The ability to perceive subjective visual vertical (SVV), as a sign of vestibular dysfunction, and visual field dependence was measured using a computerized rod and frame test (CRAF). Alignment errors recorded from 47 asymptomatic Type II diabetics (no vertigo or falls, without peripheral neuropathy or retinopathy) were compared to 29 healthy age matched (46-69years) controls. Visual field dependence was significantly larger and more asymmetrical in the diabetics than controls. In the absence of any visual references, or when a vertical reference frame was provided, SVV perception was accurate in both groups, with no significant difference between the controls and diabetics. During tilted frame presentations, the proportion of subjects with either SVV deviations, or an asymmetry index, larger than an upper limit derived from the control data was significantly greater in diabetics than controls. These results suggest that the decreased ability to resolve visuo-vestibular conflict in asymptomatic diabetic patients (free of retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy) compared to controls may be related to diabetic complications affecting vestibular structures and thus causing a decompensation of subclinical vestibular asymmetries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Option Pricing with Asymmetric Heteroskedastic Normal Mixture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V. K; Stentoft, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We propose an asymmetric GARCH in mean mixture model and provide a feasible method for option pricing within this general framework by deriving the appropriate risk neutral dynamics. We forecast the out-of-sample prices of a large sample of options on the S&P 500 index from January 2006 to December...

  14. Reputations in Markets with Asymmetric Information: A Classroom Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, James R.; Myerscough, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a classroom game used to teach students about the impact of reputations in markets with asymmetric information. The game is an extension of Holt and Sherman's lemons market game and simulates a market under three information conditions. In the full information setting, all participants know both the quality and the price of…

  15. DNA-based asymmetric organometallic catalysis in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelerich, Jens; Roelfes, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Here, the first examples of DNA-based organometallic catalysis in water that give rise to high enantioselectivities are described. Copper complexes of strongly intercalating ligands were found to enable the asymmetric intramolecular cyclopropanation of alpha-diazo-beta-keto sulfones in water. Up to

  16. Bertrand Competition with Asymmetric Costs: A Solution in Pure Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo D.; Seel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    We consider two versions of a Bertrand duopoly with asymmetric costs and homogeneous goods. They differ in whether predatory pricing is allowed. For each version, we derive the Myopic Stable Set in pure strategies as introduced by Demuynck, Herings, Saulle, and Seel (2017). We contrast our

  17. Asymmetric block copolymers confined in a thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huinink, HP; Brokken-Zijp, JCM; van Dijk, MA; Sevink, GJA

    2000-01-01

    We have used a dynamic density functional theory (DDFT) for polymeric systems, to simulate the formation of micro phases in a melt of an asymmetric block copolymer, A(n)B(m)(f(A) = 1/3), both in the bulk and in a thin film. In the DDFT model a polymer is represented as a chain of springs and beads.

  18. On the topology defined by Thurston's asymmetric metric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Athanase; Theret, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    that the topology that the asymmetric metric L induces on Teichmüller space is the same as the usual topology. Furthermore, we show that L satisfies the axioms of a (not necessarily symmetric) metric in the sense of Busemann and conclude that L is complete in the sense of Busemann....

  19. Economic Dispatch of Demand Response Balancing through Asymmetric Block Offers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method of describing the load shifting ability of flexible electrical loads in a manner suitable for existing power system dispatch frameworks. The concept of an asymmetric block offer for flexible loads is introduced. This offer structure describes the ability of a flexible...

  20. All Pseudocapacitive MXene-RuO2 Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Qiu

    2018-01-23

    2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes, are an emerging class of 2D materials with a wide spectrum of potential applications, in particular in electrochemical energy storage. The hydrophilicity of MXenes combined with their metallic conductivity and surface redox reactions is the key for high-rate pseudocapacitive energy storage in MXene electrodes. However, symmetric MXene supercapacitors have a limited voltage window of around 0.6 V due to possible oxidation at high anodic potentials. In this study, the fact that titanium carbide MXene (Ti3C2Tx) can operate at negative potentials in acidic electrolyte is exploited, to design an all-pseudocapacitive asymmetric device by combining it with a ruthenium oxide (RuO2) positive electrode. This asymmetric device operates at a voltage window of 1.5 V, which is about two times wider than the operating voltage window of symmetric MXene supercapacitors, and is the widest voltage window reported to date for MXene-based supercapacitors. The complementary working potential windows of MXene and RuO2, along with proton-induced pseudocapacitance, significantly enhance the device performance. As a result, the asymmetric devices can deliver an energy density of 37 µW h cm−2 at a power density of 40 mW cm−2, with 86% capacitance retention after 20 000 charge–discharge cycles. These results show that pseudocapacitive negative MXene electrodes can potentially replace carbon-based materials in asymmetric electrochemical capacitors, leading to an increased energy density.

  1. Investment and Internal Finance: Asymmetric Information or Managerial Discretion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Degryse (Hans); A. de Jong (Abe)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the relation between cash-flow availability and investment spending in the Netherlands. In particular, we are interested whether managerial discretion and/or asymmetric information drive the positive relation between cash-flow and investment spending. This relation

  2. Non-stationary probabilities for the asymmetric exclusion process on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rich picture of relaxation processes which provides an extension of notions of equi- librium statistical mechanics such as phase transitions and spontaneous symmetry breaking to the non-equilibrium case. The asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP) is the simplest model of non-equilibrium theory of many interacting particles ...

