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Sample records for decreased high-density lipoprotein

  1. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematological indices of SCD patients with decreased levels of HDL.c were compared with those with normal HDL.c levels. Results: The SCD patients with decreased levels of HDL.c presented with lower levels of hemoglobin (P < 0.01), hematocrit (P < 0.001), total leukocyte count (P = 0.02), red blood cell count (P < 0.01), ...

  2. Utilization of Cow Milk Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid to Decrease Body Weight, Cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein and to Increase Blood High Density Lipoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartati, FM; Suryapratama, W; Rahayu, S

    2012-01-01

    An experiment to investigate the ability of cow milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid to decrease body weight, total cholesterol, blood Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), and to increase blood High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) has been conducted using in vivo experimental method. Research material consisted of 40 8-week-old white female rats (Rattus norvegicus) of Wistar strain (as an animal model). The method used was an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments ...

  3. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader - Rahnama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players.
    • METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser.
    • RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001, whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl. Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl between before and after the match.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid

    • [Short-term Lycopersicum esculentum consumption may increase plasma high density lipoproteins and decrease oxidative stress].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Madrid A, Eva; Vásquez Z, Darío; Leyton A, Fanny; Mandiola, Christian; Escobar F, Jorge A

      2006-07-01

      Tomato has a high antioxidant capacity due to its high content of vitamin C, vitamin E and lycopene that is a powerful free radical scavenger. However, the effects of tomato on plasma lipoproteins is not well known, and there is little evidence about the relationship between tomato consumption and oxidative state changes in humans. To assess in vivo the effects of dietary supplementation with pure concentrated tomato juice on short term changes in oxidative state and plasma lipoproteins in healthy volunteers. Seventeen healthy volunteers were studied. They received a supplement of pure tomato juice during 7 days. At baseline, at the end of the supplementarion period and eight days after the end of the supplementation, a blood sample was drawn to measure total antioxidant capacity (TRAP), enzymatic antioxidants (catalase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzimatic antioxidants (lycopene and a-tocopherol) and plasma lipoproteins. Lycopene level increased early and significantly in comparison with basal levels (48%; p < 0.05). TRAP, catalase and superoxide dismutase did not change significantly. HDL cholesterol increased significantly in 5.6+/-4.3 mg/dL (p < 0.002) on the second sampling period, improving the ratio cholesterol/HDL. It returned to baseline in the third period. Dietary supplementation of concentrated tomato juice significantly increases lycopene levels and HDL cholesterol. Non significant changes observed in TRAP, catalase and superoxide dismutase were observed during the supplementation period.

    • Dietary squalene increases high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and paraoxonase 1 and decreases oxidative stress in mice.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Clara Gabás-Rivera

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Squalene, the main hydrocarbon in the unsaponifiable fraction of virgin olive oil, is involved in cholesterol synthesis and it has been reported to own antiatherosclerotic and antiesteatosic effects. However, the squalene's role on lipid plasma parameters and the influence of genotype on this effect need to be addressed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: Three male mouse models (wild-type, Apoa1- and Apoe- deficient were fed chow semisynthetic diets enriched in squalene to provide a dose of 1 g/kg during 11 weeks. After this period, their plasma parameters and lipoprotein profiles were analyzed. KEY RESULTS: Squalene administration at a dose of 1 g/kg showed decreased reactive oxygen species in lipoprotein fractions independently of the animal background and caused an specific increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels, accompanied by an increase in phosphatidylcholine and paraoxonase 1 and no changes in apolipoproteins A1 and A4 in wild-type mice. In these mice, the cholesterol increase was due to its esterified form and associated with an increased hepatic expression of Lcat. These effects were not observed in absence of apolipoprotein A1. The increases in HDL- paraoxonase 1 were translated into decreased plasma malondialdehyde levels depending on the presence of Apolipoprotein A1. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Dietary squalene promotes changes in HDL- cholesterol and paraoxonase 1 and decreases reactive oxygen species in lipoproteins and plasma malondialdehyde levels, providing new benefits of its intake that might contribute to explain the properties of virgin olive oil, although the phenotype related to apolipoproteins A1 and E may be particularly relevant.

    • Utilization of Cow Milk Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid to Decrease Body Weight, Cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein and to Increase Blood High Density Lipoprotein

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      FM Suhartati

      2012-05-01

      Full Text Available An experiment to investigate the ability of cow milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid to decrease body weight, total cholesterol, blood Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, and to increase blood High Density Lipoprotein (HDL has been conducted using in vivo experimental method. Research material consisted of 40 8-week-old white female rats (Rattus norvegicus of Wistar strain (as an animal model. The method used was an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments tested were P1 = high-fat ration containing 27.66% fat (HF, P2 = HF + 5 ml of milk/head/day, P3 = HF + 10 ml of milk/head/day, P4 = low-fat ration containing 5% fat (LF. Each treatment was repeated five times to make 20 experiment units, each consisted of two rats. Body weight gain, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were observed. The data obtained were then analyzed using analysis of variance followed by orthogonal contrast test. Orthogonal polynomials tests was applied to evaluate the response variables. The results showed that 10 ml/head/day of cow milk was needed to decrease body weight of hypercholesterolemic rats and 5 ml/head/day of cow milk was needed to decrease total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and to increase blood HDL-cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic rats. Keywords: cow milk, conjugated linoleic acid, body weight gain, cholesterol.   Animal Production 14(2:70-76

    • MiR-33a Decreases High-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Radiation Sensitivity in Breast Cancer

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Wolfe, Adam R.; Bambhroliya, Arvind [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Reddy, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Debeb, Bisrat G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Huo, Lei [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Larson, Richard; Li, Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ueno, Naoto T. [Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A., E-mail: wwoodward@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

      2016-06-01

      Purpose: We previously showed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) radiosensitizes inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cells in vitro and is associated with better local control after radiation therapy in IBC patients. The microRNA miR-33 family negatively regulates the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1. We hypothesized that variations in miR-33a expression in IBC cancer cells versus non-IBC cells would correlate with radiation sensitivity following exposure to HDL in vitro. Methods and Materials: MiR-33a expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction in 4 cell lines representing common clinical breast cancer subtypes. Overexpression and knockdown of miR-33a was demonstrated via transfection of an miR-33a mimic or an anti-miR-33a construct in high- and low-expressing miR-33a cell lines. Clonogenic survival in vitro in these cells was quantified at baseline and following HDL treatment. MiR-33a expression on distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) of 210 cases downloaded from the Oxford breast cancer dataset was determined. Results: Expression levels of miR-33a were lower in IBC cell lines and IBC tumor samples than in non-IBC cell lines and normal breast tissue. Cholesterol concentrations in the cell membranes were higher in IBC cells than in non-IBC cells. Clonogenic survival following 24 hours of HDL treatment was decreased in response to irradiation in the low-miR-33a–expressing cell lines SUM149 and KPL4, but survival following HDL treatment decreased in the high-miR-33a–expressing cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM159. In the high-miR-33a–expressing cell lines, anti-miR-33a transfection decreased radiation resistance in clonogenic assays. Conversely, in the low-miR-33a–expressing cell lines, the miR-33a mimic reversed the HDL-induced radiation sensitization. Breast cancer patients in the top quartile based on miR-33a expression had markedly lower rates of DRFS than the bottom quartile (P

    • MiR-33a Decreases High-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Radiation Sensitivity in Breast Cancer

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Wolfe, Adam R.; Bambhroliya, Arvind; Reddy, Jay P.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Huo, Lei; Larson, Richard; Li, Li; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.

      2016-01-01

      Purpose: We previously showed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) radiosensitizes inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cells in vitro and is associated with better local control after radiation therapy in IBC patients. The microRNA miR-33 family negatively regulates the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1. We hypothesized that variations in miR-33a expression in IBC cancer cells versus non-IBC cells would correlate with radiation sensitivity following exposure to HDL in vitro. Methods and Materials: MiR-33a expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction in 4 cell lines representing common clinical breast cancer subtypes. Overexpression and knockdown of miR-33a was demonstrated via transfection of an miR-33a mimic or an anti-miR-33a construct in high- and low-expressing miR-33a cell lines. Clonogenic survival in vitro in these cells was quantified at baseline and following HDL treatment. MiR-33a expression on distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) of 210 cases downloaded from the Oxford breast cancer dataset was determined. Results: Expression levels of miR-33a were lower in IBC cell lines and IBC tumor samples than in non-IBC cell lines and normal breast tissue. Cholesterol concentrations in the cell membranes were higher in IBC cells than in non-IBC cells. Clonogenic survival following 24 hours of HDL treatment was decreased in response to irradiation in the low-miR-33a–expressing cell lines SUM149 and KPL4, but survival following HDL treatment decreased in the high-miR-33a–expressing cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM159. In the high-miR-33a–expressing cell lines, anti-miR-33a transfection decreased radiation resistance in clonogenic assays. Conversely, in the low-miR-33a–expressing cell lines, the miR-33a mimic reversed the HDL-induced radiation sensitization. Breast cancer patients in the top quartile based on miR-33a expression had markedly lower rates of DRFS than the bottom quartile (P

    • Proteomic analysis of high-density lipoprotein

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Rezaee, Farhad; Casetta, Bruno; Levels, J. Han M.; Speijer, Dave; Meijers, Joost C. M.

      2006-01-01

      Plasma lipoproteins, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL), can serve as carriers for a wide range of proteins that are involved in processes such as lipid metabolism, thrombosis, inflammation and atherosclerosis. The identification of HDL-associated proteins is essential with regards to

    • Regulation of high-density lipoprotein metabolism.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rye, Kerry-Anne; Barter, Philip J

      2014-01-03

      There is compelling evidence from human population studies that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol correlate inversely with cardiovascular risk. Identification of this relationship has stimulated research designed to understand how HDL metabolism is regulated. The ultimate goal of these studies has been to develop HDL-raising therapies that have the potential to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the situation has turned out to be much more complex than originally envisaged. This is partly because the HDL fraction consists of multiple subpopulations of particles that vary in terms of shape, size, composition, and surface charge, as well as in their potential cardioprotective properties. This heterogeneity is a consequence of the continual remodeling and interconversion of HDL subpopulations by multiple plasma factors. Evidence that the remodeling of HDLs may impact on their cardioprotective properties is beginning to emerge. This serves to highlight the importance of understanding not only how the remodeling and interconversion of HDL subpopulations is regulated but also how these processes are affected by agents that increase HDL levels. This review provides an overview of what is currently understood about HDL metabolism and how the subpopulation distribution of these lipoproteins is regulated.

    • Thyrotropin interaction with high-density lipoproteins.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bifulco, M; Saroff, H A; Kohn, L D; Aloj, S M

      1985-07-09

      Human high-density lipoproteins (HDL), but not other lipoprotein classes, bind bovine thyrotropin (TSH) with moderately high affinity. Binding of 125I-labeled HDL to TSH has been measured in a solid-phase assay; it is saturable and can be displaced by unlabeled HDL but not by other lipoproteins or bovine serum albumin. The interaction of HDL with TSH has been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy: HDL specifically modifies the fluorescence properties of the biologically active dansyl derivative (DNS, (5-dimethyl-aminonaphtalene-1-sulfonyl) chloride) of TSH (DNS-TSH) causing a 12 nm shift to lower wavelength of the emission maximum, a two-fold increase of the quantum yield and a significant increase of fluorescence polarization. The primary site of TSH binding on the HDL particle is likely to be located on its protein moieties, since other lipoprotein classes, which share similar lipids with HDL, do not bind TSH. 125I-labeled apolipoprotein A-I binds TSH in the solid-phase assay and titration of DNS-TSH with apolipoprotein A-I causes perturbations nearly identical to those observed with intact HDL. One HDL particle has at least 12 binding sites for TSH with an association constant, K = 10(7) M-1 whereas one apolipoprotein A-I molecule binds one or two TSH molecules with an association constant slightly lower than that for HDL (K = 10(6) M-1). The lipid moieties of HDL also appears to be perturbed by the interaction with TSH.

    • High Density Lipoprotein and it's Dysfunction.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Eren, Esin; Yilmaz, Necat; Aydin, Ozgur

      2012-01-01

      Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) levels do not predict functionality and composition of high-density lipoprotein(HDL). Traditionally, keeping levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) down and HDL-C up have been the goal of patients to prevent atherosclerosis that can lead to coronary vascular disease(CVD). People think about the HDL present in their cholesterol test, but not about its functional capability. Up to 65% of cardiovascular death cannot be prevented by putative LDL-C lowering agents. It well explains the strong interest in HDL increasing strategies. However, recent studies have questioned the good in using drugs to increase level of HDL. While raising HDL is a theoretically attractive target, the optimal approach remains uncertain. The attention has turned to the quality, rather than the quantity, of HDL-C. An alternative to elevations in HDL involves strategies to enhance HDL functionality. The situation poses an opportunity for clinical chemists to take the lead in the development and validation of such biomarkers. The best known function of HDL is the capacity to promote cellular cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells and deliver cholesterol to the liver for excretion, thereby playing a key role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The functions of HDL that have recently attracted attention include anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. High antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HDL are associated with protection from CVD.This review addresses the current state of knowledge regarding assays of HDL functions and their relationship to CVD. HDL as a therapeutic target is the new frontier with huge potential for positive public health implications.

    • Nanotechnology for Synthetic High Density Lipoproteins

      Science.gov (United States)

      Luthi, Andrea J.; Patel, Pinal C.; Ko, Caroline H.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Thaxton, C. Shad

      2014-01-01

      Atherosclerosis is the disease mechanism responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death worldwide. One strategy to combat atherosclerosis is to increase the amount of circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), which transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The process, known as reverse cholesterol transport, is thought to be one of the main reasons for the significant inverse correlation observed between HDL blood levels and the development of CHD. This article highlights the most common strategies for treating atherosclerosis using HDL. We further detail potential treatment opportunities that utilize nanotechnology to increase the amount of HDL in circulation. The synthesis of biomimetic HDL nanostructures that replicate the chemical and physical properties of natural HDL provides novel materials for investigating the structure-function relationships of HDL and for potential new therapeutics to combat CHD. PMID:21087901

    • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      G Rajagopal

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

    • Lipoprotein Lipase and PPAR Alpha Gene Polymorphisms, Increased Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels, and Decreased High-Density Lipoprotein Levels as Risk Markers for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Márcia Dias Teixeira Carvalho

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis (VL endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triacylglycerol (TAG, and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples (H+ = the presence and H− = the absence of mutation revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H−/H− genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32–3335.3; P = 0.003. The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P < 0.05 and reduced HDL-C levels (P < 0.05. An analysis of the L162V polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα gene (n = 248 revealed an increased adjusted OR when the Leu/Val was compared with the Leu/Leu genotype (OR = 8.77; 95% CI = 1.41–78.70; P = 0.014. High TAG (P = 0.021 and VLDL-C (P = 0.023 levels were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas low HDL (P = 0.006 levels with resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL.

    • The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Objective: To determine the usefulness of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. Methods: This is a prospective case-control study involving 109 diabetics, 98 diabetic hypertensives, 102 ...

    • Mendelian Disorders of High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolism

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Oldoni, Federico; Sinke, Richard J.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

      2014-01-01

      High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a highly heterogeneous and dynamic group of the smallest and densest lipoproteins present in the circulation. This review provides the current molecular insight into HDL metabolism led by articles describing mutations in genes that have a large affect on HDL

    • Antioxidant activity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) using different ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      HDL is a potent antioxidant in terms of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, ROS production and LDL oxidation. These may to some extent add to the antiatherogenic beyond reverse-cholesterol transport properties of HDL. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein; reverse cholesterol transport; apolipoprotein A1; antioxidant; in vitro.

    • High density lipoproteins (HDLs) and atherosclerosis; the unanswered questions

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Barter, Philip; Kastelein, John; Nunn, Alistair; Hobbs, Richard

      2003-01-01

      The concentration of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) has been found consistently to be a powerful negative predictor of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in human prospective population studies. There is also circumstantial evidence from human intervention studies and direct

    • Effect of high density lipoproteins on permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Klimov, A.N.; Popov, V.A.; Nagornev, V.A.; Pleskov, V.M.

      1985-01-01

      A study was made on the effect of high density lipoproteins (HDL) on the permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins (LDL) after intravenous administration of human HDL and human ( 125 I)LDL to normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Evaluation of radioactivity in plasma and aorta has shown that the administration of a large dose of HDL decreased the aorta permeability rate for ( 125 I)LDL on an average by 19% in normal rabbits, and by 45% in rabbits with moderate hypercholesterolemia. A historadiographic study showed that HDL also decreased the vessel wall permeability to ( 125 I)LDL in normal and particularly in hypercholesterolemic animals. The suggestion was made that HDL at very high molar concentration can hamper LDL transportation through the intact endothelial layer into the intima due to the ability of HDL to compete with LDL in sites of low affinity on the surface of endothelial cells. (author)

  1. Acrolein impairs the cholesterol transport functions of high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Holme, Rebecca L; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Silverstein, Roy L; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway.

  2. High-Density Lipoproteins and the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidesuke Kaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL plays a major role in vasodilation and in the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, inflammation, apoptosis, thrombosis, and infection; however, HDL is now less functional in these roles under certain conditions. This paper focuses on HDL, its anti-inflammation behavior, and the mechanisms by which HDL interacts with components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS and proteomic studies have elucidated important molecules involved in the interaction between HDL and the immune system. An understanding of these mechanisms is expected to be useful for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation due to metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, or various autoimmune diseases.

  3. Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles For Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery. PMID:21319839

  4. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, Hans H; Andersen, Rolf V; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  5. Single step reconstitution of multifunctional high-density lipoprotein-derived nanomaterials using microfluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Yongtae; Fay, Francois; Cormode, David P.; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Tang, Jun; Hennessy, Elizabeth J.; Ma, Mingming; Moore, Kathryn; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Fisher, Edward Allen; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that transports peripheral cholesterol to the liver. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) exhibits antiatherothrombotic properties and is being considered as a natural treatment for cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, HDL

  6. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing

  7. Degradation of high density lipoprotein in cultured rat luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.J.

    1986-01-01

    In rat ovary luteal cells, degradation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to tricholoracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products accounts for only a fraction of the HDL-derived cholesterol used for steroidogenesis. In this study the authors have investigated the fate of 125 I]HDL bound to cultured luteal cells using pulse-chase technique. Luteal cell cultures were pulse labeled with [ 125 I]HDL 3 and reincubated in the absence of HDL. By 24 h about 50% of the initallay bound radioactivity was released into the medium, of which 60-65% could be precipitated with 10% TCA. Gel filtration of the chase incubation medium on 10% agarose showed that the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity eluted over a wide range of molecular weights (15,000-80,000), and there was very little intact HDL present. Electrophoresis of the chase medium showed that component of the TCA-precipitable portion had mobility similar to apo AI. Lysosomal inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis had no effect on the composition or quantity of radioactivity released during chase incubation. The results show that HDL 3 binding to luteal cells is followed by complete degradation of the lipoprotein, although the TCA-soluble part does not reflect the extent of degradation

  8. High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Increasing Therapy: The Unmet Cardiovascular Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Giovanni; Morello, Alberto; Ciccarelli, Michele; Golino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Despite aggressive strategies are now available to reduce LDL-cholesterol, the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease remains substantial. Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown that drug therapy ultimately leads to a regression of the angiographic lesions but also results in a reduction in cardiovascular events. The dramatic failure of clinical trials evaluating the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CEPT) inhibitors, torcetrapib and dalcetrapib, has led to considerable doubt about the value of the current strategy to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a treatment for cardiovascular disease. These clinical results, as well as animal studies, have revealed the complexity of HDL metabolism, assessing a more important role of functional quality compared to circulating quantity of HDL. As a result, HDL-based therapeutic interventions that maintain or enhance HDL functionality, such as improving its main property, the reverse cholesterol transport, require closer investigation. In this review, we will discuss HDL metabolism and function, clinical-trial data available for HDL-raising agents, and potential strategies for future HDL-based therapies. PMID:26535185

  9. High Density Lipoprotein: A Therapeutic Target in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Barter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High density lipoproteins (HDLs have a number of properties that have the potential to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and thus reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event. These protective effects of HDLs may be reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the concentration of HDL cholesterol is frequently low. In addition to their potential cardioprotective properties, HDLs also increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β cells and may thus have a beneficial effect on glycemic control. This raises the possibility that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for targeting HDLs in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and also to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL levels include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. There is an ongoing search for HDL-raising drugs as agents to use in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the HDL level remains low despite lifestyle interventions.

  10. Olive oil phenolic compounds and high-density lipoprotein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáez, Alvaro; Farràs, Marta; Fitó, Montserrat

    2016-02-01

    The functional capacities of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) reflect the physiological role of the particle better than the quantity of HDL cholesterol. Owing to its phenolic compounds, the consumption of virgin olive oil has emerged as a promising therapy to promote these capacities. This review highlights the human studies that explain these benefits and explores some possible mechanisms. The consumption of olive oil phenolic compounds increased the ability of HDLs to pick up cholesterol excess in peripheral cells (the cholesterol efflux capacity). Olive oil phenolic compounds have also been shown to improve HDL antioxidant capacities and some anti-inflammatory traits. These changes respond to an improvement of HDL oxidative status and composition. Novel strategies to increase HDL functional capacities are in demand from clinicians. The attainment of a fully-functional HDL through dietary or lifestyle changes is a priority in cardiovascular research. Within this context, the consumption of virgin olive oil, because of its phenolic compounds, may be a relevant protective approach. Further studies in large-scale, randomized controlled trials are, however, required to confirm these effects in HDL functionality.

  11. High-density lipoproteins and adrenal steroidogenesis : A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenwerf, Edward; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Links, Thera P.; Kema, Ido P.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    BACKGROUND: Cholesterol trafficked within plasma lipoproteins, in particular high-density lipoproteins (HDL), may represent an important source of cholesterol that is required for adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on a urinary gas chromatography method, compromised adrenal function has been suggested

  12. High density lipoproteins as indicators of endothelial dysfunction in children with diadetes type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanova S.M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the level of blood high density lipoproteins (HDL in the groups of children with different course of diadetes type I in order to find out the dependence of course and complications of diabetes on that level. Materials and methods: Blood high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were investigated in children and adolescents with diadetes type I, depending on the duration of diadetes type I, age, stage of sexual development, the stage of diabetic nephropathy and levels of plasma endothelin-1 (E-1. Results: Decrease in HDL level with increasing duration of diadetes type I in prepubertate patients, higher indices of HDL cholesterol were determined in girls, especially with impaired puberty. HDL cholesterol was higher in diabetic nephropathy at the stage of proteinuria and high level of blood endothelin-1. Conclusion: The revealed changes were considered to cause deregulation of vascular endothelium as a manifestation of the initial stages of endothelial dysfunction

  13. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

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    Kaemisa Srisen

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal

  14. Native High Density Lipoproteins (HDL Interfere with Platelet Activation Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoproteins (OxLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Volf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Platelets and lipoproteins play a crucial role in atherogenesis, in part by their ability to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress. While oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL play a central role in the development of this disease, high density lipoproteins (HDL represent an atheroprotective factor of utmost importance. As platelet function is remarkably sensitive to the influence of plasma lipoproteins, it was the aim of this study to clarify if HDL are able to counteract the stimulating effects of OxLDL with special emphasis on aspects of platelet function that are relevant to inflammation. Therefore, HDL were tested for their ability to interfere with pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory aspects of platelet function. We are able to show that HDL significantly impaired OxLDL-induced platelet aggregation and adhesion. In gel-filtered platelets, HDL decreased both the formation of reactive oxygen species and CD40L expression. Furthermore, HDL strongly interfered with OxLDL-induced formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates in whole blood, suggesting that platelets represent a relevant and sensitive target for HDL. The finding that HDL effectively competed with the binding of OxLDL to the platelet surface might contribute to their atheroprotective and antithrombotic properties.

  15. High density lipoproteins, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    ... with premature coronary heart disease (CHD). These familial disorders include lipoprotein(a) excess, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and low HDL), combined hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol and high triglycerides often with low HDL), hypoalphalipoproteinemia (low HDL), and hypercholesterolemia. We discuss the management of these disorders. W...

  16. Modulation of low-density lipoprotein-induced inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R. M.; de Haan, L. H.; Kuivenhoven, J. A.; Nusselder, I. C.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the capacity of antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to modulate the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on intercellular communication, arterial smooth muscle cells and a dye transfer method were used. LDL, in contrast to HDL, inhibited the communication between

  17. Modulation of low-density lipoprotein-induced inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R M; de Haan, L. H. J.; Kuivenhoven, J A; Nusselder, I C

    In order to study the capacity of antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to modulate the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on intercellular communication, arterial smooth muscle cells and a dye transfer method were used. LDL, in contrast to HDL, inhibited the communication between

  18. Assessing the functional properties of high-density lipoproteins : an emerging concept in cardiovascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triolo, Michela; Annema, Wijtske; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Although plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol correlate inversely with the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, results from recent epidemiological, genetic and pharmacological intervention studies resulted in a shift of concept. Rather than HDL

  19. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  20. ABCA8 Regulates Cholesterol Efflux and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trigueros-Motos, Laia; van Capelleveen, Julian C.; Torta, Federico; Castaño, David; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Chai, Ee Chu; Kang, Martin; Dimova, Lidiya G.; Schimmel, Alinda W. M.; Tietjen, Ian; Radomski, Chris; Tan, Liang Juin; Thiam, Chung Hwee; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wu, Daniel Heqing; Dorninger, Fabian; Yakala, Gopala Krishna; Barhdadi, Amina; Angeli, Veronique; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Berger, Johannes; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Wenk, Markus R.; Hayden, Michael R.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Singaraja, Roshni R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective-High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered to protect against atherosclerosis in part by facilitating the removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues. However, factors regulating lipid efflux are incompletely understood. We previously identified a variant in adenosine

  1. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (Plevel of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  2. Correlation between the High Density Lipoprotein and its Subtypes in Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To detect the changes of high density lipoprotein (HDL and its subtypes in serum of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods: 337 hospitalized patients were selected from our hospital during August, 2014 - January, 2015, and divided into CHD group (n = 190 and control group (n = 127. Lipoprint lipoprotein analyzer was used to classify low density lipoprotein (LDL particle size and its sub-components, as well as HDL particle size and its sub-components. The changes of the subtypes in patients with CHD were statistically analyzed. The possible mechanism was explored. Results: (1 Compared with the control group, the concentration of HDL in CHD patients reduced, HDLL significantly decreased (P S increased (P L had the most significant decreased; (3 HDL and all HDL subtypes were positively correlated with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, of which, HDLL had the biggest correlation with apoA-I (P M had a maximum correlation with HDL (P Conclusion: HDL maturation disorders existed in the serum of CHD patients, HDLL may be protected factor for CHD, whose decrease was closely related wit the risk increase of CHD. The cardiovascular protection function of HDLL may be related with apoA-I content.

  3. Long-term ethanol consumption impairs reverse cholesterol transport function of high-density lipoproteins by depleting high-density lipoprotein sphingomyelin both in rats and in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmillot, Philippe; Munoz, Jennifer; Patel, Sanket; Garige, Mamatha; Rosse, Richard B; Lakshman, M Raj

    2007-07-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to lower incidence of coronary artery disease due to increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas heavy drinking has the opposite effect. Because of the crucial role of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport and positive correlation of HDL sphingomyelin (SM) content with cholesterol efflux, we have compared HDL SM content with its reverse cholesterol transport capacity both in rats fed ethanol on long-term basis and alcoholic individuals. In rats, SM HDL content was decreased in the ethanol group (-15.4%, P cholesterol uptake with control-group hepatocytes and 35.0% (P cholesterol uptake with ethanol-group hepatocytes. Conversely, hepatocytes from the ethanol group, when compared with hepatocytes from the control group, exhibited 31.0% (P cholesterol uptake with control-group HDL and 48.0% (P alcoholic individuals without liver disease (-51.5%, P alcoholic individuals with liver disease (-51.3%, P alcoholic individuals without liver disease, both efflux and uptake were decreased by 83.0% and 54.0% (P alcoholic individuals with liver disease by 84.0% and 61.0% (P consumption significantly impairs not only cholesterol efflux function of HDL by decreasing its SM content but also cholesterol uptake by affecting presumably hepatocyte receptors for HDL.

