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Sample records for decumbens pastures grown

  1. Liming and fertilization to restore degraded Brachiaria decumbens pastures grown on an entisol Calagem e adubação na recuperação de pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens em neossolo quartzarênico

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    Patrícia Perondi Anchão Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The reconstitution of soil fertility is essential in the process of pasture restoring, liming being the first action to be taken in this direction. The liming recommendation for pastures needs more technical information as the application method and rate. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the liming and fertilization practices to restore a degraded Brachiaria decumbens pasture. The following factors were studied: liming method (incorporated in soil by disking or not; level of base saturation (40, 50 or 80% and lime type (55, 70 or 90 of ECC. Liming and fertilization (NPK and micronutrients increased both the forage yield and its root system, these being more evident in the second year, even using the same rates of lime and fertilizer used during the first year. After two years the levels of base saturation aimed for the 0 to 0.20 m soil layer were not achieved, neither was the neutralization of the Al. The disking impaired the development of the root system of B. decumbens and promoted the decrease of soil organic matter. The lime with the lowest ECC increased root growth and led to higher concentrations of Ca and Mg in the soil. Studies in other conditions are necessary to define liming requirements in established and degraded pastures.Na recuperação de pastagens é fundamental a reconstituição da fertilidade do solo, sendo a calagem a primeira ação nessa direção. A recomendação de calagem para pastagens necessita de maiores subsídios técnicos, como a forma de aplicação e a dose e o tipo de calcário a ser empregado. Um experimento de campo foi instalado para avaliar a calagem e a adubação como práticas para a recuperação de pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens degradadas. Os seguintes fatores foram estudados: a forma de aplicação do calcário (incorporado no solo com gradagem ou não incorporado, os níveis de saturação por bases de 40, 60 ou 80% e tipos de calcário (PRNT de 55, 70 ou 90. A calagem e a

  2. Different supplents for finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season

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    Antonio Tadeu de Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of four types of supplement on the finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season. Sixty-four castrated Nellore males with an age of approximately 34 months and initial body weight (BW ranging from 360 to 380 kg were divided into 16 animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four types of pasture supplement: deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + energy protein mineral salt (SuEPM used as control; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + ground corn grain (SuCo; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + citrus pulp (SuCPu; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + soy hull (SuSH. The pasture was deferred for 170 days and provided 3,482 kg DM/ha of forage, permitting a stocking rate of 1.56 AU/ha (DM intake of 2.25% BW and 50% pasture efficiency. The animals received the supplement ad libitum in the SuEPM treatment and as % BW in the other treatments from July to October. The animals were slaughtered at a minimum BW of 457 kg. The following variables were evaluated: final weight, weight gain during the period (WG, average daily gain (ADG, hot carcass weight (HCW, and hot carcass yield (HCY. With respect to final weight, the supplement in the SuCo, SuCPu and SuSH treatments permitted a greater supply of nutrients and the animals therefore exhibited better performance (P<0.05 compared to the SuEPM treatment (mean of 478.68 vs 412.62 kg. The same effect was observed for the other parameters studied. Analysis of WG and ADG showed that SuSH was superior to the SuCo and SuCPu treatments (P<0.05 due to the increased offer of concentrate and SuEPM was inferior to the other treatments. Higher HCW (260.05 kg and HCY (53.92% were obtained with treatment SuSH as a result of greater performance. Supplementation of cattle during the dry period on

  3. Comportamento ingestivo de bezerros em pastos de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens Ingestive behavior of calves on pastures of Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria decumbens

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    Anderson de Moura Zanine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de bezerros em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens, no sistema de lotação contínua com taxa de lotação variável. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dois pastos representando os tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições. O período experimental foi de 30 dias, sendo 20 para adaptação dos animais e 10 para avaliações, que consistiram de três, com duração de 24h cada, em intervalos de cinco dias. Os bezerros pastejaram menos tempo no pasto de Brachiaria brizantha, com tempo de 9,75h, enquanto que o pastejo na Brachiaria decumbens foi de 11,3h. Comportamento diferente foi observado para o tempo de ruminação: 6,8 e 6,4 para os pastos de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens, respectivamente. O número de bocados por minuto foi menor para a Brachiaria decumbens, 31,15, enquanto que, para a Brachiaria brizantha, os bezerros pastejaram com uma taxa de bocados de 34,91 bocados por minuto. Os bezerros tiveram um ganho de peso médio diário superior no pasto de Brachiaria brizantha (390g dia-1, enquanto que, para a Brachiaria decumbens, o ganho diário foi de 340g dia-1.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the ingestive behavior of calves on Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria decumbens pastures, under continuous stocking with variable stocking rate. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with two treatments (two pastures, and five replicates per treatment. The experimental period lasted 30 days, consisting of days 20 for adaptation of animals and 10 for behavioral evaluations that consisted of three periods of 24:00h each, in intervals of five days. The calves spent less time grazing Brachiaria brizantha pasture (9,8h than they did on the Brachiaria decumbens (11,3h. Different rumination times had been observed, 6,8 and 6,4 h for the animals grazing Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria decumbens

  4. Comportamento de larvas infestantes de Boophilus microplus em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Behaviour of Boophilus microplus larvae in Brachiaria decumbens pasture

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    Ceres Lourenço Barreto Gauss

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de larvas de Boophilus microplus em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens com diferentes dias de descanso para pastoreio bovino foi observado em experimento conduzido na Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, MG, Brasil. Foram utilizados grupos com cinco bezerras 7/8 Holandês x Zebu, os quais foram expostos em áreas de 100 x 20m, submetidas a descanso de pastoreio por 0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias, durante 72 horas. Após esse período, os bovinos foram estabulados em baias coletivas e, a partir do 15º dia, mantidos em baias individuais com piso ripado, apropriado para a coleta de carrapatos adultos. Os resultados indicaram que são necessários, pelo menos, 60 dias de descanso para reduzir a população de larvas infestantes e permitir que essa prática seja utilizada como medida complementar para o controle do carrapato. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão polinomial. Estimou-se em 82,6 dias o período necessário para uma completa limpeza da pastagem.The behaviour of Boophilus microplus larvae in pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with different days of resting for cattle feeding was observed at Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Coronel Pacheco, MG, Brazil. Groups with five calves 7/8 Holstein x Zebu which were exposed to paddocks with 100 x 20m and resting feeding period of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days during 72 hours. After this time, calves were removed and housing. After the fifteenth day they were kept in individual boxes appropriate for tick collection. Results indicated that at least 60 days of paddock resting are necessary for reduction in the infesting larvae population and recommend this handling practice to be used as a complementary measure for tick control. Data were submitted to polynomial regression. A period of 82.6 days was estimated for a complete cleaning of the pasture.

  5. Métodos de recuperação de pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. no Agreste Pernambucano Recovery methods of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pastures in the Agreste region of Pernambuco State

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    Daniel Fernando Ydoyaga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar metodologias que viabilizem a recuperação de pastagens degradadas de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. no Agreste de Pernambuco. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso com confundimento. Os tratamentos experimentais foram constituídos de quatro manejos de recuperação (diferimento, diferimento + gradagem, diferimento + gradagem + milho e diferimento + plantio direto do milho, duas doses de nitrogênio (0 e 100 kg/ha de N, duas doses de fósforo (0 e 100 kg/ha de P2O5, perfazendo 16 tratamentos, com três repetições. O corte foi realizado aos 138 dias do início do experimento. Houve interação entre as adubações utilizadas, evidenciando aumento na disponibilidade de matéria seca para as adição conjunta de 100 kg/ha de N e 100 kg/ha de P2 O5. A disponibilidade de MS total foi superior nos métodos diferimento e diferimento + plantio direto, quando comparados aos tratamentos com gradagem. Aos 138 dias, houve ainda aumento na porcentagem de solo descoberto nos métodos com uso de grade, verificando-se o contrário nos tratamentos sem gradagem. A gradagem não se mostrou uma prática agronômica viável para a recuperação de pastagens degradadas em solos arenosos do Agreste Pernambucano, enquanto o diferimento da pastagem por 138 dias no período chuvoso propiciou a recuperação, principalmente quando associado à adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada. A recuperação da pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. é expressivamente incrementada com a aplicação de adubos nitrogenado e fosfatado pela redução de outras espécies.In order to identify methods of recuperation of degraded pastures in the Agreste of Pernambuco, an experiment was conducted in the Fazenda Riacho do Papaguaio, municipial district of São João. It was used a split-plot feature within a confounded randomized block design. The experimental treatments were four recovery managements (deferment

  6. INÓCULO DE HONGOS DE MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR EN PASTURAS DE Brachiaria decumbens (POACEAE EN ZONAS DE LOMA Y VEGA Inoculum of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae Pastures in Valley and Hilly Terrain

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    RAÚL HERNANDO POSADA ALMANZA

    2007-06-01

    hilly landscapes on the Amazonian piedmont of Colombia. There are few studies on its mycorrhizal relationships. In this study the spore density and external hyphae were determined in 26 B. decumbens pastures, on plain and hilly landscapes; simultaneously phosphorus availability (ppm, pH, and soil relative humidity (% were measured. Spearman (ranks correlations coefficients and nonparametric KruscallWallis one way ANOVA were performed and found that: the inoculum has a different distribution in plain and hilly, the spore densities were higher in hilly terrain than in plain soils, and the external hyphae were more homogeneous in plain than in hilly terrain. Phosphorus availability, pH and soil humidity have no effect on the density of inoculum of HMA.

  7. Inóculo de hongo de micorriza arbuscular en pasturas de Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae en zonas de loma y vega Inoculum of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae Pastures in Valley and Hilly Terrain

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    Sánchez Figueroa Adriana Patricia

    2007-04-01

    hilly landscapes on the Amazonian piedmont of Colombia. There are few studies on its mycorrhizal relationships. In this study the spore density and external
    hyphae were determined in 26 B. decumbens pastures, on plain and hilly landscapes; simultaneously phosphorus availability (ppm, pH, and soil relative humidity (% were measured. Spearman (ranks correlations coefficients and non-parametric Kruscall- Wallis one way ANOVA were performed and found that: the inoculum has a different distribution in plain and hilly, the spore densities were higher in hilly terrain than in plain soils, and the external hyphae were more homogeneous in plain than in hilly terrain. Phosphorus availability, pH and soil humidity have no effect on the density of inoculum of HMA.

  8. Características estruturais e índice de tombamento de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk em pastagens diferidas Structural characteristics and falling index of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk on deferred pastures

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    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo sobre a densidade populacional de perfilhos, a massa dos componentes morfológicos da forragem e o índice de tombamento em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Dois ensaios foram conduzidos: o primeiro denominado ano 1 e, o segundo, ano 2. Adotou-se o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, segundo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com duas repetições para cada combinação dos períodos de diferimento da pastagem com os períodos de pastejo. No ano 1, os períodos de diferimento foram 103, 121, 146 e 163 dias; e no ano 2, foram 73, 103, 131 e 163 dias. Os períodos de pastejo foram 1, 29, 57 e 85 dias. O aumento do período de diferimento elevou a densidade populacional de perfilhos reprodutivos (ano 2: de 37 para 304 perfilhos/m² e reduziu a de perfilhos vegetativos (ano 1: de 1.253 para 889 perfilhos/m²; ano 2: de 1.235 para 627 perfilhos/m². Durante o período de pastejo, ocorreu diminuição no número de perfilhos vegetativo (ano 1: de 988 para 868 perfilhos/m² e reprodutivo (ano 1: de 216 para 0 perfilhos/m²; ano 2: de 203 para 0 perfilhos/m² e aumento no número de perfilhos mortos (ano 1: 463 para 1.088 perfilhos/m²; ano 2: de 341 para 1.010 perfilhos/m². Pastagens sob maiores períodos de diferimento e de pastejo apresentaram maior massa de colmo morto (6.093 e 3.819 kg/ha de MS nos anos 1 e 2, respectivamente e menor massa de lâmina foliar verde (341 e 177 kg/ha de MS nos anos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, submetidos a longos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo possuem características estruturais desfavoráveis à produção animal.This worked aimed to evaluate the effects of deferring and grazing periods on the tiller population density, morphological component mass of forage and falling index on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures. Two assays were carried out: first year and second year

  9. Caracterização da distribuição espacial das fezes por bovinos em uma pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Characterization of bovine feces spatial distribution in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture

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    Sérgio Pereira Braz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no campo Experimental de Coronel Pacheco pertencente à EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição espacial das fezes depositadas por bovinos na pastagem. Foi demarcado um piquete de forma quadrada com 110 m de lado numa pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, com boa disponibilidade de forragem e cobertura homogênea. A área foi dividida em bordadura (faixa de 5 m em toda periferia e área útil de avaliação (região central com 1 ha, onde se estudou a distribuição e cobertura das placas de fezes pelos animais na pastagem. As placas de fezes produzidas pelos três animais que permaneceram na área por 10 semanas cobriram 0,81% da superfície da área experimental. Os dados obtidos permitiram constatar a existência de duas regiões distintas quanto à densidade de deposição das defecações, uma associada ao ato de pastejo quando parte das defecações foram distribuídas na maior parte da área da pastagem, porém com densidade de defecações inferior a outra região distinta que está associada aos atos de descanso e ruminação, a qual ocupa menor área da pastagem, porém apresenta maior densidade de defecações.The experiment was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA/National Dairy Research, at Coronel Pacheco, in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais, to evaluate the qualitative aspects of nutrient recycling through the feces of grazing bovines. A 110 square meter plot was located in a previous established pasture of Brachiaria decumbens. The feces patches produced by the three animals remained in the area per 10 weeks and covered 0.8% of the surface. It was possible to observe the existence of two distinct regions of feces deposition. One associated with the grazing act when part of the feces were distributed with a lower density as compared to the other distinct area associated with rumination and resting, occupying a smaller area.

  10. Desempenho de novilhos F1s Angus-Nelore em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens submetidos a diferentes regimes alimentares Performance of F1s Angus-Nellore steers on Brachiaria decumbens pasture under different feeding regimes

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    Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides

    2001-04-01

    systems feasibility during critical periods as an alternative to reduce the slaughter ages the animals raised in Brachiaria decumbens pastures. Sixty F1s Angus-Nellore weaned calves were randomly assigned in the following treatments: A no supplementation; B supplementation during the dry season after weaning; C supplementation during the second dry season of the animal's life; D supplementation during the both dry seasons; and E supplementation during the first dry season and feedlot in the second one. The used supplement was a commercial ration, daily supplied at about 0.8% and 0.9% of liveweight, in the first and second dry periods, respectively. The feedlot treatment lasted 100 days, and the steers received ad libitum, a diet containing 40% of B. decumbens hay and 60% of concentrate. The experimental period was from weaning to slaughter (460 kg. During the first dry season, the supplemented calves showed higher daily gains (490 g than non supplemented (70 g. In the second dry season, the confined steers presented the highest daily gains (1,285 g, followed by supplemented ones (580 g, while non supplemented steers lost weight (-180 g. There was an increase on the pasture stocking rate capacity where the animals were supplemented, in 20 and 30%, during the first and second dry periods, respectively. In the second dry season, the steers fed with restricted diet presented a compensatory gain when the feed restriction ceased, but it was not enough to allow them to reach the slaughter weight at the same age of the supplemented ones. The slaughter weight were: 30.1; 28.0; 26.6; 24.2 e 22.0 months for treats A, B, C, D and E, respectively. The economic analysis was also presented.

  11. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

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    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm.

  12. Efectos del antecedente cultural en las micorrizas nativas y la productividad del pasto brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Señal Effects of the cultural antecedent on native mycorhizae and the productivity of the brachiaria pasture (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Señal

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    P.J Gonzále

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la influencia del antecedente cultural en la micorrización nativa y en el rendimiento del pasto brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Señal; para ello se seleccionaron dos lotes de 0,5 ha, los cuales durante cinco años previos a la siembra del pasto estuvieron ocupados, en un caso por cultivos de ciclo corto (granos, viandas y hortalizas y en otro por pastos naturales permanentes (principalmente especies del complejo Bothriochloa-Dichanthium y Teramnus labialis. En cada lote se delimitaron diez parcelas de 200 m² cada una, y en mayo de 2004 se sembró la brachiaria en surcos separados a 70 cm y a chorrillo, con una dosis de 8 kg de semilla total ha-1. Después del establecimiento el pasto se cortó cada seis y ocho semanas en los períodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso, respectivamente, y en ningún momento se aplicaron fertilizantes químicos u orgánicos. En cada parcela se tomaron muestras de raíces y de suelo de la rizosfera, para determinar las estructuras micorrízicas del pasto (porcentaje de colonización, porcentaje de densidad visual y número de esporas por 100 g, así como muestras de la biomasa aérea para determinar el contenido y la extracción de macronutrientes, y el rendimiento de MS. Las parcelas que tuvieron los pastos naturales como cultivo precedente mostraron valores significativamente mayores (PThe influence of the cultural antecedent on native mycorhization and the yield of the brachiaria pasture (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Señal was evaluated; for that two 0,5 ha lots were selected, which were occupied for five years before sowing the pasture, in one case by short cycle crops (grains, tubers and vegetables and in the other by permanent natural pastures (mainly species of the Bothriochloa-Dichanthium complex and Teramnus labialis. In each lot ten plots of 200 m² each were delimited, and in May, 2004, the brachiaria was sown in rows separated by 70 cm and with drilling, with a dose of 8 kg total seed ha-1. After

  13. Características estruturais de pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 140 dias e estratégias de adubação nitrogenada=Structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred for 140 days and nitrogen fertilization strategies.

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    Elisângela Oliveira Cardoso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características estruturais de pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 140 dias, visando determinar a estratégia mais adequada de adubação nitrogenada. Foram estudadas quatro estratégias de adubação no início e no final do verão (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. Para avaliação das densidades volumétricas, a forragem foi colhida em três estratos: estrato A- acima de 40 cm; B- 20-40 cm; e C- 0-20 cm do solo. O índice de tombamento foi menor (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred for 140 days, in order to determine the most appropriate nitrogenous fertilization. Four fertilization strategies were studied at the beginning and end of summer (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 N, respectively, with four replications. For volumetric density evaluation, forage was harvested in three strata: stratum A- over 40 cm above the soil; B- 20-40 cm; and C- 0-20 cm above the soil. The falling index was lower (p < 0.05 for the fertilization strategy using 100 kg ha-1 N applied at the end of summer. In stratum B (between 20 and 40 cm above the soil, greater (p < 0.05 densities were observed for total forage, leaf blade and green stem using the fertilization strategy of 100 kg ha-1 N applied in early summer (100-0. Greater stem lengths (p < 0.05 were observed in pastures with fertilization strategy 0-100, followed by the 50-50 strategy. The strategies of applying 100 kg ha-1 at the end of summer, followed by the strategy of 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen partitioned in the beginning and end of summer, have a positive influence on the structural characteristics in pastures deferred for 140 days.

  14. Características estruturais de pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 140 dias e estratégias de adubação nitrogenada - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.10212 Structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred for 140 days and nitrogen fertilization strategies - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.10212

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    Giselle Caroline Fernandes Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características estruturais de pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 140 dias, visando determinar a estratégia mais adequada de adubação nitrogenada. Foram estudadas quatro estratégias de adubação no início e no final do verão (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 de N, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. Para avaliação das densidades volumétricas, a forragem foi colhida em três estratos: estrato A- acima de 40 cm; B- 20-40 cm; e C- 0-20 cm do solo. O índice de tombamento foi menor (p -1 de N aplicados no final do verão. No estrato B foram observadas maiores (p -1 de N aplicados no início do verão (100-0. Maiores comprimentos de colmos (p -1 no final do verão, seguida da estratégia de 50 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio parcelado no início e final do verão, promoveram influência positiva sobre as características estruturais em pastos diferidos por 140 dias.The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred for 140 days, in order to determine the most appropriate nitrogenous fertilization. Four fertilization strategies were studied at the beginning and end of summer (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 N, respectively, with four replications. For volumetric density evaluation, forage was harvested in three strata: stratum A- over 40 cm above the soil; B- 20-40 cm; and C- 0-20 cm above the soil. The falling index was lower (p -1 N applied at the end of summer. In stratum B (between 20 and 40 cm above the soil, greater (p -1 N applied in early summer (100-0. Greater stem lengths (p -1 at the end of summer, followed by the strategy of 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen partitioned in the beginning and end of summer, have a positive influence on the structural characteristics in pastures deferred for 140 days.

  15. Diferimento de pastos de Brachiaria decumbens adubados com nitrogênio no início e no final do período das águas Deferring of Brachiaria decumbens pastures fertilized with nitrogen at the beginning and the end of the rainy season

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    Fábio Andrade Teixeira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo com este trabalho foi avaliar a massa de matéria seca forragem e de seus componentes morfológicos, a altura e o índice de tombamento do pasto, a densidade volumétrica e o valor nutritivo da forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 95 dias sob quatro estratégias de adubação nitrogenada. Foram estudadas quatro estratégias de aplicação de nitrogênio no início e no final do período chuvoso, respectivamente (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg de N.ha-1, avaliados em três estratos verticais a cada 20 cm, num delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Os pastos adubados com 100 kg de N no final do período chuvoso apresentaram maiores massas de matéria seca de forragem total, lâmina de folha e de colmo verde, bem como altura, altura estendida e densidade volumétrica da forragem total, lâmina de folha e de colmo verde em todos os estratos estudados. Os índices de tombamento foram maiores para os pastos adubados no final do período chuvoso (0-100 e 50-50. Os percentuais de fibra em detergente neutro foram menores no estrato A (acima de 40 cm do solo e os teores proteína bruta (PB maiores em todos os estratos para os tratamentos 0-100 e 50-50. Embora a adubação com 100 kg de N no final do período chuvoso permita aumentar a massa de forragem total e de lâminas de folhas e melhorar a qualidade desta forragem, a maior densidade de colmos nos estratos superiores e o elevado índice de tombamento podem caracterizar dificuldades na seleção da forragem e redução no consumo e desempenho animal.The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage dry matter yield and its morphological components, height and pasture falling index, bulk density and forage nutritional value in Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred for 95 days under four strategies of nitrogen fertilization. It was studied four strategies of nitrogen application at the beginning

  16. Uso do clorofilômetro no manejo da adubação nitrogenada para milho em sucessão a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Use of chlorophyll meter in nitrogen fertilizing management to corn after Brachiaria decumbens pasture

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    Leandro José Grava de Godoy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A resposta do milho à adubação nitrogenada em cultivo após pastagem depende da espécie, da quantidade de palha, da relação C:N, da população microbiana, das condições climáticas e de outros fatores. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a utilização da intensidade da cor verde da folha (ICV, medida pelo clorofilômetro, como indicativo para o manejo da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura, na cultura do milho, em sucessão a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos com 29 litros de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, com três plantas por vaso. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com cinco repetições, constituído por quatro níveis de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150mg dm-3 e quatro de níveis de palhada de B. decumbens (0, 5, 10 e 15Mg ha-1, aplicados em cobertura. As doses de N foram parceladas em três épocas: a1/3 na semeadura; b1/3 no estádio de 4-5 folhas e c1/3 no estádio de 7-8 folhas. As determinações da ICV da folha foram efetuadas um dia antes e uma semana após a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. As quantidades de fitomassa seca de braquiária influenciaram a ICV da folha somente no estádio de 7-8 folhas. A manutenção de maiores ICV da folha do estádio de 4-5 (46,6 unidades SPAD até o estádio de 8-9 folhas (53,0 unidades SPAD possibilitou o maior acúmulo da fitomassa seca na parte aérea do milho. O monitoramento da ICV da folha pode auxiliar na avaliação da disponibilidade de N para a planta do milho durante o ciclo.The corn response to the nitrogen fertilizing cultivated after pasture depends on of the species, straw amount, C: N rate, microbial population, climatic conditions and other factors. The study was aimed at evaluating the use of the green color intensity of the leaf (GCI, measured by the chlorophyll meter, as indicative for nitrogen fertilizing management sidedress in the corn crop, after B

  17. Avaliação de pastagem diferida de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. 2. Disponibilidade de forragem e desempenho animal durante a seca Evaluation of a signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf postponed pasture. 2. Availability of herbage and animal performance, during the dry season

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    Eduardo Destéfani Guimarães Santos

    2004-02-01

    herbage, green leaf, green stem, dead leaf and dead stem components was evaluated in the Signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season, and after postponement period, from July to October 1997. The pasture characteristics were correlated with the average daily weight gain (ADG of crossbred Limousin-Nelore males, aging 19 months and 374 kg body weight on average, from July to September 1997. The average availability of herbage was 7.568 kg dry matter (DM/hectare (AH, green herbage (AGH 3,834 kg DM/ha, and dead herbage (ADH 3,734, in early July, after the postponement period of the Signalgrass pasture. The continuous utilization during the dry period of the postponed pasture, and stocking rate .75 animal units, did not affect AH and ADH, respectively, 7,902 and 4,637 kg/ha on average; nevertheless, diminished the availability of green herbage and green leaf dry matter (AGL. The availability of green herbage and of green leaf component increased in July and October, and reduced at crescent rate from August to September. In late September, the average availability of green herbage reached least value, 2,540 kg DM/ha. The availability and proportion of green leaf component in total herbage were greatest in early August, respectively, 1,517 kg DM/ha and 18.5%, and were least in late September, respectively, 480 kg DM/ha and 5.7%. The tropical pasture postponement warranted the maintenance of the animals, and leaded at a minimum average daily gain (ADG (104 g/d, during the dry season. In September, the animals loosed body weight. ADG was linearly and negatively correlated with availability of dead dry matter, and it was linearly and positively correlated with the availability of green dry matter/dead dry matter ratio and green leaf dry matter/dead dry matter plus green stem dry matter ratio. Had no correlation between the ADG and availability of green leaf, and between the ADG and availability of green herbage. ADG did not correlated with grazing pressure or

  18. Terminação de tourinhos Limousin X Nelore em pastagem diferida de Brachiaria Decumbens stapf, durante a estação seca, alimentados com diferentes concentrados Finishing Limousin X Nelore young bulls in Brachiaria decumbens stapf postponed pasture, during dry season, fed different concentrates

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    Eduardo Destéfani Guimarães Santos

    2004-12-01

    17 months and 367 kg average live weight, in Brachiaria decumbens postponed pasture, and during the dry season. The animals were distributed in five treatments: T1, control, the animals received only mineral complex; and the others were constituted by 1.49% of mineral complex, 1.99% of urea, and cracked corn, soybean meal and wheat bran in different percentages. The treatments had 24% crude protein of the dry matter, and different non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and neutral detergent fiber (NDF contents. The concentrates were offered in amount equivalent to 1% of animal live weight on original matter basis. The experiment was analyzed in completely randomized design, with five treatments and eight replications. The influence of pasture characteristics over the supplemented animals performances were studied. The results showed that young bulls can be finished on tropical pastures during dry season using supplements. The animals with supplements exhibited similar average daily gains (ADG, but showed higher ADG than the control animals, respectively, 915 and 104 g/d. In September, the control animals loosed 292 g/d. ADG was linearly and negatively correlated with availability of dead forage dry matter, and it was linearly and positively correlated with availability of green forage dry matter, and availability of green forage dry matter/dead forage dry matter ratio, green forage dry matter/total forage dry matter ratio, green leaf dry matter/dead forage dry matter plus green stem dry matter ratio, and green leaf dry matter/total forage dry matter ratio.

  19. Produção anual e qualidade de pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens diferida e estratégias de adubação nitrogenada - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10194 Annual production and quality of Brachiaria decumbens pastures deferred and strategies nitrogen fertilization - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10194

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    Daniela Deitos Fries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por períodos de 95 e 140 dias. Foram realizados dois ensaios experimentais (95 e 140 dias e em cada ensaio foram estudadas quatro estratégias de adubação no início e no final do verão (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg há-1 de N, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. A maior (p -1 de N aplicados no início do verão (100-0, nos pastos diferidos com 95 dias. Entretanto, no outono, inverno e primavera, a estratégia de aplicação de 100 kg ha-1 de N no final do verão (0-100, proporcionou maiores (p -1 no final do verão é uma estratégia adequada para aumentar a produção de matéria seca para os pastos avaliados nos dois períodos de diferimento estudados, reduzindo a curva de sazonalidade da produção anual de forragem.The aim of this work was to evaluate the production of Brachiaria decumbens deferred for periods of 95 and 140 days. Two experimental trials (95 and 140 days were carried out and, in each one, four fertilization strategies were studied at the beginning and end of summer (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 of N, respectively, with four replications. The highest (p -1 of N applied in early summer (100-0, in pastures deferred for 95 days. However, in autumn, winter and spring, the application strategy of 100 kg ha-1 of N at end of summer (0-100 had greater (p -1 in late summer is an appropriate strategy to increase dry matter production for grasses in the two studied deferral periods, reducing the curve of seasonal annual forage production.

  20. Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens Toxicity in Grazing Ruminants

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    Susan G. Low

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread through South America, Australia, Indonesia, Vanuatu and Malaysia due to its adaptation to a wide range of soil types and environments. Animal production from these B. decumbens pastures is highly variable due to sporadic outbreaks of photosensitisation associated with low growth rates of young animals, anorexia and wasting. The identification of B. decumbens toxicity through clinical signs may grossly underestimate the impact and severity of the disease. Affected animals without clinical signs have elevated serum liver enzyme concentrations resulting from blockage of the bile ducts by birefringent crystals, identified as calcium salts of steroidal saponins found in leaves and stems. The concentrations of the steroidal saponins vary through the year and within the plant. Young, green leaves contain 5–10 times the saponin concentration of mature leaves indicating that B. decumbens pastures are likely to be more toxic during sprouting and early growth. Previous exposure, selective grazing, and avoiding toxic leaves may partly explain apparent resistance of some animals to B. decumbens toxicity. Further research is needed to define growing conditions that produce elevated saponin levels and to investigate the impact of B. decumbens on rumen function.

  1. Valor nutritivo de perfilhos e componentes morfológicos em pastos de capim-braquiária diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio Nutritive value of tillers and morphological components on deferred and nitrogen fertilized pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk

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    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo de perfilhos e componentes morfológicos em pastos diferidos e adubados com nitrogênio de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Dois experimentos foram realizados em delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições e esquema de parcela subdivida. No primeiro experimento, foram realizadas combinações entre doses de nitrogênio (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha com os componentes morfológicos (folha verde, colmo verde, folha morta e colmo morto ou com as categorias de perfilhos (vegetativo e reprodutivo do pasto. No segundo experimento, estudaram-se as combinações entre períodos de diferimento (73, 95 e 116 dias com categorias de perfilhos (vegetativo e reprodutivo. A adubação nitrogenada aumentou o percentual de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN nos colmos verdes e o teor de proteína bruta (PB nas folhas verdes e mortas e no colmo verde. Elevou também os percentuais de PB nos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos, assim como o teor de FDN do perfilhos vegetativos. Maior período de diferimento causou acréscimo no percentual de FDN e redução no percentual de proteína bruta nos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos. A dose de nitrogênio e o período de diferimento alteram o valor nutritivo dos componentes morfológicos e dos perfilhos dos pastos de B. decumbens cv. Basilisk. No diferimento da pastagem, ações de manejo que resultem em maiores percentuais de lâmina foliar verde e perfilho vegetativo no pasto contribuem para melhorar o valor nutritivo da forragem diferida.This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the nutritional value of tillers and the morphological components on deferred and nitrogen-fertilized pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Two experiments were performed in randomized block designs with three repetitions and subdivided plot scheme. In the first experiment, combinations among nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha were performed

  2. Influência da localização das fezes nas características morfogênicas e estruturais e no acúmulo de forragem em pastos de capim-braquiária Influence of localization of feces on morphogenetic and structural characteristics and forage accumulation on Brachiaria decumbens pastures

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    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e estruturais e o acúmulo de forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária de acordo com a localização das fezes de bovinos. Foram avaliadas duas áreas da pastagem: próxima e distante das fezes. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram marcados perfilhos no pasto para avaliação do comprimento de folhas e colmos. O aparecimento e a morte de folhas também foram registrados. A taxa de alongamento de colmo foi 80% maior e a taxa de alongamento foliar 23% maior nos perfilhos das áreas próximas das fezes. O filocrono também foi maior nos perfilhos (8,5 dias das áreas próximas às fezes em comparação àqueles de áreas distantes (7,7 dias. Não houve efeito da localização das fezes sobre a taxa de senescência foliar (0,39 cm/perfilho.dia e a duração de vida da folha (38 dias. O comprimento final da lâmina foliar foi 25% maior nos perfilhos localizados próximos às fezes. O número de folhas com desfolhação (1,3 folhas foi menor nas áreas próximas às fezes, contrariamente ao número de folhas mortas (2,8 folhas. O comprimento do pseudocolmo aumentou 73% com a proximidade das fezes. Os números de perfilhos vegetativos, mortos e total foram maiores nas áreas distantes das fezes. Maior taxa de crescimento total do capim-braquiária também ocorreu nas áreas próximas às fezes. A deposição de fezes bovinas modifica as características morfogênicas e a estrutura do pasto de B. decumbens. Nas regiões próximas às fezes, o fluxo de tecidos é mais intenso e o acúmulo de forragem é maior.The objective of this study is to evaluate morphogenetic and structural characteristics as well as forage accumulation on Brachiaria decumbens pastures according to the site of cattle feces. It was evaluated two grazing areas: near and far from the droppings. The design used was a random block design, with three replicates. Tillers were

  3. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras Soil litter stock and fertility after planting leguminous shrubs and forage trees on degraded signal grass pasture

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    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.Pastures are the fodder supply of Brazilian livestock, and are exhaustively degraded by nitrogen (N deficiency. Intercropping with legumes, aside from nitrogen fixation, may have

  4. Meiotic behavior of Brachiaria decumbens hybrids.

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    Souza, V F; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B; Bione, N C P; Menon, M U; Mendes-Bonato, A B

    2015-10-21

    Brachiaria decumbens is a forage grass of inestimable value for livestock in Brazil due to its production of good quality forage even when planted on acid and poor soils, although it is susceptible to pasture spittlebugs. Only one cultivar, cv. Basilisk, has been used as the pollen donor in crosses with Brachiaria ruziziensis since 1988 at Embrapa Gado de Corte Research Center. Breeding within the species only became possible from 2009 when sexual accessions were successfully tetraploidized using colchicine. Three sexual genotypes were obtained and hybridization within B. decumbens was finally achieved. Here, we evaluated microspore tetrads using conventional cytology and found meiotic indexes above 78% for all three female genitors (cD24-2, cD24-27, cD24-45), but a low meiotic index (abnormal tetrad frequency and non-viable pollen grains yielded a highly significant Pearson correlation coefficient. The t-test proved significant for the progeny of cD24-45 x D62, with lower abnormalities and pollen sterility when compared to the other two progenies resulting from cD24-2 and cD24-27 crossed to D62, but these two did not differ. Apomictic hybrids such as S036 and X030 with low pollen sterility have the potential for use in cultivar development, whereas the sexual hybrids T012, X072, and X078 might be of use as female genitors in polycross blocks if they display good agronomic traits.

  5. HALOXYFOP-P-METHYL IN THE CONTROL OF BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS IN EUCALYPTUS

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    Henrico Luiz Bizão de Assis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil expanded to the Midwest region of the country in areas previously occupied by pastures, especially of Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass, making it the main weed in eucalyptus plantation. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of haloxyfop-P-methyl to control B. decumbens infesting eucalyptus seedlings. This experiment was set up in three situations: monoculture eucalyptus, eucalyptus in coexistence with B. decumbens and the weed cultivated alone. Haloxyfop-p-methyl was applied 67 days after plating the seedlings at doses of 0; 48 and 96 g.i.a.ha-1. Only the highest dose (96 g.i.a.ha-1 of haloxyfop-p-methyl provided good weed control. The herbicide, at the tested doses, was selective for eucalyptus and the relationship between eucalyptus and B. decumbens resulted in negative interference for both species.

  6. Brachiaria decumbens supresses the initial growth of Coffea arabica

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    Dias Guilherme Faus da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria decumbens is becoming one the most common weeds growing in young coffee orchards because, besides its fast growth and difficulty of control, new coffee orchards are usually established in pasture areas. In order to verify the effect of B. decumbens plant density on the early growth of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Amarelo, a competition experiment was conducted under semi-controlled humidity conditions. Soil collected in a Typic Haplustox was placed in 70 L asbestos cement boxes and one coffee seedling was planted in each box. The B. decumbens seedlings were transplanted to the boxes at the 2-4 leaf stage. Treatments consisted of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, and 60 weeds m-2. The experimental period started 120 days after transplanting and the experimental design was organized as completely randomized blocks, with four replicates. All coffee plant parameters evaluated were negatively affected by the interference. The most sensitive characteristics were leaf area (41.8% reduction with 8 plants m-2, reaching 68.7% at a density of 60 plants m-2. Therefore, at a density of 8 plants m-2 the reduction in leaf dry biomass was 41.4% compared with the check. At the density of 60 plants m-2 it was 72.8%. B. decumbens, at a density of 8 or more plants m-2, suppressed coffee plants during a growth period of 120 days.

  7. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances

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    M. R. Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially ‘concentrating’ feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows, 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land with home-grown feed (HGF providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate: CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate: CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements. However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture

  8. Redução da interferência de Brachiaria decumbens na formação de pastagem com Penisetum purpureum através de herbicidas Reduction of Brachiaria decumbens interference on Pennisetum purpureum pasture establishment through herbicides

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    W. Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A tolerância da gramínea forrageira capim-elefante a herbicidas aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas entre si, aplicados em condições de pré e pós-emergência da forrageira, bem como a eficiência desses produtos no controle de B. decumbens e outras espécies de plantas daninhas, foram avaliadas em dois experimentos. Os herbicidas aplicados no experimento conduzido em condições de pré-emergência do capim-elefante, com as respectivas doses em kg ha-1, foram: metolachlor (1,152; 2,304; e 3,456, oxyfluorfen (0,48; 0,96 e 1,44 e a formulação comercial de atrazine + metolachlor (1,25; 2,50; e 3,75, três repetições. Os herbicidas aplicados no experimento instalado em condições de pós-emergência da forrageira, com as respectivas doses em kg ha-1,foram: ametryne (1,25; 2,50; e 3,75 e oxyfluorfen (0,48; 0,96; e 1,44, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso; sendo que, em ambos os experimentos foram adicionadas as testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, e os cultivares de capim-elefante utilizados em ambos os experimentos foram Cameroon e Pioneiro. A aplicação dos herbicidas em pré-emergência da forrageira foi feita um dia após o plantio com solo úmido; no experimento em pós-emergência do capim-elefante os herbicidas foram aplicados sobre o topo das plantas da cultura forrageira, aos 20 dias após a emergência. Metolachlor e atrazine + metolachlor, em pré-emergência, foram seletivos para os dois cultivares testados. O oxyfluorfen, até 0,96 kg ha-1, foi seletivo para a cultura forrageira nas aplicações tanto em pré- como em pós-emergência. O ametryne, em pós-emergência, também foi seletivo aos cultivares na dose inferior a 2,50 kg ha-1. B. decumbens e B. brizantha foram eficientemente controladas (90,9% em pré-emergência, exceto na menor dose de metolachlor e atrazine + metolachlor. O controle das dicotiledôneas atingiu 85% com metolachlor, atrazine + metolachlor e oxyfluorfen

  9. Correlações entre número de perfilhos, índice de tombamento, massa dos componentes morfológicos e valor nutritivo da forragem em pastos diferidos de capim-braquiária Correlations between the number of tillers, falling index, morphological component mass and nutritional value of forage in deferred Urochroa decumbens pastures

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    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar correlações entre características estruturais e valor nutritivo do pasto diferido de U. decumbens cv. Basilisk. O experimento foi realizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, segundo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com duas repetições. Os tratamentos foram combinações dos períodos de diferimento da pastagem (73, 103, 131 e 163 dias com os períodos de pastejo (1, 29, 57 e 85 dias. A massa de lâmina foliar verde correlacionou-se positivamente com os percentuais de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro potencialmente digestível (FDNpoD e matéria seca potencialmente digestível (MSpoD, mas negativamente com os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e FDN indigestível. As correlações para colmo morto foram inversas àquelas obtidas para lâmina verde. Para o perfilho vegetativo, as correlações foram positivas com PB e MSpoD e negativas com FDN e FDNi. Para o perfilho morto, constataram-se correlações positivas com os percentuais de FDN e FDNi da forragem, bem como associação negativa com os teores de PB, FDNpoD e MSpoD. O índice de tombamento correlacionou-se de forma negativa com o número de perfilhos vegetativos e de forma positiva com o número de perfilhos reprodutivos e mortos. O índice de tombamento também se correlacionou positivamente com os teores de FDN e FDNi e de forma negativa com os percentuais de PB e MSpoD. As características estruturais do pasto diferido estão associadas ao seu valor nutritivo. Ações de manejo que reduzam a massa de colmo morto e o número de perfilhos mortos e perfilhos reprodutivos contribuem para melhorar a estrutura e o valor nutritivo do pasto diferido.The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between the structural characteristics and nutritional value of different U. decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures. The experiment was carried out in a split-plot design following a randomized block design with two replications. The treatments

  10. Soil nutrients and liming on dry weight yields and forage quality of Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.), grown on Korat soil series (oxic paleustults) in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholsen, Suradej

    2010-07-01

    This experiment was carried out at Khon Kaen University Experimental Farm, Khon Kaen University, Thailand during the 2004-2005 aiming to investigate effect of phosphorus (P) and dolomite levels on dry weight yields (DWYs) and forage quality of Signal grass. A 4x3 factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used. Four P levels were: 0, 100, 200 and 400 kg P2O5 ha-1 and three dolomite levels were: 0, 625 and 2,500 kg ha-1. The Signal grass plants were grown on Korat soil series, (Oxic Paleustults). A quadrat with a dimension of 50x50 cm was used for grass yield harvests. Crude Protein (CP), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) and Dry Matter Degradability (DMD) contents were determined. Tissues phosphorus and calcium contents were also analysed. The results showed that an increase in dolomite levels increased soil pH from 4.4 to 5.1 for levels 1 and 3, respectively. An increase in P levels increased available soil P from 4.56 to 28.38 ppm for levels 1 and 4, respectively. For the first year experiment, dolomite levels had no significant effect on DWYs, whilst P levels significantly increased but only up to level 2. The 2-year average DWYs reached 11,368 kg ha-1 for level 4 of P. With the first year rainy season harvests, P levels had its significant effect on ADF and DMD up to level 2 but not with CP and NDF. For the dry season harvests, P and dolomite levels had no significant effects on forage quality. Dolomite levels had no significant effect on P and Ca contents of the Signal grass tissues but an increase in P levels increased P contents. P and Ca contents, in most cases, were higher for the dry season than the rainy season.

  11. Consumo, digestibilidade e parâmetros ruminais em tourinhos Limousin-Nelore, suplementados durante a seca em pastagem diferida de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters in young bulls Limousin-Nelore, supplemented during dry season in Brachiaria decumbens Stapf postponed pasture

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    Eduardo Destéfani Guimarães Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a influência de concentrados com diferentes teores de energia sobre consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, pH e concentração de amônia do líquido ruminal em cinco tourinhos F1 Limousin-Nelore, com 18 meses e 286 kg de peso médio, fistulados no esôfago e rúmen. Os animais foram mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, durante a seca, e receberam apenas sal mineralizado, ou um dos tratamentos constituídos de 1,49% de mistura mineral completa, 1,99% uréia e diferentes proporções de milho quebrado, farelo de soja e farelo de trigo, com média de 24% de PB e diferentes teores de carboidratos não fibrosos e de fibra em detergente neutro. Os suplementos foram fornecidos em quantidades equivalentes, em matéria original, a 1% do peso vivo (PV. O consumo de matéria seca (CMS dos animais suplementados, média de 2,05% do PV (84,5 g MS/kg PV0,75, foi 42% maior que o CMS dos animais não suplementados, média de 1,44% do PV (57,7 g MS/kg PV0,75. O fornecimento de concentrados elevou em 55,4% a digestibilidade da MS e em 60,4% a concentração de energia digestível na dieta. O pH do líquido ruminal foi linear e negativamente influenciado pelo tratamento mais rico em milho quebrado, e linear e positivamente influenciado (PThe experiment was carried out to determine the supplements effects in the voluntary intake, digestibility, rumen pH and ammonia content of five 18 months old and 286 kg of live weight Nelore-Limousin young bulls, that received rumen and esophageal fistula. The treatments were: control, the animals received only mineral complex; and the others four were constituted by 1,49% of mineral complex, 1,99% of urea, and cracked corn, soybean meal and wheat bran different percentages. The treatments had 24% average crude protein, and non-fibrous carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber different contents, and were provided on original matter basis, in amount

  12. Instabilidade meiótica em plantas invasoras de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Gramineae Meiotic instability in invader plants of signal grass Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Gramineae

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    Neide da Silva

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria decumbens é uma gramínea tropical, nativa das savanas africanas, com ampla distribuição natural. Por outro lado, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk é uma gramínea perene amplamente utilizada nos trópicos como pastagem. Esta cultivar foi introduzida na Austrália em 1930 e daí, em 1960, foi trazida para o Brasil. Embora cubra milhões de hectares de pastagens do Brasil, é considerada uma erva daninha quando ocorre fora destes ambientes. Plantas invasoras de B. decumbens, provavelmente da cultivar Basilisk, foram coletadas no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá e citologicamente avaliadas. Alta instabilidade meiótica foi encontrada entre as plantas analisadas, sendo que algumas anormalidades nunca haviam sido descritas para Brachiaria decumbens ou qualquer outra espécie de Brachiaria. Entre as anormalidades encontradas, descreve-se a ocorrência de segregação cromossômica irregular, dessinapse, aderência cromossômica e sincícios fusionais. É discutida a influência da instabilidade meiótica sobre a esterilidade do pólenBrachiaria decumbens is a tropical grass, native of the African savannas, with a narrow natural distribution. On the other hand, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk is a perennial forage grass widely used for pasture in the tropics. This cultivar was introduced in Australia in 1930 and thence to Brazil in the 60s. Although it covers millions of hectares in the country, it is considered a weed outside the pasture environment. Invader plants of B. decumbens, probably of the cultivar Basilisk, were collected on the grounds of the State University of Maringá, PR, and cytologically analyzed. Meiotic abnormalities were recorded with great frequency, some of which had been previously reported neither for B. decumbens nor for other Brachiaria species. Among the irregularities, abnormal chromosome segregation, desynapsis, chromosome stickiness and fusional syncytes were reported. The influence of the meiotic instability

  13. Final Critical Habitat for the Willamette daisy (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Willamette daisy (Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens) occur.

  14. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos de auto-regulação de consumo na recria de novilhos mestiços em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens durante o período das águas Energy sources in multiple supplements of self-feed of growing crossbred steers at pastures of Brachiaria Decumbens in wet season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Fonseca Paulino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes energéticas em suplementos múltiplos de auto-regulação de consumo sobre o ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso total (GPT, pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em novilhos recriados em pastejo no período das águas. Foram avaliados suplementos contendo grão de milho moído (GMM, milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS, sorgo moído (SM e tratamento controle (mistura mineral - MM. Utilizaram-se 16 novilhos mestiços Holandês-Zebu, não-castrados, com 12 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 265 kg para avaliar o desempenho. Os parâmetros ruminais foram obtidos utilizando-se quatro novilhos mestiços Holandês-Zebu fistulados no rúmen. O pH do líquido ruminal variou de 6,43 a 6,62 (média de 6,55, não sendo influenciado pelas quantidades de sal e de suplemento consumidas. As concentrações de amônia foram de 9,61; 25,71; 24,45 e 26,04 mg/dL, respectivamente para os tratamentos MM, GMM, MDPS, SM. Não se verificou diferença entre os tratamentos, contudo o suplemento MDPS proporcionou ganhos adicionais em torno de 220 g/animal/dia. Maiores concentrações de amônia ruminal foram observadas nos animais suplementados.The effect of different energy sources in multiple supplements of self-feed on the average daily gain (ADG, total weight gain (TWG, pH and ruminal ammonia concentration of steers grazed at pasture in the wet season was evaluated. Treatments were supplements containing ground corn grain (GCG, corn, ears and cob (CEC, ground sorghum (GS and control treatment (mineral mix - MM. Sixteen crossbreed steers with initial age and weight of 12 months old and 265 kg were used. Ruminal parameters were obtained from four crossbreed steers fistulated in the rumen. The pH values ranged from 6.43 to 6.62, with an average of 6.55 not having effect for the amounts of salt and supplement consumed. Concentrations were 9.61, 25.71, 24.45 and 26.04 mg/dL, respectively, for MM, GCG

  15. EMERGENCY BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS A FUNCTION OF DEPTH OF SEEDS IN SOIL PROFILE

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    SILVA, Adilson Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The grass B. decumbens is the most cultivated pasture establishment in Brazil pastures and on areas used for other crops is amongst the more undesired weeds, due to hard control and rusticity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of sowing depths on B. decumbens emergence. The tests were performed on green house using the following sowing depths (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0 e 10.0 cm. From 7.0 cm deep occurred significant emergence speed index (SEI and seedlings emergence percentage (%ESI reduction. In assessing the ability of germination of B. decumbens occurred suppression effect of germination in greater depth evaluated, while the other depths were tested emergency plan, with lower occurrence between 5 and 7 cm and topsoil. Layers between 0.5 and 2.5 cm larger plants des emergency occurred. A gramínea B. decumbens é a mais cultivada em formação de pastagens no Brasil, em áreas onde são utilizadas para outros cultivos torna-se uma das plantas daninhas mais indesejadas, devido o seu difícil controle e rusticidade. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a emergência das plântulas de B. decumbens em profundidades de semeadura. Os ensaios foram realizados em casa de vegetação com as seguintes profundidades de semeadura (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 4,0; 5,0; 6,0; 7,0; 8,0; 9,0 e 10,0 cm. A partir de 7,0 cm de profundidade ocorreu redução significativa no índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE e na porcentagem de emergência das plântulas (%ESI de B. decumbens. Na avaliação da habilidade de germinação da B. decumbens ocorreu efeito de supressão da germinação na maior profundidade avaliada, enquanto que, as demais profundidades testadas ocorreram emergência da planta, com menor ocorrencia entre 5 e 7 cm e na camada superficial do solo. Nas camadas entre 0,5 e 2,5 cm ocorreu maior emergência des plantas.

  16. Two new brominated diterpenes from Laurencia decumbens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new brominated diterpenes, namely, laurendecumtriol and 11-deacetylpinnaterpene C, were isolated and identified from the marine red alga Laurencia decumbens. Their structures were established on the basis of various NMR spectroscopic techniques and HR-ESI-MS analyses.

  17. Efeito alelopático de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens sobre o crescimento inicial de sete espécies de plantas cultivadas Allelopathic effects of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of seven crops

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    L.S. Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho constou de sete experimentos, que foram conduzidos na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, campus de Botucatu, UNESP, São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos alelopáticos de Brachiaria decumbens, colhida em diferentes épocas, sobre o crescimento inicial de milho, arroz, trigo, soja, feijão, algodão e capim-braquiária (B. decumbens, bem como a dinâmica do nitrogênio no solo. A parte aérea de B. decumbens foi coletada durante as estações seca (outono-inverno e chuvosa (primavera-verão, em área de pastagem localizada no município de Botucatu-SP. A matéria seca triturada de B. decumbens foi incorporada ao solo dos vasos na proporção de 3% p/p. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Contando-se a partir do transplante, o experimento foi conduzido por 21 dias para milho e feijão, 24 dias para soja e trigo, 28 dias para arroz e 30 dias para algodão e capim-braquiária. O crescimento dessas plantas foi reduzido com a adição de capim-braquiária para as duas épocas, sendo o próprio capim-braquiária o mais afetado. Os efeitos inibitórios foram mais intensos para capim-braquiária coletado na estação chuvosa. A incorporação da matéria seca da parte aérea de B. decumbens reduziu, significativamente, os teores de nitrato no solo, em todos os estudos realizados.This work consisted of seven experiments carried out at UNESP Botucatu-SP Brazil to evaluate the allelopathic effects of Brachiaria decumbens collected in different seasons on the initial growth of corn, rice, wheat, soybean, bean, cotton and B. decumbens and to evaluate nitrogen dynamics in the soil. The upper part of B. decumbens was collected during the dry and wet seasons in a pasture area located in the district of Botucatu-SP. The dry matter was ground and incorporated into the soil in 3% w/w. The experimental design was arranged in completely randomized plots with 5 replications

  18. Avaliação de marcadores e modelos matemáticos para o estudo das cinéticas de trânsito e de degradação ruminal em novilhos mantidos em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Evaluation of markers and mathematical models to study passage and ruminal degradation kinetics in steers grazing signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Mendes Cipriano Lira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As cinéticas de passagem de partículas e de fluidos foram estudadas em novilhos mantidos em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.. Foram feitas análises de variância em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, discriminando-se os efeitos de estação (seca e chuvosa e de bloco (animais compondo as parcelas. As duas primeiras análises foram realizadas com base no efeito de marcador de fase sólida (cromo, itérbio e európio na primeira e de um modelo matemático na segunda, compondo as subparcelas. Na cinética de fluidos, a análise de variância foi feita com os mesmos efeitos descritos para as parcelas e os modelos matemáticos compondo as subparcelas. Os modelos também foram comparados por meio de análise de resíduos. O modelo multicompartimental foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados observados e o cromo mordente, o que melhor representou o fluxo das partículas, estimando-se taxas de passagem de 0,0283 e 0,0521 h-1 para os períodos de seca e de chuvas, respectivamente. Os dados da cinética de fluidos foram melhor ajustados pelo modelo exponencial, registrando-se taxas de passagem de 0,1183; 0,0947 e 0,1342 h-1 para os meses de julho, setembro e janeiro, respectivamente. Na cinética de degradação ruminal, as estações (chuvosa e seca foram dispostas em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, de modo que as estações foram distribuídas nas parcelas e as estimativas dos parâmetros obtidas pelo ajuste de diferentes modelos matemáticos nas subparcelas. A matéria seca da forragem apresentou degradabilidade efetiva de 327 e 279 gkg-1 para os períodos chuvoso e seco, com perfil de degradação da MS adequadamente descrito pelo modelo de crescimento assintótico de primeira ordem. Na degradação da fibra, os modelos matemáticos de melhor ajuste foram os de crescimento assintótico de primeira ordem corrigido para o período de latência discreta e seu recíproco. A

  19. Liming and plant aging influence on micronutrient uptake by Brachiaria decumbens forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br; Primavesi, Odo; Primavesi, Ana C. [EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pecuaria do Sudeste (CPPSE)], E-mail: odo@cppse.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Brachiaria decumbens is the main forage in pastures of several Brazilian regions. The effects of liming and plant age on micronutrient uptake by the forage of a degraded Brachiaria decumbens pasture under restoration process, were studied in Sao Carlos - SP, southeastern Brazil, under altitude tropical climate. Experimental design was a random block (100 m{sup 2}), with 6 replications and 3 treatments. Each block received the following treatment: 0 t/ha of limestone with NK; 2 t/ha of limestone applied on soil surface with NK and maintenance of 1 t/ha per annum; 8 t/ha of limestone applied once on soil surface with NK. Forage samples were collected 14 cm above soil surface, each 36 days in the rain season. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine the micronutrient content. In some cases, Co Fe, Mn and Zn were negatively affected by increasing limestone doses. The opposite effect was observed for Cl. Decreases of Cl, Co and Mo uptake in forage were enhanced with plant aging. (author)

  20. Nitrogen fertilization strategies, morphogenetic and structural features in Brachiaria decumbens deferred for 95 days

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    Fábio Andrade Teixeira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens pastures to determine the most suitable nitrogen fertilization strategies, for pastures deferred for a period of 95 days. Four strategies of fertilization at the beginning and end of the summer (0-0, 100- 0, 50-50, 0-100 kg ha-1 N were studied, respectively, with four replications. The strategy of 100 kg ha-1 N applied at the end of the summer (0-100, followed the parceling strategy at the beginning and end of the summer (50-50 favored higher rates of leaf appearance and lower values of phyllochron. Greater rate of leaf elongation was observed for 0-100 strategy, resulting in 40% increase compared to pastures that were not fertilized. However, there was no effect of fertilization strategies on stem elongation rate, registering an average of 0.28 cm.dia-1. There was a higher blade:stem ratio for the stratum A (40 cm above the soil in all treatments, observing higher blade:stem ratio for strategies 0-100 and 50-50, at this stratum. There was no effect for the total number of leaves and final leaf length. However, greater stem lengths were observed in pastures with 0-100 fertilizer strategy, followed by the 50-50 strategy. The strategy of applying 100 kg ha-1 at the end of summer, followed by the strategy of 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen divided at the beginning and end of summer, promote greater influence on the morphogenic and structural traits, in pastures deferred for 95 days.

  1. Influence of limestone doses in the Manganese absorption by Brachiaria decumbens; Influencia da aplicacao de doses de calcario sobre a absorcao de manganes pela Brachiaria decumbens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Fulas, Paulo M.M.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br; Primavesi, Odo; Primavesi, Ana C. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste (EMBRAPA/CPPSE)]. E-mail: odo@cppse.embrapa.br

    2005-07-01

    To restore a degraded pasture of Brachiaria decumbens, located in Sao Carlos - SP, Southeastern Brazil, under tropical climate, an experiment was carried out to study the influence of different methods of the limestone doses application on manganese absorption by the aboveground part of the forage, during 3 years of treatment. The experimental design was randomized block, with 6 replications and 8 treatments. The 100m{sup 2} blocks were established in the pasture. Each block received a sequence of limestone doses (0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 t/ha) applied on soil surface with NK and, 2 t/ha applied on soil surface with plus one annual application of 1t/ha and NK, 4t/ha buried in the soil with NK, 4t/ha applied on soil surface without NK. Forages samples were collected 14 cm above soil surface. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine manganese content. The statistical analysis showed some significant variations of this element absorption by the plant with regard to the treatments, but anything that could compromise the mineral nutrition of forage. Moreover, the quality of forage for the animal feeding showed suitable agreement to manganese requirement. INAA showed that it can be an alternative option for agronomical researches that require the knowledge of the manganese concentration. (author)

  2. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Vieira Barros; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Mário Luiz Chizzotti; Luciana Navajas Rennó; Javier Enrique Garces Cardenas; Eriton Egídio Lisboa Valente;; Sidnei Antônio Lopes; Carla Heloisa Avelino Cabral; Nelcino Francisco de Paula; Felipe Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately ...