  3. Non-stationary probabilities for the asymmetric exclusion process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A solution of the master equation for a system of interacting particles for finite time and particle density is presented. By using a new form of the Bethe ansatz, the totally asymmetric exclusion process on a ring is solved for arbitrary initial conditions and time intervals.

  4. Linguistic Correlates of Asymmetric Motor Symptom Severity in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas; McNamara, Patrick; Cappaert, Kevin; Durso, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric motor severity is common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and provides a method for examining the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying cognitive and linguistic deficits associated with the disorder. In the present research, PD participants (N = 31) were assessed in terms of the asymmetry of their motor symptoms. Interviews with the…

  5. Asymmetric Modeling of the Industrial Heavy Water Plant (PIAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruel, Federico; Aprea, J; Guido Lavalle, German

    2000-01-01

    Software of asymmetric stationary simulation for the Industrial Heavy Water Plant (PIAP) was developed, based on an existing symmetric simulator (Brigitte 2.0).This software allows to turn off some of the isotopic enrichment twin units present in the plant and to simulate them asymmetrically, in other words, with different selection of parameters between twins.Other incorporations were done, such as passing flows between units and entering flows in strategic points of the plant.The iterative system in which the symmetric simulator is based was insufficient to develop the asymmetric simulator, so the system was modeled according to an implicit scheme for the units that form the simulator.This type of resolution resulted in a simulator that supports a big range of boundary conditions and internal parameters.Moreover, the time of calculus is short (∼3 minutes), making it actually useful.The asymmetric simulator is at the PIAP now, for its study and validation. It shows expected tendencies and results according to the symmetric simulator already validated

  6. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2S,3S-ketols. 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme– substrate ...

  7. Asymmetric Adjustment in the Ethanol and Grains Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); L.H. Chen (Li-Hsueh); S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the long- and short-run asymmetric adjustments for nine pairs of spot and futures prices, itemized as three own pairs for three different bio-fuel ethanol types, three own pairs for three related agricultural products, namely corn, soybeans and sugar, and three cross

  8. The catalystic asymmetric synthesis of optically active epoxy ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Bertha Gerda

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis the use of catalytic asymmetric synthesis to prepare optically active epoxy ketones is described. This means that the auxiliary chirality, necessary to obtain an optically active product, is added in a catalytic quantity . In principle this is a very efficient way to make opticlly

  9. Cell Chirality Drives Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaki, Mikiko; Sasamura, Takeshi; Matsuno, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species. The actin cytoskeleton plays important roles in the formation of cell chirality. In addition, Myosin31DF ( Myo31DF ), which encodes Drosophila Myosin ID, was identified as a molecular switch for cell chirality. In other invertebrate species, including snails and Caenorhabditis elegans , chirality of the blastomeres, another type of cell chirality, determines the LR asymmetry of structures in the body. Thus, chirality at the cellular level may broadly contribute to LR asymmetric development in various invertebrate species. Recently, cell chirality was also reported for various vertebrate cultured cells, and studies suggested that cell chirality is evolutionarily conserved, including the essential role of the actin cytoskeleton. Although the biological roles of cell chirality in vertebrates remain unknown, it may control LR asymmetric development or other morphogenetic events. The investigation of cell chirality has just begun, and this new field should provide valuable new insights in biology and medicine.

  10. Asymmetrical Modulation for Uplink Communication in Cooperative Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank H.P.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2008-01-01

    -range links with neighboring mobile devices to form cooperative clusters. So far the physical communication over cellular links and over short-range links are separated in time or in frequency. Beyond this state of the art, we exploit a method, referred to as asymmetrical modulation, where a mobile device...

  11. Review of literature on the asymmetric collapse of vapor bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremd, R.; Froehlich, G.

    1977-06-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the asymmetric collape of vapor bubbles by cavitation with special consideration to vapor explosions. Two numerical models, which describe the collapse of cavities in the neighbourhood of a solid surface, are presented. Moreover experimental results for this case are provided. Propositions to apply the numerical models to vapor explosions are made. (orig.) [de

  12. Symmetrical and asymmetrical growth restriction in preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger; Bos, Arend; Kerstjens, Jorien; de Winter, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how symmetric (proportionate; SGR) and asymmetric (disproportionate; AGR) growth restriction influence growth and development in preterms from birth to 4 years. METHODS: This community-based cohort study of 810 children comprised 86 SGR, 61 AGR, and 663 non-growth restricted

  13. Analysis of the asymmetrical shortest two-server queueing model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Cohen

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents the analytic solution for the asymmetrical two-server queueing model with arriving customers joining the shorter queue for the case with Poisson arrivals and negative exponentially distributed service times. The bivariate generating function of the stationary joint

  14. New approaches in asymmetric synthesis using γ-alkoxybutenolides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Ben de; Jansen, Johan F.G.A.; Jong, Johannes C. de; Lubben, Marcel; Faber, Wijnand; Schudde, Ebe P.; Feringa, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis of a new class of auxiliary based chiral synthons, γ-alkoxy-2(5H)-furanones, is described. The multifunctional compounds enter a variety of asymmetric transformations leading to acyclic- and cyclic-products with up to four new stereogenic centers in a single operation with

  15. Asymmetric electroresistance of cluster glass state in manganites

    KAUST Repository

    Lourembam, James; Ding, Junfeng; Bera, Ashok; Lin, Weinan; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    cluster glass magnetic state emerges at low temperatures with a spin freezing temperature of about 99 K, which is accompanied by the reentrant insulating state with high resistance below 30 K. In the EDLT, we observe bipolar and asymmetric modulation