  4. Changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypo- and hyperthyroid patients are related to changes in free thyroxine, not to polymorphisms in LDL receptor or cholesterol ester transfer protein genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Anghelescu, N.; Endert, E.; Bakker, O.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in lipoprotein metabolism. Both plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase in hypothyroidism and decrease in hyperthyroidism. Changes in LDL-C relate to altered clearance of LDL particles

  5. Unique Features of High-Density Lipoproteins in the Japanese: In Population and in Genetic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yokoyama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its gradual increase in the past several decades, the prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease is low in Japan. This is largely attributed to difference in lifestyle, especially food and dietary habits, and it may be reflected in certain clinical parameters. Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels, a strong counter risk for atherosclerosis, are indeed high among the Japanese. Accordingly, lower HDL seems to contribute more to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD than an increase in non-HDL lipoproteins at a population level in Japan. Interestingly, average HDL levels in Japan have increased further in the past two decades, and are markedly higher than in Western populations. The reasons and consequences for public health of this increase are still unknown. Simulation for the efficacy of raising HDL cholesterol predicts a decrease in CHD of 70% in Japan, greater than the extent by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicted by simulation or achieved in a statin trial. On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. It is still controversial whether CETP mutations are antiatherogenic. Hepatic Schistosomiasis is proposed as a potential screening factor for historic accumulation of CETP deficiency in East Asia.

  6. Lipoprotein distribution and serum concentrations of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and bile acids: effects of monogenic disturbances in high-density lipoprotein metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Carine; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Karuna, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    distributions of the major 15 BA species and their precursor C4 (7a-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one). In normolipidaemic plasma, approximately 84%, 11% and 5% of BAs were recovered in the LPDS (lipoprotein-depleted serum), HDL and the combined LDL (low-density lipoprotein)/VLDL (very-low-density lipoproteins......) fraction respectively. Conjugated BAs were slightly over-represented in HDL. For C4, the respective percentages were 23%, 21% and 56% (41% in LDL and 15% in VLDL) respectively. Compared with unaffected family members, neither HDL-C (HDL-cholesterol)-decreasing mutations in the genes APOA1 [encoding Apo......BA (bile acid) formation is considered an important final step in RCT (reverse cholesterol transport). HDL (high-density lipoprotein) has been reported to transport BAs. We therefore investigated the effects of monogenic disturbances in human HDL metabolism on serum concentrations and lipoprotein...

  7. [Alterations in the protein content and dysfunction of high-density lipoproteins from hyperhomocysteinemic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julve, Josep; Errico, Teresa Laura; Chen, Xiangyu; Santos, David; Freixa, Júlia; Porcel, Inmaculada; Cubero, Esther; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proteic changes in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) induced by methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in mice and its relationship with two of their main antiatherogenic properties. The oral administration of methionine resulted in an elevation (~8 times) in the plasma concentration of homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia was inversely correlated with the plasma concentration of HDL cholesterol and its main protein component of HDL, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, respectively. The cholesterol efflux in vivo from macrophages to HDL was decreased in hyperhomocysteinemic mice compared with the control mice. However, the reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages to feces remained unchanged. On the other hand, the ability of HDL from hyperhomocysteinemic mice to prevent the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) was found decreased and associated with a concomitant reduction in the plasma activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the plasma concentration of apoA-I, and with a relative reduction in the apoA-IV content (~1.5 times) in the hyperhomocysteinemic HDL, respectively. The decrease in the ability of HDL from hyperhomocysteinemic mice to prevent LDL from oxidation was associated with a decrease in the apoA-I, PON1 and apoA-IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEA. All rights reserved.

  8. SCARB1 Gene Variants Are Associated With the Phenotype of Combined High High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and High Lipoprotein (a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Sethi, Amar A; Yanek, Lisa R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SR-B1 (scavenger receptor class B type 1), encoded by the gene SCARB1, is a lipoprotein receptor that binds both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein. We reported that SR-B1 is also a receptor for lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), mediating cellular uptake of Lp(a) in vitro...... variants in 6. Functional studies with 4 of the SCARB1 variants (c.386C>T, c.631-14T>G, c.4G>A, and c.631-53(m)C>T & c.726+55(m)CG>CA) showed decreased receptor function in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Human SCARB1 gene variants are associated with a new lipid phenotype, characterized by high levels of both HDL...... cholesterol and Lp(a). SCARB1 exonic variants often result in diminished function of translated SR-B1 via reduced binding/intracellular transport of Lp(a)....

  9. Increased Antioxidant Quality Versus Lower Quantity Of High Density Lipoprotein In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.

  10. Genetic analysis of long-lived families reveals novel variants influencing high density-lipoprotein cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feitosa, Mary F; Wojczynski, Mary K; Straka, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) have an inverse relationship to the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and have also been associated with longevity. We sought to identify novel loci for HDL that could potentially provide new insights...

  11. Co-isolation of extracellular vesicles and high-density lipoproteins using density gradient ultracentrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana; Levels, Johannes; Grootemaat, Anita; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) facilitate intercellular communication by carrying bioactive molecules such as proteins, messenger RNA, and micro (mi)RNAs. Recently, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) isolated from human plasma were also reported to transport miRNA to other cells. HDL, when isolated from

  12. The HDL hypothesis: does high-density lipoprotein protect from atherosclerosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2010-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for

  13. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  14. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  15. [A history and review of cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and their contribution to the understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of high density lipoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Pablo; Schreier, Laura

    2014-01-01

    There is irrefutable evidence that statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in a magnitude proportional to the intensity of the decrease in cholesterol transport by the low density lipoproteins. Despite this great advance there is still a residual risk of cardiovascular events. For this reason, an increase in the levels of high density lipoprotein is considered in order to boost the main action of this lipoprotein, which is reverse cholesterol transport. Distinct classes of evidence (epidemiological, genetic, and pathophysiological) show that the inhibition and/or modulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein increases plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The main reason for presenting this review is to look at the physiology of cholesterol ester transfer protein, its interrelationship with high density lipoproteins, and to give an update on the development of different cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor/modulator molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of apolipoprotein M on high density lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Moser, Markus

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the role of apoM in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and atherogenesis, we generated human apoM transgenic (apoM-Tg) and apoM-deficient (apoM(-/-)) mice. Plasma apoM was predominantly associated with 10-12-nm alpha-migrating HDL particles. Human apoM overexpression (11-fold......) increased plasma cholesterol concentration by 13-22%, whereas apoM deficiency decreased it by 17-21%. The size and charge of apoA-I-containing HDL in plasma were not changed in apoM-Tg or apoM(-/-) mice. However, in plasma incubated at 37 degrees C, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase-dependent conversion...... of alpha- to pre-alpha-migrating HDL was delayed in apoM-Tg mice. Moreover, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-independent generation of pre-beta-migrating apoA-I-containing particles in plasma was increased in apoM-Tg mice (4.2 +/- 1.1%, p = 0.06) and decreased in apoM(-/-) mice (0.5 +/- 0.3%, p = 0...

  17. Investigations on the transport and metabolism of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in African green monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorci-Thomas, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolic fate of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters was studied in African green monkeys to determine the significance of the lipid transfer reaction on the catabolism of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters. A method of doubly labeling both moieties of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters with [ 3 He]cholesteryl oleate and cholesteryl [ 14 C]oleate was developed for the purpose of studying plasma cholesteryl ester metabolism in vivo. In these studies the total plasma [ 3 He]cholesterol turnover resulted in production rates, which ranged from 10-17 mg/kg day, similar to previously reported values in African green monkeys and in normal lipoproteinemic humans. In contrast to the production rates calculated from the decay of plasma 3 He-radioactivity, the production rates calculated from lipoproteins labeled with cholesteryl [ 14 C]oleate were approximately 2-3 times greater. In addition to these studies, a plasma cholesteryl ester transacylation activity was demonstrated in vitro when HDL containing doubly labeled cholesteryl esters were incubated with fresh plasma. These results demonstrated that high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters undergo transacylation in vitro, resulting in release and reesterification of free [ 3 H]cholesterol

  18. Impaired lipoprotein processing in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: aberrant high-density lipoprotein lipids, stability, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Raya, Joe L; Ruiz-Esponda, Raul; Iyer, Dinakar; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Pownall, Henry J

    2013-07-01

    HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (HIV/ART) exhibit a unique atherogenic dyslipidemic profile with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and low plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. In the Heart Positive Study of HIV/ART patients, a hypolipidemic therapy of fenofibrate, niacin, diet, and exercise reduced HTG and plasma non-HDL cholesterol concentrations and raised plasma HDL cholesterol and adiponectin concentrations. We tested the hypothesis that HIV/ART HDL have abnormal structures and properties and are dysfunctional. Hypolipidemic therapy reduced the TG contents of low-density lipoprotein and HDL. At baseline, HIV/ART low-density lipoproteins were more triglyceride (TG)-rich and HDL were more TG- and cholesteryl ester-rich than the corresponding lipoproteins from normolipidemic (NL) subjects. Very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL were larger than the corresponding lipoproteins from NL subjects; HIV/ART HDL were less stable than NL HDL. HDL-[(3)H]cholesteryl ester uptake by Huh7 hepatocytes was used to assess HDL functionality. HIV/ART plasma were found to contain significantly less competitive inhibition activity for hepatocyte HDL-cholesteryl ester uptake than NL plasma were found to contain (PART patients are larger and more neutral lipid-rich, and their HDL are less stable and less receptor-competent. On the basis of this work and previous studies of lipase activity in HIV, we present a model in which plasma lipolytic activities or hepatic cholesteryl ester uptake are impaired in HIV/ART patients. These findings provide a rationale to determine whether the distinctive lipoprotein structure, properties, and function of HIV/ART HDL predict atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid artery intimal medial thickness.

  19. Polymer-coated pH-responsive high-density lipoproteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Hyungjin; Okamoto Haruki; Felber Arnaud E; Polomska Anna; Morone Nobuhiro; Heuser John E; Leroux Jean-Christophe; Murakami Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular drug delivery by nanoparticles is often hampered by their endosomal entrapment followed by their degradation in the lysosomal compartment and/or exocytosis. Here we show that internalization and endosomal escape of cargoes in a cationized natural nanocarrier high density lipoprotein (HDL) can be controlled in a pH dependent manner through stable complexation with a membranolytic anionic block polymer. A genetically and chemically cationized form of HDL (catHDL) is prepared for t...

  20. High density lipoprotein cholesterol in relation to food consumption and running distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, R D; Smith, M G; Gettman, L R

    1983-03-01

    The effects of diet and exercise on serum triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and the HDL to TC ratio (HDL/TC) were evaluated in 45 men training continuously for a duration of 6 months. Body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, and serum values for Trig, TC, HDL, and HDL/TC were constant throughout the observation period. Bivariate correlations indicated that Trig, TC, and LDL were linearly related and HDL and HDL/TC were related to HDL and HDL/TC. Multiple regression analysis suggested that BMI was the best predictor of Trig, TC, and LDL, while distance run per month was the best predictor of HDL and HDL/TC and second best predictor of Trig. The weekly intakes of fish, bread, cooked cereal, wine, beer, soft drinks, and vegetables were less significant predictors of lipoprotein levels.

  1. Long term stability of paraoxonase-1 and high-density lipoprotein in human serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekhof Piet K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an enzyme with numerous functions and receives an increasing interest in clinical and epidemiological studies. Sometimes samples are stored for longer periods at a certain temperature. Therefore the stability of PON1 activity must be checked and retained upon storage for longer periods. Results In this study the stability of PON1 activity has been tested in human serum samples during storage up to 12 months at 3 commonly used temperatures, -20°C, -70°C and −196°C. It was found that the stability of the PON1 activity is constant during 12 months of storage at −70°C and −196°C. Storage at −20°C resulted in a small but statistically significant decrease after 6 months to about 94% of its original value. Nonetheless, the rank order between the samples at T = 0 and 12 months remained the same. The same temperature dependence was found for the associated high-density lipoprotein. Conclusions It can be concluded that −70°C is the right temperature for storage to maintain the PON1 activity for at least one year. Storage at a lower temperature in liquid nitrogen (−196°C is not necessary.

  2. A statin-loaded reconstituted high-density lipoprotein nanoparticle inhibits atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Tang, Jun; Cormode, David P.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ozcan, Canturk; Otten, Maarten J.; Zaidi, Neeha; Lobatto, Mark E.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Kuan, Emma L.; Martel, Catherine; Hewing, Bernd; Sager, Hendrik; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and a target for therapy. Statins have potent anti-inflammatory properties but these cannot be fully exploited with oral statin therapy due to low systemic bioavailability. Here we present an injectable reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle carrier vehicle that delivers statins to atherosclerotic plaques. We demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin-rHDL in vitro and show that this effect is mediated through the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. We also apply statin-rHDL nanoparticles in vivo in an apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis and show that they accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions in which they directly affect plaque macrophages. Finally, we demonstrate that a 3-month low-dose statin-rHDL treatment regimen inhibits plaque inflammation progression, while a 1-week high-dose regimen markedly decreases inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Statin-rHDL represents a novel potent atherosclerosis nanotherapy that directly affects plaque inflammation.

  3. Comparison of human plasma low- and high-density lipoproteins as substrates for lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, P J; Hopkins, G J; Gorjatschko, L

    1984-01-17

    A recent observation that lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43) interacts with both low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in human plasma is in apparent conflict with an earlier finding that the purified enzyme, while highly reactive with isolated HDL, was only minimally reactive with LDL. There is evidence, however, that lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase may exist physiologically as a component of a complex with other proteins and that studies with the isolated enzyme may therefore provide misleading results. Consequently, interactions of the enzyme with isolated human lipoproteins have been re-examined in incubations containing lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase as a component of human lipoprotein-free plasma in which a physiologically active complex of the enzyme with other proteins may have been preserved. In this system there was a ready esterification of the free cholesterol associated with both LDL and HDL-subfraction 3 (HDL3) in reactions that obeyed typical enzyme-saturation kinetics. For a given preparation of lipoprotein-free plasma the Vmax values with LDL and with HDL3 were virtually identical. The apparent Km for free cholesterol associated with HDL3 was 5.6 X 10(-5) M, while for that associated with LDL it was 4.1 X 10(-4) M. This implied that, in terms of free cholesterol concentration, the affinity of HDL3 for lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase was about 7-times greater than that of LDL. When expressed in terms of lipoprotein particle concentration, however, it was apparent that the affinity of LDL for the enzyme was considerably greater than that of HDL3. When the lipoprotein fractions were equated in terms of lipoprotein surface area, the apparent affinities of the two fractions for the enzyme were found to be comparable.

  4. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively....... Here we use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to consider a number of related issues by calculating the interfacial tension in protein-free lipid droplets, and in HDL and LDL particles mimicking physiological conditions. First, our results suggest that the curvature dependence...

  5. Activated platelets contribute to oxidized low-density lipoproteins and dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins through a phospholipase A2-dependent mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blache, Denis; Gautier, Thomas; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Lagrost, Laurent

    Plasma activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) increases in patients with cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated whether platelet-released sPLA2 induces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) modifications that translate into changes in lipoprotein

  6. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of. Benin, Benin City, 1Departments of ..... In healthy individuals, in the absence of systemic oxidative stress and ..... undergraduate training does not ensure new graduates can intervene effectively in an ...

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of a very high density lipoprotein (VHDL) in ovarian follicles of Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M S; Ronderos, J R; Rimoldi, O J; Brenner, R R

    2001-04-01

    The ability of Triatoma infestans ovarian follicles to synthesize a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) has been examined by immunohistochemical methods. This kind of lipoprotein can be envisaged as a storage hexameric protein present in the hemolymph of some insect species. VHDL immunoreactivity is observed in oocytes at different stages of maturation. The antigen is present in the oocyte cytoplasm as well as in the follicular epithelial cells. The immunopositive reaction in the apical surface of follicle cells suggests both a VHDL synthesis and a secretion process. Furthermore, VHDL seems to be stored into oocyte in yolk granules. On the contrary, no immunopositive reaction is observed in the intracellular spaces between follicle cells, suggesting that VHDL is not incorporated from hemolymph into the oocyte.

  8. High-density lipoproteins: a novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS Mohamed Saleem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TS Mohamed Saleem1, PV Sandhya Rani1, K Gauthaman21Department of Pharmacology, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, New Boyanapalli, Andhrapradesh, India; 2Department of Drug Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Derna, LibyaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease has a high rate of mortality in both Western and developing countries. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Atherothrombosis with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL and high levels of low-density lipoprotein is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular disease. Lipid-lowering drugs like statins, niacin, fibrates, and some newer agents, ie, the apolipoprotein A-I mimetics and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, not only increase HDL levels but are also effective in reducing key atherogenic lipid components, including triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence suggesting that HDL possesses a diverse range of biological actions, and that increasing HDL levels by drug treatment may be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, lipoproteins, statins, apolipoprotein, atherosclerosis

  9. How Well Does BODIPY-Cholesteryl Ester Mimic Unlabeled Cholesteryl Esters in High Density Lipoprotein Particles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karilainen, Topi; Vuorela, Timo; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2015-01-01

    We compare the behavior of unlabeled and BODIPY-labeled cholesteryl ester (CE) in high density lipoprotein by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We find through replica exchange umbrella sampling and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations that BODIPY labeling has no significant effect...... on the partitioning of CE between HDL and the water phase. However, BODIPY-CE was observed to diffuse more slowly and locate itself closer to the HDL-water interface than CE due to the BODIPY probe that is constrained to the surface region, and because the CE body in BODIPY-CE prefers to align itself away from...

  10. Does high-density lipoprotein protect vascular function in healthy pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Wan N Wan; Caslake, Muriel J; Delles, Christian; Karlsson, Helen; Mulder, Monique T; Graham, Delyth; Freeman, Dilys J

    2016-04-01

    The maternal adaptation to pregnancy includes hyperlipidaemia, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. In non-pregnant individuals, these processes are usually associated with poor vascular function. However, maternal vascular function is enhanced in pregnancy. It is not understood how this is achieved in the face of the adverse metabolic and inflammatory environment. Research into cardiovascular disease demonstrates that plasma HDL (high-density lipoprotein), by merit of its functionality rather than its plasma concentration, exerts protective effects on the vascular endothelium. HDL has vasodilatory, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects, and can protect against endothelial cell damage. In pregnancy, the plasma HDL concentration starts to rise at 10 weeks of gestation, peaking at 20 weeks. The initial rise in plasma HDL occurs around the time of the establishment of the feto-placental circulation, a time when the trophoblast plugs in the maternal spiral arteries are released, generating oxidative stress. Thus there is the intriguing possibility that new HDL of improved function is synthesized around the time of the establishment of the feto-placental circulation. In obese pregnancy and, to a greater extent, in pre-eclampsia, plasma HDL levels are significantly decreased and maternal vascular function is reduced. Wire myography studies have shown an association between the plasma content of apolipoprotein AI, the major protein constituent of HDL, and blood vessel relaxation. These observations lead us to hypothesize that HDL concentration, and function, increases in pregnancy in order to protect the maternal vascular endothelium and that in pre-eclampsia this fails to occur. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  11. High-density lipoprotein maintains skeletal muscle function by modulating cellular respiration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehti, Maarit; Donelan, Elizabeth; Abplanalp, William; Al-Massadi, Omar; Habegger, Kirk M; Weber, Jon; Ress, Chandler; Mansfeld, Johannes; Somvanshi, Sonal; Trivedi, Chitrang; Keuper, Michaela; Ograjsek, Teja; Striese, Cynthia; Cucuruz, Sebastian; Pfluger, Paul T; Krishna, Radhakrishna; Gordon, Scott M; Silva, R A Gangani D; Luquet, Serge; Castel, Julien; Martinez, Sarah; D'Alessio, David; Davidson, W Sean; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2013-11-26

    Abnormal glucose metabolism is a central feature of disorders with increased rates of cardiovascular disease. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are a key predictor for cardiovascular disease. We used genetic mouse models with increased HDL levels (apolipoprotein A-I transgenic [apoA-I tg]) and reduced HDL levels (apoA-I-deficient [apoA-I ko]) to investigate whether HDL modulates mitochondrial bioenergetics in skeletal muscle. ApoA-I ko mice exhibited fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance test compared with wild-type mice. Mitochondria isolated from gastrocnemius muscle of apoA-I ko mice displayed markedly blunted ATP synthesis. Endurance capacity during exercise exhaustion test was impaired in apoA-I ko mice. HDL directly enhanced glucose oxidation by increasing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration rate in C2C12 muscle cells. ApoA-I tg mice exhibited lower fasting glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance test, increased lactate levels, reduced fat mass, associated with protection against age-induced decline of endurance capacity compared with wild-type mice. Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 21, a novel biomarker for mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies and inhibitor of white adipose lipolysis, were significantly reduced in apoA-I tg mice. Consistent with an increase in glucose utilization of skeletal muscle, genetically increased HDL and apoA-I levels in mice prevented high-fat diet-induced impairment of glucose homeostasis. In view of impaired mitochondrial function and decreased HDL levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus, our findings indicate that HDL-raising therapies may preserve muscle mitochondrial function and address key aspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus beyond cardiovascular disease.

  12. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  13. Glycation of human high density lipoprotein by methylglyoxal: effect on HDL-paraoxonase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetti, Tiziana; Masciangelo, Simona; Armeni, Tatiana; Bicchiega, Virginia; Ferretti, Gianna

    2014-03-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive carbonyl compound formed primarily from triose phosphates, appears to be involved in the molecular mechanisms of diabetes, end-stage renal disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Methylglyoxal exerts several biological activities. Among these it promotes advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are crucial in pathogenesis of human disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that MG reacts with proteins and compositional modifications reflect loss of biological activity. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of in vitro MG-induced glycation on human high density lipoprotein (HDL) and on the activity of the enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON1). HDL was incubated in the absence or in the presence of MG (0.2mmol/L and 1.0mmol/L) (MG-HDL) for different times (3, 6, 24h) at 37° C. We evaluated apoprotein compositional changes, in both control and MG treated HDL, using intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan and monitoring the decrease of free amino groups. Furthermore we evaluated fluorescent advanced glycation end products (Ex=370nm, Em=440nm) and the activity of HDL-paraoxonase. We demonstrated that human HDL is susceptible to glycation by MG (0.2mmol/L and 1mmol/L). The decrease of free amino groups and of intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan demonstrates HDL apoprotein modifications in HDL incubated with MG. The compositional changes are associated with a significant increase in fluorescent advanced glycation end products and with a significant decrease of paraoxonase-1 enzyme activity associated with the HDL surface. HDL-associated paraoxonase is responsible for the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of HDL and detoxification against homocysteine-thiolactone. Therefore, modifications of apoprotein composition and the decrease of paraoxonase-1 activity in MG-treated HDL could affect the protective effect exerted by HDL against oxidative damage and could contribute to complications in patients affected by diseases

  14. Pharmacogenetics of paraoxonase activity: elucidating the role of high-density lipoprotein in disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Marsillach, Judit; Furlong, Clement E; Jarvik, Gail P

    2014-01-01

    PON1 is a key component of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and is at least partially responsible for HDL's antioxidant/atheroprotective properties. PON1 is also associated with numerous human diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. In addition, PON1 metabolizes a broad variety of substrates, including toxic organophosphorous compounds, statin adducts, glucocorticoids, the likely atherogenic l-homocysteine thiolactone and the quorum-sensing factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Numerous cardiovascular and antidiabetic pharmacologic agents, dietary macronutrients, lifestyle factors and antioxidant supplements affect PON1 expression and enzyme activity levels. Owing to the importance of PON1 to HDL function and its individual association with diverse human diseases, pharmacogenomic interactions between PON1 and the various factors that alter its expression and activity may represent an important therapeutic target for future investigation. PMID:24024900

  15. To Study the Activity of Paraoxonase-1 and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Nemagoudar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is the most common complication of ethanol abuse. Alcoholic fatty liver progresses to alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Lipoproteins are synthesized by the liver and secreted into the circulation. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis causes alteration in lipoprotein metabolism producing liver steatosis and necrosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 is an enzyme synthesized in liver and has an esterase activity towards lipid peroxides and circulates in plasma bound to High-Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c. Aim and Objectives: To determine the activity of PON-1 and levels of HDL-c in alcoholic liver disease and to correlate PON-1 activity with HDL-c. Materials and Methods: A Cross sectional study done in Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India, from 1st December 2014 to 31st January 2016 Study included 50 males (age range 25-55 years with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and 50 healthy male participants (age range 25-55 years. PON-1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of phenylacetate. HDL-c level was measured by cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase method. Results: The serum PON-1 activity and levels of HDL-c in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were significantly reduced (p<0.001 compared with controls. Conclusion: A significant decrease in PON-1 and HDL-c in alcoholic liver cirrhosis may contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis in alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients.

  16. High-density lipoprotein remains elevated despite reductions in total cholesterol in fasting adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tift, Michael S; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2011-08-01

    We examined changes in lipid profiles of 40 adult northern elephant seal bulls over the 3-month breeding fast and the 1-month molting fast to investigate impacts of fasting on serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were initially high (3930 ± 190mgL(-1)and 1610 ± 170mgL(-1), respectively) and decreased significantly over the breeding season. Total cholesterol and LDL declined significantly with adipose tissue reserves (pseals late in the breeding fast. Less dramatic but similar changes in lipid metabolism were observed across the molting fast. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) remained consistently elevated (>1750 mgL(-1)) suggesting that elephant seals defend HDL concentrations, despite significant depletion of TC and LDL across the breeding fast. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher during the molt, consistent with lower rates of lipid oxidation needed to meet metabolic energy demands during this period. The maintenance of HDL during breeding is consistent with its role in delivering cholesterol from adipose tissue for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis and potentially mitigates oxidative stress associated with fasting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trypanosome lytic factor, an antimicrobial high-density lipoprotein, ameliorates Leishmania infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Samanovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast, TLF mice were not protected against infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects many cell types and transiently passes through a phagolysosome. We conclude that TLF not only determines species specificity for African trypanosomes, but can also ameliorate an infection with Leishmania, while having no effect on T. cruzi. We propose that TLFs are a component of the innate immune system that can limit infections by their ability to selectively damage pathogens in phagolysosomes within the reticuloendothelial system.

  18. Non-leaky vesiculation of large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) induced by plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL): Detection by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tischler, U.; Rueckert, D.S.; Schubert, R.; Jaroni, H.W.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Interaction of large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles (LUV, 75nm) and plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) resulted in a non-leaky vesiculation of LUV. This vesiculation was detected by a HPLC-system consisting of a combination of three TSK-gel columns (6000PW, 5000PW, 3000SW). With increasing incubation time liposomal [ 14 C]PC, entrapped [ 3 H]inulin, and apoprotein of HDL origin decreased. The decrease was accompanied by a formation of new particles, consisting of liposomal PC and apoprotein. These particles also enclosed [3H]inulin, reflecting a hydrophilic inner space. The formation of the particles reached a maximum after one day of incubation. Retention time was 21 minutes for LUV, 28 minutes for the new particles, and 36 minutes for HDL. In vesicles with membranes consisting of phosphatidylcholine and 30% cholesterol no interactions were observed

  19. Effect of apolipoprotein E-free high density lipoproteins on cholesterol metabolism in cultured pig hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachorik, P.S.; Virgil, D.G.; Kwiterovich, P.O. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    We studied cholesterol synthesis from [ 14 C]acetate, cholesterol esterification from [ 14 C]oleate, and cellular cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels after incubating cells with apoE-free high density lipoproteins (HDL) or low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL suppressed synthesis by up to 60%, stimulated esterification by up to 280%, and increased cell cholesteryl ester content about 4-fold. Esterification increased within 2 h, but synthesis was not suppressed until after 6 h. ApoE-free HDL suppressed esterification by about 50% within 2 h. Cholesterol synthesis was changed very little within 6 h, unless esterification was maximally suppressed; synthesis was then stimulated about 4-fold. HDL lowered cellular unesterified cholesterol by 13-20% within 2 h and promoted the removal of newly synthesized cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. These changes were transient; by 24 h, both esterification and cellular unesterified cholesterol returned to control levels, and cholesteryl esters increased 2-3-fold. HDL core lipid was taken up selectively from 125 I-labeled [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester- and ether-labeled HDL. LDL core lipid uptake was proportional to LDL apoprotein uptake. The findings suggest that 1) the cells respond initially to HDL or LDL with changes in esterification, and 2) HDL mediates both the removal of free cholesterol from the cell and the delivery of HDL cholesteryl esters to the cell

  20. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1. Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA. PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  1. The Relationship between the Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Young-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Yo-Han; Kang, Hee-Cheol

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest that the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDLC) ratio predicts insulin resistance better than individual lipid levels, including TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), or HDLC. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome in the general Korean population. We evaluated the data of adults ≥20 years old who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 and 2014. Subjects with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the harmonized definition. We examined the odds ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome according to TG/HDLC ratio quartiles using logistic regression analysis (SAS ver. 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Weighted complex sample analysis was also conducted. We found a significant association between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome. The cutoff value of the TG/HDLC ratio for the fourth quartile was ≥3.52. After adjustment, the OR for metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile compared with that of the first quartile was 29.65 in men and 20.60 in women (Pmetabolic syndrome.