  3. Steroidal saponin concentrations in Brachiaria decumbens and B. brizantha at different developmental stages Concentrações de saponina esteroidal em diferentes fases do desenvolvimento de Brachiaria decumbens e B. brizantha

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    Karine Bonucielli Brum

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species contain steroidal saponins and are involved in outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization. This research presents the levels of a steroidal saponin, protodioscin, in the seeds and aerial parts of B. brizantha and B. decumbens during different developmental stages (growth, bloom, fructification and seed fall. The butanolic fraction of the ethanolic extract of each stage was submitted to thin layer chromatography (TLC and spectrophotometric analysis through the Ehrlich reagent in 515nm. The chromatograms in TLC of the butanolic fraction of B. brizantha and B. decumbens showed similar spots as the protodioscin standard. The estimated level of protodioscin isomers in B. brizantha and B. decumbens ranged from 0.5% to 2.1%, having the highest level at the end of their developmental stages during seed falling comparison with the previous one. Protodioscin was not detected in the seeds. Outbreaks of Brachiaria spp. poisoning in central Western Brazil are frequently observed in pastures that had been more than 30 days without animals grazing, and also during the growing or blooming stage of the pastures. Other saponin determinations in toxic and non toxic pastures are necessary to determine the saponin concentrations that cause intoxication.As Brachiaria spp contêm saponinas esteroidais envolvidas no desenvolvimento de fotossensibilizacão hepatógena. No presente trabalho foram determinados os teores da saponina esteroidal protodioscina nas partes aéreas de B. brizantha e B. decumbens, durante as diferentes fases do desenvolvimento (crescimento, floração, frutificação e queda das sementes e nas sementes. A fração butanólica do extrato etanólico de cada fase foi submetida à cromatografia de camada delgada (CCD e à análise espectrofotométrica por meio do reagente de Ehrlich em 515nm. Os cromatogramas em CCD da fração butanólica de B. brizantha e B. decumbens, de cada fase do desenvolvimento, apresentaram manchas

  4. Fotossensibilização e colangiopatia associada a cristais em ovinos em pastagem com Brachiaria decumbens Photosensitization and crystal associated cholangiopathy in sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens

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    Ricardo Antonio Amaral de Lemos

    1996-04-01

    birefringent crystals in the bile ducts and within hepatocytes of periportal áreas. Necrosis of the bile duct epithelium, periportal fibrosis with infiltration of inflammatory cells and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Groups of large cells with excentric nuclei and foamy eosinofilic cytoplasm werepresent in the periportal and centrilobular áreas. Numerous groups of such cells were also observed in the cortex and medulla of the hepatic lymph nodes. No couhtable amounts of spores of Pithomyces chartarum were observed in the samples from the pasture where the seep grazed; from 30 cultures isolated from these samples, only one produced sporidesmin. It is concluded that the toxicosis was due the ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens.

  5. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura da cana-de-açúcar: II - capim-braquiária (brachiaria decumbens Interference periods of weeds in the sugarcane crop: II - brachiaria decumbens

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    M.A. Kuva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em Olímpia-SP, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de períodos de convivência e controle das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cultura da cana-de-açúcar. A cana foi plantada em maio de 1995, sendo colhida 15 meses após; a cultura anterior havia sido pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens e, em conseqüência, esta espécie foi a principal planta daninha presente na área experimental. Essa época de plantio é caracterizada por grande deficiência hídrica; mesmo assim, a população de B. decumbens tendeu a apresentar acúmulo crescente de biomassa seca durante todo o período de avaliação. Esse comportamento proporcionou intensa interferência na cultura da cana-de-açúcar, ocasionando 82% de redução na produtividade de colmos. A cultura pôde conviver com a comunidade infestante até 89 dias após o plantio (DAP, sem sofrer redução significativa na produtividade. O período mínimo de controle, para assegurar a máxima produtividade, foi de 138 DAP. Dessa forma, o controle das plantas daninhas foi crítico no período compreendido entre 89 e 138 DAP.A field trial was carried out in Olímpia, São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different periods of weed control on sugarcane yield. In the year before, the field was a Brachiaria decumbens pasture and, for this reason, this grass was the major population in the weed community. Sugarcane was planted on May 1995, at the beginning of the dry season. Despite this constraint, dry matter accumulation in B. decumbens population increased during the whole evaluated period. Thus, its interference in sugarcane plants was very strong, leading to an 82% reduction in the crop yield. Sugarcane plants could grow along with the weed community up to 89 days, without significant productivity reduction. A minimal weed control period of 138 days was required to assure maximum sugarcane productivity. The critical period for weed control was between 89 and 138 days

  6. Greener pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2000-03-06

    There are some 10,000 wells encompassing 25,000 acres of land along the southeastern border of Alberta and Saskatchewan, wells that are no longer producing and where the land is ready for reclamation. Clearing away equipment, sealing the well bores, scattering some seeds, and taking off to greener pastures no longer qualifies as 'cleaning up'; the owners of the land and conservationists want their grassland back, which involves the difficult tasks of replacing top soil and recreating native grass mixes as minimal requirements. This article describes some recent experiences in land reclamation, and a five year project by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers and PanCanadian Petroleum concerning various mixes of seed which are suitable for growing on reclaimed soil. A vigorous Asian import, crested wheatgrass, while fast growing and hardy, is considered to displace native grasses, it breaks up the natural prairies ecosystem into segments, carving up wildlife habitat, and therefore untenable. Experiments at an abandoned wellsite with native wheat grasses, some blended with other native grasses and 13 perennial forbs, are underway as part of this project. Results to date show that undisturbed prairies mostly sprouts non-wheat grasses, and native wheat grasses dominate when seeded in mixes, Other native species such as blue gramma grass and needle- and thread grass can be established. However, they thrive only in the natural recovery plots, suggesting that doing nothing and letting nature take its course may, at times, be the best revegetation strategy. Unfortunately even if true, natural growth takes too long, and that is totally unacceptable in today's environmental thinking. Although cattle are willing to eat the growth on the experimental plots, so far, there is not enough credible evidence to say how non-native mixes would stand up to normal grazing by cattle. 2 photos.

  7. Simulated microgravity inhibits cell wall regeneration of Penicillium decumbens protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z. C.; Rong, L.; Zhuang, F. Y.; Fan, Y. B.

    2010-09-01

    This work compares cell wall regeneration from protoplasts of the fungus Penicillium decumbens under rotary culture (simulated microgravity) and stationary cultures. Using an optimized lytic enzyme mixture, protoplasts were successfully released with a yield of 5.3 × 10 5 cells/mL. Under simulated microgravity conditions, the protoplast regeneration efficiency was 33.8%, lower than 44.9% under stationary conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy gave direct evidence for reduced formation of polysaccharides under simulated conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed the delayed process of cell wall regeneration by simulated microgravity. The delayed regeneration of P. decumbens cell wall under simulated microgravity was likely caused by the inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis. This research contributes to the understanding of how gravitational loads affect morphological and physiological processes of fungi.

  8. Meiotic analysis in induced tetraploids of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Simioni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The meiotic behavior of three tetraploid plants (2n=4x=36 originated from somatic chromosome duplication ofsexually reproducing diploid plants of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated. All the analyzed plants presented abnormalities relatedto polyploidy, such as irregular chromosome segregation, leading to precocious chromosome migration to the poles and micronucleiduring both meiotic divisions. However, the abnormalities observed did not compromise the meiotic products which were characterizedby regular tetrads and satisfactory pollen fertility varying from 61.36 to 64.86%. Chromosomes paired mostly as bivalents indiakinesis but univalents to tetravalents were also observed. These studies contributed to the choice of compatible fertile sexualgenitors to be crossed to natural tetraploid apomicts in the B. decumbens by identifying abnormalities and verifying pollen fertility.Intraespecific crosses should reduce sterility in the hybrids produced in the breeding program of Brachiaria, a problem observedwith the interspecific hybrids produced so far.

  9. Meiotic analysis in induced tetraploids of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

    OpenAIRE

    Carine Simioni; Cacilda Borges do Valle

    2011-01-01

    The meiotic behavior of three tetraploid plants (2n=4x=36) originated from somatic chromosome duplication of sexually reproducing diploid plants of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated. All the analyzed plants presented abnormalities related to polyploidy, such as irregular chromosome segregation, leading to precocious chromosome migration to the poles and micronuclei during both meiotic divisions. However, the abnormalities observed did not compromise the meiotic products which were characteri...

  10. Crystal-associated cholangiopathy in sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens containing the saponin protodioscin Colangiopatia associada a cristais em ovinos alimentados com Brachiaria decumbens que contém a saponina protodioscina

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    Karine B. Brum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization is reported in a flock of 28 sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central-Western Brazil. Seven lambs and an adult sheep were affected and 6 of them died. Two surviving affected lambs and one lamb without clinical signs had increased serum values of gamma glutamyltransferase, bilirubin, and cholesterol. In two adult unaffected sheep those parameters were within normal values. An adult sheep submitted to necropsy presented moderate body condition, unilateral corneal opacity, drying of the muzzle, moderate jaundice, increased lobular pattern of the liver, and a distended gallbladder. Histological lesions were epithelial degeneration, necrosis, and hyperplasia of small bile ducts. Mild amounts of foamy macrophages were observed, mainly in the centroacinar zone. Diffuse swelling and vacuolation were observed in hepatocytes. Crystal negative images were found within bile ducts, foamy macrophages, and the lumen of some renal tubules. The heart showed multifocal areas of degeneration and necrosis of the muscle fibers. Pasture samples (Brachiaria decumbens contained 2.36% of protodioscin. No Pithomyces chartarum spores were found in the pasture. Samples from a similar neighboring B. decumbens pasture grazed by cattle without photosensitization contained 1.63% of protodioscin isomers. Outbreaks of photosensitization caused by Brachiaria spp. are common in cattle in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna with about 51 million hectares of Brachiaria spp pastures. Sheep farming has been recently developed in this region, and the number of sheep is increasing significantly. Because sheep are more susceptible than cattle to lithogenic saponins, poisoning by Brachiaria should be an important limiting factor for the sheep industry.Um surto de fotossensibilização hepatógena é descrito em um rebanho de 28 ovinos mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, regi

  11. Soil bulk density and biomass partitioning of Brachiaria decumbens in a silvopastoral system Densidade do solo e partição de biomassa de Brachiaria decumbens em um sistema silvopastoril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Campos Paciullo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Shade in silvopastoral systems improves the thermal comfort of animals, but it may also affect the pasture productivity and can contribute to soil compaction in the shaded areas due to the increase in the number of animals looking for comfort. The effect of grazing at various distances from tree rows (under the tree canopy, at 6 and at 12 m away from the trees on the soil bulk density and on the aerial and root biomass of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated in both the dry and the rainy seasons. The study was carried out on an Orthic Ferralsol in a randomized block design with two replications. Tree rows were composed of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium species, and the paddocks were submitted to a rotational stocking management, using Holstein (Bos taurus × Zebu (Bos indicus heifers. The shade intensity in the pasture decreased with an increasing distance from the tree row. Soil bulk density did not vary with the distance from the tree row, but varied seasonally, being greater in the rainy season (1.47 g cm-3 than in the dry season (1.28 g cm-3. Green forage and root mass, expressed as dry matter, were lower under the tree canopy and were greater in the rainy season. There were decreases of 22.3 and 41.4% in the aerial and root biomasses, respectively, in the tree rows. The greatest shoot/root ratio for B. decumbens under moderate and intensive shading indicates a modification in the forage biomass allocation pattern that favours the aerial development in detriment of the root system.O sombreamento em sistemas silvipastoris concorre para o conforto térmico dos animais; no entanto pode afetar a produção do pasto e contribuir para a compactação do solo, pelo aumento da concentração de animais nas áreas sombreadas. Avaliou-se o efeito da distância do renque de árvores (sob a copa das árvores, 6 e 12 m de distancia das árvores na densidade do solo e na biomassa aérea e de raízes de Brachiaria decumbens, nas épocas seca e chuvosa

  12. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-08-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production.

  13. The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

    The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

  14. Intoxicação experimental por Brachiaria decumbens em ovinos confinados Experimental poisoning by Brachiaria decumbens in feedlot sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus C. Saturnino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo experimental de intoxicação por Brachiaria decumbens em ovinos confinados que receberam apenas esta forrageira como alimento. Os animais foram avaliados em três períodos do ano, com duração de 60 dias cada. As análises incluíram exame clínico e amostras de sangue para mensuração da atividade sérica das enzimas gama glutamiltransferase e aspartato aminotransferase com o objetivo de avaliar sua importância e utilidade no diagnóstico de fotossensibilização hepatógena causada pela planta. Foram descritos ainda, achados de necropsia e histopatológicos. Dos vinte e quatro animais confinados, cinco morreram no primeiro período (fevereiro a abril, quatro no segundo (junho a agosto e dois no terceiro (outubro a dezembro, tendo como principais sinais clínicos anorexia, icterícia, fotofobia, dermatite leve, além de desidratação e apatia. Nos achados de necropsia foram constatados icterícia generalizada, vesícula biliar repleta e distendida, padrão lobular hepático evidente e, em dois casos, opacidade de córnea. As alterações microscópicas foram mais significativas no fígado com bilestase, tumefação e vacuolização de hepatócitos, sinusóides com macrófagos, proliferação de ductos e dúctulos biliares com infiltração linfocítica, que variaram na sua severidade conforme o tempo decorrido da ingestão da planta, além de imagens negativas de cristais no citoplasma de macrófagos presentes nos sinusóides hepáticos e no espaço periportal e cristais refringentes oticamente ativos, ocluindo a luz de ductos biliares. Os achados foram característicos de fotossensibilização hepatógena por B. decumbens, principalmente pela presença de fotofobia, mesmo quando os animais não apresentaram fotodermatite. O aumento da atividade sérica da gama glutamiltransferase teve alta correlação com a morte dos animais. O surgimento da elevação da atividade sérica de gama glutamiltransferase foi, em m

  15. Village-based tropical pasture seed production in Thailand and Laos – a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage species, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria (Brachiaria ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Cayman hybrid brachiaria (B. ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Mombasa guinea (Panicum maximum, Tanzania guinea (P. maximum, Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris x var. pauciflora and Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum, is currently being produced by more than 1,000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported (95%, with the remainder sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of a Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs Ubon Forage Seeds to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper details how the development of a smallholder-farmer seed-production program in Thailand and Laos produced positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed-growers. In addition, the strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination enabled pasture growers in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America, to establish more than 20,000 ha of pastures over the past 3 years. 

  16. Características Agronômicas, Massa de Forragem e Valor Nutritivo de Brachiaria decumbens em Sistema Silvipastoril Agronomics Characteristics, Forage Mass and Nutritional Value of Brachiaria decumbens in a Silvopastoral System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Tavares Castro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de três porcentagens de sombreamento (0, 29% e 45%, proporcionado pelas leguminosas arbóreas Acacia angustissima, A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, Albizia lebbek e Gliricidia sepium, sobre características agronômicas, e o valor nutritivo do pasto de Brachiaria decumbens, durante o inverno, a primavera e o verão. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. O sombreamento influenciou positivamente a massa de forragem, na primavera e no verão. No inverno, a maior massa de forragem foi obtida sob sol pleno. Os teores de proteína bruta aumentaram com o sombreamento, na primavera, mas não se modificaram em função das porcentagens de sombra, no inverno e no verão. Pelo produto da massa de forragem e o teor de proteína bruta, obtiveram-se as quantidades de proteína bruta por área, que foram maiores sob sombreamento mais intenso, na primavera e no verão. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca não apresentaram tendência consistente com as porcentagens de sombreamento, em função da forte interação deste tratamento com a estação do ano.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.19

    The agronomic traits and nutritive value of Brachiaria decumbens pasture were evaluated under three shade percentages (0.29% and 45%, provided by leguminous trees (Acacia angustissima, A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, Albizia lebbek e Gliricidia sepium, during winter, spring and summer seasons. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications. The forage mass was positively influenced by shading, in spring and summer seasons. In winter, the higher forage mass was observed in full sunlight condition. The values of crude protein increased in spring with shading, but did not vary with shade percentage in winter and summer seasons. The crude protein quantity per area, obtained by product between forage mass and crude protein

  17. Evaluación de pasturas de Brachiaria decumbens solas o asociadas con Centrosema acutifolium con ganado de doble propósito: I. Evaluación de la disponibilidad, composición botánica, frecuencia y calidad forrajera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Náder Luis Miguel

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available

    At the Miravalle farm, located at Florida, Cauca Valley, at southwest of Colombia (3° 20' N, 76° 14'0 and 1150 m of altitude, it was done this experiment an area representative of INCEPTISOL soils acids (pH 5.8-6.3. Mean temperature 25°C and mean anual rainfall 1339 mm. Were used 4 fields of 4 ha each one; two of them had B. decumbens alone and the other two B. decumbens plus C. acutifolium CIAT 5568. Each pasture was grazed in alternating way using 21 days of occupation and 21 days of rest. There was a fixed animal charge of 1.5 animal units per ha. The sampling method was the BOTANAL-2. The green dry matter coming from the grass (GDMG, and from legume (GDML; and the total dry matter (TMD, were always higher for the associate pasture in relation to the alone pasture all over the experiment, with means of 4.627 vs. 2.296; 689 vs. 45  and 6.476 vs. 3.698 kg/ha, for GDMG, GDML and TDM respectively. In contrast, green dry matter coming from the weeds (GDMW and the inert plant material (GDMI were superior for the alone pasture with means of 345 vs. 265 and 798 vs. 631 kg/ha for GDMW and GDMI, respectively. The botanical composition had more stable proportions on the associate pasture than on the alone pasture; having higher percentages in grass, 72 vs. 65% and legume, 11 vs. 1% and lower percentages in weeds, 4 vs. 9% and inert planta material, 9 vs. 22%, respectively. The frequency of presence of species showed similar values between the two pastures, for the grass frequency, 96 vs. 98%, and for the other species, 11 vs. 9%; but higher for the associated pasture at the legume frequency, 81 vs. 12%, in relation to the alone pasture. Also for the associate pasture were obtained lower values for weeds frequency, 47 vs. 52%, and inert plant material, 84 vs. 97%, respectively. Uncover soils, for the associate pasture was lower, 5% than the alone pasture, 16%. The percentage of protein was higher in the legume C. acutifolium 15.3%. For B

  18. Consórcio de milho e Brachiaria decumbens em diferentes preparos de solo = Maize and Brachiaria decumbens under different soil tillage in farmingpasture integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simério Carlos Silva Cruz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparos conservacionistas e sistemas de produção que visam à maximização sustentável do uso do solo e da água têm surgido como alternativas para regiões caracterizadas por períodos chuvosos relativamente curtos e temperaturas elevadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema de consorciação entre milho e Brachiaria decumbens que melhor se adapte às condições dafoclimáticas da região da Zona da Mata do Estado de Alagoas. Os tratamentos consistiram de um híbrido de milho BRS3150, cultivado nos sistemas: Preparo Convencional, Cultivo Mínimo e Semeadura Direta (BRS3150consorciado com Brachiaria decumbens. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualisados com parcelas subdivididas. Amostras de solo foram coletadas para análise química. Também foram avaliados os componentes da produção e produtividade de grãos de milho. Os diferentes preparos do solo e a presença de Brachiaria decumbens, no sistema de consócio com milho, não exerceram influência sobre os componentes da produção. Os resultados analisados permitem concluir que a presença da Brachiaria decumbens interferiu negativamente na produtividade dos grãos de milho, quando cultivado em sistema deconsórcio, e as maiores produtividades foram obtidas nos sistemas conservacionistas.Conservation tillage and production systems that aim to maximize soiland water use in a sustainable form have become alternatives for regions that have relatively short periods of rain and high temperatures. The objective of this research was to evaluate intercropping systems with maize and Brachiaria that have better adaptation to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the “Zona da Mata” region, state of Alagoas. The treatments consisted of a BRS 3150 hybrid of maize, cultivated in the following systems: Conventional Cropping, Minimum Cultivation and No-tillage (BRS 3150 intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens. The design used was randomized block with subdivided plots. Soil

  19. Allelopathic evidence in Brachiaria decumbens and its potential to invade the Brazilian Cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gorgone Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to look for evidence of allelochemicals in B. decumbens, in parts of the plant from where they could easily be released to the environment. The germination inhibition of Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (standard species and Melinis minutiflora, another invasive African grass, was tested using B. decumbens germinating seeds and aqueous leachates of the roots, green and senescent leaves, at 5, 10 and 20% w/v. Both the germinating seeds and the aqueous leachates of B. decumbens reduced the germination of the species tested; the effectiveness of the aqueous leachates increased according to concentration. Apparently, the competitive advantage of B. decumbens in the cerrados could be amplified via allelopathy.Invasão biológica é uma das maiores causas atuais da perda de biodiversidade. Várias espécies que se tornam invasoras produzem substâncias fitotóxicas que aumentam sua capacidade competitiva; assim, a alelopatia é uma estratégia capaz de potencializar o sucesso de invasão. Brachiaria decumbens, uma gramínea africana, invadiu os cerrados brasileiros e representa, atualmente, uma séria ameaça à biota regional. Neste ensaio, verificamos a presença de aleloquímicos em partes de B. decumbens das quais poderiam ser facilmente liberados para o ambiente. Testamos a inibição da germinação de Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (espécies padrão e Melinis minutiflora (outra gramínea africana invasora usando sementes de B. decumbens e soluções aquosas lixiviadas de suas raízes, folhas verdes e folhas senescentes, a 5, 10 e 20% de peso do material por volume de água. Tanto as sementes como as soluções lixiviadas de decumbens reduziram a germinação das outras espécies; a eficiência dos lixiviados aumentou de acordo com a concentração da solução. Acreditamos que a grande vantagem competitiva de B. decumbens no cerrado possa ser amplificada pela alelopatia.

  20. Energy analysis in a swine production system with use of manure as bio fertilizer in pasture; Analise energetica em sistema de producao de suinos com aproveitamento dos dejetos como biofertilizante em pastagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Cassio V. [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil)], email: agro.cassio@hotmail.com; Campos, Alessandro T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], email: campos@deg.ufla.br; Bueno, Osmar C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Silva, Enilson B. [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia

    2009-07-01

    This work objective was to esteem the amount of energy employed in a complete cycle swine production and the energy balance of the system with utilization of the generated manure as bio fertilizer in pasture area, by using five cycles' average data, in a commercial farm in Diamantina municipal district - MG Brazil. The energy coefficient of each involved component was quantified in the productive process of finished swine, residues treatment and Brachiaria decumbens pasture production, in the form of ration, human labor, electric power, machines and equipment, fuel and lubricants, buildings, finished swine production and Brachiaria decumbens production. The average quantity of energy to produce 1 kg of alive swine was of 53.35 MJ. Of total employed energy in the system 76.03% (1,067,106.07 MJ) refers to the inputs and 23.97% (331,400 MJ) refers to the outputs, resulting in an energy efficiency coefficient of 0.31. The energy converted in swine for abate corresponded to 55.58% (184,200 MJ) of the outputs, while the pasture of Brachiaria decumbens reached a value of 44.42% (147,200 MJ). (author)

  1. Plant physiology for profitable pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A basic question of pasture-based livestock production is whether producers should manage pastures on the basis of what is best for the animal or what is best for the plant. Given that pastures are the principal and most economical source of feed, producers should carefully consider how they manage...

  2. Leguminosas arbóreas introduzidas em pastagem Performance of leguminous trees introduced into pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar, por meio de métodos de análise de variância multivariada, o comportamento de 16 espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, introduzidas em pastagem estabelecida de Brachiaria decumbens, a partir de mudas pequenas e em presença de animais, em quatro épocas do ano, em Seropédica, RJ. Nove variáveis relacionadas ao comprimento e ao número de brotos das mudas, antes e após o pastejo dos animais, foram utilizadas nas avaliações. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de quatro agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos Mimosa tenuiflora nas 3ª e 4ª avaliações. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos, para cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que o maior comprimento e o maior número de brotos na muda, após o pastejo, foram encontrados na M. tenuiflora. Esta leguminosa é indicada para ser introduzida, com maior probabilidade de sucesso, nas pastagens de B. decumbens na região, sem a proteção das mudas e em presença de gado.The objective of this work was to analyse, by means of multivariate variance analysis, the behaviour of 16 leguminous tree species introduced into pastures of Brachiaria decumbens from unprotected young plants and under grazing, in four periods of the year, in Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Nine variables, related to length and to number of sprouting, before and after animal grazing, were used for the evaluation. The statistical difference of the means of the principal canonical variable, calculated by the Scott-Knott test, indicated the formation of four groups, and the Mimosa tenuiflora group stood out at the 3rd and 4th evaluations. Difference among treatment means for each variable, calculated by Bonferroni confidence intervals, showed that the greatest sprouting length and the highest number of sprouting, after

  3. Desenvolvimento ponderal de bezerras desmamadas em pastejo de Brachiaria decumbens com suplementação protéica e energética Ponderal performances of calves grazing Brachiaria decumbens and supplemented with protein and energetic diets

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    José Luiz Viana Coutinho Filho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da suplementação a pasto, com concentrados fornecidos durante o ano (períodos de seca e águas, sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de bezerras desmamadas. Foram utilizadas 36 bezerras da raça Santa Gertrudis, com média inicial de idade de 290 dias, média de peso vivo de 194 kg, mantidas em pasto de Brachiaria decumbens, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos e 18 repetições. Foi oferecida mistura mineral o ano todo, ou suplemento com maior nível de proteína degradável na seca, e não-degradável nas águas. Os resultados obtidos para a média diária de ganho de peso vivo indicaram uma diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. O ganho de peso vivo, durante o ano, para o lote testemunha, foi de 0,504 kg animal-1 dia-1 e, para o lote suplementado foi de 0,561 kg. No período de seca, o ganho de peso vivo foi significativamente maior para os animais suplementados e, no período das águas não ocorreu diferença. A suplementação a pasto não apresentou vantagens bioeconômicas para se recomendar o seu uso. Nos dois tratamentos as bezerras alcançaram média de peso limite, para primeira cobertura, com idade próxima a 14 meses.The concentrate supplementation effect upon ponderal performance of calves during the year (dry and wet seasons was evaluated. Thirty-six Santa Gertrudis calves averaging 194 kg of live weight, with 290 days of age, grazing Brachiaria decumbens pasture, were used in a complete randomized design. The following supplements have been added ad libitum, fed during the experimental period: mineral mix, supplement based on degradable protein, during dry season, and supplement based on non-degradable protein (escape protein, during wet season. Results on average daily gain demonstrated a significant difference between treatments. The average daily gains were 0.504 and 0.561 kg animal-1 day-1 for the non-supplemented group (control group, fed mineral mix

  4. Épocas de manejo químico de Brachiaria decumbens antecedendo o plantio direto de soja Brachiaria decumbens management times in soybean under no tillage system

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    A.S. Nunes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O manejo químico da cobertura vegetal e a manutenção da palhada sobre o solo são preocupações comuns para os produtores que adotam o sistema plantio direto na região dos cerrados. Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da época de manejo químico de B. decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento e a produtividade da cultura da soja em sistema plantio direto, foram realizados dois ensaios a campo, respectivamente, com os cultivares BRS 154 e MG/BR 46-Conquista, no ano de 2003. Em cada ensaio, testaram-se quatro épocas de manejo de B. decumbens antecedendo a semeadura da soja (28, 14, 7 e 0 dias, utilizando-se o herbicida glifosato. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se três repetições no primeiro e quatro no segundo. Determinou-se a matéria seca da cobertura vegetal e avaliou-se a reinfestação de B. decumbens. Na cultura da soja, foram determinados: altura de inserção da primeira vagem, número de vagens por planta, umidade dos grãos, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a época mais adequada para o manejo químico de B. decumbens com glifosato situa-se entre 7 e 14 dias antes da semeadura da cultura da soja e que a escolha da época de manejo químico da cobertura vegetal afeta de forma decisiva o desenvolvimento e a produtividade da cultura.Cover crop management and straw maintenance over the soil are common concerns for producers adopting the no tillage system in the cerrado region in Brazil. In order to study the influence of B. decumbens time management on soybean development and productivity under no tillage system, two assays were carried out using the cultivars BRS 154 and MG/BR 46-Conquista. For each cultivar, four B. decumbens management times prior to sowing of soybean (28, 14, 7 and 0 days were tested using glyphosate for weed control, in three replicates for cultivar BRS 154 and four replications for MG/BR 46-Conquista, in a

  5. Hábito de pastejo de novilhas em pastagens bito do gênero Brachiaria = Grazing habits of heifers on pastures of Brachiaria genus

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    Anderson de Moura Zanine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento de novilhas pastejando Brachiarias, em sistema de lotação contínua. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas espécies de gramíneas representando os tratamentos, cada um com cincorepetições. Foram utilizadas novilhas leiteiras, com peso vivo médio de 315 kg. O período experimental foi de 30 dias, sendo 20 para adaptação dos animais e 10 para avaliações, que consistiram de três, com duração de 24 horas cada, em intervalos de cinco dias. As novilhaspastejaram menos tempo no pasto de Brachiaria brizantha, com tempo de 10,56 horas, enquanto que o pastejo na Brachiaria decumbens foi de 11,51 horas. A quantidade de bocados por minuto foi menor para a Brachiaria decumbens, 31,27 horas, enquanto para a Brachiariabrizantha, as novilhas pastejaram com uma taxa de bocados de 37,72 bocados por minuto. As novilhas apresentam comportamento diferenciado nas gramíneas estudadas, elevando o tempo de pastejo na Brachiaria decumbens como forma de compensar um comportamento de pastejo mais seletivo.This work aimed to evaluate the grazing behavior of heifers on Brachiarias, in continuous stocking with variable stocking rates. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two pastures representing the treatments, each with five replications. Dairy heifers were used, with an average weight of 315 kg. The experiment lasted for 30 days, being 20 for adaptation of the animals and 10 for the three evaluations, each with a duration of 24 hours, in five-dayintervals. Heifers grazed less time on the pasture of Brachiaria brizantha (10.56 hours, while the grazing on Brachiaria decumbens lasted 11.51 hours. Nevertheless, there was no difference for total bites. Heifers presented different grazing on the evaluated pastures, increasing grazing time on Brachiaria decumbens to adjust for a more selective behavior.

  6. Chelate-induced phytoextraction of metal polluted soils with Brachiaria decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabiana S; Hernández-Allica, Javier; Becerril, José M; Amaral-Sobrinho, Nelson; Mazur, Nelson; Garbisu, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Chelate-induced phytoextraction with high biomass plant species has been proposed for the clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. In the current work, the effect of the application of two different chelating agents, i.e. EDTA and EDDS, on the metal phytoextraction capacity of Brachiaria decumbens was studied. Although EDTA was, in general, more effective in soil metal solubilization, EDDS, a chelate less harmful to the environment, was more efficient inducing metal accumulation in B. decumbens shoots than EDTA. Indeed, in a moderately heavy metal polluted soil, EDDS caused a 2.54, 2.74 and 4.30-fold increase in Cd, Zn, and Pb shoot metal concentration, respectively, as compared to control plants. In this same soil, EDTA caused a 1.77, 1.11 and 1.87-fold increase in Cd, Zn, and Pb shoot metal concentration, respectively, as compared to control plants. EDDS was also more effective than EDTA in stimulating the translocation of metals from roots to shoots. B. decumbens plants were able to grow in the metal polluted soils showing no visible symptoms of phytotoxicity, which suggests their metal tolerance. Finally, B. decumbens, a fast-growing, high biomass, aluminum tolerant plant species, that has a well-established agronomic system, fulfills most of the requirements for chemically-induced phytoextraction.

  7. Genomic and secretomic analyses reveal unique features of the lignocellulolytic enzyme system of Penicillium decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Xiaomin; Zou, Gen; Qin, Yuqi; Ma, Liang; Li, Jie; Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Shengyue; Wang, Chengshu; Xun, Luying; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    Many Penicillium species could produce extracellular enzyme systems with good lignocellulose hydrolysis performance. However, these species and their enzyme systems are still poorly understood and explored due to the lacking of genetic information. Here, we present the genomic and secretomic analyses of Penicillium decumbens that has been used in industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in China for more than fifteen years. Comparative genomics analysis with the phylogenetically most similar species Penicillium chrysogenum revealed that P. decumbens has evolved with more genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, but fewer genes in cellular metabolism and regulation. Compared with the widely used cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei, P. decumbens has a lignocellulolytic enzyme system with more diverse components, particularly for cellulose binding domain-containing proteins and hemicellulases. Further, proteomic analysis of secretomes revealed that P. decumbens produced significantly more lignocellulolytic enzymes in the medium with cellulose-wheat bran as the carbon source than with glucose. The results expand our knowledge on the genetic information of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems in Penicillium species, and will facilitate rational strain improvement for the production of highly efficient enzyme systems used in lignocellulose utilization from Penicillium species.

  8. Genomic and secretomic analyses reveal unique features of the lignocellulolytic enzyme system of Penicillium decumbens.

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    Guodong Liu

    Full Text Available Many Penicillium species could produce extracellular enzyme systems with good lignocellulose hydrolysis performance. However, these species and their enzyme systems are still poorly understood and explored due to the lacking of genetic information. Here, we present the genomic and secretomic analyses of Penicillium decumbens that has been used in industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in China for more than fifteen years. Comparative genomics analysis with the phylogenetically most similar species Penicillium chrysogenum revealed that P. decumbens has evolved with more genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, but fewer genes in cellular metabolism and regulation. Compared with the widely used cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei, P. decumbens has a lignocellulolytic enzyme system with more diverse components, particularly for cellulose binding domain-containing proteins and hemicellulases. Further, proteomic analysis of secretomes revealed that P. decumbens produced significantly more lignocellulolytic enzymes in the medium with cellulose-wheat bran as the carbon source than with glucose. The results expand our knowledge on the genetic information of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems in Penicillium species, and will facilitate rational strain improvement for the production of highly efficient enzyme systems used in lignocellulose utilization from Penicillium species.

  9. Signal grass structure at different sites of the same pasture under three grazing intensities - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.11801

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    Ronan Lopes Albino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk at different sites of the same pasture featuring varying grazing intensities (under grazed, properly grazed and overgrazed. The pasture was managed under continuous stocking using 200-kg cattle and grass height kept at about 25 cm. The randomized block design was used, with three replications. Sward height (38.0 cm and extended plant height (85.2 cm were greater at the under grazed site. The falling index was lower at the properly grazed site (1.28. At the under grazed site, the masses of green leaf blade (3442 kg ha-1 DM, green stem (8370 kg ha-1 DM, green forage (11812 kg ha-1 DM and total forage (14137 kg ha-1 DM were higher when compared to the overgrazed and properly grazed sites. Dead material mass was higher at the properly grazed (3422 kg ha-1 DM and under grazed (2324 kg ha-1 DM sites. At the under grazed sites, there was a higher occurrence of tillers taller than 40 cm. Tillers with sizes between 10 and 30 cm predominated in properly grazed sites. In overgrazed site there was a higher share of tillers with sizes smaller than 20 cm. There is spatial variability of vegetation in the same pasture of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk due to uneven grazing by cattle.

  10. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

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    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  11. Effects of simulated microgravity on the regeneration of P. decumbens protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Zhao, Chen; Yi, Zong-Chun; He, Jingwen; Rong, Long; Zhuang, Fengyuan

    Introduction: It is known that growth and differentiation of cells during long periods of microgravity take place normally. Structural and functional changes are observed at the cellular level, and those changes take place not only within the nucleus and the cytoplasmic organelles, but also in the cell walls. Like the plant cells, cultured under microgravity, the protoplasts' regeneration rates have some changes. This experiment attempt to make out the related changes of the P. decumbens protoplasts under the simulated microgravity. Methods: Protoplasts of P. decumbens was produced at first. Simulated microgravity was obtained by rotary cultivation of 15 RPM., the regeneration rate was calculated by the clone formation. Polysaccharide of cell wall was measured by flow cytometry. Results: For the morphologic study, there is no distinct different between the colonies in the impact of the microgravity and the normal condition. The regeneration rate of the P. decumbens protoplasts is lower under the effect of microgravity than the normal condition (33.8% vs. 44.9%). Polysaccharide of protoplast after rotary cultivation decreased 13.8% compare to the control. The conclusion seems that the regeneration of protoplasm is lower under the condition of simulated microgravity. This result may give rise a question that: Did cell wall do something with sensing microgravity? More works should be done to answer this question. *This work was supported by the fund of 'National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 10502004'

  12. SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DO SOLO: SOJA [Glycine max (L.] CONSORCIADA COM Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: SOYBEAN [Glycine max (L.] INTERCROPPED WITH Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF

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    Emanuel da Silva Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo sobre os componentes de produção da soja cultivada solteira e em consórcio com B. decumbens, nos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Estado de Alagoas. Os tratamentos consistiram no cultivo da variedade de soja Monsoy 9350, nos sistemas preparo convencional do solo, cultivo mínimo e plantio direto. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas (com e sem B. decumbens, e quatro repetições. As variáveis analisadas foram: 1 cultura da soja: determinação dos estágios fenológicos, composição química das plantas, estande de plantas, diâmetro do colmo, altura de plantas, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, número de vagens por planta, número de grãos por

  13. SEWAGE SLUDGE IN SOIL FERTILITY, Brachiaria decumbens NUTRITION, AND DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY LODO DE ESGOTO NA FERTILIDADE DO SOLO, NA NUTRIÇÃO DE Brachiaria decumbens E NA ATIVIDADE DA DESIDROGENASE

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    Carlos Sérgio Tiritan

    2009-01-01

    dm-3 of soil, from the Franca sewage treatment plant (São Paulo State, was compared to the mineral nitrogen fertilization (40 kg urea ha-1. The experiment was conducted in 2005, using pots with 5 kg of an Oxisol, evaluating the soil fertility, nutrition of Brachiaria decumbens, and dehydrogenase activity. The experimental design was a completely randomized block, with four replications. The application of higher doses of sewage sludge increased the level of soil P by approximately 70%. The increased activity of dehydrogenase in soil showed significant correlation with increasing doses of sludge applied to soil. Only the highest dose of applied sludge (80 mg N dm-3 of soil increased the dry weight shoot production, while all the doses of sludge applied to soil increased the N leaf content on Brachiaria decumbens.


    KEY-WORDS: Microbial activity; pasture; biosolid; N mineralization.

  1. Physical properties of a Red-Yellow Latosol and productivity of a signalgrass pasture fertilized with increasing nitrogen doses

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    Igor Alexandre de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties and fertility of the soil are important factors in the formation and establishment of pasture. Changes in physical properties affect the movement of water, air, nutrients and roots, which, in turn, affect the productivity and longevity of pastures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of the soil and the dry matter yield of a pasture with signalgrass cv. Basilisk (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, fertilized with increasing nitrogen doses (N, on a dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The experiment was conducted on the Fazenda Rio Manso of the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, in Couto de Magalhães de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To evaluate the annual forage yield, a split plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replications was used, with N doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg/ha/year in the plots and growing seasons (first and second in the subplots. For soil evaluation, a split plot scheme was used with N doses (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg/ha/cut in the plots and three sampling times (prior to the experiment, at the end of the first growing season and at the end of the second growing season in the subplots in a randomized block design with four replications. This analysis was performed separately at two soil depths (0-3 and 10-13 cm. Forage samples were analyzed for the annual dry matter yield (DMY, and soil samples were analyzed for pre-consolidation pressure (σp, initial soil bulk density (Bd, total pore volume (TPV and void index (Vd. Higher nitrogen doses increased the dry matter yield of signalgrass pasture and the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil. The total pore volume and void index decreased, and the initial soil bulk density increased, though without promoting soil compaction.

  2. Produção de bovinos em pastagens de capim-braquiária diferidas Bovine production on deferred signalgrass pastures

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    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2009-04-01

    design with two replicates, according to the subdivided plots scheme was used. Variation in forage production between the first and second year was observed. Pastures deferred for a longer period had higher total forage mass and dead forage. As the grazing period increased, the total and green forage mass decreased, and the dead forage mass increased. The chemical composition of the forage sample from the grazing simulation was modified by the deferring and grazing periods. The deferring and grazing periods did not affect the supplement intake, expressed as body weight percentage. The bovine performance diminished during the grazing period in the first year (from 0.739 to 0.467 kg/animal.day and in the second year (from 0.885 to 0.189 kg/animal.day. Pastures deferred for shorter periods in the second year showed higher performance (0.692 kg/animal.day. The weight gain by area was higher on pastures deferred for shorter periods in the second year (4.87 kg/ha.day. In the region of Viçosa, the growing cattle production, kept in deferred pastures, is maximized when pasture fertilized and supplemented by Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk is deferred for about 70 days and used from early July on.

  3. Hábito de pastejo de novilhas em pastagens do gênero Brachiaria - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.992 Grazing habits of heifers on pastures of Brachiaria genus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.992

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    Juliana Silva de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento de novilhas pastejando Brachiarias, em sistema de lotação contínua. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas espécies de gramíneas representando os tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições. Foram utilizadas novilhas leiteiras, com peso vivo médio de 315 kg. O período experimental foi de 30 dias, sendo 20 para adaptação dos animais e 10 para avaliações, que consistiram de três, com duração de 24 horas cada, em intervalos de cinco dias. As novilhas pastejaram menos tempo no pasto de Brachiaria brizantha, com tempo de 10,56 horas, enquanto que o pastejo na Brachiaria decumbens foi de 11,51 horas. A quantidade de bocados por minuto foi menor para a Brachiaria decumbens, 31,27 horas, enquanto para a Brachiaria brizantha, as novilhas pastejaram com uma taxa de bocados de 37,72 bocados por minuto. As novilhas apresentam comportamento diferenciado nas gramíneas estudadas, elevando o tempo de pastejo na Brachiaria decumbens como forma de compensar um comportamento de pastejo mais seletivo.This work aimed to evaluate the grazing behavior of heifers on Brachiarias, in continuous stocking with variable stocking rates. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two pastures representing the treatments, each with five replications. Dairy heifers were used, with an average weight of 315 kg. The experiment lasted for 30 days, being 20 for adaptation of the animals and 10 for the three evaluations, each with a duration of 24 hours, in five-day intervals. Heifers grazed less time on the pasture of Brachiaria brizantha (10.56 hours, while the grazing on Brachiaria decumbens lasted 11.51 hours. Nevertheless, there was no difference for total bites. Heifers presented different grazing on the evaluated pastures, increasing grazing time on Brachiaria decumbens to adjust for a more selective behavior.

  4. Chromosome numbers and meiotic analysis in the pre-breeding of Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gléia Cristina Laverde Ricci; Alice Maria De Souza-Kaneshima; Mariana Ferrari Felismino; Andrea Beatriz Mendes-Bonato; Maria Suely Pagliarini; Cacilda Borges Do Valle

    2011-08-01

    A total of 44 accessions of Brachiaria decumbens were analysed for chromosome count and meiotic behaviour in order to identify potential progenitors for crosses. Among them, 15 accessions presented $2n = 18$; 27 accessions, $2n = 36$; and 2 accessions, $2n = 45$ chromosomes. Among the diploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities was low, ranging from 0.82% to 7.93%. In the 27 tetraploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities ranged from 18.41% to 65.83%. The most common meiotic abnormalities were related to irregular chromosome segregation, but chromosome stickiness and abnormal cytokinesis were observed in low frequency. All abnormalities can compromise pollen viability by generating unbalanced gametes. Based on the chromosome number and meiotic stability, the present study indicates the apomictic tetraploid accessions that can act as male genitor to produce interspecific hybrids with B. ruziziensis or intraspecific hybrids with recently artificially tetraploidized accessions.

  5. Chromosome numbers and meiotic analysis in the pre-breeding of Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Gléia Cristina Laverde; De Souza-Kaneshima, Alice Maria; Felismino, Mariana Ferrari; Mendes-Bonato, Andrea Beatriz; Pagliarini, Maria Suely; Do Valle, Cacilda Borges

    2011-08-01

    A total of 44 accessions of Brachiaria decumbens were analysed for chromosome count and meiotic behaviour in order to identify potential progenitors for crosses. Among them, 15 accessions presented 2n = 18; 27 accessions, 2n = 36; and 2 accessions, 2n = 45 chromosomes. Among the diploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities was low, ranging from 0.82% to 7.93%. In the 27 tetraploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities ranged from 18.41% to 65.83%. The most common meiotic abnormalities were related to irregular chromosome segregation, but chromosome stickiness and abnormal cytokinesis were observed in low frequency. All abnormalities can compromise pollen viability by generating unbalanced gametes. Based on the chromosome number and meiotic stability, the present study indicates the apomictic tetraploid accessions that can act as male genitor to produce interspecific hybrids with B. ruziziensis or intraspecific hybrids with recently artificially tetraploidized accessions.

  6. HEPATIC LESIONS IN CATTLE GRAZING ON Brachiaria Decumbens IN MESETAS, META (COLOMBIA

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    J. A. Caicedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available e n la Orinoquía colombiana hay una considerable cantidad de ganado bovino que se alimenta predominantemente de Brachiaria spp. s in embargo, se ha reconocido que esta pastura puede ocasionar daño hepático y posterior fotosensibilización en rumiantes, por las saponinas esteroidales que contiene. Con el propósito de evaluar las lesiones hepáticas en ganado bovino procedente de los Llanos Orientales colombianos, se to - maron y procesaron, mediante técnicas histológicas de rutina, muestras de hígado de los lóbulos derecho e izquierdo, así como de la entrada de la vena porta de cinco toros clínicamente sanos. Las principales lesiones observadas en estos tejidos fueron colangiohepatitis mononuclear, macrófagos espumosos, acumulación moderada de pigmentos biliares, muerte de hepatocitos, hepatocitos binucleados, moderada hiperplasia de ductos biliares y múltiples focos de fibrosis leve en áreas periportales, que fueron corroborados por tinción tricrómica de Masson. e stas lesiones se distribuyeron predominantemente en la entrada de la vena porta y se localizaron con frecuencia en la entrada de la región periportal. d ado que estas lesiones se atribuyen comúnmente al consumo de Brachiaria decumbens, y estaban presentes en animales clínicamente sanos exclusivamente alimentados con esta pastura, se concluye que las lesiones aquí encontradas fueron causadas por la Brachiaria decumbens. Se sugiere ampliar este estudio involucrando más bovinos, granjas y municipios.

  7. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... European Wood-Pastures in Transition examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers...

  8. Qualidade do Feno de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Submetido ao Tratamento com Amônia Anidra ou Uréia Quality of Ammoniated Brachiaria decumbens Hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Oliveira Fernandes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Pedrões, no município de Uberaba-MG, para avaliar a qualidade do feno de Brachiaria decumbens enfardado após a queda de sementes. Os fenos foram submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: feno não tratado, feno tratado com amônia anidra (3,0% NH3 na MS, feno tratado com uréia (5,0% na MS. A composição química, a digestibilidade dos fenos e o desempenho de novilhos foram avaliados usando um delineamento em blocos completos casualisados com três tratamentos e seis repetições. A amonização utilizando NH3 ou uréia aumentou o conteúdo de proteína bruta e a DIVMS. O tratamento com NH3 reduziu os conteúdos de FDN e FDA, e a aplicação de uréia reduziu os conteúdos de hemicelulose e lignina. A amonização não afetou os valores de nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro e nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido. Novilhos recebendo feno de brachiaria e farelo de soja (1,08 kg/dia de MS, feno tratado com amônia e milho grão (1,14 kg/dia de MS e feno tratado com uréia e milho grão (1,14 kg/dia de MS apresentaram consumo de MS de 1,97; 2,23 e 1,90% do peso vivo e ganhos de peso de 0,60; 0,53 e 0,37 kg/dia, e conversão alimentar 10,8; 12,8 e 16,9 kg MS/kg de ganho de peso, respectivamente.The experiment was conducted at farm Pedrões of the F.C. Agropecuária, located in Uberaba-MG to evaluate the quality of Brachiaria decumbens hays harvested after seed ripening. The hays were submitted to the following treatments: control, anhydrous ammonia (3.0% NH3 in the DM, and urea (5.0% in the DM. The chemical composition, digestibility hays and the performance of steers were evaluated using a complete randomized block design with three treatments and six replications. The ammoniation either with NH3 or urea increased the CP content and the IVDMD. The NH3 treatment reduced the contents of NDF and ADF, and the urea application reduced the contents of hemicellulose and lignin. The ammoniation did not

  9. Young calves production in native, mixed or cultivated pastures in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Produção de bezerros jovens em pastagens nativas, mistas ou cultivadas no Pantanal Sul Mato-Grossense

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    Alexandre Menezes Dias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The productive performance of 8, 9 and 10 month old calves raised, in pastures in the sub-area Nhecolândia.,was evaluated, in Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for young calves slaughter. Fifty four calves were used, 27 males and 27 females in a randomized block, with a 3x3 factorial design (three pastures and three slaughter ages. The pastures were 1-native grass pasture, composed by Axonopus purpusii, Andropogon bicornis and Elyonurus muticus, 2-cultivated pasture, composed by Brachiaria decumbens and B. humidicula, and 3-mixed, composed by native grass and cultivated pasture. There was significant interaction (P<.05 between slaughter age and pasture type. The animals with 8 and 10 months old that grew on mixed pastures presented higher slaughter weight (SW, higher average daily gain (ADG and carcass weight (CW, compared to animals in native or cultivated pastures. Animals in mixed pasture and slaughtered with 8 months old presented ADG of 0.83 kg/day, while animals maintained in native and cultivated pastures presented 0.65 and 0.59kg/day, respectively. For animals slaughtered with 9 months old, ADG were 0.55; 0.61 and 0.64 kg/day; and, for those slaughtered with 10 months, the averages were 0.48; 0.73 and 0.51kg/day, respectively, for native, mixed and cultivated pastures. The carcass yield was not influenced by slaughter age, for native and mixed pastures. There was not significant sex effect for any of the evaluated variables. The slaughter of male or female calves, raised in mixed or cultivated pastures, between 8 and 10 months old, is recommended for veal production.Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo de bezerros abatidos aos oito, nove e dez meses de idade, criados em pastagens no Pantanal Sul mato-grossense, visando o abate de bezerros jovens. Utilizaram-se 54 bezerros, sendo 27 machos e 27 fêmeas provenientes da sub-região pantaneira Nhecolândia. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados por sexo, em esquema

  10. INTEGRATION OF MECHANICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL TREATMENTS TO MANAGE INVASIVE SHRUB Chromolaena odorata AND OTHER WEEDS UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS IN PASTURE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rusdy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on Chromolaena odorata dominated pasture with the objectives of evaluating efficacy of integrated of mechanical and cultural control on weed suppression and determining botanical composition of plant species after treatment started. The treatments were, T1 slashing of Chromolaena every month, T2 digging up of Chromolanea, and exposed to dry (mulching, T3 digging up of Chromolaena followed by burning, T4 digging up of Chromolaena followed by burning and sowing with Centrosema pubescens and T5 digging up of Chromolaena followed by burning and planting with Brachiaria decumbens. Results of experiment showed that under drought conditions, digging up Chromolaena was very effective in suppressing regrowth of Chromolaena but it was not effective to other weeds. Among treatments, digging out of Chromolaena followed by burning and planting with Brachiaria decumbens was the most effective and slashing of Chromolaena every month was the least effective in suppressing weeds. Botanical composition was shifted with treatments. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis and Chromolaena were the dominant species in monthly slashed Chromolaena plots, Stachytarpheta and Calopogonium muconoides were the dominant species in mulched plots while Mimosa pudica, Brachiaria and Centrosema were the dominant species in burnt plots.

  11. INTEGRATION OF MECHANICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL TREATMENTS TO MANAGE INVASIVE SHRUB Chromolaena odorata AND OTHER WEEDS UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS IN PASTURE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rusdy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on Chromolaena odorata dominated pasture with the objectivesof evaluating efficacy of integrated of mechanical and cultural control on weed suppression anddetermining botanical composition of plant species after treatment started. The treatments were, T1slashing of Chromolaena every month, T2 digging up of Chromolanea, and exposed to dry (mulching,T3 digging up of Chromolaena followed by burning, T4 digging up of Chromolaena followed byburning and sowing with Centrosema pubescens and T5 digging up of Chromolaena followed byburning and planting with Brachiaria decumbens. Results of experiment showed that under droughtconditions, digging up Chromolaena was very effective in suppressing regrowth of Chromolaena but itwas not effective to other weeds. Among treatments, digging out of Chromolaena followed by burningand planting with Brachiaria decumbens was the most effective and slashing of Chromolaena everymonth was the least effective in suppressing weeds. Botanical composition was shifted with treatments.Stachytarpheta jamaicensis and Chromolaena were the dominant species in monthly slashedChromolaena plots, Stachytarpheta and Calopogonium muconoides were the dominant species inmulched plots while Mimosa pudica, Brachiaria and Centrosema were the dominant species in burntplots.

  12. Effect of stocking rate on pasture production, milk production, and reproduction of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Lancaster, J A S; Roche, J R

    2008-05-01

    Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stocking rate (SR). Pasture production and quality data, milk and milk component data, and reproduction data were collected, averaged for SR treatment, and linear and quadratic contrasts on SR were evaluated. In addition, the Wilmink exponential model (y(t) = a + b x e((-0.05t) )+ c x t) was fitted to milk yield within lactation, and the parameters were averaged by SR treatment and analyzed as above. The median variation explained by the function for individual lactations was 84%. The amount of pasture grown tended to increase, and the quality of the pasture on offer increased linearly with increasing SR, reducing some of the negative impact of SR on the availability of pasture per cow. Milk production per cow declined linearly with increasing SR, although there was a tendency for most production variables to decline quadratically, with the negative effect of SR declining with increasing SR. The effect on milk production per cow was primarily because of a lower peak milk yield and a greater post-peak decline (less persistent milk profile), although a decline in lactation length with increasing SR was responsible for 24% of the effect of SR on milk yield. Milk production per hectare increased linearly with increasing SR, and there was only a small difference (approximately 3%/cow per ha) in the efficiency of converting feed dry matter into milk energy. Stocking rate did not affect reproductive success. The data are consistent with the need for a more robust measure of SR than cows per hectare because farms will differ in the genetic merit of their cows and in the potential to produce pasture. We introduce the concept of a comparative SR, whereby the carrying capacity of the farm is defined by the BW of

  13. Feeding behavior of dairy cows on pasture fed detoxicated castor meal in the diet

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    Antonio Ferraz Porto Junior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feeding behavior of lactating cows on pasture of Brachiaria (Urochloa decumbens fed with concentrate supplementation containing different levels of castor meal inclusion treated with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH 2, in the proportions of 0; 3.3; 6.6 to 10% of the total diet. Eight cows (degree of blood ½ to ¾ Holstein x Zebu, with previous average production of 3000-4000 kg adjusted to 300 days of lactation and average body weight of 465.16 kg ± 65.45 kg were distributed in two 4 x 4 Latin squares. The behavior was assessed every five minutes for 24 hours on the 21st day of each period. The results were tested by analysis of variance and regression at p < 0.05 probability. The time spent in grazing, rumination, idle and in the trough; total chewing time, number of cuds per day, chewing per day; chewing per cud; the number of periods of grazing, rumination, idle and in the trough; time spent by period of grazing, rumination, idle and in the trough were not different between treatments. The feed efficiency (g DM h-1; g NDFa h-1 and g TDN h-1 and time spent per cud ruminated TSR sec cud-1 were linearly reduced. It is recommended to include up to 10% castor meal treated with Ca (OH2 in the total diet.