  16. Clinical characteristics in patients with asymmetric idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Sean J; Xia, Meng; Murray, Susan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-10-01

    A group of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) presents with disease affecting one lung markedly more than the other. At this time, it is unclear how this population differs from those who present with more symmetric disease. We sought to explain the characteristics of the asymmetric group and how their disease progresses. In this retrospective case-control study we accessed an interstitial lung disease (ILD) database and identified 14 asymmetric IPF cases via high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring of each lung lobe's disease severity. We identified 28 symmetric IPF controls from the same database using the same methods, and compared the clinical features of each group. Patients with asymmetric disease exhibited similar demographics as those in the general IPF population; they were predominantly male (64%), elderly (69 years old), and used tobacco (57%). We found a trend toward significantly increased all-cause mortality in the case population two years following diagnosis (p = 0.089). Pulmonary function tests were significantly lower in the case group at the time of diagnosis, then both groups experienced gradual decline. We found no statistically significant differences in number of IPF exacerbations (cases 43%, controls 39%, p = 0.824) and gastro-esophageal reflux (both groups 50%). Patients with asymmetric IPF resemble patients in the general IPF population but may have a lower overall survival rate. Further systemic factors may be studied to identify reasons for disease asymmetry and clinical decline in this population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Simulation of seismic signals from asymmetric LANL hydrodynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.L.; Rimer, N.; Halda, E.J.; Barker, T.G.; Davis, C.G.; Johnson, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrodynamic calculations of an asymmetric nuclear explosion source were propagated to teleseismic distances to investigate the effects of the asymmetric source on seismic signals. The source is an explosion in a 12 meter long canister with the device at one end of the canister and a metal plate adjacent to the explosion. This produces a strongly asymmetric two-lobed source in the hydrodynamic region. The hydrodynamic source is propagated to the far field using a three-step process. The Eulerian hydrodynamic code SOIL was used by LANL to calculate the material velocity, density, and internal energy up to a time of 8.9 milliseconds after the explosion. These quantities were then transferred to an initial grid for the Lagrangian elastic/plastic finite difference code CRAM, which was used by S-CUBED to propagate the signal through the region of nonlinear deformation into the external elastic region. The cavity size and shape at the time of the overlay were determined by searching for a rapid density change in the SOIL grid, and this interior region was then rezoned into a single zone. The CRAM calculation includes material strength and gravity, and includes the effect of the free surface above the explosion. Finally, far field body waves were calculated by integrating over a closed surface in the elastic region and using the representation theorem. A second calculation was performed using an initially spherical source for comparison with the asymmetric calculation

  18. Novel Cinchona derived organocatalysts: new asymmetric transformations and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Cinchona alkaloids have a long history as being a powerful medicine against malaria. Since a relative short period (about 50 years) chemist have also used these alkaloids as chiral catalyst for a wide variety of asymmetric transformations. Especially since the beginning of this century, when strong

  19. Stability of asymmetric lipid bilayers assessed by molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban-Martin, Santi; Risselada, H. Jelger; Salgado, Jesus; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric insertion of amphiphiles into biological membranes compromises the balance between the inner and outer monolayers. As a result, area expansion of the receiving leaflet and curvature strain may lead to membrane permeation, shape changes, or membrane fusion events. We have conducted

  20. Current Topics in the Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Januščák, J.; Václavík, Jiří; Šot, P.; Pecháček, J.; Vilhanová, B.; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 7 (2015), s. 492-498 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/1276; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : asymmetric transfer hydrogenation * ruthenium * isoquinoline Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.279, year: 2015

  1. Beamwidth for asymmetric and multilayer semiconductor laser structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Jens

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the far field of the fundamental TE0mode in an asymmetrical dielectric slab waveguide is derived. By using normalized waveguide parameters, universal plots of the beamwidth are presented. These plots include the obliquity factor correction. Experimental results for symmetrical G...

  2. Accelerating foreign-key joins using asymmetric memory channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirk, H.; Manegold, S.; Kersten, M.

    2011-01-01

    Indexed Foreign-Key Joins expose a very asymmetric access pattern: the Foreign-Key Index is sequentially scanned whilst the Primary-Key table is target of many quasi-random lookups which is the dominant cost factor. To reduce the costs of the random lookups the fact-table can be (re-) partitioned at

  3. Ion Motion Stability in Asymmetric Surface Electrode Ion Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Fayaz; Ozakin, Arkadas

    2010-03-01

    Many recently developed designs of the surface electrode ion traps for quantum information processing have asymmetry built into their geometries. The asymmetry helps rotate the trap axes to angles with respect to electrode surface that facilitate laser cooling of ions but introduces a relative angle between the RF and DC fields and invalidates the classical stability analysis of the symmetric case for which the equations of motion are decoupled. For asymmetric case the classical motion of a single ion is given by a coupled, multi-dimensional version of Mathieu's equation. In this poster we discuss the stability diagram of asymmetric surface traps by performing an approximate multiple scale perturbation analysis of the coupled Mathieu equations, and validate the results with numerical simulations. After obtaining the stability diagram for the linear fields, we simulate the motion of an ion in a given asymmetric surface trap, utilizing a method-of-moments calculation of the electrode fields. We obtain the stability diagram and compare it with the ideal case to find the region of validity. Finally, we compare the results of our stability analysis to experiments conducted on a microfabricated asymmetric surface trap.