  2. Identification of Critical Paraoxonase 1 Residues Involved in High Density Lipoprotein Interaction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Ying; Levison, Bruce S.; Gerstenecker, Gary; DiDonato, Anthony J.; Hazen, Leah B.; Lee, Joonsue; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein with atherosclerosis-protective and systemic anti-oxidant functions. We recently showed that PON1, myeloperoxidase, and HDL bind to one another in vivo forming a functional ternary complex (Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Riwanto, M., Gao, S., Levison, B. S., Gu, X., Fu, X., Wagner, M. A., Besler, C., Gerstenecker, G., Zhang, R., Li, X. M., Didonato, A. J., Gogonea, V., Tang, W. H., et al. (2013) J. Clin. Invest. 123, 3815–3828). However, specific residues on PON1 involved in the HDL-PON1 interaction remain unclear. Unambiguous identification of protein residues involved in docking interactions to lipid surfaces poses considerable methodological challenges. Here we describe a new strategy that uses a novel synthetic photoactivatable and click chemistry-taggable phospholipid probe, which, when incorporated into HDL, was used to identify amino acid residues on PON1 that directly interact with the lipoprotein phospholipid surface. Several specific PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293) were identified through covalent cross-links with the lipid probes using affinity isolation coupled to liquid chromatography with on-line tandem mass spectrometry. Based upon the crystal structure for PON1, the identified residues are all localized in relatively close proximity on the surface of PON1, defining a domain that binds to the HDL lipid surface. Site-specific mutagenesis of the identified PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293), coupled with functional studies, reveals their importance in PON1 binding to HDL and both PON1 catalytic activity and stability. Specifically, the residues identified on PON1 provide important structural insights into the PON1-HDL interaction. More generally, the new photoactivatable and affinity-tagged lipid probe developed herein should prove to be a valuable tool for identifying contact sites supporting protein interactions with lipid interfaces such as found on cell membranes

  3. Structural insights into high density lipoprotein: Old models and new facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin eGogonea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological link between circulating high density lipoprotein (HDL levels and cardiovascular disease is well documented, albeit its intricacies are not well understood. An improved appreciation of HDL function and overall role in vascular health and disease requires at its foundation a better understanding of the lipoprotein's molecular structure, its formation, and its process of maturation through interactions with various plasma enzymes and cell receptors that intervene along the pathway of reverse cholesterol transport. This review focuses on summarizing recent developments in the field of lipid free apoA-I and HDL structure, with emphasis on new insights revealed by newly published nascent and spherical HDL models constructed by combining low resolution structures obtained from small angle neutron scattering (SANS with contrast variation and geometrical constraints derived from hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX, crosslinking mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, Förster resonance energy transfer, and electron spin resonance. Recently published low resolution structures of nascent and spherical HDL obtained from SANS with contrast variation and isotopic labeling of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I will be critically reviewed and discussed in terms of how they accommodate existing biophysical structural data from alternative approaches. The new low resolution structures revealed and also provided some answers to long standing questions concerning lipid organization and particle maturation of lipoproteins. The review will discuss the merits of newly proposed SANS based all atom models for nascent and spherical HDL, and compare them with accepted models. Finally, naturally occurring and bioengineered mutations in apoA-I, and their impact on HDL phenotype, are reviewed and discuss together with new therapeutics employed for restoring HDL function.

  4. Comparison of different statin therapy to change low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in Korean patients with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Ah Reum; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to apply the proper intensity of statin for new treatment guidelines in clinical settings because of few data about the statin efficacy in Asians. We conducted a retrospective, observational study to estimate the percentage changes in lipid parameters and glucose induced by different statins. We analyzed 3854 patients including those with nondiabetes and diabetes treated at the outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2013 who were statin-naïve and maintained fixed-dose of statin for at least 18 months. Moderate- and low-intensity statin therapy was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to statin group. The effects of statins in elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar in each statin groups, except the ezetimibe-simvastatin group (4.5 ± 2.1%) and high-dose atorvastatin groups (9.7 ± 3.3% and 8.7 ± 2.4% for 40 mg and 80 mg of atorvastatin/day, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased less and LDL-C decreased more in diabetes than in nondiabetes. There were no significant changes of fasting glucose after statin use in nondiabetic patients. Moderate- or low-intensity statin was effective enough in reaching National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III LDL-C target goals in Koreans. Low-intensity statin showed around 30% LDL-C reduction from the baseline level in Koreans, which is comparable to moderate-intensity statin in new guideline. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mediterranean diet improves high-density lipoprotein function in high-cardiovascular-risk Individuals: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernáez , Álvaro; Castañer, Olga; Elosua, Roberto; Pintó Sala, Xavier; Estruch, Ramón; Salas Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Serra Majem, Lluís; Fiol, Miquel; Ortega Calvo, Manuel; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Torre Fornell, Rafael de la; López-Sabater, M. Carmen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The biological functions of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) contribute to explaining the cardioprotective role of the lipoprotein beyond quantitative HDL cholesterol levels. A few small-scale interventions with a single antioxidant have improved some HDL functions. However, to date, no long-term, large-scale, randomized controlled trial has been conducted to assess the effects of an antioxidant-rich dietary pattern (such as a traditional Mediterranean diet [TMD]) on HDL function ...

  6. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin D is associated with atheroprotective high-density lipoprotein profile in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Powell, Lynda H.; Mandapakala, Chaitanya; Cursio, John F.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Calvin, James

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low vitamin D has been associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a marker of coronary risk. Whether atheroprotective HDL particle composition accounts for this association and whether fat affects this association is not known. OBJECTIVE To explore the association between HDL particle composition and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) in post-menopausal women. METHODS Vitamin D levels and lipoprotein composition were assessed in fasting blood samples of apparently healthy women from a diverse Chicago community. Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal fat area were assessed using computed tomography. Total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS We enrolled 78 women (50% black; 50% white), age 48 to 64 years, all of whom were participants in a longitudinal study of fat patterning. They had a mean 25[OH]D of 31 ± 15 µg/L, HDL cholesterol 57 ± 11 mg/dL, and large HDL particle subclass 8.6 ± 3.4 µmol/L. In a multivariable-adjusted regression model, each 5 µg/L higher 25[OH]D predicted 0.57 µmol/L (95%CI 0.20–0.95) higher large HDL particles, independent of race, season, and total HDL particle concentration. This association was only partially confounded by total body fat mass (0.49, 95%CI 0.10–0.89), SAT (0.50, 95%CI 0.11–0.90), or VAT (0.37, 95%CI 0.01–0.74). Age did not significantly influence the strength of associations. CONCLUSIONS Higher 25[OH]D levels are associated with large HDL particles. This association is stronger than that of HDL cholesterol and only partially confounded by body fat. Theoretically, vitamin D may protect against cardiovascular risk by promoting formation of large HDL particles, affecting reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:21122638

  8. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich nascent rat hepatic high density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.E.; Marsh, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Nascent high density lipoprotein (HDL) and nascent very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were isolated from rat livers that had been perfused with [3H]glycerol to label the triglyceride. When injected into intact rats, the labeled HDL-triglyceride disappeared as rapidly as the VLDL-triglyceride, with only 10% of the injected label remaining in the plasma after 30 min. The protein moiety of nascent HDL was labeled with [35S]methionine in a similar fashion and the labeled nascent HDL was separated into nonretained (NR) and retained (R) fractions by heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. When injected into rats, 55% of the injected label in nascent fraction NR and 72% of that in nascent fraction R was recovered from plasma at 30 min, compared to only 10% of the triglyceride label from unfractionated nascent HDL, indicating dissociation of triglyceride and apolipoprotein clearance. The plasma decay curves for both triglyceride and protein were biexponential. By 5 min, 15% of the 35S label remaining in plasma represented apoE and apoC that had been transferred from nascent HDL fractions NR and R to the d less than 1.063 g/ml fraction of plasma. Plasma HDL was labeled in vivo with [35S]methionine, separated into fractions NR and R, and the clearance of the two plasma HDL fractions was compared with that of the corresponding nascent HDL fractions. Except for a faster rate of removal of the nascent HDL fractions during the first 5 min, the serum decay curves were very similar

  9. Identification of Critical Paraoxonase 1 Residues Involved in High Density Lipoprotein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Ying; Levison, Bruce S; Gerstenecker, Gary; DiDonato, Anthony J; Hazen, Leah B; Lee, Joonsue; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2016-01-22

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein with atherosclerosis-protective and systemic anti-oxidant functions. We recently showed that PON1, myeloperoxidase, and HDL bind to one another in vivo forming a functional ternary complex (Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Riwanto, M., Gao, S., Levison, B. S., Gu, X., Fu, X., Wagner, M. A., Besler, C., Gerstenecker, G., Zhang, R., Li, X. M., Didonato, A. J., Gogonea, V., Tang, W. H., et al. (2013) J. Clin. Invest. 123, 3815-3828). However, specific residues on PON1 involved in the HDL-PON1 interaction remain unclear. Unambiguous identification of protein residues involved in docking interactions to lipid surfaces poses considerable methodological challenges. Here we describe a new strategy that uses a novel synthetic photoactivatable and click chemistry-taggable phospholipid probe, which, when incorporated into HDL, was used to identify amino acid residues on PON1 that directly interact with the lipoprotein phospholipid surface. Several specific PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293) were identified through covalent cross-links with the lipid probes using affinity isolation coupled to liquid chromatography with on-line tandem mass spectrometry. Based upon the crystal structure for PON1, the identified residues are all localized in relatively close proximity on the surface of PON1, defining a domain that binds to the HDL lipid surface. Site-specific mutagenesis of the identified PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293), coupled with functional studies, reveals their importance in PON1 binding to HDL and both PON1 catalytic activity and stability. Specifically, the residues identified on PON1 provide important structural insights into the PON1-HDL interaction. More generally, the new photoactivatable and affinity-tagged lipid probe developed herein should prove to be a valuable tool for identifying contact sites supporting protein interactions with lipid interfaces such as found on cell membranes

  10. Anion exchange HPLC isolation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL and on-line estimation of proinflammatory HDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ji

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory high-density lipoprotein (p-HDL is a biomarker of cardiovascular disease. Sickle cell disease (SCD is characterized by chronic states of oxidative stress that many consider to play a role in forming p-HDL. To measure p-HDL, apolipoprotein (apo B containing lipoproteins are precipitated. Supernatant HDL is incubated with an oxidant/LDL or an oxidant alone and rates of HDL oxidation monitored with dichlorofluorescein (DCFH. Although apoB precipitation is convenient for isolating HDL, the resulting supernatant matrix likely influences HDL oxidation. To determine effects of supernatants on p-HDL measurements we purified HDL from plasma from SCD subjects by anion exchange (AE chromatography, determined its rate of oxidation relative to supernatant HDL. SCD decreased total cholesterol but not triglycerides or HDL and increased cell-free (cf hemoglobin (Hb and xanthine oxidase (XO. HDL isolated by AE-HPLC had lower p-HDL levels than HDL in supernatants after apoB precipitation. XO+xanthine (X and cf Hb accelerated purified HDL oxidation. Although the plate and AE-HPLC assays both showed p-HDL directly correlated with cf-Hb in SCD plasma, the plate assay yielded p-HDL data that was influenced more by cf-Hb than AE-HPLC generated p-HDL data. The AE-HPLC p-HDL assay reduces the influence of the supernatants and shows that SCD increases p-HDL.

  11. Visceral adiposity index and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymana, Cem; Sonmez, Alper; Aydogdu, Aydogan; Tapan, Serkan; Basaran, Yalcin; Meric, Coskun; Baskoy, Kamil; Dinc, Mustafa; Yazici, Mahmut; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Barcin, Cem; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Bolu, Erol; Azal, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk is high in patients with hypogonadism. Visceral adiposity index (VAI) and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio are the practical markers of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance and independent predictors of cardiaovascular risk. To date, no study has evaluated VAI levels and TG/HDL-C ratio in hypogonadism. A total of 112 patients with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH) (mean age, 21.7 ± 2.06 years) and 124 healthy subjects (mean age, 21.5 ± 1.27 years) were enrolled. The demographic parameters, VAI, TG/HDL-C ratio, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were measured for all participants. The patients had higher total cholesterol (p = 0.04), waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels (p = 0.001 for all) than the healthy subjects. VAI and ADMA and TG/HDL-C levels were also higher in patients than in healthy subjects (p hypogonadism have elevated VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio. These values are significantly correlated with the surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the predictive roles of VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio are not significant. Prospective follow-up studies are warranted to clarify the role of VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio in predicting cardiometabolic risk in patients with hypogonadism.

  12. [ANTIOXIDANT DYSFUNCTIONALITY OF HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL) IN DECOMPENSATED DIABETIC PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Fernanda; Contreras-Duarte, Susana; Molina, Patricia; Quiñones, Verónica; Serrano, Valentina; Abbott, Eduardo; Maiz, Alberto; Busso, Dolores; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-09-01

    high density lipoproteins (HDL) have important cardiovascular protective effects mediated by their role in reverse cholesterol transport as well as other functional activities, including significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It has been shown that HDL anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions are defective in metabolically stable diabetic patients; however they have not been evaluated during a hyperglycemic crisis. to determine the antioxidant activity of HDL during a severe diabetic decompensation and to analyze whether this function is restored after resolution of the acute event. the antioxidant activity of HDL was measured in vitro by a fluorescent assay in plasma samples obtained from diabetic patients with acute metabolic decompensation at admission, recovery within the hospital and follow-up in ambulatory care. As a comparison, HDL particles from some healthy subjects were used as controls. the HDL antioxidant function was significantly reduced in patients during an acute diabetic decompensation compared with the control group, and was gradually restored reaching normal values during the ambulatory follow-up. Hyperglycemic crisis also showed low plasma paraoxonase-1 activity, which increased significantly during at follow-up. HDL particles isolated from acute diabetic descompensated patients exhibit a significantly and reversibly low antioxidant capacity, which is probably due to a reduced paraoxonase-1 activity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. [Nicotinic acid increases cellular transport of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Catalina; Droppelmann, Katherine; Quiñones, Verónica; Amigo, Ludwig; Mendoza, Camila; Serrano, Valentina; Véjar, Margarita; Maiz, Alberto; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-09-01

    Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.

  14. Sphingomyelin in High-Density Lipoproteins: Structural Role and Biological Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Osada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL levels are an inverse risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and sphingomyelin (SM is the second most abundant phospholipid component and the major sphingolipid in HDL. Considering the marked presence of SM, the present review has focused on the current knowledge about this phospholipid by addressing its variable distribution among HDL lipoparticles, how they acquire this phospholipid, and the important role that SM plays in regulating their fluidity and cholesterol efflux from different cells. In addition, plasma enzymes involved in HDL metabolism such as lecithin–cholesterol acyltransferase or phospholipid transfer protein are inhibited by HDL SM content. Likewise, HDL SM levels are influenced by dietary maneuvers (source of protein or fat, drugs (statins or diuretics and modified in diseases such as diabetes, renal failure or Niemann–Pick disease. Furthermore, increased levels of HDL SM have been shown to be an inverse risk factor for coronary heart disease. The complexity of SM species, described using new lipidomic methodologies, and their distribution in different HDL particles under many experimental conditions are promising avenues for further research in the future.

  15. Biomedicinal implications of high-density lipoprotein: its composition, structure, functions, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2009-07-31

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a proven biomarker for the monitoring of changes in antioxidant and anti-inflammation capability of body fluids. The beneficial virtues of HDL are highly dependent on its lipids and protein compositions, and their ratios. In normal state, the HDL particle is enriched with lipids and several HDL-associated enzymes, which are responsible for its antioxidant activity. Lower HDL-cholesterol levels (40 mg/dL) have been recognized as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, as well as being a known component of metabolic syndrome. Functional and structural changes of HDL have been recognized as factors pivotal to the evaluation of HDL-quality. In this review, I have elected to focus on the functional and structural correlations of HDL and the roles of HDL-associated apolipoproteins and enzymes. Recent clinical applications of HDL have also been reviewed, particularly the therapeutic targeting of HDL metabolism and reconstituted HDL; these techniques represent promising emerging strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, for drug or gene therapy.

  16. Carotid intima media thickness is related positively to plasma pre beta-high density lipoproteins in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Perton, Frank G.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lipid-poor or lipid-free high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, designated pre beta-HDL, stimulate removal of cell-derived cholesterol to the extracellular compartment, which is an initial step in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Pre beta-HDL levels may be elevated in

  17. Loss of Function of GALNT2 Lowers High-Density Lipoproteins in Humans, Nonhuman Primates, and Rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Christoffersen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Human genetics studies have implicated GALNT2, encoding GalNAc-T2, as a regulator of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the mechanisms relating GALNT2 to HDL-C remain unclear. We investigated the impact of homozygous GALNT2 deficiency on HDL-C in humans and mammalian mod...

  18. Niacin extended-release/simvastatin combination therapy produces larger favorable changes in high-density lipoprotein particles than atorvastatin monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth PP

    2012-01-01

    subclasses compared with atorvastatin monotherapy, including a numerically greater increase in number of large HDL particles, and a significantly greater decrease in number of small HDL particles compared with atorvastatin monotherapy. In addition, NER/S treatment resulted in a significant change in HDL particle size distribution from small and medium to large.Keywords: niacin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, lipoprotein particles, dyslipidemia, combination therapy, high-density lipoprotein

  19. Synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanodisks for targeted withalongolide delivery to adrenocortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuai R

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rui Kuai,1,2,* Chitra Subramanian,3,* Peter T White,3,* Barbara N Timmermann,4 James J Moon,1,2,5 Mark S Cohen,3,6 Anna Schwendeman1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, 2Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 3Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, 6Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare endocrine malignancy and has a 5-year survival rate of <35%. ACC cells require cholesterol for steroid hormone production, and this requirement is met via expression on the cell surface of a high level of SRB1, responsible for the uptake of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, which carry and transport cholesterol in vivo. Here, we describe how this natural lipid carrier function of SRB1 can be utilized to improve the tumor-targeted delivery of a novel natural product derivative – withalongolide A 4,19,27-triacetate (WGA-TA – which has shown potent antitumor efficacy, but poor aqueous solubility. Our strategy was to use synthetic HDL (sHDL nanodisks, which are effective in tumor-targeted delivery due to their smallness, long circulation half-life, documented safety, and ability to bind to SRB1. In this study, we prepared sHDL nanodisks using an optimized phospholipid composition combined with ApoA1 mimetic peptide (22A, which has previously been tested in clinical trials, to load WGA-TA. Following optimization, WGA-TA nanodisks showed drug encapsulation efficiency of 78%, a narrow particle size distribution (9.81±0.41 nm, discoid shape, and sustained drug release in phosphate buffered saline. WGA-TA-sHDL nanodisks exhibited higher cytotoxicity in the ACC cell line H295R half maximal inhibitory concentration ([IC50] 0.26±0.045 µM than free WGA-TA (IC50 0.492±0

  20. Genomewide linkage of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in a Filipino Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relf, Bronwyn L; Larkin, Emma K; de Torres, Carina; Baur, Louise A; Christodoulou, John; Waters, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Increasing evidence supports an association between obstructive sleep apnoea and metabolic syndrome in both children and adults suggesting a genetic component. However, the genetic relationship between the diseases remains unclear. We performed a bivariate linkage scan on a single Filipino family with a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea and metabolic syndrome to explore the genetic pathways underlying these diseases. A large rural family (N=50, 50% adults) underwent a 10cM genome-wide scan. Fasting blood was used to measure insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Attended overnight polysomnography was used to quantify the respiratory disturbance index (RDI), a measure of sleep apnea. BMI z-scores and insulin resistance scores were calculated. Bivariate multipoint linkage analyses were performed on RDI and metabolic syndrome components. Obstructive sleep apnea prevalence was 46% (n=23; 9 adults, 14 children) in our participants. Metabolic syndrome phenotype was present in 40% of adults (n=10) and 48% of children (n=12). Linkage peaks with a LOD score > 3 were demonstrated on chromosome 19q13·4 (LOD=3·04) for the trait pair RDI and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Candidate genes identified in this region include the killer-like immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) genes. These genes are associated with modulating inflammatory responses in reaction to cellular stress and initiation of atherosclerotic plaque formation. We have identified a novel locus for genetic links between RDI and lipid factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a chromosomal region containing genes associated with inflammatory responses. PMID:20149069

  1. Structures of discoidal high density lipoproteins: a combined computational-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feifei; Jones, Martin K; Chen, Jianguo; Patterson, James C; Catte, Andrea; Jerome, W Gray; Li, Ling; Segrest, Jere P

    2010-02-12

    Conversion of discoidal phospholipid (PL)-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) to spheroidal cholesteryl ester-rich HDL is a central step in reverse cholesterol transport. A detailed understanding of this process and the atheroprotective role of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) requires knowledge of the structure and dynamics of these various particles. This study, combining computation with experimentation, illuminates structural features of apoA-I allowing it to incorporate varying amounts of PL. Molecular dynamics simulated annealing of PL-rich HDL models containing unesterified cholesterol results in double belt structures with the same general saddle-shaped conformation of both our previous molecular dynamics simulations at 310 K and the x-ray structure of lipid-free apoA-I. Conversion from a discoidal to a saddle-shaped particle involves loss of helicity and formation of loops in opposing antiparallel parts of the double belt. During surface expansion caused by the temperature-jump step, the curved palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer surfaces approach planarity. Relaxation back into saddle-shaped structures after cool down and equilibration further supports the saddle-shaped particle model. Our kinetic analyses of reconstituted particles demonstrate that PL-rich particles exist in discrete sizes corresponding to local energetic minima. Agreement of experimental and computational determinations of particle size/shape and apoA-I helicity provide additional support for the saddle-shaped particle model. Truncation experiments combined with simulations suggest that the N-terminal proline-rich domain of apoA-I influences the stability of PL-rich HDL particles. We propose that apoA-I incorporates increasing PL in the form of minimal surface bilayers through the incremental unwinding of an initially twisted saddle-shaped apoA-I double belt structure.

  2. Cellular localization and characterization of proteins that bind high density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokland, B; Mendez, A J; Oram, J F

    1992-09-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) stimulates excretion of excess intracellular cholesterol from cells, presumably by interacting with a cell-surface receptor. A 110 kDa membrane protein that is a candidate for the HDL receptor has been identified by ligand blot analysis. In this study we determined the cellular localization of this and other HDL-binding proteins and characterized their properties. The plasma membranes (PM) of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells were labeled with trace amounts of [3H]cholesterol, and cell homogenates were fractionated on sucrose and Percoll gradients. Ligand blot analysis of homogenates of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells demonstrated that cells contain multiple proteins that bind HDL3, including a major membrane protein with an apparent M(r) of 110 kDa and two minor ones with M(r) of 105 and 130 kDa. The gradient distribution of the 105, 110, and 130 kDa HDL-binding proteins mirrored that of labeled cholesterol and 5'-nucleotidase, both PM markers. Treatment of intact cells with the water-soluble cross-linker bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate abolished the HDL binding activity of the 110 and 130 kDa proteins but not that of the 105 kDa protein. These findings suggest that the 105, 110, and 130 kDa HDL-binding proteins are localized to the PM and that at least two of these proteins are exposed to the extracellular fluid. Solubilized 110 and 130 kDa proteins were retained on wheat-germ agglutinin and abrin lectin columns, showing that they are glycoproteins. The cellular localization and physical properties of the 110 and 130 kDa proteins suggest that they may play a role in binding of HDL to the cell surface.

  3. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increase and non-cardiovascular mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Elena; Andres, Eva Maria; Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Fiddyment, Sarah; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando

    2010-09-01

    Many observational prospective studies have confirmed the inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and coronary heart disease. However, the potential benefit of the pharmacological increase in HDL cholesterol has not been clearly demonstrated. Moreover, in some interventions an increase in total mortality has been reported. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between HDL cholesterol increase and non-cardiovascular mortality in randomised trials. Authors searched Medline up to December 2008. Four reviewers identified randomised trials in which, through different types of interventions, HDL cholesterol increase in the treatment group was >4% compared to control group, both groups reported separately non-cardiovascular mortality and the duration of the study was, at least, one year. Data of HDL cholesterol concentrations and deaths were collected as they appeared in the original studies. If necessary, reviewers calculated data by using trial information. Meta-regression analysis included 44 articles corresponding to 107 773 participants. Analysis showed an association between HDL cholesterol increase and non-cardiovascular mortality (p=0.023), however, the correlation disappeared when we excluded the ILLUMINATE (Investigation of Lipid Level Management to Understand its Impact in Atherosclerosis Events) trial from the analysis (p=0.972). Meta-regression analysis results suggest that increases in HDL cholesterol up to 40% are not associated with higher non-cardiovascular death. The increase in adverse events observed in some trials where HDL cholesterol was raised in large amounts could be related with the drug mechanisms more than the HDL cholesterol increase itself.

  4. Dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseda, Ryohei; Jabs, Kathy; Hunley, Tracy E; Jones, Deborah; Bian, Aihua; Allen, Ryan M; Vickers, Kasey C; Yancey, Patricia G; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio; Kon, Valentina

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to determine if chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurring in childhood impairs the normally vasoprotective functions of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). HDLs were isolated from children with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (ESRD), children with moderate CKD and controls with normal kidney function. Macrophage response to HDLs was studied as expression of inflammatory markers (MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β) and chemotaxis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used for expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin) and adhesion. Cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis of endothelial cells were measured by MTS/PMS reagent-based assay, flow cytometry, and ELISA. Cholesterol efflux was assessed by gas chromatographic measurements of cholesterol in macrophages exposed to HDLs. Compared with HDL(Control), HDL(CKD) and HDL(ESRD) heightened the cytokine response and disrupted macrophage chemotaxis. HDL(Control) reduced endothelial expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, whereas HDL(CKD) and HDL(ESRD) were less effective and showed reduced capacity to protect endothelial cells against monocyte adhesion. Compared with a dramatically enhanced endothelial proliferation following injurious stimulus by HDL(Control), neither HDL(CKD) nor HDL(ESRD) caused proliferative effects. HDLs of all three groups were equally protective against apoptosis assessed by flow cytometry and cleaved caspase-3 activity. Compared to HDL(Control), HDL(CKD) and HDL(ESRD) trended toward reduced capacity as cholesterol acceptors. CKD in children impairs HDL function. Even in the absence of long-standing and concomitant risk factors, CKD alters specific HDL functions linked to control of inflammation and endothelial responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Daily Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinwong, Surarong; Chinwong, Dujrudee; Mangklabruks, Ampica

    2017-01-01

    This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18-25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i) 15 mL VCO or (ii) 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (as control), twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results . Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females), daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL ( p = 0.001) compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion . Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.

  6. Daily Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surarong Chinwong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18–25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i 15 mL VCO or (ii 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC solution (as control, twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results. Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females, daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL (p=0.001 compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.

  7. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop......Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic...... studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated...