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhizae-Trichoderma harzianum (Moniliaceae Interaction and Effects on Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae’s Growth Interacción micorrizas arbusculares-Trichoderma harzianum (Moniliaceae y efectos sobre el crecimiento de Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Gutiérrez Esperanza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory trial was made using native's Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF sampled in Pennisetum clandestinum's rhizospheric soil obtained from Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá. Brachiaria decumbens was used as the host plant, growing in draining pots of steamed sandy soil supplemented with a complete nutritive solution.Four different treatments were tested to determine the kind of interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trichoderma harzianum and the effect of AMF plus T. harzianum on B. decumbens growth: plants with AMF inoculum, plants with T. harzianum, plants with AMF plus T. harzianum and uninoculated controls. Root colonization was decreased by T. harzianum, although AMF spores/g dry soil quantity was unaffected by this fungi. On the other hand, T. harzianum's population level (CFU /g dry soil decreased in presence of AMF. These results shows an interaction between AMF and T. harzianum and this interaction affects as AMF development as population density of T. harzianum. Based in the values of the plant growth parameters studied, is possible to conclude the AMF-T. harzianum interaction has a neutral effect on B. decumbens's growth.Se efectuó un ensayo en condiciones controladas utilizando hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares (HFMA nativos, provenientes de un suelo rizosférico de Pennisetum clandestinum de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá, manteniéndolos en plantas de Brachiaria decumbens creciendo sobre sustrato arenoso suplementado con solución nutritiva. Se evaluaron diferentes tratamientos: plantas con inóculo de HFMA, plantas con Trichoderma harzianum, plantas con HFMA+T. harzianum y plantas control no inoculadas, con el fin de determinar las posibles interacciones entre dichos microorganismos, así como su efecto sobre el crecimiento de B. decumbens. La presencia de T. harzianum disminuyó la colonización radicular por HFMA, aunque no afectó la cantidad de esporas de HFMA/g suelo

  15. Dairy farm impacts of fencing riparian land: pasture production and farm productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Sharon R; Melland, Alice R; Dorling, Lianne

    2013-11-30

    Dairy farmers are encouraged to restrict stock access by fencing riparian zones to reduce stream pollution and improve biodiversity. Many farmers are reluctant to create fenced riparian zones because of the perceived loss of productive pasture. Anecdotal reports indicate that pasture production in fenced areas is especially valued during summer months when water stress is likely to limit pasture growth in other areas of the farm. We measured pasture production, botanical composition, soil moisture, and fertility in Riparian (within 20 m of the riverbank), Flat (greater than 20 but less than 50 m from the riverbank), and Hill (elevated) areas on three commercial dairy farms from October 2006 to November 2007 in south eastern Australia. Riparian and Flat areas produced significantly more pasture, with on average approximately 25% more dry matter per ha grown in these areas compared with Hill paddocks. Percentage ryegrass was 14% lower on Hill slopes compared with Riparian and Flat areas and was compensated for by only a 5% increase in other grass species. Significant seasonal effects were observed with the difference in pasture production between Hill, and Riparian and Flat areas most pronounced in summer, due to soil moisture limitations on Hill paddocks. To examine potential productivity impacts of this lost pasture, we used a questionnaire-based survey to interview the farmers regarding their farm and riparian management activities. The additional pasture that would have been available if the riverbanks were not fenced to their current widths ranged from 6.2 to 27.2 t DM for the 2006/2007 year and would have been grown on 0.4-3.4% of their milking area. If this pasture was harvested instead of grazed, the farmers could have saved between $2000 and $8000 of their purchased fodder costs in that year. By fencing their riparian areas to 20 m for biodiversity benefits, between 2.2% and 9.8% of their milking area would be out of production amounting to about $16

  16. Padrões de deslocamento e permanência de bovinos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos sob quatro estratégias de adubação Displacement and permanency patterns of grazing cattle on Brachiaria decumbens deferred under four fertilization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Andrade Teixeira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de deslocamento e a permanência de bovinos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens diferidos por 95 dias sob quatro estratégias de aplicação de nitrogênio (0-0, 100-0, 50-50, 0-100 kg de N.ha-1 no início e no final do período chuvoso. Durante o período de utilização dos pastos diferidos, na estação seca, foram avaliadas a produção, algumas características estruturais da forragem e o padrão de deslocamento. Para avaliação dessas variáveis, foram aplicados dez testes de pastejo de 45 minutos utilizando-se quatro novilhos e, para avaliação de tempo de permanência, foram utilizados 14 novilhas da raça Girolanda, monitoradas a cada 10 minutos durante 24 horas. Pastos adubados com 100 kg de nitrogênio no final do período chuvoso apresentaram maiores massas de forragem total e de lâmina de folha, altura estendida, densidade volumétrica da forragem total, lâmina de folha e de colmo verde em todos os estratos estudados. Os índices de acamamento foram maiores para os pastos adubados no final do período chuvoso (0-100 e 50-50. As estratégias de adubação de 0-100 e 50-50 resultaram em maior número de estações alimentares e de passos por minuto, como consequência da maior dificuldade de seleção da forragem em maior grau de acamamento. Em contrapartida, o número de bocados por estação e por minuto foi menor nessas estratégias de adubação. O tempo de permanência foi maior para os pastos cuja estratégia de adubação foi a aplicação de 100 kg de N.ha-1 no final do período chuvoso (0-100. Pastos adubados próximo ao período de vedação alteram os padrões de deslocamento dos animais, em razão do maior acamamento das plantas, e isso faz com que os animais dediquem mais tempo a essa estrutura de maior densidade de lâminas de folhas.This study was conducted to evaluate the displacement and permanency patterns of grazing cattle on Brachiaria decumbens

  17. Clinical and histopathological study of the phototoxic dermatitis in Zebu calves in grazing of Brachiaria decumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cardona-Álvarez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to study the clinical and histopathological aspects of Phototoxic Dermatitis Secondary (PDS, secondary to ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Zebu calves (Bos indicus department of Cordoba, Colombia. Materials and methods. Twelve calves Zebu, male, 12 to 18 months, PDS diagnosed with clinical, histopathologically studied and laboratory exams. Results.Clinically, signs of photophobia, dehydration, progressive emaciation, icteric mucous membranes and skin lesions as res-breaking with leathery skin appearance, skin peeling and scabbing over large areas were evident. The lesions were located bilaterally in different areas of the skin in ears, perineal region, epigastric and costal. Serological tests gave the high catalytic activity of the liver enzymes AST and GGT indicating liver injury consistent with cholestasis. Histopathologically was observed in hematoxylin eosin, chronic necrotic dermatitis, in trichrome Gomori poor dermal proliferation disorganized fibroblasts, low presence of diffuse connective tissue and collagen fibers disorganized and picrosirius red / polarization areas reddish birefringence was observed was observed and greenyellow, indicating moderate presence of mature collagen type I (bright red in polarization and Type III (bright yellowish-green polarization. Conclusions. The definitive diagnosis of the disease was based on clinical features, laboratory findings and histopathological findings, being conclusive as diagnostic methods of the PDS. In the literature there are no reports of studies PDS in Zebu calves department of Córdoba and Colombia.

  18. Struggling for Water and Pastures in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie

    of struggles over water and pastures in Diffa, Signe Marie Cold-Ravnkilde accounts for the outcome of conflict and cooperation and explains why herders, like people in other cultures, conceive of their rights in a contradictory manner: as requiring adoption to cultural specific conditions and yet applies...... the 1990s customary practices are increasingly recognised in legal frameworks. "Struggling for water and pastures in Niger" explores the philosophical assumptions behind the rules governing rights to water and pastures in the pastoral areas of the Diffa region in Niger. The book shows how these assumptions...

  19. Photosenitization of sheep on kleingrass pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchiri, D J; Bridges, C H; Ueckert, D N; Bailey, E M

    1980-08-15

    The clinical appearance and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity were studied in 5 groups of sheep (12 per group) on kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) pasture plots and in 1 group of sheep (10 animals) on native buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) pasture. Eleven sheep (at least 1 from each group on kleingrass pasture plots) had elevated serum GGT activity. Seven of 11 sheep with elevated serum GGT activity developed signs of photosensitization. None of the sheep on buffalograss pasture developed signs of photosensitization or elevated GGT activity. The pathologic findings were similar in the sheep that had signs of photosensitization. Grossly, there was icterus and subcutaneous edema. The livers had tapeworms (Thysanosoma actinioides) in the bile ducts, were slightly swollen, and varied in color from yellow to ochre in severe cases of biliary system derangements. Microscopically, there was cholangitis.

  20. Estrutura do pasto de capim-braquiária com variação de alturas Structure of signal grass pasture with height variation

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    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar as características estruturais da Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de plantas (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm dentro de uma mesma pastagem, em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com duas repetições. A variação na altura inicial das plantas no pasto de capim-braquiária apresentou resposta linear e negativa. As massas de lâmina foliar verde, colmo verde, material morto, forragem verde e forragem total aumentaram linearmente com a altura das plantas no pasto. Contrariamente, houve redução linear na relação lâminas foliares verdes/colmos verdes com a altura das plantas no pasto (de 1,16 para 0,58. A altura das plantas no pasto teve efeito mais pronunciado sobre o aumento das massas de colmo verde e material morto que sobre a massa de lâmina foliar verde. A densidade volumétrica de lâminas foliares verdes decresceu (de 97,09 para 39,07 kg/cm.ha de MS com a altura das plantas no pasto. Mesma resposta ocorreu para as densidades volumétricas de forragem verde (de 181,62 para 107,85 kg/cm.ha de MS e forragem total (de 283,39 para 195,72 kg/cm.ha de MS. Por outro lado, não houve efeito da altura das plantas no pasto sobre as densidades volumétricas de colmos verdes e material morto, que apresentaram valores médios de 80,95 e 95,61 kg/cm.ha de MS, respectivamente. A altura das plantas no pasto teve efeito quadrático sobre a interceptação de luz pelo dossel. Áreas da pastagem com alturas de 10, 20, 30 e 40 cm apresentaram valores de interceptação luminosa de 56,15; 85,16; 93,39 e 96,57%, respectivamente. Ocorre variação espacial e temporal na estrutura do pasto de B. decumbens manejado sob lotação contínua.This study was carried out aiming to evaluate the structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture. Four heights of plants (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm were evaluated within the same grazing area in a randomized block

  1. Losses through gases and effluent and nutritional value of Brachiaria decumbens with addition of soybean hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Clayton Oliveira Dantas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the losses of nutrient through gases and effluents, the nutrient recovery, fermentation parameters and the chemical parameters of silages of Brachiaria decumbens with the addition of soybean hulls, testing five levels of inclusion: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (as is, with five replications per treatment. After the standardization cut of the forage, performed at 5 cm from the soil level, the soil was fertilized with nitrogen and potassium in the form of ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride, respectively, at 60 kg/ha. After 60 days, the grass was cut at 10 cm from the soil and ensiled. Experimental silos with capacity of 10 liters with Bunsen valve were used. Silos had 3 kg of sand conditioned at the bottom for retention of the effluents. The results show that the contents of dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent insoluble fiber and total digestible nutrients presented positive linear behavior with the inclusion of soybean hulls. In the grass silages with addition of soybean hulls, there was greater recovery of dry matter in relation to the control silage, which is a reflection of the negative linear behavior for the values of losses of gases and effluent. There was quadratic behavior in the pH values and negative linear behavior for the ammonia N values and buffering capacity with the inclusion of the additive in the grass silage. Inclusion of soybean hulls is sufficient to improve the fermentation pattern and minimize the losses through gases and effluents, contributing to the nutrient recovery, in addition to promoting overall improvement of the nutritional value of Brachiaria grass silages.

  2. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  3. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli on three pasture grasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yu-jie; Wang, Ya-qi; Yuan, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli are largely used in traditional Chinese medicine and widely grown in Jiangyou, Sichuan, China. During the growth process, this medicinal plant releases a large amount of allelochemicals into soil, which retard the growth and development of near and late crops. Therefore, a pure culture experiment was thus carried out by seed soaking to study the allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of A. carmichaeli (ETR) on the seed germination and young seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Medicago sativa, the late pasture grasses after cultivation of A. carmichaeli. The results showed that three pasture grasses varied significantly in seed germination and young seedling growth in response to ETR concentrations. Seed germination of M. sativa was stimulated by low ERT concentration (0.01 x g(-1)), while all of pasture grass seeds germinated poorly in solution with 1.00 g x L(-1). Seed soaking with 1.00 g x L(-1) also inhibited significantly the growth of pasture young seedlings, with M. sativa showing the highest seedling height reduction of 42.05% in seeding height, followed by T. repens (40.21%) and L. perenne with about 11%. Cultivation of L. perenne could thus be beneficial to increase whole land productivity in A. carmichaeli-pasture grass cropping systems. In addition, hydrolysis of protein, starch, and inositol phosphates was blocked and free amino acids, soluble sugars and phosphorus were decreased in seeds by seed soaking with ETR, which could be one of the reason for the inhibition of seed germination. There was a significant reduction in root vigor, nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll after the seed treatment with ETR, indicating the suppression of nutrient uptake, nitrate assimilation, and photosynthesis by allelopathic chemicals in ETR, which could lead to the slow growth rate of pasture grass seedlings.

  4. Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant

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    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à calda de pulverização do produto comercial. Mudas de dois clones de eucalipto (UFV05 e UFV06 foram cultivadas em consórcio com Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária, em vasos contendo dois tipos de solo: um arenoso e outro argiloso. Aos 35 dias após o transplantio das mudas, foram aplicados na braquiária 50 µL da mistura de 14C-glyphosate com a formulação comercial de glyphosate Scout®, utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão. Aos 2, 8, 16 e 24 dias após aplicação, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e fracionadas em ápice primário, ápices secundários, folhas e raízes, sendo processadas de acordo com metodologia usual para determinação da radioatividade. Não foram observados sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate nas plantas de eucalipto, em nenhuma das avaliações realizadas. Entretanto, o 14C-glyphosate foi encontrado em todas as plantas de eucalipto avaliadas, independentemente do solo, do clone e da época de avaliação, em maior concentração em plantas cultivadas no solo arenoso. Os resultados evidenciam a exsudação radicular do glyphosate e/ou de seus metabólitos pela braquiária e subseqüente absorção, via raízes, pelas plantas de eucalipto, em concentrações inferiores às necessárias para causar intoxicação na cultura.Eucalypt plants commonly present symptoms of intoxication in areas where glyphosate is used. One possible way of contamination is through radicular exudation of glyphosate by the treated

  5. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.

    2016-05-01

    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  6. [Simultaneous determination of four alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Cuiping; Zhou, Yongfang; Xia, Biqi; Zhu, Zhenou; Liu, Aili

    2011-02-01

    A method for the analysis of 4 alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted in methanol by ultrasonic, filtered and diluted with methanol for further analysis. The analysis was performed on a C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) using a gradient elution program with the mobile phase of 0.2% acetic acid solution and acetonitrile. The analyte was determined by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were based on the retention times and characteristic ion pairs consisting of one parent ion and two fragment ions of the analyte. The limits of detection (LODs) for 4 alkaloids were in the range of 0.02 - 0.2 microg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.07 - 0.66 microg/L. The average recoveries were in the range of 93.6% - 103.5% for 4 alkaloids with the relative standard deviations below 3.8%. This method is reliable, sensitive and reproducible, and it can be used for the quality control of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. sample.

  7. INTERACCIÓN MICORRIZAS ARBUSCULARES- Trichoderma harzianum (Moniliaceae Y EFECTOS SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae

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    TIFFANY SOSA RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un ensayo en condiciones controladas utilizando hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares (HFMA nativos, provenientes de un suelo rizosférico de Pennisetum clandestinum de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá, mante- niéndolos en plantas de Brachiaria decumbens creciendo sobre sustrato arenoso suple- mentado con solución nutritiva. Se evaluaron diferentes tratamientos: plantas con inóculo de HFMA, plantas con Trichoderma harzianum, plantas con HFMA+T. harzianum y plantas control no inoculadas, con el fin de determinar las posibles interacciones entre dichos microorganismos, así como su efecto sobre el crecimiento de B. decumbens. La presencia de T. harzianum disminuyó la colonización radicular por HFMA, aunque no afectó la cantidad de esporas de HFMA/g suelo seco, en tanto que la población de T. harzianum (UFC/g suelo seco disminuyó significativamente en presencia de HFMA. Estos resultados mostraron que existen interacciones entre HFMA y T. harzianum que afectan tanto el desarrollo de HFMA como la densidad poblacional de T. harzianum. Los valores obtenidos para los parámetros del crecimiento de la planta evaluados sugie- ren que el efecto de la interacción entre los microorganismos sobre la planta hospe- dera es de tipo neutral.

  8. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

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    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  9. Características estruturais do pasto de capim-braquiária de acordo com a localização das fezes Structural characteristics of Brachiaria grass pasture according to the location of feces

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    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da localização das fezes de bovinos sobre as características de perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos, a massa dos componentes da planta, a densidade volumétrica da forragem e a altura do pasto de Brachiaria decumbens, cv. Basilisk, manejado sob lotação contínua. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema de parcela subdivida, considerando parcelas os locais próximos e distantes das fezes e subparcelas as categorias de perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos. A massa de lâmina foliar viva (LFV por perfilho em locais próximos às fezes (0,14 g foi maior que nos locais distantes das fezes (0,08 g, contrariamente ao verificado para a composição de massa de lâmina foliar morta por perfilho. A massa de LFV nos perfilhos vegetativos (0,15 g foi maior que nos perfilhos reprodutivos (0,06 g. Por outro lado, a massa de colmo (0,38 g e de lâmina foliar morta (0,20 g foi maior nos perfilhos reprodutivos. O peso dos perfilhos das plantas próximas às fezes foi maior (0,58 g que daqueles distantes das fezes (0,17 g. Em locais próximos das fezes, o número de perfilhos vegetativos foi menor, enquanto o de perfilhos reprodutivos foi maior. Maiores massas de colmo verde, forragem verde e forragem total do pasto foram observados nos locais próximos das fezes, quando comparadas aos distantes. Mesmo resultado foi obtido para a altura do pasto. A estrutura do pasto de Brachiaria decumbens é modificada pela localização das fezes dos bovinos em pastejo. A deposição de fezes por bovinos constitui fator de heterogeneidade espacial da vegetação em pastagem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the cattle feces location on the characteristics of vegetative and reproductive tillers, dry mass content in plant components, forage volumetric density and Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture height managed under continuous stocking. It was used a randomized block design

  10. density and soil fertility in grazed pasture

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    I. D. Wickham

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the long-term effects of fertiliser application on pasture growth under grazing, a mathematical representation of the pasture ecosystem is created and analysed mathematically. From this the nutrient application level needed to maintain a given stocking rate can be determined, along with its profitability. Feasible stocking levels and fertiliser application rates are investigated and the optimal combination found, along with the sensitivity of this combination. It is shown that profitability is relatively insensitive to fertiliser level compared with stocking rate.

  11. Estimativa da área foliar de plantas daninhas: Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. e Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. Stapf Leaf area estimative in weeds Brachiaria decumbens Stapf and Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. Stapf

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    Silvano Bianco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de obter uma equação que, através de parâmetros lineares dimensionais das folhas, permita a estimativa da área foliar de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. e Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. Stapf., estudaram-se correlações entre a área foliar real (Sf e parâmetros dimensionais do limbo foliar, como o comprimento ao longo da nervura principal (C e a largura máxima (L, perpendicular à nervura principal. Todas as equações, exponenciais, geométricas ou lineares simples, permitiram boas estimativas da área foliar. Do ponto de vista prático, sugere-se optar pela equação linear simples envolvendo o produto C x L, considerando o coeficiente linear igual a zero. Desse modo, a estimativa da área foliar de B. decumbens pode ser feita pela fórmula Sf = 0,9810 x (C x L, ou seja, 98,10% do produto entre o comprimento ao longo da nervura principal e a largura máxima, enquanto que, para a B. brizantha a estimativa da área foliar pode ser feita pela fórmula SF = 0,7468 x (C x L, ou seja 74,68% do produto entre o comprimento ao longo da nervura principal e a largura máxima da folha.In order to obtain equations which make feasible the leaf area estiomate from linear measures of the leaf blade, correlation studies were done involving the real leaf blade area and main vein leaf lenght (C, maximum leaf width (L and C*L. All the equations, linear, geometric and exponential, provide good leaf area estimate for both species. In the practical sense, it is suggested the use of the simple linear equation of the regression model using the C*L parameter and taking the linear coefficient equal zero. Then, the Brachiaria decumbens leaf area can be estimate using the equation Sf = 0,9810 (C*L and the Brachiaria brizantha by using the equation Sf = 0,7468*(C*L.

  12. Avaliação das características estruturais do capim-braquiária em pastagens adubadas com nitrogênio nas quatro estações do ano Evaluation of structural characteristics of the signalgrass in a nitrogen fertilized pasture over the seasons of the year

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    Jailson Lara Fagundes

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação nitrogenada sobre a demografia de perfilhos e a biomassa forrageira em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk submetidas à mesma intensidade de pastejo. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de quatro doses de nitrogênio (75, 150, 225 e 300 kg/ha.ano antes do período das avaliações experimentais, realizadas durante as estações verão, outono, inverno e primavera de 2002. O delineamento foi em blocos completos, casualizados com duas repetições. A demografia populacional de perfilhos e a biomassa forrageira de B. decumbens variaram com as estações do ano e com as doses de nitrogênio. A densidade populacional de perfilhos vegetativos e vivos aumentou linearmente, enquanto a de perfilhos mortos decresceu linearmente com as doses de N. A biomassa forrageira também aumentou linearmente, ao passo que a densidade populacional de perfilhos reprodutivos não foi influenciada pela adubação nitrogenada. A densidade populacional de perfilhos vivos, vegetativos e reprodutivos e a biomassa de folhas, de colmo e de material verde de Brachiaria decumbens variaram entre as estações do ano, apresentando valores menores no inverno.This trial was carried out from November 2001 to November 2002, aiming at the evaluation of the effects of nitrogen fertilization upon the tiller demography and forage biomass in Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures fertilized with nitrogen and subjected to the same grazing height. The treatments consisted of four nitrogen rates (75, 150, 225 and 300 kg/ha.yr. applied before the beginning of the experimental evaluations, which were performed during the Summer, Fall, Winter and Spring, 2002. A completely randomized block experimental design was used with two replications. Seasons and nitrogen rates affected grass tiller population density and forage biomass. The population density of alive and vegetative tillers increased

  13. Nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of Marandu palisade grass at different locations within the pasture in a silvopastoral system with different babassu palm densities

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    Xerxes M. Tosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of grass collected from different locations within the pasture in a silvopastoral system with different densities of trees. The silvopastoral system consisted of Urochloa (syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and the babassu palm, Orbignya sp. (now: Attaleia speciosa. We used a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement for nutritional value (3 differently shaded locations and 3 palm tree densities and a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement for dry matter (DM disappearance (3 locations, 3 palm densities and 3 incubation times. There was no effect of location within the pasture nor of palm tree density on the concentrations of NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. However, location influenced the concentrations of crude protein (CP and DM, with highest CP in material grown in full sunlight. At all densities, DM disappearance at 96 h for pasture grown in full sunlight exceeded that for pasture grown in full shade. These factors need to be compounded with the possible depressant effect of trees on DM production of pasture when considering the benefits of silvopastoral systems.Keywords: Digestibility, fiber, Northeast Brazil, protein, tree-grass associations, Urochloa  brizantha.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3187-193

  14. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  15. Produção de matéria seca, valor nutritivo e a maturidade de Digitaria decumbens Stent. cv. transvala Dry matter production, nutritive value and the maturity of Digitaria decumbens Stent. cv. transvala

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    Cláudio Maluf Haddad

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de matéria seca, a digestibilidade in vitro e a variação na composição químico-bromatológica e mineral do capim-Transvala (Digitaria decumbens Stent. cv. Transvala em função da idade de corte. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de seis idades de corte, com intervalo de 10 dias entre cada corte, sendo que o primeiro corte foi realizado 20 dias após o corte de uniformização. A produção de matéria seca aumentou de forma linear (P The objective of this experiment was to evaluate dry matter production, in vitro dry matter digestibility, variability in chemical composition and in macro and micro mineral contents for Transvala digitgrass (Digitaria decumbens Stent., as related to the age at cutting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments, replicated five times. Treatments consisted of six cutting ages spaced 10 days apart, with the first cut made 20 days after staging. Dry matter production increased linearly (P < 0.05 with the age of the plant and in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein concentration decreased quadratically (P < 0.05. Conversely, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations increased quadratically (P < 0.05 with the age of the plant and the concentrations of the phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur decreased quadratically (P < 0.05. Concentrations of copper and zinc decreased quadratically (P < 0.05, whereas that of manganese increased quadratically (P < 0.05. Results showed that the cutting age to be recommend should be between days 30 to 40, if a well balanced feeding material of high quality that would satisfy animal nutritional requeriments, is desired.

  16. Feeding value of pastures for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, G C; Clark, D A

    2004-12-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the primary forage component of ruminant diets in New Zealand. It is persistent and palatable, and immature ryegrass has a high nutritive value (NV). However, seedhead development substantially lowers its feeding value (FV) as fibre concentration increases, the rate and extent of digestibility decreases, and voluntary intake declines. Ryegrass pastures are susceptible to accumulation of endophytic and saprophytic fungi in dead material at the base of the sward, especially when mature and laxly grazed. Feeding forage legumes to ruminants grazing grass-dominant pastures will improve animal performance and lessen the reliance on a single species to meet all nutritional requirements. The FV of forage is a function of intake and NV, measured by chemical analyses and animal feeding trials. Performance of individual animals grazing forages is usually limited by energy intake because structural fibre can slow digestion and clearance from the rumen and because of competition between individuals for available feed. The use of metabolisable energy (ME) content of forage to signify FV can give a reasonable indication of animal performance, but it should be used in conjunction with chemical analyses to improve the accuracy of predictions. The relationship between FV, pasture production, animal performance and profitability is complex. The importance of skilled management to maintain pasture quality and optimise animal performance under inconsistent climatic conditions should not be underestimated. Acceptable animal performance with minimal veterinary intervention requires good nutrition, but the genetic potential of livestock in New Zealand cannot be met solely by grazing pasture, especially when a high utilisation of pasture is required to maintain quality and profitability. Producers are responding to industry demands to reduce the seasonality in supply of milk and meat by changing lambing and calving dates, and extending lactation length in dairy cows

  17. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

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    Benjamin D Duval

    Full Text Available Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1. Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

  18. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Benjamin D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davis, Sarah C; Keogh, Cindy; Long, Stephen P; Parton, William J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1)). Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2) over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

  19. Aspects of a two-pasture — herbivore model

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Åge Riseth; Bernt Johansen; Arild Vatn

    2004-01-01

    Pastures for reindeer can be divided into green pastures (mainly herbs and grasses) of summer time and more or less snow-covered lichen pastures of winter. Fall and spring pastures have a composition in-between these extremes, but for model purposes bisection is sufficient. For the animals the green-pasture season is an anabolic phase with a physiological building-up of protein reserves, while winter is a catabolic phase where food-intake is reduced and the animals to a considerable extent su...

  20. INÓCULO DE HONGOS DE MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR EN PASTURAS DE Brachiaria decumbens (POACEAE EN ZONAS DE LOMA Y VEGA

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    RAÚL HERNANDO POSADA ALMANZA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los factores que influyen en la distribución del inóculo de hongos micorrícicos ar- busculares (micelio externo y esporas son diversos. Entre ellos pueden mencionarse la especie vegetal predominante, el pH, la humedad del suelo, la conductividad, el contenido de fósforo, nutrientes y de metales pesados. Muchos de los reportes de la literatura son contradictorios y basados en estudios realizados en zonas templadas; en condiciones tropicales es difícil determinar los factores edáficos y ambientales que estimulan la producción de inóculo y la forma en que lo hacen. Brachiaria decumbens, como especie de pasto predominante en paisajes de loma y vega en el piedemonte amazónico colombiano, ha sido poco estudiada en su relación micorrícica. En este estudio se realizó la determinación de la densidad de esporas y micelio externo en 26 zonas cubiertas con B. decumbens, correspondientes a paisajes de loma y vega. Simul- táneamente se valoraron el contenido de fósforo disponible (ppm, pH y humedad re- lativa del suelo (%. Mediante correlaciones de Spearman (rangos y análisis de varian- za (ANDEVA de una vía por Kruscall-Wallis, se encontró que el inóculo se distribuye de forma diferente en loma y vega, siendo mayor la densidad de esporas en loma que en vega y más homogéneo en contenido de micelio externo en vega que en loma. No se encontró efecto del fósforo disponible, el pH y la humedad del suelo sobre la den- sidad de inóculo de HMA.

  1. SIMBIOSIS MICORRIZICA ARBUSCULAR Y ACUMULACIÓN DE ALUMINIO EN Brachiaria decumbens Y Manihot esculenta SIMBIOSE MICORRIZICA ARBUSCULAR E ACUMULAÇÃO DE ALUMÍNIO EM Brachiaria decumbens E Manihot esculenta ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL SYMBIOSIS AND ACUMULATION OF ALUMINUM Brachiaria decumbens AND Manihot esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ ELENA GUERRA S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Suelos dedicados al monocultivo de Elaeis guineensis Jacq en Puerto Wilches-Santander-Colombia, presentan baja fertilidad, altas saturaciones de aluminio y baja densidad de esporas de hongos micorrizicos. Se evaluó el comportamiento de la simbiosis micorrizica utilizando suelos nativos con micorrizas (MA+ y sin micorrizas (MA-, en Brachiaria decumbens y Manihot esculenta, quienes poseen alta micotrofia y capacidad de retención del ión aluminio. Se consideraron las variables densidad de esporas, porcentaje de colonización micorrizica, biomasa seca y longitud radicular, concentración de aluminio foliar y radicular. Se realizó una (ANOVA de dos vías con un modelo lineal general. Se observaron porcentajes de colonización micorrizica superiores al 70% en B. decumbens en suelos con concentraciones de 0,6 y 1,4 meq/100 g de Aluminio. M. esculenta presento 50 % de simbiosis micorrizica, en todos los tipos de suelo. Se incrementaron las esporas nativas de palma aceitera hasta un 200% en las dos plantas huespéd. Las concentraciones de aluminio a nivel radicular fueron mayores en plantas micorrizadas, mientras que a nivel foliar los valores fueron más bajos.Solos dedicados à monocultura de Elaeis guineensis Jacq em Puerto Wilches-Santander apresentam baixa fertilidade, alta saturação de alumínio e baixa densidade de esporos de fungos micorrízicos. Avaliaram-se o comportamento da simbiose micorrízica usando solos nativos com fungos micorrízicos (MA+ e sem fungos micorrízicos (MA-, na Brachiaria decumbens e Manihot esculenta, plantas com alto grau de micotrofia e capacidade de retenção de íons de alumínio. Considerou-se as variáveis: densidade de esporos, porcentagem de colonização micorrízica, biomassa seca, longo da raiz e concentração de alumínio nas folhas e raízes. Realizou-se uma (ANOVA de duas vias com o modelo linear geral. Observou-se porcentagens de colonização micorrízica acima de 70% na B. decumbens em solos com

  2. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics

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    M. R. Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas on walking distances and milking interval (MI, and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR in an automatic milking system (AMS. Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows, 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as ‘moderate’; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as ‘high’ and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance

  3. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng-Choon Tan, Adrian; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements.

  4. Struggling for Water and Pastures in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie

    inform natural resource struggles on the ground and reveals that points of contest between universalism and cultural relativism in regard to property, public authority and justice are reflected in both national legislation and in international development practices. On the basis of a sensitive study......In Niger the question of rights to pastoral resources illustrates how ideologies in Western mindset have been transported to the African continent. On the on hand there has been an attempt to standardise legal frameworks and land tenure practices with uniform rules. On the other hand, since...... the 1990s customary practices are increasingly recognised in legal frameworks. "Struggling for water and pastures in Niger" explores the philosophical assumptions behind the rules governing rights to water and pastures in the pastoral areas of the Diffa region in Niger. The book shows how these assumptions...

  5. MULTIFUNCTIONAL UTILIZATION OF PASTURES IN ROMANIA

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    N. DRAGOMIR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian pastures are characterized by a multitude of functions that may be used for human benefit: food and habitat for animals, development of some connected activities (collection and processing of apicultural products, medicinal plants, etc., natural reservoir providing biodiversity for more than 70% of the plant species (the preservation of this may assure an important germplasm fund for the next cultivars, the most efficient method of soil protection against erosion, provider of unconventional energy, accomplishment of efficient biological cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and carbon dioxide (CO2, development of landscape tourism due to the plant and animal diversity that ennoble and beautify the environment. If only 60% of the permanent pasture area was used, with the application of minimal technological measures, it would provide the necessary food for at least 1.6 million cattle (57% of the current livestock and 12 million sheep and goats.

  6. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A.; Catford, Jane A.; Barney, Jacob N.; Hulme, Philip E.; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M.; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  7. Desempenho de novilhos em crescimento em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens suplementados com diferentes fontes energéticas no período da seca e transição seca-águas Development of growing steers on Brachiaria decumbens supplemented with different energy sources during the dry season and transition from dry to wet season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocilaine Garcia

    2004-12-01

    of Signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens from July to November, on São Paulo state west region. Forty-two animals (Nelore and three pastures of 7.2 ha each, were used. The energy sources used for supplements were: corn and cob with husks (CCH, cassava meal (CM and soybean hulls (SH; each treatment had cottonseed meal to reach 25% of CP, and was given at 1.30% of BW. The animal weight was verified at each 14 days and forage characteristics were evaluated at each 28 days. The average availability of forage was 2570 kg DM/ha and 1306 kg leaves/ha. Leaves proportion showed a quadratic behavior in function of experimental period, with minimum value of 46.58 % observed in August. The average levels of CP were 4.45% for all plant, 5.30% for leaf e 2.83% for steam. The average levels of NDF and ADF were, respectively 70.61% and 39.93% for all plant, 65.76% and 34.91% for leaf, and 75.83% and 47.90% for steam. The supplements were not different on average daily gain, with average of 0.836 kg/animal/day. The supplement more economically viable was the cassava meal, which showed lesser coasts and bigger animal gain with better relation income:costs.

  8. Glyphosate e nitrgênio no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas Glyphosate and nitrogen in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in established elephant grass stocking piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência de utilização do herbicida glyphosate associado com adubação nitrogenada no controle de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf em capineiras estabelecidas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dezessete tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, sendo quatro doses de glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/aplicação, quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano e um tratamento adicional (testemunha com capina. As aplicações do nitrogênio e glyphosate, nas respectivas doses, foram realizadas imediatamente após o corte do capim-elefante. A associação entre o herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação e nitrogênio (225 kg/ha/ano foi eficiente no controle de capim-braquiária em capineiras estabelecidas. A aplicação do herbicida glyphosate (2160 g/ha/aplicação reduziu o tamanho do banco de sementes de capim-braquiária no solo em 64%.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of the herbicide glyphosate associated with nitrogen fertilization in the control of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in elephant grass stocking piles. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks with 17 treatments and three replications. The treatments were arranged in 4x4+1 factorial scheme, namely four doses of glyphosate (0, 720, 1440 e 2160 g/ha/application, four doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha/ano and one additional treatment (control with a hoeing. The application of the nitrogen and glyphosate, in the respective doses were performed immediately after the cutting of elephant grass. The association between glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application and nitrogen (225 kg/ha/ano was efficient in the control brachiaria grass in established elephant grass stocking piles. The application of the glyphosate (2160 g/ha/application reduced the size of the bank of brachiaria grass seeds in the soil in 64%.

  9. INFLUÊNCIA DOS SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DO SOLO SOBRE OS COMPONENTES DE PRODUÇÃO DO MILHO E Brachiaria decumbens

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    Rodrigo Gomes Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective to assess the effect of different systems of soil management on the components of corn and Brachiaria decumbens production in the conditions of the coastal plateau of the State of Alagoas. The experiment was carried out in the Center of Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Alagoas in the year of 2006, in a Yellow Latosol (Oxisols Cohesive dystrophic soil. The treatments used were: usual preparation system (SPC; minimum cultivation (SCM; direct plantation (SPD and farming-cattle integration (ILP, this one joined with B. decumbens. The hybrid of maize BRS 3003 was used whose variable had been: number of plants ha-1 (PP, length of spikes (CE, number of row grains on spikes-1 (NF, number of spike (NE, mass of 100 grains (M100 and grain yield (PG; and fresh weight (MN and dry weight (MS of the B. decumbens. The results showed that the soil management systems influenced the PP, NE and PG, but not the variables CE, NF and M100. The treatments ILP and the PD were the most promising management systems. In system ILP, the accumulation of MN and MS did not have influence in the production of corn grains, representing an interesting food source for farm animals.

  10. Aspects of a two-pasture — herbivore model

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    Jan Åge Riseth

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Pastures for reindeer can be divided into green pastures (mainly herbs and grasses of summer time and more or less snow-covered lichen pastures of winter. Fall and spring pastures have a composition in-between these extremes, but for model purposes bisection is sufficient. For the animals the green-pasture season is an anabolic phase with a physiological building-up of protein reserves, while winter is a catabolic phase where food-intake is reduced and the animals to a considerable extent survive on the accumulated reserves from summer. While protein reserves are stored from summer to winter, lichen pastures are stored from year to year. Grasses and herbs not being grazed are wilting by the end of the growing season, while lichens not grazed can live for many years. This corresponds with fundamental differences in both growth pattern and resilience. The implications of the different features, and their interconnections, are not easy to survey without formal modeling. The point of departure is a simple pasture-herbivore model, well known from the literature building on a set of differential equations. A new two-pasture-herbivore model is developed. The model includes as basic elements the Klein (1968 hypothesis and that a residual lichen biomass is kept ungrazed due to snow-cover protection. Further the annual cycle is divided into four stylized seasons with herd rates of winter survival, spring calving, summer physiological growth and fall slaughtering. Isoclines are derived for summer pasture, winter pasture and herbivores. Stability properties are discussed in relation to various situations of seasonal pasture balance. Empirical examples, particularly that of changes in pasture balance and vegetation cover in Western Finnmark, Norway, are discussed. The article finds that the two-pasture model provides important features of reality, such as the stability aspects of pasture balance, which cannot be displayed by a one-pasture model. It is

  11. Inhibition of Corydalis decumbens Alkaloids on Hydrogen Peroxideinduced Apoptosis of PC12 Cells through Down-regulating Caspase-3 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ren-jie; YANG Yi-fang; LUO Yong-ming; WU Chun-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To extract alkaloids from Corydalis decumbens (AsCD) by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE) and to evaluate protective effects of AsCD against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in rat PC12 cells.Methods AsCD were extracted by SFE and oxidative damage PC12 cells model was induced by H2O2.The survival rate of the cells was determined by MTT assay; Lactate dehydrogenase release was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry; Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis; Caspase-3 mRNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting assay,respectively.Results AsCD remarkably reduced the cytotoxicity,prevented membrane damage,and inhibited cell apoptosis.AsCD inhibited Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression induced by H2O2 in PC12 cells.Conclusion AsCD possess protective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells,and the mechanism of AsCD responsible to the inhibition of apoptosis is possibly attributed to thedown-regulating Caspase-3 expression.AsCD might be useful in the treatment of oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Germinação de sementes de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens influenciada por vinhaça, flegmaça e óleo de fúsel Germination of Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens seeds influenced by vinasse, flegmass and fusel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar, em condições de laboratório, a germinação de sementes de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens submetidas à aplicação de vinhaça, flegmaça e óleo de fúsel. Esses subprodutos, nas concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v, e as testemunhas (água com pH e osmolalidade corrigidos, em função da caracterização realizada nos subprodutos e em suas diluições foram aplicados diretamente em 100 sementes acondicionadas em caixas de plástico, utilizando papel como substrato. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, e as médias obtidas foram submetidas ao teste de Tukey. As sementes de Sida rhombifolia submetidas ao óleo de fúsel não germinaram e apresentaram redução na viabilidade, principalmente nas maiores concentrações de aplicação. As sementes de Brachiaria decumbens submetidas à maior concentração de flegmaça apresentaram tendência de redução da viabilidade e do índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Na presença do óleo de fúsel as sementes de Brachiaria decumbens não germinaram e apresentaram-se totalmente inviáveis.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of vinasse, flegmass and fusel oil (distillery by-products on the germination of Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens seeds, under laboratory conditions. By-product concentrations (12.5; 25.0; 50.0 and 100.0% v/v and the controls (water with pH and osmolality amended according to by-product composition and levels were applied directly on plastic boxes filled with 100 seeds of the same species. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete design and the data were submitted to the Tukey test. Sida rhombifolia seeds submitted to fusel oil did not germinate, reducing seed viability mainly at the largest application rates. Brachiaria decumbens seeds submitted to the highest flegmass rate tended to reduce seed viability and germination speed index (GSI. Brachiaria decumbens seeds

  13. Emergência e desenvolvimento de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. influenciados por subprodutos da destilação do álcool Emergence and growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. as influenced by alcohol by-products

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    A.A.P.M. Azania

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de óleo de fúsel, comparativamente a vinhaça e flegmaça, sobre o desenvolvimento e a composição química de plantas de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB72454, cultivadas simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. As concentrações de 12,5; 25,0; 50,0; e 100,0% (v/v de cada subproduto e a testemunha (água foram aplicadas (numa taxa equivalente a 150 m³ ha-1 no solo dos vasos (22 L, contendo uma planta de cana-de-açúcar (13 cm de altura e 100 sementes de cada planta daninha. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 (três tipos de resíduos e quatro concentrações, e uma testemunha adicional com água. O óleo de fúsel inibiu a emergência de Sida rhombifolia e Brachiaria decumbens e matou a cana-de-açúcar. A vinhaça e a flegmaça prejudicaram a emergência e o desenvolvimento de B. decumbens, bem como o de S. rhombifolia, mas não o da cana-de-açúcar.This research aimed to compare the effects of fusel oil application to those of vinasse and flegmass application on the growth and chemical composition of arrowleaf sida plants (Sida rhombifolia, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens and sugarcane (Saccharum spp., cultivated simultaneously under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 12.5,25.0,50.0 and 100.0 % (v/v of each by-product and the check treatment (water were applied (rate equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1 to soil on 22 L-pots, containing one sugar-cane plant (13 cm of height, and 100 seeds of each weed. The experimental design was completely randomized , with 13 treatments and 4 repetitions, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (3 by-products and 4 concentrations and an additional check treatment with water. The fusel oil inhibited Sida rhombifolia and Brachiaria decumbens emergence with no emergence being verified for sugarcane. The vinasse and

  14. Levels of ground corn supplied to beef heifers at pasture during the rainy season: productive performance, intake, digestibility and microbial efficiency

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    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements, five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.

  15. Nutritional requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals for maintenance and weight gain of young crossbred Nellore × Holstein bulls on pasture

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    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals of young Nellore/Holstein crossbreds bulls supplemented on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Thirty-five young bulls, at 8.53±0.18 months of age and with initial body weight of 230.6±6.1 kg were used. Ten animals were slaughtered as reference, in different weight range, and the other animals were slaughtered at the end of the experimental period. For estimate of net energy requirements for weight, a regression equation between log of retained energy (RE and log of empty body weight gain (EBWG was constructed. Net requirements of Ca, P, Mg, Na and K were determined by the equation Y' = a.b.Xb-1, in which a and b represent the intercept and the coefficient of equation of prediction of macrominerals in body content, respectively. Requirements of metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm were obtained from retained energy in function of metabolizable energy intake (MEI. The requirements of MEm of Nellore/Holstein crossbreds young bulls on pasture was 125 kcal/EBW0.75/day. The efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k of grazing Nellore/Holstein crossbred young mbulls was 0.58 and 0.24 for gain. The total metabolizable protein requirements for an animal with 400 kg and with average daily gain of 1.0 kg, were 638.36 g/day. The dietetic requirements of Ca and P for an animal with 400 kg BW were 0.49 and 0.21% of DM, respectively. Daily metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance of grazing Nellore/Holstein crossbred young bulls was 11.6% greater than the values found for cattle in feedlot in Brazil (112 kcal/kg EBW0.75.

  16. Effluent polishing via pasture irrigation in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhapi, I; Mawere, M; Veenstra, S; Gijzen, H J

    2002-01-01

    Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe, is experiencing eutrophication-related problems in its downstream potable water supply source of Lake Chivero. This is due mainly to poorly treated sewage effluent encroachment into upstream rivers, especially Marimba River. Crowborough Pasture Irrigation farm is in the Marimba sub-catchment area and has 305 hectares of irrigated pastures. Studies started from July 2000 to August 2001 focusing on the pasture's management of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and their impact on Marimba River. Water and nutrient balances were developed. Reduction efficiencies for this pasture were found to be 84% for TN and 54% for TP. Both the Crowborough sewage treatment works and the pastures are overloaded. It was therefore concluded that the current system is no longer sustainable economically and environmentally. From the results of our study we recommend that additional treatment units be constructed at Crowborough sewage treatment works to meet current flows. Moreover, pasture management needs substantial improvement. Nutrient recovery should be enhanced by regular harvesting of pasture grass and converting cow dung into an economic commodity as manure for neighbouring residents. Maize cultivation is also recommended to replace pasture grass as it is a local staple crop and has high nutrient uptake rates.

  17. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  18. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 National Organic Program; Access to Pasture... Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 RIN 0581-AC57 National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock) AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  19. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response...

  20. Biometrical applications in tropical pasture and agro-pastoral research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amézquita, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    "Biometrical Applications in Tropical Pasture and Agro-pastoral Research" illustrates, through selected Case Studies, the contribution of Biometry to pasture and agro-pastoral research in Tropical Latin America ( TLA ) in the last two decades. Its contribution is re

  1. Pigs and Pollards: Medieval Insights for UK Wood Pasture Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Jørgensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available English wood pastures have become a target for ecological restoration, including the restoration of pollarded trees and grazing animals, although pigs have not been frequently incorporated into wood pasture restoration schemes. Because wood pastures are cultural landscapes, created through the interaction of natural processes and human practices, a historical perspective on wood pasture management practices has the potential to provide insights for modern restoration projects. Using a wide range of both written and artistic sources form the Middle Ages, this article argues that pigs were fed in wood pastures both during the mast season when acorns were available and at other times as grazing fields. Pollarded pedunculate oak (Quercus robur likely dominated these sustainable cultural landscapes during the medieval period.

  2. PRODUÇÃO E COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA DA Brachiaria brizantha E Brachiaria decumbens SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES ADUBAÇÕES PRODUCTION AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF Brachiaria brizantha AND Brachiaria decumbens SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusete Maria da Silva Patês

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a produção e a composição química de dois cultivares de braquiária com diferentes adubações. Instalou-se o experimento em casa de vegetação no Campus Juvino Oliveira pertencente à UESB, localizado na cidade de Itapetinga, BA. O ensaio foi desenvolvido em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo dois cultivares de Brachiaria (B. brizantha cv. marandu e B. decumbens cv. basilisk e cinco adubações (sem adubo, N, P, NP e NK, mediante a utilização de 50 kg.ha-1 de P, 30 kg.ha-1 de K e 300 kg.ha-1 de N como nutrientes. O delineamento adotado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Utilizaram-se vasos plásticos com 30 cm de diâmetro por 22 cm de altura e capacidade de 10 dm3. Efetuaram-se três coletas de amostras da parte aérea, sendo cada período correspondente a 28 dias de crescimento da planta. Procedeu-se à coleta dessas amostras e secagem destas em estufa, sendo depois moídas a 1 mm. Posteriormente, fez-se uma amostra composta. Os resultados demonstram que a interação entre os cultivares e a adubação foi significativa para produção de massa seca da parte aérea e cinzas. O cultivar basilisk mostrou-se superior em relação ao cultivar marandu na maioria das variáveis analisadas. Os valores encontrados para a composição química dos cultivares em estudo estão de acordo com os valores tabelados para gramíneas com rebrota de 28 dias.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Baquiária, proteína bruta, raízes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the production and chemical composition of two cultivates of Brachiaria with different fertilizations. The experiment was installed in a green house at Juvino Oliveira Campus of UESB, in Itapeting, BA. The assay was conducted in a 2x5 factorial scheme, being two cultivates of Brachiaria (B. brizantha cv. marandu and B. decumbens cv. basilisk and five fertilizations (without fertilizer, P, N, NP and NK. The quantity of nutrients used was 50 kg

  3. Efeitos fitotóxicos do fluoreto na morfoanatomia foliar de Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf e Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Poaceae Phytotoxic effects of fluoride in leaf morpho-anatomy of Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. Ex A. Rich. Stapf and Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Pita-Barbosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar os efeitos do fluoreto sobre capim-braquiária, plantas de Brachiaria brizantha e B. decumbens foram submetidas a nevoeiros simulados com fluoreto (10 µg ml-1. Amostras foliares de porções aparentemente sadias foram coletadas 24 horas após a última exposição para análises microscópicas. Folhas, raízes e rizomas foram submetidos à quantificação do teor de fluoreto. As folhas apresentaram necroses pequenas e esparsas. Somente as folhas acumularam fluoreto, apresentando teores 4,4 e 5,2 vezes maiores que no tratamento controle, em B. brizantha e B. decumbens, respectivamente, não havendo diferença no potencial acumulador das duas espécies. As principais alterações micromorfológicas observadas foram lesões próximas aos tricomas, sugerindo que estes sejam as vias preferenciais de entrada do poluente nas plantas. Porções foliares, visualmente sadias, de ambas as espécies apresentaram danos microscópicos antes do surgimento de sintomas, havendo perda da turgidez das células buliformes em B. brizantha e de todos os tecidos em B. decumbens. Alterações micromorfométricas foram observadas somente em B. decumbens, indicando sua maior sensibilidade ao fluoreto, em comparação com B. brizantha. A realização de experimentos de longa duração será fundamental para elucidar o potencial bioacumulador de B. brizantha.To assess the effects of fluoride on signal grass, plants of Brachiaria brizantha and B. decumbens were submitted to simulated fluoride fog (10 µg ml-1. Leaf fragments from apparently healthy portions were colleted 24 hours after the last exposure and used for microscopic analysis. Roots, leaves and rhizomes were submitted to fluoride content quantification. The leaves presented small, sparse necroses. The accumulation of fluoride was observed on the leaves only. B. brizantha and B. decumbens presented, respectively, 4.4 and 5.2 times more fluoride than the control treatment. No difference was

  4. Efecto del potasio sobre la producción y calidad de forraje de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf en el piedemonte de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rincón Castillo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones La Libertad, de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica, localizado en Villavicencio, Meta (Colombia, en un Oxisol de terraza media con un contenido de 0.08 cmol%kg de potasio (K, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar en parcelas divididas con cuatro replicaciones, se evaluó el efecto de cuatro niveles de K (30 kg%ha, 60 kg%ha, 90 kg%ha y 120 kg%ha en la producción de forraje de Brachiaria decumbens. Como parcela principal se evaluaron la aplicación de fertilización básica y sin fertilización básica. La primera consistió en (kg%ha de 100, 60, 30, 3, 01 y 0.5 de P2O5, N, S, Zn, Cu, y B, respectivamente. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la producción de forraje entre los niveles de K aplicados. En las condiciones del ensayo B. decumbens responde bien a 30 kg%ha de K. No obstante, la fertilización básica aplicada junto con el K contribuyó a mejorar la producción de forraje hasta los 12 meses después de su aplicación. La concentración de K en el suelo, en los tratamientos evaluados, fue > 0.10 cmol%kg, un nivel adecuado para el desarrollo de pastos poco exigentes como B. decumbens.

  5. Meiotic arrest compromises pollen fertility in an interspecific hybrid between Brachiaria ruziziensis x Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae: paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Beatriz Mendes-Bonato

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Microsporogenesis was analyzed in an interspecific hybrid between an artificially tetraploidized sexual accession of Brachiaria ruziziensis (2n=4x=36 and a natural apomictic tetraploid accession of B. decumbens. Syncytes involving a large number of cells were recorded in 15.4% of meiocytes. Meiosis progressed normally in syncytes during prophase I; in metaphase I, however, several nuclei were found fusioned, showing chromosome stickiness and several chromosome fragments. Meiosis was arrested in metaphase I and pycnotic nuclei and micronuclei were formed. Abnormal cytokinesis fractionated the syncyte into abnormal meiotic products that were covered by the pollen wall. Meiocytes in leptotene were recorded in all the slides prepared for both meiotic divisions, and abnormal "pollen grains" with well-developed pollen wall but containing leptotene nuclei were recorded in 9.18% of grains analyzed. These findings suggested that the meiocytes received the signal to enter meiosis but lacked the signal to proceed beyond leptotene. Despite the absence of the meiotic process, such cells were covered by pollen grain wall. Total pollen sterility resulted from these abnormalities combined with still others observed among meiocytes.A microsporogênese de um híbrido interespecífico entre um acesso sexual tetraploidizado artificialmente de Brachiaria ruziziensis (2n=4x=36 e um acesso apomítico tetraplóide natural de B. decumbens (2n=4x=36 foi analisada. Sincícios envolvendo um grande número de células foram encontrados em 15,40% dos meiócitos. A meiose progrediu normalmente nos sincícios durante a prófase I; em metáfase I, todavia, muitos núcleos fundiram-se, mostrando ainda aderências cromossômicas e inúmeros fragmentos. O processo meiótico foi interrompido na metáfase I, quando a cromatina formou núcleos picnóticos. Citocineses anormais fracionaram os sincícios em produtos meióticos anômalos que foram recobertos pela parede do grão de p

  6. Crop and pasture response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiello, Francesco N; Soussana, Jean-François; Howden, S Mark

    2007-12-11

    We review recent research of importance to understanding crop and pasture plant species response to climate change. Topics include plant response to elevated CO(2) concentration, interactions with climate change variables and air pollutants, impacts of increased climate variability and frequency of extreme events, the role of weeds and pests, disease and animal health, issues in biodiversity, and vulnerability of soil carbon pools. We critically analyze the links between fundamental knowledge at the plant and plot level and the additional socio-economic variables that determine actual production and trade of food at regional to global scales. We conclude by making recommendations for current and future research needs, with a focus on continued and improved integration of experimental and modeling efforts.

  7. Shrub encroachment in pastures in the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Camacho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape closing due to the decline in agricultural activity is considered to be a major problem in the Alps. Abondance Valley provides a good example of this phenomenon and is also representative of a paradox commonly found in the Northern French Alps: the mountainsides and alpine pastures are still used, whereas they are becoming increasingly afforested. Environmental conditions play a major role in the localisation of agricultural land uses, but they are not sufficient to explain why pastures still in use are being invaded by shrub. Even if cutting makes it possible to effectively control the encroachment by woody species, this is not true for uncut pastures where grazing is not able to keep up with grass production. This situation is repeated every year and is the likely cause of the colonisation by woody species. To ensure their forage system and to simplify their work, farmers tend to establish grazing units that are oversized in relation to the needs of their animals. They implement compensatory practices that consist of mechanical maintenance as a complement to grazing to limit the dynamics of woody species. These labour-intensive practices are not used on all of the pastures. The analysis of farmers’ practices by agronomists is therefore a useful complement to studies of physical and socio-economic environments, at the level of the grazed field as well as at that of the valley as a whole.La dégradation des paysages par suite du recul de l’activité agricole est considérée comme un enjeu majeur dans les Alpes. La vallée d’Abondance illustre bien ce phénomène de fermeture de l’espace mais elle est en outre représentative d’un paradoxe assez répandu dans les Alpes du nord françaises : les versants et les alpages sont encore exploités et pourtant ils se boisent progressivement. Les conditions de milieux jouent un rôle majeur sur la localisation des usages agricoles de l'espace, mais elles ne peuvent pas suffire pour

  8. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    within 30 s of an eliminative event. Intentional, incidental or no avoidance of faeces was also recorded for each event. Activity, characterised as static (lying, grazing or loafing), or active (moving to a different area of field, going to drink and catching up with herd) was also recorded. Of the 437...... going to drink or catching up with the herd. Overall, standing to defaecate and moving forward......Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...

  9. Improvement of Selenium Status of Pasture Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Selenium was applied to pasture crops in a field experiment (1) by foliar application of 10 g Se/ha as selenite in the spring, (2) or by 5 g Se/ha in the spring plus 5 g in early August, (3) as selenite-enriched calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 4 g Se/ha after each cut, and (4) as 4 g Se after...... every second cut. The experiment covered 2 yr. The results showed that applying 4 g Se in CAN/ha five times and spraying with 10 g Se/ha were efficient and safe measures to raise the average Se concentrations from about 0.04 ppm to 0.06-0.1 ppm. The yield of dry matter was lower in 1981 than in 1980...

  10. in Pasture and Organic Farm Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Edenborn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil bacteria exhibit short-term variations in community structure, providing an indication of anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN, community level physiological profiling (CLPP, and culture-dependent DGGE (CD DGGE fingerprinting of the 16S rRNA gene were used to compare microbial communities in organic farm and pasture soils subjected to differing agronomic treatments. Correlation analyses revealed significant relationships between MBC, PMN, and data derived from microbial community analyses. All measures separated soil types but varied in their ability to distinguish among treatments within a soil type. Overall, MBC, PMN, and CLPP were most responsive to compost and manure amendments, while CD DGGE resolved differences in legume cropping and inorganic fertilization. The results support the hypothesis that culturable soil bacteria are a responsive fraction of the total microbial community, sensitive to agronomic perturbations and amenable to further studies aimed at linking community structure with soil functions.

  11. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean in multiple supplements for beef heifers grazing Urochloa decumbens during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mageste de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soybean in multiple supplements on nutritional parameters, microbial efficiency and productive and reproductive performance of heifers grazing in Urochloa decumbens during the drought period. Were used 39 crossbred heifers of initial age and initial weight of 21 months and 309.5±7 kg, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments with eight replicates, and a control treatment with seven replications. Two treatments had soybean meal as the protein source and two treatments had soybean as the protein source, containing 25% and 40% crude protein. The amount of supplement offered was 1.0 kg/animal/day. The animals of the control group received only mineral salt ad libitum. The supplemented animals had higher average daily gain (ADG than control animals (P<0.10, and there was no difference in ADG among the supplements (P>0.10. There was an effect of supplementation (P <0.10 on intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDF. There were no differences (P>0.10 on intake of OM and DM grazing between the supplemented and non-supplemented. Supplementation improved DM digestibility and all constituents of the diet (P<0.10. It was found that the provision of multiple supplements optimizes the performance of heifers grazing during the dry season, and that the substitution of soybean meal by soybean did not improve productive performance of animals.

  12. Produção e perfilhamento de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. em função de doses de enxofre

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Anacleto Ranulfo dos; Monteiro Francisco Antonio

    1999-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação em Piracicaba, São Paulo, no período de outubro a dezembro de 1996, com Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. cv. Basilisk cultivada em solução nutritiva e utilizando sílica como substrato. Foi empregado o delineamento de blocos completos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O primeiro corte das plantas foi efetuado 40 dias após transplante para os vasos, e o segundo corte 30 dias após o primeiro. Foram avaliadas oito doses de enxofre (0; 2; 4; 16; 32; 48; 6...