  4. The on-line asymmetric traveling salesman problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausiello, G.; Bonifaci, V.; Laura, L.

    2008-01-01

    We consider two on-line versions of the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with triangle inequality. For the homing version, in which the salesman is required to return in the city where it started from, we give a -competitive algorithm and prove that this is best possible. For the nomadic

  5. Bertrand Competition with an Asymmetric No-Discrimination Constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.; van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the competitive and welfare consequences when only one firm must commit to uniform pricing while the competitor’s pricing policy is left unconstrained. The asymmetric no-discrimination constraint prohibits both behaviour-based price discrimination within the competitive segment

  6. Modulational Instability in Linearly Coupled Asymmetric Dual-Core Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjunan Govindarajan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate modulational instability (MI in asymmetric dual-core nonlinear directional couplers incorporating the effects of the differences in effective mode areas and group velocity dispersions, as well as phase- and group-velocity mismatches. Using coupled-mode equations for this system, we identify MI conditions from the linearization with respect to small perturbations. First, we compare the MI spectra of the asymmetric system and its symmetric counterpart in the case of the anomalous group-velocity dispersion (GVD. In particular, it is demonstrated that the increase of the inter-core linear-coupling coefficient leads to a reduction of the MI gain spectrum in the asymmetric coupler. The analysis is extended for the asymmetric system in the normal-GVD regime, where the coupling induces and controls the MI, as well as for the system with opposite GVD signs in the two cores. Following the analytical consideration of the MI, numerical simulations are carried out to explore nonlinear development of the MI, revealing the generation of periodic chains of localized peaks with growing amplitudes, which may transform into arrays of solitons.

  7. QUARTZ: a numerical simulation of an asymmetric electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, J.W.; Drooks, L.J.; McCollough, D.H.; McGaffey, R.W.; Whealton, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The physics and numerical aspects of the development of the computer code QUARTZ are given. This code includes the (1) use of a finite element code to obtain solutions of Poisson's equation in an asymmetric, three-dimensional volume; (2) inclusion of space charge neutralization by electrons; and (3) inclusion of ion space charge through an iterative procedure

  8. Simulation of the longitudinal instabilities of the asymmetric bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jianping; Zhao Zhentang

    2002-01-01

    The computational model of the code used to simulate the longitudinal instabilities of the asymmetric bunches was introduced. The growth rates of the longitudinal instabilities of the symmetric bunches got by this code were compared with those got by the code ZAP, and they were almost the same. As an example, the simulation results of the BEPC-II were presented

  9. Asymmetric bipolar membrane: A tool to improve product purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Sumbharaju, R.; Srikantharajah, S.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Jordan, V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar membranes (BPMs) are catalytic membranes for electro-membrane processes splitting water into protons and hydroxyl ions. To improve selectivity and current efficiency of BPMs, we prepare new asymmetric BPMs with reduced salt leakages. The flux of salt ions across a BPM is determined by the

  10. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  11. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  12. Modular design, application architecture, and usage of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery: The Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M.; Rusincovitch, Shelley A.; Brinson, Stephanie; Shang, Howard C.; Evans, Steve; Ferranti, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a wide heterogeneity of methods and technical frameworks. We describe the design, application architecture, and use of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery within Duke Medicine. Methods Our query platform, the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), supports enhanced data exploration, cohort identification, and data extraction from our enterprise data warehouse (EDW) using a series of modular environments that interact with a central keystone module, Cohort Manager (CM). A data-driven application architecture is implemented through three components: an application data dictionary, the concept of “smart dimensions”, and dynamically-generated user interfaces. Results DEDUCE CM allows flexible hierarchies of EDW queries within a grid-like workspace. A cohort “join” functionality allows switching between filters based on criteria occurring within or across patient encounters. To date, 674 users have been trained and activated in DEDUCE, and logon activity shows a steady increase, with variability between months. A comparison of filter conditions and export criteria shows that these activities have different patterns of usage across subject areas. Conclusions Organizations with sophisticated EDWs may find that users benefit from development of advanced query functionality, complimentary to the user interfaces and infrastructure used in other well-published models. Driven by its EDW context, the DEDUCE application architecture was also designed to be responsive to source data and to allow modification through alterations in metadata rather than programming, allowing an agile response to source

  13. Modular design, application architecture, and usage of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery: the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M; Rusincovitch, Shelley A; Brinson, Stephanie; Shang, Howard C; Evans, Steve; Ferranti, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a wide heterogeneity of methods and technical frameworks. We describe the design, application architecture, and use of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery within Duke Medicine. Our query platform, the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), supports enhanced data exploration, cohort identification, and data extraction from our enterprise data warehouse (EDW) using a series of modular environments that interact with a central keystone module, Cohort Manager (CM). A data-driven application architecture is implemented through three components: an application data dictionary, the concept of "smart dimensions", and dynamically-generated user interfaces. DEDUCE CM allows flexible hierarchies of EDW queries within a grid-like workspace. A cohort "join" functionality allows switching between filters based on criteria occurring within or across patient encounters. To date, 674 users have been trained and activated in DEDUCE, and logon activity shows a steady increase, with variability between months. A comparison of filter conditions and export criteria shows that these activities have different patterns of usage across subject areas. Organizations with sophisticated EDWs may find that users benefit from development of advanced query functionality, complimentary to the user interfaces and infrastructure used in other well-published models. Driven by its EDW context, the DEDUCE application architecture was also designed to be responsive to source data and to allow modification through alterations in metadata rather than programming, allowing an agile response to source system changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  14. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.