  8. ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) mediates microparticle formation during high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiane, Anouar; Genest, Jacques

    2017-02-01

    Micro-particles (MP) are secreted by various cells. Their biological roles in health and in disease remain unknown. Here we describe formation of MP in the process of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in different cell types. The ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is the rate-limiting step in the biogenesis of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). We have found that ABCA1 and apoA-I contribute to the formation of MP. Using cell-based systems with overexpression and selective inactivation of ABCA1, pharmacological blockade and modulation of membrane cholesterol content, we characterized MP release from various cell lines. We studied MP release in BHK cells stably expressing ABCA1 under mifepristone control, human THP-1 macrophages and HepG2 cells without, or with incubation with human apoA-I. ABCA1 mediates the production of MPs containing cholesterol. This was also confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Adding apoA-I markedly increases MP release from cells. Inhibition of ABCA1 with probucol or decreasing plasma membrane cholesterol with methyl-β cyclodextrin (CDX) markedly reduced MP release and nascent HDL formation. MPs do not contain apoA-I, but contain flotilin-2, a marker of plasma membrane, and CD63, an exosome marker. MPs exhibit considerable size heterogeneity (50-250 nm). We show that MPs are lipoprotein-sized structures created by the ABCA1 transporter, and contribute approximately 30% of ABCA1-and apoA-I mediated cholesterol efflux. In addition, we found that MPs release from cells consists, in part, of exosomes and depends on the same pathway used for HDL biogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction between TCF7L2 polymorphism and dietary fat intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Bodhini

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2 gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs17782313 and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146 and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT (n = 821 and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D (n = 861 recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P = 0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day (Pinteraction = 0.0001 on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, where the 'T' allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P = 0.008 and those in the highest tertile (P = 0.017 had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day (Pinteraction<0.0001 on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P = 0.024 and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P = 0.028 than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day on HDL

  10. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol calculation and goal awareness among physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Smita I; Steinberg, Lynne; Polsani, Venkateshwar R; Gowani, Saqib A; Nambi, Vijay; Kumar, Varinder; Marinescu, Victor; Jones, Peter H; Petersen, Laura A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2012-01-01

    Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) goal attainment per Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines remains low. To understand gaps in knowledge and practices of physicians-in-training (internal medicine, family medicine, cardiology, endocrinology) towards non-HDL-C. A survey based on a conceptual model to assess the trainee's knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding non-HDL-C was developed and administered to physicians-in-training (n = 655) at 26 training programs in the United States. Responses of those in internal medicine and family medicine (residents-in-training; n = 418) were compared with those in cardiology and endocrinology (fellows-in-training; n = 124). Response rate was 83.7%. Fifty-three percent of residents and 31% of fellows-in-training had not read the ATP III guidelines (P training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel (P = .7). Sixty-seven percent of the residents and 52% of fellows were not aware of treatment goals for non-HDL-C (P = .004 for comparison between residents and fellows). Both residents and fellows reported infrequent calculation of non-HDL-C levels in patients with elevated triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL; 32.5% vs 35.4%, respectively, P = .6). Lack of familiarity with ATP III guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding importance of non-HDL-C, lack of institutional mandate to calculate non-HDL-C, and lack of emphasis on non-HDL-C by teaching staff were reported as barriers to non-HDL-C use in routine clinical practice. At least one-third of physicians-in-training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel, and a large number were not aware of ATP III treatment goals pertaining to non-HDL-C. This area represents one for improvement if non-HDL-C is to be retained as a treatment target in the forthcoming ATP-IV guidelines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Changes in remnant and high-density lipoproteins associated with hormone therapy and progression of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of hormone therapy (HT) on the plasma concentration of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations and the contribution of HT-related changes in these lipoproteins to the progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) were examined in 256 postmen...

  12. Mediterranean Diet Improves High-Density Lipoprotein Function in High-Cardiovascular-Risk Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáez, Álvaro; Castañer, Olga; Elosua, Roberto; Pintó, Xavier; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Fiol, Miquel; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; de la Torre, Rafael; López-Sabater, M Carmen; Fitó, Montserrat

    2017-02-14

    The biological functions of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) contribute to explaining the cardioprotective role of the lipoprotein beyond quantitative HDL cholesterol levels. A few small-scale interventions with a single antioxidant have improved some HDL functions. However, to date, no long-term, large-scale, randomized controlled trial has been conducted to assess the effects of an antioxidant-rich dietary pattern (such as a traditional Mediterranean diet [TMD]) on HDL function in humans. This study was performed in a random subsample of volunteers from the PREDIMED Study (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea; n=296) after a 1-year intervention. We compared the effects of 2 TMDs, one enriched with virgin olive oil (TMD-VOO; n=100) and the other enriched with nuts (TMD-Nuts; n=100), with respect to a low-fat control diet (n=96). We assessed the effects of both TMDs on the role of HDL particles on reverse cholesterol transport (cholesterol efflux capacity, HDL ability to esterify cholesterol, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity), HDL antioxidant properties (paraoxonase-1 arylesterase activity and total HDL antioxidant capacity on low-density lipoproteins), and HDL vasodilatory capacity (HDL ability to induce the release of nitric oxide in endothelial cells). We also studied the effects of a TMD on several HDL quality-related characteristics (HDL particle oxidation, resistance against oxidative modification, main lipid and protein composition, and size distribution). Both TMDs increased cholesterol efflux capacity relative to baseline ( P =0.018 and P =0.013 for TMD-VOO and TMD-Nuts, respectively). The TMD-VOO intervention decreased cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity (relative to baseline, P =0.028) and increased HDL ability to esterify cholesterol, paraoxonase-1 arylesterase activity, and HDL vasodilatory capacity (relative to control, P =0.039, P =0.012, and P =0.026, respectively). Adherence to a TMD induced these beneficial changes by

  13. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein particle size, and apolipoprotein A-I: significance for cardiovascular risk: the IDEAL and EPIC-Norfolk studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Steeg, Wim A; Holme, Ingar; Boekholdt, S Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    : High plasma levels of HDL-C and apoA-I are inversely related to the risk of CAD. However, recent data suggest that this relationship does not hold true for very high HDL-C levels, particularly when a preponderance of large HDL particles is observed. METHODS: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of 2...... prospective studies: the IDEAL (Incremental Decrease in End Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering; n = 8,888) trial comparing the efficacy of high-dose to usual-dose statin treatment for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, and the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer...

  14. Relationships of plasma estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin with lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and high density lipoprotein subfractions in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanick, M L; Williams, P T; Krauss, R M; Terry, R B; Vranizan, K M; Wood, P D

    1987-04-01

    Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were studied in relation to plasma lipoproteins, high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions, and apolipoproteins in 73 healthy but sedentary middle-aged men. Among potentially confounding variables, a strong positive association was found between estradiol levels and cigarette use, while testosterone and SHBG correlated negatively with percent body fat and alcohol intake. After adjustment for smoking, percent body fat, and alcohol, plasma estradiol levels correlated negatively with total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and testosterone levels correlated positively with apolipoprotein B, while SHBG levels correlated positively with HDL2 mass and apolipoprotein A-I. SHBG was also strongly associated with the waist to hip girth ratio (WHR). Adjustment for WHR eliminated the significant associations of SHBG with triglycerides, HDL2 mass, and apolipoprotein A-I. SHBG levels and WHR may reflect tissue sensitivity and the impact of exposure to fluctuating levels of sex hormones for a period of days, or longer. These variables may provide more insight into the role of sex hormones in lipoprotein metabolism than do single samples of circulating hormones. It is also suggested that long term effects of sex hormones on adipose tissue distribution may at least partially underlie sex-related differences in lipoprotein metabolism.

  15. Kinetics of incorporation/redistribution of photosensitizer hypericin to/from high-density lipoproteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joniova, J.; Buriánková, L.; Búzová, Diana; Miškovský, P.; Jančura, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 475, 1-2 (2014), s. 578-584 ISSN 0378-5173 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : aggregation * drug delivery * fluorescence * high- and low- density lipoproteins * Hypericin Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.650, year: 2014

  16. Protection from Cardiovascular Disease Due to Increased High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in African Black Populations: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudberg, Nicholas J; Goedecke, Julia H; Lecour, Sandrine

    2016-10-20

    The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over the last decade. Despite this, African Black populations present with relatively low incidences of coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease, which may be attributed to their lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, compared with White populations. Commensurate with these lower lipid levels, it was believed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations would be higher in Black populations compared with their White counterparts. This is based on data from previous studies of African and African American populations; however, recent studies conducted in Africa found similar or lower HDL-C concentrations in Black compared with White individuals. Current research, therefore, suggests that HDL-C may not be a good indicator of cardiovascular risk and future research should focus on HDL quality (vs quantity), by measuring HDL functionality and subclass.

  17. Uptake of [3H]vitamin D3 from low and high density lipoproteins by cultured human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireman, R.B.; Williams, D.; Remsen, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The plasma distribution and cellular uptake of [ 3 H]vitamin D 3 was studied in vitro using cultured human fibroblasts. Incubation of [ 3 H]vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) with plasma followed by sequential ultracentrifugal fractionation of the lipoproteins indicated that 2-4% of the radioactivity associated with the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), 12% with low density lipoprotein (LDL), and approximately 60% with the high density lipoprotein (HDL). The remaining radioactivity, 25%, was associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. By comparison, an average of 86% of the radioactivity from [ 3 H] 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. The uptake of [ 3 H]vitamin D 3 from plasma, LDL, or HDL was studied in cultured human cells; uptake by normal fibroblasts was greatest from LDL and least from plasma. The cellular association of vitamin D 3 was time, concentration, and temperature dependent. At a concentration of 50 μg LDL/ml of medium, the uptake of [ 3 H]vitamin D 3 from LDL at 37 0 C was rapid and reached a maximum at approximately 4 hr; it was slower from HDL but continued to increase slowly up to 24 hr. The significance of these in vitro findings is uncertain since much of the vitamin D 3 absorbed from the intestine reportedly associates with chylomicrons and is rapidly taken up by the liver

  18. Serum high-density lipoprotein is associated with better cognitive function in a cross-sectional study of aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kristyn A; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rodrigues, Mark; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Frank L; Gandy, Samuel E; Martins, Ralph N

    2017-03-01

    Purpose/Aim of the study: Poor cardiovascular health, including obesity and altered lipid profiles at mid-life, are linked to increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological mechanisms linking cardiovascular health and cognitive function are unclear though are likely to be multifactorial. This study examined the association between various lipoproteins and cognitive functioning in ageing women. We investigated the relationship between readily available biomarkers (i.e. serum lipoprotein) and cognitive decline in domains associated with increased risk of AD (e.g. episodic verbal memory performance and subjective memory complaint). We report cross-sectional data investigating the relationship between serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein with verbal memory and learning ability in 130 women with and without memory complaints (n = 71 and 59, respectively) drawn from a study investigating cognitively healthy Western Australians (average age 62.5 years old). After statistical modelling that controlled for the effects of age, depression and apolipoprotein E genotype, HDL-C was significantly associated with better verbal learning and memory performance, specifically short and long delay-free recalls (F = 3.062; p ageing. Further exploration of the protective effect of HDL-C on cognitive function in ageing is warranted through follow-up, longitudinal studies.

  19. High-density lipoprotein-based therapy reduces the hemorrhagic complications associated with tissue plasminogen activator treatment in experimental stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapergue, Bertrand; Dang, Bao Quoc; Desilles, Jean-Philippe; Ortiz-Munoz, Guadalupe; Delbosc, Sandrine; Loyau, Stéphane; Louedec, Liliane; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Mazighi, Mikael; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Meilhac, Olivier; Amarenco, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that intravenous injection of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) was neuroprotective in an embolic stroke model. We hypothesized that HDL vasculoprotective actions on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may decrease hemorrhagic transformation-associated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration in acute stroke. We used tPA alone or in combination with HDLs in vivo in 2 models of focal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) (embolic and 4-hour monofilament MCAO) and in vitro in a model of BBB. Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to MCAO, n=12 per group. The rats were then randomly injected with tPA (10 mg/kg) or saline with or without human plasma purified-HDL (10 mg/kg). The therapeutic effects of HDL and BBB integrity were assessed blindly 24 hours later. The integrity of the BBB was also tested using an in vitro model of human cerebral endothelial cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation. tPA-treated groups had significantly higher mortality and rate of hemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours in both MCAO models. Cotreatment with HDL significantly reduced stroke-induced mortality versus tPA alone (by 42% in filament MCAO, P=0.009; by 73% in embolic MCAO, P=0.05) and tPA-induced intracerebral parenchymal hematoma (by 92% in filament MCAO, by 100% in embolic MCAO; Phemorrhagic transformation in rat models of MCAO. Both in vivo and in vitro results support the vasculoprotective action of HDLs on BBB under ischemic conditions.

  20. Plasma Nitration of High-Density and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Receiving Kidney Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bakillah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional abnormalities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL could contribute to cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients. We measured a validated marker of HDL dysfunction, nitrated apolipoprotein A-I, in kidney transplant recipients to test the hypothesis that a functioning kidney transplant reduces serum nitrated apoA-I concentrations. Methods. Concentrations of nitrated apoA-I and apoB were measured using indirect sandwich ELISA assays on sera collected from each transplant subject before transplantation and at 1, 3, and 12 months after transplantation. Patients were excluded if they have history of diabetes, treatment with lipid-lowering medications or HIV protease inhibitors, prednisone dose > 15 mg/day, nephrotic range proteinuria, serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL, or active inflammatory disease. Sera from 18 transplanted patients were analyzed. Four subjects were excluded due to insufficient data. Twelve and eight patients had creatinine < 1.5 mg/dL at 3 and 12 months after transplantation, respectively. Results. Nitrated apoA-I was significantly reduced at 12 months after transplantation (p=0.039. The decrease in apoA-I nitration was associated with significant reduction in myeloperoxidase (MPO activity (p=0.047. In contrast to apoA-I, nitrated apoB was not affected after kidney transplantation. Conclusions. Patients with well-functioning grafts had significant reduction in nitrated apoA-I 12 months after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed in a large cohort to determine if nitrated apoA-I can be used as a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk stratification in chronic kidney disease.

  1. High density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: measurement of HDL turnover using tritiated HDL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golay, A.; Zech, L.; Shi, M.Z.; Chiou, Y.A.; Reaven, G.M.; Chen, Y.D.

    1987-09-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics were studied by injecting (/sup 3/H)apoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/HDL into 12 subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 12 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The results indicate that the mean fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of apoA-I/HDL was significantly faster (0.63 +/- 0.07 (+/- SEM) vs. 0.39 +/- 0.02 1/day; P less than 0.001) and the apoA-I/HDL synthetic rate greater (29.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 22.9 +/- 1.3 mg/kg X day; P less than 0.02) in patients with NIDDM than in normal subjects. Furthermore, there were statistically significant inverse relationships between apoA-I/HDL FCR and plasma levels of both HDL cholesterol (r = -0.71; P less than 0.001) and apoA-I (r = -0.63; P less than 0.001). In addition, the increase in apoA-I/HDL FCR was directly related to fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.78; P less than 0.001) and insulin (r = 0.76; P less than 0.001) concentrations. These data support the view that the decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels commonly found in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes is due to an increase in the catabolic rate of apoA-I/HDL secondary to the defects in carbohydrate metabolism present in these patients.

  2. High density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: measurement of HDL turnover using tritiated HDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, A.; Zech, L.; Shi, M.Z.; Chiou, Y.A.; Reaven, G.M.; Chen, Y.D.

    1987-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics were studied by injecting [ 3 H]apoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/HDL into 12 subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 12 patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The results indicate that the mean fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of apoA-I/HDL was significantly faster [0.63 +/- 0.07 (+/- SEM) vs. 0.39 +/- 0.02 1/day; P less than 0.001] and the apoA-I/HDL synthetic rate greater (29.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 22.9 +/- 1.3 mg/kg X day; P less than 0.02) in patients with NIDDM than in normal subjects. Furthermore, there were statistically significant inverse relationships between apoA-I/HDL FCR and plasma levels of both HDL cholesterol (r = -0.71; P less than 0.001) and apoA-I (r = -0.63; P less than 0.001). In addition, the increase in apoA-I/HDL FCR was directly related to fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.78; P less than 0.001) and insulin (r = 0.76; P less than 0.001) concentrations. These data support the view that the decrease in plasma HDL cholesterol and apoA-I levels commonly found in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes is due to an increase in the catabolic rate of apoA-I/HDL secondary to the defects in carbohydrate metabolism present in these patients

  3. Improvement of Lipid Profile Is Accompanied by Atheroprotective Alterations in High-Density Lipoprotein Composition Upon Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockade A Prospective Cohort Study in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van I.C.; Vries, de M.K.; Levels, J.H.M.; Peters, M.J.L.; Huizer, E.E.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Horst - Bruinsma, van der I.E.; Hazenberg, B.P.C.; Stadt, van de R.J.; Wolbink, G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Cardiovascular mortality is increased in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and inflammation plays an important role. Inflammation deteriorates the lipid profile and alters high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) composition, reflected by increased concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA)

  4. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...... cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (......Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high...... studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated...

  5. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...... cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (= 1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (......Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high...... studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated...

  6. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Magda O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic subphenotype characterized by low HDL-C with hypertriglyceridemia and high VLDL-C in association with other biomarkers, including those related to inflammation. This represents an important step toward a more reliable clinical prognosis. Additional studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and the probably mechanisms involved in this complex network of markers and their role in SCD pathogenesis.

  7. On-treatment non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, and lipid ratios in relation to residual vascular risk after treatment with potent statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of early atherosclerotic plaque formation may determine the efficacy of high density lipoproteins (HDL in plaque regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Chalmers

    Full Text Available We use a computational model to explore the effect of foam cell accumulation on plaque regression following an increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL influx into the plaque. Atherosclerotic plaque formation is the outcome of cellular and cytokine responses to low density lipoproteins (LDL that penetrate the artery wall following an injury to the endothelium and become modified. We modelled the cells and cytokines that are most important in plaque formation using partial differential equations. The model includes monocytes and macrophages, foam cells, macrophage chemoattractants, endothelium-stimulating cytokines, modified low density lipoproteins (mod LDL and HDL. We included interactions both at the endothelium surface and inside the artery wall. The model predicts that when HDL influx into a well-established plaque with large numbers of foam cells is increased, the plaque may not regress but may continue to grow at a slower rate. If HDL influx is increased when a model plaque is recently established and has fewer foam cells, then the plaque does regress. If modLDL influx into the plaque is lowered at the same time that HDL influx increased or the capacity of the HDL to remove cholesterol from foam cells is increased, then the plaque is more likely to regress. The predictions of the model are in qualitative agreement with experimental studies in mice and rabbits. The results suggest that the intrinsic dynamics of reverse cholesterol transport by HDL are important in determining the success of HDL raising in promoting plaque regression.

  9. The Application of a Modified d-ROMs Test for Measurement of Oxidative Stress and Oxidized High-Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Ito

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. ROS-derived hydroperoxides, as an indicator of ROS production, have been measured by using the diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs test, which requires iron-containing transferrin in the reaction mixture. In this study we developed a modified d-ROMs test, termed the Fe-ROMs test, where iron ions were exogenously added to the reaction mixture. This modification is expected to exclude the assay variation that comes from different blood iron levels in individuals. In addition, this Fe-ROMs test was helpful for determining the class of plasma lipoproteins that are hydroperoxidized. Low-density lipoprotein/very low-density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL were purified by use of an LDL/VLDL purification kit and the dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation method, respectively; their hydroperoxide contents were assessed by performing the Fe-ROMs test. The majority of the hydroperoxides were detected only in the HDL fraction, not in the LDL/VLDL. Further detailed analysis of HDLs by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the hydroperoxide-containing molecules were small-sized HDLs. Because HDL was shown to be the principal vehicle for the plasma hydroperoxides, this Fe-ROMs test is a beneficial method for the assessment of oxidized-HDL levels. Indeed, Fe-ROMs levels were strongly associated with the levels of oxidized HDL, which were determined by performing the malondialdehyde-modified HDL enzyme immunoassay. In conclusion, the Fe-ROMs test using plasma itself or the HDL fraction after dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation is useful to assess the functionality of HDL, because the oxidation of HDL impairs its antiatherogenic capacity.

  10. Association between plasma triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and microvascular kidney disease and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a global case-control study in 13 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Hermans, Michel P; Fioretto, Paola; Valensi, Paul; Davis, Timothy; Horton, Edward; Wanner, Christoph; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Aronson, Ronnie; Barzon, Isabella; Bishop, Louise; Bonora, Enzo; Bunnag, Pongamorn; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Goldenberg, Ronald; Harshfield, Benjamin; Hernández, Cristina; Herzlinger-Botein, Susan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Jia, Weiping; Jiang, Yi-Der; Kadowaki, Takashi; Laranjo, Nancy; Leiter, Lawrence; Miwa, Takashi; Odawara, Masato; Ohashi, Ken; Ohno, Atsushi; Pan, Changyu; Pan, Jiemin; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Reiner, Zeljko; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Simo, Rafael; Tanaka, Masami; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Twum-Barima, David; Zoppini, Giacomo; Carey, Vincent J

    2014-03-04

    Microvascular renal and retinal diseases are common major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relation between plasma lipids and microvascular disease is not well established. The case subjects were 2535 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an average duration of 14 years, 1891 of whom had kidney disease and 1218 with retinopathy. The case subjects were matched for diabetes mellitus duration, age, sex, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to 3683 control subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not have kidney disease or retinopathy. The study was conducted in 24 sites in 13 countries. The primary analysis included kidney disease and retinopathy cases. Matched analysis was performed by use of site-specific conditional logistic regression in multivariable models that adjusted for hemoglobin A1c, hypertension, and statin treatment. Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 2.3 mmol/L. The microvascular disease odds ratio increased by a factor of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.22) for every 0.5 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in triglycerides or decreased by a factor of 0.92 (0.88-0.96) for every 0.2 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. For kidney disease, the odds ratio increased by 1.23 (1.16-1.31) with triglycerides and decreased by 0.86 (0.82-0.91) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in matched analysis but not significantly after additional adjustment. Diabetic kidney disease is associated worldwide with higher levels of plasma triglycerides and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among patients with good control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was less robustly associated with these lipids. These results strengthen the rationale for studying dyslipidemia treatment to prevent diabetic microvascular disease.

  11. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, Adam R.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Reddy, Jay P.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li; Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae; Atkinson, Bradley J.; Brewster, Abeena; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients

  12. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Adam R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Atkinson, Rachel L. [Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Reddy, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae [Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Atkinson, Bradley J. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy Services, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Brewster, Abeena [Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ueno, Naoto T. [Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A., E-mail: wwoodward@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients

  13. A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle efficiently activates its G protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whorton, Matthew R; Bokoch, Michael P; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a diverse array of ligands, mediating cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as the senses of smell and taste. The structures of the GPCR rhodopsin and several G proteins have been determined by x-ray crystallography, yet...... the organization of the signaling complex between GPCRs and G proteins is poorly understood. The observations that some GPCRs are obligate heterodimers, and that many GPCRs form both homo- and heterodimers, has led to speculation that GPCR dimers may be required for efficient activation of G proteins. However......, technical limitations have precluded a definitive analysis of G protein coupling to monomeric GPCRs in a biochemically defined and membrane-bound system. Here we demonstrate that a prototypical GPCR, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), can be incorporated into a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein...

  14. [Adaptation of the enzyme method to determine the cholesterol content of high density serum lipoproteins isolated using the precipitation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakov, A

    1985-01-01

    Negative interference was established of the precipitating reagent (heparin/MnCl2) for the isolation of HDL in the determination of serum concentration of high density lipoproteins--cholesterol by the enzyme CHOD-PAP method. The combining of enzyme-substrate reagent with 8,0 mmol/l EDTA eliminated the negative interference, but induced a lightly manifested increase of the optical density regardless of cholesterol concentration. That is the reason, the calibration of the enzimatic method is recommended to be performen with cholesterol standards, pretreated with precipitating reagent, analogically to serum. The analytical significance of the modified method was studied as regards reproducibility (VK = 0,88% with investigation in series and VK = 4,57% with investigation in time) and of accurary (test of Lord, L = 0,073 less than Lp less than 0,05).

  15. Interaction of estradiol and high density lipoproteins on proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 adapted to grow in serum free conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozan, S.; Faye, J.C.; Tournier, J.F.; Tauber, J.P.; David, J.F.; Bayard, F.

    1985-01-01

    The responsiveness of the human mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 to estradiol and tamoxifen treatment has been studied in different culture conditions. Cells from exponentially growing cultures were compared with cells in their initial cycles after replating from confluent cultures (''confluent-log'' cells). It has been observed that estradiol stimulation of tritiated thymidine incorporation decreases with cell density and that ''confluent-log'' cells are estrogen unresponsive for a period of four cell cycles in serum-free medium conditions. On the other hand, growth of cells replated from exponentially growing, as well as from confluent cultures, can be inhibited by tamoxifen or a combined treatment with tamoxifen and the progestin levonorgestrel. This growth inhibitory effect can be rescued by estradiol when cells are replated from exponentially growing cultures. The growth inhibitory effect cannot be rescued by estradiol alone (10(-10) to 10(-8) M) when cells are replated from confluent cultures. In this condition, the addition of steroid depleted serum is necessary to reverse the state of estradiol unresponsiveness. Serum can be replaced by high density lipoproteins but not by low density lipoproteins or lipoprotein deficient serum. The present data show that estradiol and HDL interact in the control of MCF-7 cell proliferation

  16. Changes in chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of chick low- and high-density lipoproteins induced by supplementation of coconut oil to the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, E M; Zafra, M F; Gil-Villarino, A; Pérez, M I; Alvarez-Pez, J M; García-Peregrín, E

    1997-06-01

    Supplementation of coconut oil to the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in 14-day-old chicks. Changes in plasma fatty acid composition correlated positively with those of diets. In this study, we have shown a different response of low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) fractions to dietary saturated fat (coconut oil) rich in lauric and myristic acids. Although all the components of these particles seemed to increase, the percentages of increases found in total (TC), free (FC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) were higher in LDL than in HDL. TC/phospholipid (PL) ratio, considered as an inverse index of membrane fluidity, also increased with the dietary regimen in LDL, while no significant differences were found in HDL. These results suggest that supplementation of coconut oil to the diet decreased the fluidity of LDL. The EC/triglycerides (TG) ratio was also significantly increased in LDL, corroborating the main atherogenic function of this lipoprotein fraction in response to lauric and myristic acids. We have also estimated the lipidic order parameter, S, from the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-labelled low- and high-density lipoproteins. In LDL, temperature dependence of S shows two different behaviour zones at about 20 degrees C. In HDL, the plot of S values versus T is linear. DPH anisotropy and S increased in both LDL and HDL from treated chicks. This increase becomes more evident as temperature rises and also with dietary treatment.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein subclasses in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying TAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To assess the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3 in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and to elucidate whether incapacitation of HDL subclasses occurred in ACS patients. Methods  Forty ACS patients hospitalized in Nanfang Hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2012 (ACS group, and 40 subjects simultaneously receiving health examination (control group were enrolled in present study. Plasma lipid and hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels, HDL subclasses inflammatory index (HII, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels in both groups were measured. Results  The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hs-CRP levels were higher in ACS group than in control group (P0.05. Conclusions  The incapacitation of HDL subclasses may occur in ACS patients, with an attenuated antioxidant ability and accentuated proinflammatory function. Mature HDL2 possesses better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant function than HDL3, thus playing a better cardioprotective effect.

  18. The Role of High-Density Lipoproteins in Reducing the Risk of Vascular Diseases, Neurogenerative Disorders, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan McGrowder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL is one of the major carriers of cholesterol in the blood. It attracts particular attention because, in contrast with other lipoproteins, as many physiological functions of HDL influence the cardiovascular system in favourable ways unless HDL is modified pathologically. The functions of HDL that have recently attracted attention include anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. High anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HDL are associated with protection from cardiovascular disease. Atheroprotective activities, as well as a functional deficiency of HDL, ultimately depend on the protein and lipid composition of HDL. Further, numerous epidemiological studies have shown a protective association between HDL-cholesterol and cognitive impairment. Oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation, has been shown to be the mediator of the pathologic effects of numerous risk factors of Alzheimer's disease. Lifestyle interventions proven to increase HDL- cholesterol levels including “healthy” diet, regular exercise, weight control, and smoking cessation have also been shown to provide neuro-protective effects. This review will focus on current knowledge of the beneficial effects of HDL-cholesterol as it relates to cardiovascular diseases, breast and lung cancers, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as its neuroprotective potential in reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

  19. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743

  20. The high-density lipoprotein-adjusted SCORE model worsens SCORE-based risk classification in a contemporary population of 30 824 Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Recent European guidelines recommend to include high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in risk assessment for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), using a SCORE-based risk model (SCORE-HDL). We compared the predictive performance of SCORE-HDL with SCORE in an independent.......8 years of follow-up, 339 individuals died of CVD. In the SCORE target population (age 40-65; n = 30,824), fewer individuals were at baseline categorized as high risk (≥5% 10-year risk of fatal CVD) using SCORE-HDL compared with SCORE (10 vs. 17% in men, 1 vs. 3% in women). SCORE-HDL did not improve...... discrimination of future fatal CVD, compared with SCORE, but decreased the detection rate (sensitivity) of the 5% high-risk threshold from 42 to 26%, yielding a negative net reclassification index (NRI) of -12%. Importantly, using SCORE-HDL, the sensitivity was zero among women. Both SCORE and SCORE...