  13. Variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um Argissolo sob pastagem = Spatial variability of chemical attributes in an Ultisol under pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos mostram a importância de se conhecer a variabilidade dos atributos do solo para o manejo mais eficiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, cultivado com pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, em Alegre – Espírito Santo. Amostras de solo foram coletadas na profundidade de 0-0,2 m, nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo o total de 64 pontos. Os dados foram submetidos à analise estatística descritiva, geoestatística e interpolação por krigagem ordinária. Os valores dos coeficientes de variação apresentaram-se baixos para pH, altos para Al e m% e médios para os demais atributos. Os atributos pH, P, H+Al e m% apresentaram forte dependência espacial e os demais, moderada dependência. Todos os atributos estudados apresentaramestrutura de dependência espacial, o que permitiu o seu mapeamento com técnicas de geoestatísticas.Studies show the importance of knowing the variability of soil attributes for a more efficient management. This work was carried out to evaluate the spatial variability of the chemical attributes of an Ultisol, cultivated with Brachiaria decumbens pasture in Alegre - ES. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 00-0.2 m, at the crossing points of a regular grid with 10 m-intervals, comprising a total of 64 points. Data were submitted to descriptive statistics, geostatistics and kriging interpolation analysis. The coefficient of variation was low for pH, high for Al and m%, and medium the other attributes. The attributes pH, P, H+Al and m% presented strong dependence, and the other moderate dependence. The attributes presented a spatial dependence structure, allowing their mapping by geostatistics techniques.

  14. Estrutura do capim-braquiária durante o diferimento da pastagem - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.7922 Signalgrass structure during pasture deferment - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.7922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Azevedo Magalhães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o número de perfilhos, a massa de forragem e de seus componentes morfológicos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk durante o diferimento da pastagem. Os tratamentos foram quatro períodos de diferimento (18, 46, 74 e 121 dias, a partir de 8/3/2004. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foram determinados os números de perfilhos vegetativos (PV, reprodutivos (PR e mortos (PM, bem como as massas de lâmina foliar verde (MLV, colmo verde (MCV e forragem morta (MFM. Durante o período de diferimento houve redução no número de PV (de 1.491 para 944 perfilhos m-2. Os números de PR e PM não foram influenciados pelo período de diferimento e suas médias foram 211 e 456 perfilhos m-2, respectivamente. O período de diferimento causou incremento nas MCV (de 2.965 para 4.877 kg ha-1 de massa seca e MFM (2.324 para 4.823 kg ha-1 de massa seca, porém não influenciou a MLV (em média, 2.047 kg ha-1 de massa seca. Em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, o pasto de B. decumbens, adubado com nitrogênio e diferido no início de março, pode permanecer diferido por cerca de 70 dias para conciliar produção de forragem em quantidade com boa composição morfológica.This experiment was performed aiming to evaluate tiller population density, forage mass and its morphological components on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. during deferment. The treatments encompassed four deferred grazing periods (18, 46, 74 and 121 days. A randomized block design with two replications was used. The numbers of vegetative tillers (VT, reproductive tillers (RT and dead tillers (DT in the pasture were determined. The masses of green leaf blade (GLBM, dead stem (DSM and dead forage (DFM were also determined. There was a reduction in the number of VT (from 1,491 to 944 tiller m-2 during the deferment period. RT and DT numbers were not influenced by the deferment periods. Their averages were

  15. Modelling of economic thresholds for Rumex obtusifolius L. in intensively used grassland and pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Broadleaf dock (Rumex obtusifolius L. is one of most frequently arising problem weed in permanent pasture. Numerous publications concern themselves with biology and ecology whereas little information is available quantifying the economic impacts of dock on forage grass yield and quality. Over the course of several growing seasons experiments were conducted in three pasture locations in Saxony and Thuringia (Germany. Dock infestation, yield proportions, yield of grass and dock and the forage value were measured always. The specific dry matter yield of R. obtusifolius is smaller than from L. perenne. With increasing dock settling the total forage yield is not affected negatively nevertheless. From this a potential increased yield follows after the improving the sward. The yield proportion of dock on the total yield can be reliably estimated over a mathematical function from the ground cover of dock, whereas due to the expanded variability in the size of single plants the number of plants was unsuitable for that. In populations grown up at same location the nutrient value of dock was regularly below the nutrient value of the grass component. An algorithm, based on ground cover of dock, net energy content of the grass component and the total dry matter yield was presented to determine the economic impact of various dock infestation. Including the forage use direction and the milk selling price the theoretically monetary income loss can be calculated when necessarily dock control and reseeding of grass filling the gaps will not be done. Using this model it will be possible to determine specific economic thresholds of dock infestations in permanent pasture under different conditions.

  16. Nutritive value of Medicago truncatula (ev. Jemalong) as pasture for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutritive value of medic pasture under grazing conditions have, however, been obtained ... parameter was also estimated from chromium faecal grab samples. ..... indication of total feacal output in white tailed deer. J. Range Mgmt. 30,61.

  17. Short Communication: Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, F.M. Jr.; Carneiro, R.F.V.; Leite, L.F.C.; Araujo, A.S.F.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality. (Author)

  18. PASTURE ffPROVEMENT POSSIBILTTIES IN EFFECTIVE AI{IMAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    veld management leads to veld deterioration and land de- nudation. Fortunately it ... tion of practices designed to increase productivity beyond those attainable by the ..... Grazing manage- ment is a tool of great significance for pasture improve-.

  19. Animal production from native pasture (veld) in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most important constraint on animal production from pastures, appears to be an insufficient intake of ..... nutritional history of the animals. Performance of grazing .... responsible for the experiments cited in this paper. Dr. Marion Read and ...

  20. Alteração em atributos fisicos de um solo sob pastagem após escarificação Changes in soil physical attributes in pasture after chisel plowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Colet

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A compactação do solo pode ser considerada uma das principais causas de degradação de pastagens. Entre várias técnicas de mobilização do solo para rompimento de camadas compactadas, a escarificação apresenta aspectos positivos para um manejo conservacionista. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar as alterações ocorridas na resistência do solo à penetração, porosidade do solo e densidade do solo de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, sob pastagem mediante sua escarificação. Implementou-se um experimento em uma área de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. em Nova Odessa (SP, utilizando um escarificador com discos de corte e ponteiras aladas. A resistência do solo à penetração foi avaliada utilizando um penetrógrafo hidráulico eletrônico e a densidade do solo e porosidade do solo, a partir de amostras indeformadas. As camadas de solo identificadas por análise multivariada da resistência do solo à penetração foram alteradas pela escarificação. A escarificação do solo reduziu significativamente os valores de resistência do solo à penetração. A escarificação do solo promoveu maiores alterações nos atributos físicos na profundidade de 0,0-0,1 m, na entrelinha da passagem das hastes do escarificador.Soil compaction is considered one of the main causes of pasture degradation. Several techniques can be applied to reduce compacted soil layers. Chisel plowing is one of the farming expedients that present the most positive aspects regarding the soil conservation management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil penetration resistance, soil porosity and bulk density in an oxisol soil of a pasture field after chisel plowing. The experiment was set up in Nova Odessa (SP on a Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. field, using a chisel plow with cutting discs and winged tips. The soil penetration resistance was evaluated with an electronic hydraulic penetrographer, and the porosity and bulk density with undeformed samples

  1. EDTA-induced phytoextraction of lead and barium by brachiaria (B. decumbens cv. Basilisk in soil contaminated by oil exploration drilling waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fernão Martins de Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents has been widely studied for the remediation of contaminated soils. To evaluate the efficiency of EDTA-induced phytoextraction of Ba and Pb using Brachiaria decumbens for the remediation of soil contaminated by oil well drilling and exploration waste, an experiment was conducted by applying a single dose (6 mmol EDTA kg-1 soil and split doses of EDTA (three applications of 2 mmol EDTA kg-1 soil. The samples were subjected to sequential extractions using the method proposed by Ure et al. (1993 as modified by Rauret et al. (1999.The application of EDTA did not influence the distribution of Ba in various chemical fractions of the soil. The dry matter production did not differ significantly between the treatments and the control, thereby demonstrating the tolerance of plants to the experimental conditions. The absorption of Pb by plants was influenced by the application of EDTA. The application of a single dose of EDTA influenced the absorption of Pb and its translocation to the aerial plant parts. The application of split doses favoured higher accumulation of Pb in roots. Because of its tolerance to heavy metals and EDTA, B. decumbens has the potential to be used in phytostabilisation.

  2. Rapid quantification of four major bioactive alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. by pressurised liquid extraction combined with liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Jiang, Yongxiang; Zhou, Xiujin; Zhu, Zhenou; Lei, Xinxiang

    2011-05-30

    A new method based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QTrap-MS) analysis has been developed for the identification and quantification of four major alkaloids in extracts of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. PLE extractions were performed using 90% ethanol; temperature was set at 100°C and pressure at 1500 psi. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge™ C(18) column (150 mm × 2.1mm i.d., 3.5 μm) eluted by a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.2% acetic acid. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions (MRMs) mode, monitoring two MRM transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus (EPI) of the linear ion trap. The novel LC-QTrap-MS platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of the four alkaloids in C. decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. and fulfils the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  3. First report of anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of the medicinal plant Polygala decumbens from the Brazilian semi-arid region, Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; dos Santos, Odelta; Duarte, Mariana; da Silva Trentin, Danielle; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2012-06-01

    Trichomonosis, caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Actually, the infection treatment is based on 5-nitroimidazole drugs. However, an emergent number of resistant isolates makes important the search for new therapeutic arsenal. In this sense, the investigation of plants and their metabolites is an interesting approach. In the present study, the anti-T. vaginalis activity of 44 aqueous extracts from 23 Caatinga plants used in folk medicine was evaluated. After screening 44 aqueous extracts from 23 distinct plants against two isolates from ATCC and four fresh clinical isolates, only the Polygala decumbens root extract was effective in reducing significantly the trophozoite viability. The MIC value against all isolates tested, including the metronidazole resistant, was 1.56 mg/mL. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extract was able to completely abolish the parasite density in the first hours of incubation, confirmed by microscopy. In summary, this study describes the first report on the activity of P. decumbens from Caatinga against T. vaginalis, being directly related to the popular knowledge and use.

  4. Microwave sensors for detection of wild animals during pasture mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 400000 wild animals are killed or severely injured every year during spring time pasture mowing. Conventional methods for detection and removal or expulsion of animals before mowing are either inefficient or very time-consuming. The first really working method is based on a pyro-detector which senses the temperature contrast between the animals body and the surrounding pasture. Unfortunately, the detection reliability of this sensor decreases with increasing ambient temperature and strong sunlight, i.e. for typical weather conditions, when pasture is mowed, especially around noon. In this paper, a detector is presented that exhibits complementary behaviour. It works best during dry conditions (i.e. around noon, but has a tendency to false alarms when dew is present (i.e. morning and evening. The sensor is based on a commercial, low-cost Doppler module at 24GHz. It senses the difference of radar cross section between the animals body (high water content, specular reflection and the pasture (low water content, diffuse reflection. The signal is analysed by means of a non-linear Wigner time-frequency transformation. Experimental results are presented for a laboratory setup as well as for measurement in actual spring-time pasture. The results prove that a microwave sensor is capable of reliably detecting animals of the size of a fawn even if it is covered by a layer of pasture.

  5. Improvement of natural pastures using liquid organic fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Gabedava, Giorgi; Abuladze, Paata

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays natural pastures remains the main source to supply livestock with fresh feed material in Georgia. Due to that common pasturelands are under continues grazing pressure and normally no measures are taken in order to improve pasture productivity and to protect soil from erosion. Unregulated stocking rate leads to overutilization of natural pastures causing reduction in productivity and soil fertility. It is especially evident in arid regions, where bare soil after removal of vegetation dries out and is subject to wind erosion. In many areas even with regulated stocking rate plant available soil nutrient pool is already diminished and vegetation cannot be recovered easily after grazing. Therefore it is essential to improve soil fertility, which provide adequate amount of nutrients to plants to regenerate. Ongoing study aims to compare effect of different types of organic fertilizers on natural pastures in combination with pasture rotation scheme in order to maintain soil fertility and prepare the basis for its gradual improvement. Initial results shows positive impact of liquid organic fertilizers which increased aboveground biomass production by 200-300 kg per hectare.

  6. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed varying levels of total mixed ration and pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, Ronaldo E; Fellner, Vivek; Burns, Joseph C; Huntington, Gerald B; Green, James T

    2008-11-01

    Two, 8-week experiments, each using 30 lactating Holstein cows, were conducted to examine performance of animals offered combinations of total mixed ration (TMR) and high-quality pasture. Experiment 1 was initiated in mid October 2004 and Experiment 2 was initiated in late March 2005. Cows were assigned to either a 100% TMR diet (100:00, no access to pasture) or one of the following three formulated partial mixed rations (PMR) targeted at (1) 85% TMR and 15% pasture, (2) 70% TMR and 30% pasture and (3) 55% TMR and 45% pasture. Based on actual TMR and pasture intake, the dietary TMR and pasture proportions of the three PMR in Experiment 1 were 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21), 68% TMR and 32% pasture (68:32), and 59% TMR and 41% pasture (59:41), respectively. Corresponding proportions in Experiment 2 were 89% TMR and 11% pasture (89:11), 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21) and 65% TMR and 35% pasture (65:35), respectively. Reducing the proportion of TMR in the diets increased pasture consumption of cows on all PMR, but reduced total dry matter intake compared with cows on 100:00. An increase in forage from pasture increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids and decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk. Although milk and milk protein yields from cows grazing spring pastures (Experiment 2) increased with increasing intakes of TMR, a partial mixed ration that was composed of 41% pasture grazed in the fall (Experiment 1) resulted in a similar overall lactation performance with increased feed efficiency compared to an all-TMR ration.

  7. Efeito do tratamento físico associado à adubação em pastagem degradada de braquiária, nos teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido Effect of the physical treatment associated to fertilization in degraded pastures of brachiaria grass on crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergente fiber content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ramos Prazeres Bomfim

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na região dos cerrados brasileiros, estima-se que atualmente existam 85 milhões de hectares ocupados com pastagens, dos quais 50 milhões de hectares são de pastagens cultivadas, sobretudo com gramíneas de origem africana do gênero Brachiaria, das quais mais de 50% estão degradadas ou em processo de degradação. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do emprego de tratamentos físicos (grade intermediária e escarificador, de doses de nitrogênio (N e de fósforo (P, além das interações desses fatores na recuperação de uma pastagem degradada de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Este experimento foi realizado em uma área de pastagem degradada do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, sul do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O período experimental estendeu-se de dezembro de 1998 até abril de 2000. Foi utilizado um delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, alocando-se os tratamentos físicos nas parcelas e as adubações de N e P, nas subparcelas. A adubação baseou-se nos resultados da análise de solo e constou da aplicação de 100 kg/ha de N, 100 kg/ha de P2O5 e a combinação dessas duas doses. As aplicações de N e P elevaram os teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente ácido, e fibra em detergente neutro apenas em resposta ao P, no tecido vegetal de Brachiaria decumbens. Os tratamentos físicos influenciaram negativamente os teores de proteína bruta; contudo, a associação com o N reduziu esses efeitos negativos, elevando, porém, os teores de fibra em detergente neutro.ABSTRACT - In the Brazilian Cerrado, it is estimated that 85 millions ha exist with pastures with 50 millions ha under cultivated pastures, especially with African grasses of the genus Brachiaria. More than 50% of this pastures are degraded or under degradational process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of physical treatments (offset disk

  8. Effect of denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on growth and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsandoost, E; Gholami, S P; Nazemi, M

    2013-12-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40 degrees Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 10(9). All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities.

  9. Rhombencephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a pastured bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Carolina; Varela, Gustavo; Mota, María Inés; Gianneechini, Ruben; Rivero, Rodolfo

    2017-03-01

    A pastured 2-y-old cross-breed bull developed brainstem encephalitis (rhombencephalitis); Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the brain. In the brainstem, there was perivascular cuffing, multiple microabscesses, and positive immunostaining for L. monocytogenes. Samples of bovine feces, water, feedstuffs, milking parlor soil, and bulk tank milk were collected from the dairy farm. Seven isolates of the genus Listeria were obtained, 6 of L. innocua and 1 of L. monocytogenes, which was found in the pasture where the bull grazed. Both isolates belonged to serotype 4b and were positive for internalins A, C, and J. According to the DNA fragment patterns of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the isolates were closely related. The source of infection was the pasture, implying that listeriosis should not be discounted in cases with compatible clinical signs but the absence of silage feeding.

  10. Salinomycin and virginiamycin for lactating cows supplemented on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Scatolin de Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals on pasture generally show higher feed efficiency as a result of the use of antibiotics. This study evaluated the effect of the antimicrobials salinomycin and/or virginiamycin on production and the ruminal parameters of supplemented dairy cows grazing on Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Twelve Holstein/Zebu multiparous cows were used, distributed in three Latin squares, one for the evaluation of ruminal parameters, and the others for production parameters. Cows on pasture were fed 50 % of their estimated intake with corn silage and concentrate supplements containing salinomycin, virginiamycin or a combination of additives, in doses of 120 and 150 mg kg−1, respectively. There were no differences in milk production and composition, energy and nitrogen balance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior. However, salinomycin and virginiamycin each reduced pasture and total dry matter intake by about 14 % and 10 %, with a consequent improvement in feed efficiency.

  11. Effects of pasture on carcass composition in Cinta Senese pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuliotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The trial was performed to investigate on the effects of different periods of grass pasture in fattening Cinta Senese pigs; growth performances, carcass characteristics and meat quality were studied. Control group was reared in paddock and fed concentrate, while experimental group grazed on grass pasture with an integration of 1.4 kg/pig/d of concentrate. Initial live weight was not different between the two groups and individual weights were periodically recorded. Animals were slaughtered from 36 to 160 days from the trial beginning. Carcass weight, body measures, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24 were recorded. After 24 hours of refrigeration, each carcass was dissected into lean, fat and bone cuts. Results didn’t show differences between the two groups, revealing that Cinta Senese pigs can profitably utilize pasture on grass even in fattening period.

  12. Consorciação e manejo de Brachiaria decumbens em mudas de cafeeiros infestados com Pratylenchus brachyurus em condições de casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Kazuhiro Kubo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da consorciação e manejo de Brachiaria decumbens cv. 'Basilisk' em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica cv. 'Catuaí Vermelho' infestado por Pratylenchus brachyurus (Pb, o presente experimento foi desenvolvido em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos utilizados, com cinco repetições, foram: 1. Café não inoculado no limpo; 2. Café não inoculado consorciado com B. decumbens; 3. Café inoculado com 5000 juvenis e adultos de Pb por vaso (10L, no limpo; 4. Café inoculado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens podadas semanalmente; 5. Café inoculado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens com aplicação do herbicida glifosato. Aos 3, 4, 7, 10 e 11 meses após transplante dos cafeeiros, houve um aumento significativo na altura das plantas de cafeeiro sem nematoide mantidas no limpo, comparadas com os tratamentos com cafeeiros em solo infestado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens podadas e café em solo infestado com Pb consorciado com B. decumbens com aplicação de glifosato. Na avaliação final, realizada 278 dias após à inoculação das plantas, o peso da matéria seca da parte aérea nos tratamentos com Pb consorciado com braquiária e com aplicação de glifosato apresentaram menores valores, quando comparado com a testemunha sem nematoide e sem plantas consorciadas. Com relação ao peso da matéria fresca das raízes, todos os tratamentos foram significativamente mais baixos do que a testemunha sem nematoide e sem consorciação. A população final de P. brachyurus nas raízes foi maior quando o café foi consorciado com braquiária

  13. COMPONENTES DA PARTE AÉREA E RAÍZES DE PASTAGENS DE Brachiaria spp. EM DIFERENTES IDADES APÓS A REFORMA, COMO INDICADORES DE PRODUTIVIDADE EM AMBIENTE DE CERRADO ABOVEGROUND AND TOTAL ROOT BIOMASS COMPONENTS OF Brachiaria PASTURES IN DIFFERENT AGES AFTER RENOVATION AS A PRODUCTION INDICATOR UNDER SAVANNA VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michel Boddey

    2007-09-01

    pastures of different ages after renovation. Three B.brizantha pastures, with one, seven, and nine years after renovation through the Barreirão system, and one B. decumbens pasture twenty years after traditional renovation were evaluated. The areas were located at Goiânia, Brazil (16º35'12";S, 49º21'14";W, 730 m. The one year after renovation pasture showed the highest productivity, 197% higher than the twenty year after renovation pasture. With increasing pasture renovation age, there was a production and regrowth rate decrease due to the degradation process. This aspect may be observed in the root system development, since the total root productivity to 100 cm depth was reduced as pasture age increased, with 9.14 Mg ha-1, 4.87 Mg ha-1, and 2.90 Mg ha-1 for pastures of seven, nine, and twenty years after renovation, respectively. The one year pasture did not show appreciable root contribution. The Brachiaria regrowth pasture was found to be dependent on system N availability; hence, the litter production showed to be a good pasture degradation indicator. The N stocks down to 100 cm depth were of 7.54 Mg ha-1, 8.70 Mg ha-1, and 9.47 Mg ha-1, in the pastures with one, seven, and twenty years, respectively. These values were much lower than those in the nine year after renovation pasture (14.2 Mg ha-1.

    KEY-WORDS: Brachiaria; pastures; roots; litter.

  14. Preliminary data on nutritional value of abundant species in supraforestal Pyrenean pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Marinas, A.; García-González, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The alpine pastures of the Pyrenees have been used as summer ranges for centuries and continue to be an important forage resource for livestock husbandry to this day. Some studies attribute high nutritional values to alpine pastures, but recent surveys have revealed weight-loss in animals summering in Pyrenean pastures. There is virtually no information available with regard to the nutritional value of the species which constitute Pyrenean summer pastures. Twenty-three of the most common s...

  15. INVESTMENT ANALYSIS OF REPLACING ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED WITH ENDOPHYTE-FREE TALL FESCUE PASTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Murrell, Courtney Paige; Zhuang, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Cattle consuming tall fescue pastures infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum often suffer physiological disorders that reduce animal performance. One solution is to replace endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures with an endophyte-free mixture. A benefit-cost analysis was conducted to determine the profitability of pasture restoration. The profitability of this action depends on the percentage of endophyte in existing pastures, the discount rate, and the stand life of the endop...

  16. SPATIAL VARIABILITY AND VITALITY OF EPIGEOUS TERMITE MOUNDS IN PASTURES OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigeous termite mounds are frequently observed in pasture areas, but the processes regulating their population dynamics are poorly known. This study evaluated epigeous termite mounds in cultivated grasslands used as pastures, assessing their spatial distribution by means of geostatistics and evaluating their vitality. The study was conducted in the Cerrado biome in the municipality of Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In two pasture areas (Pasture 1 and Pasture 2, epigeous mounds (nests were georeferenced and analyzed for height, circumference and vitality (inhabited or not. The area occupied by the mounds was calculated and termite specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. The spatial distribution pattern of the mounds was analyzed with geostatistical procedures. In both pasture areas, all epigeous mounds were built by the same species, Cornitermes cumulans. The mean number of mounds per hectare was 68 in Pasture 1 and 127 in Pasture 2, representing 0.4 and 1 % of the entire area, respectively. A large majority of the mounds were active (vitality, 91 % in Pasture 1 and 84 % in Pasture 2. A “pure nugget effect” was observed in the semivariograms of height and nest circumference in both pastures reflecting randomized spatial distribution and confirming that the distribution of termite mounds in pastures had a non-standard distribution.

  17. Change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Humidicola grass (Brachiaria humidicola) grown in Ban Thon soil series (infertility soil) as a function of growth age. One rai (0.16 ha) of two-year-old pasture of fertilised Humidicola grass was uniformly cut and the regrowth samples were collected every twenty days. The samples were subjected to analysis for dry matter content and nutritive composition, i.e. crude protein, ash, calcium, phosphor...

  18. Survival and development of chicken ascarid eggs in temperate pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2017-01-01

    Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil...

  19. Planning pastures: taking species attributes to the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter hardiness limits the use of the productive forage grass perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the northeastern United States. Both efforts to breed more cold-tolerant varieties and the changing climate increase the potential of this grass in pastures. Growth chamber studies of thirteen co...

  20. Recent advances in plant metabolomics and greener pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Lloyd W

    2010-01-27

    Metabolomics is an extension of the omics concept and experimental approaches. However, is metabolomics just another trendy omics fashion perturbation or is metabolomics actually delivering novel content and value? This article highlights some recent advances that definitely support the role of plant metabolomics in the movement toward greener pastures.

  1. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended

  2. Measuring larval nematode contamination on cattle pastures: Comparing two herbage sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschave, S H; Levecke, B; Duchateau, L; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J

    2015-06-15

    Assessing levels of pasture larval contamination is frequently used to study the population dynamics of the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes of livestock. Direct quantification of infective larvae (L3) on herbage is the most applied method to measure pasture larval contamination. However, herbage collection remains labour intensive and there is a lack of studies addressing the variation induced by the sampling method and the required sample size. The aim of this study was (1) to compare two different sampling methods in terms of pasture larval count results and time required to sample, (2) to assess the amount of variation in larval counts at the level of sample plot, pasture and season, respectively and (3) to calculate the required sample size to assess pasture larval contamination with a predefined precision using random plots across pasture. Eight young stock pastures of different commercial dairy herds were sampled in three consecutive seasons during the grazing season (spring, summer and autumn). On each pasture, herbage samples were collected through both a double-crossed W-transect with samples taken every 10 steps (method 1) and four random located plots of 0.16 m(2) with collection of all herbage within the plot (method 2). The average (± standard deviation (SD)) pasture larval contamination using sampling methods 1 and 2 was 325 (± 479) and 305 (± 444)L3/kg dry herbage (DH), respectively. Large discrepancies in pasture larval counts of the same pasture and season were often seen between methods, but no significant difference (P = 0.38) in larval counts between methods was found. Less time was required to collect samples with method 2. This difference in collection time between methods was most pronounced for pastures with a surface area larger than 1 ha. The variation in pasture larval counts from samples generated by random plot sampling was mainly due to the repeated measurements on the same pasture in the same season (residual variance

  3. Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

    2013-05-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate.

  4. The effect of exotic grass Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D.Webster (Poaceae in the reduction of species richness and change of floristic composition of natural regeneration in the Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO V. FERREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The introduction of exotic species is considered as one of the major causes of biodiversity loss. The National Forest of Carajás is one of the largest mineral provinces in the world. Mining activities caused changes of the natural habitats, leaving degraded areas after the mineral exploitation. One of the mining areas within FLONA Carajás was used for the extraction of gold. In the process of exploitation, a huge depression was formed by the removal of soil which was mounded up nearby. To prevent soil erosion of these mounds, an exotic grass, Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D.Webster (Poaceae was planted. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of this non-native grass on species richness and species composition of the natural regeneration in the degraded areas. Four areas were compared, two with and two without presence of U. decumbens. In each area, twenty four 1m²/plots were established. Species richness of the regeneration areas and population sizes were significantly lower in the plots where the exotic grass was present. Our study shows that U. decumbens had a negative effect on species richness and population density, and its presence changed the species composition and distribution of life forms of the natural regeneration.

  5. Consorciação de braquiárias com milho outonal em plantio direto sob pivô central Consortium of pasture with fall corn in no tillage under center pivot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Chioderoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Em regiões de clima tropical, com altas taxas de decomposição do material orgânico, uma alternativa para suprir o aporte anual de palha exigido para proporcionar a sustentabilidade do sistema plantio direto é a consorciação de forrageiras com culturas produtoras de grãos. Com o objetivo de identificar, no sistema de integração agricultura-pecuária, a melhor modalidade de consorciação de três espécies de braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha B. decumbens, e B. ruzizienses com milho outonal (linha, entrelinha e entrelinha na época de adubação de cobertura do milho, foi conduzido o presente trabalho. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial (3x3, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas: massa seca de palha do milho, massa seca da palha de braquiária, massa seca total de palha, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade de grãos. Os resultados demonstraram que, quando o foco principal da consorciação de milho com braquiária for produtividade de grãos e o foco secundário for formação de palha, a utilização da Brachiaria ruzizienses semeada na época de adubação de cobertura do milho proporcionou maiores valores de produtividade de grãos. Todos os tratamentos produziram quantidade de palha suficiente para a manutenção da estabilidade do sistema de semeadura direta.In tropical regions with high rates of organic material decomposition, an alternative to supply the annual amount of straw required to provide the no tillage system sustainability is the use of intercrop of forage plants with grain crop. The present work was conducted with the objective of identify the best intercrop modality of three species of brachiaria (Brachiaria brizantha, B. decumbens and B. ruziziensis with fall maize (row, interrow, interrow at the moment of maize coverage fertilization in the pasture-agriculture integration system. It was used a randomized block design in a factorial scheme (3x3 with four repetitions evaluating

  6. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2016-12-14

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr(-1) . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha(-1) ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha(-1) ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests.

  7. Mobility and toxicity of heavy metal(loid)s arising from contaminated wood ash application to a pasture grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, L C; Norton, G J; Trakal, L; Moreno-Jimenez, E; Elouali, F Z; Hough, R L; Beesley, L

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal(loid) rich ash (≤10,000 mg kg(-1) total As, Cr, Cu and Zn) originating from the combustion of contaminated wood was subjected to several experimental procedures involving its incorporation into an upland pasture soil. Ash was added to soil that had been prior amended with local cattle manure, replicating practices employed at the farm scale. Metal(loid) concentrations were measured in soil pore water and ryegrass grown on soil/manure plus ash mixtures (0.1-3.0% vol. ash) in a pot experiment; toxicity evaluation was performed on the same pore water samples by means of a bacterial luminescence biosensor assay. Thereafter a sequential extraction procedure was carried out on selected soil, manure and ash mixtures to elucidate the geochemical association of ash derived metal(loid)s with soil constituents. Predictive modelling was applied to selected data from the pot experiment to determine the risk of transfer of As to meat and milk products in cattle grazing pasture amended with ash. The inclusion of manure to soils receiving ash reduced phyto-toxicity and increased ryegrass biomass yields, compared to soil with ash, but without manure. Elevated As and Cu concentrations in pore water and ryegrass tissue resulting from ash additions were reduced furthest by the inclusion of manure due to an increase in their geochemical association with organic matter. Zinc was the only measured metal(loid) to remain uniformly soluble and bioavailable regardless of the addition of ash and manure. Risk modelling on pot experimental data highlighted that an ash addition of >1% (vol.) to this pasture soil could result in As concentrations in milk and meat products exceeding acceptable limits. The results of this study therefore suggest that even singular low doses of ash applied to soil increase the risk of leaching of metal(loid)s and intensify the risk of As transfer in the food chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerospora of an Eragrostis curvula pasture in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Merwe, W J; Eicker, A; Marasas, W F; Kellerman, T S

    1979-03-01

    A qualitative and quantitative survey was made of the aerospora above an Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees pasture. The pasture, which lay adjacent to a field of Panicum coloratum L. where an outbread of ovine photosensitivity had occurred, was not grazed during the survey. A Burkard volumetric spore trap was used to sample the aerospora continuously for 10 months. Twenty components of the aerospora were recognized: spores of 9 genera of fungi (Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Drechslera, Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M. B. Ellis, Nigrospora, Sporormia, Curvularia, Spegazzinia); 8 recognizable but unidentified spore types; hyphal fragments and pollen grains. Cladosporium conidia comprised 83,37% of the total aerospora. Conidia of Pithomyces chartarum formed a small (0,29%) but significant component of the aerospora, since this fungus is known to cause hepatogenous photosensitivity.

  9. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Walter, M. Todd; Boughton, Elizabeth H.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; DeLucia, Evan H.; Groffman, Peter M.; Keel, Earl W.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2016-03-01

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response to global change. We investigated belowground CH4 dynamics in relation to surface fluxes using laboratory water table manipulations and compared these results to field-based eddy covariance measurements to link within-soil CH4 dynamics to ecosystem fluxes. Ecosystem CH4 fluxes lag flooding events, and this dynamic was replicated in laboratory experiments. In both cases, peak emissions were observed during water table recession. Flooding of surface organic soils and precipitation driven oxygen pulses best explained the observed time lags. Precipitation oxygen pulses likely delay CH4 emissions until groundwater dissolved oxygen is consumed, and emissions were temporally linked to CH4 production in surface soil horizons. Methane accumulating in deep soils did not contribute to surface fluxes and is likely oxidized within the soil profile. Methane production rates in surface organic soils were also orders of magnitude higher than in deep mineral soils, suggesting that over longer flooding regimes CH4 produced in deep horizons is not a significant component of surface emissions. Our results demonstrate that distinct CH4 dynamics may be stratified by depth and flooding of surface organic soils drives CH4 fluxes from subtropical pastures. These results suggest that small changes in pasture water table dynamics can drive large changes in CH4 emissions if surface soils remain saturated over longer time scales.

  10. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

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    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  11. Prototyping an Operational System with Multiple Sensors for Pasture Monitoring

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    Tim Wark

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Combining multiple proximal sensors within a wireless sensor network (WSN enhances our capacity to monitor vegetation, compared to using a single sensor or non-networked setup. Data from sensors with different spatial and temporal characteristics can provide complementary information. For example, point-based sensors such as multispectral sensors which monitor at high temporal frequency but, at a single point, can be complemented by array-based sensors such as digital cameras which have greater spatial resolution but may only gather data at infrequent intervals. In this article we describe the successful deployment of a prototype system for using multiple proximal sensors (multispectral sensors and digital cameras for monitoring pastures. We show that there are many technical issues involved in such a deployment, and we share insights relevant for other researchers who may consider using WSNs for an operational deployment for pasture monitoring under often difficult environmental conditions. Although the sensors and infrastructure are important, we found that other issues arise and that an end-to-end workflow is an essential part of effectively capturing, processing and managing the data from a WSN. Our deployment highlights the importance of testing and ongoing monitoring of the entire workflow to ensure the quality of data captured. We demonstrate that the combination of different sensors enhances our ability to identify sensor problems necessary to collect accurate data for pasture monitoring.

  12. G protein-cAMP signaling pathway mediated by PGA3 plays different roles in regulating the expressions of amylases and cellulases in Penicillium decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yibo; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhonghai; Qin, Yuqi; Qu, Yinbo; Song, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) have been extensively investigated for their regulatory functions in morphogenesis and development in filamentous fungi. In addition, G proteins were also shown to be involved in the regulation of cellulase expression in some fungi. Here, we report the different regulatory effects of PGA3, a group III G protein α subunit, on the expressions of amylases and cellulases in Penicillium decumbens. Deletion of pga3 resulted in impaired amylase production and significantly decreased transcription of the major amylase gene amy15A. Supplementation of exogenous cAMP or its analog dibutyryl-cAMP restored amylase production in Δpga3 strain, suggesting an essential role of PGA3 in amylase synthesis via controlling cAMP level. On the other hand, the transcription of major cellulase gene cel7A-2 increased, nevertheless cellulase activity in the medium was not affected, in Δpga3. The above regulatory effects of PGA3 are carbon source-independent, and are achieved, at least, by cAMP-mediated regulation of the expression level of transcription factor AmyR. The functions of PGA3 revealed by gene deletion were partially supported by the analysis of the mutant carrying dominantly-activated PGA3. The results provided new insights into the understanding of the physiological functions of G protein-cAMP pathway in filamentous fungi.

  13. Optimized ultrasonic assisted extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography for determination of essential oil of Oliveria decumbens Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereshti, Hassan; Izadmanesh, Yahya; Samadi, Soheila

    2011-07-22

    Ultrasonic assisted extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UAE-DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) was applied for extraction and determination of essential oil constituents of the plant Oliveria decumbens Vent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to see the effect of ultrasonic radiation on the extraction efficiency. By comparison with hydrodistillation, UAE-DLLME is fast, low cost, simple, efficient and consuming small amount of plant materials (∼1.0 g). The effects of various parameters such as temperature, ultrasonication time, volume of disperser and extraction solvents were investigated by a full factorial design to identify significant variables and their interactions. The results demonstrated that temperature and ultrasonication time had no considerable effect on the results. In the next step, a central composite design (CCD) was performed to obtain the optimum levels of significant parameters. The obtained optimal conditions were: 0.45 mL for disperser solvent (acetonitrile) and 94.84 μL for extraction solvent (chlorobenzene). The limits of detection (LODs), linear dynamic range and determination coefficients (R(2)) were 0.2-29 ng mL(-1), 1-2100 ng mL(-1) and 0.995-0.998, respectively. The main components of the essential oil were: thymol (47.06%), carvacrol (23.31%), gamma-terpinene (18.94%), p-cymene (8.71%), limonene (0.76%) and myristicin (0.63%).

  14. Variação sazonal de eletrólitos no sangue de vacas aneloradas sob pastejo contínuo de Brachiaria decumbens

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    Morais M.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante 13 meses foram acompanhadas as mudanças sazonais dos eletrólitos cálcio (Ca, fosfatos (PO4, potássio (K, cloretos (Cl, cobre (Cu e zinco (Zn no sangue de 20 de vacas "aneloradas" mantidas sob pastejo contínuo de Brachiaria decumbens com alta taxa de lotação. As vacas apresentaram-se hipocalcêmicas e hipofosfatêmicas durante praticamente todo o ano. Na primavera, com a brotação dos pastos (novembro e dezembro, vacas mantidas em pastos de solo argiloso foram mais propensas à alcalose metabólica, caracterizada por hipocalemia e hipocloremia, do que vacas mantidas em pastos de solo arenoso. Os animais apresentaram-se com níveis séricos normais de Cu, 0,79 e 0,81mi g/ml e Zn, 1,43 e 1,33mi g/ml, quando mantidas em solos arenoso e argiloso, respectivamente, apesar de os pastos estarem deficientes nesses minerais. O tipo de solo alterou a composição de minerais na braquiária e influiu significativamente nos níveis séricos de P, Mg, K, Cl e Zn. Solos arenosos mostraram teores séricos significativamente mais elevados de P, Mg, K e Cl do que os solos argilosos.

  15. Optimización de las condiciones de germinación de cuatro especies de pastos tropicales I. Brachiaria decumbens y B. bryzantha

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    Carlos Gutiérrez

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las mejores condiciones para evaluar la germinación de los pastos del género Brachiaria (B. bryzantha y B. decumbens. Para ello se utilizaron semillas con alto porcentaje de germinación sembradas en tres sustratos (papel, turba y suelo, bajo dos condiciones de temperatura (alterna de 8 h a 20°C y 16 h a 30°C y continua de 30°C y con tres contenidosde humedad (saturado en papel; 30, 45 y 60% en turba y 10, 20 y 30% en suelo. Se evaluó el porcentaje de germinación a los 3, 14 y 22 días; la longitud de la plúmula, a los 5 días; y el peso seco de las plántulas a los 7 días de la siembra. Los porcentajes de germinación más altos y la mayor longitud de la plúmula se obtuvieron con turba a 30°C continuos. En el caso de la germinación, no se detectaron diferencias debidas al contenido de humedad del sustrato. La longitud de la plúmula fue mayor en turba a 30°C continuos en ambas especies. El peso seco de las plántulas fue mayor en suelo bajo alternancia de temperaturas.

  16. Evaluación de pasturas de Brachiaria decumbens solas o asociadas con Centrosema acutifolium con ganado de doble propósito: II. Evaluación de la productividad animal

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    Ramírez Náder Luis Miguel

    1991-12-01

    significativas. En la pastura asociada las vacas presentaron mayor porcentaje de preñez (58.3% vs 33.3% y la totalidad de las vacas no preñadas presentaban actividad ovárica. Se estimó una diferencia de tres meses adicionales de intervalo entre partos en las vacas que pastorearon la pastura sola. Trabajo de investigación realizado dentro del programa colaborativo entre el Fondo Ganadero del Valle del Cauca y el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical CIAT. La investigación, se hizo acreedora al Premio Nacional a la "Mejor Investigación en Bovinos", otorgado por el Bando Ganadero en el 18° Congreso Nacional de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia, realizado en agosto de 1992.

    In the second part of this research were evaluated the influence of pastures on the animal production productivity in a dual purpose cattle. Four fields of 4 ha. each one were used; two of them had B. decumbens alone and the other two B. decumbens plus C. acutifolium CIAT 5568. Each pasture was grazed in alternating way, using 21 days of occupation and 21 days of rest There was a fixed animal charge of 1,5 animal units per ha. At the beginning of the experiment there were 24 cows with their calves from the dual-prupose type: 15 from the Native "Harton of Valley" breed and 9 from "Mestizo" racial type (Creole and Zebu cattle crossed with european milking cows. Animals were split random in 2 groups in a "continuous" type of assay in which the animals always were located m the same pasture (treatment. The total milk production analysis was made by mean of an adjustment (including the no milking days. With those data adjusted and corrected by covariance analysis, in which the covariable was the sum of the milk production obtained during the first three days of milking, there was a statistical significant difference (P > 0.056 favoring the associate pasture with a milk production (680 kg, 236 days of lactation, in relation with the pasture alone (550 kg, 241 days of lactation, having a 24% of

  17. Transplantation of subalpine wood-pasture turfs along a natural climatic gradient reveals lower resistance of unwooded pastures to climate change compared to wooded ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2014-04-01

    Climate change could impact strongly on cold-adapted mountain ecosystems, but little is known about its interaction with traditional land-use practices. We used an altitudinal gradient to simulate a year-round warmer and drier climate for semi-natural subalpine grasslands across a landscape of contrasting land-use management. Turf mesocosms from three pasture-woodland land-use types-unwooded pasture, sparsely wooded pasture, and densely wooded pasture-spanning a gradient from high to low management intensity were transplanted downslope to test their resistance to two intensities of climate change. We found strong overall effects of intensive (+4 K) experimental climate change (i.e., warming and reduced precipitation) on plant community structure and function, while moderate (+2 K) climate change did not substantially affect the studied land-use types, thus indicating an ecosystem response threshold to moderate climate perturbation. The individual land-use types were affected differently under the +4 K scenario, with a 60% decrease in aboveground biomass (AGB) in unwooded pasture turfs, a 40% decrease in sparsely wooded pasture turfs, and none in densely wooded ones. Similarly, unwooded pasture turfs experienced a 30% loss of species, advanced (by 30 days) phenological development, and a mid-season senescence due to drought stress, while no such effects were recorded for the other land-use types. The observed contrasting effects of climate change across the pasture-woodland landscape have important implications for future decades. The reduced impact of climate change on wooded pastures as compared to unwooded ones should promote the sustainable land use of wooded pastures by maintaining low management intensity and a sparse forest canopy, which buffer the immediate impacts of climate change on herbaceous vegetation.

  18. Renovação de pastagem degradada de capim-gordura com a introdução de forrageiras tropicais adubadas com nitrogênio ou em consórcios Renewing the degraded Melinis minutiflora pasture by introduction of tropical forages fertilized with nitrogen or under mixture cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Melo Moreira

    2005-04-01

    , melhorando a qualidade do pasto.This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and quality of either Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. cv. Basilisk and Hyparrhenia rufa (Ness Stapf. grasses fertilized with nitrogen (N or mixed with stylosanthes (Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. Swartz cv. Mineirão, introduced into a degraded pasture. Both grasses were evaluated, as well as four doses of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha and two treatments that consisted of mixing B. decumbens and S. guianensis as well as H. rufa and S. guianensis. After forages were established, two evaluations were also performed (harvests. The dry matter (DM yields of B. decumbens increased from 1,824 up to 4,604 kg/ha and from 1,019 to 2,149 kg/ha in both respective harvests, when the extreme N doses were compared, but H. rufa showed no response. The crude protein (CP content in B. decumbens increased from 3.18 up to 5.68 dag/kg at the first harvest only, whereas H. rufa showed an increment from 2.53 to 3.72 dag/kg and from 7.32 to 8.45 dag/kg in both respective harvests, compared to the extreme doses. The contents of both neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber in the grasses were not affected by N application. When N doses increased, the P contents in both grasses and K contents in B. decumbens were reduced at both harvests. Most contents of Ca and Mg in grasses were not affected by N at both harvests. The average DM yields of both mixtures were superior to the average yields of both fertilized grasses, as showing increments of 42.62% and 15.00% in forage yield at the first and second harvests, respectively. In general, the mixed forages showed higher contents of CP and Ca, but lower NDF values than those N-fertilized pure grasses, therefore improving the quality of the pasture.

  19. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.

    2006-03-15

    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic carbon and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic carbon, but lower concentration of biologically active soil carbon than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. Carbon forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue

  20. C storage in Amazonia pastures, effects of age, climate and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Katja; Stahl, Clement; Blanfort, Vincent; Fontaine, Sebstien; Burban, Benoit; Darsonville, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The Amazonian region is one of the major C storing areas, with 36-60% of ecosystem C being stored in forest soils. During last decades, more than 15% of Amazonian tropical forest has been converted to pastures. A number of studies provide evidence that soil C stocks of topsoil (0-20 cm) can be higher in grasslands than in native forests after more than 20 years after conversion (e.g. Don et al 2011). As for younger pastures (stock. The absence of a clear pattern was mostly explained due to conjoined changes following deforestation, such as climate conditions and pasture management. Accordingly, the question remains whether tropical permanent pastures can restore soil C stocks after deforestation and what is the capacity of tropical pastures to initiate a recurrent C storage. Pastures are largely affected by agricultural practices, influencing their carbon balance, in interaction with climate effect. In the past 10 years two major droughts (in 2005 and 2010 [2]) were reported for the Amazonian area. A better insight on effects of climatic variability and agricultural management on carbon storage is, thus, valuable to improve/maintain C storage of pastures in tropical regions. Here we like to assess whether tropical permanent pastures i) can restore soil C stocks after deforestation; ii) and to what extend and iii) which role play management practices with respect to climate variability to maintain a recurrent C storage. To establish reliable estimates of soil C storage in Amazonian region, the net C balance of pastures and native forests was quantified by two independent and complementary studies in French Guiana: a chronosequence study including a soil inventory of soil C stocks (0-100 cm depth) in 24 pastures of various ages (i.e. 0 to 42 yrs after deforestation) and 4 native forests, and 5 years of eddy covariance flux measurements (EC) for a young intensively used pasture (established in 2008) and an old extensively used pasture (established in 1978

  1. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields.

  2. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Wolfgang; Biermann, Tobias; Falge, Eva; Ingrisch, Johannes; Leonbacher, Jürgen; Schleuss, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Ma, Yaoming; Miehe, Georg; Foken, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km² on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  3. Rhizo-lysimetry: facilities for the simultaneous study of root behaviour and resource use by agricultural crop and pasture systems

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    Eberbach Philip L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizo-lysimeters offer unique advantages for the study of plants and their interactions with soils. In this paper, an existing facility at Charles Sturt University in Wagga Wagga Australia is described in detail and its potential to conduct both ecophysiological and ecohydrological research in the study of root interactions of agricultural crops and pastures is quantitatively assessed. This is of significance to future crop research efforts in southern Australia, in light of recent significant long-term drought events, as well as potential impacts of climate change as predicted for the region. The rhizo-lysimeter root research facility has recently been expanded to accommodate larger research projects over multiple years and cropping rotations. Results Lucerne, a widely-grown perennial pasture in southern Australia, developed an expansive root system to a depth of 0.9 m over a twelve month period. Its deeper roots particularly at 2.05 m continued to expand for the duration of the experiment. In succeeding experiments, canola, a commonly grown annual crop, developed a more extensive (approximately 300% root system than wheat, but exhibited a slower rate of root elongation at rates of 7.47 x 10–3 m day–1 for canola and 1.04 x10–2 m day–1 for wheat. A time domain reflectometry (TDR network was designed to accurately assess changes in soil water content, and could assess water content change to within 5% of the amount of water applied. Conclusions The rhizo-lysimetry system provided robust estimates of root growth and soil water change under conditions representative of a field setting. This is currently one of a very limited number of global research facilities able to perform experimentation under field conditions and is the largest root research experimental laboratory in the southern hemisphere.

  4. Níveis críticos de fósforo para o estabelecimento de gramíneas forrageiras em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, álico. I: ensaio em casa de vegetação Critical levels of phosphorus for the establishment of pasture grasses on a Red Yellow Latosol. I: greenhouse test

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    L. de A. Corrêa

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, teve por objetivos determinar os níveis críticos de P no solo, avaliados pelos extratores de Mehlich I e Resina e na planta, para o estabelecimento das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Brachiaria brizantha (Ilochst. Stapf. cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum Jacq., em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, álico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial: 7 (doses de P x 3 (gramíneas. As doses de P corresponderam a 0; 17,5; 35,0; 70,0; 140,0; 280,0 e 560,0 ppm. Foram realizados dois cortes, o primeiro 50 dias após a semeadura e o segundo com 30 dias de rebrota. Não foram constatadas diferenças entre as espécies quanto à exigência em P para o seu estabelecimento. Os níveis críticos de P no solo, para 80% do crescimento máximo, no primeiro corte, variaram de 8,0 a 12,0 ppm (Mehlich I e de 13,0 a 18,0 ppm (Resina para as três espécies forrageiras. No segundo corte foram de 11,5; 12,0 e 14,0 ppm (Mehlich I e de 18,0; 22,0 e 24,0 ppm (Resina, para a Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizaníha e o Panicum maximum, respectivamente. Os níveis críticos de P na planta foram, na mesma ordem, de 0,11; 0,13 e 0,12%, no primeiro corte e de 0,09; 0,12 e 0,10%, no segundo corte.The objectives of the present study, carried out in a greenhouse, were to determine the critical levels of soil P, by the Mehlich I and Resin extractors, and in the plant, for the stablishment of pastures of Brachiaría decumbens Stapf., Brachiaría brizaníha (Ilochst. Stapf cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum JACK., on a Red Yellow Latosol. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications and 21 treatments (7 levels of P x 3 species. The levels of P were: 0; 17.5; 35.0; 70.0; 140.0; 280.0 and 560.0 ppm. Two shoot cuts of plants were done: the first, fifty days after sowing and the second, thirty days later. No differences in P requeriment for crop

  5. Fertilization and oversowing on natural grassland: effects on pasture characteristics and yearling steers performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tonet Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetal and animal production of a natural pasture on a Mollisol soil in the region of Campanha, in RS. The experimental design consisted of complete randomized blocks with three replicates, which enables the comparison between natural unfertilized pastures with fertilized pastures and pastures fertilized and overseeded with Lolium multiflorum, Lotus corniculatus cv. São Gabriel and Trifolium repens cv. Lucero (NPO. Data were submitted to the analyses of variance considering seasons of the year as time repeated measurements. Aberddeen Angus calves of about nine months of age were used in continuous stocking with variable stocking rate in order to maintain forage offer at 13% of live weight. Data were collected between July 7th (2007 and May 3rd (2008, totaling 302 days. Fertilized and oversown pastures showed higher green forage mass mainly in the spring, as result of higher dry matter (DM accumulation rate. Average daily live-weight gain for fertilized pasture (0.581 kg/day was higher than for natural pasture (0.473 kg/day. Higher live-weight gains were obtained in the fall (0.869 kg/day. Stocking rate showed interaction with the seasons of the year, with higher stocking rates obtained in oversown pasture (701 kg of LW/ha and fertilized pasture (667 kg of LW/ha during the spring. Live-weight gain per hectare from natural pasture (224 kg LW/ha was lower than on fertilized (310 kg LW/ha and over-sown pasture (287 kg LW/ha. Forage mass, dry matter content, forage allowance and pasture height explained 61% of the average live weight gain. Despite the good performance of native grasslands in this region in its natural condition, the utilization of different inputs as fertilization and oversowing of winter cultivated species promoted positive differences in forage production and its distribution along the year and in animal yield.

  6. Dairy cow grazing selection on upland pasture affects milk fatty acid concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Coppa, Mauro; Farruggia, Anne; Ravaglia, Pieter; Pomies, Dominique; Borreani, Giorgio; Le Morvan, Aline; Ferlay, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the variations in milk FA concentration according to the rate of pasture utilisation and the cows grazing selection. Two equivalent groups of nine dairy cows were assigned to a long duration (LD) of paddock utilisation (17 days) on heterogeneous pasture, common on extensive rotational grazing systems, or to a medium duration (MD) of paddock utilisation (7-10 days) on a more intensively managed pasture, usual on intensive rotational grazing systems. Grazing ...

  7. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; Thompson, A N; van der Werf, J H J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as grain, meat and wool prices between seasons and across years. Annual pasture growth varies between regions within Australia's Mediterranean climate zone from low growth with long periods of drought to high growth with shorter periods of drought. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether breeding objectives need to be adapted for regions, depending on how reliable the pasture growth is across years. We modelled farms with Merino sheep bred for wool and meat in 10 regions in Western Australia. Across these 10 regions, mean annual pasture growth decreased, and the CV of annual pasture growth increased as pasture growth for regions became less reliable. We calculated economic values for nine traits, optimising management across 11 years, including variation for pasture growth and wool, meat and grain prices between and within years from 2002 to 2012. These economic values were used to calculate responses to selection for each trait for the 10 regions. We identified two potential breeding objectives, one for regions with low or high reliability and the other for regions with medium reliability of pasture growth. Breeding objectives for high or low pasture growth reliability had more emphasis on live weight traits and number of lambs weaned. Breeding objectives for medium reliability of pasture growth had more emphasis on decreasing fibre diameter. Relative economic weights for fleece weight did not change across the regions. Regions with low or high pasture reliability had similar breeding objectives and response to selection, because the relationship between the economic values and CV of pasture growth were not linear for live weight traits and the number of

  8. Offering a forage crop at pasture did not adversely affect voluntary cow traffic or milking visits in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, V E; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2016-03-01

    Feed is a strong incentive for encouraging cows in automatic milking systems (AMS) to voluntarily move around the farm and achieve milkings distributed across the 24 h day. It has been reported that cows show preferences for some forages over others, and it is possible that offering preferred forages may increase cow traffic. A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the effect of offering a forage crop for grazing on premilking voluntary waiting times in a pasture-based robotic rotary system. Cows were offered one of two treatments (SOYBEAN or GRASS) in a cross-over design. A restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to model voluntary waiting times. Mean voluntary waiting time was 45.5±6.0 min, with no difference detected between treatments. High and mid-production cows spent 55 min/milking for low-production cows, whereas waiting time increased as queue length increased. Voluntary waiting time was 23% and 80% longer when cows were fetched from the paddock or had a period of forced waiting before volunteering for milking, respectively. The time it took cows to return to the dairy since last exiting was not affected by treatment, with a mean return time of 13.7±0.6 h. Although offering SOYBEAN did not encourage cows to traffic more readily through the premilking yard, the concept of incorporating forage crops in AMS still remains encouraging if the aim is to increase the volume or quantity of home-grown feed rather than improving cow traffic.

  9. Experimental Air Warming of a Stylosanthes capitata, Vogel Dominated Tropical Pasture Affects Soil Respiration and Nitrogen Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.; Silva, Lais B. C.; Dias-De-Oliveira, Eduardo; Flower, Charles E.; Martinez, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Warming due to global climate change is predicted to reach 2°C in tropical latitudes. There is an alarming paucity of information regarding the effects of air temperature on tropical agroecosystems, including foraging pastures. Here, we investigated the effects of a 2°C increase in air temperature over ambient for 30 days on an established tropical pasture (Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil) dominated by the legume Stylosanthes capitata Vogel, using a T-FACE (temperature free-air controlled enhancement) system. We tested the effects of air warming on soil properties [carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and their stable isotopic levels (δ13C and δ15N), as well as soil respiration and soil enzymatic activity] and aboveground characteristics (foliar C, N, δ13C, δ15N, leaf area index, and aboveground biomass) under field conditions. Results show that experimental air warming moderately increased soil respiration rates compared to ambient temperature. Soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture during mid-day (when soil respiration was at its highest) but not at dusk. Foliar δ13C were not different between control and elevated temperature treatments, indicating that plants grown in warmed plots did not show the obvious signs of water stress often seen in warming experiments. The 15N isotopic composition of leaves from plants grown at elevated temperature was lower than in ambient plants, suggesting perhaps a higher proportion of N-fixation contributing to tissue N in warmed plants when compared to ambient ones. Soil microbial enzymatic activity decreased in response to the air warming treatment, suggesting a slower decomposition of organic matter under elevated air temperature conditions. Decreased soil enzyme capacity and increases in soil respiration and plant biomass in plots exposed to high temperature suggest that increased root activity may have caused the increase seen in soil respiration in this tropical pasture. This response

  10. Balanço hídrico em Neossolo regolítico cultivado com braquiária (Brachiaria Decumbens Stapf

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    Renan Almeida Brito da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Um dos principais fatores de produção para as culturas é a disponibilidade de água no solo, de forma que a quantificação das entradas e saídas dessa água, por meio do método do balanço hídrico, pode ser um instrumento valioso para melhorar o manejo dado a ela. Desse modo, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os componentes do balanço hídrico (variação do armazenamento de água no solo, drenagem, ascensão capilar e evapotranspiração e o perfil do sistema radicular em Brachiaria decumbens, em nove meses do ano de 2011 (março a novembro. Também foi avaliada a razão entre evapotranspiração (ET e evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. Esta pesquisa foi realizada na fazenda Riacho do Papagaio, em São João, na mesorregião do Agreste do Estado de Pernambuco, onde foram instalados sensores automatizados para medição da umidade volumétrica do solo nas profundidades de 0,10; 0,20; 0,30; e 0,40 m. A precipitação pluvial foi monitorada por meio de um pluviógrafo automatizado instalado numa torre no centro da área. Para a determinação da drenagem e da ascensão capilar, foram realizados ensaios de infiltração para obtenção da condutividade hidráulica do solo, além da determinação da curva de retenção, em laboratório. A ET foi obtida como termo residual da equação do balanço hídrico e a ETo, pelo método de Penman-Monteith. O volume de controle utilizado para o balanço hídrico teve como limite superior a superfície do solo e como limite inferior a profundidade de 0,30 m. Também foi analisado o perfil do sistema radicular da braquiária, mensalmente. Observou-se que os períodos com elevadas pluviosidades resultaram num maior armazenamento de água no solo, em maiores valores de drenagem e de evapotranspiração. O fluxo de água no limite inferior (z = 0,30 m do solo ocorreu somente no sentido descendente, sendo perdidos 103,14 mm de água por drenagem, o que representa 24,12 % de toda a

  11. Marandu palisadegrass growth under nitrogen and sulphur for replacing signal grass in degraded tropical pasture Substituição do capim-Braquiária pelo capim-Marandu em pastagens tropicais degradadas com o uso combinado de nitrogênio e de enxofre

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    Fabiano Daniel De Bona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. (Signal grass pastures has resulted in a big problem for the Brazilian cattlemen. The objective of this study was to assess fertilization with nitrogen (N and sulphur (S rates on yield of Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf. cv. Marandu (Marandu palisadegrass under establishment in a soil supporting degrading pasture of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Additionally, the N and S concentrations in plant tissue and soil according to the rates of these nutrients were evaluated. The study was carried out in a greenhouse in pots filled with an Entisol with high organic matter content. Five rates of N (0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 mg dm-3 and five rates of S (0; 10; 20; 30 and 40 mg dm-3 were tested in a 5² fractionated factorial. Plants were harvest three times. The interaction N rates × S rates was significant for the variables leaf area, tiller number, shoot dry matter, N concentration and N:S ratio in plants, and total N and sulphur-sulphate in the soil in at least one of the three growth periods of Marandu palisadegrass in establishment. The supply of both S and N to reach the N:S ratio about 10:1 in the fertilization promoted high yield, adequate N and S concentrations for plant metabolism and forage production, as well as kept and/or raised the soil fertility in relation to these nutrients.A degradação de pastagens formadas por plantas de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. (capim-Braquiária é um problema que assola os pecuaristas brasileiros. Avaliaram-se combinações de doses de nitrogênio (N e de enxofre (S na produção da Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf. cv. Marandu (capim-Marandu em implantação em solo de área vegetada com capim-Braquiária em degradação, e as alterações nas concentrações desses elementos no tecido vegetal e no solo promovidas pela adubação com N e S. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação em vasos contendo Neossolo Quartzarênico com

  12. Biochemical synthesis of silver nanoprticles using filamentous fungi Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) and its efficacy against A-549 lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Shahnaz; Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq Bin; Dash, Gouri Kumar; Ansari, Mohammed Tahir; Nanda, Anima

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesis of silver and other metallic nanoparticles is one of the emerging research area in the field of science and technology due to their potentiality, especially in the field of nano-biotechnology and biomedical sciences in order to develop nanomedicine. In our present study, Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) was brought from Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH) Chandigarh and employed for extracellular biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Ag-NPs formation was appeared with a dark brown color inside the conical flask. Characterization of Ag-NPs were done by UV-Spectrophotometric analysis which showed absorption peak at 430 nm determines the presence of nanoparticles, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis, showed amines and amides are the possible proteins involved in the stabilization of nanoparticles as capping agent. Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) confirmed the particle are spherical, size was around 30 to 60 nm and also the roughness of nanoparticles. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed the topology of the nanoparticles and were spherical in shape. The biosynthesis process was found fast, ecofriendly and cost effective. Nano-silver particle was found to have a broad antimicrobial activity and also it showed good enhancement of antimicrobial activity of Carbenicillin, Piperacillin, Cefixime, Amoxicillin, Ofloxacin and Sparfloxacin in a synergistic mode. These Ag-NPs showed good anti-cancer activity at 80 μg·mL(-1)upon 24 hours of incubation and toxicity increases upon 48 hours of incubation against A-549 human lung cancer cell line and the synergistic formulation of the antibiotic with the synthesized nanoparticles was found more effective against the pathogenic bacteria studied.