    2002-01-01

    an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

  16. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, D.; Boersma, K. F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Weiss, A. K.; Folini, D.; Eskes, H. J.; Buchmann, B.

    2006-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs) retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy) with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK) of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration) and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively). The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns) is -7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a priori and

  17. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schaub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively. The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns is −7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a

  18. Totally Asymmetric Limit for Models of Heat Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Leonardo; Gabrielli, Davide

    2017-08-01

    We consider one dimensional weakly asymmetric boundary driven models of heat conduction. In the cases of a constant diffusion coefficient and of a quadratic mobility we compute the quasi-potential that is a non local functional obtained by the solution of a variational problem. This is done using the dynamic variational approach of the macroscopic fluctuation theory (Bertini et al. in Rev Mod Phys 87:593, 2015). The case of a concave mobility corresponds essentially to the exclusion model that has been discussed in Bertini et al. (J Stat Mech L11001, 2010; Pure Appl Math 64(5):649-696, 2011; Commun Math Phys 289(1):311-334, 2009) and Enaud and Derrida (J Stat Phys 114:537-562, 2004). We consider here the convex case that includes for example the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) model and its dual (KMPd) (Kipnis et al. in J Stat Phys 27:6574, 1982). This extends to the weakly asymmetric regime the computations in Bertini et al. (J Stat Phys 121(5/6):843-885, 2005). We consider then, both microscopically and macroscopically, the limit of large externalfields. Microscopically we discuss some possible totally asymmetric limits of the KMP model. In one case the totally asymmetric dynamics has a product invariant measure. Another possible limit dynamics has instead a non trivial invariant measure for which we give a duality representation. Macroscopically we show that the quasi-potentials of KMP and KMPd, which are non local for any value of the external field, become local in the limit. Moreover the dependence on one of the external reservoirs disappears. For models having strictly positive quadratic mobilities we obtain instead in the limit a non local functional having a structure similar to the one of the boundary driven asymmetric exclusion process.

  19. Uniform versus asymmetric shading mediates crown recession in conifers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Schoonmaker

    Full Text Available In this study we explore the impact of asymmetrical vs. uniform crown shading on the mortality and growth of upper and lower branches within tree crowns, for two conifer species: shade intolerant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta and shade tolerant white spruce (Picea glauca. We also explore xylem hydraulics, foliar nutrition, and carbohydrate status as drivers for growth and expansion of the lower and upper branches in various types of shading. This study was conducted over a two-year period across 10 regenerating forest sites dominated by lodgepole pine and white spruce, in the lower foothills of Alberta, Canada. Trees were assigned to one of four shading treatments: (1, complete uniform shading of the entire tree, (2 light asymmetric shading where the lower 1/4-1/3 of the tree crown was shaded, (3 heavy asymmetric shading as in (2 except with greater light reduction and (4 control in which no artificial shading occurred and most of the entire crown was exposed to full light. Asymmetrical shading of only the lower crown had a larger negative impact on the bud expansion and growth than did uniform shading, and the effect was stronger in pine relative to spruce. In addition, lower branches in pine also had lower carbon reserves, and reduced xylem-area specific conductivity compared to spruce. For both species, but particularly the pine, the needles of lower branches tended to store less C than upper branches in the asymmetric shade, which could suggest a movement of reserves away from the lower branches. The implications of these findings correspond with the inherent shade tolerance and self-pruning behavior of these conifers and supports a carbon based mechanism for branch mortality--mediated by an asymmetry in light exposure of the crown.

  20. The Impacts of Dry Dynamic Cores on Asymmetric Hurricane Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Stephen R.; Reisner, Jon M.; Marras, Simone; Giraldo, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental pathways for tropical cyclone (TC) intensification are explored by considering axisymmetric and asymmetric impulsive thermal perturbations to balanced, TC-like vortices using the dynamic cores of three different nonlinear numerical models. Attempts at reproducing the results of previous work, which used the community WRF Model, revealed a discrepancy with the impacts of purely asymmetric thermal forcing. The current study finds that thermal asymmetries can have an important, largely positive role on the vortex intensification, whereas other studies find that asymmetric impacts are negligible. Analysis of the spectral energetics of each numerical model indicates that the vortex response to asymmetric thermal perturbations is significantly damped in WRF relative to the other models. Spectral kinetic energy budgets show that this anomalous damping is primarily due to the increased removal of kinetic energy from the vertical divergence of the vertical pressure flux, which is related to the flux of inertia-gravity wave energy. The increased kinetic energy in the other two models is shown to originate around the scales of the heating and propagate upscale with time from nonlinear effects. For very large thermal amplitudes (50 K), the anomalous removal of kinetic energy due to inertia-gravity wave activity is much smaller, resulting in good agreement between models. The results of this paper indicate that the numerical treatment of small-scale processes that project strongly onto inertia-gravity wave energy can lead to significant differences in asymmetric TC intensification. Sensitivity tests with different time integration schemes suggest that diffusion entering into the implicit solution procedure is partly responsible for the anomalous damping of energy.