  1. High density lipoprotein cholesterol level is a robust predictor of lipid peroxidation irrespective of gender, age, obesity, and inflammatory or metabolic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelzer, Sieglinde; Fuchs, Nina; Almer, Gunter; Raggam, Reinhard B; Prüller, Florian; Truschnig-Wilders, Martie; Schnedl, Wolfgang; Horejsi, Renate; Möller, Reinhard; Weghuber, Daniel; Ille, Rottraut; Mangge, Harald

    2011-07-15

    Obesity related dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress were associated with atherosclerotic sequels. We analysed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plasma levels of 797 participants of the STyrian Juvenile OBesity (STYJOBS) / Early DEteCTion of Atherosclerosis (EDECTA) Study cohort aged from 5 to 50 years. The rationale of STYJOBS/EDECTA is to investigate the preclinical phase of obesity by a well defined cohort of young and middle aged overweight/obese and normal weight subjects. Plasma oxLDL was analysed by ELISA (Mercodia, Sweden). In the overweight/obese (OW/OB) study group, oxLDL levels were significantly increased compared to normal weighted controls (pobese participants, and between females and males, no significant difference was seen. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis including all study subjects, age, gender, anthropometric data, presence of metabolic syndrome, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, carotis communis intima media thickness, lipids, adipokines, metabolic, and inflammatory biomarkers, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) and increased total cholesterol were the best predictors for increased oxLDL levels. Decreased HDL-cholesterol is an important determinant of lipid peroxidation irrespective of obesity, age, gender, SAT distribution, and inflammatory/metabolic biomarkers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hip circumference is associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol response following statin therapy in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio-Magalhães, J A; Ferreira-Sae, M C; Souza, F A; Grespan-Magossi, A M; Schreiber, R; Velloso, L A; Geloneze, B; Franchini, K G; Nadruz, W

    2011-10-01

    This report investigated the relationship between anthropometric measurements of body fat distribution and lipid response to statins in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive patients. We prospectively examined 129 subjects who used either simvastatin 20 mg/day (no.=83) or atorvastatin 10 mg/day (no.=46) for 3 months. Anthropometry included evaluation of body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip-ratio. Significant decreases in LDL (pcorrelation between waist circumference and HDLcholesterol levels was detected (r=-0.18; p=0.04). Conversely, a direct relationship between hip circumference and HDLcholesterol response to statins was found in the whole sample (r=0.24; p=0.006), while no other anthropometric measurement displayed significant correlation with lipid changes. The association between HDL-cholesterol response and hip circumference was further confirmed by stepwise regression analysis adjusted for baseline HDL-cholesterol levels, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and waist circumference. Hip circumference, a surrogate marker of peripheral adiposity, is associated with HDL-cholesterol changes following statin therapy in hypertensive patients.

  3. High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses, Coronary Artery Disease, and Cardiovascular Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Günther; Pagel, Philipp; Pfahlert, Volker; Genser, Bernd; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela; Ohrui, Haruna; Ritsch, Andreas; Grammer, Tanja B; Koenig, Wolfgang; März, Winfried

    2017-12-01

    The inverse relationship between HDL cholesterol and cardiovascular mortality is weakened in coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to investigate the associations of HDL particle concentrations with cardiovascular mortality and the impact of CAD on these associations. We also sought to comparatively evaluate HDL cholesterol and HDL particle concentrations in predicting cardiovascular mortality. Total and subclass HDL particle concentrations were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 2290 participants of the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health study referred for coronary angiography. The participants were prospectively followed over a median (interquartile range) duration of 10.0 (6.1-10.6) years. The mean (SD) age of the participants (1575 males, 715 females) was 62.9 (10.4) years; body mass index, 27.6 (4.1) kg/m 2 ; HDL cholesterol, 39 (11) mg/dL [1 (0.29) mmol/L]; and total HDL particle concentration, 24.1 (5.8) μmol/L. Of the participants, 434 died from cardiovascular diseases. In multivariate analyses, tertiles of total HDL particle concentrations were inversely related to cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio for third vs first tertile = 0.55, P < 0.001). This association was primarily mediated by small HDL particles ( P < 0.001). Adding total or small HDL particle concentrations rather than HDL cholesterol to multivariate prediction models improved performance metrics for cardiovascular mortality. The presence of CAD had no impact on the associations between HDL particle concentrations and cardiovascular mortality. High HDL particle concentration is consistently and independently of CAD associated with decreased cardiovascular mortality. Whether the inverse relationship between HDL particle concentration and cardiovascular mortality may be translated into novel therapies is under investigation. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. Mendelian Randomization Implicates High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Associated Mechanisms in Etiology of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Stephen; Davey Smith, George

    2017-08-01

    Undertake a systematic investigation into associations between genetic predictors of lipid fractions and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. Two-sample Mendelian randomization investigation using published data. A total of 33 526 individuals (16 144 cases, 17 832 controls) predominantly of European ancestry from the International Age-related Macular Degeneration Genomics Consortium. We consider 185 variants previously demonstrated to be associated with at least 1 of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or triglycerides at a genome-wide level of significance, and test their associations with AMD. We particularly focus on variants in gene regions that are proxies for specific pharmacologic agents for lipid therapy. We then conduct a 2-sample Mendelian randomization investigation to assess the causal roles of LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides on AMD risk. We also conduct parallel investigations for coronary artery disease (CAD) (viewed as a positive control) and Alzheimer's disease (a negative control) for comparison. Diagnosis of AMD. We find evidence that HDL-cholesterol is a causal risk factor for AMD, with an odds ratio (OR) estimate of 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.44) per 1 standard deviation increase in HDL-cholesterol. No causal effect of LDL-cholesterol or triglycerides was found. Variants in the CETP gene region associated with increased circulating HDL-cholesterol also associate with increased AMD risk, although variants in the LIPC gene region that increase circulating HDL-cholesterol have the opposite direction of association with AMD risk. Parallel analyses suggest that lipids have a greater role for AMD compared with Alzheimer's disease, but a lesser role than for CAD. Some genetic evidence suggests that HDL-cholesterol is a causal risk factor for AMD risk and that increasing HDL-cholesterol (particularly via CETP inhibition) will increase AMD risk

  5. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailamuguli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P<0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P<0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of <3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.

  6. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio is linked to advanced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease lean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Javier; Ranchal, Isidora; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Pareja, María Jesús; Del Campo, Jose Antonio; Pastor-Ramírez, Helena; Rico, María Carmen; Picón, Rocío; Pastor, Luis; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Andrade, Raúl; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    A small but significant proportion of patients with normal body mass index show non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a powerful immunogenic molecule, which causes oxidative stress and produces antibodies (oxLDL-ab). We aimed to analyze the role of oxLDL-ab on histological features in lean-NAFLD patients. Seventy-two biopsy-proven NAFLD patients were included. Lean patients showed body index mass of Liver biopsies were assessed by one pathologist blinded to clinical data. Histological features were non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and liver fibrosis. Metabolic and hepatic profiles were analyzed, and lipid-lowering medication was recorded. OxLDL-ab levels were measured by ELISA. OxLDL-ab-based lipid indexes analyzed: oxLDL-ab/total cholesterol ratio; oxLDL-ab/LDL-c ratio; oxLDL-ab/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio; and oxLDL-ab/oxLDL ratio. Lean-NAFLD patients presented 26.5% (9/34) of NASH. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio (r = 0.570; n = 34; P = 0.001) correlated with NAS score and was the only variable associated with NASH in the multivariate analysis [odds ratio, OR, 1.10 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-1.21); P = 0.039]. Severe steatosis was present in 41.2% (14/34) of lean-NAFLD patients. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio was higher in patients with grade-III steatosis (54.9 (37.3-124.6)) than those with grade II (37.1 (20.2-71.1)) and grade I (17.7 (13.1-22.8)) (P = 0.018). Hepatocellular ballooning was present in 20.6% (7/34) of lean-NAFLD patients, and OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio (OR 1.03 [95% CI: 1.01-1.05]; P = 0.050) was independently associated with histological features. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio was higher in patients with advanced fibrosis (39.8 (22.9-121.6) vs 17.7 (13.9-30.9); P = 0.025), increasing gradually with the fibrosis stage (P = 0.042) and remained in the final multivariate model [OR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00-1.11); P = 0.05]. However, in

  7. Salutary effects of hemodialysis on low-density lipoprotein proinflammatory and high-density lipoprotein anti-inflammatory properties in patient with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Navab, Kaveh; Gollapudi, Pavan; Moradi, Hamid; Pahl, Madeleine V; Barton, Cyril H; Fogelman, Alan M; Navab, Mohamad

    2011-06-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) causes oxidative stress, inflammation, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency and accelerated atherosclerosis. Uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages results in foam cell and plaque formation. HDL mitigates atherosclerosis via reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of LDL oxidation. ESRD heightens LDL inflammatory activity and suppresses HDL anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of hemodialysis on the LDL and HDL inflammatory properties is unknown. By removing the potential pro-oxidant/proinflammatory uremic toxins, dialysis may attenuate LDL inflammatory and HDL anti-inflammatory properties. Conversely, exposure to dialyzer membrane and tubing and influx of impurities from dialysate can intensify LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. This study examined the effect of hemodialysis on LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. Plasma samples were obtained from 12 normal control and 26 ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis with (16 patients) or without (10 patients) heparinization. HDL and LDL were isolated and tested for monocyte chemotactic activity in cultured endothelial cells. ESRD patients had increased LDL chemotactic activity, reduced HDL anti-inflammatory activity, paraoxonase and glutathione peroxidase levels, and elevated plasma IL-6 before dialysis. Hemodialysis partially improved LDL inflammatory and HDL anti-inflammatory activities and enhanced patients' HDL ability to suppress their LDL inflammatory activity. The salutary effect on LDL inflammatory activity was significantly greater in patients dialyzed with than those without heparin. ESRD heightens LDL inflammatory and impairs HDL anti-inflammatory activities. Hemodialysis partially improves LDL and HDL inflammatory activities. The salutary effects of hemodialysis are in part mediated by heparin, which is known to possess lipolytic and antioxidant properties.

  8. High-density Lipoproteins and Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential New Players in the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Disease

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    Elizabeth M. Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I and high-density lipoproteins (HDL mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia. Similar to observations in cardiovascular disease, however, HDL may become dysfunctional and contribute to disease pathogenesis in respiratory disorders. Furthermore, synthetic apoA-I mimetic peptides have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of acute lung injury, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and influenza pneumonia. These findings provide evidence to support the concept that apoA-I mimetic peptides might be developed into a new treatment that can either prevent or attenuate the manifestations of lung diseases, such as asthma. Thus, the lung is positioned to take a page from the cardiovascular disease playbook and utilize the protective properties of HDL and apoA-I as a novel therapeutic approach.

  9. Paraoxonase-3 is depleted from the high-density lipoproteins of autoimmune disease patients with subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsillach, Judit; Becker, Jessica O; Vaisar, Tomas; Hahn, Bevra H; Brunzell, John D; Furlong, Clement E; de Boer, Ian H; McMahon, Maureen A; Hoofnagle, Andrew N

    2015-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune diseases have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In disease, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles lose their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and become dysfunctional. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that alterations in the HDL proteomic profile are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and HDL dysfunction in patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and type 1 diabetes. Targeted proteomics was used to quantify the relative abundance of 18 proteins in HDL from SLE patients with and without atherosclerotic plaque detectable by carotid ultrasound. Changes in the proteomic profile were compared against the in vitro ability of HDL to protect against lipid oxidation. The same proteins were quantified in HDL from patients with type 1 diabetes with or without coronary artery calcification as determined by computed tomography. In each population, paraoxonase-3 (PON3), a potent antioxidant protein, was depleted from the HDL of patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. PON3 expression in HDL was positively correlated with HDL antioxidant function. These results suggest that PON3 may be an important protein in preventing atherosclerosis and highlight the importance of antioxidant proteins in the prevention of atherosclerosis in vivo.

  10. Association of High Density Lipoprotein with Platelet to Lymphocyte and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

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    Jayesh H. Prajapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate a relationship between platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR with high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels in coronary artery disease (CAD patients. Methods. A total of 354 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary blockages were enrolled in the study. Hematological indices and lipid profiling data of all the patients were collected. Results. We have observed significant association between HDL and PLR (P=0.008 and NLR (P=0.009; however no significant relationship was obtained with HDL and isolated platelet (P=0.488, neutrophil (P=0.407, and lymphocyte (P=0.952 counts in CAD patients. The association was subjected to gender specific variation as in males PLR (P=0.024 and NLR (P=0.03 were highly elevated in low HDL patients, whereas in females the elevation could not reach the statistically significant level. The PLR (217.47 versus 190.3; P=0.01 and NLR (6.33 versus 5.10; P=0.01 were significantly higher among the patients with acute coronary syndrome. In young patients the PLR (P=0.007 and NLR (P=0.001 were inversely associated with HDL, whereas in older population only NLR (P=0.05 had showed a significant association. Conclusion. We conclude that PLR and NLR are significantly elevated in CAD patients having low HDL levels.

  11. Steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone regulation of the very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) receptor phosphorylation for VHDL uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Du-Juan; Liu, Wen; Cai, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2013-04-01

    During the metamorphic stage of holometabolous insects, the biosynthetic precursors needed for the synthesis of a large number of adult proteins are acquired from the selective absorption of storage proteins. The very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL), a non-hexameric storage protein, is consumed by the fat body from the hemolymph through VHDL receptor (VHDL-R)-mediated endocytosis. However, the mechanism of the uptake of VHDL by a VHDL-R remains unclear. In this study, a VHDL-R from Helicoverpa armigera was found to be involved in 20E-regulated VHDL uptake through the regulation of steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The transcripts of VHDL-R were detected mainly in the fat body and integument during the wandering stage. The transcription of VHDL-R was upregulated by 20E through the ecdysteroid receptor (EcRB1) and Ultraspiracle (USP1). In addition, 20E stimulates the phosphorylation of VHDL-R through protein kinase C for ligand binding. VHDL-R knockdown in larvae results the inhibition of development to adulthood. These data imply that 20E regulates VHDL-R on both transcriptional and posttranslational levels for VHDL absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecto-F1-ATPase/P2Y pathways in metabolic and vascular functions of high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Laurent O; Najib, Souad; Perret, Bertrand; Cabou, Cendrine; Lichtenstein, Laeticia

    2015-01-01

    The atheroprotective property of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is supported by many epidemiological studies and cellular and in vivo approaches on animal models. While the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL are thought to derive primarily from its role in reverse cholesterol transport, together with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic and cytoprotective properties, the mechanisms that support these effects are still not completely understood. However, many advances in identifying the cellular partners involved in HDL functions have been made over the last two decades. This review highlights the diverse roles of the HDL receptor ecto-F1-ATPase coupled to purinergic P2Y receptors in the modulation of important metabolic and vascular functions of HDL. On hepatocytes, the ecto-F1-ATPase is coupled to P2Y13 receptor and contributes to HDL holoparticle endocytosis. On endothelial cells, ecto-F1-ATPase/P2Ys pathway is involved in HDL-mediated endothelial protection and HDL transcytosis. The clinical relevance of this F1-ATPase/P2Ys axis in humans has recently been supported by the identification of serum F1-ATPase inhibitor (IF1) as an independent determinant of HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) and coronary heart disease risk. Therapeutic strategies targeting F1-ATPase/P2Y pathways for the treatment of atherosclerosis are currently being explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The low resolution structure of ApoA1 in spherical high density lipoprotein revealed by small angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiping; Gogonea, Valentin; Lee, Xavier; May, Roland P; Pipich, Vitaliy; Wagner, Matthew A; Undurti, Arundhati; Tallant, Thomas C; Baleanu-Gogonea, Camelia; Charlton, Francesca; Ioffe, Alexander; DiDonato, Joseph A; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Hazen, Stanley L

    2011-04-08

    Spherical high density lipoprotein (sHDL), a key player in reverse cholesterol transport and the most abundant form of HDL, is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Small angle neutron scattering with contrast variation was used to determine the solution structure of protein and lipid components of reconstituted sHDL. Apolipoprotein A1, the major protein of sHDL, forms a hollow structure that cradles a central compact lipid core. Three apoA1 chains are arranged within the low resolution structure of the protein component as one of three possible global architectures: (i) a helical dimer with a hairpin (HdHp), (ii) three hairpins (3Hp), or (iii) an integrated trimer (iT) in which the three apoA1 monomers mutually associate over a portion of the sHDL surface. Cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses help to discriminate among the three molecular models and are most consistent with the HdHp overall architecture of apoA1 within sHDL.

  14. Incorporation of an apoE-derived lipopeptide in high-density lipoprotein MRI contrast agents for enhanced imaging of macrophages in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Vucic, Esad; Leupold, Eik; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Cormode, David P.; Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Barazza, Alessandra; Fisher, Edward A.; Dathe, Margitta; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is becoming a pivotal diagnostic method to identify and characterize vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. We previously reported a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle platform enriched with Gd-based amphiphiles as a plaque-specific MR imaging

  15. In vivo regulation of scavenger receptor BI and the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in rat liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluiter, K.; van der Westhuijzen, D. R.; van Berkel, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    High density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL-CE) are selectively taken up by liver parenchymal cells without parallel apolipoprotein uptake. This selective uptake route forms an important step in the so-called reverse cholesterol transport. Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the only known HDL

  16. A one-step separation of human serum high density lipoproteins 2 and 3 by rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation in a swinging bucket rotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.H.E.; Scheek, L.M.; Havekes, L.; Noort, W.L. van; Hooft, F.M. van 't

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for the separation of the high density lipoprotein subclasses HDL2 and HDL3 from human serum. Six serum samples are fractionated in a single-step ultracentrifugal procedure using the Beckman (SW-40) swinging bucket rotor. The method is based on a difference in flotation rate

  17. Effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and blood pressure in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to examine the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on the distribution of serum cholesterol over high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) and on blood pressure in healthy men and women. High levels of LDL cholesterol

  18. Association between non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and the prevalence of asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis.

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    Jianwei Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C and the prevalence of asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC study is a prospective cohort study based on the Kailuan district (China population. A total of 5351 eligible subjects, aged ≥40, and without history of stroke or myocardial infarction, were enrolled in this study. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD was performed on all enrolled subjects for the evaluation of ICAS presence. Out of 5351 patients, 698 subjects showed evidence of ICAS (prevalence of 13.04%. Multivariate analysis showed that non-HDL-C is an independent indicator for the presence of ICAS (OR  = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.08 - 1.23, but with a gender difference (P for interaction<0.01: in men, non-HDL-C is an independent indicator for ICAS (multivariate-adjusted OR  = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.18-1.39, but not in women (multivariate-adjusted OR  = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.93-1.14. Subjects were divided into five subgroups based non-HDL-C levels and these levels correlated linearly with the prevalence of ICAS (P for trend <0.01. Compared with the first quintile, multivariate-adjusted OR (95%CI of the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles were: 1.05 (0.71-1.56, 1.33 (0.91-1.95, 1.83 (1.27-2.63, 2.48 (1.72-3.57, respectively. CONCLUSION: Non-HDL-C is an independent predictor of ICAS prevalence in men but not in women, suggesting that non-HDL-C levels could be used as a surveillance factor in the primary prevention of ischemic stroke, especially in men.

  19. Serum total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk prediction of cardiovascular events - the JALS-ECC -.

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    Tanabe, Naohito; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okada, Katsutoshi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Harada, Akiko; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ando, Takashi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-07-01

    Few Japanese studies have compared serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol with serum total cholesterol as factors for predicting risk of cardiovascular events. Currently, few tools accurately estimate the probability of developing cardiovascular events for the Japanese general population. A total of 22,430 Japanese men and women (aged 40-89 years) without a history of cardiovascular events from 10 community-based cohorts were followed. In an average 7.6-year follow up, 104 individuals experienced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 339 experienced stroke. Compared to serum total cholesterol, serum non-HDL cholesterol was more strongly associated with risk of AMI in a dose-response manner (multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio per 1 SD increment [95% confidence interval] =1.49 [1.24-1.79] and 1.62 [1.35-1.95], respectively). Scoring systems were constructed based on multivariable Poisson regression models for predicting a 5-year probability of developing AMI; the non-HDL cholesterol model was found to have a better predictive ability (area under the receiver operating curve [AUC] =0.825) than the total cholesterol model (AUC =0.815). Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol levels were associated with any stroke subtype. The risk of AMI can be more reliably predicted by serum non-HDL cholesterol than serum total cholesterol. The scoring systems are useful tools to predict risk of AMI. Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol can predict stroke risk in the Japanese general population.

  20. Pathways-Driven Sparse Regression Identifies Pathways and Genes Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Two Asian Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Matt; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Montana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK signalling and immune

  1. High density lipoprotein-3 in diabetic retinopathy patients: relationship to total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustundag Yasemin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the association between high density lipoprotein(HDL3 cholesterol, nitrite plus nitrate(NOxand total antioxidant status in diabetic retinopathy patients compared to controls.METHODS: This was a prospective, case-control study. One hundred and six participants were subdivided into three groups. Eighty-four type 2 diabetes patients with and without retinopathy and 22 healthy controls were included in this study. Serum HDL3 concentrations were assayed and serum NOx levels were determined in all patients. Total antioxidant capacity was measured using the ferric reducing power of plasma(FRAPassay.RESULTS: Among the subjects with diabetes mellitus(DM, fasting glucose, HbA1c and triglycerides were significantly higher than the healthy controls. HDL3 level was 14.4(12.0mg/dl in healthy subjects, 18.1(12.6mg/dl in the diabetic retinopathy group and 14.0(12.5mg/dl in diabetic patients without retinopathy, and was statistically similar between the groups(P=0.262. HDL level was similar between groups in our population. FRAP level was lower in patients with DM compared to healthy controls(P=0.003, but was not different between the DR and the non-DR groups(P=0.913.CONCLUSION: In our study, we demonstrated that HDL and HDL3 subgroup levels didn't significantly differ between DM2 patients with DR and without DR and healthy controls. Determination of HDL3 cholesterol, in addition to total HDL cholesterol, may not predict the actual risk for diabetic retinopathy. Serum NOx was observed to be higher in diabetic participants and FRAP level was low.

  2. Conflicting interactions of apolipoprotein A and high density lipoprotein cholesterol with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Zahra; Afarideh, Mohsen; Ghajar, Alireza; Esteghamati, Sadaf; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2017-11-01

    This study is amid at investigating the associations, and interactions of serum lipid biomarkers with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A nested case-control study was conducted within an ongoing prospective study on patients with T2D. Microvascular complications of T2D including diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy were investigated. A total of 444 cases with at least one of the microvascular complications of T2D and 439 age- and gender-matched controls free of any of the chronic microvascular complications of T2D were included. The associations and interactions of a panel of serum lipid biomarkers with the microvascular complications of T2D were investigated. Serum triglyceride had the strongest association with microvascular complications of T2D (crude model: β=0.632, P value=0.045). Each standard deviation increment in serum TG was associated with 3.7 times increased frequency of microvascular complications. Despite high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) was positively associated with the presence of diabetic neuropathy. Each standard deviation increment in serum ApoA1 was associated with increased frequency of diabetic neuropathy (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, (1.1-1.3), P value=0.006). The frequency of diabetic neuropathy was higher in 2nd and 3rd quartiles of serum Lp(a) compared to diabetic patients in the first quartile (OR, 5.52, 95% (1.17-25.8), P value=0.047). ApoA1 but not HDL-C is straightly associated with diabetic neuropathy. Even Slight rise in serum Lp(a) is associated with increased frequency of diabetic retinopathLipid variables could serve as specific predictors of vascular complications in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide association studies identified novel loci for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and its postprandial lipemic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ping; Straka, Robert J.; Pollin, Toni I.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Daw, E. Warwick; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Gibson, Quince; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Province, Michael A.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Shuldiner, Alan R; Arnett, Donna K.; Borecki, Ingrid B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL) is an independent and superior predictor of CVD risk as compared to LDL alone. It represents a spectrum of atherogenic lipid fractions with possibly a distinct genomic signature. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify loci influencing baseline NHDL and its postprandial lipemic (PPL) response. We carried out GWAS in 4,241 participants of European descent. Our discovery cohort included 928 subjects from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study. Our replication cohorts included 3,313 subjects from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study and Family Heart Study (FamHS). A linear mixed model using the kinship matrix was used for association tests. The best association signal was found in a tri-genic region at RHOQ-PIGF-CRIPT for baseline NHDL (lead SNP rs6544903, discovery p = 7e-7, MAF = 2%; validation p = 6e-4 at 0.1 kb upstream neighboring SNP rs3768725, and 5e-4 at 0.7 kb downstream neighboring SNP rs6733143, MAF = 10%). The lead and neighboring SNPs were not perfect surrogate proxies to each other (D′ = 1, r2 = 0.003) but they seemed to be partially dependent (likelihood ration test p = 0.04). Other suggestive loci (discovery p 0.01). The current and first GWAS of NHDL yielded an interesting common variant in RHOQ-PIGF-CRIPT influencing baseline NHDL levels. Another common variant in CDH13 for NHDL response to dietary high fat intake challenge was also suggested. Further validations for both loci from large independent studies, especially interventional studies, are warranted. PMID:24604477

  4. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases

  5. Effects of red grape juice consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B and homocysteine in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals.

  6. Synthetic High-Density Lipoprotein-Like Nanocarrier Improved Cellular Transport of Lysosomal Cholesterol in Human Sterol Carrier Protein-Deficient Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Da-Eun; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Jeongmin

    2016-01-01

    Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2), which is not found in tissues of people with Zellweger syndrome, facilitates the movement of cholesterol within cells, resulting in abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in SCP-2-deficient cells. This study investigated whether synthetic high-density lipoprotein-like nanocarrier (sHDL-NC) improves the cellular transport of lysosomal cholesterol to plasma membrane in SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts. Human SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts were incubated with [(3)H-cholesterol]LDL as a source of cholesterol and sHDL-NC. The cells were fractionated by centrifugation permit tracking of [(3)H]-cholesterol from lysosome into plasma membrane. Furthermore, cellular content of cholesteryl ester as a storage form and mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor were measured to support the cholesterol transport to plasma membrane. Incubation with sHDL-NC for 8 h significantly increased uptake of [(3)H]-cholesterol to lysosome by 53% and further enhanced the transport of [(3)H]-cholesterol to plasma membrane by 32%. Treatment with sHDL-NC significantly reduced cellular content of cholesteryl ester and increased mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R). In conclusion, sHDL-NC enables increased transport of lysosomal cholesterol to plasma membrane. In addition, these data were indirectly supported by decreased cellular content of cholesteryl ester and increased gene expression of LDL-R. Therefore, sHDL-NC may be a useful vehicle for transporting cholesterol, which may help to prevent accumulation of cholesterol in SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts.