  13. Stakeholder perspectives of wood-pasture ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Pablo; Elbakidze, Marine; Angelstam, Per;

    2017-01-01

    respondents showed more appreciation for regulating and supporting services, which included biodiversity conservation and climate regulation. Private and public sector respondents appreciated provisioning services more, whereas the civil sector mentioned supporting and regulating services more. For instance......, water regulation was only mentioned by civil and public sector respondents, while genetic resource preservation was only expressed by the private sector. All sectors noted cultural services as key ES. We discuss most mentioned ES by respondents, the co-production nature of ES in wood-pastures, as well...... as cultural services as key ES of dehesas in coupled social-ecological systems. We conclude with policy recommendations drawn from the insights of this study....

  14. Resposta antioxidante, formação de fitoquelatinas e composição de pigmentos fotoprotetores em Brachiaria decumbens Stapf submetida à contaminação com Cd e Zn

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    Fabiana Soares dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf to Cd and Zn, plants were hydroponically exposed to 50 and 100 mmol L-1 of Cd and 500 and 2000 mmol L-1 of Zn. Metal content of shoots and roots was determined, as well as alterations in photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments, antioxidant metabolites and phytochelatin synthesis. Plants concentrated elevated levels of Cd and Zn, especially in roots. Zinc exposure negatively affected chlorophyll and β-carotene content, whereas the highest dose of Cd reduced VAZ cycle pigments and tocopherol levels in plant shoots. Cadmium was the maximum inducer of the phytochelatin synthesis pathway.

  15. Influência do manejo da palhada de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de soja (Glycine max e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla Influence of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes manejos de palhada de capim-braquiária sobre o desenvolvimento inicial da cultura de soja e da planta daninha amendoimbravo, foi conduzido um experimento em condições de casa de vegetação no NuPAMFCA/UNESP, BotucatuSP. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação superficial (T1; manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação subsuperficial (T2; palhada incorporada ao solo (T3; e testemunha sem cobertura (T4. A palhada foi colhida no campo 30 dias após dessecação com o herbicida glyphosate (1,44 g i.a. ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete repetições, sendo as unidades experimentais vasos plásticos, com a soja e o amendoim-bravo semeados paralelamente, em linhas distintas. O T1 reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a altura das plântulas de soja aos 5 e 10 dias após a emergência (DAE, ao contrário do amendoim-bravo, o qual não sofreu interferência dos tratamentos estudados, constituindo-se em uma planta-problema para sistemas produtivos com palhada de capim-braquiária. Os resultados da análise de crescimento (TCA - taxa de crescimento absoluto, TCR - taxa de crescimento relativo e TAL - taxa de assimilação líquida das plântulas de soja e amendoim-bravo apresentaram valores máximos aos 15 DAE, com exceção do T3 para soja, o qual reduziu expressivamente o desenvolvimento em relação aos demais tratamentos.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at NuPAM-FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the effects of different types of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla. The treatments were: straw on soil surface + irrigation on the top (T1; straw on soil surface + underirrigation (T2; straw incorporated into the soil (T3 and control (T4. B. decumbens

  16. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ≤ 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle

  17. EFFECT OF FALLOW LAND, CULTIVATED PASTURE AND ABANDONED PASTURE ON SOIL FERTILITY IN TWO DEFORESTED AMAZONIAN REGIONS

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    J.A DIEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  18. Variação sazonal da bioquímica clínica de vacas aneloradas sob pastejo contínuo de Brachiaria decumbens Seasonal changes of clinical biochemistry of graded Nelore cows on continuous grazing of Brachiaria decumbens

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    M.G. Morais

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Em um esquema de parcela subdividida que incluía dois tratamentos (A= solo arenoso e B= solo argiloso e 10 subtratamentos (10 épocas de amostragem a bioquímica clínica de 20 vacas de corte, sob pastejo contínuo de B. decumbens, foi acompanhada durante 13 meses. Os constituintes sangüíneos estudados foram: glicose (GLI, hemoglobina (HB, bilirrubina (BIL, creatinina (CREA, albumina (ALB, aspartatoaminotransferase (AST, fosfatase alcalina (FAS e creatinoquinase (CK. Foram obtidos valores médios de 98,0 e 110,2 mg/dl para GLI, 13,27 e13,38g/l para HB, 0,718 e 0,661mg/dl para BIL, 1,89 e 1,73mg/dl para CREA e 3,56 e 3,39g/dl para ALB nos tratamentos A e B, respectivamente. Vacas aneloradas apresentaram um perfil bioquímico clínico de animais aparentemente sadios, isto é, ausência de anemia, icterícia e disfunção renal. Não foi possível diagnosticar alterações hepáticas mas ocorreram lesões musculares (CK em algumas épocas, sem afetar clinicamente os animais. GLI, ALB, AST e FAS apresentaram mudança sazonal com níveis mais altos na primavera-verão e mais baixos no período de seca, no outono-inverno.A split plot design was carried out in order to study the clinical biochemistry of 20 graded Nelore cows on continuous grazing of Brachiaria decumbens on sandy (treatment A or on clay soil (treatment B. The mean values for the blood components were glucose, 98.0 and 110.2 mg/dl; hemoglobin, 13.27 and 13.38 g/l; bilirubin, 0.718 and 0.661 mg/dl; and creatinine, 1.89 and 1.73 mg/dl, on treatments A and B, respectively. Albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine kinase were also evaluated. The cows showed a metabolic profile similar to healthy-like animals, i.e., without anemia, jaudice, and renal disorder. It was not possible to detect abnormal liver function because of the need of inclusion of one specific liver enzyme in the clinical analysis. Muscular lesions were occasionally observed, even though the

  19. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura da cana-de-açúcar: III - capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens e capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Interference periods of weeds in the sugarcane crop: III - Brachiaria decumbens and Panicum maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kuva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em São João da Boa Vista-SP, com o objetivo de determinar o período anterior à interferência (PAI e o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI das plantas daninhas na cultura da cana-de-açúcar. A cana foi plantada em abril de 1995, na época de plantio caracterizada por maior deficiência hídrica. A comunidade infestante presente foi variada, sendo Brachiaria decumbens e Panicum maximum as espécies mais importantes. Essa comunidade tendeu a apresentar acúmulo crescente de matéria seca durante todo o período de avaliação e reduziu em até 40% a produtividade de colmos da cana-de-açúcar. A cultura conviveu com a comunidade infestante até 74 dias após o plantio, sem sofrer redução significativa na produtividade (PAI. O período mínimo de controle para garantir a produtividade foi de 127 DAP (PTPI. Dessa forma, o controle das plantas daninhas foi crítico no período compreendido entre 74 e 127 dias após o plantio.A field trial was carried out in São João da Boa Vista, SP, to determine the critical time of weed removal and the critical weed-free period in sugarcane. The crop was planted on April 1995, at the beginning of the dry season. The species composing the weed community varied during the growing season. However, Brachiaria decumbens and Panicum maximum were the most important ones. Dry matter accumulated by the weed community increased during the entire period. Weed interference in sugarcane caused 40% of yield loss. Sugarcane grew along with the weed community up to 74 days after planting, without significant yield loss (critical time of weed removal. A minimal weed-free period of 127 days after planting was required to guarantee the sugarcane productivity (critical weed-free period. The critical period for weed control was between 74 and 127 days after planting.

  20. Degradabilidade in situ de alimentos concentrados e do capim Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. em diferentes crescimentos vegetativos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2077 In Situ degradability of energetic and proteic feeds and of Brachiaria decumbens in different vegetative growth - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2077

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Damasceno

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a cinética de degradação e degradação efetiva (DE da matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e proteína bruta (PB do milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS, da casca do grão de soja (CGS, do farelo de algodão (FA e do capim Brachiaria decumbens, colhido entre os meses de julho e novembro/2001. Foram utilizadas 3 vacas Holandesas, com peso médio de 500kg. Os tempos de incubação foram: 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 horas, para os alimentos concentrados e até 120 horas para o capim. As DE a 5%/h da MS, FDN e PB foram respectivamente, 45,72%, 15,80%, 55,04% para o MDPS; 43,96%, 33,99% e 51,85% para a CGS e 51,91%, 33,38% e 63,24% para o FA. As DE a 5%/h da MS e FDN do Capim Braquiária não diferiram (p > 0,05 entre os meses, com média de 25,57% e 13,97%, respectivamente. Para a PB, as DE a 5%/h em julho e agosto (41,28% foram menores (p The kinetics degradation and effective degradability (ED of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude protein (CP were evaluated in corn and cobs with husks (CCH, soybean hulls (SH, cottonseed meal (CM and Brachiaria decumbens (Signalgrass. They were collected from July to November. Three cows of 500kg BW were used. The incubation periods were 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours, for concentrated feeds and up to 120 hours for Signalgrass. The values of ED at 5%/h of DM, NDF and CP were respectively 45.72%, 15.80% and 55.04% for CCH; 43.96%, 33.99% and 51.85% for SH, 51.91%, 33.38% and 63.24% for CM. DM and NDF ED at 5%/h of Signalgrass were not different (P > 0.05 in the period, with average of 25.57% and 13.97%, respectively. For CP, ED at 5%/h in July and August (41.28% were lower (p < 0.05 than October and November (50.50%.

  1. Consumo e digestibilidade de novilhos Nelore sob pastagem suplementados com misturas múltiplas Intake and digestibility of Nelore steers grazing pasture and supplemented with multiple mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O.F. Oliveira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da suplementação com misturas múltiplas sobre o consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho de novilhos Nelore, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha Cv. Marandu, submetidos a quatro tratamentos. No tratamento um (T1, cada animal recebeu 800g/dia de suplemento contendo uréia como fonte de nitrogênio não protéico (NNP; no tratamento dois (T2, recebeu 800g/dia de mistura na qual a uréia foi substituída por amiréia como fonte de NNP; no tratamento três (T3, recebeu 1500g/dia de uma mistura com amiréia; e no tratamento quatro (T4= controle, recebeu sal mineral. Seis animais por tratamento foram utilizados para se medir o consumo pela técnica de indicador externo (óxido crômico, e 10 animais foram usados na avaliação de ganho de peso. Foram utilizados dois animais canulados no esôfago para coleta de amostra de extrusa. Os animais suplementados obtiveram ganhos de peso superiores (PThe effect of three multiple mixtures supplementation on intake, digestibility and performance of Nelore steers grazing pasture of Brachiaria decumbens CV Marandu was studied. The multiple mixtures (treatments - T were defined as: T1 - 800g of supplement with urea as crude protein source, T2 - 800g of mixture in which urea was replaced by starea, T3 - 1500g of starea, and T4 - mineral salt fed ad libitum as a control group. Six animals per treatment were given chromic oxide as a marker to measure intake and 10 animals per treatment were used to evaluate their performance. Two esophageal fistulated steers were used to collect samples of extruse. The animals fed on supplement diets showed higher weight gains (335, 419, 467g/animal than those from the control group (271g/animal. Dry matter digestibility were 56.7, 49.8, 48.9 and 45.5%, respectively, for T1, T2, T3 and T4. A positive correlation between dry matter digestibility and in vitro dry matter digestibility (P<0.05 was observed. Supplementation with multiple mixtures increased dry matter

  2. Meta-analysis of the effect of pregrazing pasture mass on pasture intake, milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows strip-grazing temperate grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Delagarde, R

    2012-09-01

    Grazing management is a key factor in pasture-based dairy systems, which can be improved given advanced knowledge of the effects of pregrazing pasture mass (PM) on the performance of dairy cows. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of PM on the pasture intake, milk production, milk composition, and grazing behavior of strip- or rotational-grazing dairy cows, based on a meta-analysis of published research papers. A database was created that included experiments in which the effects of PM on pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows were studied. Papers were selected only if at least 2 PM were compared under similar experimental conditions, particularly the same pasture allowance (SPA). The final database included 15 papers with 27 PM comparisons. For analytical purposes, the database was subdivided into 3 subsets that varied according to the estimation height at which pasture allowance was determined; that is, where PM were compared at the SPA above ground level (SPA(0) subset), above 2 to 3 cm (SPA(3) subset), and above 4 to 5 cm (SPA(5) subset). Statistical analyses were conducted on the entire database (global analysis) and within each subset using linear model procedures. An interaction between PM and estimation height was found for pasture intake and milk production in the global analysis. On the basis of the predictive equations, pasture intake increased by 1.58 kg of dry matter/d per tonne increase in PM when PM were compared at SPA(0), was not affected by PM when PM were compared at SPA(3), and decreased by 0.65 kg of dry matter/d per tonne increase in PM when PM were compared at SPA(5). This is consistent with the effect of PM on milk production, which was positive and negative (1.04 and -0.79 kg/t of PM, respectively) when PM were compared at SPA(0) and SPA(5), respectively. Grazing time was only slightly affected by PM, irrespective of estimation height, because the effect of PM on pasture intake was mainly dependent on the variation

  3. Evidence for biological nitrification inhibition in Brachiaria pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Nakahara, K; Hurtado, M P; Ono, H; Moreta, D E; Salcedo, A F; Yoshihashi, A T; Ishikawa, T; Ishitani, M; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Yoshida, M; Rondon, M; Rao, I M; Lascano, C E; Berry, W L; Ito, O

    2009-10-13

    Nitrification, a key process in the global nitrogen cycle that generates nitrate through microbial activity, may enhance losses of fertilizer nitrogen by leaching and denitrification. Certain plants can suppress soil-nitrification by releasing inhibitors from roots, a phenomenon termed biological nitrification inhibition (BNI). Here, we report the discovery of an effective nitrification inhibitor in the root-exudates of the tropical forage grass Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick. Named "brachialactone," this inhibitor is a recently discovered cyclic diterpene with a unique 5-8-5-membered ring system and a gamma-lactone ring. It contributed 60-90% of the inhibitory activity released from the roots of this tropical grass. Unlike nitrapyrin (a synthetic nitrification inhibitor), which affects only the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) pathway, brachialactone appears to block both AMO and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase enzymatic pathways in Nitrosomonas. Release of this inhibitor is a regulated plant function, triggered and sustained by the availability of ammonium (NH(4)(+)) in the root environment. Brachialactone release is restricted to those roots that are directly exposed to NH(4)(+). Within 3 years of establishment, Brachiaria pastures have suppressed soil nitrifier populations (determined as amoA genes; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea), along with nitrification and nitrous oxide emissions. These findings provide direct evidence for the existence and active regulation of a nitrification inhibitor (or inhibitors) release from tropical pasture root systems. Exploiting the BNI function could become a powerful strategy toward the development of low-nitrifying agronomic systems, benefiting both agriculture and the environment.

  4. Soil organic 14C dynamics: effects of pasture installation on arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Plicht, van der J.; Hassink, J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study addressing composition and recovery of soil carbon following pasture installation on arable land, radiocarbon isotope ratios were measured in size-and density-separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions in a pasture and maize plot. The average soil carbon age increased with depth from 4

  5. Soil organic (14)C dynamics : Effects of pasture installation on arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, P.F A M; Hassink, J; van der Plicht, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    In a study addressing composition and recovery of soil carbon following pasture installation on arable land, radiocarbon isotope ratios were measured in size- and density-separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions in a pasture and maize plot. The average soil carbon age increased with depth from

  6. Land use intensity trajectories on Amazonian pastures derived from Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufin, Philippe; Müller, Hannes; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring changes in land use intensity of grazing systems in the Amazon is an important prerequisite to study the complex political and socio-economic forces driving Amazonian deforestation. Remote sensing offers the potential to map pasture vegetation over large areas, but mapping pasture conditions consistently through time is not a trivial task because of seasonal changes associated with phenology and data gaps from clouds and cloud shadows. In this study, we tested spectral-temporal metrics derived from intra-annual Landsat time series to distinguish between grass-dominated and woody pastures. The abundance of woody vegetation on pastures is an indicator for management intensity, since the duration and intensity of land use steer secondary succession rates, apart from climate and soil conditions. We used the developed Landsat-based metrics to analyze pasture intensity trajectories between 1985 and 2012 in Novo Progresso, Brazil, finding that woody vegetation cover generally decreased after four to ten years of grazing activity. Pastures established in the 80s and early 90s showed a higher fraction of woody vegetation during their initial land use history than pastures established in the early 2000s. Historic intensity trajectories suggested a trend towards more intensive land use in the last decade, which aligns well with regional environmental policies and market dynamics. This study demonstrates the potential of dense Landsat time series to monitor land-use intensification on Amazonian pastures.

  7. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  8. Effects of buffer strips and grazing management on soil loss from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive grazing pressure can cause soil erosion from pastures causing increased sediment loading to aquatic systems. The objectives of this work were to determine the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field stud...

  9. Soil water repellency in an old and young pasture in relation to N application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Ageing of pastures is likely to affect the degree of potential water repellency in the long term, whereas seasonal variation on a shorter term affects the actual repellency of soils. A 1-year study on two pastures of different ages was conducted on a sandy soil to assess changes in the degree of

  10. Eigenvalue Distribution of Large N Random Matrix - A Diagrammatic Proof to Marchenko Pastur Law

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xiaochuan

    2014-01-01

    The large N limit is a very useful tool in various theoretical models. In random matrix theory, Marchenko-Pastur law is a powerful theorem that governs eigenvalue distribution of large dimension random matrices. We present an alternative proof of Marchenko Pastur law using Feynman diagrams.

  11. Influence of streambank fencing on the environmental quality of cattle-excluded pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J J; Chanasyk, D S; Curtis, T; Willms, W D

    2010-01-01

    Limited information exists on the effect of streambank fencing on riparian zone pastures. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that 4 to 6 yr of streambank fencing would improve the environmental quality of the cattle-excluded pasture compared with the grazed pasture and cause the fenced pasture to act as a buffer or filter strip. Rangeland health, vegetative and soil properties, and rainfall simulation runoff were measured in the cattle-excluded and adjacent grazed native pastures along the fenced reach of the Lower Little Bow River in southern Alberta, Canada, for 3 yr (2005-2007). Rangeland health was improved (health score increase from 55 to 72%); vegetation cover (13-21%) and standing litter (38-742%) were increased; and bare soil (72-93%) and soil bulk density (6-8%) were decreased under cattle exclusion, indicating an improvement in environmental quality from streambank fencing. In contrast, other vegetation (total and live basal area, fallen litter) and soil properties (soil water and soil C, N, and P) were not improved by cattle exclusion. Cattle exclusion significantly (P fenced pasture may act as a buffer for certain runoff variables. In contrast, other runoff variables (turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, concentrations and loads of total suspended solids, and certain N and P fractions) in the cattle-excluded pasture were generally not improved by streambank fencing. Overall, streambank fencing improved the quality of certain environmental variables within the cattle-excluded pasture.

  12. Monitoring Pasture Production in Mamawatu, New Zealand, Using Proba-V Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Mike; Mansion, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was calculated from Proba-V data over 18 months (S10) and 12 months (S5). These values were compared with pasture biomass as measured by weekly farm rides on a 4WD towing the Rapid Pasture Meter. Trends in the data were well matched, especially during the summer and after rain in autumn.

  13. Relationship between residual feed intake, performance, and carcass parameters of pasture finished cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009 and 2010, Angus-crossbred steers (n = 39) were used to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI), pasture-finishing performance and carcass parameters. During RFI determinations prior to pasture finishing initiation in mid-April, animals were fed an alfalfa hay cube diet....

  14. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than

  15. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  16. Spatio-temporal modelling of biomass of intensively grazed perennial dairy pastures using multispectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Asoka; Clark, Dave; Waugh, Deanne

    2012-06-01

    Pasture biomass is a vital input for management of dairy systems in New Zealand. An accurate estimate of pasture biomass information is required for the calculation of feed budget, on which decisions are made for farm practices such as conservation, nitrogen use, rotational lengths and supplementary feeding leading to profitability and sustainable use of pasture resources. The traditional field based methods of measuring pasture biomass such as using rising plate metres (RPM) are largely inefficient in providing the timely information at the spatial extent and temporal frequency demanded by commercial environments. In recent times remote sensing has emerged as an alternative tool. In this paper we have examined the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from medium resolution imagery of SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 satellite sensors to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures. In the space and time domain analysis we have found a significant dependency of time over the season and no dependency of space across the scene at a given time for the relationship between NDVI and field based pasture biomass. We have established a positive correlation (81%) between the two variables in a pixel scale analysis. The application of the model on 2 selected farms over 3 images and aggregation of the predicted biomass to paddock scale has produced paddock average pasture biomass values with a coefficient of determination of 0.71 and a standard error of 260 kg DM ha-1 in the field observed range between 1500 and 3500 kg DM ha-1. This result indicates a high potential for operational use of remotely sensed data to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures.

  17. S-metolachlor efficacy on the control of Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis, and Panicum maximum in mechanically green harvested sugarcane Eficácia do S-metolachlor no controle de Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis e Panicum maximum em área de cana-de-açúcar colhida mecanicamente crua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of S-metolachlor applied in pre-emergence conditions for the control of Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis, and Panicum maximum in sugar cane mechanically harvested without previous burning of the crop (green harvest with the crop residue either left or not on the soil surface. The experiments were established in the field according to a randomized complete block design with four repetitions in a 7 x 2 split-plot scheme. In the plots, five herbicide treatments were studied (S-metolachlor at 1.44, 1.92, and 2.40 kg ha-1, clomazone at 1.20 kg ha-1, and isoxaflutole at 0.188 kg ha-1, and two control treatments with no herbicide application. In the subplots, the presence or absence of sugar cane crop residue on the soil surface was evaluated. S-metolachlor efficacy was not hampered by either 14 or 20 t ha-1 of sugar cane crop residue on the soil surface. When sugar cane crop residue was covering the soil surface, S-metolachlor at a rate of 1.44 kg ha-1 resulted in weed control similar at their larger rates, where as without the presence of crop residue, S-metolachlor controlled B. decumbens, D. horizontalis, and P. maximum at the rates of 1.92, 1.44, and 1.92 kg ha-1, respectively. The herbicides clomazone and isoxaflutole were effective for the studied species, independently of the crop residue covering the soil surface. S-metolachlor caused no visible injury symptoms to the sugar cane plant. Clomazone and isoxaflutole caused visible injuries to the sugar cane plant. None of the herbicides negatively affected the number of viable culms m² or the culm height and diameter.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o controle em pré-emergência de Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis e Panicum maximum pelo herbicida S-metolachlor aplicado em pré-emergência em área de cana-de-açúcar colhida mecanicamente sem queima prévia das plantas, com e sem palha sobre o solo. O delineamento

  18. Phosphorus, carbon- and nitrogen interactions in productive and degraded tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberson, A.; Hegglin, D. D.; Nesper, M.; Rao, I.; Fonte, S.; Ramirez, B.; Velasquez, J.; Tamburini, F.; Bünemann, E. K.; Frossard, E.

    2011-12-01

    Pastures are the main land use in deforested areas of tropical South America. The highly weathered soils of these regions usually have low total and available phosphorus (P) contents. Low P availability can strongly limit plant and animal productivity and other soil ecosystem functions. Most introduced pastures of Brachiaria spp. are grass-alone (GA) while some are grass-legume (GL) pastures. The majority of the introduced pastures, particularly the grass-alone are at some state of degradation (GD). Pasture degradation induces severe loss of plant biomass production, with drastic ecological and economic implications. Although the importance of P deficiency in pasture degradation has been recognized, the knowledge generated on stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and P along pathways of the nutrient cycles of pastures, with different botanical composition and productivity, has been very limited. We will present results of a case study realized during 2010 to 2011 in the forest margins agro-ecosystem of the department of Caquetá, Colombia. Our objectives were to determine: i) whether P availability is lower in degraded compared to productive pastures, and ii) whether the introduction of legumes in the pasture increases P availability through enhanced biological P cycling through plant growth, plant litter decomposition and the soil microbial biomass; and iii) whether pasture types (GA vs GL) and the state of pasture degradation affect the C:N:P ratios in nutrient pools of the soil-plant system. An on-farm study was conducted on nine farms in the department of Caquetá, Colombia. On every farm three different pasture types were studied: degraded grass alone pastures (GD), productive grass-alone pastures (GA) and productive grass-legume pastures (GL). Basic soil characteristics and indicators on soil P status, microbial P cycling, plant biomass production, plant litter deposition and nutrient concentrations in plant tissue were determined. Analysis of P, C and N

  19. [Statistical prediction of radioactive contamination impacts on agricultural pasture lands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature data analysis, the rationale is given for the use of probabilistic approaches to solve the problems of estimation of a long-lived radionuclide uptake in animal products. Methods for statistical prediction of radioactive contamination consequences for agricultural pasture lands have been devised and implemented in the form of models and program modules. These offer the estimation of radionuclide transfer between the links of an agricultural chain, taking into account variability in the migration parameters, estimation of soil contamination limits based on the preset risk levels for the stuffs produced and statistical coordination of standards. An illustration is given of the application of the above methods using statistical characteristics of 137Cs migration parameters in the soil-plant-animal produce chain. Further trends have been formulated in the development of the risk concept as applied to the assessment of radioecological situations of radioactive contamination of the agricultural land.

  20. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  1. Protein and energy utilization by ruminants at pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppi, D P; McLennan, S R

    1995-01-01

    Low live weight gain of cattle in the wet season of tropical areas was identified as a major limitation to achieving annual growth rates from tropical pasture systems sufficient to meet new market specifications of young animals of high carcass weight. Both protein and energy are limiting nutrients for growth. Net transfer of feed protein to the intestines is often not complete, and losses occur with grasses and legumes when CP content exceeds 210 g of CP/kg of digestible OM. This protein loss is important because a collation of experimental data indicated that cattle consuming low- and high-quality pasture and silage-based diets all responded to extra protein. The response was less for the higher-quality forage. The role of legumes in supplying this protein was investigated and, unless legumes can increase total DMI by at least 30%, they will not supply sufficient intestinal protein to increase live weight gain by about 300 g/d. The problem with legumes and some grasses is the loss of protein from the rumen, and increasing energy supply to the rumen, either through improved digestibility or energy supplements, is a strategy that could be used to reduce this. Strategies to increase the proportion of escape protein would be successful, but incorporation of lowly degradable protein fractions into legumes may be more difficult because of the level of expression of these protein fractions required for a significant live weight gain response. Cattle entering the wet season usually exhibit compensatory growth and are exposed to high ambient temperatures and often to high humidity. Intestinal protein above that stipulated in feeding standards may be beneficial in these circumstances, and more emphasis should be placed on the ability of legumes to supply protein postruminally. At present the protein delivery capacity of agronomically competitive legumes seems to be inadequate for the higher growth rates required in production systems, and supplements of energy and protein

  2. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, S C

    1997-08-01

    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  3. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  4. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  5. More stable productivity of semi natural grasslands than sown pastures in a seasonally dry climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ospina

    Full Text Available In the Neotropics the predominant pathway to intensify productivity is generally thought to be to convert grasslands to sown pastures, mostly in monoculture. This article examines how above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP in semi-natural grasslands and sown pastures in Central America respond to rainfall by: (i assessing the relationships between ANPP and accumulated rainfall and indices of rainfall distribution, (ii evaluating the variability of ANPP between and within seasons, and (iii estimating the temporal stability of ANPP. We conducted sequential biomass harvests during 12 periods of 22 days and related those to rainfall. There were significant relationships between ANPP and cumulative rainfall in 22-day periods for both vegetation types and a model including a linear and quadratic term explained 74% of the variation in the data. There was also a significant correlation between ANPP and the number of rainfall events for both vegetation types. Sown pastures had higher ANPP increments per unit rainfall and higher ANPP at the peak of the rainy season than semi-natural grasslands. In contrast, semi-natural grasslands showed higher ANPP early in the dry season. The temporal stability of ANPP was higher in semi-natural grasslands than in the sown pastures in the dry season and over a whole annual cycle. Our results reveal that, contrary to conventional thinking amongst pasture scientists, there appears to be no increase in ANPP arising from replacing semi-natural grasslands with sown pastures under prevailing pasture management practices in seasonally dry climates, while the temporal distribution of ANPP is more even in semi-natural grasslands. Neither sown pastures nor semi-natural grasslands are productive towards the end of the dry season, indicating the potential importance of the widespread practice of retaining tree cover in pastures.

  6. More stable productivity of semi natural grasslands than sown pastures in a seasonally dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Sonia; Rusch, Graciela M; Pezo, Danilo; Casanoves, Fernando; Sinclair, Fergus L

    2012-01-01

    In the Neotropics the predominant pathway to intensify productivity is generally thought to be to convert grasslands to sown pastures, mostly in monoculture. This article examines how above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) in semi-natural grasslands and sown pastures in Central America respond to rainfall by: (i) assessing the relationships between ANPP and accumulated rainfall and indices of rainfall distribution, (ii) evaluating the variability of ANPP between and within seasons, and (iii) estimating the temporal stability of ANPP. We conducted sequential biomass harvests during 12 periods of 22 days and related those to rainfall. There were significant relationships between ANPP and cumulative rainfall in 22-day periods for both vegetation types and a model including a linear and quadratic term explained 74% of the variation in the data. There was also a significant correlation between ANPP and the number of rainfall events for both vegetation types. Sown pastures had higher ANPP increments per unit rainfall and higher ANPP at the peak of the rainy season than semi-natural grasslands. In contrast, semi-natural grasslands showed higher ANPP early in the dry season. The temporal stability of ANPP was higher in semi-natural grasslands than in the sown pastures in the dry season and over a whole annual cycle. Our results reveal that, contrary to conventional thinking amongst pasture scientists, there appears to be no increase in ANPP arising from replacing semi-natural grasslands with sown pastures under prevailing pasture management practices in seasonally dry climates, while the temporal distribution of ANPP is more even in semi-natural grasslands. Neither sown pastures nor semi-natural grasslands are productive towards the end of the dry season, indicating the potential importance of the widespread practice of retaining tree cover in pastures.

  7. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks following forest conversion to pasture in the Western Brazilian Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We examined two chronosequences of forest, 8-and 20-year-old pasture in Rondônia-Brazil, to investigate how land use change affects the soil carbon and nitrogen stocks and organic matter dynamics of surface soil (0 to 30 cm). Soil total carbon and nitrogen stocks increased in 20-year-old pasture compared with the original forest in one chronosequence but no changes were detected in the other chronosequence. Calculations of the contributions of forest - and pasture-derived carbon from soil &et...

  8. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  9. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross compliance standard Protection of permanent pasture: prohibition to convert permanent pasture into arable crops in avoiding habitat deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ruda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century new developments in agricultural technology caused an intensification of the agricultural practices. Species adapted to the diversity of structures or resources of high naturalistic value farmlands, like permanent pasture, cannot survive under increasingly high intensity agricultural management. The Italian MD n.30125 dated 22/12/2009 (Standard 4.1 defines, among the measures for the protection of permanent pasture and avoidance the deterioration of habitats, the prohibition to convert permanent pasture into arable crops and to till with the exception of agricultural practices related to the renewal and/or thickening of the sward and to the drainage water management. Permanent pastures biodiversity performs key ecological services and if correctly assembled in time and space can lead to agroecosystems capable of sponsoring their own soil fertility, crop protection and productivity. The vegetative cover of permanent pasture prevents soil erosion, replenishes ground water and controls flooding by enhancing infiltration and reducing runoff. The changes of land use or some practices change insect community and vegetation diversity. Physical disturbance of the soil caused by tillage increases risk of erosion and reduces the recycling of nutrients and proper balance between organic matter, soil organism and plant diversity. Is necessary a habitat preservation policy because after a change, even a return to past management would not completely re-establish the complex structure of habitats.

  10. Rendimiento, caracterización química y digestibilidad del pasto Brachiaria decumbens en las actuales condiciones edafoclimáticas del Valle del Cauto (Yield, chemical characterization and digestibilidad of the Brachiaria grass decumbens in the present edafoclimáticas conditions of the Valley of the Cautious one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Espinosa, M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Las muestras se tomaron en la Estación Experimental Pecuaria, perteneciente al Instituto de investigaciones Jorge Dimitrov. Para la investigación se midió una parcela de 48 m2 a la cual se le aplicó un corte de uniformidad y posteriormente se midieron las edades de rebrote de 30,45,60 y 75 días en ambas épocas (Junio-Agosto período 1 y (Febrero-Abril período 2. Las muestras tomadas fueron enviadas al Laboratorio Provincial de Suelo, donde se determinó rendimiento, % de materia seca, proteína bruta, fibra bruta, ceniza, calcio, fósforo y magnesio. Para la determinación de la digestibilidad, se utilizó un bovino canulado de 400 Kg, el cual se trató contra endoparásitos y ectoparásitos. Se aplicó un diseño en bloques al azar, un análisis de varianza de clasificación simple, las medias se compararon utilizando la prueba de Duncan, auxiliándonos del programa Statistic versión 6.0 para Windows. Los resultados mostraron que la proteína y la digestibilidad fueron mayores en la época de seca, con respecto a la lluviosa, apareciendo valores de 8.37% para la proteína y 62.60 la digestibilidad (seca y de 7.89 % y 57.20 en lluvia. Al analizar la edad de rebrote, los indicadores fueron disminuyendo con el aumento de la madurez de la planta, menos la fibra. El rendimiento de la planta se vio afectado por la época del año, siendo mayor en la lluvia. Se concluye que las actuales condiciones climáticas del Valle del Cauto, ejercen un efecto desfavorable en la composición bromatológica y el rendimiento del pasto Brachiaria decumbens The samples were taken from the Cattle Experimental Center Jorge Dimitrov Researching Institute. To carried out this survey we measured a parcel of 48 m2 to which we applied a cutting of uniformity and later on it was devided into other little parcels to determine the rebudding ages of 30, 45, 60 and 75 days in both stages. Period 1 (June-August and Period 2 (February-April. She samples taken were sent to

  11. Effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of vegetal species on seed germination of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf/ Ação de extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies vegetais na germinação de sementes de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of medicinal species on seed germination of B. decumbens. The experimental design was completely randomized with 19 treatments (9 aquous extracts, 9 ethanolic extracts and a check was deionized water with 4 replicates. The species and organs used to obtain the extracts were Baccharis trimera (shoot, Baccharis articulata (shoot, Canna denudata (leaves, Cymbopogom citratus (leaves, Eucalyptus citriodora (leaves, Lippia alba (leaves and branches, Momordica charantia (leaves, branches, flowers, fruits and seeds, Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, branches and flowers e Ruta graveolens (leaves and branches. The extracts were obtained by aquous and ethanolic infusions in 10% and 1% concentration respectively. The seeds were treated with extracts for one hour and after this time sowed in plastic boxes. They were maintained in germination chamber (BOD with 16 hours of dark/20ºC and 8 hours of light/35ºC. The evaluation were made at 7Th and 21st days after seeding (DAS. The extraction methods affected seed germination. The use of aquous extract showed greater germination percentage than the ethanolic one at 7Th and 21st days. The evaluated extracts did not affect the seeds’ germination.O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies medicinais sobre germinação de sementes de B. decumbens. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 19 tratamentos (9 extratos aquosos, 9 extratos etanólicos e 1 testemunha com água deionizada com quatro repetições. As espécies e as partes das plantas utilizadas para a obtenção dos extratos foram Baccharis trimera (caule, Baccharis articulata (caule, Canna denudata (folhas, Cymbopogom citratus (folhas, Eucalyptus citriodora (folhas, Lippia alba (folhas e ramos, Momordica charantia (folhas, ramos, flores, frutos e sementes, Ocimum gratissimum (folhas, ramos e flores e

  12. Efeito alelopático de plantas daninhas e concentrações de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens no desenvolvimento inicial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Allelopathic effect of weeds and concentrations of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar possível efeito alelopático de 18 espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis, realizaram-se dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, dentre 18 espécies de plantas daninhas testadas, Brachiaria decumbens (BRADC demonstrou acentuada capacidade de reduzir o crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis, quando incorporada ao solo. No segundo experimento avaliou-se o efeito da adição no substrato de concentrações de matéria seca de BRADC sobre o crescimento inicial de mudas de E. grandis. A matéria seca triturada de BRADC foi incorporada ao solo nas concentrações de 0% (testemunha, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 3,0% (p/p. Instalou-se também uma réplica do experimento, com adição de idênticas quantidades totais de carbono entre os tratamentos. O ajuste da quantidade de carbono foi feito através da adição de Sphagnum. Extraiu-se a solução do solo por meio de cápsulas de porcelana introduzidas nos vasos quando do transplante das mudas de eucalipto. As soluções foram coletadas ao final do experimento (39 dias após o transplante das mudas, sendo utilizadas para a determinação de pH, condutividade elétrica, potencial osmótico e para análise de teores de nutrientes. As mínimas proporções de BRADC, com efeito inibitório, foram de 0,5 e 1,0%, com e sem Sphagnum, respectivamente. Nestas duas condições, a área foliar média do eucalipto foi reduzida em 24 e 23%, respectivamente. As análises de solução do solo dos tratamentos permitiram concluir que os teores de nutrientes e as características químicas destes foram pouco alterados pelos tratamentos, sendo pouco provável que a redução do crescimento do E. grandis se deva às restrições nas quantidades de nutrientes disponíveis.Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the possible allelopathic effect of 18 weed species on the initial development of eucalyptus

  13. Use of LANDSAT data to monitor pasture project in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Novo, E. M. L. D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. No differences were found between acreage evaluation by visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT images. It was necessary to interpret both channels 5 and 7 to exactly outline the deforested areas. Channel 7 was necessary for the identification of deforested areas in the presence of recently grown natural vegetation, and channel 5 was necessary to identify the deforested areas in the cerrado regions. Automatic interpretation permitted the discrimination between areas with predominant grass coverage and recently grown natural vegetation.

  14. Deposição e distribuição de calda de pulverização em plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Deposition and distribution of spraying solution on Phaseolus vulgaris and Brachiaria decumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2001-04-01

    marker solution on the P. vulgaris and B. decumbens plants, using a sprayer simulator under a controlled environment. The treatments were: nozzle fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v; nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4 + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v; nozzle fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS and nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4. A solution of NaCl (0.5% + Orange Poliglow colour (0.5% + mancozeb (0.5% was applied in all treatments. The experimental units consisted of pots with two B. decumbens target plants underneath one P. vulgaris target plant. Droplet distribution over B. decumbens leaves was evaluated with black light, and deposition by electric conductivity of the sprayer solution collected by washing the targets in deionized water. The spraying nozzles, XR Teejet and Conejet, did not show deposition difference on P. vulgaris leaves, under equal spray solution conditions. However, the nozzle with fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS and the nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4 provided, respectively, 67.1% and 61.5% increase on the leaf area deposition and 106,4% and 66.9% increase dry weight increase, when compared to the nozzle with fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v and the nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4 + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v. Nozzle Conejet provided higher uniform distribution, when compared to nozzle XR Teejet.

  15. Heterotrophic components of soil respiration in pastures and forests in southwestern Amazonia, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Atlas Davidson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present data on soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration in pastures, mature and secondary forests, in order to elucidate their contribution to total CO2 flux from soil to atmosphere. The research was conducted in Southwestern Amazonia, Acre State, Brazil. Microbial biomass was estimated using a variation of the traditional fumigation-extraction method and heterotrophic respiration was measured using respirometry flasks attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration did not differ statistically among pastures, mature and secondary forests. These laboratory results indicate that higher CO2 fluxes from pasture soils measured in situ are probably due to higher root respiration by pasture grasses.

  16. Influence of Pasture Rearing on the Cecal Bacterial Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in quantity of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens from conventional and pasture rearing were investigated by cultivation. Rearing on pasture brings stress reduction and increases comfort and bird welfare, which leads to products with better taste and flavour compared to conventionally produced broiler chickens. A difference in cecal settlement of general anaerobes, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and campylobacters and salmonellas in the two different rearing systems was addressed. Whereas numbers of total anaerobes and lactic acid bacteria were not affected, those of coliforms were significantly reduced in pasture rearing. Campylobacters were found only in pasture-reared chickens (in 28% of animals. Salmonellas were not detected in any of the systems.

  17. Growing and slaughtering performance of Apennine heavy lamb finished at pasture in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cestola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six Apennine male lambs were allotted into 2 groups, under different finishing systems: group P (maximum pasture allowance and group S (intensive finishing. Lambs were slaughtered either at 30 kg of weight or at 110 days of age (in case they couldn’t reach final weight because of a sharp decline in pasture productivity in summer. Post-weaning ADG were significantly higher in the S group (about 77 g/d and P lambs had lower weights, dressing percentage (due to higher gastro-intestinal apparatus content and SEUROP conformation scores. Finishing lambs at pasture could have better results after an early weaning or using different mating strategies to escape the dramatic fall in pasture dry matter availability during summer.

  18. Phyto-oestrogens and their metabolites in milk produced on two pastures with different botanical compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S. A.; Purup, S.; Hansen-Møller, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Phyto-oestrogens are a group of secondary plant metabolites that may bind to oestrogen receptors and exert oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic effects in humans and can protect against cancer diseases. When ingested by dairy cows, phyto-oestrogens can be metabolised and transferred to the milk....... The objective of this study was to assess the effects of grazing a recently established pasture containing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and an older pasture containing a variety of sown and unsown plant species on milk concentrations of phyto-oestrogens. Sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows [mean (standard...... deviation); body weight 599 (45.1). kg, stage of lactation 73 (15.0) d in milk, milk yield 29.9 (2.90) kg/d at the start of the experiment] were divided into two groups and grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). The SP was representative of organically managed leys in Norway...

  19. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-11-26

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation.

  20. Reindeer avoidance of pasture contaminated with sheep and reindeer faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Colman

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by excrements will increase in areas with high animal densities, such as snow free patches with accessible forage in winter and holding paddocks. Avoidance of faeces dropped by other grazers may result in interference competition by reducing optimal forage intake, or offer protection from the transfer of parasites or disease. We conducted two enclosure experiments investigating reindeer (Rangifer tarandus reactions towards faeces. The first experiment tested whether reindeer avoid pasture contaminated with faeces from reindeer or sheep (Ovis aries. Both high (0.5 kg/m2 and low (0.05 kg/m2 concentrations of faeces reduced reindeer grazing compared to no faeces. Reindeer grazed significantly less in areas with high concentration of faeces compared to areas with low concentrations, with equally strong avoidance regardless of faeces source. The second experiment analysed the defecation pattern (random or not of reindeer in a 50 m x 40 m enclosure to investigate how this pattern might change following the introduction of female sheep or additional female reindeer. Both reindeer and sheep defecated in a non-random pattern that was related to their preferred bedding sites. When sheep visited reindeer, the species' faeces distributions were positively correlated, indicating that reindeer and sheep had an overlap in area utilization, at least while bedding. When additional reindeer were introduced and then removed, the combined resident and visiting reindeers' faeces distributions were negatively correlated with the resident reindeers' faeces distribution following the removal of the visiting reindeer. This suggested that resident reindeer avoided the visiting reindeers' faeces. Resident reindeer also produced fewer total droppings when visited by new reindeer, while the number of droppings did not change when visited by sheep. Thus, resident reindeer were more adversely affected by the introduction of new reindeer even after their removal

  1. Tree water use and rainfall partitioning in a mature poplar-pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Edwards, W. R. N.; Morton, R. H.; Kemp, P. D.; Mackay, A. D.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, poplars (Populus) have been planted to control erosion on New Zealand's hill-slopes, because of their capacity to dry out and bind together the soil, by reducing effective rainfall and increasing evapotranspiration and soil strength. However, the effect of widely spaced poplars on the partitioning of soil water and rainfall has not been reported. This study determined rainfall partitioning for 18 mid-spring days in a mature P. deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh, Clone I78)-pasture association (37 stems per hectare, unevenly spaced at 16.4 +/- 0.4 m) and compared it with a traditional open pasture system in grazed areas of a hill environment. Tree transpiration was measured by the heat pulse technique. A time-driven mathematical model was used to set a zero offset, adjust anomalous values and describe simultaneous sap velocity time courses of trees. The model showed that daylight sap flow velocities can be represented with a nonlinear Beta function (R(2) > 0.98), and differences in the parameters representing the initiation, duration and conformation of the sap velocity can be tested statistically to discern tree transpiration differences during the day. Evapotranspiration was greater for the poplar-pasture association than for the open pasture (2.7-3.0 versus 2.2 mm day(-1)). The tree canopy alone contributed 0.92 mm day(-1) as transpiration and 1.37 mm day(-1) as interception, whereas evapotranspiration of the pasture understory was only 0.4-0.6 mm day(-1). Despite the higher water use of the poplar-pasture association, soil water in the 0-300 mm soil stratum was higher than, or similar to, that of the open pasture. Tree shading decreased evapotranspiration and pasture accumulation under the trees.

  2. Unexprected Changes in Soil Phosphorus Dynamics Following Tropical Deforestation to Cattle Pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Lefer, Margaret E.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is widely believed to limit plant growth and organic matter storage in a large fraction of the world's lowland tropical rainforests. We investigated how the most common land use change in such forests, conversion to cattle pasture, affects soil P fractions along forest to pasture chronosequences in the central Brazilian Amazon and in southwestern Costa Rica. Our sites represent a broad range in rainfall, soil type, management strategies, and total soil P (45.2 - 1228.0 microng P / g soil), yet we found some unexpected and at times strikingly similar changes in soil P in all sites. In the Brazilian sites, where rainfall is relatively low and pasture management is more intense than in the Costa Rican sites, significant losses in total soil P and soil organic carbon (SOC) were seen with pasture age on both fine-textured oxisol and highly sandy entisol soils. However, P losses were largely from occluded, inorganic soil P fractions, while organic forms of soil P remained constant or increased with pasture age, despite the declines in SOC. In Costa Rica, SOC remained constant across the oxisol sites and increased from forest to pasture on the mollisols, while total soil P increased with pasture age in both sequences. The increases in total soil P were largely due to changes in organic P; occluded soil P increased only slightly in the mollisols, and remained unchanged in the older oxisols. We suggest that changes in the composition and/or the primary limiting resources of the soil microbial community may drive the changes in organic P. We also present a new conceptual model for changes in soil P following deforestation to cattle pasture.

  3. Forage mass and the nutritive value of pastures mixed with forage peanut and red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasture-based system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems, two replicates (paddocks in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles. Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD. Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasture-based system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance.

  4. Modeling and Mapping Soil Moisture of Plateau Pasture Using RADARSAT-2 Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Xun Chai; Tingting Zhang; Yun Shao; Huaze Gong; Long Liu; Kaixin Xie

    2015-01-01

    Accurate soil moisture retrieval of a large area in high resolution is significant for plateau pasture. The object of this paper is to investigate the estimation of volumetric soil moisture in vegetated areas of plateau pasture using fully polarimetric C-band RADARSAT-2 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. Based on the water cloud model, Chen model, and Dubois model, we proposed two developed algorithms for soil moisture retrieval and validated their performance using experimental data. We ...

  5. Production and structure of massai grass pastures fertilized with animal manures

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    João Virgínio Emerenciano Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the structure and production of Panicum maximum cv. Massai forage. The experiment was conducted at the teaching farm of Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte, Apodi Campus. The treatments evaluated were organic sources of nitrogen (wastes of pig, poultry and sheep farming and a mineral source (urea, set at 150 kg N/ha. Forage production, morphological components, pasture height, light interception, leaf area index, and chlorophyll content were evaluated in samples obtained at intervals of 60 days. Canopy height was affected by the type of fertilizer applied and the greatest height was observed for pasture fertilized with urea (50.97 cm. The highest light interception by the canopy was observed for pastures receiving urea, but 95% light interception was not reached. The leaf area index was higher for pastures fertilized with urea compared to the other treatments and the values obtained for pastures receiving organic fertilizers were considered very low. Forage, leaf blade, stem and dead material mass was affected by the type of fertilizer and was higher for pastures receiving urea. The total chlorophyll content of leaf blades did not differ between the types of fertilizer evaluated. Forage structure or production in massai grass pastures is not affected by the type of animal manure used as nitrogen source. The efficiency of these organic fertilizers as a nitrogen source is lower than that of mineral fertilization. The animal manures evaluated can be used as nitrogen sources for massai grass pastures to reduce costs and environmental impacts.

  6. Modelling of economic thresholds for Rumex obtusifolius L. in intensively used grassland and pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Broadleaf dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) is one of most frequently arising problem weed in permanent pasture. Numerous publications concern themselves with biology and ecology whereas little information is available quantifying the economic impacts of dock on forage grass yield and quality. Over the course of several growing seasons experiments were conducted in three pasture locations in Saxony and Thuringia (Germany). Dock infestation, yield proportions, yield of grass and dock and the forage...

  7. Efectividad de métodos de control de malezas en la producción de forraje del pasto Pangola (Digitaria decumbens Stent.

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    Valent\\u00EDn Alberto Esqueda-Esquivel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efectividad de métodos de con trol de ma le zas en la producción de forraje del pasto Pangola (Digitaria decumbens Stent. En el periodo de agosto de 1998 a agosto de 1999 se condujo un experimento en Emilio Carranza, municipio de Ve ga de Alatorre, Ve racruz, México, con el objeto de determinar el efec to de tra ta mien tos de con trol quí mi co y ma nual de ma le zas en la pro duc ción de fo rraje de zacate Pangola y en la den si dad de po bla ción de ma le zas presentes al inicio del siguiente ciclo de lluvias. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de blo ques completos al azar con cua tro re pe ti cio nes. Los tra tamien tos evaluados fueron: 1. Mezcla for mulada de picloram + 2,4-D (64 + 240 g/100 l agua 2. Mez cla for mu la da de pi cloram + flu ro xi pir (40 + 40 g/100 l agua 3. Con trol ma nual mediante chapeo con machete y 4. Testigo enhierbado. Las parcelas experimentales tuvieron 30 m de longitud y 10 m de anchura. Los tra ta mien tos 1, 2 y 3 se apli ca ron el 17 de agos to de 1998, cuan do la zar za de lo ma (Mimosa albida, que fue la es pe cie de ma le za do mi nan te te nía en tre 40 y 60 cm de al tu ra y la cobertura promedio de malezas del lote experimental, era de 57,9%. Se eva luó la co ber tu ra de ma le zas y pas to y el control de ma le zas a los 29, 60, 80, 114 y 154 días des pués de la aplicación de los tratamientos (DDA. También se determinó la producción de forraje de za ca te Pan go la a los 45, 80, 143 y 178 DDA. Con pi clo ram + flu ro xi pir y pi clo ram + 2,4-D, se controló más eficientemente a M. albida y el com ple jo de ma le zas her bá ceas que con el cha peo y se ob tu vo una produc ción significativamente mayor de ma teria seca de pas to. Ambos tratamientos herbicidas presentaron menor densidad de po bla ción de ma le zas en el si guien te ci clo de llu vias que el tratamiento con chapeo.

  8. Avaliação da exposição solar na intoxicação experimental por Brachiaria decumbens em ovinos

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    Mirna R. Porto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 26 ovinos, entre 3 e 4 meses de idade, divididos em 3 grupos, provenientes de rebanhos que nunca tiveram contato com pastos de Brachiaria spp.. Dois grupos receberam Brachiaria decumbens no cocho diariamente ad libitum, sendo que um deles permaneceu em área com exposição solar (GS e o outro foi mantido em baias cobertas protegidos do sol (GSB. O grupo controle (GC foi também mantido em local com exposição solar e alimentado com feno de Cynodon dactylon e capim Pennisetum purpureum triturado. Todos os grupos receberam alimentação em cochos e foram suplementados com 200g/dia/animal de ração comercial para ovinos. Foi realizada a avaliação clínica diária dos ovinos e colhidas amostras duas vezes por semana para dosagem sérica de AST e GGT. Os animais que morreram foram submetidos a necropsia e em todos os ovinos sobreviventes foi realizada biópsia hepática no final do experimento. Três animais do grupo GS adoeceram e dois morreram. Um ovino do grupo GSB adoeceu e morreu. Não houve alterações clínicas nos ovinos controles. Os principais sinais clínicos observados nos animais que adoeceram foram apatia, emagrecimento, fotofobia, hiperemia e secreção ocular e icterícia. Nenhum animal apresentou lesões cutâneas de fotossensibilização. O grupo que permaneceu no sol apresentou atividades séricas médias de AST e GGT significativamente maiores que a dos demais grupos (p<0,05 e os animais que permaneceram na sombra apresentaram níveis maiores de GGT (p<0,05 em comparação ao grupo controle. A histopatologia das amostras de fígados dos ovinos com sinais clínicos demonstrou tumefação e vacuolização de hepatócitos, necrose individual de hepatócitos, macrófagos espumosos com cristais birrefringentes intracitoplasmáticos e dentro de ductos biliares e infiltrado mononuclear periportal. Amostras do capim fornecidas aos cordeiros evidenciaram níveis médios de 0,94±0,80% da saponina protodioscina. As

  9. Effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on the activity and population dynamics of methanotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brajesh K; Tate, Kevin R; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B; Macdonald, Catriona A; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils.

  10. Sward structure and livestock performance in guinea grass cv: Tanzania pastures managed by rotational stocking strategies

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    Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazing strategy is a key element in the determination of sward structure, herbage nutritive value and animal performance. We aimed to compare the herbage characteristics and performance of livestock in pastures of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania managed, using two rotational stocking strategies, which provided either a fixed-length rest period (FRP of 35 days in the spring and fall and 30 days in the summer, or a variable-length rest period (VRP, determined by the time required for the canopy to achieve 70 cm in height. The pastures were evaluated in the pregrazing condition for forage mass (FM; leaf (LP, stem (SP and dead matter (DP percentages; and nutritive value (NV. The animals were weighed every 28 days. Pastures managed with the FRPs exhibited greater FMs, SPs and DPs and lower LPs and NVs than those managed with the VRPs. The average daily livestock weight gain was greater during the spring and summer for the VRP than for the FRP pastures, resulting in an average animal weight gain per area of 990 and 860 kg ha−¹ wet period−¹ for the pastures managed with the VRPs and FRPs, respectively. Thus, pasture rest periods that were maintained after the sward reached 70 cm in height reduced the animal performance on Tanzania guinea grass.