  1. One-step synthesis of graphene nanoribbon-MnO₂ hybrids and their all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Pan, Jisheng; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2014-04-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical hybrid nanomaterials (GNR-MnO₂) of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) and MnO₂ nanoparticles have been prepared via a one-step method. GNR, with unique features such as high aspect ratio and plane integrity, has been obtained by longitudinal unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). By tuning the amount of oxidant used, different mass loadings of MnO₂ nanoparticles have been uniformly deposited on the surface of GNRs. Asymmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated with the GNR-MnO₂ hybrid as the positive electrode and GNR sheets as the negative electrode. Due to the desirable porous structure, excellent electrical conductivity, as well as high rate capability and specific capacitances of both the GNR and GNR-MnO₂ hybrid, the optimized GNR//GNR-MnO₂ asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in an enlarged potential window of 0-2.0 V. In addition, the fabricated GNR//GNR-MnO₂ asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits a significantly enhanced maximum energy density of 29.4 W h kg(-1) (at a power density of 12.1 kW kg(-1)), compared with that of the symmetric cells based on GNR-MnO₂ hybrids or GNR sheets. This greatly enhanced energy storage ability and high rate capability can be attributed to the homogeneous dispersion and excellent pseudocapacitive performance of MnO₂ nanoparticles and the high electrical conductivity of the GNRs.

  2. Rho meson self-energy and dielectron emissivity in an isospin-asymmetric pion medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamov, T.I.; Titov, A.I.; Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V.; Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ., Dresden

    1995-06-01

    The ρ meson self-energy in an isospin asymmetric pion gas at finite temperature and charged-pion chemical potential is evaluated. We utilize a conventional effective π-ρ Lagrangian and the functional integral representation of the partition function in the second order in the ρππ coupling constant. We analyze the gauge invariant rho meson polarization operator and its dependence on the invariant mass M and spatial momentum vertical stroke pvertical stroke of the ρ meson. The pole positions and the values of the imaginary parts of the self-energy for different polarization states have different functional dependences on M and vertical stroke pvertical stroke . The corresponding dielectron rate (calculated from the imaginary part of the polarization operators) shows a distinctive asymmetry when the momentum t=p + -p - is perpendicular or parallel to p, where p ± are the momenta of the electron pair. (orig.)

  3. Design of a power-asymmetric actuator for a transtibial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Harrison L; Lawson, Brian E; Goldfarb, Michael

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the design and characterization of a power-asymmetric actuator for a transtibial prosthesis. The device is designed to provide the combination of: 1) joint locking, 2) high power dissipation, and 3) low power generation. This actuator functionality allows for a prosthesis to be designed with minimal mass and power consumption relative to a fully-powered robotic prosthesis while maintaining much of the functionality necessary for activities of daily living. The actuator achieves these design characteristics while maintaining a small form factor by leveraging a combination of electromechanical and hydraulic components. The design of the actuator is described herein, and results of an experimental characterization are provided that indicate that the actuator is capable of providing the functional capabilities required of an ankle prosthesis in a compact and lightweight package.

  4. ρ-meson self-energy and dielectron emissivity in an isospin-asymmetric pion medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, A.I.; Gulamov, T.I.; Kaempfer, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ρ-meson self-energy in an isospin-asymmetric pion gas at finite temperature and charged-pion chemical potential is evaluated. We utilize a conventional effective π-ρ Lagrangian and the functional integral representation of the partition function in the second order in the ρππ coupling constant. We analyze the ρ-meson polarization operator and its dependence on the invariant mass M and spatial momentum parallel p parallel of the ρ meson. The pole positions and the values of the imaginary parts of the self-energy for different polarization states have different functional dependences on M and parallel p parallel. The corresponding dielectron rate (calculated from the imaginary part of the in-medium ρ-meson propagator) shows a distinctive asymmetry when the momentum t=p + -p - is perpendicular or parallel to p, where p ± are the e ± momenta of the electron pair. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Asymmetric Aldol Additions: A Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Activity on Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jorge H. Torres; Wang, Hong; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of asymmetric catalysis in both the pharmaceutical and commodity chemicals industries, asymmetric catalysis is under-represented in undergraduate chemistry laboratory curricula. A novel guided-inquiry experiment based on the asymmetric aldol addition was developed. Students conduct lab work to compare the effectiveness of…

  6. Relativistic gravitational potential and its relation to mass-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voracek, P.

    1979-01-01

    From the general theory of relativity a relation is deduced between the mass of a particle and the gravitational field at the position of the particle. For this purpose the fall of a particle of negligible mass in the gravitational field of a massive body is used. After establishing the relativistic potential and its relationship to the rest mass of the particle, we show, assuming conservation of mass-energy, that the difference between two potential-levels depends upon the value of the radial metric coefficient at the position of an observer. Further, it is proved that the relativistic potential is compatible with the general concept of the potential also from the standpoint of kinematics. In the third section it is shown that, although the mass-energy of a body is a function of the distance from it, this does not influence the relativistic potential of the body itself. From this conclusion it follows that the mass-energy of a particle in a gravitational field is anisotropic; isotropic is the mass only. Further, the possibility of an incidental feed-back between two masses is ruled out, and the law of the composition of the relativistic gravitational potentials is deduced. Finally, it is shown, by means of a simple model, that local inhomogeneities in the ideal fluid filling the Universe have negligible influence on the total potential in large regions. (orig.)