  7. Disruption of human plasma high-density lipoproteins by streptococcal serum opacity factor requires labile apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mikyung; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Ward, Kathryn; Rosales, Corina; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J; Pownall, Henry J

    2009-02-24

    Human plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the primary vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport, are the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes that turns serum opaque. HDL comprise a core of neutral lipidscholesteryl esters and some triglyceridesurrounded by a surface monolayer of cholesterol, phospholipids, and specialized proteins [apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and A-II]. A HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap from which it can escape via chaotropic, detergent, or thermal perturbation. Recombinant (r) SOF catalyzes the transfer of nearly all neutral lipids of approximately 100,000 HDL particles (D approximately 8.5 nm) into a single, large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM; D > 100 nm), leaving a new HDL-like particle [neo HDL (D approximately 5.8 nm)] while releasing lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics, suggesting parallel or rapid consecutive steps. By using complementary physicochemical methods, we have refined the mechanistic model for HDL opacification. According to size exclusion chromatography, a HDL containing nonlabile apo A-I resists rSOF-mediated opacification. On the basis of kinetic cryo-electron microscopy, rSOF (10 nM) catalyzes the conversion of HDL (4 microM) to neo HDL via a stepwise mechanism in which intermediate-sized particles are seen. Kinetic turbidimetry revealed opacification as a rising exponential reaction with a rate constant k of (4.400 +/- 0.004) x 10(-2) min(-1). Analysis of the kinetic data using transition state theory gave an enthalpy (DeltaH()), entropy (DeltaS(++)), and free energy (DeltaG()) of activation of 73.9 kJ/mol, -66.87 J/K, and 94.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The free energy of activation for opacification is nearly identical to that for the displacement of apo A-I from HDL by guanidine hydrochloride. We conclude that apo A-I lability is required for HDL opacification, LF apo A-I desorption is the

  8. Disruption of Human Plasma High Density Lipoproteins by Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Requires Labile Apolipoprotein A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mikyung; Gillard, Baiba K.; Courtney, Harry S.; Ward, Kathryn; Rosales, Corina; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), the primary vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport, are the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes that turns serum opaque. HDL comprise a core of neutral lipids–cholesteryl esters and some triglyceride–surrounded by a surface monolayer of cholesterol, phospholipids, and specialized proteins–apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and A-II. HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap from which it can escape via chaotropic, detergent or thermal perturbation. Recombinant (r) SOF catalyzes the transfer of nearly all neutral lipids of ~100,000 HDL particles (D ~ 8.5 nm) into a single, large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM; D >100 nm) leaving a new HDL-like particle–neo HDL (D ~5.8 nm) while releasing lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics suggesting parallel or rapid consecutive steps. By using complementary physico-chemical methods, we have refined the mechanistic model for HDL opacification. According to size exclusion chromatography, HDL containing non-labile apo A-I resists rSOF-mediated opacification. Based on kinetic cryo electron microscopy, rSOF (10 nM) catalyzes the conversion of HDL (4 μM) to neo HDL via a step-wise mechanism in which intermediate-size particles are seen. Kinetic turbidimetry revealed opacification as a rising exponential reaction with a rate constant k = (4.400 ± 0.004) × 10−2 min−1. Analysis of the kinetic data using transition state theory gave an enthalpy, entropy and free energy of activation of ΔH‡ = 73.9 kJ/mol, ΔS‡ = −66.87 J/°K, and ΔG‡ = 94.6 kJ/mol respectively. The free energy of activation for opacification is nearly identical to that for the displacement of apo A-I from HDL by guanidine hydrochloride. We conclude that apo A-I lability is required for HDL opacification, LF apo A-I desorption is the rate-limiting step, and nearly all HDL particles contain

  9. Pengaruh suplementasi serat Psyllium husk dan diet rendah kalori seimbang terhadap berat badan, kadar kolesterol high-density lipoprotein, dan trigliserida serum pada obes I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irnawaty Rasyid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increased prevalence of obesity will bring a great impact in the health sector, due to the effect of the influence of organ in the body such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Reduced energy diet and exercise are effective for management weight loss. During the restriction diet, an obese person should increase the amount of dietary fiber up to 20−35 g/day, specifically of soluble fiber, to more effective fat loss and improve serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride (TG cholesterol concentration. Psyllium husk (PH is a source of natural soluble fiber obtained from Plantago ovate Forssk seed. Objective: The aim of the study have investigated the change of body weight, serum HDL cholesterol, and TG concentration in obese I after supplemented PH 8.4 g/day and balanced deficit calories diet (BDCD for 4 weeks. Method: The survey used double-blind randomized clinical trial with parallel design. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups; treatment (T group and placebo (P group. The T subjects received psyllium husk (PH 8.4 g/day and BDCD 1200 kcal/day and the P subjects received placebo and BDCD 1200 kcal/day. The analyzed used independent t-test and Mann-Whitney. Results: A total 28 subjects (14 subjects in each group had completed the intervention. There were no serious adverse effects reported during the intervention. Intake of dietary fiber in T group was 17.2 ± 2.8 g/day had significantly higher than P group 8.6 (5.2−15.2 g/day, although supplemented with PH didn’t meet the recommendation of fiber intake (20-35 g/day. Decrease of body weight was -1,8 ± 0,8 kg and triglyceride level was -1,5 (-416−77 in T group that statistically insignificant difference (p=0,39 and p=0,84 with P group -1,6 ± 0,9 kg and -10,0 ± 31,3. Soluble supplementation (P group increased serum HDL cholesterol concentration was 0,0 ± 4,3 mg/dL that statistically insignificant difference (p=0,86 with T

  10. Suppression of Remodeling Behaviors with Arachidonic Acid Modification for Enhanced in vivo Antiatherogenic Efficacies of Lovastatin-loaded Discoidal Recombinant High Density Lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Zhang, Mengyuan; Liu, Lisha; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenli

    2015-10-01

    A series of in vitro evaluation in our previous studies had proved that arachidonic acid (AA) modification could suppress the remodeling behaviors of lovastatin-loaded discoidal reconstituted high density lipoprotein (LT-d-rHDL) by restraining the reactivity with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) for reducing undesired drug leakage. This study focuses on the investigation of AA-modified LT-d-rHDL (AA-LT-d-rHDL) in atherosclerotic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit models to explore whether AA modification could enhance drug targeting delivery and improve antiatherogenic efficacies in vivo. After pharmacokinetics of AA-LT-d-rHDL modified with different AA amount were investigated in atherosclerotic NZW rabbits, atherosclerotic lesions targeting property was assessed by ex vivo imaging of aortic tree and drug distribution. Furthermore, their antiatherogenic efficacies were elaborately evaluated and compared by typical biochemical indices. With AA modification amount augmenting, circulation time of AA-LT-d-rHDL was prolonged, and drug accumulation in the target locus was increased, eventually the significant appreciation in antiatherogenic efficacies were further supported by lower level of bad cholesterol, decreased atherosclerotic lesions areas and mean intima-media thickness (MIT), markedly attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression and macrophage infiltration. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that AA-LT-d-rHDL could enhance drug accumulation in atherosclerotic lesion and impede atherosclerosis progression more effectively.

  11. Controlling for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol does not affect the magnitude of the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per; Bakke, Eirin; Hoff, Dominic A; Høiseth, Gudrun; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Myhre, Ronny; Normann, Per Trygve; Næss, Øyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Thelle, Dag S; Mørland, Jørg

    2011-11-22

    This study tested the hypothesis that moderate alcohol intake exerts its cardioprotective effect mainly through an increase in the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) study, 149 729 adult participants, recruited from 1994 to 2003, were followed by linkage to the Cause of Death Registry until 2006. At recruitment, questionnaire data on alcohol intake were collected, and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum was measured. Using Cox regression, we found that the adjusted hazard ratio for men for dying from coronary heart disease was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.69) when consuming alcohol more than once a week compared with never or rarely. The ratio changed only slightly, to 0.55 (0.41-0.73), after the regression model included the serum level of high-density cholesterol. For women, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.62 (0.32-1.23) and 0.68 (0.34-1.34), respectively. Alcohol intake is related to a reduced risk of death from coronary heart disease in the follow-up of a large, population-based Norwegian cohort study with extensive control for confounding factors. Our findings suggest that the serum level of high-density cholesterol is not an important intermediate variable in the possible causal pathway between moderate alcohol intake and coronary heart disease.

  12. High-density lipoprotein levels are strongly associated with the recovery rate of insulin sensitivity during the acute phase of myocardial infarction: a study by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Martins, Naiara V; Moura, Filipe A; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Almeida, Osorio L R; Quinaglia e Silva, Jose C; Sposito, Andrei C

    2013-01-01

    The decrease of insulin sensitivity (IS) during myocardial infarction (MI) is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggest that in individuals under stable conditions, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may improve IS. To date, the role of HDL in the modulation of IS in acute metabolic stress conditions such as MI remains unknown. To explore the association between plasma HDL-C and the change in IS during the acute phase of MI. Consecutive nondiabetic patients with ST-segment elevation MI (n = 22) underwent direct measurement of IS through the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp on the first morning and on the fifth day after onset of MI. Patients were grouped according to HDL-C levels at admission above and below the median value (35 mg/dL). At admission, there was no significant difference in baseline IS index, clinical, anthropometric, or treatment characteristics between low and high HDL groups. Between admission and fifth day, there was a decrease of 8% in IS index in the low HDL group and an 11% increase in the high HDL group (P = .001 for intragroup and P = .012 for intergroup difference). This difference remained significant after we controlled for the sex, age, waist circumference, triglycerides, baseline IS index, and statin dose during hospitalization. This is the first study to provide evidence that plasma levels of HDL-C are strongly associated with the recovery rate of IS during the acute phase of MI. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease: cross-sectional, prospective, and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, HH; Andersen, RV; Tybjærg-Hansen, A

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of T(-93)G, G(-53)C, Asp9Asn, Gly188Glu, Asn291Ser, and Ser447Ter lipoprotein...... lipase genotypes on triglycerides, HDL, and IHD. DESIGN: The cross-sectional study involved 9004 adults. The prospective study consisted of 8817 adults developing 1001 IHD events over 23 yr. The case-control study involved 7818 non-IHD individuals vs. cohorts of 915 and 1062 IHD patients, respectively....... SETTING: The study was performed in the Danish general population (the Copenhagen City Heart Study). PARTICIPANTS: IHD was angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Triglycerides, HDL, and IHD were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, triglycerides varied...

  14. A genome-wide association study of monozygotic twin-pairs suggests a locus related to variability of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surakka, Ida; Whitfield, John B; Perola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    in serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. We report data for 1,720 monozygotic female twin-pairs from GenomEUtwin project with 2.5 million SNPs, imputed or genotyped, and measured serum lipid fractions for both twins. We found one locus associated with intra-pair differences in high-density lipoprotein......Genome-wide association analysis on monozygotic twin-pairs offers a route to discovery of gene-environment interactions through testing for variability loci associated with sensitivity to individual environment/lifestyle. We present a genome-wide scan of loci associated with intra-pair differences...

  15. Possible association of ABCB1:c.3435T>C polymorphism with high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol response to statin treatment - a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sałacka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The gene product ABCB1 (formerly MDR1 or P-glycoprotein is hypothesized to be involved in cholesterol cellular trafficking, redistribution and intestinal re-absorption. Carriers of the ABCB1:3435T allele have previously been associated with decreases in ABCB1 mRNA and protein concentrations and have been correlated with changes in serum lipid concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate possible association between the ABCB1:3435T>C polymorphism and changes in lipids in patients following statin treatment. Outpatients (n=130 were examined: 43 men (33%, 87 women (67%: treated with atorvastatin or simvastatin (all patients with equivalent dose of 20 or 40 mg/d simvastatin. Blood was taken for ABCB1:3435T>C genotyping, and before and after statin treatment for lipid concentration determination (total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides. Change (Δ in lipid parameters, calculated as differences between measurements before and after treatment, were analyzed with multiple regression adjustments: gender, diabetes, age, body mass index, equivalent statin dose, length of treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant differences in ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.029; multivariate p=0.036 and %ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.021; multivariate p=0.023 between patients with TT (-0.05 ± 0.13 g/l; -6.8% ± 20%; respectively and CC+CT genotypes (0.004 ± 0.15 g/l; 4.1 ± 26%; respectively. Reduction of HDL-C in homozygous ABCB1:3435TT patients suggests this genotype could be associated with a reduction in the benefits of statin treatment.

  16. The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of poor outcomes in a Chinese population with acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifang; Xu, Jianing; Sun, Hao; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-11-01

    High admission cholesterol has been associated with better outcome after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), but a paradox not completely illustrated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) on short-term survival after AIS. Consecutive patients admitted in 2013 and 2015 were enrolled in the present study. The logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of 3-month outcomes. The primary endpoint was death. Secondary endpoint was good (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 or equal to prestrike modified Rankin Scale score) at 3 months. Of 871 patients enrolled in the final analysis, 94 (10.8%) individuals died during 3 months of observation. The serum TC and TC/HDL-C levels at admission were significantly associated with stroke outcomes at 3 months, and the HDL-C level was only correlated with the good outcomes at 3 months. Mortality risk was markedly decreased for patients with high TC/HDL-C ratio (odds ratio: 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.50 for Q4:Q1; P-trend <.001) after adjustment. The effect of TC/HDL-C ratio on the probability of good outcomes was still obvious (odds ratio: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.40-3.39 for Q4:Q1; P-trend=.029). According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the best discriminating factor was a TG/HDL-C ≥3.37 (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.643, sensitivity 61.3%, specificity 61.7%) as well as the TC/HDL-C ≥4.09 for good outcomes (AUC: 0.587, sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 79.7%). High TC/HDL-C ratio may be associated with increased short-term survival and better outcomes after AIS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  18. Reversible flow of cholesteryl ester between high-density lipoproteins and triacylglycerol-rich particles is modulated by the fatty acid composition and concentration of triacylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C.R. Quintão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We determined the influence of fasting (FAST and feeding (FED on cholesteryl ester (CE flow between high-density lipoproteins (HDL and plasma apoB-lipoprotein and triacylglycerol (TG-rich emulsions (EM prepared with TG-fatty acids (FAs. TG-FAs of varying chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation were tested in the presence of a plasma fraction at d > 1.21 g/mL as the source of CE transfer protein. The transfer of CE from HDL to FED was greater than to FAST TG-rich acceptor lipoproteins, 18% and 14%, respectively. However, percent CE transfer from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins was similar for FED and FAST HDL. The CE transfer from HDL to EM depended on the EM TG-FA chain length. Furthermore, the chain length of the monounsaturated TG-containing EM showed a significant positive correlation of the CE transfer from HDL to EM (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001 and a negative correlation from EM to HDL (r = -041, P = 0.0088. Regarding the degree of EM TG-FAs unsaturation, among EMs containing C18, the CE transfer was lower from HDL to C18:2 compared to C18:1 and C18:3, 17.7%, 20.7%, and 20%, respectively. However, the CE transfer from EMs to HDL was higher to C18:2 than to C18:1 and C18:3, 83.7%, 51.2%, and 46.3%, respectively. Thus, the EM FA composition was found to be the rate-limiting factor regulating the transfer of CE from HDL. Consequently, the net transfer of CE between HDL and TG-rich particles depends on the specific arrangement of the TG acyl chains in the lipoprotein particle core.

  19. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and transfer of lipids to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in vegan and omnivore subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, J C; Vinagre, C G; Pozzi, F S; Slywitch, E; Maranhão, R C

    2013-01-01

    Vegan diet excludes all foodstuffs of animal origin and leads to cholesterol lowering and possibly reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. The aim was to investigate whether vegan diet improves the metabolic pathway of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, consisting in lipoprotein lipolysis and removal from circulation of the resulting remnants and to verify whether the diet alters HDL metabolism by changing lipid transfers to this lipoprotein. 21 vegan and 29 omnivores eutrophic and normolipidemic subjects were intravenously injected triglyceride-rich emulsions labeled with (14)C-cholesterol oleate and (3)H-triolein: fractional clearance rates (FCR, in min(-1)) were calculated from samples collected during 60 min for radioactive counting. Lipid transfer to HDL was assayed by incubating plasma samples with a donor nanoemulsion labeled with radioactive lipids; % lipids transferred to HDL were quantified in supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions and nanoemulsion. Serum LDL cholesterol was lower in vegans than in omnivores (2.1 ± 0.8, 2.7 ± 0.7 mmol/L, respectively, p triglycerides were equal. Cholesteryl ester FCR was greater in vegans than in omnivores (0.016 ± 0.012, 0.003 ± 0.003, p triglyceride FCR was equal (0.024 ± 0.014, 0.030 ± 0.016, N.S.). Cholesteryl ester transfer to HDL was lower in vegans than in omnivores (2.7 ± 0.6, 3.5 ± 1.5%, p triglyceride and phospholipid transfer were equal, as well as HDL size. Remnant removal from circulation, estimated by cholesteryl oleate FCR was faster in vegans, but the lipolysis process, estimated by triglyceride FCR was equal. Increased removal of atherogenic remnants and diminution of cholesteryl ester transfer may favor atherosclerosis prevention by vegan diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prebeta-migrating high density lipoprotein: quantitation in normal and hyperlipidemic plasma by solid phase radioimmunoassay following electrophoretic transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, B.Y.; Frolich, J.; Fielding, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative solid phase immunoassay has been developed for the determination of the mass of electrophoretically separated prebeta apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in human plasma. Conditions have been identified for the quantitative transfer and immunoblotting of the apolipoprotein in the absence of organic solvents or detergents. In normolipidemic plasma, the prebeta-migrating fraction of apoA-I represented 4.2 +/- 1.8% of total apoA-I (61 +/- 26 micrograms of apoA-I per ml of plasma). Significantly higher levels were found in hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, in primary and secondary hypertriglyceridemia, and in congenital lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. In all cases prebeta-migrating apoA-I consisted in large part of low molecular weight lipoprotein species, compared to the size of the major, alpha-migrating apoA-I fraction

  1. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) inhibits macrophage apoptosis by stimulating STAT3 activity and survivin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuerborn, Renata; Becker, Susen; Potì, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophage apoptosis is critically involved in atherosclerosis. We here examined the effect of anti-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its component sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on apoptosis in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. METHODS: Mitochondrial or endoplasmic...... reticulum-dependent apoptosis was induced by exposure of macrophages to etoposide or thapsigargin/fukoidan, respectively. RESULTS: Cell death induced by these compounds was inhibited by S1P as inferred from reduced annexin V binding, TUNEL staining, and caspase 3, 9 and 12 activities. S1P induced expression......) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the stimulatory effect of S1P on survivin expression and inhibitory effects on apoptosis were attenuated by STAT3 or JAK2 inhibitors, S3I-201 or AG490, respectively. The effects of S1P on STAT3 activation, survivin expression and macrophage apoptosis were emulated by HDL, HDL...

  2. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults: The Role of Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. A critically low HDL-C level (cognitive level of the job, and greater engagement in cognitive leisure activity. Cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course may reduce the detrimental influences of a critically low HDL-C level on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Alcohol consumption, TaqIB polymorphism of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Overvad, Kim

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether a common polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene modifies the relationship of alcohol intake with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Parallel nested case-control studies...... among women [Nurses' Health Study (NHS)] and men [Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS)] where 246 women and 259 men who developed incident CHD were matched to controls (1:2) on age and smoking. The TaqIB variant and alcohol consumption were associated with higher HDL-C, with the most pronounced...... effects of alcohol among B2 carriers. In the NHS we did not find an inverse association between alcohol and CHD in B2 non-carriers (P trend: 0.5), but did among B2 carriers (P trend

  4. Dietary supplementation with d-tagatose in subjects with type 2 diabetes leads to weight loss and raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Thomas W; Magder, Laurence S; Zarbalian, Kiarash

    2010-12-01

    Oral d-tagatose (d-tag) attenuates the rise in plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and reduces food intake in healthy human subjects. A reduction in food consumption and less weight gain occur in rats fed tagatose. This pilot study explored the metabolic effects of d-tag given daily to 8 human subjects with type 2 DM for 1 year. We hypothesized that this treatment period would lead to weight loss and improvements in glycated hemoglobin and the lipid profile. A 2-month run-in period was followed by a 12-month treatment period when 15 g of oral d-tag was taken 3 times daily with food. No serious adverse effects were seen during the 12-month treatment period. Ten of the initially 12 recruited subjects experienced gastrointestinal side effects that tended to be mild and transient. When 3 subjects were excluded who had oral diabetes, medications added and/or dosages increased during the study and mean (SD) body weight declined from 108.4 (9.0) to 103.3 (7.3) kg (P = .001). Glycated hemoglobin fell nonsignificantly from 10.6% ± 1.9% to 9.6% ± 2.3% (P = .08). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol progressively rose from a baseline level of 30.5 ± 15.8 to 41.7 ± 12.1 mg/dL at month 12 in the 6 subjects who did not have lipid-modifying medications added during the study (P < .001). Significant improvements in body weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in this pilot study suggest that d-tag may be a potentially useful adjunct in the management of patients with type 2 DM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous transfer of cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids to high-density lipoprotein in aging subjects with or without coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina H. M Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL to simultaneously receive nonesterified cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids changes with aging and the presence of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with biochemical analyses. SUBJECTS: Eleven elderly patients with coronary artery disease (74±5 years were compared with the following groups of non-coronary artery disease subjects (referred to as "healthy": 25 young (25±5 years, 25 middle-aged (42± years, and 25 elderly subjects (75±8 years. METHODS: Plasma samples were incubated with a nanoemulsion labeled with radioactive lipids; the transfer of the lipids from the nanoemulsion to the HDL was measured in chemically precipitated HDL. HDL size and paraoxonase-1 activity were also determined. RESULTS: The transfer of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids to high-density lipoprotein was significantly greater (p<0.001 in healthy elderly subjects than in the middle-aged and younger subjects. Non-esterified cholesterol and triglyceride transfer was not different among these three groups. The HDL size was significantly greater (p<0.001 in healthy elderly subjects than in the middle-aged and younger subjects. The paraoxonase-1 activity was similar among the groups. Compared with healthy elderly subjects, coronary artery disease elderly subjects had significantly less (p<0.05 transfer of non-esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters to the HDL and a significantly smaller (p<0.05 HDL size. CONCLUSION: Because lipid transfer is enhanced in healthy elderly subjects but not in those with coronary artery disease, increasing lipid transfer to HDL may be a protective mechanism against the disease.

  6. Importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia: A 2-year survey of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged 75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. A Splice Region Variant in LDLR Lowers Non-high Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Protects against Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Helgason, Hannes; Helgadottir, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Through high coverage whole-genome sequencing and imputation of the identified variants into a large fraction of the Icelandic population, we found four independent signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) that associate with levels of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (...... that disrupt the LDL receptor can lower non-HDL-C and protect against CAD....... (non-HDL-C) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Two signals are novel with respect to association with non-HDL-C and are represented by non-coding low frequency variants (between 2-4% frequency), the splice region variant rs72658867-A in intron 14 and rs17248748-T in intron one. These two novel...... associations were replicated in three additional populations. Both variants lower non-HDL-C levels (rs72658867-A, non-HDL-C effect = -0.44 mmol/l, Padj = 1.1 × 10⁻⁸⁰ and rs17248748-T, non-HDL-C effect = -0.13 mmol/l, Padj = 1.3 × 10⁻¹²) and confer protection against CAD (rs72658867-A, OR = 0.76 and Padj = 2...

  8. Isolated low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C: implications of global risk reduction. Case report and systematic scientific review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated non HDL-C (as part of the metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an isolated low HDL-C is rapidly emerging. The antiatherosclerotic roles of reverse cholesterol transport and the pleiotropic antioxidant – anti-inflammatory mechanistic effects of HDL-C are undergoing rapid exponential growth. Case presentation In 1997 a 53-year-old Caucasian male presented with a lipoprotein profile of many years duration with an isolated low HDL-C and uric acid levels in the upper quintile of normal. He developed an acute myocardial infarction involving the right coronary artery and had percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting of this lesion. He also demonstrated a non-critical non-flow limiting lesion of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery at the time of this evaluation. Following a program of global risk reduction this patient has done well over the past 7 years and remains free of any clinical signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. His HDL-C and uric acid levels are currently in the normal physiological range. Conclusion Low HDL-C and isolated low HDL-C constitute an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. Therapies that lead to a return to normal physiologic range of HDL-C may result in the delay of atherosclerotic progression.

  9. Targeted Measurements of O- and N-Glycopeptides Show That Proteins in High Density Lipoprotein Particles Are Enriched with Specific Glycosylation Compared to Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailemia, Muchena J; Wei, Wanghui; Nguyen, Khoa; Beals, Elizabeth; Sawrey-Kubicek, Lisa; Rhodes, Christopher; Zhu, Chenghao; Sacchi, Romina; Zivkovic, Angela M; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2018-02-02

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are believed to be protective due to their inverse correlation with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. However, recent studies show that in some conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, HDL particles can become dysfunctional. Great attention has been directed toward HDL particle composition because the relative abundances of HDL constituents determine HDL's functional properties. A key factor to consider when studying the structure and composition of plasma particles is the protein glycosylation. Here, we profile the O- and N-linked glycosylation of HDL associated-proteins including the truncated form of Apo CIII and their glycan heterogeneity in a site-specific manner. Apolipoprotein CIII, fetuin A, and alpha 1 antitrypsin are glycoproteins associated with lipoproteins and are implicated in many cardiovascular and other disease conditions. A targeted method (UHPLC-QQQ) was used to measure the glycoprotein concentrations and site-specific glycovariations of the proteins in human plasma and compared with HDL particles isolated from the same plasma samples. The proteins found in the plasma are differentially glycosylated compared to those isolated in HDL. The results of this study suggest that glycosylation may play a role in protein partitioning in the blood, with possible functional implications.

  10. High-density lipoprotein-associated paraoxonase-1 activity for prediction of adverse outcomes in outpatients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadah, Muhammad; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Weber, Malory; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L; Butler, Javed; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-06-01

    Decreased arylesterase (ArylE) activity of paraoxonase-1, a HDL-associated protein with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, has been associated with increased risk of cardiac events in patients with ischaemic heart failure (HF). We aim to investigate the prognostic significance of changes in serum ArylE activity over time. We examined the association between baseline and follow-up serum ArylE activity and HF outcomes (death, cardiac transplantation, or ventricular assist device implantation) in 299 patients with HF enrolled in a prospective cohort study from January 2008 to July 2009, with 145 patients having available follow-up levels at 1 year. A significant drop in ArylE activity on follow-up was defined as a drop of ≥25% vs. baseline levels. Mean baseline and follow-up ArylE activity levels were 110.6 ± 29.9 µmol/min/mL and 106.2 ± 29.9 µmol/min/mL, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 2.8 ± 1.1 years, low baseline ArylE activity was associated with increased risk of adverse HF events [hazard ratio (HR; lowest vs highest tertile) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-5.5, P = 0.01] and HF-related hospitalization [incidence rate ratio (lowest vs. highest tertile) 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-4.1, P = 0.016], which remained significant after adjustment for age, male gender, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, creatinine clearance, CAD, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Patients who had a significant drop in ArylE activity on follow-up (n = 18) had a significantly increased risk of HF events (HR 4.9, 95% CI 1.6-14.6, P = 0.005), even after adjustment for baseline levels of ArylE activity. Reduced baseline ArylE activity and decreased levels on follow-up are associated with adverse outcomes in stable outpatients with HF. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Oxidized-phospholipids in reconstituted high density lipoprotein particles affect structure and function of recombinant paraoxonase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Subhabrata; Patel, Mitulkumar A; Tripathy, Rajan K; Bajaj, Priyanka; Pande, Abhay H

    2013-12-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL-associated enzyme and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-atherogenic properties. Association of PON1 to HDL particles increases the stability and activity of PON1 and is important for the normal functioning of the enzyme. HDL particles are made up of lipid and protein constituents and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a principal protein constituent of HDL that facilitates various biological activities of HDL. In many disease conditions the oxidized phospholipid (Ox-PL) content of HDL is found to be increased and an inverse correlation between the activity of PON1 and oxidation of the HDL is observed. However, the molecular details of the inhibitory action of the Ox-PL-containing HDL on the function of PON1 are not clear yet. In this study we have assembled reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles with and without Ox-PL and compared their effect on the structure and function of (13)C-labeled recombinant PON1 ((13)C-rPON1) by employing attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and enzymatic assay. Our results show that the presence of the Ox-PL in the rHDL particles alters the structure of rPON1 and decreases its lactonase activity. © 2013.