  11. Alterações histológicas em fígados e linfonodos de búfalos (Bubalus bubalis mantidos em pastagens de Brachiaria spp. Histologic lesions in livers and lymph nodes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis grazing in Brachiaria spp. pastures

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    Beatriz Riet-Correa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltração por macrófagos espumosos e outras lesões podem ser encontradas em bovinos clinicamente sadios em pastagens de Brachiaria spp. Com o objetivo de determinar as alterações histológicas do fígado e linfonodos mesentéricos em búfalos no Pará foram estudadas as alterações histológicas de fragmentos desses órgãos de 142 búfalos da raça Murrah e de 15 bovinos da raça Nelore, coletados em frigoríficos. As coletas foram separadas em grupos de animais de acordo com sua origem e tempo de permanência na pastagem de Brachiaria spp., sendo o Grupo (G 1 composto por 79 búfalos provenientes da Ilha de Marajó, criados em pastagens de campo nativo; o G2 composto por 17 búfalos mantidos desde o nascimento em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha; o G3 composto por 29 búfalos adquiridos na Ilha do Marajó e introduzidos em pastagem de B. decumbens por aproximadamente 12 meses; o G4 composto por 17 búfalos adquiridos na Ilha de Marajó e introduzidos em pastagem de B. brizantha por aproximadamente 18 meses; e o G5 composto por 15 bovinos mantidos em pastagem de B. brizantha por aproximadamente 12 meses. Para avaliar a gravidade da lesão hepática foram estabelecidos graus de acordo com a quantidade e tamanho dos grupos de macrófagos espumosos, seguindo uma escala de 0 a 4. Nos animais do G1, provenientes da Ilha de Marajó, não foram observadas alterações histológicas significativas no fígado e linfonodos mesentéricos. Em todas as amostras dos grupos G2, G3 e G4 foram observados quantidades variáveis de macrófagos espumosos no fígado e linfonodos mesentéricos. Os animais dos grupos G2 e do G4, que permaneceram um período maior em pastagens de Brachiaria spp, apresentaram lesões mais acentuadas (PInfiltration by foamy macrophages and other lesions are reported in healthy cattle held in Brachiaria spp. pastures. With the objective to study histologic lesions in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes in buffalo in the state

  12. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-02

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  13. Monitoring pasture damage in subarid conditions in south of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Felix; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Martín-Sotoca, Juan J.; Dalezios, Nicolas; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    This work analyzes four areas in Murcia region (Spain) to study the application of the indexed pastures insurances in arid and subarid conditions. For this purpose four zones of 2,5 km have been selected, all of them close to meteorological stations, with records covering the period since 2001 to 2012 and with compound MODIS images of 500 m x 500 m from eight days intervals on that period. In addition to obtain historical series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), other indices (NDWI, NDDI and NDWU) have been computed. The results of this study show that NDWU provides additional information to that in the NDVI. In fact, according to our results, NDDI does not provide accurate information for the regions analyzed in this particular case study. In an attempt to relate precipitancy indices and drought situations in the four areas selected, we have showed that Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) cannot be used accurately for drought intensity assessment. Then new indices have been formulated based on Markov chains: PI5mm and PI10mm.These indices can assess on isolated droughts which are missed by using indexed insurances. Nonetheless, it has also been observed that abnormal droppings in the NDWI index often coincide with drought lapses well established by indexed insurances. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the Research Grant obtained from CEIGRAM in 2015

  14. Epigeic spiders of the pastures of northern Wielkopolska

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    Woźny, Marek

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of epigeic spiders (Araneae occurring on three different types of pastures in northern Wielkopolska was analysed. Studies were conducted from May 1992 to October 1993. The 18,995 specimens collected were classified as belonging to 137 species and 17 families. The family Linyphiidae proved the richest in species while Lycosidae was the most abundantly in terms of number of specimens. Zoocenological analysis of spider communities showed their differentiation testifying to differences in the sites studied. The dominants were: 1 Osowo Stare (Site 1: Pardosa palustris, 2 Sycyn Dolny (Site 2: Xerolycosa miniata, P. palustris, Xysticus kochi, 3 Braczewo (Site 3: Erigone dentipalpis, P. palustris. Seasonal changes of dominance of the species at each site were established. A comparison of changes of the species’ dominances in the years 1992 and 1993 disclosed similar values of the individual dominance coefficient at the sites in Osowo Stare and Braczewo. This result indicates the occurrence of the process of stabilization of these biocenoses and a tendency to equilibrium in the environment. The least stable proved to be the site at Sycyn Dolny. Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of epigeic spider communities was also made by determining the mean number of species at each site in the two years of study. The highest number of species was noted in spring. It is interesting to note the appearance of species which are rare or very rare in Poland such as: Lepthyphantes insignis, Ostearius melanopygius, Enoplognatha mordax and Enoplognatha oelandica.

  15. Impact of combined management on the newly established pasture sward

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    Pavlína Hakrová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the combined grazing and cutting management on the phytocenological characteristics was examined at the submountain paddock in the South Bohemia. The botanical scans were sampled during the five-years study (2006–2010 starting after the sowing the pasture sward in the originally arable field and 0–2 years after the beginning of the grazing (paddock A and paddock B, respectively. The paddock A was grazed all year round, whereas the paddock B was grazed in spring and autumn and cut in summer for hay. At both paddocks, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens and Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia dominated the community of total 43 and 47 species (paddock A and B, respectively. Among the sowing species, Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Poa pratensis, Festuca rubra and Trifolium repens increased its cover on both paddocks, while Phleum pratense increased its cover only at paddock B. Lolium multiflorum decreased it cover at both paddocks. Most of arable field weeds disappeared (paddock A or decreased its cover (paddock B. The cover of herb layer was higher at paddock A than at paddock B, whereas the number of species (N, the diversity (H and the equitability (J was higher at paddock B than at paddock A. The cover of herb layer increased during the study at both the paddocks, while the number of species declined at paddock A and increased at paddock B.

  16. Grown on Novel Microcarriers

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    Torsten Falk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells have been tested as a cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease but will require additional study before further clinical trials can be planned. We now show that the long-term survival and neurotrophic potential of hRPE cells can be enhanced by the use of FDA-approved plastic-based microcarriers compared to a gelatin-based microcarrier as used in failed clinical trials. The hRPE cells grown on these plastic-based microcarriers display several important characteristics of hRPE found in vivo: (1 characteristic morphological features, (2 accumulation of melanin pigment, and (3 high levels of production of the neurotrophic factors pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Growth of hRPE cells on plastic-based microcarriers led to sustained levels (>1 ng/ml of PEDF and VEGF-A in conditioned media for two months. We also show that the expression of VEGF-A and PEDF is reciprocally regulated by activation of the GPR143 pathway. GPR143 is activated by L-DOPA (1 μM which decreased VEGF-A secretion as opposed to the previously reported increase in PEDF secretion. The hRPE microcarriers are therefore novel candidate delivery systems for achieving long-term delivery of the neuroprotective factors PEDF and VEGF-A, which could have a value in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Foraging behaviour, nutrient intake from pasture and performance of free-range growing pigs in relation to feed CP level in two organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Malene; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    In organic pig production one of the major challenges is to be able to fulfil amino acid requirements based on organic and locally grown protein feed crops. The pig is an opportunistic omnivore with a unique capacity for foraging above and below the soil surface. It is hypothesized that direct...... foraging in the range area can pose an important contribution in terms of fulfilling nutrient requirements of growing pigs. Foraging activity, lucerne nutrient intake and pig performance were investigated in 36 growing pigs, foraging on lucerne or grass and fed either a standard organic pelleted feed...... of pasture/pig per day during the 40 days experimental period from September to October 2013. Behavioural observations were carried out 12 times over the entire experimental period. For both crops, LP pigs rooted significantly more compared with HP pigs but the effect of CP level was more pronounced in grass...

  18. A Contextual Analysis of Land-Use and Vegetation Changes in Two Wooded Pastures in the Swiss Jura Mountains

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    Joël Chételat

    2013-03-01

    The most important changes in tree density occurred during World War II and resulted in a more open landscape. The intensive use of wooded pastures during the war was the consequence of a high demand for wood and food resources. Postwar protectionist regulations, agricultural subsidies, and technical improvements maintained considerable pressure on wooded pastures. Storms and drought episodes further exacerbated this process in some areas. The trend then reversed from the 1970s onwards because of the limitations put on milk production and the falling price of wood. This resulted in a more extensive use of pastures, leading to tree encroachment. However, remote sites were more impacted than pastures closer to inhabited areas, which exhibited a trend towards more segregation between grassland and densely wooded pastures. With both extensification and segregation of land use, the complex vegetation mosaic and the landscape diversity that characterize wooded pastures are threatened but still offer good economic opportunities that call for differentiated management strategies.

  19. 牧草引种试验总结%Summarization of Field Tests on New Pasture Species Introduced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘怀军

    2011-01-01

    通过2009年~2010年对御谷、"朝牧一号"稗子、籽粒苋等一年生牧草品种引种试验观测,这三个品种的牧草适应性广,在本地均能较好地生长.其中御谷和籽粒苋表现最好.具有产草量高,再生能力强等优势.御谷和籽粒苋鲜草产量分别为76157 kg/hm2和70045 kg/hm2,较当地主要种植的草高粱品种分别提高132%和114%,干草较草高粱分别增加15598 kg/hm2和5808 kg/hm2.因此,御谷、籽粒苋可以代替本地主要种植的一年生草高粱牧草品种,在当地大面积推广.%Three pasture species that are Yugu,No.1 Chaomu and grain amaranth have been introduced and tested in the fields of Guyuan County from 2009 to 2010.They all have good adaptability and could be grown extensively in local sites,and Yugu and grain amaranth a

  20. MODIS Time Series to Detect Anthropogenic Interventions and Degradation Processes in Tropical Pasture

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    Daniel Alves Aguiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unavoidable diet change in emerging countries, projected for the coming years, will significantly increase the global consumption of animal protein. It is expected that Brazilian livestock production, responsible for close to 15% of global production, be prepared to answer to the increasing demand of beef. Consequently, the evaluation of pasture quality at regional scale is important to inform public policies towards a rational land use strategy directed to improve livestock productivity in the country. Our hypothesis is that MODIS images can be used to evaluate the processes of degradation, restoration and renovation of tropical pastures. To test this hypothesis, two field campaigns were performed covering a route of approximately 40,000 km through nine Brazilian states. To characterize the sampled pastures, biophysical parameters were measured and observations about the pastures, the adopted management and the landscape were collected. Each sampled pasture was evaluated using a time series of MODIS EVI2 images from 2000–2012, according to a new protocol based on seven phenological metrics, 14 Boolean criteria and two numerical criteria. The theoretical basis of this protocol was derived from interviews with producers and livestock experts during a third field campaign. The analysis of the MODIS EVI2 time series provided valuable historical information on the type of intervention and on the biological degradation process of the sampled pastures. Of the 782 pastures sampled, 26.6% experienced some type of intervention, 19.1% were under biological degradation, and 54.3% presented neither intervention nor trend of biomass decrease during the period analyzed.

  1. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alcantara dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded pasture withUrochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. R.D. Webster, a trial with threeP. maximum (cv. Massai, Tanzânia, or Mombaça was conducted. Lime and phosphate were applied at set-up, and mineral N and K as topdressing. A remnant of degraded pasture adjacent to the trial was used as control. Twenty-three chemical, physical, microbiological and biochemical attributes were assessed for the 0-10 cm topsoil. The procedures for reclamation improved most of the indicators of soil health in relation to the degraded pasture, such as soil P, mineral N, microbial biomass C, ammonification rate, dehydrogenase activity and acid phosphatase. CO2 evolution decreased, whereas microbial biomass C increased in the pasture under reclamation, resulting in a lower metabolic quotient (qCO2 that points to a decrease in metabolic stress of the microbial community. The reclamation of the pasture withP. maximum, especially cv. Mombaça, were evidenced by improvements in the microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators, showing a recovery of processes related to C, N and P cycling in the soil.

  2. Effects of type of carbohydrate supplementation to lush pasture on microbial fermentation in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Yoon, I K; Stern, M D; Jung, H G; Chester-Jones, H

    1999-01-01

    Eight single-flow continuous culture fermenters were used to study the effects of the type of energy source on ruminal N utilization from high quality pasture. The four dietary treatments included high quality grass and legume pasture alone (50:50; wt/wt), pasture plus soybean hulls, pasture plus beet pulp, and pasture plus corn. Diets supplemented with additional sources of energy (soybean hulls, beet pulp, and corn) were isocaloric but differed in the type and rate of carbohydrate fermentation. Energy supplements constituted 45% of the total dietary dry matter and were fed twice daily at 12-h intervals in place of pasture, which is characteristic of grain feeding at milking when animals are in a grazing situation. Energy supplementation reduced pH, NH3 N flow, and NH3 N concentration and increased bacterial N flow (as a percentage of N intake). The supplementation of corn and soybean hulls resulted in the highest microbial N flow (as a percentage of N intake). Corn had a tendency to reduce fiber digestion because of excessively low NH3 N concentrations. Beet pulp was similar to corn in that it decreased NH3 N concentrations. Supplementation of soybean hulls resulted in a more synchronized fermentation, greater volatile fatty acid production, and greater fiber digestion. Nitrogen utilization by microbes was maximized by supplementation with soybean hulls or corn twice a day. With diets based on pasture, it may be more important to improve bacterial N flow and bacterial utilization of N than to maximize the efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis because better utilization of N by ruminal microorganisms results in higher bacterial N flow and higher fiber digestion.

  3. Mapping of macro and micro nutrients of mixed pastures using airborne AisaFENIX hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, Gábor; Yule, I. J.

    2016-07-01

    On-farm assessment of mixed pasture nutrient concentrations is important for animal production and pasture management. Hyperspectral imaging is recognized as a potential tool to quantify the nutrient content of vegetation. However, it is a great challenge to estimate macro and micro nutrients in heterogeneous mixed pastures. In this study, canopy reflectance data was measured by using a high resolution airborne visible-to-shortwave infrared (Vis-SWIR) imaging spectrometer measuring in the wavelength region 380-2500 nm to predict nutrient concentrations, nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), manganese (Mn) copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) in heterogeneous mixed pastures across a sheep and beef farm in hill country, within New Zealand. Prediction models were developed using four different methods which are included partial least squares regression (PLSR), kernel PLSR, support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR) algorithms and their performance compared using the test data. The results from the study revealed that RFR produced highest accuracy (0.55 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.78; 6.68% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 26.47%) compared to all other algorithms for the majority of nutrients (N, P, K, Zn, Na, Cu and Mg) described, and the remaining nutrients (S and Mn) were predicted with high accuracy (0.68 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.86; 13.00% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 14.64%) using SVR. The best training models were used to extrapolate over the whole farm with the purpose of predicting those pasture nutrients and expressed through pixel based spatial maps. These spatially registered nutrient maps demonstrate the range and geographical location of often large differences in pasture nutrient values which are normally not measured and therefore not included in decision making when considering more effective ways to utilized pasture.

  4. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods.

  5. Combining multi-spectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring grazed tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, R. N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, L. A.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; McGavin, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground-cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management of forage for livestock. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since such sensors can return data in near real-time, and have the potential to be deployed on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. However, there are unresolved challenges in developing calibrations to convert raw sensor data to quantitative biophysical values, such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground-cover, to allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. We assessed the use of multiple proximal sensors for monitoring tropical pastures with a pilot deployment of sensors at two sites on Lansdown Research Station near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multi-spectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor were processed to calculate a number of multispectral vegetation indices. Visual observations of pasture characteristics, including above-ground standing biomass and ground cover, were made every 2 weeks. A methodology was developed to manage the sensor deployment and the quality control of the data collected. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multi-spectral sensors, which had up to 63 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control. We found a strong relationship between sensor and pasture measurements during the wet season period of maximum pasture growth (January to April), especially when data from the multi-spectral sensors were combined with weather data. RatioNS34 (a simple band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and lower shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands) and rainfall since 1

  6. Ecosystem services from converted land: the importance of tree cover in Amazonian pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten; Valentim, Judson; Turner, B. L.

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation is responsible for a substantial fraction of global carbon emissions and changes in surface energy budgets that affect climate. Deforestation losses include wildlife and human habitat, and myriad forest products on which rural and urban societies depend for food, fiber, fuel, fresh water, medicine, and recreation. Ecosystem services gained in the transition from forests to pasture and croplands, however, are often ignored in assessments of the impact of land cover change. The role of converted lands in tropical areas in terms of carbon uptake and storage is largely unknown. Pastures represent the fastest-growing form of converted land use in the tropics, even in some areas of rapid urban expansion. Tree biomass stored in these areas spans a broad range, depending on tree cover. Trees in pasture increase carbon storage, provide shade for cattle, and increase productivity of forage material. As a result, increasing fractional tree cover can provide benefits land managers as well as important ecosystem services such as reducing conversion pressure on forests adjacent to pastures. This study presents an estimation of fractional tree cover in pasture in a dynamic region on the verge of large-scale land use change. An appropriate sampling interval is established for similar studies, one that balances the need for independent samples of sufficient number to characterize a pasture in terms of fractional tree cover. This information represents a useful policy tool for government organizations and NGOs interested in encouraging ecosystem services on converted lands. Using high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery, fractional tree cover in pasture is quantified for the municipality of Rio Branco, Brazil. A semivariogram and devolving spatial resolution are employed to determine the coarsest sampling interval that may be used, minimizing effects of spatial autocorrelation. The coarsest sampling interval that minimizes spatial dependence was about 22 m. The

  7. Permanent, biodiverse pastures in Montado ecosystems - biogeochemical and physiological implications for cork oak trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, C.; Dawson, T. E.; Santos Pereira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sown biodiverse permanent pastures rich in legumes (SBPPRL) have been implemented in Portugal as a management tool to increase soil fertility, grassland productivity and animal carrying capacity and were later selected as a voluntary land-use change activity towards increased carbon sequestration within the context of the Kyoto protocol. SBPPRL are commonly found in the understory of Mediterranean-type agro-silvo-pastoral systems - Montados - with cork oak as a dominant tree species. However, little is known about the effects of these introduced pastures on co-occurring cork oak physiology and productivity. Understanding the impact of grassland conversion on carbon, water, and nutrient cycling - namely at the tree level - could be of great importance for future management and policy decisions. Cork oak trees growing in an LTER, flux-tower site in Southern Portugal have been selected among two types of understory land-use: natural grassland and sown biodiverse permanent pasture. A suite of leaf-based physiological and morphological parameters were measured in cork oak trees across both land-use scenarios and different seasons. Here we focus on the results from foliar 15δN and 13δC between spring and summer. 13δC ranged from-30.21 to -27.36, with an average value of -28.74 (± 0.12) and no significant differences found between pasture types (natural vs. improved) or time (spring vs. summer). Foliar 15δN on the other hand showed statistically significant differences between cork oaks in different pasture types (-2.96±0.09 natural vs. -2.21±0.17 improved pastures, t-test, p ≤ 0.05), but no differences across time points. Cork oak trees in the permanent pasture have a 15δN signature closer to zero, consistent with a higher percentage of legumes (and N2 fixation) in that system. Using a mixed-model approach we estimated these trees to be using ca. 25% of their nitrogen from legume-fixation in the pasture. Despite the clear signature influence of legume-fixed N

  8. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

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    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  9. Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands

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    W. Babel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has a significant role with regard to atmospheric circulation and the monsoon in particular. Changes between a closed plant cover and open bare soil are one of the striking effects of land use degradation observed with unsustainable range management or climate change, but experiments coupling changes of surface properties and processes with atmospheric feedbacks are rare and have not been undertaken in the world's two largest alpine ecosystems, the alpine steppe and the Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan plateau. We coupled measurements of micro-lysimeter, chamber, 13C labeling, and eddy-covariance and combined the observations with land surface and atmospheric models, adapted to the highland conditions. This allowed us to analyze how three degradation stages affect the water and carbon cycle of pastures on the landscape scale within the core region of the Kobresia pygmaea ecosystem. The study revealed that increasing degradation of the Kobresia turf affects carbon allocation and strongly reduces the carbon uptake, compromising the function of Kobresia pastures as a carbon sink. Pasture degradation leads to a shift from transpiration to evaporation while the total sum of evapotranspiration remains unaffected. The results show an earlier onset of convection and cloud generation, likely triggered by enhanced evaporation. Consequently, precipitation starts earlier and clouds decrease the incoming solar radiation. In summary, the changes in surface properties by pasture degradation found on the highland have a~significant influence on larger scales.

  10. Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Babel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has a significant role with regard to atmospheric circulation and the monsoon in particular. Changes between a closed plant cover and open bare soil are one of the striking effects of land use degradation observed with unsustainable range management or climate change, but experiments investigating changes of surface properties and processes together with atmospheric feedbacks are rare and have not been undertaken in the world's two largest alpine ecosystems, the alpine steppe and the Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan Plateau. We connected measurements of micro-lysimeter, chamber, 13C labelling, and eddy covariance and combined the observations with land surface and atmospheric models, adapted to the highland conditions. This allowed us to analyse how three degradation stages affect the water and carbon cycle of pastures on the landscape scale within the core region of the Kobresia pygmaea ecosystem. The study revealed that increasing degradation of the Kobresia turf affects carbon allocation and strongly reduces the carbon uptake, compromising the function of Kobresia pastures as a carbon sink. Pasture degradation leads to a shift from transpiration to evaporation while a change in the sum of evapotranspiration over a longer period cannot be confirmed. The results show an earlier onset of convection and cloud generation, likely triggered by a shift in evapotranspiration timing when dominated by evaporation. Consequently, precipitation starts earlier and clouds decrease the incoming solar radiation. In summary, the changes in surface properties by pasture degradation found on the highland have a significant influence on larger scales.

  11. Effect of owersowing on yields and botanical composition of pasture sward

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    Martin Müller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several metods of permanent pasture renovation. Different technologies were investigated on a pasture sward. Three seeders (Einböck seeder with the tine harrow, no-till Sulky disc seeder and SPP 8 strip seeder and two fertilization regimes (with no fertilization and with mineral fertilization N90P30K60 kg.ha−1 were used to determine optimum methods of establishment and the use of oversowed pasture swards. In the first year, renovated plots had a higher DM production than control plots. The pasture oversowing had no effect on herbage production in the second production year. The fertilization had no effect in the first production year with a higher clover content in the sward. The share of clovers was higher in plots oversown with the Einböck and Sulky seeders but only in the second and third cuts of the first production year and in the third cut of the second production year. The highest content of clovers was observed in the second and third cuts. There was a positive correlation between the clover content in DM yield and herbage DM production. The oversowing did not show any effect on the grass content in the pasture sward.

  12. Fertility and acidity status of latossolos (oxisols) under pasture in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Pedro R S; Brito, Osmar R; Guimarães, Maria F; Martins, Eder S; Becquer, Thierry

    2010-12-01

    The Cerrado region, with over 50 million hectares of cultivated pasture, provides 55% of Brazilian beef production. Previous investigations have shown that about 70-80% of this pasture is affected by some kind of degradation, leading to low productivity. However, until now, few surveys have been carried out on a regional scale. The aim of the present work is both to assess the fertility and acidity levels of Cerrado soils under pasture and compare the variability of the soils characteristics on a regional scale. Two soil depths were sampled in different places within the studied area: (1) a surface horizon (0.0-0.2 m) in order to evaluate its fertility and acidity status for pasture, and (2) a subsurface horizon (0.6-0.8 m), used for classification. Most of soils had levels of nutrients below the reference values for adequate pasture development. Whatever the texture, about 90% of soils had low or very low availability of phosphorus. Only 7 to 14% of soils had low pH, high exchangeable aluminum, and aluminum saturation above the critical acidity level. Except for nitrogen, no significant difference was found between Latossolos Vermelhos and Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos.

  13. Quantification of dead vegetation fraction in mixed pastures using AisaFENIX imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, I. J.

    2017-06-01

    New Zealand farming relies heavily on grazed pasture for feeding livestock; therefore it is important to provide high quality palatable grass in order to maintain profitable and sustainable grassland management. The presence of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) such as dead vegetation in pastures severely limits the quality and productivity of pastures. Quantifying the fraction of dead vegetation in mixed pastures is a great challenge even with remote sensing approaches. In this study, a high spatial resolution with pixel resolution of 1 m and spectral resolution of 3.5-5.6 nm imaging spectroscopy data from AisaFENIX (380-2500 nm) was used to assess the fraction of dead vegetation component in mixed pastures on a hill country farm in New Zealand. We used different methods to retrieve dead vegetation fraction from the spectra; narrow band vegetation indices, full spectrum based partial least squares (PLS) regression and feature selection based PLS regression. Among all approaches, feature selection based PLS model exhibited better performance in terms of prediction accuracy (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 6.05, RPDCV = 2.25). The results were consistent with validation data, and also performed well on the external test data (R2 = 0.62, RMSE = 8.06, RPD = 2.06). In addition, statistical tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of topographical variables such as slope and aspect on the accumulation of the dead vegetation fraction. Steep slopes (>25°) had a significantly (p tool for mapping the dead vegetation fraction accurately.

  14. Decentralizing Governance of Agropastoral Systems in Kyrgyzstan: An Assessment of Recent Pasture Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyldyz Shigaeva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agropastoral systems in Kyrgyzstan have undergone dramatic change in recent decades. In large part, change has resulted from the introduction of legislation that devolves authority and responsibility for the management of common-pool agropastoral resources to community-level pasture users associations. By applying Ostrom’s principles of common resource governance, this paper analyzes the institutions and norms that currently shape local management practices in rural areas of Naryn Province in Kyrgyzstan and the views of different actors on pasture governance, including points of disagreement. Our research and analysis reveal that the community-initiated and -owned systems of pasture governance that were expected to develop and mature under the new Pasture Law have not yet been entirely realized. Decentralization occurred without the participation or awareness of most local resource users. As a consequence, users are creating and reinforcing their own community-defined practices and internal rules, leaving official management plans largely ignored and unenforced. Resource users tend to perceive the government-sanctioned pasture users associations not as public or democratic organizations that represent their interests, but rather as agencies that aim primarily to control the use of resources, exclude some people from decision-making, or impose taxation. Sustainable management of pasturelands therefore may best be served when community perspectives are more suitably integrated—from the planning phase through to collaborative governance and implementation of locally agreed upon management options.

  15. PRODUCCIÓN DE FORRAJE EN LOS PASTOS Brachiaria decumbens cv. AMARGO Y Brachiaria brizantha cv. TOLEDO, SOMETIDOS A TRES FRECUENCIAS Y A DOS INTENSIDADES DE DEFOLIACIÓN EN CONDICIONES DEL PIEDEMONTE LLANERO COLOMBIANO FORAGE PRODUCTION IN THE GRASSES Brachiaria decumbens cv. AMARGO AND Brachiaria brizantha cv. TOLEDO SUBJECTED TO THREE FREQUENCIES AND TWO OF DEFOLIATION INTENSITIES UNDER CONDITIONS OF COLOMBIAN PLAIN PIEDMONT

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    Alvaro Rincon Castillo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El experimento se desarrolló en un oxisol del Piedemonte Llanero colombiano. Durante el primer año de establecimiento y con un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar en arreglo de parcelas subdivididas, se evaluaron los pastos B. decumbens cv. Amargo y B. brizantha cv. Toledo, bajo tres frecuencias de defoliación (14, 28 y 42 días y dos intensidades de defoliación (alta y baja. El área foliar y la biomasa disponible total no presentaron diferencias significativas en los dos pastos, obteniéndose a un promedio de 2,5 y 2.036 kg MS×ha-1 respectivamente. La biomasa residual total fue superior en el pasto Toledo porque con 3.284 kg MS×ha-1, superó ampliamente al pasto Amargo cuya acumulación de biomasa residual fue de 1.944 kg MS×ha-1. La intensidad de defoliación baja, favoreció la producción de forraje disponible y residual de los pastos evaluados. Se presentó una disponibilidad de 2.056 kg MS×ha-1 en la intensidad baja y 1.760 kg MS× ha-1 en la intensidad alta. El forraje residual compuesto en su mayoría por tallos fue de 2.860 kg MS × ha-1 en la intensidad baja y de 2.216 kg MS×ha-1 en la intensidad alta. Cuando la defoliación se realizó a los 14 días, los pastos presentaron buen contenido de proteína (12,9% pero la disponibilidad de biomasa fue baja ( 714 kg MS×ha-1, en tanto, a los 42 días se alcanzó a 2.760 kg MS×ha-1 con una proteína de 9,8%. Los nutrientes de reserva en los dos pastos en su mayoría estuvieron conformados por azucares solubles, los cuales se acumularon en más cantidad en los tallos y el contenido más elevado se encontró a los 28 días de rebrote.In an oxisol of colombian plain piedmont was made the experiment. During the first year of establishment and with an experimental design of complete blocks at random in split-plot arrangement, the grasses B. decumbens cv. Amargo and B. brizantha cv. Toledo were evaluated under three defoliation frequencies (14, 28 and 42 days and two

  16. Uso de n-alcanos na estimativa da composição botânica da dieta em ovinos alimentados com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf e Arachis pintoi Koprov e Gregory Use of n-alkanes to estimate the dietary botanical composition in sheep fed different proportions of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf and Arachis pintoi Koprov and Gregory

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    Nelson Massaru Fukumoto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento objetivou-se avaliar o poder discriminatório dos n-alcanos para estimar com acurácia e precisão a composição botânica da dieta em ovinos alimentados com diferentes proporções de Arachis pintoi Koprov & Gregory cv. Amarillo (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60% e Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Foram utilizados 20 ovinos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com período experimental de dez dias de adaptação à dieta e cinco dias de coleta de fezes. Nas amostras (compostas de fezes do período e nos fenos, foi analisada a concentração de n-alcanos. Para o cálculo da composição botânica, utilizou-se minimização da soma dos quadrados dos desvios, considerando as concentrações dos alcanos nos componentes da dieta e nas fezes. Para a escolha dos alcanos mais discriminatórios, foram utilizadas as análises multivariadas e as variáveis canônicas. As estimativas calculadas foram submetidas à análise de variância. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste t e as correções dos valores estimados em relação aos valores reais foram ajustadas em regressão linear. As variáveis canônicas indicaram que os alcanos C35, C33, C30, C31, C27, C29 e C36 são os de maior potencial discriminatório. O uso desses alcanos nos cálculos foi mais acurado e preciso para estimar a proporção de A. pintoi na dieta que o uso de apenas dois ou três alcanos com poder discriminatório. O melhor ajuste da regressão também foi encontrado para esses alcanos. O teste t para o intercepto da equação (a e o coeficiente de regressão (b indicaram que a = 0 e b = 1, comprovando que os valores estimados são equivalentes aos valores reais. As análises multivariadas mostraram-se ferramentas de grande importância na escolha dos n-alcanos nos cálculos nas estimativas.The objective of this experiment was to use n-alkane to estimate accurately and precisely the botanical composition of dietary forage in sheep fed different proportions of Arachis pintoi

  17. Levels of mineral mixture and urea in supplementation of crossbred heifers, with Gyr predominance, reared at pasture during the dry season Níveis de mistura mineral e ureia na suplementação de dietas para novilhas mestiças, com predominância de Gir, recriadas a pasto durante o período da seca

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    Bruno Pietsch Cunha Mendonça

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated several levels of mineral mixture and urea for crossbred heifers, with Gyr predominance, in the dry season period in Zona da Mata region in Minas Gerais. The experiment was carried out in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture area, divided in five paddocks of 3.5 hectares. It was used 35 heifers distributed in a 2 õ 2 + 1 factorial scheme, composed of two levels of urea (10 and 25%, two levels of mineral salt (10 and 25% and a control diet (only mineral salt, totaling five diets, each one evaluated with seven replicates. The supplements were based on ground corn, urea, ammonia sulfate and mineral mixture with 32 to 72% crude protein, and they composed the following diets: MM ( mineral mix, 10:10 (10% mineral mix, 10% urea and 80% corn; 10:25 (10% mineral mix, 25% urea and 65% corn; 25:10 (25% mineral mix, 10% urea and 65% corn, and 25:25 (25% mineral mix, 25% urea and 50% corn. Urea and mineral salt are effective in controlling supplement intake by bovines growing on pastures during dry season because the higher their levels, the lower the intake of supplements. Diets with 25% urea and 10% mineral salt provided higher daily weight gain and higher weight gain:supplemment intake ratio.Avaliaram-se diversos níveis de mistura mineral e ureia para novilhas mestiças, com predominância de Gir, no período da seca na região da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. O experimento foi realizado em uma área de pastagem formada de Brachiaria decumbens, dividida em cinco piquetes de 3,5 ha. Utilizaram-se 35 novilhas distribuídas em um esquema fatorial tipo 2 õ 2 + 1, composto de dois níveis de ureia (10 e 25%, dois níveis de sal mineral (10 e 25% e uma dieta controle (somente sal mineral, totalizando cinco dietas, cada uma avaliada com sete repetições. Os suplementos foram à base de milho moído, ureia, sulfato de amônia e mistura mineral, com 32 a 72% de proteína bruta, e compuseram as seguintes dietas: MM (mistura mineral; 10:10 (10% de

  18. Milk production and economic measures in confinement or pasture systems using seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Benson, G A; Washburn, S P; Green, J T

    2002-01-01

    This 4-yr study examined total lactation performance of dairy cows in two feeding systems: pasture-based and confinement. Spring and fall calving herds were used and each seasonal herd had 36 cows on pasture and 36 cows in confinement with 282 Holstein and 222 Jersey cows included over seven seasonal replicates. Pasture-fed cows received variable amounts of grain and baled haylage depending upon pasture availability. Confinement cows received a total mixed ration with corn silage as the primary forage. Data were collected on milk production, feed costs, and other costs. Pasture-fed cows produced 11.1% less milk than confinement cows. Across treatments, Jerseys produced 23.3% less milk than Holsteins, but calving season and various interactions were not significant. Feed costs averaged $0.95/cow per day lower for pastured cows than confinement cows. Feed costs were lower for Jerseys than Holsteins and for cows calving in spring. Income over feed costs averaged $7.05 +/- 0.34 for confinement Holsteins, $6.89 +/- 0.34 for pastured Holsteins, $5.68 +/- 0.34 for confinement Jerseys, and $5.36 +/- 0.34 for pastured Jerseys; effects of breed were significant but treatment, season, and interactions were not. Economic factors such as labor for animal care, manure handling, forage management, and cow culling rates favored pastured cows. Higher fertility and lower mastitis among Jerseys partially offsets lower income over feed cost compared with Holsteins. Milk production was lower in this study for pasture-based systems but lower feed costs, lower culling costs, and other economic factors indicate that pasture-based systems can be competitive with confinement systems.

  19. Environmental determinants of the old oaks in wood-pastures from a changing traditional social-ecological system of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, Cosmin Ioan; Samoilă, Ciprian; Öllerer, Kinga; Băncilă, Raluca I; Réti, Kinga-Olga; Craioveanu, Cristina; Poszet, Szilárd; Rákosy, László; Hartel, Tibor

    2016-05-01

    Large, old trees are keystone ecological structures, their decline having disproportional ecological consequences. There is virtually no information available regarding the status and occurrence of old trees in traditional cultural landscapes from Eastern Europe. In this study, we explore the environmental determinants of the old oaks found in wood-pastures from a changing traditional rural landscape from Central Romania. Both the old oaks and the wood-pastures harboring them have exceptional cultural, historical, and ecological values, yet are vulnerable to land-use change. We surveyed 41 wood-pastures from Southern Transylvania and counted the old oaks in them. We then related the number of old oaks from these wood-pastures to a set of local and landscape level variables related to wood-pastures. We found 490 old oaks in 25 wood-pastures. The number of old oaks was positively related to the size of the wood-pasture and the amount of pasture and forest around it (500 m buffer), and negatively related to the proximity of the village. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between the effects of sheepfolds in the wood-pasture and the size of the wood-pasture on the number of old trees, indicating a negative influence of sheepfolds on the number of old trees in smaller sized wood-pastures. There is an increasing risk for losing old trees in the traditional cultural landscapes due to the lack of formal recognition of these trees. Therefore, while presenting the positive example of local initiatives and citizen science, we argue for an urgent development and implementation of conservation policies along with education strategies targeting the old trees and rural communities from the changing traditional cultural landscapes of Eastern Europe.

  20. The potential, variety, and nutrient content of natural vegetation as feedstuffs grown under cashewnut plantation

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    E Sutedi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant production is limited by the quality, the sufficiency and the continuation of feed supply, especially during the dry season. The objective of the study was to find out the potency, type and quality of natural vegetation grown under cashewnut plantation. The study was carried out by exploration of existing natural vegetation resources in cashewnut plantation area. Results showed that native pasture growing under cashewnut plantation area comprised of dry-tolerant grasses and legumes, such as Setaria sp., Themeda sp., Calopogonium mucunoides, and Desmodium sp. The fresh yield and the dry matter production of natural vegetation grown under less than eight years old of cashewnut plantation was lower compared to those grown under cashewnut plantation of more than eight years old. This may be due to shading by the tree crop, which is known to reduce the photosynthetically active radiation reaching the ground of vegetation. It seems that, light is the critical factor affecting the growth of vegetation underneath tree canopies. Carrying capacity of native forages grown under cashewnut plantation was only 0.5 animal unit of ruminant/ha/year.

  1. Evaporation rates of pasture-mesquite vegetation in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, E. G.; Escobar, A. G.

    2004-12-01

    from 1.1 to 2.0 mm d-1, maximum E was 4.3 mm d-1 on sunny days and the average E was 3.1 mm d-1. Average daily E increased during the measuring period at a rate of 0.05 mm d-1 (r2=0.2, p<0.05). Data suggest that evaporation from a pasture-mesquite vegetation is an important component in the water balance considering the limited rainfall occurring.

  2. Effect of thatch on water-soluble phosphorus of pasture soil fertilized with broiler litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The presence of a thatch layer in established pastures could reduce the contact between broiler litter and soil, thus increasing the potential for surface runoff contamination with litter P. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the effect of a thatch layer on the dynamics of water-soluble P in undisturbed cores taken from a pasture. Cores with and without a thatch layer received a surface application of broiler litter (5 t@hm-2) and were incubated at 25 oC for 56 d. The result showed that on the soil surface the contents of water soluble-P (39 kg@hm-2) of the cores with the thatch layer was higher than that (20 kg@hm-2) of the cores without the thatch layer. Therefore on well-established pastures fertilized with broiler litter, the presence of a thatch layer might lead to high concentrations of water-soluble P on the soil surface.

  3. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    recorded, whilst the relative abundance and density of the species and the total fly-load varied considerably between pastures. In most cases the mean loads of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Hydrotaea irritans (Fall.) on heifers varied significantly in relation to site topography and shelter. These crude......The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were...... site variables explained 65-98% of the variation in densities of horn flies and sheep head flies observed between pastures. Highest densities of Hydrotaea irritans were primarily associated with permanent, low-lying, fairly sheltered grassland sites, whereas the density was low in temporary, dry, wind...

  4. Plant Diversity in Live Fences and Pastures, Two Examples from the Mexican Humid Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Guerra, Betsabé; Rosas, Noé Velázquez; López-Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the potential uses of live fences and pastures as reservoirs of plant diversity for two regions with different management histories, Los Tuxtlas (LT) and Uxpanapa (UX), Veracruz, México. We studied two habitats, live fences and pastures, analyzed their species richness, diversity, structure and plant composition and classified species according to plant regeneration modes (light-demanding and shade tolerant), seed dispersal syndrome and their local uses. We recorded 62 species of trees at LT and 48 at UX. Live fences were more diverse than pastures in both regions. The LT site showed to analyze the relationship a higher diversity of plants in regeneration stages than the one at UX. However, UX had higher diversity of adult plants in the pastures than LT. Composition and structure of live fences were different between regions, as well as within live fences and pastures, 53 % of species were light-demanding and 40 % were shade tolerant; 70 % of the species were dispersed by birds. Differences between sites are associated with the modifications in live fences structure, which changed according to managerial practices and the use of local species; this may influence plant regeneration modes as well as the visits of avian dispersal agents. In LT, all species found in live fences were useful to humans, whereas in UX, less than half were used by the local population. Our results underline the importance of live fences and isolated trees in pasture habitats as potential sites to host native and useful species from tropical rain forests in livestock landscapes.

  5. Floristic and phytosociology of weeds in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaílson Penha Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of weed floristic composition and phytosociology are key factors for improving weed management in pastures. Information on weed species that occur in pastures in Northeast Brazil, particularly in Maranhão State is very limited. It is, therefore, important, to search for information to help farmers to control weeds in livestock farming. This paper describes the weed flora diversity and community structure parameters, including density, frequency, abundance and importance value for each weed species found in five pastures of same age and management in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil. The weed survey was carried out using a wooden frame (80 cm x 30 cm placed randomly on the soil surface 30 times in each pasture (n = 150. Weeds were pulled out, separated by species and counted. The weed flora was represented by 996 individuals, from nine families, 15 genera and 19 species. Weed density within pastures was of 44.3 plants m-2. The weed flora was dominated by species of the Cyperaceae and Poaceae families. The most important weed species based on Importance Value were Eragrostis ciliaris (IV = 32.97, Cyperus rotundus (IV = 31,95, Cyperus luzulae (IV = 27,50, Cyperus sphacelatus (IV = 27,42, Pycreus lanceolatus (IV = 27,33 Cyperus haspan (IV = 25,72 and Eleusine indica (IV = 23,49. Weed diversity, based on Shannon Diversity Index was very high (H' = 4.37 nats ind-1. Our results could lead to improved weed management in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.

  6. Soil organic carbon in riparian forests, rice fields, and pastures in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia.

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    Hernán Jair Andrade-Castañeda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in the interface between riparian forests and a matrix of rice fields and pastures with organic management. The study took place in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia. Two plots in production (rice and pasture were selected and SOC was estimated in these areas and in the edge and the interior of adjacent riparian forests at a depth of 0 to 20 cm. Bulk density and SOC concentration were quantified between May and July, 2013. Potential change in SOC storage due to land use change among rice fields, pastures, and riparian forests was estimated. The interfaces rice field-riparian forest and pasture-riparian forest stored an average of 65.6 and 61.3 t C/ha, respectively, with no statistical differences (p>0.05. Statistical differences were not detected (p>0.05 between agricultural matrices (rice fields and pastures in any of the variables. The sampling position (matrix and the edge and interior of forests had a significant impact (p<0.05 just in bulk density: 1.7 vs 1.1 vs 1.0 g/cm3 in interior and edge of the riparian forests and the matrix, respectively. SOC was not statistically affected (p>0.05 by the position in the riparian forest-matrix interface. Conversion from riparian forests to rice fields or pastures with organic management is not emitting greenhouse gases, on the contrary, it is increasing SOC in 3.2 t C/ha. 

  7. Effect of spraying Arthrobotrys conoides conidia on pastures to control nematode infection in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Kimie Falbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of spraying pastures with conidia of the fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (GenBank ID: JN191309 for the biological control of gastrointestinal nematode infection-pressure in lambs was assessed. A 12,000-m2 area was divided into six 2,000-m2 fenced areas. Two groups were formed: the treatment group comprised three fenced areas, where conidia were sprayed on the pasture weekly at 7.5 x 104 conidia m-2; and the control group, also comprising three fenced areas, where conidia were not sprayed. The pastures included lopsided oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Five naturally infected lambs, were placed between July and September in each fenced area. The effectiveness of biological control was assessed between May and September 2009 by counting the number of third-stage larvae (L3 in each pasture. Additionally, the egg output of the sentinel animals was monitored by counting the number of gastrointestinal nematode eggs per gram of faeces (EPG and the average weight gain was measured. The negative impact on soil was assessed by counting the number of free-living nematodes and phytonematodes. The number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae in the treated pastures decreased. This was significant at two examination days (end August and end of September. At the end of the study, conidia treatment reduced gastrointestinal nematodes on pasture by 52.4% compared to the control group; this difference was statistically significant. Regarding the whole examination period the average reductions in EPG in treatment group was 49.1% compared to the control group. The most common genera of gastrointestinal nematodes were Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus. Animal weight gain and soil nematode counts did not differ significantly.

  8. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  9. Plant diversity in live fences and pastures, two examples from the Mexican humid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Guerra, Betsabé; Rosas, Noé Velázquez; López-Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the potential uses of live fences and pastures as reservoirs of plant diversity for two regions with different management histories, Los Tuxtlas (LT) and Uxpanapa (UX), Veracruz, México. We studied two habitats, live fences and pastures, analyzed their species richness, diversity, structure and plant composition and classified species according to plant regeneration modes (light-demanding and shade tolerant), seed dispersal syndrome and their local uses. We recorded 62 species of trees at LT and 48 at UX. Live fences were more diverse than pastures in both regions. The LT site showed to analyze the relationship a higher diversity of plants in regeneration stages than the one at UX. However, UX had higher diversity of adult plants in the pastures than LT. Composition and structure of live fences were different between regions, as well as within live fences and pastures, 53 % of species were light-demanding and 40 % were shade tolerant; 70 % of the species were dispersed by birds. Differences between sites are associated with the modifications in live fences structure, which changed according to managerial practices and the use of local species; this may influence plant regeneration modes as well as the visits of avian dispersal agents. In LT, all species found in live fences were useful to humans, whereas in UX, less than half were used by the local population. Our results underline the importance of live fences and isolated trees in pasture habitats as potential sites to host native and useful species from tropical rain forests in livestock landscapes.

  10. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Stacey A; Whitworth, Whitney A; Montgomery, T Gregory; Beck, Paul A

    2012-07-24

    In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow) that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.)/bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture): 1) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG), 2) wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR), or 3) wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L.) and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW). All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients). The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27) among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17) among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06) to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02) for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  11. Exigências de energia de bovinos de corte em pastejo Energy requirements of beef cattle at pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as exigências e as eficiências de utilização de energia para ganho de peso e mantença de bovinos de corte em pastejo. A área experimental foi composta de cinco piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizaram-se 27 bovinos anelorados não-castrados, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 311,0 kg e idade média de 14 meses. Três animais foram abatidos após o período de adaptação para servirem como referência para as estimativas do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e da composição corporal iniciais dos animais mantidos no experimento. Dos 24 restantes, quatro foram designados ao grupo mantença com tempo de pastejo restrito para limitar o consumo de energia a nível próximo da mantença. Os animais restantes (20 foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: mistura mineral, autocontrole, suplemento três vezes/semana (segunda, quarta e sexta; e suplemento diariamente. A exigência líquida de energia para mantença foi estimada como o anti-log do intercepto da equação obtida pela regressão linear entre o logaritmo da produção de calor (PC e o consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM, assim como pelo coeficiente "a" da equação de regressão exponencial entre a produção de calor e o consumo de energia metabolizável dos animais sob suplementação, juntamente com o daqueles sem suplementação e os do grupo mantença. As quantidades de energia e gordura no ganho aumentaram com o peso vivo dos animais. As exigências de energia líquida para ganho de peso de bovinos anelorados não-castrados em pastejo podem ser obtidas pela equação: ER = 0,0617*PCVZ0,75*GDPCVZ1,0564. O requisito energético diário para mantença foi de 64,00 kcal/PV0,75. A eficiência de uso da EM para mantença estimada foi de 0,64 e a eficiência de uso da EM para ganho de 0,26.A trial involving 27 zebu bulls at pasture with initial live weight (LW of 311.0 kg were conducted with the objective of determining their energy requirements. Three animals

  12. Factors associated with the financial performance of spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Horan, B; Berry, D P; Roche, J R

    2015-05-01

    As land becomes a limiting resource for pasture-based dairy farming, the inclusion of purchased supplementary feeds to increase milk production per cow (through greater dry matter intake) and per hectare (through increased stocking rate) is often proposed as a strategy to increase profitability. Although a plausible proposition, virtually no analysis has been done on the effect of such intensification on the profitability of commercial pasture-based dairy farm businesses. The objective of this study was to characterize the average physical and financial performance of dairy systems differing in the proportion of the cow's diet coming from grazed pasture versus purchased supplementary feeds over 4 yr, while accounting for any interaction with geographic region. Physical, genetic, and financial performance data from 1,561 seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy farms in Ireland were available between the years 2008 and 2011; data from some herds were available for more than 1 yr of the 4-yr study period, providing data from 2,759 dairy farm-years. The data set was divided into geographic regions, based on latitude, rainfall, and soil characteristics that relate to drainage; these factors influence the length of the pasture growth season and the timing of turnout to pasture in spring and rehousing in autumn. Farms were also categorized by the quantity of feed purchased; farms in which cows received 30% of their annual feed requirements from purchased feed were considered to be categories representative of increasing levels of system intensification. Geographic region was associated with differences in grazing days, pasture harvested per hectare, milk production per cow and per hectare, and farm profitability. Farms in regions with longer grazing seasons harvested a greater amount of pasture [an additional 19kg of dry matter (DM)/ha per grazing day per hectare], and greater pasture harvested was associated with increased milk component yield per hectare (58.4kg of fat

  13. Effect of pasture botanical composition on milk composition in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S.; Dahl, A.V.; Vae, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Milk samples from sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows grazing mixed swards of either grass-red clover (GR) or mixed swards of sown and unsown species of grass, clover and other herbs (GCH) were collected during four periods. Both pastures were organically managed. Pasture botanical composition had...... no effect on milk fat, protein or vitamin concentration and only minor effects on fatty acid composition. Milk from GR had higher concentrations of the phytoestrogens equol, genistein and biochanin A than the milk from GCH. Concentrations of equol in milk from GR were higher than concentrations reported...

  14. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were...... recorded, whilst the relative abundance and density of the species and the total fly-load varied considerably between pastures. In most cases the mean loads of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Hydrotaea irritans (Fall.) on heifers varied significantly in relation to site topography and shelter. These crude...

  15. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  16. The role of rodents in the seed fate of a thorny shrub in an ancient wood pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Smit, C.

    2011-01-01

    Thorny shrubs play a crucial role for the diversity and dynamics in wood pastures: they protect non-defended plants from large herbivores and thus facilitate tree establishment in the landscape through associational resistance. How thorny shrubs themselves establish in wood pastures - the main bottl

  17. Runoff phosphorus in a small rotationally-grazed pasture in Georgia with no history of broiler litter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastures are sources of phosphorus (P) into water sources and can contribute to eutrophication and impairment. Close to 4 million ha of land in the Southern Coastal Plain and the Southern Piedmont in eastern USA is used for pasture and hay production. We present an 11-yr (1999 to 2009) of dissolved ...

  18. The role of rodents in the seed fate of a thorny shrub in an ancient wood pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Smit, C.

    2011-01-01

    Thorny shrubs play a crucial role for the diversity and dynamics in wood pastures: they protect non-defended plants from large herbivores and thus facilitate tree establishment in the landscape through associational resistance. How thorny shrubs themselves establish in wood pastures - the main

  19. The effects of protein supplement on leptin concentrations in lambs and meat goat kids grazing Bermudagrass pastures in Central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambs and kids weaned and pastured on bermudagrass (BG; Cynodon dactylon) may not receive enough protein to reach maximal growth during mid to late summer when protein in BG pastures declines. As an indicator of physiological status, leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that increases as body cond...

  20. Feeding strategy and pasture quality relative to nutrient requirements of dairy cows in the northeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture samples (n = 380) collected during the grazing season on 14 dairy farms from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed for nutritional composition to determine the frequency of pasture samples that met minimum net energy for lactation (NEl), crude protein (CP), and macro-mineral requirements according to t...

  1. Feeding strategy and pasture quality relative to nutrient requirements of grazing dairy cows in the Northeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture samples (n = 229) collected during the grazing season from 14 organic dairy farms in 2012 (PA, ME, NY, NH, VT) and from 11 of the same farms in 2013 (PA, ME, NY, NH) were analyzed for nutritional composition. Frequency analysis was used to determine the proportions of pasture samples that me...

  2. Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Musco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability. The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM] and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM, respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins. Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries.

  3. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.

  4. Case study of a commercial sheep flock under extensive mountain grazing: Pasture derived lipid compounds in milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, I; Bustamante, M A; Aldezabal, A; Amores, G; Virto, M; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2016-04-15

    Terpenoid, fat-soluble antioxidant and fatty acid (FA) composition of pasture as well as those of milk and cheese from a commercial sheep flock managed under extensive mountain grazing in the east region of the Cantabrian mountain (Northern Spain) was investigated. The grazing period lasted for 2 months and ewes were at late lactation stage. Plants, feces, bulk milk and cheese samples were collected on two sampling dates. The abundance of the dominating botanical families in the mountain pasture prevailed in the sheep diet of the commercial flock. Major terpenoids and tocols in the pasture appeared as major ones in milk and cheese, whereas C18 unsaturated FAs in milk and cheese were derived from the intake of C18 polyunsaturated FAs which were prevalent in the pasture. No carotene was detected in the dairy samples but retinol (free or esterified), derived from the intake of β-carotene present in pasture plants, was found in milk and cheese.

  5. Photographic estimation of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in the Carpathian Mountains of central Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard; Cattaruzza, Renate; Cattaruzza, Marco; Fischer, Justin

    2016-03-01

    Observations of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in Romania's Carpathian Mountains were collected using photographs of the slopes from vantage points. We mapped the rooted areas and then used GIS software to estimate the relative proportions of the total grazing areas visible in the photographs that were damaged by wild boar. The amounts of damage from our two demonstration pastures were 11.2 and 13.5 %. Pastures are rented for summer grazing with grazing density monitored. Wild boar damage essentially decreases the economic benefit received for the cost of the grazing rights. This paper appears to be the first documentation of the very direct costs to livestock owners from significant wild boar rooting within rented pastures. The photographic method we present provides a quick and efficient means to quantify damage to alpine grazing pastures and may have broad application for mountainous areas where swine damage (or other disturbance) occurs and there is sufficient visibility of the damaged habitat.

  6. Productivity and production efficiency of cows of different genetic groups submitted to cultivated pastures during pre or postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We assessed through the weight of cows and calves up to weaning at 90 days and the reproductive performance from pregnancy to weaning, the productivity and efficiency of 94 Charolais (CH, Nellore (NE, ½CH ½NE e ½NE ½CH cows submitted the following feeding systems: cows kept on native pasture (NP; cows kept on cultivated pasture (CP, composed of oat (Avena sativa, ryegrass (Lollium multiflorum and clover (Trifolium vesiculosum from July 15 to September 15 and the remainder of the trial on natural pasture (CPN; and cows kept on cultivated pasture during September 15 to November 15, and the remainder on native pasture (NPC. Cows kept on CP produced 22.6% more calves than cows kept exclusively on NP, and were more efficient (P.05, being higher than the purebreds in productivity and production efficiency

  7. Adaptation strategies to pasture degradation:Gap between government and local nomads in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianzhong; WU Yingying; ZHANG Yili

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade,there has been increasing interest in climate change,pasture degradation and its driving forces,and innovations in nomadic pastoralism on the Tibetan Plateau.However,little is known of indigenous strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation,which limits the effectiveness of adaptation strategies planned by local government.This paper analyzes nomads' strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation on the basis of a field survey of three townships of Dalag County in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers.Pastures there have evidently degraded,with pastures in Wasai mainly in a state of slight or medium degradation and those in Manzhang and Jianshe in a state of medium or severe degradation.With the degradation of pasture,the grazing time is reduced,which affects the livelihoods of nomads.Although the Four-Package Project has commenced in this region,there is still severe fodder shortage in winter and spring.The traditional hay storage strategy does not work because of pasture degradation,and few nomads establish fenced and artificial pastures.Therefore,nomads have employed other strategies,such as renting pasture,providing supplementary feed,and diversifying their livelihoods.Local strategies taken by nomads can provide valuable insights into ecological restoration and livelihood improvement in the region and suggest changes to means promoted by local government.It is necessary to seek new means that combine the best aspects of nomadic pastoralism with modern stockbreeding technologies to help nomads adapt to pasture degeneration and improve their livelihoods.

  8. The status and importance of crude protein and macro minerals in native pastures growing on Vertisols of the central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizachew, Lemma; Smit, G N

    2012-01-01

    The effects of pasture management, season and soil nutrient status on crude protein (CP) and macro mineral concentration of native pasture was studied in the Vertisol areas of the central Ethiopian highland. Soil and herbage samples from 18 continuously grazed (CG) and 12 seasonally grazed (SG) pasture sites were analyzed for N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Soil and dry season CG pasture samples were collected in January and February 2001 (dry season: November-February), while wet season CG and SG pasture samples were collected during September 2001 (wet season: April-October). The Potassium concentration (2.55%) of mixed herbage samples from SG pasture exceeded the K values (1.80%) from CG pasture (P macro minerals concentrations were noted among forage species. The mean CP and K concentrations of herbage from CG pasture were higher (P macro minerals and the corresponding herbage macro mineral concentrations, significant (P macro mineral composition. The levels of CP in CG pasture and that of P and Na in both CG and SG pastures may fall below the requirements of grazing livestock. Resting at critical stages of the growth cycle of the forage species encouraged the recovery of desirable species. For this reason resting of pasture can contribute significantly to the quality of the native pastures of the Vertisols of the central Ethiopian highlands and should be encouraged.

  9. Breed and winter nutrition effects on diet digestibility and intake of cows grazing bahiagrass pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter feed comprises one of the largest costs for cattle production. This study was initiated to evaluate two winter nutrition programs for cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum nutatum) pastures in central Florida. Purebred Angus, Brahman, or Romosinuano cows (30/breed), aged 3 to 13 yrs, were assig...

  10. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  11. The effects of altitude and harvest time on the feed value of extensive mountain pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukolova, Veronika; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Homolka, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four samples of Czech pasture forages were harvested in the region of Sumava National Park and the Protected Landscape Area from three different altitudes (650, 700 and 850 m above sea level). The samples were analysed for chemical composition, in vitro digestibilities and rumen degradabil...

  12. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  13. Seasonal Hypomagnesemia in reindeer on Kautokeino winter pasture in Finnmark County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Hoff

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypomagnesemia was diagnosed in reindeer on Kautokeino winter pasture in Finnmark County, Norway. The affected animals were paretic or ataxic. Mean serum magnesium levels were 0.19 +/- 0.20 mm/L (n = 6, compared to a serum Mg level of 0.82 +/- 0.17 mm/L for the reference group.