  7. Self-consistent green function calculations for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, Hesham; Gad, Khalaf; Hassaneen, Khaled S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The one-body potentials for protons and neutrons are obtained from the self-consistent Green-function calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter, in particular their dependence on the degree of proton/neutron asymmetry. Results of the binding energy per nucleon as a function of the density and asymmetry parameter are presented for the self-consistent Green function approach using the CD-Bonn potential. For the sake of comparison, the same calculations are performed using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The contribution of the hole-hole terms leads to a repulsive contribution to the energy per nucleon which increases with the nuclear density. The incompressibility for asymmetric nuclear matter has been also investigated in the framework of the self-consistent Green-function approach using the CD-Bonn potential. The behavior of the incompressibility is studied for different values of the nuclear density and the neutron excess parameter. The nuclear symmetry potential at fixed nuclear density is also calculated and its value decreases with increasing the nucleon energy. In particular, the nuclear symmetry potential at saturation density changes from positive to negative values at nucleon kinetic energy of about 200 MeV. For the sake of comparison, the same calculations are performed using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The proton/neutron effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter has been studied. The predicted isospin splitting of the proton/neutron effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter is such that m n * ≥ m p * . (author)

  8. Impact delivery of organic matter on the acapulcoite-lodranite parent-body deduced from C, N isotopes and nanostructures of carbon phases in Acapulco and Lodran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, E.; Aléon, J.; Rouzaud, J.-N.

    2014-10-01

    The structure and nanostructures of carbon phases from the Acapulco and Lodran meteorites and their carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition were investigated at the nanometer and micrometer scale using a systematic combination of Raman microspectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine their origin and thermal evolution. Several morphological types were recognized belonging to roughly two isotopic and structural families: coarse carbon grains and rosettes, only found in Acapulco, and vein-like carbon occurrences present in both Acapulco and Lodran. Carbon phases in Acapulco are highly graphitized, and show a genetic relationship with metal indicative of metal-assisted graphitization. By contrast, carbon phases in Lodran are exclusively disordered mesoporous turbostratic carbons, in spite of their inclusion in metal and the higher peak temperature experienced by the Lodran parent body. δ13C values range between -59‰ and +37‰ in Acapulco and between -38‰ and -1‰ in Lodran and show in both cases a peak in their distribution at the value of chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM, -10‰ to -15‰). N concentrations together with δ15N values indicate a mixing between a component akin to chondritic IOM in Lodran with a δ15N value around +10‰ to +20‰ and a component akin to that in the most N-poor Acapulco graphites. The latter are systematically depleted in 15N with a δ15N value constant at ∼-140‰ for N concentrations below ∼1.4 wt%. These observations can be explained if carbon phases in Acapulco and Lodran result from the late impact introduction of CI-CM like IOM, after significant cooling of the parent-body, and subsequent carbonization and graphitization of IOM by interaction with FeNi metal by the heat wave induced by the impact. Temperatures probably reached 900 °C in Acapulco, enough to achieve metal-assisted graphitization but were not significantly higher than 650 °C in

  9. Separation of Opiate Isomers Using Electrospray Ionization and Paper Spray Coupled to High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicke, Nicholas E.; Belford, Michael

    2015-05-01

    One limitation in the growing field of ambient or direct analysis methods is reduced selectivity caused by the elimination of chromatographic separations prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We explored the use of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), an ambient pressure ion mobility technique, to separate the closely related opiate isomers of morphine, hydromorphone, and norcodeine. These isomers cannot be distinguished by tandem mass spectrometry. Separation prior to MS analysis is, therefore, required to distinguish these compounds, which are important in clinical chemistry and toxicology. FAIMS was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and ionization was performed using either a pneumatically assisted heated electrospray ionization source (H-ESI) or paper spray, a direct analysis method that has been applied to the direct analysis of dried blood spots and other complex samples. We found that FAIMS was capable of separating the three opiate structural isomers using both H-ESI and paper spray as the ionization source.

  10. Status and perspectives of the Mainz neutrino mass experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, H.; Barth, H.; Bleile, A.

    1997-01-01

    New data from the decay of molecular tritium studied with the Mainz solenoid retarding spectrometer are presented. From a region close to the end-point we deduce an upper limit for the mass of the electron antineutrino of m ν c 2 ν 2 c 4 = - 22 ± 17 stat ± 14 sys eV 2 . Possible improvements and the perspectives of the experiment are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Computer simulation of molecular absorption spectra for asymmetric top molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bende, A.; Tosa, V.; Cosma, V.

    2001-01-01

    The effective Hamiltonian formalism has been used to develop a model for infrared multiple-photon absorption (IRMPA) process in asymmetric top molecules. Assuming a collisionless regime, the interaction between the molecule and laser field can be described by the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. By using the rotating wave approximation and Laplace transformation, the time-dependent problem reduces to a time-independent eigen problem for an effective Hamiltonian which can be solved only numerically for a real vibrational-rotational structure of polyatomic molecule. The vibrational-rotational structure is assumed to be an anharmonic oscillator coupled to an asymmetric rigid rotor. The main assumptions taken into account for this model are the following: (1) the excitation is coherent, i.e. the collision (if present during the laser pulse) does not influence the excitation; (2) the excitation starts from the ground state and is near resonant to a normal mode, thus, the rotating wave approximation can be applied; (3) after absorbing N photons the vibrational energy of the excited mode leak into a quasicontinuum; (4) the thermal population of the ground state is given by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law. The energy levels of the asymmetric top molecules cannot be represented by an explicit formula analogous to that for the symmetric top, according to quantum mechanics, but we can consider it a deviation from the prolate or oblate case of the symmetric top, and we can find in the same manner the selection rules of the asymmetric case using the selection rules for the symmetric case. The infrared bands of asymmetric top molecules are not resolved, but if the dispersion used is not too small, so that the envelopes of the bands can be distinguished from simple maxima, it is possible to draw conclusions as to the type of the bands. In this case, the simulation of the absorption spectra can give us some important information about the types of these bands. In