  12. EFEK PEMBERIAN SUSU SAPI BUBUK TERHADAP KADAR SERUM HDL (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus GALUR WISTAR MODEL DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Umami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine the cow’s milk powder to increased serum levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL of white male rat model with diabetes mellitus type 2. The design of this study was a post-test control group study conducted in 30 male rats which randomly divided into five groups. Negative control group was the group of rats which fed normally, the positive control group was induced by streptozotocin (STZ without given cow’s milk, group P1, P2, P3 were given a normal diet and cow’s milk 0.9; 1.8, and 2.7 g orally every day. The results of this study were the levels of HDL in K(-=44.22 mg/dl, K(+=47.45 mg/dl, P1=56.56 mg/dl, P2=51.82 mg/dl, and P3=59.45 mg/dl. The conclusion was the milk powder was not significantly increase levels of HDL (p>0.05. More longer intervention was suggested for further research to get more significant of HDL level on type 2 diabetes mellitus.Keywords: HDL serum level, high fat diet, milk powder, streptozotocinABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh pemberian susu sapi bubuk terhadap peningkatan kadar serum High Density Lipoprotein (HDL tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus berjenis kelamin jantan model diabetes melitus (DM tipe 2. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian post test control group dengan 30 ekor tikus dibagi secara acak menjadi lima kelompok. Kelompok K(- adalah tikus yang diberi pakan normal, kelompok K(+ diinduksi dengan streptozotocin (STZ tanpa diberi susu, kelompok P1 sampai P3 diberi diet normal dan susu 0,9; 1,8, dan 2,7 g secara oral setiap hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar HDL pada K(-=44,22 mg/dl, K(+=47,45 mg/dl, P1=56,56 mg/dl, P2=51,82 mg/dl, dan P3=59,45 mg/dl. Susu sapi bubuk mampu meningkatkan kadar HDL tikus model DM tipe 2 akan tetapi tidak signifikan (p>0,05. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan waktu lama penelitian yang berbeda sehingga bisa berdampak yang lebih signifikan untuk kadar HDL pada DM tipe 2.Kata kunci

  13. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  14. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Low-Density Lipoprotein dan High-Density Lipoprotein pada Tikus Wistar Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revivo Rinda Pratama

    2014-09-01

    and HDL at rats with diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan. The research is experimental research with randomized post test only control group design. The subjects were 15 male Wistar rats those were divided into three groups: a negative control group, a positive control group, and the treated group. Each group consists of five (5 male rats. Administration of aspartame (dose of 315 mg/kg rat was administered to the treatment group for four (4 weeks. The results showed that administration of aspartame in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan was influenced the decreased in LDL levels and increased in HDL levels. The LDL levels in positive control group was 30 ± 2 mg/dl, in the treatment group was 24 ± 2 mg/dl. While the levels of HDL in positive control group was 19 ± 1 mg/dl, in the treatment group was 22 ± 1 mg/dl. There is a significant difference in the levels of LDL and HDL between the positive control group with the treatment group. The conclusion of this research are the administration of aspartame in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan influenced the decreased in LDL levels and increased in HDL levels.Keywords: aspartame, diabetes mellitus, LDL, HDL

  15. Osbpl8 deficiency in mouse causes an elevation of high-density lipoproteins and gender-specific alterations of lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Béaslas

    Full Text Available OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8 encoded by Osbpl8 is an endoplasmic reticulum sterol sensor implicated in cellular lipid metabolism. We generated an Osbpl8(-/- (KO C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Wild-type and Osbpl8KO animals at the age of 13-weeks were fed for 5 weeks either chow or high-fat diet, and their plasma lipids/lipoproteins and hepatic lipids were analyzed. The chow-fed Osbpl8KO male mice showed a marked elevation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (+79% and phospholipids (+35%, while only minor increase of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I was detected. In chow-fed female KO mice a less prominent increase of HDL cholesterol (+27% was observed, while on western diet the HDL increment was prominent in both genders. The HDL increase was accompanied by an elevated level of HDL-associated apolipoprotein E in male, but not female KO animals. No differences between genotypes were observed in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT or hepatic lipase (HL activity, or in the fractional catabolic rate of fluorescently labeled mouse HDL injected in chow-diet fed animals. The Osbpl8KO mice of both genders displayed reduced phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP activity, but only on chow diet. These findings are consistent with a model in which Osbpl8 deficiency results in altered biosynthesis of HDL. Consistent with this hypothesis, ORP8 depleted mouse hepatocytes secreted an increased amount of nascent HDL into the culture medium. In addition to the HDL phenotype, distinct gender-specific alterations in lipid metabolism were detected: Female KO animals on chow diet showed reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity and increased plasma triglycerides, while the male KO mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol biosynthetic markers cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol. Moreover, modest gender-specific alterations in the hepatic expression of lipid homeostatic genes were observed. In conclusion, we report the first viable OsbplKO mouse model

  16. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids high fat diet intervention on the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obesity-insulin resistance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianxing; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Wei; Ma, Lanzhi; Ding, Ming; Liu, Yuan

    2016-04-22

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have previously been demonstrated in association with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of n-3 PUFA-rich perilla oil (PO) and fish oil (FO) high fat diet intervention against the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in obesity-insulin resistance model rats. In the modeling period, the male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the high fat (HF) group were given a high fat pure diet containing 20.62% lard. In the intervention period, the model rats were intervened with purified high-fat diets rich in PO or FO, containing same energy content with high fat pure diet in HF. After the intervention, the protein and mRNA expressions status of the key genes involved in synthesis of hepatic HDL-c were measured for further analytic comparison. The obesity-insulin resistance model rats were characterized by surprisingly high levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and increased body weight (P intervention, there were no apparent changes in the serum HDL-c and total cholesterol (TCH). In addition, the FO could up-regulate the hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mRNA (P obesity-insulin resistance rats.

  17. The relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Élvio R; Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Odim, Angeany; Machado, Floramara T; Muniz, Bárbara R; Antunes, António A; Ornelas, Rui T; Gouveia, Bruna R

    2017-11-01

    (1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤-0.10; p<0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolism of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II in human high-density lipoprotein: a mathematical approach for analysis of their specific activity decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmeh, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The differential rate equations describing the compartmental model of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were integrated by means of Laplace transforms and an exponential equation was obtained for each of the three compartments. These equations were used to fit the observed plasma decay data and give estimates for the rate constants of the system by means of a written computer program. Furthermore, these estimates were used to calculate the exponential constants of the integrated equations. Consequently, the amount of label in any of the intravascular, extravascular, and urine compartments can be calculated as a fraction of the original dose of label at any time point. This method was tested using data for the (AI)HDL subclass because it contains only apolipoprotein A-I as the major apolipoprotein and does not contain apolipoprotein A-II. The calculated plasma and urine radioactivity data were compared with the experimentally obtained data from two normolipoproteinemic subjects and found to be in good agreement. The significance of this method is its application to the analysis of the decay data of the individual apolipoproteins of (AI + AII) HDL subclass where the urinary radioactivity data resulting from the individual apolipoprotein breakdown on the native particle cannot be measured experimentally at present. Such data are essential for the detailed calculation of the kinetic parameters of these apolipoproteins

  19. Alcohol consumption, TaqIB polymorphism of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Majken K; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Overvad, Kim; Rimm, Eric B

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether a common polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene modifies the relationship of alcohol intake with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Parallel nested case-control studies among women [Nurses' Health Study (NHS)] and men [Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS)] where 246 women and 259 men who developed incident CHD were matched to controls (1:2) on age and smoking. The TaqIB variant and alcohol consumption were associated with higher HDL-C, with the most pronounced effects of alcohol among B2 carriers. In the NHS we did not find an inverse association between alcohol and CHD in B2 non-carriers (P trend: 0.5), but did among B2 carriers (P trend alcohol with HDL-C levels was modified by CETP TaqIB2 carrier status, and there was also a suggestion of a gene-environment interaction on the risk of CHD.

  20. A Biomimic Reconstituted High-Density-Lipoprotein-Based Drug and p53 Gene Co-delivery System for Effective Antiangiogenesis Therapy of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qiaohong; Duan, Zhongxiang; Jiao, Guangli; Lei, Jixiao

    2015-07-01

    A biomimic reconstituted high-density-lipoprotein-based drug and p53 gene co-delivery system (rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes) was fabricated as a targeted co-delivery nanovector of drug and gene for potential bladder cancer therapy. Here, CD-PEI was utilized to effectively condense the p53 plasmid, to incorporate the plasmid into rHDL, and to act as an antitumor drug to suppress tumor angiogenesis. The rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes exhibited desirable and homogenous particle size, neutral surface charge, and low cytotoxicity in vitro. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed that SR-BI-targeted function induced specific cytoplasmic delivery and high gene transfection efficiency in MBT-2 murine bladder cells. In addition, rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes co-delivering CD and p53 gene achieved synergistic angiogenesis suppression by more effectively downregulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein via different pathways in vitro. In vivo investigation on C3H/He mice bearing MBT-2 tumor xenografts revealed that rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes possessed strong antitumor activity. These findings suggested that rHDL/CD-PEI/p53 complexes could be an ideal tumor-targeting system for simultaneous transfer of drug and gene, which might be a new promising strategy for effective bladder cancer therapy.

  1. Green tea, cocoa, and red wine polyphenols moderately modulate intestinal inflammation and do not increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicod, Nathalie; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Giordano, Elena; Dávalos, Alberto; Parker, Robert S; Visioli, Francesco

    2014-03-12

    Although polyphenols are often merely perceived as antioxidants, their biological activities are manifold and include anti-inflammatory actions. A new area of research on polyphenols and health concerns their putative role in cholesterol metabolism, in particular, their high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c)-raising potential. Indeed, some human studies showed that administration of polyphenol-rich foods such as cocoa, green tea, and extra virgin olive oil modulate and increase HDL-c concentrations. This study assessed the effects of polyphenols on intestinal inflammation, using the physiologically relevant Caco-2 Transwell model and using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to trigger inflammation. This study also investigated the mechanisms of actions behind the proposed HDL-c-increasing effects of polyphenols. The data suggest that polyphenols (at least those from red wine, cocoa, and green tea) administered at a dietary dose moderately modulate intestinal inflammation but do not increase cholesterol secretion by intestinal cells or enhance HDL functionality. Nutraceuticals and supplements provide pharmanutritional doses that might, conversely, produce beneficial effects.

  2. Heterogeneity of high-density lipoprotein particles and insulin output during oral glucose tolerance test in men with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, J; Kwaśniak, M; Wybrańska, I; Hartwich, J; Guevara, I; Zdzienicka, A; Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska, O; Piwowarska, W; Miszczuk-Jamska, B; Dembińska-Kieć, A

    1996-03-01

    We compared the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and particle heterogeneity in 60 nonobese (normal body mass index, BMI) men suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) with normolipemia and normoinsulinemia with lower and higher insulin output during the oral glucose tolerance test (silent hyperinsulinemia). The apolipoprotein apoAI, apoAII, and apoE levels were higher in the high insulin response (HI) group than in low insulin response (LI) group. The ratio of apoAI versus total protein and the ratio of apoAI versus total cholesterol were increased in HI compared with LI. The lipid components in HDL were higher in LI than in HI, while for HDL2 they were higher in HI. The fractioning of HDL by gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a different pattern of HDL particles in both groups. The larger particles, HDL2b and HDL2a (mean particle diameters 10.6 and 9.2 nm, respectively), occur more frequently in HI patients (up to 60%) than in LI patients, whereas the smaller particles, HDL3a and HDL3b (mean particle diameters 8.6 and 7.8 nm, respectively), predominate in LI patients. Our results demonstrate that even in the normoglycemic, normocholesterolemic CAD patients, a high insulin output observed during the oral glucose tolerance test may be connected with a different HDL particle pattern, which suggests changes in the reverse cholesterol transport.

  3. Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides × glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fahim; Reaven, Gerald M

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to compare relationships between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and surrogate estimates of insulin action, particularly those using fasting triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in 455 nondiabetic subjects. Fasting TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured; and calculations were made of the following: (1) plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C, (2) TG × fasting glucose (TyG index), (3) homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and (4) insulin area under the curve (insulin-AUC) during a glucose tolerance test. Insulin-AUC correlated most closely with SSPG (r ∼ 0.75, P < .001), with lesser but comparable correlations between SSPG and TG/HDL-C ratio, TyG index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting TG and insulin (r ∼ 0.60, P < .001). Calculations of TG/HDL-C ratio and TyG index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions HDL2 and HDL3 are reduced in women with rheumatoid arthritis and may augment the cardiovascular risk of women with RA: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, E.; Fransen, J.; Lemmers, H.; Stalenhoef, A.F.; Claessens-Joosten, L.; Riel, P. van; Popa, C.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Higher levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions HDL3-chol and particularly HDL2-chol protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD), but inflammation reduces the HDL level and may impair its anti-atherogenic effect. Changed HDL composition through the impact of inflammation

  5. A role for the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-B1 in synovial inflammation via serum amyloid-A.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullan, Ronan Hugh

    2012-02-01

    Acute phase apoprotein Serum Amyloid A (A-SAA), which is strongly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane (RA SM), induces angiogenesis, adhesion molecule expression, and matrix metalloproteinase production through the G-coupled receptor FPRL-1. Here we report alternative signaling through the high-density lipoprotein receptor scavenger receptor-class B type 1 (SR-B1). Quantitative expression\\/localization of SR-B1 in RA SM, RA fibroblast-like cells (FLCs), and microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) was assessed by Western blotting and immunohistology\\/fluorescence. A-SAA-mediated effects were examined using a specific antibody against SR-B1 or amphipathic alpha-Helical Peptides (the SR-B1 antagonists L-37pA and D-37pA), in RA FLCs and ECs. Adhesion molecule expression and cytokine production were quantified using flow cytometry and ELISA. SR-B1 was strongly expressed in the RA SM lining layer and endothelial\\/perivascular regions compared with osteoarthritis SM or normal control synovium. Differential SR-B1 expression in RA FLC lines (n = 5) and ECs correlated closely with A-SAA, but not tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 upregulation. A-SAA-induced interleukin-6 and -8 production was inhibited in the presence of anti-SR-B1 in human microvascular endothelial cells and RA FLCs. Moreover, D-37pA and L-37pA inhibited A-SAA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule expression from ECs in a dose-dependent manner. As SR-B1 is expressed in RA synovial tissue and mediates A-SAA-induced pro-inflammatory pathways, a better understanding of A-SAA-mediated inflammatory pathways may lead to novel treatment strategies for RA.

  6. Impact of high-density lipoprotein 3 cholesterol subfraction on periprocedural myocardial injury in patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Susumu; Tanaka, Akihito; Aoki, Toshijiro; Iwakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hirayama, Kenshi; Mitsuda, Takayuki; Sumi, Takuya; Negishi, Yosuke; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2018-02-02

    Periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) is a major complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with atherosclerotic coronary plaque and worse clinical outcomes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a protective factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the role of HDL-C subfractions, such as HDL2 cholesterol (HDL2-C) or HDL3 cholesterol (HDL3-C), in cardiovascular disease remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between HDL2-C and HDL3-C subfractions and the incidence of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI. We enrolled 129 patients who underwent elective PCI for stable angina pectoris. PMI was defined as an increase in high-sensitivity troponin T levels > 5 times the upper normal limit (> 0.070 ng/mL) at 24 h after PCI. Serum HDL-C subfractions (HDL2-C and HDL3-C) were assessed using ultracentrifugation in patients with and those without PMI. HDL3-C levels were significantly lower in patients with PMI than in those without (15.1 ± 3.0 mg/dL vs. 16.4 ± 2.9 mg/dL, p = 0.016) and had an independent and inverse association with PMI (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99; p = 0.038). When divided by the cut-off value of HDL3-C for PMI (14.3 mg/dL), the incidence of PMI was significantly higher in low HDL3-C patients than in high HDL3-C patients (51.2% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.020). HDL3-C was an independent inverse predictor of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI.

  7. Does the association of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with fasting serum insulin differ by race/ethnicity?

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    Mokdad Ali H

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio has been reported to be as closely correlated with insulin resistance as is the fasting serum insulin concentration (FSI, and therefore it is seen as a clinically useful way to identify the concomitant presence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, conflicting findings exist for the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with FSI by race/ethnicity. Methods The associations of FSI concentration, serum triglyceride concentrations, and HDL-C were analyzed using log-binomial regression analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis among nondiabetic adults (n = 2652, aged ≥ 20 years, 51.2% men in the United States. Results After adjustment for potential confounding effects, the prevalence ratio of hyperinsulinemia was 2.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74 to 2.08 when using a single cutoff point of 3.5, and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.83 to 2.72 when using race/ethnicity-specific cutoff points of 3.0 for non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans and 2.0 for non-Hispanic blacks for the TG/HDL-C ratio. The area under the ROC curve of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting hyperinsulinemia was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.79, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.77, and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.76 for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans, respectively. Conclusion There was a significant association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and FSI among three major racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Our results add further support to the notion that the TG/HDL-C ratio may be a clinically simple and useful indicator for hyperinsulinemia among nondiabetic adults regardless of race/ethnicity.

  8. Arrangement of apolipoprotein A-I in reconstituted high-density lipoprotein disks: an alternative model based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricerri, M A; Behling Agree, A K; Sanchez, S A; Bronski, J; Jonas, A

    2001-04-24

    The folding and organization of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in discoidal, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) complexes with phospholipids are not yet completely resolved. For about 20 years, it was generally accepted that the amphipathic helices of apoA-I lie parallel to the acyl chains of the phospholipids ("picket fence" model). However, based on the X-ray crystal structure of a large, lipid-free fragment of apoA-I, a "belt model" was recently proposed. In this model, the helices of two antiparallel apoA-I molecules are extended in a circular arrangement and lie perpendicular to the phospholipid acyl chains. To obtain conclusive information on the spatial organization of apoA-I in discoidal HDL, we engineered three separate cysteine mutants of apoA-I (D9C, A124C, A232C) for specific labeling with the fluorescence probes ALEXA-488 or ALEXA-546 (fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives). The labeled apoA-I was reconstituted into well-defined HDL complexes containing two molecules of protein and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and the complexes were used in three quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments to determine the distances between two specific sites in an HDL particle. Comparison of the distances measured by FRET (4.7-7.8 nm) with those predicted from the existing models indicated that neither the picket fence nor the belt model can account for the experimental results; rather, a hairpin folding of each apoA-I monomer with most helices perpendicular to the phospholipid acyl chains and a random head-to-tail and head-to-head arrangement of the two apoA-I molecules in the HDL particles are strongly suggested by the distance and lifetime data.

  9. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and mortality from coronary heart disease among Japanese men and women: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ohtaka, Emiko; Ohta, Hitoshi

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol) raises the risk of coronary heart disease in a dose-response fashion in a non-obese population with low total cholesterol levels and high HDL-cholesterol levels, such as Japanese. A total of 30,802 men and 60,417 women, aged 40 to 79 years with no history of stroke or coronary heart disease, completed a baseline risk factor survey in 1993 under the auspices of the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study. Systematic mortality surveillance through 2003 identified 539 coronary heart disease deaths. The mean values for non-HDL-cholesterol were 140 mg/dL for men and 151 mg/dL for women. The corresponding mean values were 193 mg/dL and 208 mg/dL total cholesterol and 52 mg/dL and 57 mg/dL HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Men with non-HDL-cholesterol > or = 180 mg/dL had a two-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease than did those with non-HDL-cholesterol or = 180 mg/dL versus <100 mg/dL of non-HDL-cholesterol was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 3.62) for men and 0.71 (0.37 to 1.34) for women. Higher concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease for men, but not for women.

  10. Very high-density lipoprotein and vitellin as carriers of novel biliverdins IXα with a farnesyl side-chain presumably derived from heme A in Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Hartmut; Nimtz, Manfred; Ringler, Philippe; Müller, Shirley A

    2016-01-01

    Bilins in complex with specific proteins play key roles in many forms of life. Biliproteins have also been isolated from insects; however, structural details are rare and possible functions largely unknown. Recently, we identified a high-molecular weight biliprotein from a moth, Cerura vinula, as an arylphorin-type hexameric storage protein linked to a novel farnesyl biliverdin IXα; its unusual structure suggests formation by cleavage of mitochondrial heme A. In the present study of another moth, Spodoptera littoralis, we isolated two different biliproteins. These proteins were identified as a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) and as vitellin, respectively, by mass spectrometric sequencing. Both proteins are associated with three different farnesyl biliverdins IXα: the one bilin isolated from C. vinula and two new structurally closely related bilins, supposed to be intermediates of heme A degradation. The different bilin composition of the two biliproteins suggests that the presumed oxidations at the farnesyl side-chain take place mainly during egg development. The egg bilins are supposedly transferred from hemolymph VHDL to vitellin in the female. Both biliproteins show strong induced circular dichroism activity compatible with a predominance of the M-conformation of the bilins. This conformation is opposite to that of the arylphorin-type biliprotein from C. vinula. Electron microscopy of the VHDL-type biliprotein from S. littoralis provided a preliminary view of its structure as a homodimer and confirmed the biochemically determined molecular mass of ∼350 kDa. Further, images of S. littoralis hexamerins revealed a 2 × 3 construction identical to that known from the hexamerin from C. vinula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify increased cardio-metabolic risk in young, healthy South Asians

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    Elena Flowers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Prevalence of insulin resistance and associated dyslipidaemia [high triglyceride (TG and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations] are increased in South Asian individuals; likely contributing to their increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C has been proposed as a simple way to identify apparently healthy individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk. This study was carried out to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles of high-risk South Asian individuals identified by an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio versus those with a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, insulin, TG, and HDL-C concentrations were determined in apparently healthy men (n=498 and women (n=526. The cardio-metabolic risk profile of "high risk" individuals identified by TG/HDL-C ratios in men (≥ 3.5 and women (≥2.5 was compared to those identified by a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Results: More concentrations of all cardio-metabolic risk factors were significantly higher in "high risk" groups, identified by either the TG/HDL-C ratio or a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. TG, HDL-C, and insulin concentrations were not significantly different in "high risk" groups identified by either criterion, whereas plasma glucose and blood pressure were higher in those with the metabolic syndrome. Interpretation & conclusions: Apparently healthy South Asian individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk can be identified using either the TG/HDL-C ratio or the metabolic syndrome criteria. The TG/HDL-C ratio may be used as a simple marker to identify such individuals.

  12. Meta-analysis of serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongtao; Deng, Xia; Peng, Yudong; Zeng, Qiutang; Song, Zongren; He, Wenping; Zhang, Le; Gao, Gan; Xiao, Ting; Yu, Xuedong

    2017-08-01

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) has been proposed an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the magnitude of this association in the general population varied considerably. To investigate the association of baseline non-HDL-C level with CHD risk in the general population by conducting a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the Pubmed and Embase until January 2017. Prospective observational studies that investigated the association between baseline non-HDL-C level and CHD risk in the general population were included. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the highest vs. the lowest non-HDL-C category. Seven articles with 9 independent prospective studies involving 448,732 individuals were included. Meta-analysis showed that individuals with the highest non-HDL-C level at baseline were associated with greater risk of CHD (RR 1.79; 95% CI 1.68-1.91) than those in the lowest non-HDL-C level category. Subgroup analysis suggested that the risk of CHD seemed more pronounced among men (HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.70-2.30) than among women (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.35-1.96). Higher baseline non-HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of CHD in the general population. This risk seems more pronounced in men than in women. However, gender difference in non-HDL-C level associated with CHD risk should be verified by more well-designed prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Air Pollution Exposures With High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Particle Number: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Griffith; Mora, Samia; Greenland, Philip; Tsai, Michael; Gill, Ed; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease may be explained by changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We examined the cross-sectional relationship between air pollution and both HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number in the MESA Air study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution). Study participants were 6654 white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese men and women aged 45 to 84 years. We estimated individual residential ambient fine particulate pollution exposure (PM 2.5 ) and black carbon concentrations using a fine-scale likelihood-based spatiotemporal model and cohort-specific monitoring. Exposure periods were averaged to 12 months, 3 months, and 2 weeks prior to examination. HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number were measured in the year 2000 using the cholesterol oxidase method and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure and HDL measures. A 0.7×10 - 6 m - 1 higher exposure to black carbon (a marker of traffic-related pollution) averaged over a 1-year period was significantly associated with a lower HDL cholesterol (-1.68 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -2.86 to -0.50) and approached significance with HDL particle number (-0.55 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -1.13 to 0.03). In the 3-month averaging time period, a 5 μg/m 3 higher PM 2.5 was associated with lower HDL particle number (-0.64 μmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -1.01 to -0.26), but not HDL cholesterol (-0.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -0.82 to 0.71). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution is adversely associated with measures of HDL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Elevated levels of preβ1-high-density lipoprotein are associated with cholesterol ester transfer protein, the presence and severity of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xiao-Min; Niu, Dong-Mei; Wu, Jia; Yuan, Yun-Long; Song, Jia-Xi; Wang, Jun-Jun

    2017-01-10

    Preβ1-high-density lipoprotein (preβ1-HDL), plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport and exhibits potent risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the association of plasma preβ1-HDL and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) levels in CAD patients and the relationship of preβ1-HDL with extent of CAD are debatable. Preβ1-HDL and CETP levels were measured by enzymed-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAs) in 88 acute coronary syndromes (ACS), 79 stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) patients and 85 control subjects. The correlation analyses, multiple linear regression analyses and logistic regression analyses were performed, respectively. The preβ1-HDL and CETP levels in ACS patients were significantly higher than those in SCAD patients and both of them were higher than controls'. Preβ1-HDL levels were positively associated with CETP (R = 0.348, P = 0.000), the diameter of stenosis (R = 0.253, P = 0.005), the number of vessel disease (R = 0.274, P = 0.002) and Gensini score (R = 0.227, P = 0.009) in CAD patients. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that CETP was one of the determinants of preβ1-HDL levels. Logistic regression analysis revealed that elevated preβ1-HDL and CETP were potential risk factors for both ACS and SCAD. The elevated preβ1-HDL levels may change with CETP concentrations in CAD patients and were related to the presence and severity of CAD.

  15. Apolipoprotein AI tertiary structures determine stability and phospholipid-binding activity of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin; Ren, Xuefeng; Neville, Tracey; Jerome, W. Gray; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Ren, Gang; Wang, Jianjun

    2009-05-18

    Human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway that delivers excess cholesterol back to the liver for clearance. In vivo, HDL particles vary in size, shape and biological function. The discoidal HDL is a 140-240 kDa, disk-shaped intermediate of mature HDL. During mature spherical HDL formation, discoidal HDLs play a key role in loading cholesterol ester onto the HDL particles by activating the enzyme, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). One of the major problems for high-resolution structural studies of discoidal HDL is the difficulty in obtaining pure and, foremost, homogenous sample. We demonstrate here that the commonly used cholate dialysis method for discoidal HDL preparation usually contains 5-10% lipid-poor apoAI that significantly interferes with the high-resolution structural analysis of discoidal HDL using biophysical methods. Using an ultracentrifugation method, we quickly removed lipid-poor apoAI. We also purified discoidal reconstituted HDL (rHDL) into two pure discoidal HDL species of different sizes that are amendable for high-resolution structural studies. A small rHDL has a diameter of 7.6 nm, and a large rHDL has a diameter of 9.8 nm. We show that these two different sizes of discoidal HDL particles display different stability and phospholipid-binding activity. Interestingly, these property/functional differences are independent from the apoAI -helical secondary structure, but are determined by the tertiary structural difference of apoAI on different discoidal rHDL particles, as evidenced by two-dimensional NMR and negative stain electron microscopy data. Our result further provides the first high-resolution NMR data, demonstrating a promise of structural determination of discoidal HDL at atomic resolution using a combination of NMR and other biophysical techniques.

  16. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms.

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    Raji Ramachandran Pillai

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression (PPD is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10-20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015. Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05. Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047, whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004. Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  17. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Pillai, Raji; Wilson, Anand Babu; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha

    2018-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10–20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015). Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05). Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047), whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004). Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:29444162

  18. Regression of coronary atherosclerosis with infusions of the high-density lipoprotein mimetic CER-001 in patients with more extensive plaque burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yu; Andrews, Jordan; Duong, MyNgan; Nguyen, Tracy; Schwarz, Nisha; Fendler, Jessica; Puri, Rishi; Butters, Julie; Keyserling, Constance; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    CER-001 is an engineered pre-beta high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetic, which rapidly mobilizes cholesterol. Infusion of CER-001 3 mg/kg exhibited a potentially favorable effect on plaque burden in the CHI-SQUARE (Can HDL Infusions Significantly Quicken Atherosclerosis Regression) study. Since baseline atheroma burden has been shown as a determinant for the efficacy of HDL infusions, the degree of baseline atheroma burden might influence the effect of CER-001. CHI-SQUARE compared the effect of 6 weekly infusions of CER-001 (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) vs. placebo on coronary atherosclerosis in 369 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Baseline percent atheroma volume (B-PAV) cutoff associated with atheroma regression following CER-001 infusions was determined by receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis. 369 subjects were stratified according to the cutoff. The effect of CER-001 at different doses was compared to placebo in each group. A B-PAV ≥30% was the optimal cutoff associated with PAV regression following CER-001 infusions. CER-001 induced PAV regression in patients with B-PAV ≥30% but not in those with B-PAV PAV regression was observed with CER-001 3mg/kg in patients with B-PAV ≥30% (-0.96%±0.34% vs. -0.25%±0.31%, P=0.01), whereas there were no differences between placebo (+0.09%±0.36%) versus CER-001 in patients with B-PAV PAV. These findings identify ACS patients with more extensive disease as most likely to benefit from HDL mimetic therapy.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Reconstituted High-Density Lipoprotein (rHDL on Circulating CD34+ Cells in Patients after an Acute Coronary Syndrome.