  14. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Coomes, Oliver T [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Hyman, Glenn, E-mail: navin.ramankutty@mcgill.ca [International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali (Colombia)

    2010-04-15

    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  15. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, A.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as grain

  16. Distributional patterns of fall armyworm parasitoids in a corn field and pasture field in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of parasitoids and their selective patterns among Spodoptera frugiperda corn and rice host strains was performed from August 2008-August 2010 in a corn crop and a grass pasture in northern Florida under different seasonal conditions (spring and fall). Sentinel larvae from our laborator...

  17. Varying pasture growth and commodity prices change the value of traits in sheep breeding objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, P.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding programs for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system. Economic weights are commonly based on average conditions. In pasture based livestock production systems the cost of feed is an important profit driver, but avail

  18. Meat lipid profile of steers finished in pearl millet pasture with different rates of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the meat lipid profile from Devon beef steers finished in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum pasture and fed at different rates of concentrate supplementary diet. Twelve steers weighing 270 kg, at 12‑month‑average initial age, were randomly distributed into three treatments: pearl millet pasture; and pearl millet pasture plus a concentrate equivalent at 0.5 or 1.0% of body weight, with two replicates. Total contents of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, the polyunsaturated:saturated ratio and other relevant fatty acids as the vaccenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega‑3, and omega‑6 were not affected by the consumption of a concentrate supplement at 0.5 or 1.0% live weight. However, the 0.5% supplementation level reduced the concentration of dihomo‑γ‑linolenic fatty acid (C20: 3 n‑6, while the 1.0% supplementation level elevated the content of docosahexaenoic (DHA (C22: 6 n‑3 fatty acid, and the omega‑6:omega‑3 ratio in meat. Consumption of up to 1.0% energy supplementation increases the omega‑6:omega‑3 ratio in meat from Devon steers grazing on pearl millet pasture.

  19. Economic and environmental issues associated with confinement and pasture-based dairy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk is produced in a continuum of dairy systems from full confinement to full pasture grazing. Climate, available feeds, and milk price: feed cost ratio influence the preferred system. All dairy systems have an environmental impact and inputs to maximise profit may lead to pollution levels unacce...

  20. The relation between unpalatable species, nutrients and plant species richness in Swiss montane pastures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Muller-Scharer, H.

    2006-01-01

    In agriculturally marginal areas, the control of unpalatable weeds on species rich pastures may become problematic due to agricultural and socio-economic developments. It is unclear how increased dominance of unpalatable species would affect the botanical diversity of these grasslands. We investigat

  1. Using NDVI to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northea...

  2. Got Dung? Resource Selection by Dung Beetles in Neotropical Forest Fragments and Cattle Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, A; Escobar, F; MacGregor-Fors, I; Moreno, C E

    2016-10-01

    Both the impact of habitat modification on the food preferences of species and its impact on ecosystem functioning are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed food selection by dung beetles in 80 tropical forest fragments and their adjacent cattle pastures in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Ten pitfall traps were placed at each site, half baited with human dung and the other half with fish carrion. We assessed dung beetle food selection and classified any specialization in resource use quantitatively using a multinomial classification model. We collected 15,445 beetles belonging to 42 species, 8747 beetles (38 species) in forest fragments and 6698 beetles (29 species) in cattle pastures. Twenty-five species were present in both habitats. Of all the beetles captured, 76% were caught in dung traps (11,727 individuals) and 24% in carrion traps (3718 individuals). We found 21 species of dung specialists, 7 carrion specialists, 8 generalists, and 6 species too rare to classify. The bait most frequently selected by beetles in this study was dung in both forests and pastures. Specialists tended to remain specialists in both habitats, while generalists tended to change their selection of bait type depending on the habitat. In summary, our results show that replacing forests with cattle pastures modifies the patterns of resource selection by dung beetles and this could affect ecosystem functioning.

  3. Soil Microbial Community Changes in Wooded Mountain Pastures due to Simulated Effects of Cattle Grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, F.; Hamelin, J.; Gillet, F.; Gobat, J.M.; Buttler, A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of cattle activity on pastures can be subdivided into three categories of disturbances: herbage removal, dunging and trampling. The objective of this study was to assess separately or in combination the effect of these factors on the potential activities of soil microbial communities and

  4. Empirical Models to Quantify the Nutritive Value of Annual Pastures in South-West Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Gherardi, S.G.; Wood, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify the magnitude of the major sources of variation, which affect in vitro digestibility (DMD) and concentrations of neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and crude protein (CP) of annual pastures in Mediterranean-type climate zones. Four e

  5. Applying the ecosystem services framework to pasture-based livestock farming systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Ortega, T.; Oteros Rozas, E.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Tichit, M.; Martín-López, B.; Bernués, A.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ‘Ecosystem Services’ (ES) focuses on the linkages between ecosystems, including agroecosystems, and human well-being, referring to all the benefits, direct and indirect, that people obtain from ecosystems. In this paper, we review the application of the ES framework to pasture-based

  6. Soil organic matter dynamics after the conversion of arable land to pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, Paul F.A.M.; Plicht, Johannes van der; Hassink, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of arable land (maize) to pasture will affect the soil organic matter (SOM) content. Changes in the SOM content were studied using a size- and density-fractionation method and C-13 analysis. Twenty-six years of maize cropping had resulted in a depletion of carbon stored in the macro-organ

  7. Soil organic matter dynamics after the conversion of arable land to pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Plicht, van der J.; Hassink, J.

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of arable land (maize) to pasture will affect the soil organic matter (SOM) content. Changes in the SOM content were studied using a size- and density-fractionation method and 13C analysis. Twenty-six years of maize cropping had resulted in a depletion of carbon stored in the macro-organi

  8. Pasture-Based Swine Management: Behaviour and Performances of Growing-Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Fortina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A pasture-based swine management (PBSM trial was conducted in Piemonte (N-W Italy to study the performances and the carcass yield of 16 hybrid pigs (8 castrated males and 8 females; average initial weight: 90 kg. Animals were allowed to forage pea, clover, beet and alfalfa pastures for 170 days in a crop-pasture rotation on different paddocks. A concentrate was fed to supply 50% of estimated energy requirements. Forage dry matter intake (DMI ranged from 0.32 kg/day (alfalfa to 2.85 kg/day (pea, depending on the period and forage type. Pigs were weighted every 30 days and at slaughtering; average daily gain (ADG was 0.29 kg. The stocking rate (SR ranged from 109 kg/ha LW (clover to 2347 kg/ha LW (pea. Data collected at slaughtering (average final weight: 141 kg were: hot carcass weight and yield, lean and fat cuts weight, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24. The statistical analysis (ANOVA of SPSS did not show differences between males and females. Results showed that PBSM should be especially appealing to limited-resource farmers due to low inputs needed; pasture can be used to replace 50% of the nutritional needs, helping to save on grain costs, without affecting carcass characteristics.

  9. Phosphorus, iron, and aluminum losses in runoff from a rotationally-grazed pasture in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastures can be a source of phosphorus (P) contributing to eutrophication and impairment of water resources. Phosphorus is tightly held in soils that are highly weathered, acidic, and with high iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) content like the Ultisols of southeastern USA. We used 11-yr (1999-2009) of da...

  10. Carbon sequestration potential of grazed pasture depends on prior management history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazed pastures are often assumed to be net sinks for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and thus, are promoted as a management practice that can help mitigate climate change. The ability to serve as a C sink is especially pronounced following a history of tillage and row crop production. I...

  11. Yield and soil carbon sequestration in grazed pastures sown with two or five forage species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing plant species richness is often associated with an increase in productivity and associated ecosystem services such as soil C sequestration. In this paper we report on a nine-year experiment to evaluate the relative forage production and C sequestration potential of grazed pastures sown to...

  12. Projecting land use changes in the Neotropics: the geography of pasture expansion into forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, T.; Gerber, P.; Verburg, P.H.; Rosales, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Steinfeld, H.

    2007-01-01

    In tropical Latin America, pasture land for extensive grazing continues to expand, mostly at the expense of forest cover. Until now, scientists and policy makers tackling this issue had no geographically exhaustive information at the continental level about the spatial dynamics of this process. On t

  13. Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Bødker, Rene; Enøe, Claes;

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue is a disease of ruminants which reached Denmark in 2007. We present a process-based stochastic simulation model of vector-borne diseases, where host animals are not confined to a central geographic farm coordinate, but can be distributed onto pasture areas. Furthermore vectors fly freely...

  14. Highland Summer Pastures Play a Fundamental Role for Dairy Systems in an Italian Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Alps, summer farms are temporary units where the livestock herds are moved during summer to graze on highland pastures. This study aimed to analyze the role of summer farms in the dairy farming systems of the Trento province, in the eastern Italian Alps. Data on the structures and management of the 395 active summer farms were collected from the veterinarian services of the province: 345 summer farms keep dairy cattle (83 only replacement, and 262 also lactating cows. Almost all the replacement cattle and more than one third (8,775 vs 24,934 heads of the dairy cows reared in the permanent farms of the province are still moved to highland pastures during summer. Cows on milk of local and dual purpose breeds are moved to highland pastures more frequently than those of specialized breeds. On 610 permanent farms, we analyzed the differences between the units moving/not moving the lactating cows to summer farms. The traditional farms, with tie stalls, local breeds, small-medium herd size and low productivity used more frequently summer pastures than the “intensive” farms. Transhumance still plays a fundamental role for the dairy sector in this Alpine area, because it allows access to public contribution and is complementary to the management of traditional farms. To better assess its sustainability, these functions should be further investigated in relation with the role of summer farms in the conservation of biodiversity, cultural landscape, and touristic attractiveness.

  15. The impact of coffee and pasture agriculture on predatory and omnivorous leaf-litter ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nivia da Silva; Zanetti, Ronald; Santos, Mônica Silva; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Broglio, Sônia Maria Forti; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles

    2013-01-01

    Ants are known to function as reliable biological indicators for habitat impact assessment. They play a wide range of ecological roles depending on their feeding and nesting habits. By clustering ants in guilds, it is possible both to assess how agriculture and forest fragmentation can disturb ant communities and to predict the ecological impacts due to losses of a specific guild. This study aimed at determining the impact of non-shaded coffee and pasture agriculture on predatory and omnivorous guilds of leaf-litter ants of Atlantic Forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Both coffee and pasture agriculture influenced leaf-litter ant community, although coffee was more disruptive than pasture. Coffee agriculture not only disturbed the diversity of predatory ants, but also negatively affected the number of predatory and omnivorous ants when compared to forest fragments. In contrast, pasture agriculture only disrupted the abundance of predatory ants. Fragment edges skirting crops were negatively affected in terms of leaf-litter ant abundance, but not diversity. Cluster analysis showed that forest fragments were similar irrespective of the cultivation, but the borders were similar to the crop. The study assessed agriculture impact by surveying ant guilds, and revealed that the predatory guild is more susceptible than omnivorous ants.

  16. Effect of drainage on CO2 exchange patterns in an intensively managed peat pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, B.O.M.; Hensen, A.; Goudriaan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Eddy correlation measurements of CO2 exchange were made in intensively managed peat pastures at 2 different groundwater tables during most of a growing season. F was separated into a respiratory and an assimilatory CO2 flux. The fit of the Arrhenius temperature response to Fr showed that Fr was

  17. Spatial distribution of livestock concentration areas and soil nutrients in pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanderson, M.A.; Schmidt, J.; Feldmand, C.; Herrmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock concentration areas can be significant point sources of nutrient pollution. Our objective was to determine the spatial distribution of livestock concentration areas in pastures at the farm scale, along with the distribution of soil nutrients at the individual livestock concentration area

  18. APPROACH TO THE REGIONALIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL PASTURALIZATION AROUND CHANGSHAN ISLANDS IN NORTHERN YELLOW SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the data of resources, environment and foundation of production, applying principal components-clustering quantitative analysis, this article divides the maritime space of Changshan Islands into three regions ofagricultural-pasturalization, providing a scientific basis for the rational distribution of marine cultivation. The three regions are as follows: 1 )The region of an agricultural-pasturalization in the northern part of maritime space. It includes DaWangjia and Shicheng islands. The main production is cultivation of prawn and molluscs in sea beach, float raft cultureof mussel in shallow sea and scallop, and breeding of sea cucumber in submarine. 2) The region of agricultural-pasturalization in the middle western part of maritime space. It includes Da Changshan and Guanglu islands, and westem part of Xiao Chengshan Island. The main production is float raft culture of mussel and scallop in shallow sea, and breeding of sea cucumber in submarine. 3)The region of agricultural-pasturalization of the southeastern part of maritime space.It includes the eastern part of Xiao ChangShan Island, Haiyang and Zhangzi islands. The main production is breeding ofabalone, sea cucumber, algaes and fish.

  19. Simulating modern-day cropland and pasture burning in an Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Sam; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena; Magi, Brian; Pacala, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the Holocene, humans have extended our influence across a larger and larger fraction of ecosystems, even creating some new ones in the process. Herds of livestock grazing either native vegetation (rangeland) or specially planted species (pasture) have modified huge areas of land. We have even developed new plant species and cultivated them as crops. The extent of our ecosystem modification intensified dramatically with the advent of industrialized agriculture, to the point where cropland and pasture (which will henceforth encompass rangeland as well) now cover over a third of the Earth's land area. One way we have altered the terrestrial biosphere is by intentionally and unintentionally altering fire's frequency, intensity, and seasonal timing. This is especially true for agricultural ecosystems. Because their maintenance and use require a level of human control, cropland and pasture often experience fire regimes substantially different from those of the ecosystems they replaced or what would occur in the absence of active fire management. For example, farmers might burn to prepare land for planting or to dispose of crop residues, and pastoralists often use fire to prevent encroachment of unpalatable woody plants. Due to the vast global extent of agriculture, and considering the myriad ways fire affects the Earth system, it is critical that we understand (a) the ways people manage fire on cropland and pasture and (b) the effects of this management on the Earth system. Earth system models are an ideal tool for examining this kind of question. By simulating the processes within and interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, land, and terrestrial ecosystems, Earth system models allow phenomena such as fire to be examined in their global context. However, while the past fifteen years have seen great progress in the simulation of vegetation fire within Earth system models, the direct human influence via cropland and pasture management burning has been mostly

  20. Pasture management controls soil organic matter stocks, properties, and biochemical functioning in Tibetan grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielvogel, Sandra; Breidenbach, Andreas; de la Haye, Tilman; Schleuß, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Guggenberger, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau hosts the highest and largest pasture ecosystem worldwide, and provides tremendous sinks for carbon. Due to the sheer size of the of the Tibetan Plateau, feedback effects of soil organic carbon (OC) losses from inadequate grassland management are of undisputed relevance for ecosystem stability and future global change scenarios. Given the vital importance of the Tibetan steppes as global OC sinks, we combined data on OC stocks from own studies with an extensive literature review on soils developed under montane and alpine Kobresia pygmaea and Stipa grandis pastures. We calculated soil OC stocks at the Tibetan Plateau within the first 30 cm of the soil profile depending on pasture management and climate. Vertical gradients of δ13C values, neutral sugar, cutin and suberin contents, lignin phenol contents as well as microbial community composition (t-RFLP analysis, 16S rDNA und IST sequencing) and activities of six extracellular enzymes involved in the C, N, and P cycle were assessed. The depth gradients of these parameters reflected degradation processes from intact Kobresia pastures (stage 0) to pronounced degradation (bare soil; stage 5). Moderate husbandry is beneficial for the storage of OC, nitrogen (N) and other nutrients (e.g. phosphorus) for the majority of the montane grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau (i.e., Kobresia pygmaea pastures). However, Kobresia root mats originated from grazing are affected by desiccations and frost, which cause polygonal cracking and initiates soil erosion. This process is accelerated under high grazing pressure (overgrazing) that enhances root mat degradation. Increasing degradation caused by large herbivore densities resulted in an increased OC decomposition demonstrated by decreasing δ13C values. The δ13C shift towards more negative values reflects the relative enrichment of 13C depleted lignin components during OC decomposition in the strongly disturbed soil. Translocation of topsoil material into the

  1. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  2. EVALUATION OF FILTERS FOR ENVISAT ASAR SPECKLE SUPPRESSION IN PASTURE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify real time pasture biomass from SAR image, regression model between ground measurements of biomass and ENVISAT ASAR backscattering coefficient should be built up. An important prerequisite of valid and accurate regression model is accurate grass backscattering coefficient which, however, cannot be obtained when there is speckle. Speckle noise is the best known problem of SAR images because of the coherent nature of radar illumination imaging system. This study aims to choose better adaptive filter from NEST software to reduce speckle noise in homogeneous pasture area, with little regard to linear feature (e.g. edge between pasture and forest or point feature (e.g. pond, tree preservation. This paper presents the speckle suppression result of ENVISAT ASAR VV/VH images in pasture of Western Australia (WA using four built-in adaptive filters of the NEST software: Frost, Gamma Map, Lee, and Refined Lee filter. Two indices are usually used for evaluation of speckle suppression ability: ENL (Equivalent Number of Looks and SSI (Speckle Suppression Index. These two, however, are not reliable because sometimes they overestimate mean value. Therefore, apart from ENL and SSI, the authors also used a new index SMPI (Speckle Suppression and Mean Preservation Index. It was found that, Lee filter with window size 7×7 and Frost filter (damping factor = 2 with window size 5×5 gave the best performance for VV and VH polarization, respectively. The filtering, together with radiometric calibration and terrain correction, paves the way to extraction of accurate backscattering coefficient of grass in homogeneous pasture area in WA.

  3. The GEOGLAM Rangelands and Pasture Productivity Activity: Recent Progress and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Held, A. A.; Donohue, R. J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sims, N.; Kerblat, F.; Grundy, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rangelands and pastures cover about a third of the world's land area and support livestock production which represents ~40% of global agricultural gross domestic product. The global consumption of animal protein shows a clear increasing trend, driven by both total population and per capita income increases, putting a growing pressure on the sustainability of grazing lands worldwide. Despite their relevance, rangelands have received less attention than croplands regarding global monitoring of the resource productivity and condition. The Rangelands and Pasture Productivity (RaPP) activity is a component within the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative established under the Group on Earth Observations (GEOGLAM) in 2013. GEOGLAM RaPP is aimed at providing the global community with the means to monitor the world's rangelands and pastures on a routine basis, and the capacity to produce animal protein in real-time, at global, regional and national levels. Since its launch two years ago GEOGLAM RAPP has made progress in the four implementation elements. These include: 1- the establishment of community of practice; 2- the development of a global monitoring system for rangeland condition; 3- the establishment of pilot sites in main rangeland systems for satellite data products validation and model testing; and 4- integration with livestock production models. Three international workshops have been held building the community of practice. A prototype monitoring system that provides global visualisations and querying capability of vegetation cover data and anomalies has been established. Pilot sites, mostly in areas with long records of field measurements of rangeland condition and productivity have been proposed for nine countries. The link to global livestock models, including physical and economic components, have been established. Future challenges for GEOGLAM RaPP have also been identified and include: better representation of the areas occupied by rangelands

  4. Climate and topographic controls on pasture production in a semiarid Mediterranean watershed with scattered tree cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Parra, J.; Maneta, M. P.; Schnabel, S.

    2013-12-01

    Natural grasses in semiarid rangelands constitute an effective protection against soil erosion and degradation, are a source of natural food for livestock and play a critical role in the hydrologic cycle by contributing to the uptake and transpiration of water. However, natural pastures are threatened by land abandonment and the consequent encroachment of shrubs and trees as well as by changing climatic conditions. In spite of their ecological and economic importance, the spatio-temporal variations of pasture production at the decadal to century scales over whole watersheds are poorly known. We used a physics-based, spatially-distributed ecohydrologic model applied to a 99.5 ha semiarid watershed in western Spain to investigate the sensitivity of pasture production to climate variability. The ecohydrologic model was run using a 300 yr long synthetic daily climate dataset generated using a stochastic weather generator. The data set reproduced the range of climatic variations observed under current climate. Results indicated that variation of pasture production largely depended on factors that also determined the availability of soil moisture such as the temporal distribution of precipitation, topography, and tree canopy cover. The latter is negatively related with production, reflecting the importance of rainfall and light interception, as well as water consumption by trees. Valley bottoms and flat areas in the lower parts of the catchment are characterized by higher pasture production. A quantitative assessment of the quality of the simulations showed that ecohydrologic models are a valuable tool to investigate long term (century scale) water and energy fluxes, as well as vegetation dynamics, in semiarid rangelands.

  5. Effect of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella on pasture contamination with gastrointestinal nematodes from goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Suzana G; Barros, Lilyan B G; Louvandini, Helder; Abdalla, Adibe L; Costa Junior, Livio M

    2016-02-24

    Tannin-rich plants have been examined as an alternative for controlling the gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. In vivo assays typically examine the anthelmintic activity in female fecundity and/or the adult worm burden, without considering other life-cycle stages or the impact on pasture contamination. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella in goats and the potential impact on pasture contamination with the infective larval stage of gastrointestinal nematodes. Sixteen cross breed Boer goats that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were fed tanniniferous concentrate from the leaves of B. pulchella and compared to a separate paddock of control animals without condensed tannin supplementation. A range of parasite characteristics were monitored throughout the 63 days of experimentation, including faecal egg count (FEC), egg hatching and relative numbers of hatched helminth larvae on herbage. Worm free tracer animals were used to assess the infective larval stage load of the contaminated pasture. The tanniniferous food did not reduce the combined FEC values, but egg hatching was significantly affected (p < 0.05). The pasture grazed by goats fed with tanniniferous food from B. pulchella showed reduced contamination through infective larval stages. Tracer goats maintained in paddocks grazed with animals fed with tanniniferous food had lower numbers of Trichostrongylus colubriformis than did those in the control group (86 % reduction). Condensed tannin from B. pulchella showed anthelmintic activity, affected egg viability and reduced pasture contamination, which led to the reduced infection of the animals by T. colubriformis.

  6. Underlying Ecosystem Methane Emissions Exceed Cattle-Derived Methane from Subtropical Lowland Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, S. D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Grazing cattle are a major methane (CH4) source from pasture ecosystems, however the underlying landscape is a potentially significant CH4 source that has received far less attention. Ecosystem surface emissions of CH4 are poorly quantified, vary widely across time and space, and are easily underestimated if emission hotspots or episodic fluxes are overlooked. We used static chambers, eddy covariance, and mobile cavity-ringdown spectrometry surveys to quantify spatially and temporally variable CH4 emissions from subtropical lowland pastures. We conclude emissions from soil and standing water are the dominant CH4 source, and cattle were responsible for only 13% of annual CH4emissions. The ecosystem emit 33.8 ± 2.2 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, however surface CH4 emissions were highly variable in both time and space. Seasonal flooding of pastures and low-lying landforms (canals, ditches, wetlands) drove high magnitude CH4 emissions. We observed large CH4 emissions from wetlands and, to a lesser extent, the entire landscape during the wet season. In contrast, during the dry season there was no appreciable CH4 accumulation in pastures when cattle were not present, and canals, which comprise 1.7% of the total land area, were responsible 97.7 % of dry season emissions. Ecosystem CH4 fluxes, measured by eddy covariance, varied seasonally and positively correlated to soil and air temperature, topsoil water content, and water table depth. Our work is the first to use mobile spectrometers to map biogenic CH4 emissions at the landscape scale, and demonstrates that soils and water are a strong pasture CH4 source that must be considered in addition to cattle emissions.

  7. Management practices for minimising nitrate leaching after ploughing temporary leguminous pastures in Canterbury, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G. S.

    1995-12-01

    Winter leaching losses of nitrate following the ploughing of temporary leguminous pastures in late summer or early autumn are a major concern in mixed cropping rotations on the Canterbury Plains of New Zealand. Field experiments showed that pastures ploughed in early autumn (March) and left fallow accumulated 107-142 kg ha -1 N of mineral-N in the soil profile by the start of winter, with 72-106 kg ha -1 N lost through leaching in the first winter. Delaying the ploughing of pasture until late autumn (May) reduced the accumulation of mineral-N to 42-120 kg ha -1 N and the leaching loss to 8-52 kg ha -1 N. In situations where early cultivation cannot be avoided, growing winter cover crops or using the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) both have the potential to reduce leaching compared with fallow soil. DCD increased the amount of mineral-N present in the soil as ammonium and reduced leaching losses by 25-50% without affecting the yield of the following spring wheat crop. Cover crops only reduced leaching losses (by up to 60%) when they were sown early in the autumn and they had taken up considerable amounts of soil mineral-N before drainage occurred. When cover crops were grazed before incorporation in spring, there was an increased risk of leaching from urine patch areas. If residues were incorporated without grazing, however, the yield of the following spring wheat crop was depressed by 20-30% due to extensive net N immobilization during decomposition of the residues. In Canterbury conditions, the most reliable way to minimise N leaching losses is to delay the ploughing of pasture for as long as possible in autumn or winter. Where pastures are ploughed early, the relative effectiveness of using DCD or growing winter cover crops varies mainly in relation to rainfall distribution.

  8. The association of CAPN1 316 marker genotypes with growth and meat quality traits of steers finished on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Miquel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the µ-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF, final weight (FW, average daily gain (ADG, backfat thickness (BFT, average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG, rib-eye area (REA, and beef rib-eye depth (RED as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05 for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18, FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68, and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014 Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001. The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG.

  9. The association of CAPN1 316 marker genotypes with growth and meat quality traits of steers finished on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, María C; Villarreal, Edgardo; Mezzadra, Carlos; Melucci, Lilia; Soria, Liliana; Corva, Pablo; Schor, Alejandro

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the μ-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF), final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG), rib-eye area (REA), and beef rib-eye depth (RED) as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18), FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68), and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014) Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG.

  10. Analysis of evapotranspiration and biomass in pastures with degradation indicatives in the Upper Tocantins River Basin, in Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Guimarães Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to apply the Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER with MODIS images together with meteorological data to analyze evapotranspiration (ET and biomass production (BIO according to indicative classes of pasture degradation in Upper Tocantins River Basin. Indicative classes of degraded pastures were obtained from the NDVI time-series (2002-2012. To estimate ET and BIO in each class, MODIS images and data from meteorological stations of the year 2012 were used. The results show that compared to not-degraded pastures, ET and BIO were different in pastures with moderate to strong degradation, mainly during water stress period. Therefore, changes in energy balance partition may occur according to the degradation levels, considering that those indicatives of degradation processes were identified in 24% of the planted pasture areas. In this context, ET and BIO estimates using remote sensing techniques can be a reliable indicator of forage availability, and large-scale aspects related to the degradation of pastures. It is expected that this knowledge may contribute to initiatives of public policies aimed at controlling the loss of production potential of pasture areas in the Upper Tocantins River Basin in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

  11. Performance and carcass quality of feedlot- or pasture-finished Nellore heifers according to feeding managements in the postweaning phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rume Casagrande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the postweaning history of heifers kept on marandu grass pastures with three canopy heights, in a continuous-grazing system, during the rainy period, on feedlot- or pasture finishing. The effects of three canopy heights (15, 25 and 35 cm associated with two supplements (mineral salt and protein-energy supplement and two finishing systems in the dry period (feedlot and open pasture were studied in the postweaning period during the rainy season. The adopted design was completely randomized, with seven replications (animals in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The animals which received protein-energy supplement reached the finishing period with greater body weight in relation to those fed mineral salt. In both feedlot and pasture finishing systems, compensatory gain effect was observed in the animals that remained on the low pastures during postweaning compared with the high pastures. This compensatory gain was not verified in the animals that received protein-energy supplement in relation to the mineral salt, and thus the animals were slaughtered beforehand. The heifers on pastures with 25 or 35 cm in height were slaughtered in the same period, and those kept on the low pastures were slaughtered afterwards. The studied factors in the postweaning phase did not affect the carcass characteristics. Animals finished in feedlot slaughtered with the same body weight as those finished on pasture show greater carcass yield, subcutaneous fat deposition and renal pelvic and inguinal fat and greater losses with trimmings for cleaning the main hindquarter meat cuts; however, they provide cuts with the same weight but greater fat cover.

  12. FATTY ACID PROFILE IN MILK OF BOVEC SHEEP FED IN THE STABLE OR GRAZED IN DIFFERENT PASTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cividini; Mojca Simčič

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid profile in the milk of Bovec sheep fed total mixed ratio (TMR) and grazed natural pastures in the lowland (480 m altitude) supplemented with the second harvest (L) as well as grazed different altitude mountain pastures; M1 (1100- 1300 m altitude), M2 (1600-1700 m altitude), M3 (1800 m altitude), M4 (1900 m altitude), M5 (2200 m altitude) were determined. There was an important effect when ewes were turned from the stable to the pasture on all fatty acids. The percentage of α-li...

  13. SOLID participatory research from Denmark: Use of herbs in pastures for dairy cows: Farmers’ experience, pasture coverage analyses, and literature survey of Danish research results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Karydi, Emmanouela; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Semi-structured qualitative research interviews were conducted with eight organic dairy farmers (producers and shareholders of Thise Dairy Company), in which they shared their experience with growing herbs on grass fields on long-term basis for both grazing and silage production. Growing herbs......, grasses and clover dominated and Lucerne became dominating. Among the herbs, only chicory and caraway was found after 5-6 years. A literature survey was undertaken with focus on Danish studies, and 17 studies were in-depth reviewed with focus on pasture characteristics and qualities as well as milk...

  14. Pasture degradation in Tibet: Drivers, mechanisms and consequences for C stocks and ecosystem stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Schleuss, Per-Marten; Guggenberger, Georg; Miehe, Georg; Coners, Heinz; Foken, Thomas; Wesche, Karsten; Hafner, Silke; Biermann, Tobias; Babel, Wolfgang; Gerken, Tobias; Unteregelsbacher, Sebastian; Seeber, Elke; Spielvogel, Sandra; Ingrisch, Johannes; Li, Xiaogang; Yue, Sun; Li, Qianru; Xu, Xingliang

    2017-04-01

    Kobresia grasslands on Tibetan Plateau have accumulated tremendous organic carbon (C) stocks, are an important grazing ground for local herdsmen, host a major portion of the regional terrestrial biodiversity, and supply large areas of SE Asia with water. All these ecosystem functions are threatened by large-scale soil degradation on the Tibetan Plateau. Nonetheless, the patterns and mechanisms of Kobresia pasture degradation, visible across the entire Tibetan Plateau, remain unknown. In the K. pygmaea core area, we studied natural and anthropogenic drivers of pasture degradation to discover new mechanisms and associated processes of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss. We show that livestock overgrazing and trampling in recent decades have triggered grassland degradation by initiating plant death and reducing grassland recovery. Combined with the harsh climate, this destroys the protective Kobresia turf. Considering these processes as well as other anthropogenic and natural drivers, a novel pasture degradation concept was developed. Pasture soils corresponding to the fiwe degradation stages were sampled and analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil drought and frost lead to polygonal cracking of the Kobresia turf, already weakened by overgrazing. This induces gradual erosion by wind and water, extends the cracks and removes the upper carbon-enriched soil. Erosion-derived SOC losses amount to 5 kg C m-2 and are aggravated by decreasing root C input and increased SOC mineralization (both ca. 2.5 kg C m-2). Mineralization-derived SOC loss was reflected by a negative δ13C shift of SOC going from intact to severely degraded stages, and was caused by a relative enrichment of 13C-depleted lignin. In sum, degradation has released tremendous amounts of carbon back into the atmosphere as CO2, or as increased sediment load in rivers, connected with declining water quality off-site. Affected by changed local water budget, the regional clouds' formation starts

  15. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-07-15

    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  16. Keratinophilic fungi isolated from soils of long-term fold-grazed, degraded pastures in national parks of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javoreková, Soňa; Labuda, Roman; Maková, Jana; Novák, Ján; Medo, Juraj; Majerčíková, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    A total of 939 isolates of 11 genera representing 15 species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated and identified from the soils of three long-term fold-grazed pastures in national parks of Slovakia (Pod Ploskou, Strungový príslop, and Pod Kečkou) and one non-fold-grazed pasture in sierra Stolicke vrchy (Diel) using the hair-baiting technique. Keratinophilic fungi were present in all soil samples with a prevalence of Trichophyton ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus. These fungi were more abundant in soil from fold-grazed pasture (Strungový príslop) compared to non-fold-grazed pasture (Diel). The occurrence of the other keratinophilic fungi was substantially lower, likely because of low pH in some soils.

  17. Gastro-intestinal nematode infection in lambs — A model based on climatic indices for forecasting peak pasture larval contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, G.

    1987-06-01

    The parasite Ostertagia circumcincta is the primary cause of parasitic gastro-enteritis in lambs during their first season at grass. The life-cycle of this nematode parasite involves the development and survival of the free-living stages on pasture. Accordingly the pasture is the site of deposition, development and transmission of infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. In this paper two empirical models for forecasting the timing of the “summer wave” of infective larvae on pasture are presented. These models are similar in form to that described by Starr and Thomas (1980) but involve different approaches to assessing the temperature and moisture components of the daily index value. Further, using the prediction model described by Paton, Thomas and Waller (1984) as an investigative tool, certain tentative suggestions are made as to a general fundamental weakness of empirical index methods.

  18. Potential for biological nitrification inhibition to reduce nitrification and N2O emissions in pasture crop-livestock systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subbarao, G V; Rao, I M; Nakahara, K; Sahrawat, K L; Ando, Y; Kawashima, T

    2013-01-01

    .... Methane with a GWP (global warming potential) of 21, and nitrous oxide (N2O) with a GWP of 300, are largely emitted from animal production agriculture, where livestock production is based on pasture and feed grains...

  19. A note on the Marchenko-Pastur law for a class of random matrices with dependent entries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Rourke, Sean

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of real random matrices with dependent entries and show that the limiting empirical spectral distribution is given by the Marchenko-Pastur law. Additionally, we establish a rate of convergence of the expected empirical spectral distribution.

  20. Application of phosphorus generated by non-cattle livestock to pasture land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of phosphorus generated by pastured, non-cattle livestock that was...

  1. Application of nitrogen generated by non-cattle livestock to pasture land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of nitrogen generated by pastured, non-cattle livestock that was...

  2. GIS mapping Refuge pasture boundaries and applying historic domestic livestock use to accurately assess the overall use of Refuge habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for a project at Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge to map and assess pasture fence boundaries and historic domestic cattle use in those...

  3. Avaliação lectino-histoquímica de fígado e rim de ovinos com fotossensibilização causada por Brachiaria decumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samay Z.R. Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora sejam as forrageiras mais importantes para a pecuária de corte (bovinocultura de corte no Brasil, em certas épocas ou condições, Brachiaria spp. podem ser tóxicas e causar surtos de fotossensibilização hepatógena que determinam significativas perdas econômicas. Animais que se alimentam em pastos de Brachiaria spp. comumente apresentam macrófagos espumosos isolados ou agrupados, além de cristais no interior de ductos biliares. Saponinas esteroidais têm sido identificadas nestes cristais e são responsabilizadas por lesar o fígado levando ao acúmulo de filoeritrina. Por vezes, imagens negativas desses cristais podem estar presentes no citoplasma de macrófagos espumosos. A patogênese de formação e o tipo de material armazenado nas células espumosas ainda são desconhecidos. A técnica de lectino-histoquímica visa auxiliar na detecção desses macrófagos e, consequentemente, no diagnóstico, além de identificar quais os resíduos de açúcares específicos que estão presentes no citoplasma das células espumosas. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar quais lectinas são mais indicadas na detecção de saponinas esteroidais no fígado e rim de ovinos com fotossensibilização causada por Brachiaria decumbens. Fragmentos de fígado e rim de quinze ovinos, de ambos os sexos e idade variável, oriundos de Conceição do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais, e um ovino mantido em pastagem livre de Brachiaria spp. foram avaliados pela técnica de lectino-histoquímica. Quatorze lectinas foram utilizadas (Con-A, DBA, SBA, PNA, SJA, RCA-I, UEA-I, WGA, SWGA, GSL, PSA, PHA-L, PHA-E e LCA. Verificou-se que, no fígado de ovinos com fotossensibilização provocada pela ingestão de Brachiaria decumbens, a lectina PNA apresentou especificidade e acentuada reatividade aos macrófagos espumosos, bem como especificidade e leve reatividade aos hepatócitos; a lectina WGA teve especificidade e moderada reatividade aos macr

  4. Valor nutritivo do feno de braquiária amonizado com uréia ou inoculado com Pleurotus ostreatus Nutritive value of Brachiaria decumbens hay ammoniated with urea or innoculated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se, mediante análises de composição química e ensaio de digestibilidade com ovinos, o efeito dos tratamentos químico (amonização com uréia e biológico (inoculação com o fungo Pleurotus ostreatus sobre o valor nutritivo do feno de Brachiaria decumbens. Ambos os tratamentos duraram 42 dias; após esse período, o feno foi seco e moído para fornecimento aos animais. As dietas experimentais foram: feno não tratado (FNT; feno não tratado + uréia (FNT + U; feno inoculado com fungo + uréia (FTB + U; e feno amonizado + feno não tratado (FTQ + FNT. As dietas FNT + U, FTB + U e FTQ + FNT foram isonitrogenadas. Tanto o tratamento químico como o biológico causaram mudanças na composição química do feno. A amonização elevou os teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e reduziu os teores de hemicelulose (HEM e a proporção de hemicelulose na parede celular (HEM-FDN. Já o tratamento biológico tendeu a aumentar o teor de PB; elevou os teores de FDA, lignina (LIG, a proporção de celulose na parede celular (CEL-FDN e a proporção de lignina na parede celular (LIG-FDN; e reduziu os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, HEM e HEM-FDN. Entretanto, diminuiu a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, FDN, celulose (CEL e FDA, mas aumentou o consumo, provavelmente em decorrência do menor teor de FDN e menor tamanho médio de partículas, o que causou maior velocidade de passagem. Os tratamentos biológico e químico são alternativas importantes no incremento do valor nutritivo de materiais lignocelulósicos, todavia, os resultados obtidos neste ensaio não foram satisfatórios.The effect of a chemical treatment (ammoniation with urea or a biological treatment (innoculation with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on the nutritive value of Brachiaria decumbens hay was evaluated by means of chemical analyses and a digestibility trial with sheep. Both treatments lasted 42 days, and thereafter the hay was dried

  5. Phyto-oestrogens and their metabolites in milk produced on two pastures with different botanical compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S. A.; Purup, S.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2014-01-01

    Phyto-oestrogens are a group of secondary plant metabolites that may bind to oestrogen receptors and exert oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic effects in humans and can protect against cancer diseases. When ingested by dairy cows, phyto-oestrogens can be metabolised and transferred to the milk...... deviation); body weight 599 (45.1). kg, stage of lactation 73 (15.0) d in milk, milk yield 29.9 (2.90) kg/d at the start of the experiment] were divided into two groups and grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). The SP was representative of organically managed leys in Norway...

  6. Natural Radionuclides in Meadow and Pasture land in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Klas; Villanueva, José - Luis Gutiérrez; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical...... transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information...... for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow...

  7. CO2 and Carbon Balance of an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture: Response to Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P. L.; Wallace, D.; Campbell, D.; Wall, A.; Hosking, C. L.; Schipper, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent soil resampling studies have shown that soils on flat land used for intensive dairy farming in New Zealand have lost large amounts of carbon (~1 t C ha-1y-1) over the past few decades, and the causes of these losses are poorly understood. One of the management practices potentially contributing to the C losses from these dairy soils is the periodic cultivation commonly associated with pasture renewal or the rotation through summer or winter crops. Here we report the results of three experiments aimed at quantifying the effect of cultivation as part of pasture renewal on the CO2 and C balances of permanent pastures. In the first experiment, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of an intensively grazed dairy pasture was measured before, during and after cultivation using eddy covariance (EC) from 2008 to 2011 at a dairy farm in the Waikato region on the North Island of New Zealand. The net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) was determined by combining NEE data with measurements and estimates of other C imports (feed) and C exports (milk, methane, silage and leaching). The other two experiments took place on the same farm and monitored two different cultivation events in 2008. We made chamber measurements of soil CO2 losses between spraying and seedling emergence. One of the cultivations took place in summer 2008 during a drought, whereas the other took place in spring 2008 when soil water was not limiting. For the first two years of experiment 1 the site was under permanent pasture and it was a sink for both CO2 (1.6 and 2.3 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively) and C (0.59 and 0.90 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively), despite a severe drought in summer 2008 which had led to a loss of approximately 1.1 t C ha-1 as CO2 over the three summer months. Pasture renewal took place in March 2010 and CO2 losses during this event were approximately 1.7 t C ha-1. However, the site seemed to recover quickly and was a sink of CO2 at an annual time scale of

  8. An improved grazed class method to estimate species selection and dry matter intake by cows at pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martin; Giampiero Lombardi; Philippe Pradel,; Anne Farruggia; Mauro Coppa

    2011-01-01

    Research has recently focused on pasture species intake by ruminants due to their influence on animal product quality. A field-applicable method which investigates species intake and selection, was tested on two dairy cow grazing systems: continuous grazing on a highly-biodiverse pasture (C) and rotational grazing on a moderately-diverse sward (R). In addition to the grazed class method, which evaluates the percentage of grazed dry matter (DM) per species according to the residual height of t...

  9. Production parameters and forage loss of oat and rye grass pastures managed with beef heifers fed diets with energy supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production parameters of intercropped pastures of oat and rye grass managed with beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat were evaluated. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at initial average age of 18 months and initial average live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized in the experiment. Animals were kept on oat + rye grass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no-supplementation (NS: heifers kept only in pastures; Megalac (MEG: supplementation with protected fat; brown rice meal (BRM: supplementation with BRM; BRM + MEG: supplementation with BRM plus protected fat. The greater participation of oat leaf was from July 5th to August 10th, 2009 and of rye grass, from August 30th to September 26th, 2009. The crude protein content increased until the 55th day (225.1 g/kg. Pasture total digestible nutrients presented a cubic behavior, with an average of 722.0 g/kg. The highest supply of leaf blades, 5.17 kg of dry matter/100 kg of live weight, was found in the second period. Pasture intake increased throughout the periods. Forage mass and support capacity of the animal did not differ between treatments, presenting means of 1245.02 kg of dry matter/ha and 882 kg of live weight/ha, respectively. Stoking rate, forage loss and pasture intake were not affected by the treatments. Supplementation of beef heifers with rice meal and/or protected fat did not change production parameters of oat + rye grass pastures or pasture intake. Increase in daily accumulation rate of dry matter and supporting capacity of the animals increases forage losses.

  10. Comparison of growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quails reared in conventional, pasture, and organic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Inci; Gokce Ozdemir; Bunyamin Sogut; Ahmet Yusuf Sengul; Turgay Sengul; Mehmet Resit Taysi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT - This study was conducted to compare live weight, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate, and some carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under organic and conventional conditions. A total of 180 one-day-old quail chicks were randomly divided into six groups ― Conventional, consuming conventional feed ad libitum; Control (C), consuming organic feed ad libitum; C+P, consuming organic feed ad libitum + pasture; 80C+P, consuming 80% of control + pasture; 70C+P, c...

  11. Rewilding with large herbivores: The importance of grazing refuges for sapling establishment and wood-pasture formation

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Christian; Ruifrok, Jasper L; van Klink, Roel; Olff, Han

    2015-01-01

    Rewilding is a novel nature management type that aims at restoring natural processes with minimal human intervention. It is increasingly employed on abandoned agricultural lands in Europe, but empirical studies are scarce. Rewilding may lead to formation of wood-pastures, arguably the primeval landscape in parts of Europe before Neolithic times. We investigated sapling establishment, a key process for wood-pasture formation, in the Oostvaarclersplassen: Europe's oldest large-scale rewilding a...

  12. Consumo e produção de leite de vacas mestiças em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens manejada sob duas ofertas diárias de forragem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomide José Alberto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido, no período de dezembro/95 a fevereiro/96, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de leite de vacas mestiças em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, sob duas ofertas diárias de forragem 4 e 8 kg de matéria seca de forragem verde (MSFV/100 kg de peso vivo dos animais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo que a produção de leite, corrigida a 4% de gordura, foi analisada por covariância. Por ocasião do primeiro e segundo ciclos de pastejo, observaram-se disponibilidades de 4392±974 e 2598±591 kg/ha de MSFV, respectivamente, não sendo observado efeito das pressões de pastejo adotadas na quantidade de forragem disponível ao início do segundo ciclo de pastejo. Os teores de proteína bruta (9,5% e fibra em detergente neutro (70,1% e os valores de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (56,4% não foram influenciados pelas ofertas de forragem, embora os dados evidenciassem tendência de maiores teores de proteína e menores teores de FDN nas amostras de forragem dos piquetes que foram pastejados segundo a menor oferta de forragem. O consumo médio diário de matéria seca, 12,4 kg/vaca, e a produção de leite, cuja média foi de 11,0 kg/vaca.dia, não foram afetados pelas ofertas de pasto estudadas.

  13. Impact of an invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus, on a pasture community in south east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Belgeri, Amalia; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2017-09-30

    Parthenium weed is a highly invasive alien species in more than 40 countries around the world. Along with severe negative effects on human and animal health and crop production, it also causes harm to ecosystem functioning by reducing the native plant species biodiversity. However, its impacts on native plant species, especially in pasture communities, are less known. Given parthenium weed causes substantial losses to Australian pastures' productivity, it is crucial to estimate its impact on pasture communities. This study evaluates the impact of parthenium weed upon species diversity in a pasture community at Kilcoy, south east Queensland, Australia. Sub-sites containing three levels of parthenium weed density (i.e. high, low and zero) were chosen to quantify the above- and below-ground plant community structure. Species richness, diversity and evenness were all found to be significantly reduced as the density of parthenium weed increased; an effect was evident even when parthenium weed was present at relatively low densities (i.e. two plants m(-2)). This trend was observed in the summer season as well as in winter season when this annual weed was absent from the above-ground plant community. This demonstrates the strong impact that parthenium weed has upon the community composition and functioning throughout the year. It also shows the long-term impact of parthenium weed on the soil seed bank where it had displaced several native species. So, management options used for parthenium weed should also consider the reduction of parthenium weed seed bank along with controlling its above-ground populations.

  14. Early weaning and concentrate supplementation strategies for lamb production on Tifton-85 pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José Araújo da Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of early weaning and concentrate supplementation strategies on sward characteristics, forage chemical composition and lamb productivity were evaluated in four production systems on Tifton-85 pasture: suckling lambs not supplemented until slaughter; suckling lambs supplemented with concentrate in creep feeding until slaughter; early-weaned lambs not supplemented until slaughter; and early-weaned lambs supplemented with concentrate until slaughter. Structural, morphological and productive characteristics of pasture were measured. The forage was chemically analyzed to estimate its composition. Lambs average daily gain and productivity were calculated. Sward height, forage and morphological components mass were lower in systems without weaning. Forage production was higher in systems with supplementation. Higher levels of neutral and acid detergent fiber were observed in forage ingested by lambs in creep feeding and by weaned and unsupplemented lambs. Average daily gain was higher for lambs in creep feeding (275 g/d and lower for the weaned and unsupplemented animals (57 g/d. Productivity was higher for weaned and supplemented lambs (21 kg lamb body weight, BW gain/ha/d. Lower productivity was observed in systems without supplementation (5 kg lamb BW gain/ha/d on average. Ewes modify the sward conditions improving the pasture characteristics and the quality of forage produced. Changes in sward conditions affect the chemical composition of forage ingested by lambs. Early weaning may be an alternative to maximize pasture utilization in small areas. Concentrate supplementation may increase lamb performance and productivity in grazing systems. If the objective is to improve lamb individual performance, creep feeding should be used.

  15. Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompo, K; Mays, S; Wesselman, C; Paulsen, D J; Fryxell, R T Trout

    2016-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (BA) and Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. BA is common in the United States and frequently reported in western Tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental United States. Because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for each pathogen. University of Tennessee AgResearch has 7 research and education centers (REC) located throughout the state at which they manage cattle. Ticks were collected from selected cattle (every fourth to sixth animal) and pastures (via dragging) associated with the herd from each REC during the summer of 2013. A total of 512 ticks were collected from cattle (n = 386) and pastures (n = 126) and were PCR-screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia using genus-specific primers. Collections consisted of 398 (77.7%) Amblyomma americanum, 84 (16.4%) Amblyomma maculatum, and 30 (5.9%) Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were not recovered from pastures or cattle east of the Tennessee Plateau. The North American vectors for An. marginale and E. ruminantium were identified (D. variabilis and A. maculatum, respectively), but neither pathogen was recovered. A large proportion of ticks were collected from cattle and, of these, a majority were attached to their host (compared to questing on their host or engorged on the host). Four A. americanum were positive for Ehrlichia spp. (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia), all in western Tennessee. With the identification of a few Ehrlichia infections in cattle-associated ticks and current A. marginale rates in Tennessee beef cattle nearing 11%, additional research is needed to establish baseline tick, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia data for future management studies.

  16. Discerning the cows from the pasture when determining annual NEE and carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Christof; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    The CO2 exchange of ecosystems and the resulting annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and total carbon budget (soil carbon sequestration) is commonly investigated using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. For the carbon budget of managed ecosystems also the import and export of organic carbon has to be taken into account. Grazed pasture systems represent a special challenge because their respiration can considerably contribute to the measured CO2 flux, but this contribution depends on the spatial distribution of the cows relative to the footprint and thus is variable in time. This has implications for the gap filling of CO2 flux time series necessary to determine annual NEE. In few existing studies two procedures have been suggested to determine the NEE of grazed pasture: (a) discarding all cases with cows in the footprint and gap-filling the remaining dataset; (b) treating the cow respiration as part of total ecosystem respiration and gap fill the entire flux dataset including cow contributions. Both approaches rely on idealized assumptions and have limitations. In our study we evaluated and compared the two approaches (for the first time to our knowledge) for a grazed pasture in Switzerland. For this purpose, the grazing cows were equipped with GPS sensors to monitor their position relative to the flux footprint. We found that the resulting annual NEE strongly depends on the flux data selection (e.g. u* filtering) and the applied gap filling procedure. Using an optimized procedure, the annual NEE with approach (b) was several times larger than the result of approach (a), but the difference agreed fairly well with independent estimates of cow respiration. Necessary assumptions and requirements of the two approaches for the determination of the pasture carbon budget will be discussed.

  17. Re-visiting the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Decandia; A. Cabiddu; Molle, G

    2007-01-01

    In the light of recent findings in sheep nutrition and behaviour, the diets of grazing dairy sheep should be based on forages encompassing a variety of complementary nutritional values and containing moderate levels of complementary plant secondary metabolites, until recently regarded as "anti-nutritional". In lactating sheep, pastures of tannin-containing legumes like sulla (Hedysarum coronarium) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) can be integrated with annual grasses for establishi...

  18. Using normalized difference vegetation index to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, R.H.; Wylie, B.K.; Gilmanov, T.G.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northeastern United States might be limited because paddock size is often smaller than the resolution limits of the satellite image. This research compared NDVI data from satellites with data obtained using a ground-based system capable of fine-scale (submeter) NDVI measurements. Gross primary productivity was measured by eddy covariance on two pastures in central Pennsylvania from 2003 to 2008. Weekly 250-m resolution satellite NDVI estimates were also obtained for each pasture from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Ground-based NDVI data were periodically collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008 from one of the two pastures. Multiple-regression and regression-tree estimates of GPP, based primarily on MODIS 7-d NDVI and on-site measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), were generally able to predict growing-season GPP to within an average of 3% of measured values. The exception was drought years when estimated and measured GPP differed from each other by 11 to 13%. Ground-based measurements improved the ability of vegetation indices to capture short-term grazing management effects on GPP. However, the eMODIS product appeared to be adequate for regional GPP estimates where total growing-season GPP across a wide area would be of greater interest than short-term management-induced changes in GPP at individual sites.

  19. A note on a Mar\\v{c}enko-Pastur type theorem for time series

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this note we develop an extension of the Mar\\v{c}enko-Pastur theorem to time series model with temporal correlations. The limiting spectral distribution (LSD) of the sample covariance matrix is characterised by an explicit equation for its Stieltjes transform depending on the spectral density of the time series. A numerical algorithm is then given to compute the density functions of these LSD's.

  20. Hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture in the Atlantic rain forest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Martinelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic rain forest is the most endangered ecosystem in Brazil. Its degradation has started since 1500 when the European settlers arrived. Despite of all land use changes that have occurred, hydrological studies carried out in this biome have been limited to hydrological functioning of rain forests only. In order to understand the hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture, we described the hydrological functioning of a pasture catchment that was previously covered by tropical rain forest. To reach this goal we measured the precipitation, soil matric potential, discharge, surface runoff and water table levels during one year. The results indicated that there is a decrease in surface soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, as low intensity rainfall prevails, the lower water conductivity does not necessarily leads to a substantially higher surface runoff generation. Regarding soil water matric potential, the pasture presented higher moisture levels than forest during the dry season. This increase in soil moisture implies in higher water table recharge that, in turn, explain the higher runoff ratio. This way, land-use change conversion from forest to pasture implies a higher annual streamflow in pasture catchments. Nonetheless, this increase in runoff due to forest conversion to pasture implies in losses of biological diversity as well as lower soil protection.

  1. Potential Pasture Nitrogen Concentrations and Uptake from Autumn or Spring Applied Cow Urine and DCD under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Moir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N cycling and losses in grazed grassland are strongly driven by urine N deposition by grazing ruminants. The objective of this study was to quantify pasture N concentrations, yield and N uptake following autumn and spring deposition of cow urine and the effects of fine particle suspension (FPS dicyandiamide (DCD. A field plot study was conducted on the Lincoln University dairy farm, Canterbury, New Zealand from May 2003 to May 2005. FPS DCD was applied to grazed pasture plots at 10 kg·ha−1 in autumn and spring in addition to applied cow urine at a N loading rate of 1000 kg·N·ha−1, with non-urine control plots. Pasture N ranged between 1.9 and 4.8% with higher concentrations from urine. Results indicated that urine consistently increased N concentrations for around 220 days post deposition (mid December/early summer at which point concentrations dropped to background levels. In urine patches, pasture yield and annual N uptake were dramatically increased on average by 51% for autumn and 28% for spring applied urine, in both years, when DCD was applied. This field experiment provides strong evidence that annual pasture N uptake is more strongly influenced by high urine N deposition than pasture N concentrations. FPS DCD has the potential to result in very high N uptake in urine patches, even when they are autumn deposited.

  2. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  3. Inter-relation between soybean yield and soil compaction under degraded pasture in Brazilian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rienni de Paula Queiroz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah plays an important economic and financial role in the nation, since the pastures of this biome feed cattle for half of the domestic bovine meat productivity, and its agricultural fields produce a third of the country's grain. The variability and spatial dependence between the soil physical attributes and soybean yield were evaluated in a crop rotation planted on a degraded brachiaria pasture, on a dystroferric Red Latosol of an experimental farm of the State University of São Paulo (UNESP, in the 2005/2006 growing season. The linear and spatial correlations between these attributes were also studied, to determine conditions that would allow increased agricultural productivity. In the above pasture area, a grid was installed with 124 plots, spaced 10.0 x 10.0 m and 5.0 x 5.0 m apart, in a total area of 7,500 m². From the linear and spatial point of view, the high grain yield can be explained by the number of grains per plant and soil macroporosity. The high variability observed for most soil properties indicated that the crop - livestock integration system results in environmental heterogeneity of the soil.

  4. Drought characteristics and prediction during pasture growing season in Xilingol grassland, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiyun; Zhang, Jiquan; Sun, Caiyun; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Rina; Wu, Lan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, spatiotemporal variability of drought in Xilingol grassland during pasture growing season (from April to September) was investigated, using 52 years (1961-2012) of precipitation data recorded at 14 rain gauge stations in the study area. The Standardized Precipitation Index was used to compute the severity of drought. The Mann-Kendall test, the linear trend, and the sequential Mann-Kendall test were applied to standardized precipitation index (SPI) time series. The results indicate that drought has become increasingly serious on the region scale during pasture growing season, and the rate of SPI decreases ranged from -0.112 to -0.013 per decade. As for the MK test, most of the stations, the Z value range is from -1.081 to -0.005 and Kendall's τ varies from -0.104 to -0.024. Meanwhile, drought is increased obviously from the northwest to the southeast region. Meanwhile, the occurrence probability of each severity class, times for reaching different drought class from any drought severity state, and residence times in each drought class have been obtained with Markov chain. Furthermore, the drought severities during pasture growing season in 2013-2016 are predicted depending on the weighted Markov chain. The results may provide a scientific basis for preventing and mitigating drought disaster.

  5. APPROACH TO THE REGIONALIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL—PASTURALIZATION AROUND CHANGSHAN ISLANDS IN NORTHERN YELLOW SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAHNGYao-guang; DONGLi-jing; 等

    2002-01-01

    Based on the data of resources,environment and foundation of production,applying principal compo-nents-clustering quantitative analysis,this article divides the maritime space of Changshan Islands into three regions of agricultural-pasturalization,providing a scientific basis for the rational distribution of marine cultivation.The three re-gions are as follows:1)The region of an agricultural-pasturalization in the northern part of maritime space.It includes Da Wangjia and Shicheng islans.The main production is cultivation of prawn and mollusks in sea beach,float raft culture of mussel in shallow sea and scallop ,and breeding of sea cucumber in submarine.2)The region of agricultur-al-pasturalization in the middle western part of maritime space.It includes Da Changshan and Guanglu islands and west-ern part of Xiao Chengshan Island.The man production is folat raft culture of mussel and scallop in shallow sea,and breed-ing of sea cucumber in submarine.3)The region of agricultural-pasturlization of the southeastem part of maritime space.It includes the eastern part of Xiao Chan Island,Haiyang and Zhangzi islands.The main production is breeding of abalone,sea cucumber,algaes and fish.