  12. Effect of surface radiation on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel-chimney system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Zied; Derouich, Youssef; Laatar, Ali Hatem; Balti, Jalloul

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a more realistic numerical approach that takes into account the effect of surface radiation on the laminar air flow induced by natural convection in a channel-chimney system asymmetrically heated at uniform heat flux is used. The aim is to enrich the results given in Nasri et al. (Int J Therm Sci 90:122-134, 2015) by varying all the geometric parameters of the system and by taking into account the effect of surface radiation on the flows. The numerical results are first validated against experimental and numerical data available in the literature. The computations have allowed the determination of optimal configurations that maximize the mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer and minimize the heated wall temperatures. The analysis of the temperature fields with the streamlines and the pressure fields has helped to explain the effects of surface radiation and of the different thermo-geometrical parameters on the system performances to improve the mass flow rate and the heat transfer with respect to the simple channel. It is shown that the thermal performance of the channel-chimney system in terms of lower heated wall temperatures is little affected by the surface radiation. At the end, simple correlation equations have been proposed for quickly and easily predict the optimal configurations as well as the corresponding enhancement rates of the induced mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer.

  13. Natural convection in an asymmetrically heated vertical channel with an adiabatic auxiliary plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, Soumaya; Hatem, Laatar Ali; Balti, Jalloul

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an auxiliary plate on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel is studied numerically in laminar regime. The computational procedure is made by solving the unsteady two dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations. This nonlinear system is integrated by a finite volume approach and then solved in time using the projection method, allowing the decoupling pressure from velocity. More than hundred simulations are performed to determine the best positions of the auxiliary plate that enhance the induced mass flow and the heat transfer rate for modified Rayleigh numbers ranging from Ra m = 10 2 to Ra m = 10 5 . Contour maps are plotted and then used to precise the enhancement rates of the mass flow and the heat transfer for any position of the auxiliary plate in the channel. The numerical results (velocity, pressure and temperature fields) provide detailed information about the evolution of the flow structure according to the geometry considered in this study. In addition, they permit to explain why the mass flow rate and Nusselt number are enhanced for certain positions of the auxiliary plate and are on the contrary deteriorated for others. (authors)

  14. Consequences of DM/antiDM Oscillations for Asymmetric WIMP Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cirelli, Marco; Servant, Geraldine; Zaharijas, Gabrijela

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, a scenario usually dubbed Asymmetric Dark Matter (aDM), we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its antiparticle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry before freeze-out, which enable efficient annihilations to recouple. We calculate the evolution of the DM relic abundance and show how oscillations re-open the parameter space of aDM models, in particular in the direction of allowing large (WIMP-scale) DM masses. A typical wimp with a mass at the EW scale (\\sim 100 GeV - 1 TeV) presenting a primordial asymmetry of the same order as the baryon asymmetry naturally gets the correct relic abundance if the DM-number-violating Delta(DM) = 2 mass term is in the \\sim meV range. The re-establishment of annihilations implies that constraints from the accumulation of aDM in astrophysical bodies are evaded. On the other hand, the ordinary bounds from BBN, CMB and indirect detection signals on annihilating DM have to be consi...

  15. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  16. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  17. Heterogeneous chemical kinetics by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry: limitations of technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of modulated molecular beam, mass spectrometry as applied to the study of heterogeneous chemical kinetics are reviewed. The process of deducing a model of the surface reaction from experimental data is illustrated by analysis of the hydrogen reduction of uranium dioxide

  18. A mass-spring-damper model of a pulsating heat pipe with asymmetric filling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gursel, G.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Homburg, F.G.A.; van Steenhoven, A.A.; Tadrist, L.; Graur, I.

    2014-01-01

    A pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is a device that transfers heat from a hot spot to a cold side by oscillating liquid slugs and vapor plugs. Its working principle is based on interplay between convective heat transfer, evaporation of the liquid at the hot side and condensation of the vapor at the cold

  19. Current transport and mass separation for an asymmetric fluctuation system with correlated noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ning, Li-Juan

    2018-01-01

    Not Available Projected supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11202120) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant Nos. GK201502007 and GK201701001).

  20. Examining Asymmetrical Relationships of Organizational Learning Antecedents: A Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ery Tri Djatmika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Global era is characterized by highly competitive advantage market demand. Responding to the challenge of rapid environmental changes, organizational learning is becoming a strategic way and solution to empower people themselves within the organization in order to create a novelty as valuable positioning source. For research purposes, determining the influential antecedents that affect organizational learning is vital to understand research-based solutions given for practical implications. Accordingly, identification of variables examined by asymmetrical relationships is critical to establish. Possible antecedent variables come from organizational and personal point of views. It is also possible to include a moderating one. A proposed theoretical model of asymmetrical effects of organizational learning and its antecedents is discussed in this article.