  6. Acacia sieberiana Effects on Soil Properties and Plant Diversity in Songa Pastures, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Mugunga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of A. sieberiana trees on soil properties and plant diversity were investigated in Songa pastures, Rwanda. Tree characteristics and crown architecture of A. sieberiana were studied. Soil properties were assessed and plants were identified under and away from tree crowns. Counts of individual plants/species were done only under tree crowns. Nitrogen, P, and K were analysed in the soil, grass, and A. sieberiana leaves. Plant diversity was determined using Simpson's diversity index. Data were subjected to ANOVA. Soil organic carbon (SOC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, Ca2+, N and pH, and plant diversity were higher in soils under tree canopies than in open areas. Tree leaves were significantly richer in N and poorer in P and K as compared to grasses. Tree crowns grew wider and horizontal and developed intertwined secondary branching, reducing light intensity to as low as 38% under tree canopies compared to the open pasture. At 3 trees/ha stocking, A. sieberiana trees shaded 0.18 ha and herbaceous plants and grasses unpalatable to livestock dominated under tree canopies. A tradeoff of A. sieberiana tree value versus the loss of palatable grass due to tree presence needs to be assessed to decide whether the trees should be included in pastures and if yes, the apporpriate stocking identified.

  7. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems two replications (paddocks and independent evaluations (grazing cycles. The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  8. Pasture succession in the Neotropics: extending the nucleation hypothesis into a matrix discontinuity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris J; Dosch, Jerald J; Carson, Walter P

    2014-08-01

    The nucleation hypothesis appears to explain widespread patterns of succession in tropical pastures, specifically the tendency for isolated trees to promote woody species recruitment. Still, the nucleation hypothesis has usually been tested explicitly for only short durations and in some cases isolated trees fail to promote woody recruitment. Moreover, at times, nucleation occurs in other key habitat patches. Thus, we propose an extension, the matrix discontinuity hypothesis: woody colonization will occur in focal patches that function to mitigate the herbaceous vegetation effects, thus providing safe sites or regeneration niches. We tested predictions of the classical nucleation hypothesis, the matrix discontinuity hypothesis, and a distance from forest edge hypothesis, in five abandoned pastures in Costa Rica, across the first 11 years of succession. Our findings confirmed the matrix discontinuity hypothesis: specifically, rotting logs and steep slopes significantly enhanced woody colonization. Surprisingly, isolated trees did not consistently significantly enhance recruitment; only larger trees did so. Finally, woody recruitment consistently decreased with distance from forest. Our results as well as results from others suggest that the nucleation hypothesis needs to be broadened beyond its historical focus on isolated trees or patches; the matrix discontinuity hypothesis focuses attention on a suite of key patch types or microsites that promote woody species recruitment. We argue that any habitat discontinuities that ameliorate the inhibition by dense graminoid layers will be foci for recruitment. Such patches could easily be manipulated to speed the transition of pastures to closed canopy forests.

  9. Immunodetection of aquaporin 5 in sheep salivary glands related to pasture vegetative cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paola; Aralla, Marina; Catorci, Andrea; Belardinelli, Carlo; Arrighi, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of at least 13 integral membrane proteins expressed in various epithelia, where they function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. AQP5 is widely expressed in the exocrine gland where it is likely involved in providing an appropriate amount of fluid to be secreted with granular contents. As regards AQP5 expression in the salivary glands, literature is lacking concerning domestic animal species. This study was chiefly aimed at immunohistochemically investigating the presence and localization of AQP5 in sheep mandibular and parotid glands. In addition, AQP5 immunoreactivity was comparatively evaluated in animals fed with forage containing different amounts of water related to the pasture vegetative cycle, in order to shed light on the possible response of the gland to environmental modifications. Moderate AQP5-immunoreactivity was shown at the level of the lateral surface of mandibular serous demilune cells, not affected by the pasture vegetative cycle or water content. On the contrary, the parotid gland arcinar cells showed AQP5-immunoreactivity at the level of apical and lateral plasma membrane, which was slight to very strong, according to the pasture vegetative development and interannual climatic variations. AQP5 expression is likely due to its involvement in providing appropriate saliva fluidity. Indeed, the lowest AQP5 immunoreactivity was noticed when food water content increased.

  10. Qualitative Parameters of Pasture Samples Obtained from Different Farms in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Pejchova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was a representation of chemical composition of pasture samples from different farms and NDF degradability examination by in sacco method. The experiment took place on three farms with different altitudes. All samples were analyzed for ash, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. NDF degradability was evaluated by in sacco method in chosen herbs from samples of pasture. During the grazing season in a sward reduces the content of NL and at the same time increases the content of CF. During the pasture period declines the share of clovers in growth and on the contrary significantly higher proportion of grasses. The highest NDF degradability all the time of incubation in the rumen was in Taraxacum officinale and varied from 453.1 g.kg-1 NDF in 6 h of incubation to 882.1 g.kg-1 NDF in 72 h of incubation. The lowest NDF degradability was in Rumex obtusifolius (198.1 to 581.8 g.kg-1 NDF and Ranunculus acris (278.6 to 566 g.kg-1 NDF.Differences between farms are minimal.

  11. Re-visiting the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Decandia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of recent findings in sheep nutrition and behaviour, the diets of grazing dairy sheep should be based on forages encompassing a variety of complementary nutritional values and containing moderate levels of complementary plant secondary metabolites, until recently regarded as "anti-nutritional". In lactating sheep, pastures of tannin-containing legumes like sulla (Hedysarum coronarium and chicory (Cichorium intybus can be integrated with annual grasses for establishing sustainable artificial pastures under rainfed conditions. Diets based on these forages, while ensuring high milking performance, can mitigate the unbalance of CP to energy ratio of grazing sheep. By grazing sulla and annual or Italian ryegrass (50:50 by area as spatially conterminal monocultures or in timely sequence (complementary grazing sheep eat more and perform better than by grazing the ryegrass pasture only. Concentrate supplementation of lactating sheep should be preferably based on fibrous sources (soyhulls or beet pulps, particularly from mid-lactation onwards and when supplementation levels are high. Milk urea concentration is confirmedly a useful monitoring tool to balance protein nutrition and curb the waste of N at animal and system level.

  12. Forest-to-pasture conversion increases the diversity of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in Amazon rainforest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Kshitij; Paula, Fabiana S.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Jesus, Ederson da C.; Cenciani, Karina; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is well known for its rich plant and animal diversity, but its bacterial diversity is virtually unexplored. Due to ongoing and widespread deforestation followed by conversion to agriculture, there is an urgent need to quantify the soil biological diversity within this tropical ecosystem. Given the abundance of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in soils, we targeted this group to examine its response to forest-to-pasture conversion. Both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities were higher for pasture in comparison to primary and secondary forests. The community composition of Verrucomicrobia in pasture soils was significantly different from those of forests, with a 11.6% increase in the number of sequences belonging to subphylum 3 and a proportional decrease in sequences belonging to the class Spartobacteria. Based on 99% operational taxonomic unit identity, 40% of the sequences have not been detected in previous studies, underscoring the limited knowledge regarding the diversity of microorganisms in tropical ecosystems. The abundance of Verrucomicrobia, measured with quantitative PCR, was strongly correlated with soil C content (r = 0.80, P = 0.0016), indicating their importance in metabolizing plant-derived carbon compounds in soils. PMID:26284056

  13. Grazing Exclusion to Recover Degraded Alpine Pastures Needs Scientific Assessments across the Northern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The northern Tibetan Plateau is the most traditional and important semi-nomadic region in Tibet. The alpine vegetation is sensitive and vulnerable to climate change and human activities, and is also important as an ecological security in protecting the headwaters of major rivers in Asia. Therefore, the Tibetan alpine grasslands have fundamental significance to both Mainland China and South Asia. The pasture degradation, however, likely threatens the livelihood of residents and the habitats of wildlife on this plateau. Since 2004, the government has launched a series of ecological restoration projects and economic compensatory payment polices. Many fences were additionally built on degraded pastures to prevent new degradation, to promote functionality recovery, and to balance the stocking rate with forage productivity. The grazed vs. fenced paired pastures across different zonal grassland communities along evident environmental gradients provide us with a natural comparative experiment platform to test the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic factors. This study critically reviews the background, significance of and debates on short-term grazing exclusion with fences in this region. We also aim to figure out scientific and standardized workflows for assessing the effectiveness of grazing exclusion and compensatory payments in the future.

  14. Energy balance model applied to pasture experimental areas in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; de Castro Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; de Castro Victoria, Daniel; Furlan Nogueira, Sandra; Freitas Leivas, Janice; Coaguila, Daniel N.; Rodrigues Herling, Valdo

    2016-10-01

    The Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER) was used to estimate biophysical parameters and the energy balance components in two different pasture experimental areas, in the São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental pastures consist in six rotational (RGS) and three continuous grazing systems (CGS) paddocks. Landsat-8 images from 2013 and 2015 dry and rainy seasons were used, as these presented similar hydrological cycle, with 1,600 mm and 1,613 mm of annual precipitation, resulting in 19 cloud-free images. Bands 1 to 7 and thermal bands 10 and 11 were used with weather data from a station located near the experimental area. NDVI, biomass, evapotranspiration and latent heat flux (λE) temporal values statistically differ CGS from RGS areas. Grazing systems influences the energy partition and these results indicate that RGS benefits biomass production, evapotranspiration and the microclimate, due higher LE values. SAFER is a feasible tool to estimate biophysical parameters and energy balance components in pasture and has potential to discriminate continuous and rotation grazing systems in a temporal analysis.

  15. Validating a model that predicts daily growth and feed quality of New Zealand dairy pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, S J

    2001-09-01

    The Pasture Quality (PQ) model is a simple, mechanistic, dynamical system model that was designed to capture the essential biological processes in grazed grass-clover pasture, and to be optimised to derive improved grazing strategies for New Zealand dairy farms. While the individual processes represented in the model (photosynthesis, tissue growth, flowering, leaf death, decomposition, worms) were based on experimental data, this did not guarantee that the assembled model would accurately predict the behaviour of the system as a whole (i.e., pasture growth and quality). Validation of the whole model was thus a priority, since any strategy derived from the model could impact a farm business in the order of thousands of dollars per annum if adopted. This paper describes the process of defining performance criteria for the model, obtaining suitable data to test the model, and carrying out the validation analysis. The validation process highlighted a number of weaknesses in the model, which will lead to the model being improved. As a result, the model's utility will be enhanced. Furthermore, validation was found to have an unexpected additional benefit, in that despite the model's poor initial performance, support was generated for the model among field scientists involved in the wider project.

  16. Time budgets of finishing bulls housed in an uninsulated barn or at pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Tuomisto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing the behaviour of finishing bulls raised in an uninsulated barn (UB and at pasture (PAS. In experiment 1, dairy bulls were housed in an uninsulated barn (two groups of five bulls, 32 m2/pen or at pasture (groups of four and five bulls, 5000 m2/paddock. In experiment 2, Hereford bulls were housed in an uninsulated barn (three groups of four or five bulls, 32 m2/pen or at pasture (three groups of five bulls, 5000 m2/paddock. There were no differences in drinking, social licking, butting, other social behaviour, self-licking or idling between the UB and PAS bulls. The UB bulls spent more time in lying, ruminating, oral explorative and manipulative behaviour and rubbing and less time foraging and walking than the PAS bulls. The UB bulls performed more social licking and oral manipulation of objects and less mounting than the PAS bulls. These differences resulted most probably from the different feeding regimes and different space allowances.

  17. Immunodetection of aquaporin 5 in sheep salivary glands related to pasture vegetative cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Arrighi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian aquaporins (AQPs are a family of at least 13 integral membrane proteins expressed in various epithelia, where they function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. AQP5 is widely expressed in the exocrine gland where it is likely involved in providing an appropriate amount of fluid to be secreted with granular contents. As regards AQP5 expression in the salivary glands, literature is lacking concerning domestic animal species. This study was chiefly aimed at immunohistochemically investigating the presence and localization of AQP5 in sheep mandibular and parotid glands. In addition, AQP5 immunoreactivity was comparatively evaluated in animals fed with forage containing different amounts of water related to the pasture vegetative cycle, in order to shed light on the possible response of the gland to environmental modifications. Moderate AQP5-immunoreactivity was shown at the level of the lateral surface of mandibular serous demilune cells, not affected by the pasture vegetative cycle or water content. On the contrary, the parotid gland arcinar cells showed AQP5-immunoreactivity at the level of apical and lateral plasma membrane, which was slight to very strong, according to the pasture vegetative development and interannual climatic variations. AQP5 expression is likely due to its involvement in providing appropriate saliva fluidity. Indeed, the lowest AQP5 immunoreactivity was noticed when food water content increased. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 458–464

  18. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: effect on pasture intake and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M E; Ward, J D; Redfearn, D D; French, D D; Blouin, D C; Chapa, A M; Fernandez, J M

    2001-04-01

    One hundred twenty-four cows (92 multiparous and 32 primiparous) were used to evaluate the effect of grain supplements containing high crude protein [(22.8% CP, 5.3% rumen undegradable protein (RUP), dry matter basis], moderate CP (16.6% CP, 6.1% RUP), and moderate CP with supplemental RUP (16.2% CP, 10.8% RUP) on lactation performance of Holstein cows rotationally grazing annual ryegrass-oat pastures. Supplemental protein was provided by solvent extracted soybean meal in the high CP and moderate CP supplements and as a corn gluten meal-blood meal mixture (2.8:1) in the moderate CP, high RUP supplement. Cows were blocked according to previous mature milk equivalent production and calving date (partum group; 0 d in milk or postpartum group; 21 to 65 d in milk) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments. Grain was individually fed, at approximately a 1:3 grain to milk ratio, before a.m. and p.m milkings. The study was replicated during two grazing seasons that averaged 199 d. Cows had ad libitum access to bermudagrass hay while on pasture (dry matter intake = 1.3 kg/d). Protein supplementation had no effect on study long pasture dry matter (12.7 +/- 1.0 kg/d) or total dry matter (23.9 +/- 1.2 kg/d) consumption. Protein concentration did not affect actual milk yield of either calving group (high CP vs. moderate CP); however, postpartum group cows receiving high CP grain supplements maintained greater milk fat concentrations (3.34 vs. 3.11%), which led to higher fat-corrected milk (FCM) yields than control cows receiving moderate CP grain diets (30.3 vs. 28.9 kg/d). Crude protein concentration in milk of high CP-supplemented, postpartum group cows was also higher than moderate CP cows (3.42 vs. 3.27%). Additional RUP did not increase FCM yield above that generated by moderate CP grain diets for partum (34.3 vs. 32.9 kg/d) or postpartum-group cows (28.9 vs. 28.2 kg/d). Increasing CP concentration of grain supplement did not affect milk yield of Holstein cows grazing

  19. Comparison of meat and carcass quality in organically reared and conventionally reared pasture-fed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prache, S; Gatellier, P; Thomas, A; Picard, B; Bauchart, D

    2011-12-01

    The 'Organic' product label guarantees a production process that avoids the use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides and hormones and minimises recourse to pharmaceuticals or veterinary drugs; however, the product's quality remains an issue that needs to be addressed in response to consumer demand. Consequently, this study was conducted to compare the sensory and nutritional qualities of meat and carcasses from pasture-fed lambs reared organically (O) or conventionally (C). Mean lamb growth profile was kept similar between the two treatments to avoid confounding effects with lamb age or weight at slaughter. The experiment was conducted over 3 years (2005 to 2007) with 12 O and 12 C lambs each year. The O and C treatments differed in the level of on-pasture mineral N fertilisation inducing a higher proportion of white clover in the organic pasture than the conventional pasture. Lambs were slaughtered when they attained a fat class of 2 to 3, and carcass and meat quality were evaluated. Lambs were slaughtered at an average weight and age of 35.3 kg and 156 days in the O treatment, respectively, and 35.2 kg and 155 days in the C treatment, respectively. Sensory evaluation indicated that loin chops from the O treatment had a higher level of abnormal fat odour compared with the C treatment. Carcasses from the O treatment had a softer subcutaneous fat one among 3 years (2007) compared to the C treatment. These results are probably due to a higher proportion of white clover in the diet. Organically reared lambs did offer the slight advantage of muscle fatty acid containing a higher level of stearic acid, which may have positive effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in humans. This may be the result of a higher rumen bio-hydrogenation of C18:3n-3 due to differences in the botanical composition between the O and the C pasture. Production system had no effect on the colour characteristics of the meat and subcutaneous fat, except lightness of subcutaneous dorsal

  20. Fertility and acidity status of latossolos (oxisols under pasture in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R.S. Vendrame

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado region, with over 50 million hectares of cultivated pasture, provides 55% of Brazilian beef production. Previous investigations have shown that about 70-80% of this pasture is affected by some kind of degradation, leading to low productivity. However, until now, few surveys have been carried out on a regional scale. The aim of the present work is both to assess the fertility and acidity levels of Cerrado soils under pasture and compare the variability of the soils characteristics on a regional scale. Two soil depths were sampled in different places within the studied area: (1 a surface horizon (0.0-0.2 m in order to evaluate its fertility and acidity status for pasture, and (2 a subsurface horizon (0.6-0.8 m, used for classification. Most of soils had levels of nutrients below the reference values for adequate pasture development. Whatever the texture, about 90% of soils had low or very low availability of phosphorus. Only 7 to 14% of soils had low pH, high exchangeable aluminum, and aluminum saturation above the critical acidity level. Except for nitrogen, no significant difference was found between Latossolos Vermelhos and Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos.A região do Cerrado, com 50 milhões de hectares de pastagens cultivadas, responde por 55% da carne bovina produzida no Brasil. Há estimativas indicando que entre 70 e 80% destas pastagens apresentam algum grau de degradação, o que leva a baixa produtividade. No entanto, até o presente, poucos trabalhos foram desenvolvidos em escala regional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fertilidade e a acidez de Latossolos sob pastagens na região do Cerrado e comparar a variabilidade das características dos solos em escala regional. A amostragem foi realizada em duas profundidades, superficial (0,0-0,2 m para avaliação da fertilidade e acidez e subsuperficial (0,60,8 m, utilizada para classificar os solos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de nutrientes abaixo do recomendado

  1. A pre-partum lift in ewe nutrition from a high-energy lick or maize or by grazing Lotus uliginosus pasture, increases colostrum production and lamb survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Lindsay, D R; Milton, J T B

    2009-08-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that a lift in the nutrition of ewes, before lambing, to increase colostrum production would enhance lamb survival. In all, 261 mature Corriedale ewes, each with a single fetus from a synchronised mating, grazed native pasture to day 130 after mating; at which point they were weighed, condition scored and allocated to graze either native pasture or a pasture dominant with Lotus uliginosus. Five days later (14 days before the expected start of lambing) the ewes were allocated to one of four treatments and fed: (i) native pasture alone, (ii) native pasture plus a commercial high-energy lick, (iii) L. uliginosus pasture alone or (iv) L. uliginosus pasture plus whole maize. The weight, viscosity and concentration of components and immunoglobulin G in the colostrum that had accumulated at parturition, were measured for 10 ewes in each treatment. The lambs that survived to 20 days of age from the 221 ewes that were not milked, were recorded. The ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain and those that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone accumulated two to three times more colostrum at birth than the ewes that grazed native pasture alone (396, 635 and 662 g v. 206 g; P < 0.01). The colostrum from the ewes that grazed only native pasture was more viscous (lower score) than that from the ewes supplemented with the lick or maize grain or the ewes that grazed the L. uliginosus pasture alone (scores of 4.1 v. 6.2, 6.5 and 6.4, P < 0.001) and, not surprisingly, the concentration of lactose in the colostrum of the ewes fed only native pasture was also much lower (1.1% v. 3.0%, 2.8% and 2.6%; P < 0.001)he survival of lambs from the ewes fed only native pasture was less than that of the lambs from ewes fed native pasture plus the commercial lick (81.8% v. 95.5%; P < 0.05) or the L. uliginosus pasture alone (92.4%, P < 0.05), and also tended to be lower than that for lambs born to ewes fed L. uliginosus pasture plus maize (91.8%, P = 0

  2. A pilot project combining multispectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, Luciano A.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; McGavin, Sharon L.

    2016-08-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since data can be returned in near real time. Proximal sensors have the potential for deployment on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. There are unresolved challenges in gathering reliable sensor data and in calibrating raw sensor data to values such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground cover, which allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. Our goal was to assess whether a combination of proximal sensors could be reliably deployed to monitor tropical pasture status in an operational beef production system, as a precursor to designing a full sensor deployment. We use this pilot project to (1) illustrate practical issues around sensor deployment, (2) develop the methods necessary for the quality control of the sensor data, and (3) assess the strength of the relationships between vegetation indices derived from the proximal sensors and field observations across the wet and dry seasons. Proximal sensors were deployed at two sites in a tropical pasture on a beef production property near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multispectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each of which were operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor was processed to calculate multispectral vegetation indices. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multispectral sensors, which had up to 67 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control for technical issues related to the sensor design, as well as environmental issues such as water incursion and insect infestations. We recommend

  3. Implementation of pasture leasing rights for mobile pastoralists – a case study on institutional change during post-socialist reforms in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Neudert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on pasture reform in Azerbaijan within the context of transition and pasture reform in Central Asian and Caucasian countries. Despite the rapid emergence of individualised rights for pasture plots, which is an exceptional development in this region, pasture reform in Azerbaijan has received little attention in the scientific literature. Using evidence from an empirical case study we analyse the implementation and outcomes of the reform process for pastoral land in the context of the macroeconomic development in Azerbaijan and in comparison to pasture reforms in other post-socialist transition countries. We apply the evolutionary theory of property rights to explain and analyse the exceptionally rapid emergence of individual property rights to pasture in Azerbaijan.

  4. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproduction, mastitis, and body condition of seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows in confinement or pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; White, S L; Green, J T; Benson, G A

    2002-01-01

    Dairy cows in confinement and pasture-based feeding systems were compared across four spring-calving and three fall-calving replicates for differences in reproduction, mastitis, body weights, and body condition scores. Feeding systems and replicates included both Jersey and Holstein cows. Cows in confinement were fed a total mixed ration, and cows on pasture were supplemented with concentrates and provided baled hay or haylage when pasture supply was limiting. Breeding periods were for 75 d in spring or fall. Reproductive performance did not differ significantly due to feeding system or season. Jerseys had higher conception rates (59.6 vs. 49.5 +/- 3.3%) and higher percentages of cows pregnant in 75 d (78.1 vs. 57.9 +/- 3.9%) than Holsteins. Cows in confinement had 1.8 times more clinical mastitis and eight times the rate of culling for mastitis than did cows on pasture. Jerseys had half as many clinical cases of mastitis per cow as Holsteins. Only 41 +/- 5% of confinement Holsteins remained for a subsequent lactation, starting within the defined calving season compared with 51 +/- 5% of pastured Holsteins and 71 and 72 +/- 5% of Jerseys, respectively. Body weights and condition scores were generally higher for confinement cows than pastured cows, and Jerseys had higher condition scores and lower body weights than Holsteins. In summary, pastured cows had fewer clinical cases of mastitis, lower body condition scores, and lower body weights than confinement cows. Holsteins were less likely to rebreed, had more mastitis, higher culling rates, and lower body condition scores than Jerseys.

  6. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Nitrogen and Amino acids by Cows Grazing Temperate Pasture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AIBIBULA; Yimamu; HALIDAI; Rehemujiang; MASAAKI; Hanada; MEIJI; Okamoto

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate nutrient digestion in the rumen and flow to the duodenum of steers grazed on orchardgrass( Dactylis glomerata L.,OG) or meadowfescue( Festuca pratensis Huds.,MF.) pastures located on northern part of Japan without supplement. Fifty-two digestion trials were carried out grazing Holstein steers fitted with cannulas in the rumen,duodenum and distal ileum in the three years. The pastures were divided into several paddocks,and the steers grazed each paddock for a day and allowed double of dry requirements the grazing cattle. The pre-grazing herbage mass did not significantly differ between pastures but the crude protein( N × 6. 25) content of herbage ranged from 19. 3% to 27. 5% on OG pasture and from 20. 0% to 32. 8% on MF pasture. Total N and AA-N intake did not differ but the degradability of dietary nitrogen in the rumen( RDN) was higher in MF than in OG pasture. The ratio of RDN to OM truly digested in the rumen was negatively related to the apparent N absorption in the rumen,and it was suggested that the amount of apparent N absorption in the rumen would be positive when the ratio was above 25 g / kg. Non-ammonia nitrogen( NAN) and AA-N flows to the duodenum of steers were lower in MF than in OG pasture. Duodenal AA flows were more linked to duodenal NAN flows and accounted for approximately 60% of duodenal NAN flows. The proportion of methionine and lysine slightly increased in the duodenal flows compared with the consumed AA,but a comparison between the essential AA composition of milk and the lean tissue indicated that duodenal digesta was most limiting in methionine,lysine,arginine,and histidine,and that deficiencies of arginine and histidine for milk production were relatively small.

  7. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gratton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71 and HOMI (15.7 kg OM were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d, milk fat yield (742 g/d and milk protein yield (667 g/d were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production.

  8. Landscape dynamics in northwestern Amazonia: an assessment of pastures, fire and illicit crops as drivers of tropical deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Rodríguez, Nelly; Retana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use of fire, cultivation of illicit crops and establishment of pastures, and their impacts on the loss of forest in the region. Yearly analyses were undertaken at randomly selected sample areas to quantify the average areas of transition of land cover types under different landscape compositions: forest-dominated mosaics, pasture mosaics, fire mosaics, and illicit crop mosaics. Our results indicate that despite the fact that forest areas were well-preserved, deforestation occurred at a low annual rate (0.06%). Conversion to pasture was the main factor responsible for forest loss (the area of pastures tripled within forest mosaics over 8 years), and this process was independent of the landscape matrix in which the forests were located. In fire mosaics, burning is a common tool for forest clearing and conversion to pasture. Thus, forests in fire mosaics were highly disturbed and frequently transformed from primary to secondary forests. The use of fire for illicit cropping was not detected, partly due to the small size of common illicit crops. Forest regeneration from pastures and secondary vegetation was observed in areas with large amounts of natural forest. Overall, assuming the continuation of the observed pasture conversion trend and the use of forest fire, we suggest that our results should be incorporated into a spatially explicit and integrated decision support tool to target and focus land-planning activities and policies.

  9. Fatty acid composition, fat soluble vitamin concentrations and oxidative stability in bovine milk produced on two pastures with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Dahl, A V; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that grazing pastures compared to feeding preserved forages has large impact on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, but differences between grazing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or white clover (Trifolium repens L.) are small, whereas the herbage proportions...... to oxidation. Two groups of 8 multiparous Norwegian Red dairy cows [mean (standard deviation); 599 (45.1) kg body weight, 73 (15.0) d in milk, 29.9 (2.90) kg milk/d at experiment start] grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). Both pastures were organically managed, meaning...

  10. Properties of soil and hydroponicaly grown lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Mlakar, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to examine the quality of the lettuce Lactuca sativa L., which was grown with two methods. Hydroponically grown lettuce was compared with lettuce grown in soil. The purpose of this research was to find out with which method the lettuce would look better and with which method the quality of the lettuce`s nutritiousness would be higher. We ascertained that plants grown with hydroponics did look better and were heavier. About quality results showed that the contents of ...

  11. Carbohydrate supplements and their effects on pasture dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and blood factors associated with intake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, A J; Kay, J K; Roche, J R

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeds are offered to grazing dairy cows to increase dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes; however, offering feed supplements reduces pasture DM intake, a phenomenon known as substitution. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in blood factors associated with intake regulation in monogastric species in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with either a starch- or nonforage fiber-based concentrate. Fifteen multiparous Friesian × Jersey cross cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at calving. Measurements were undertaken in wk 8 of lactation. Treatments were pasture only, pasture plus a starch-based concentrate (3.5 kg of DM/cow per day; STA), and pasture plus a nonforage fiber-based concentrate (4.4 kg of DM/cow per day). Pelleted concentrates were fed at an isoenergetic rate in 2 equal portions at a.m. and p.m. milkings. Measurements were undertaken to investigate differences in pasture DM intake, feeding behavior, and profiles of blood factors for 4h after a.m. and p.m. milkings, the periods of intensive feeding in grazing cows. Supplementing cows with STA concentrate reduced pasture DM intake to a greater extent than the fiber concentrate, although time spent eating did not differ between treatments. The blood factor response to feeding differed between the a.m. and p.m. feeding events. Blood factors associated with a preprandial or fasted state were elevated prefeeding in the a.m. and declined following feeding, whereas satiety factors increased. In comparison, the blood factor response to feeding in the p.m. differed, with responses to feeding delayed for most factors. Plasma ghrelin concentration increased during the p.m. feeding event, despite the consumption of feed and the positive energy state remaining from the previous a.m. feeding, indicating that environmental factors (e.g., sunset) supersede physiological cues in regulating feeding behavior. The greater reduction in pasture DM intake for the STA treatment

  12. Quality characteristics, chemical composition, and sensory properties of butter from cows on pasture versus indoor feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Faulkner, Hope; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hennessy, Deirdre; Dillon, Pat; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 widely practiced cow feeding systems in the United States, Europe, and Southern Hemisphere regions on the characteristics, quality, and consumer perception of sweet cream butter. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a total mixed ration diet (TMR) of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass-only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV). Mid-lactation butter was manufactured in triplicate with milk from each group in June 2015 (137±7d in milk) and was analyzed over a 6-mo storage period at 5°C for textural and thermal properties, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, and volatile compounds. The nutritional value of butters was improved by pasture feeding, and butter from pasture-fed cows had significantly lower thrombogenicity index scores compared with butters from TMR-fed cows. In line with these results, pasture-derived milks (GRS and CLV) produced butter with significantly higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11) and trans-β-carotene than TMR butter. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of butter contributed to significant differences in textural and thermal properties of the butters. Total mixed ration-derived butters had significantly higher hardness scores at room temperature than those of GRS and CLV. Onset of crystallization for TMR butters also occurred at significantly higher temperatures compared with pasture butters. Volatile analysis of butter by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 25 compounds present in each of the butters, 5 of which differed significantly based on feeding system, including acetone, 2-butanone, 1-pentenol, toluene, and β-pinene. Toluene was very significantly correlated with pasture-derived butter. Sensory analysis

  13. FATTY ACID PROFILE IN MILK OF BOVEC SHEEP FED IN THE STABLE OR GRAZED IN DIFFERENT PASTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile in the milk of Bovec sheep fed total mixed ratio (TMR and grazed natural pastures in the lowland (480 m altitude supplemented with the second harvest (L as well as grazed different altitude mountain pastures; M1 (1100- 1300 m altitude, M2 (1600-1700 m altitude, M3 (1800 m altitude, M4 (1900 m altitude, M5 (2200 m altitude were determined. There was an important effect when ewes were turned from the stable to the pasture on all fatty acids. The percentage of α-linolenic acid (ALA, arachidonic acid (ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA increased significantly (P<0.001 with the diet. In the milk from M5 grazing the percentage of ALA was 2.5 times higher than in milk from L and 2.6 times higher than in milk from TMR. The percentage of ARA and DHA in milk was the highest when ewes were grazing on the M5 pasture (0.21±0.02 wt. %; 0.22±0.02 wt. % respectively. Total n-3PUFA and n-6PUFA increased significantly (P<0.001 by the diet. Therefore, the n-6/n-3PUFA ratio was the best (1.2 in milk produced in the highest mountain pasture (M5, in terms of nutritional requirements.

  14. Economic viability of production of Nellore heifers on Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu pastures deferred and fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Batista de Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen on deferred pastures of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, and the implications on the economic viability of production of Nellore heifers. This was a completely randomized design with four treatments (T1 = deferred pasture without nitrogen fertilization; T2 = deferred pasture fertilized with 50 kg N ha-1, T3 = deferred pasture with 100 kg N ha-1, T4 = deferred pasture with 150 kg N ha-1 and four replications (16 fertilized paddocks. First, there were used 48 Nellore heifers, average eight months of age and initial body weight of 178.69 ± 26.67 kg, with three heifers in each paddock, in all treatments, in a continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate. Only the treatment the without nitrogen fertilization showed negative monetary values of R$ -181.96, R$ ha-1 -72.79 and R$ @-1 -32.11. The treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 achieved the highest positive monetary values of R$ 756.02, R$ ha-1 302.40 and R$ @-1 50.52. Economic viability data in beef heifer production demonstrate that the treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 is the most financially viable under the conditions of this study.

  15. Comparison of growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quails reared in conventional, pasture, and organic conditions

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    Hakan Inci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - This study was conducted to compare live weight, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate, and some carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under organic and conventional conditions. A total of 180 one-day-old quail chicks were randomly divided into six groups ― Conventional, consuming conventional feed ad libitum; Control (C, consuming organic feed ad libitum; C+P, consuming organic feed ad libitum + pasture; 80C+P, consuming 80% of control + pasture; 70C+P, consuming 70% of control + pasture; and 50C+P, consuming 50% of control + pasture ― with three replicates. The conventional group was kept for 6 weeks, while the control, C+P, 80C+P, 70C+P, and 50C+P groups were reared until the end of 10 weeks of age. Raising systems significantly affected live weight, feed intake, and feed conversion. The analysis showed that the meat yield of quail raised in organic conditions had better results than those raised in conventional conditions in terms of appearance, color, aroma, and flavor. The group consuming 50% of control plus pasture was more advantageous than the other organic groups and the conventional group at the end of the 10-week fattening period. The organic production system can be a good system to meet the demand of consumers who seek more natural products.

  16. Influência da suplementação com Concentrados nas características de carcaça de bovinos F1 Limousin - Nelore, não-castrados, durante a seca, em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Eduardo Destéfani Guimarães

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental de Felixlândia (MG, da EPAMIG, no período de julho a outubro de 1997, com o objetivo de estudar a influência da suplementação com concentrados sobre as características físicas e o rendimento dos cortes da carcaça em 20 novilhos Limousin-Nelore, não-castrados, com 22-23 meses de idade e peso médio de 459 kg ao abate. Retiraram-se, aleatoriamente, quatro animais de cada um dos cinco tratamentos a que foram submetidos durante 112 dias na época seca, em pastagens diferidas de Brachiaria decumbens. No tratamento T1 (referência, os animais nas pastagens receberam apenas sal mineralizado; nos tratamentos T2 (75% milho, T3 (50% milho, T4 (25% milho e T5 (farelo de trigo, foram fornecidas quantidades médias diárias por animal de 3,70 kg de MS de concentrados (equivalente, em matéria natural, a 1% do PV com 24,1% de PB e NDT variando de 67,8% (T5 - farelo de trigo a 85,6% (T2 - 75% milho. Avaliaram-se as características peso, rendimento e comprimento de carcaça, rendimentos de paleta, acém completo, ponta de agulha, alcatra completa e coxão, espessura de gordura subcutânea, área de olho de lombo, porcentagens na carcaça de tecido adiposo, músculos e ossos e a relação músculo/osso. O fornecimento de suplementos proporcionou a obtenção de carcaças mais pesadas (257,0 vs. 203,9 kg, com menor proporção de ossos (15,76 vs. 21,71%, maior relação músculo:osso (3,6 vs. 2,9 e melhor acabamento quando comparado às carcaças dos animais não-suplementados. Os animais suplementados e não-suplementados não diferiram em relação a rendimento e comprimento de carcaça, rendimentos de paleta, acém completo, alcatra completa e coxão, área de olho de lombo (AOL e porcentagem de músculos na carcaça.

  17. Shifts in leaf litter breakdown along a forest-pasture-urban gradient in Andean streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Rausche, Sirkka; Cueva, Augusta; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Espinosa, Carlos; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-07-01

    Tropical montane ecosystems of the Andes are critically threatened by a rapid land-use change which can potentially affect stream variables, aquatic communities, and ecosystem processes such as leaf litter breakdown. However, these effects have not been sufficiently investigated in the Andean region and at high altitude locations in general. Here, we studied the influence of land use (forest-pasture-urban) on stream physico-chemical variables (e.g., water temperature, nutrient concentration, and pH), aquatic communities (macroinvertebrates and aquatic fungi) and leaf litter breakdown rates in Andean streams (southern Ecuador), and how variation in those stream physico-chemical variables affect macroinvertebrates and fungi related to leaf litter breakdown. We found that pH, water temperature, and nutrient concentration increased along the land-use gradient. Macroinvertebrate communities were significantly different between land uses. Shredder richness and abundance were lower in pasture than forest sites and totally absent in urban sites, and fungal richness and biomass were higher in forest sites than in pasture and urban sites. Leaf litter breakdown rates became slower as riparian land use changed from natural to anthropogenically disturbed conditions and were largely determined by pH, water temperature, phosphate concentration, fungal activity, and single species of leaf-shredding invertebrates. Our findings provide evidence that leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams is sensitive to riparian land-use change, with urban streams being the most affected. In addition, this study highlights the role of fungal biomass and shredder species (Phylloicus; Trichoptera and Anchytarsus; Coleoptera) on leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams and the contribution of aquatic fungi in supporting this ecosystem process when shredders are absent or present low abundance in streams affected by urbanization. Finally, we summarize important implications in terms of managing of

  18. Assessing pasture quality and degradation status using hyperspectral imaging: a case study from western Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Lukas W.; Meyer, Hanna; Meyer, Nele; Reudenbach, Christoph; Bendix, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    Alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are suffering from pasture degradation induced by over-grazing, climate change and improper livestock management. Meanwhile, the status of pastures is largely unknown especially in poor accessible western parts on the TP. The aim of this case study was to assess the suitability of hyperspectral imaging to predict quality and amount of forage on the western TP. Therefore, 18 ground- based hyperspectral images taken along two transects on a winter pasture were used to estimate leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic-active vegetation cover (PV) and proportion of grasses. For calibration and validation purposes, chlorophyll content of 20 grass plants was measured in situ. From the images reference spectra of grass and non-grass species were collected. PV was assessed from similarity of images to mean vegetation spectra using spectral angle mapper and threshold classifications. A set of 48 previously published hyperspectral vegetation indices (VI) was used as predictors to estimate chlorophyll content and to discriminate grass and non-grass pixels. Separation into grass and non-grass species was performed using partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and chlorophyll content was estimated with PLS regression. The accuracy of the models was assessed with leave-one-out cross validation and normalised root mean square errors (nRMSE) for chlorophyll and contingency matrices for grass classification and total PV separation. Highest error rates were observed for discrimination between vegetated and non-vegetated parts (Overall accuracy = 0.85), whilst accuracies of grass and non grass separation (Overall accuracy = 0.98) and chlorophyll estimation were higher (nRMSE = 10.7).

  19. Energy and tannin extract supplementation for dairy cows on annual winter pastures

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    Tiago Pansard Alves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supplementation can increase the consumption of metabolizable energy and substrate for microbial growth, while condensed tannins aid in increasing the duodenal flow of foodborne metabolizable proteins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation and the inclusion of tannin extract (TE from Acacia mearnsii (Weibull Black, Tanac S. A., Montenegro, Brazil on the production performance of dairy cows grazing on winter pastures. Nine multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation were distributed in a 3 × 3 Latin square experimental design over three periods of 28 days (21 adaptation and 7 sampling. The treatments were: without supplementation (WS, supplementation with 4 kg of corn grain (CG, and corn grain + 80 g of tannin extract (TE. The dry matter (DM intake from pastures was similar among treatments, but the consumption of DM of the supplement was higher in the CG treatment than that in the TE treatment. The total DM intake was higher for the supplemented animals (17.3 kg?day-1 than that for the unsupplemented animals (14.9 kg?day-1 and in the TE treatment (17.7 kg?day-1 than in the CG treatment (16.7 kg day-1. Milk production increased from the unsupplemented to the supplemented animals (20.9 to 23.5 kg, respectively, while the content of urea N in the milk decreased (12.6 to 10.5 mg?100 mL-1, respectively. There were no differences in milk production or content of milk urea N between the CG and TE treatments. Energy supplementation is a tool for improving the nutritional profile and the performance of dairy cows in mid lactation grazing on annual winter pastures, while tannin extract aids in improving the energy balance.

  20. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Greenhouse gases fluxes and soil thermal properties in a pasture in central Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkonglolo, Nsalambi Vakanda; Johnson, Shane; Schmidt, Kent; Eivazi, Frieda

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations of greenhouse gases emissions and soil properties occur at short spatial and temporal scales, however, results are often reported for larger scales studies. We monitored CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes and soil temperature (T), thermal conductivity (K), resistivity (R) and thermal diffusivity (D) from 2004 to 2006 in a pasture. Soil air samples for determination of CO2, CH4 and N20 concentrations were collected from static and vented chambers and analyzed within two hours of collection with a gas chromatograph. T, K, R and D were measured in-situ using a KD2 probe. Soil samples were also taken for measurements of soil chemical and physical properties. The pasture acted as a sink in 2004, a source in 2005 and again a sink of CH4 in 2006. CO2 and CH4 were highest, but N2O as well as T, K and D were lowest in 2004. Only K was correlated with CO2 in 2004 while T correlated with both N2O (r = 0.76, p = 0.0001) and CO2 (r = 0.88, p = 0.0001) in 2005. In 2006, all gases fluxes were significantly correlated with T, K and R when the data for the entire year were considered. However, an in-depth examination of the data revealed the existence of month-to-month shifts, lack of correlation and differing spatial structures. These results stress the need for further studies on the relationship between soil properties and gases fluxes. K and R offer a promise as potential controlling factors for greenhouse gases fluxes in this pasture.

  2. Exposure to pastures fertilised with sewage sludge disrupts bone tissue homeostasis in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. Monica [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Monica.Lind@ki.se; Gustafsson, Magnus [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermsen, Sanne A.B. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Sune [Department of Orthopaedics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Kyle, Carol E. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Orberg, Jan [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Rhind, Stewart M. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    The femurs of male and female sheep (Ovis aries), aged 18 months, bred on pastures fertilized twice annually with sewage sludge (2.25 tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T)) or on pastures treated with inorganic fertilizer (Control; C) were studied, using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) and the three-point bending test. Males were maintained on the respective treatments from conception to weaning and then maintained on control pastures while the females were maintained on the respective treatments until slaughter. T rams exhibited increased total bone mineral density (BMD) at the metaphyseal part of femur (+ 10.5%, p < 0.01) compared with C rams but had a reduced total cross sectional area (CSA, - 11.5%, p < 0.001), trabecular CSA (- 17.1%, p < 0.01) and periosteal circumference (- 5.7%, p < 0.001). In the mid-diaphyseal part, T rams had an increased total BMD (+ 13.8%, p < 0.0001) and stiffness (+ 6.4%, p < 0.01) but reduced total CSA (- 12.1%, p < 0.0001) and marrow cavity (- 25.8%, p < 0.0001), relative to C rams. In ewes although pQCT analysis of neither the metaphyseal nor the mid-diaphyseal part of the female femur bones showed any significant differences with treatment, the biomechanical method revealed a reduction in load at failure (- 17.3%, p < 0.01) and stiffness (- 10.7%, p < 0.05) amongst T ewes. It is concluded that exposure to pollutants present in sewage sludge can perturb bone tissue homeostasis in sheep, but particularly in males.

  3. Limestone, gypsum, and magnesium oxide influence restoration of an abandoned Appalachian pasture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchey, K.D.; Snuffer, J.D. [USDA ARS, Beaver, WV (United States). Appalachian Farming Systems Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    When restoring abandoned pastures on acidic hill-land soils to productivity, it is important to bring soil Ca and Mg to adequate levels. Gypsum is a readily available Ca amendment that is sufficiently soluble to move rapidly into the soil when surface-applied. Gypsum has been shown to reduce detrimental effects of subsurface acidity in soils of the southeastern USA. A 4-yr experiment was initiated to measure effects of surface gypsum application on forage production and to evaluate Mg-containing amendments to avoid gypsum-induced Mg deficiency. The study site was a southern West Virginia Gilpin silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic, Typic Hapludult) where abandoned hill-and pasture was being restored to productivity. Treatments included 0, 1000, 8000; 16 000, and 32 000 kg/ha flue gas desulfurization coal combustion by-product gypsum (gypsum) together with dolomitic limestone and five additional treatments to evaluate sources of supplemental Mg. Application of 16 000 kg/ha gypsum together with limestone increased forage yields of mixed orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) pasture during establishment by 42% and production by 11% compared with limestone alone. About 8% of the mean 790 kg/ha yield increase could be attributed to acidity-neutralizing effects of alkaline constituents in the gypsum by-product. Plants in higher gypsum treatments had higher concentrations of K and P, but gypsum application decreased soil and plant Mg concentrations. This indicated that gypsum should not be applied on typical acid soils without supplemental Mg.

  4. Selective coal mine overburden treatment with topsoil and compost to optimise pasture or native vegetation establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spargo, A; Doley, D

    2016-11-01

    Overburden at a coal mine in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, was stored in a flat-topped artificial mound with 14-degree side slopes. Topsoil was scarce, dispersive and readily eroded. A split-plot factorial experiment applied an enhanced municipal solid waste compost at 0, 60 or 100 t ha(-1) to untreated overburden or to overburden covered with 0.1 m of topsoil. Two seeding treatments, of trees and shrubs or of pasture species, were applied to two 0.5-ha replicates of each surface treatment. Substrate physical and chemical properties and vegetation attributes were assessed 2.5 years later. Compost application to both topsoil and overburden significantly increased total N, P, Cu and Zn, soluble K, Ca and Mg, and significantly reduced soluble Na and pH. Mean tree density, size and total canopy cover were significantly greater with compost applied at 60 t ha(-1) to overburden than with all other treatments, especially those on topsoil where tree growth was inhibited by undesired species. Compost application to overburden and topsoil at 100 t ha(-1) significantly increased biomass of desired pasture species and significantly reduced undesired species cover compared with unamended topsoil and the extent of bare ground compared with unamended overburden. Successful development of woody species on overburden and pastures on both overburden and topsoil treated with compost provides opportunities for new combinations of landscape design, surface preparation and plant species introductions to increase the stability of final landforms, the effectiveness of resource use, and the delivery of commercial and biodiversity benefits from mine site rehabilitation.

  5. Performance and goats behavior in pasture of Andropogon grass under different forage allowances

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    Daniel Louçana da Costa Araújo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished to evaluate the behavior and performance of goats in to grazing on grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. Bisquamulatus (Hochst Hack. cv. Planaltina submitted to three forage allowances: 11, 15 and 19% BW/day, under continuous grazing. The experimental design to assess the grazing behaviour was randomized blocks in a split-plot with five replicates within the block. In the plots, we evaluated the effect of forage allowances and in the subplots, the months May and June. While for evaluation of animal performance was in complete block design with five replicates within the block. The different forage allowance did not cause structural changes in the pasture, except in height. However, there was an increase of dead material, leaf/stem ratio and reducing of height during the grazing period. The behavioral variables were not affected by forage allowance, except for the time of displacement, whereby goats spent more time in pastures with offer of 11% BW. The goats remained most part of the time in grazing and idle, corresponding to 89% and 5% of the evaluation time, respectively. Higher bit rate was observed in June, among the offerings, and 15 and 19% BW. The ingestive and grazing behaviour in goats is changed by the accumulation of dead material and stem in pasture from Andropogon grass during at rainy season. The forage supply 11% of BW increases the time of displacement of goats grazing on Andropogon grass. The management of grazing Andropogon grass with forage allowance being 11 and 19% of BW provides low weight gains in goats during the rainy season.

  6. Examination of a relationship between {sup 137}Cs concentrations in soils and plants from alpine pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K. E-mail: bunzl@gsf.de; Albers, B.P.; Schimmack, W.; Belli, M.; Ciuffo, L.; Menegon, S

    2000-04-01

    An essential prerequisite of the soil/plant transfer factor concept is the presence of a statistically significant relationship between the contents of a given radionuclide in the soil and plant. To examine the existence of such an association for a semi-natural environment we determined for two typical alpine pastures in Germany and Italy the concentrations of fallout-{sup 137}Cs in soil and plants. To be able to detect such a relationship sensitively, we selected at the German site 100 plots (area 1 mx1 m) within a 100 mx100 m area and assessed the corresponding plant and soil {sup 137}Cs contents. All frequency distributions of the soil and plant {sup 137}Cs contents at both sites were found to be lognormal. The results showed that increased plant {sup 137}Cs concentrations were not significantly associated with increased soil {sup 137}Cs contents, even though the {sup 137}Cs contents in the soil there varied by one order of magnitude. This result was also supported by the observations at the Italian pasture site, where 24 plots were selected. Possible reasons and consequences of these findings are discussed. To examine also the relation between potassium and radiocesium, {sup 40}K was determined in all samples. These results revealed a very strong but negative correlation between {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in the plants of both pastures, which shows that, when a large variety of different plant species is considered, radiocesium and potassium do not necessarily behave in an analogous way. In addition, a statistically significant, negative relationship between {sup 40}K in the soil and {sup 137}Cs in the plants was found. Possible reasons for this observation are discussed.

  7. Soil seed-bank germination patterns in natural pastures under different mineral fertilizer treatments

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    Anna Iannucci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Degraded native grasslands in Mediterranean areas can be improved by encouraging seedling regeneration from soil seed banks using chemical fertilization. The effect of mineral fertilizers on soil seed banks was studied in natural pastures at two locations in southern Italy: Carpino and Rignano Garganico. The aim was to determine if nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and combined nitrogen and phosphorus (NP fertilization can promote increased soil seed density. The seed-bank size and composition were analysed over two growth cycles (2004-2006 at two periods of the year: at the early summer and at the early autumn. The plant species were classified into three functional groups: grasses, legumes and other species (all other dicots. A two-pool model (ephemeral and base pools derived from the germination patterns was developed to quantify the dynamics of the germinated seed populations. The mean total seed number in the seed bank ranged from 2,915 to 4,782 seed m-2 with higher values in early summer than in early autumn. Mineral fertilizer applications increased the seed-bank size (by 27%, 23% and 46%, for N, P and NP, respectively and modified the composition in both localities. The three plant functional groups showed different potentials for ephemeral and persistent seed-bank production; however, within each plant group, the proportion between the ephemeral and base pool fractions did not change with fertilizer application. These data show that mineral fertilization can have positive effects on the seed-bank size of ungrazed natural pastures, and can be used to improve degraded Mediterranean pastures.

  8. Soil Carbon and Nutrient Changes Associated with Deforestation for Pasture in Southern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Timothy J.; Porder, Stephen; Chaves, Joaquin; Whiteside, Jessica H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the effects of deforestation on soil carbon (C) and nutrient stocks in the premontane landscape near Las Cruces Biological Station in southern Costa Rica, where forests were cleared for pasture in the mid-1960s. We excavated six soil pits to a depth of 1 m in both pasture and primary forest, and found that C stocks were 20 kg C per square meters in both settings. Nevertheless, soil delta C-13 suggests 50 percent of the forest-derived soil C above 40 cm depth has turned over since deforestation. Soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stocks derived from the soil pits were not significantly different between land uses (P = 0.43 and 0.61, respectively). At a larger spatial scale, however, the ubiquity of ruts produced by cattle-induced erosion indicates that there are substantial soil effects of grazing in this steep landscape. Ruts averaged 13 cm deep and covered 45 percent of the landscape, and thus are evidence of the removal of 0.7 Mg C/ ha/yr, and 70, 9 and 40 kg/ha/yr of N, P and potassium (K), respectively. Subsoils in this region are 10 times less C- and N-rich, and 2 times less P- and K-rich than the topsoil. Thus, rapid topsoil loss may lead to a decline in pasture productivity in the coming decades. These data also suggest that the soil C footprint of deforestation in this landscape may be determined by the fate of soil C as it is transported downstream, rather than C turnover in situ.

  9. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF SOWN PASTURE WEEDS UNDER TWO LEVELS OF DEGRADATION IN BRAZILIAN SAVANNA AREAS, MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL FITOSSOCIOLOGIA DE PLANTAS DANINHAS DE PASTAGENS CULTIVADAS SOB DOIS NÍVEIS DE DEGRADAÇÃO EM CERRADO, NO MATO GROSSO DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Guglieri-Caporal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Cultivated pastures, in general, go through a decline process, associated with the occurrence of weeds, whose successful management begins with the survey of species and their biology. This study aimed to carry out phytosociological surveys, during the rainy and dry seasons, in two pastures cultivated with Brachiaria (Urochloa spp., with cattle (AI and without cattle (AII, in Cerrado (Brazilian savanna areas of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The occurrence of 104 weedy herbaceous and subshrubby Phanerogams species was recorded. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae (23 species, Poaceae (16, and Asteraceae (15. Hemicryptophytes predominate with 41% of the species. The species with the highest importance value and relative coverage are B. decumbens and Sida rhombifolia, in AI, and B. brizantha and Desmodium incanum, in AII, plus Paspalum notatum, in both pastures. The Shannon diversity index was 4.19 and 4.43 nats, for AI and AII, respectively, indicating considerable weed species richness. The floristic dissimilarity index between AI and AII, obtained from the Euclidian

  10. Formas de utilização do milho em suplementos para novilhos na fase de terminação em pastagem no período das águas: desempenho e parâmetros nutricionais Corn, in different forms, in multiple supplements for finishing crossbred steers on pasture during rainy season: performance and nutrition parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da forma de utilização do milho em suplementos no desempenho de novilhos na fase de terminação, durante o período das águas, em pastagem de capim-braquiária. Utilizaram-se 16 bovinos mestiços com peso inicial de 384 kg e 18 meses de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos mistura mineral (MM (controle; milho triturado (MT; milho desintegrado com sabugo (MDS; e milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS - e quatro repetições. Os animais foram mantidos em pastagem de 6 ha de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, dividida em quatro piquetes de 1,5 ha, com disponibilidade de matéria seca total (MST de 4,77 t/ha e MSpd (matéria seca potencialmente digestível de 3,14 t/ha. Para avaliação dos parâmetros nutricionais, utilizaram-se quatro animais mestiços fistulados no esôfago, no rúmen e no abomaso, com peso médio inicial de 390 kg, distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 × 4, composto de quatro tratamentos e quatro períodos experimentais. Os animais do grupo controle receberam mistura mineral diariamente (60 g/dia, enquanto os demais receberam os suplementos (1,0 kg/dia. Os suplementos múltiplos não influenciaram o desempenho dos animais, mas as concentrações séricas de uréia foram maiores nos animais sob suplementação. O consumo de PB, assim como a digestibilidade total de PB, aumentou com o uso dos suplementos múltiplos. Os animais do grupo controle (mistura mineral apresentaram maior consumo de matéria seca e matéria orgânica de pasto. O uso de suplemento múltiplo (1 kg/dia no período das águas promoveu aumento numérico de até 165 g/animal em relação à suplementação com mistura mineral. O milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo e o milho desintegrado com sabugo equivalem ao grão de milho triturado.The effect of corn feeding forms in multiple supplements on performance of finishing steers grazing signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf during rainy

  11. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  12. The role of livestock-poached pasture as a sediment source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Philip; Walling, Desmond; Quine, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Historically, the occurrence of sediment-laden runoff has almost exclusively been associated with cultivated hillslopes and particularly with arable land. This association was commonly accompanied by the presumption that, in comparison with cultivated slopes, erosion from intensively-managed lowland pasture was relatively low. Recent developments in sediment source tracing and fingerprinting techniques have, however, challenged these assumptions by demonstrating that soil loss from grasslands may be greater than previously assumed. In attempting to identify potential source areas within grassland environments, attention has frequently focused on areas of livestock poaching where herd animals tend to congregate. However, the role of poached grassland as a sediment-source remains uncertain. Reasons include the difficulties associated with accurately documenting the movement or redistribution of small quantities of fine sediment over relevant spatial and temporal scales. Motivated by an urgent need for such information, this communication presents preliminary results from a tracing study aimed at measuring sediment redistribution within areas of poached pasture over short (i.e. event-based) timescales using the artificial radionuclides, caesium-134 (134Cs) and cobalt-60 (60Co). The approach involved labelling six small areas (0.2 * 0.2 m) of poached soil, each with a contrasting gradient, with either 134Cs or 60Co, and then measuring changes in the radiometric inventory at predetermined points before and after periods of rainfall. Each labelled area of poached pasture was measured on three separate occasions over a 65 day period. At the end of the monitoring phase, the mean net soil redistribution depth (mm) was negative for all plots, with values ranging from -6.8 mm to -15.2 mm. This is interpreted as evidence of the removal, or erosion, of surface material. The findings indicate that areas of livestock-poached pasture can act as significant sediment sources. These

  13. Changes and continuity of wood-pastures in the lowland landscape in Czechia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forejt, Michal; Skalos, Jan; Pereponova, Anna;

    2017-01-01

    The term wood-pastures is usually applied to areas with trees or other woody vegetation, scattered through a mainly grazed grassland area, and reflects one of the oldest land use types in Europe, which plays important ecological, agricultural and socio-cultural roles. However, a rapid decline...... in their area due to changes in land use and a lack of tree regeneration has recently been observed all over Europe, which has led to the necessity of a deeper understanding of their behaviour in relation to different factors via a detailed analysis of the history of the changes in their distribution over space...

  14. Sheep Excreta as Source of Nitrous Oxide in Ryegrass Pasture in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michely Tomazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Livestock urine and dung are important components of the N cycle in pastures, but little information on its effect on soil nitrous oxide (N2O emissions is available. We conducted a short-term (39-day trial to quantify the direct N2O-N emissions from sheep excreta on an experimental area of ryegrass pasture growing on a Typic Paleudult in southern Brazil. Four rates of urine-N (161, 242, 323, and 403 kg ha-1 N and one of dung-N (13 kg ha-1 N were applied, as well as a control plot receiving no excreta. The N2O-N emission factor (EF = % of added N released as N2O-N for urine and dung was calculated, taking into account the N2O fluxes in the field, over a period of 39 days. The EF value of the urine and dung was used to estimate the emissions of N2O-N over a 90-day period of pasture in the winter under two grazing intensities (2.5 or 5.0 times the herbage intake potential of grazing lambs. The soil N2O-N fluxes ranged from 4 to 353 µg m-2h-1. The highest N2O-N fluxes occurred 16 days after application of urine and dung, when the highest soil nitrate content was also recorded and the water-filled pore space exceeded 60 %.