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    Catherine Gebhard

    Full Text Available High-density lipoproteins (HDL favorably affect endothelial progenitor cells (EPC. Circulating progenitor cell level and function are impaired in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. This study investigates the short-term effects of reconstituted HDL (rHDL on circulating progenitor cells in patients with ACS.The study population consisted of 33 patients with recent ACS: 20 patients from the ERASE trial (randomized to receive 4 weekly intravenous infusions of CSL-111 40 mg/kg or placebo and 13 additional patients recruited as controls using the same enrolment criteria. Blood was collected from 16 rHDL (CSL-111-treated patients and 17 controls at baseline and at 6-7 weeks (i.e. 2-3 weeks after the fourth infusion of CSL-111 in ERASE. CD34+ and CD34+/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR+ progenitor cell counts were analyzed by flow cytometry. We found preserved CD34+ cell counts in CSL-111-treated subjects at follow-up (change of 1.6%, while the number of CD34+ cells was reduced (-32.9% in controls (p = 0.017 between groups. The level of circulating SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1, a chemokine involved in progenitor cell recruitment, increased significantly (change of 21.5% in controls, while it remained unchanged in CSL-111-treated patients (p = 0.031 between groups. In vitro exposure to CSL-111 of early EPC isolated from healthy volunteers significantly increased CD34+ cells, reduced early EPC apoptosis and enhanced their migration capacity towards SDF-1.The relative increase in circulating CD34+ cells and the low SDF-1 levels observed following rHDL infusions in ACS patients point towards a role of rHDL in cardiovascular repair mechanisms.

  20. Characterization of human high-density lipoprotein subclasses LP A-I and LP A-I/A-II and binding to HepG2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P.C. Kilsdonk (Liesbeth); T. van Gent (Teus); A. van Tol (Arie)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Plasma HDL can be classified according to their apolipoprotein content into at least two types of lipoprotein particles: lipoproteins containing both apo A-I and apo A-II (LP A-I/A-II) and lipoproteins with apo A-I but without apo A-II (LP A-I). LP A-I and LP A-I/A-II

  1. Rapid and body weight-independent improvement of endothelial and high-density lipoprotein function after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: role of glucagon-like peptide-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osto, Elena; Doytcheva, Petia; Corteville, Caroline; Bueter, Marco; Dörig, Claudia; Stivala, Simona; Buhmann, Helena; Colin, Sophie; Rohrer, Lucia; Hasballa, Reda; Tailleux, Anne; Wolfrum, Christian; Tona, Francesco; Manz, Jasmin; Vetter, Diana; Spliethoff, Kerstin; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Landmesser, Ulf; Pattou, Francois; Staels, Bart; Matter, Christian M; Lutz, Thomas A; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2015-03-10

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces body weight and cardiovascular mortality in morbidly obese patients. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) seems to mediate the metabolic benefits of RYGB partly in a weight loss-independent manner. The present study investigated in rats and patients whether obesity-induced endothelial and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) dysfunction is rapidly improved after RYGB via a GLP-1-dependent mechanism. Eight days after RYGB in diet-induced obese rats, higher plasma levels of bile acids and GLP-1 were associated with improved endothelium-dependent relaxation compared with sham-operated controls fed ad libitum and sham-operated rats that were weight matched to those undergoing RYGB. Compared with the sham-operated rats, RYGB improved nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability resulting from higher endothelial Akt/NO synthase activation, reduced c-Jun amino terminal kinase phosphorylation, and decreased oxidative stress. The protective effects of RYGB were prevented by the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin9-39 (10 μg·kg(-1)·h(-1)). Furthermore, in patients and rats, RYGB rapidly reversed HDL dysfunction and restored the endothelium-protective properties of the lipoprotein, including endothelial NO synthase activation, NO production, and anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant effects. Finally, RYGB restored HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity. To demonstrate the role of increased GLP-1 signaling, sham-operated control rats were treated for 8 days with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg twice daily), which restored NO bioavailability and improved endothelium-dependent relaxations and HDL endothelium-protective properties, mimicking the effects of RYGB. RYGB rapidly reverses obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and restores the endothelium-protective properties of HDL via a GLP-1-mediated mechanism. The present translational findings in rats and patients unmask novel, weight-independent mechanisms of cardiovascular protection

  2. High Density Lipoprotein Protects Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis via Activation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway and Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in myocardial infarction (MI appears to be limited by poor cell viability in the injured tissue, which is a consequence of oxidative stress and pro-apoptotic factors. High density lipoprotein (HDL reverses cholesterol transport and has anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. We, therefore, investigated whether HDL could protect MSCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. MSCs derived from the bone marrow of rats were pre-incubated with or without HDL, and then were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in vitro, or were transplanted into experimentally infarcted hearts of rats in vivo. Pre-incubation of MSCs with HDL increased cell viability, reduced apoptotic indices and resulted in parallel decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS in comparison with control MSCs. Each of the beneficial effects of HDL on MSCs was attenuated by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. Preconditioning with HDL resulted in higher MSC survival rates, improved cardiac remodeling and better myocardial function than in the MSC control group. Collectively, these results suggest that HDL may protect against H2O2-induced apoptosis in MSCs through activation of a PI3K/Akt pathway, and by suppressing the production of ROS.

  3. Effects of the high-density lipoprotein mimetic agent CER-001 on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a randomized trial†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Jean-Claude; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Barter, Philip; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Fayad, Zahi A.; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Kastelein, John J. P.; Keyserling, Constance; Klepp, Heather; Koenig, Wolfgang; L'Allier, Philippe L.; Lespérance, Jacques; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Paolini, John F.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Waters, David D.; Pfeffer, M.; Brown, V.; Rouleau, J.; Watkins, P.; Wei, L.J.; Gosselin, G.; Chayer, C.; Lanthier, S.; Pelletier, G.B.; Racine, N.; Agarwal, H.; Brilakis, E.; Cannon, L.; Carrié, D.; Corbelli, J.; Coste, P.; de Winter, R.; Diaz, A.; Eisenberg, S.; Ennis, B.; Fajadet, J.; Fam, N.; Fortuin, D.; Gessler, C.; Grines, C.; Guerra, D.; Gum, H.; Haldis, T.; Heestermans, T.; Herrman, J.P.; Huynh, T.; Kedhi, E.; Koren, M.; Kouz, S.; Krolick, M.; Kumkumian, G.; Lavi, S.; Li, R.J.; Masud, ARZ; McAlhany, C.; McGrew, F.A.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Oude Ophuis, A.J.M.; Parr, K.; Penny, W.; Pesant, Y.; Post, H.; Robinson, S.; Rodes-Cabau, J.; Roy, A.; Schulman, S.; Spence, F.; Stouffer, G.; Stys, T.; Sussex, B.; Tahirkheli, N.; Tardif, J-C.; Grégoire, J.; ten Berg, J.; van Boven, A.J.; von Birgelen, C.; Weinstein, D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have several potentially protective vascular effects. Most clinical studies of therapies targeting HDL have failed to show benefits vs. placebo. Objective To investigate the effects of an HDL-mimetic agent on atherosclerosis by intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Design and setting A prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial was conducted at 51 centres in the USA, the Netherlands, Canada, and France. Intravascular ultrasonography and QCA were performed to assess coronary atherosclerosis at baseline and 3 (2–5) weeks after the last study infusion. Patients Five hundred and seven patients were randomized; 417 and 461 had paired IVUS and QCA measurements, respectively. Intervention Patients were randomized to receive 6 weekly infusions of placebo, 3 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, or 12 mg/kg CER-001. Main outcome measures The primary efficacy parameter was the nominal change in the total atheroma volume. Nominal changes in per cent atheroma volume on IVUS and coronary scores on QCA were also pre-specified endpoints. Results The nominal change in the total atheroma volume (adjusted means) was −2.71, −3.13, −1.50, and −3.05 mm3 with placebo, CER-001 3 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, and 12 mg/kg, respectively (primary analysis of 12 mg/kg vs. placebo: P = 0.81). There was also no difference among groups for the nominal change in per cent atheroma volume (0.02, −0.02, 0.01, and 0.19%; nominal P = 0.53 for 12 mg/kg vs. placebo). Change in the coronary artery score was −0.022, −0.036, −0.022, and −0.015 mm (nominal P = 0.25, 0.99, 0.55), and change in the cumulative coronary stenosis score was −0.51, 2.65, 0.71, and −0.77% (compared with placebo, nominal P = 0.85 for 12 mg/kg and nominal P = 0.01 for 3 mg/kg). The number of patients with major cardiovascular events was 10 (8.3%), 16 (13.3%), 17 (13.7%), and 12 (9.8%) in the four groups. Conclusion CER-001 infusions did not reduce coronary

  4. Difference in effects of cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption on serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels is related to mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism in middle-aged Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ishikawa, Mamoru; Matsunaga, Naomi; Karita, Kanae; Yoshida, Masao; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Takashima, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA 5178 cytosine/adenosine (Mt5178 C/A) polymorphism is associated with longevity in the Japanese. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of habitual smoking or habitual drinking on serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods A total of 394 male subjects (age 53.9 ± 7.9 years; mean ± SD) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regu...

  5. Difference in effects of cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption on serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels is related to mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism in middle-aged Japanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ishikawa, Mamoru; Matsunaga, Naomi; Karita, Kanae; Yoshida, Masao; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Takashima, Yutaka

    2014-01-03

    Mitochondrial DNA 5178 cytosine/adenosine (Mt5178 C/A) polymorphism is associated with longevity in the Japanese. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of habitual smoking or habitual drinking on serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels in middle-aged Japanese men. A total of 394 male subjects (age 53.9 ± 7.9 years; mean ± SD) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the joint effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and cigarette smoking or alcohol drinking on serum non-HDL cholesterol levels was conducted. High levels of serum non-HDL cholesterol were defined as serum non-HDL cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dl or ≥190 mg/dl. For men with Mt5178A, cigarette smoking may increase serum non-HDL cholesterol levels (P for trend cholesterol (serum non-HDL cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dl, P for trend cholesterol levels ≥190 mg/dl, P for trend = 0.004). On the other hand, for men with Mt5178C, after adjusting for age and body mass index, alcohol consumption may decrease serum non-HDL cholesterol levels (P for trend = 0.043) and the risk of high levels of non-HDL cholesterol (serum non-HDL cholesterol level ≥160 mg/dl, P for trend = 0.005). These gene-environment interactions on serum non-HDL cholesterol levels may contribute to the establishment of individualized prevention of the risk of high levels of serum non-HDL cholesterol.

  6. On-Treatment Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Apolipoprotein B, Triglycerides, and Lipid Ratios in Relation to Residual Vascular Risk After Treatment With Potent Statin Therapy JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Ridker, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  7. Pengaruh suplementasi serat Psyllium husk dan diet rendah kalori seimbang terhadap berat badan, kadar kolesterol high-density lipoprotein, dan trigliserida serum pada obes I

    OpenAIRE

    Irnawaty Rasyid; Rachmad Soegih; Dante Saksono Harbuwono

    2014-01-01

    Background: The increased prevalence of obesity will bring a great impact in the health sector, due to the effect of the influence of organ in the body such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reduced energy diet and exercise are effective for management weight loss. During the restriction diet, an obese person should increase the amount of dietary fiber up to 20−35 g/day, specifically of soluble fiber, to more effective fat loss and improve serum high-density...

  8. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions HDL2 and HDL3 are reduced in women with rheumatoid arthritis and may augment the cardiovascular risk of women with RA: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Elke; Fransen, Jaap; Lemmers, Heidi; Stalenhoef, Anton; Joosten, Leo; van Riel, Piet; Popa, Calin D

    2012-05-14

    Higher levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions HDL3-chol and particularly HDL2-chol protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD), but inflammation reduces the HDL level and may impair its anti-atherogenic effect. Changed HDL composition through the impact of inflammation on HDL subfractions may contribute to the excess risk of CVD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we investigated whether HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol concentrations differ between RA patients and healthy controls, and whether these levels are related to the level of RA disease activity. Non-fasting blood samples were collected from 45 RA patients and 45 healthy controls. None of the participants had a history of CVD, diabetes, or used lipid-lowering drugs. HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol concentrations were obtained by ultracentrifugation. Regression modeling was used to compare HDL subfraction levels between RA patients and healthy controls, and to analyze the effect of disease activity on HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol. HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol were significantly lower in RA patients compared to healthy controls (P = 0.01, P = 0.005, respectively). The HDL2:HDL3 ratio was significantly lower in patients compared to controls (P = 0.04). Reduced HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol levels were primarily present in female RA patients and not in male RA patients. A modest effect of the disease activity score in 28 joins ( DAS28) on HDL2-chol concentrations was found, after correction for disease duration, glucocorticosteroid use and body mass index (BMI), with a 0.06 mmol/L decrease with every point increase in DAS28 (P = 0.05). DAS28 did not significantly affect HDL3-chol concentrations (P = 0.186). Both HDL subfractions but particularly HDL2-chol concentrations were decreased in RA, primarily in women. This seems to be associated with disease activity and is of clinical relevance. The reduction of the HDL subfraction concentrations, particularly the supposedly beneficial HDL2-chol, may negatively impact the

  9. Plasma Lp-PLA2 mass and apoB-lipoproteins that carry Lp-PLA2 decrease after sodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Alexander; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Tellis, Constantinos C.; Tselepis, Alexandros D.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (11): 12351243 Abstract Background Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a novel cardiovascular risk marker, which is predominantly complexed to apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins in human plasma. As increasing dietary sodium intake may decrease

  10. Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels on the Risk of Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis: A Result from the APAC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Anxin; Li, Xin; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2016-11-18

    Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is an important cause of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), and the correlation between the plasma non-high density cholesterol (non-HDLC) levels and ICAS, especially asymptomatic ICAS (AICAS) is not clear. The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community(APAC) study is a community-based, prospective, long-term follow-up observational study. 3387 participants were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of AICAS was made by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. The participants were then divided into 3 groups based on their non-HDLC levels. The cox regression was used to analyze the correlation between the non-HDLC level and the incidence of AICAS.9.98% of the participants were diagnosed with AICAS during 2 years following up. Multivariate analysis showed that non-HDL-C is an independent indicator for the incidence of AICAS (HR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.06-1.40), The incidence of AICAS gradually increase with the increasing non-HDLC level. Compared with subgroup(non-HDLC APAC study.

  11. Effect of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1 gene polymorphism on high density lipoprotein levels in response to hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Nogueira-de-Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy and estrogen plus progestin replacement therapy alter serum levels of total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. However, HDL cholesterol levels in women vary considerably in response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT. A significant portion of the variability of these levels has been attributed to genetic factors. Therefore, we investigated the influence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1 gene polymorphisms on HDL levels in response to postmenopausal HRT. We performed a prospective cohort study on 54 postmenopausal women who had not used HRT before the study and had no significant general medical illness. HRT consisted of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate continuously for 1 year. The lipoprotein levels were measured from blood samples taken before the start of therapy and after 1 year of HRT. ESR1 polymorphism (MspI C>T, HaeIII C>T, PvuII C>T, and XbaI A>G frequencies were assayed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A general linear model was used to describe the relationships between HDL levels and genotypes after adjusting for age. A significant increase in HDL levels was observed after HRT (P = 0.029. Women with the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype showed a statistically significant increase in HDL levels after HRT (P = 0.032. No association was found between other ESR1 polymorphisms and HDL levels. According to our results, the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype was associated with increased levels of HDL after 1 year of HRT.

  12. Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number, and Incident Cardiovascular Events: An Analysis From the JUPITER Trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Amit V; Demler, Olga V; Adelman, Steven J; Collins, Heidi L; Glynn, Robert J; Ridker, Paul M; Rader, Daniel J; Mora, Samia

    2017-06-20

    Recent failures of drugs that raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels to reduce cardiovascular events in clinical trials have led to increased interest in alternative indices of HDL quality, such as cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL quantity, such as HDL particle number. However, no studies have directly compared these metrics in a contemporary population that includes potent statin therapy and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. HDL cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein A-I, cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL particle number were assessed at baseline and 12 months in a nested case-control study of the JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized primary prevention trial that compared rosuvastatin treatment to placebo in individuals with normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but increased C-reactive protein levels. In total, 314 cases of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, arterial revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular death) were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for risk factors evaluated associations between HDL-related biomarkers and incident CVD. Cholesterol efflux capacity was moderately correlated with HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and HDL particle number (Spearman r = 0.39, 0.48, and 0.39 respectively; P JUPITER, cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with incident CVD in individuals on potent statin therapy but not at baseline. For both baseline and on-statin analyses, HDL particle number was the strongest of 4 HDL-related biomarkers as an inverse predictor of incident events and biomarker of residual risk. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Enhancement of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Functions by Encapsulation of Policosanol Exerts Anti-Senescence and Tissue Regeneration Effects Via Improvement of Anti-Glycation, Anti-Apoptosis, and Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, So-Mang; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Eun-Young; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of policosanol (PCO), a refined mixture of sugar cane wax alcohols, can elevate serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), although the molecular mechanism is still unknown. To investigate the mechanism of action responsible for the anti-senescence effects of PCO on lipoprotein metabolism and HDL functionality, we synthesized reconstituted HDL (rHDL) containing PCO. Encapsulation of PCO by rHDL (PCO-rHDL) enhanced anti-oxidant activity against cupric ion-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. PCO-rHDL (final concentration, 9 μM PCO) showed more potent anti-oxidant activity than vitamin C treatment (final concentration, 100 μM). PCO-rHDL inhibited fructose-mediated glycation, which is a major pathological mechanism of diabetic complications, in a dose-dependent manner. PCO also showed cytoprotective effects in monocytes and macrophages with less triggering of apoptotic processes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PCO-rHDL strongly inhibited uptake of acetylated LDL into macrophages, which is an initial atherosclerotic process. Surprisingly, PCO-rHDL inhibited human serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity by up to 47% (final concentration, 10 μM PCO). Subcutaneous injection of PCO-rHDL dose-dependently enhanced tissue regeneration activity by 2.4-fold and 3.6-fold compared to that of the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control. In conclusion, PCO in HDL showed potent anti-oxidant, anti-glycation, and CETP inhibitory activities along with tissue regenerative activity, especially upon incorporation into HDL. These results suggest that PCO can enhance functionality of HDL in serum to exert anti-senescence and longevity effects.

  14. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not 100% fruit juice, is associated with fasting high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations in U.S. adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia, characterized by high triglyceride (TG) and low HDL concentrations, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Decreasing dietary sugar consumption is one dietary modification that may influence dyslipidemia risk to reduce the risk for CVD. Two major sources of di...

  15. A novel LPL intronic variant: g.18704C>A identified by re-sequencing Kuwaiti Arab samples is associated with high-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride lipid levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Serri, Ahmad; Annice, Babitha G.; Alnaqeeb, Majed A.; Al-Kandari, Wafa Y.; Dashti, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The role interethnic genetic differences play in plasma lipid level variation across populations is a global health concern. Several genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport are strong candidates for the genetic association with lipid level variation especially lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The objective of this study was to re-sequence the full LPL gene in Kuwaiti Arabs, analyse the sequence variation and identify variants that could attribute to variation in plasma lipid levels for further genetic association. Samples (n = 100) of an Arab ethnic group from Kuwait were analysed for sequence variation by Sanger sequencing across the 30 Kb LPL gene and its flanking sequences. A total of 293 variants including 252 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 39 insertions/deletions (InDels) were identified among which 47 variants (32 SNPs and 15 InDels) were novel to Kuwaiti Arabs. This study is the first to report sequence data and analysis of frequencies of variants at the LPL gene locus in an Arab ethnic group with a novel “rare” variant (LPL:g.18704C>A) significantly associated to HDL (B = -0.181; 95% CI (-0.357, -0.006); p = 0.043), TG (B = 0.134; 95% CI (0.004–0.263); p = 0.044) and VLDL (B = 0.131; 95% CI (-0.001–0.263); p = 0.043) levels. Sequence variation in Kuwaiti Arabs was compared to other populations and was found to be similar with regards to the number of SNPs, InDels and distribution of the number of variants across the LPL gene locus and minor allele frequency (MAF). Moreover, comparison of the identified variants and their MAF with other reports provided a list of 46 potential variants across the LPL gene to be considered for future genetic association studies. The findings warrant further investigation into the association of g.18704C>A with lipid levels in other ethnic groups and with clinical manifestations of dyslipidemia. PMID:29438437

  16. The association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the general Korean population: based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Seok; Kang, Hee-Taik; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Hye-Ree

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the association between the ratio of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin resistance according to waist circumference in the general Korean population. 7623 participants were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted during 2007-2009 and included in this cross-sectional study. Insulin resistance was defined as the values equal to or greater than the 75th percentile of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Positive correlation was found between the ratio of TG and HDL-C and other variables such as waist circumference, total cholesterol, and HOMA-IR for both men and women. The odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) for insulin resistance for the highest quartile of TG/HDL-C were 2.48 in men and 3.05 in women. The significant relationship between the TG/HDL-C ratio and insulin resistance was not only maintained across all quartiles of waist circumference but also seemed to be enhanced in the higher quartiles of waist circumference. In the general Korean population, there seems to be a linear association between TG/HDL-C ratio and insulin resistance, regardless of degrees of waist circumference. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Native protein mapping and visualization of protein interactions in the area of human plasma high-density lipoprotein by combining nondenaturing micro 2DE and quantitative LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya; Bu, Shujie; Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Qi; Manabe, Takashi; Tan, Wen

    2014-07-01

    A human plasma sample was subjected to nondenaturing micro 2DE and a gel area (5 mm × 18 mm) that includes high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was cut into 1 mm × 1 mm squares, then the proteins in the 90 gel pieces were analyzed by quantitative LC-MS/MS. Grid-cutting of the gel was employed to; (i) ensure the total analysis of the proteins in the area, (ii) standardize the conditions of analysis by LC-MS/MS, (iii) reconstruct the protein distribution patterns from the quantity data. Totally 154 proteins were assigned in the 90 gel pieces and the quantity distribution of each was reconstructed as a color density pattern (a native protein map). The map of apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I showed a wide apparent mass distribution characteristic to HDL and was compared with the maps of the other 153 proteins. Eleven proteins showed maps of wide distribution that overlapped with the map of Apo A-I, and all have been reported to be the components of HDL. Further, seven minor proteins associated with HDL were detected at the gel positions of high Apo A-I quantity. These results for the first time visualized the localization of HDL apolipoproteins on a nondenaturing 2DE gel and strongly suggested their interactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Triglyceride High-Density Lipoprotein Ratios Predict Glycemia-Lowering in Response to Insulin Sensitizing Drugs in Type 2 Diabetes: A Post Hoc Analysis of the BARI 2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Zonszein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycemic management is central in prevention of small vessel and cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. With the plethora of newer medications and recommendations for a patient centered approach, more information is necessary to match the proper drug to each patient. We showed that BARI 2D, a five-year trial designed to compare two different glycemic treatment strategies, was suitable for assessing different responses according to different phenotypic characteristics. Treatment with insulin sensitizing medications such as thiazolidinediones and metformin was more effective in improving glycemic control, particularly in the more insulin resistant patient, when compared to the insulin provision strategy using insulin and or sulfonylureas. Triglyceride and high density lipoprotein ratio (TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio was found to be a readily available and practical biomarker that helps to identify the insulin resistant patient. These results support the concept that not all medications for glycemic control work the same in all patients. Thus, tailored therapy can be done using phenotypic characteristics rather than a “one-size-fits-all approach.”

  19. Increased consumption of dietary cholesterol, lutein, and zeaxanthin as egg yolks does not decrease serum concentrations and lipoprotein distribution of other carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Gendron, Candice M; Goodrow-Kotyla, Elizabeth F; Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2010-11-01

    We have previously reported that consumption of lutein and zeaxanthin as 2 and 4 egg yolks per day for 5 weeks significantly increased serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults taking cholesterol-lowering statins. We hypothesized that increased consumption of eggs, lutein, and zeaxanthin may correlate with decreased absorption of other carotenoids and increased absorption of vitamins A and E, thus affecting their serum concentrations and lipoprotein distribution. Fifty-two subjects aged at least 60 years consumed 2 egg yolks per day followed by 4 egg yolks per day for 5 weeks each with a 4-week egg-free period at baseline and between the 2 interventions. Mean serum β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and retinol concentrations did not change during the 2 and 4 egg yolk phases. Mean serum α-cryptoxanthin and γ-tocopherol concentrations did not change after the 2 egg yolk phase, but increased by 47% (P egg yolk phase. The percentage distribution of carotenoids and tocopherols between the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL fractions was not significantly different during the egg yolk phases compared with baseline despite the significant increases in lutein and zeaxanthin carried on HDL and non-HDL fractions. In conclusion, increased dietary cholesterol, lutein, and zeaxanthin consumed as egg yolks did not decrease the absorption of other carotenoids, and increased γ-tocopherol but not retinol as evidenced by their serum and lipoprotein concentrations. Two and 4 egg yolk consumption increases serum and retinal lutein and zeaxanthin without altering the serum status of the other carotenoids, tocopherol, and retinol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Etofibrate but not controlled-release niacin decreases LDL cholesterol and lipoprotein (a in type IIb dyslipidemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Sposito

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Etofibrate is a hybrid drug which combines niacin with clofibrate. After contact with plasma hydrolases, both constituents are gradually released in a controlled-release manner. In this study, we compared the effects of etofibrate and controlled-release niacin on lipid profile and plasma lipoprotein (a (Lp(a levels of patients with triglyceride levels of 200 to 400 mg/dl, total cholesterol above 240 mg/dl and Lp(a above 40 mg/dl. These patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind 16-week treatment period with etofibrate (500 mg twice daily, N = 14 or niacin (500 mg twice daily, N = 11. In both treatment groups total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides were equally reduced and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased. Etofibrate, but not niacin, reduced Lp(a by 26% and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol by 23%. The hybrid compound etofibrate produced a more effective reduction in plasma LDL cholesterol and Lp(a levels than controlled-release niacin in type IIb dyslipidemic subjects.

  1. Evaluation of the Combined Effect of Recombinant High-Density Lipoprotein Carrier and the Encapsulated Lovastatin in RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells Based on the Median-Effect Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cuiping; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Yun; He, Jianhua; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Jianping

    2018-03-05

    Recombinant high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) displays a similar anti-atherosclerotic effect with native HDL and could also be served as a carrier of cardiovascular drug for atherosclerotic plaque targeting. In our previous studies, rHDL has shown a more potent anti-atherosclerotic efficacy as compared to the other conventional nanoparticles with a payload of lovastatin (LS). Therefore, we hypothesized that a synergistic anti-atherosclerotic effect of the rHDL carrier and the encapsulated LS might exist. In this study, the dose-effect relationships and the combined effect of the rHDL and LS were quantitatively evaluated in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using the median-effect analysis, in which the rHDL carrier was regarded as a drug combined. Median-effect analysis suggested that rHDL and LS exerted a desirable synergistic inhibition on the oxLDL internalization at a ratio of 6:1 ( D m,LS : D m,rHDL ) in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. About 50% of the reduction on the intracellular lipid contents was found when RAW264.7 cells were treated with LS-loaded rHDLs at their respective median-effect dose ( D m ) concentrations and a synergistic effect on the mediating cholesterol efflux was also observed, which verified the accuracy of the results obtained from the median-effect analysis. The mechanism underlying the synergistic effect of the rHDL carrier and the drug might be attributed to their potent inhibitory effects on SR-A expression. In conclusion, the median-effect analysis was proven to be a feasible method to quantitatively evaluate the synergistic effect of the biofunctional carrier and the drug encapsulated.

  2. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 are associated with factors of the metabolic syndrome and modify the association between dietary saturated fat and fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Cristina; Badawi, Alaa; Karmali, Mohamed; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a protein of the innate immune system hypothesized to mediate some of the effects of a high-fat diet on inflammation and insulin resistance. As both these factors are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), genetic variation in TLR4 may affect the relationship between dietary lipids and MetS. The objective of the study was to determine whether 2 polymorphisms in TLR4 (rs4986790 Asp299Gly and rs5030728 G>A) modify the relationship between dietary fat and markers of the MetS. Participants were healthy young men and women of various ethnocultural backgrounds. Dietary intake was estimated using a 1-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement. The Asp299Gly polymorphism in TLR4 was associated with increased insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P history of diabetes (P = .0002). The intronic polymorphism rs5030728 modified the relationship between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = .003 for interaction). The SFA intake was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol among individuals homozygous for the G allele (β = -0.015 ± 0.007 mmol/L, P = .04), whereas a positive relationship was observed for heterozygotes (β = 0.025 ± 0.01 mmol/L, P = .02). There was no association between dietary SFAs and HDL cholesterol among individuals homozygous for the A allele. These observations suggest that both diet and innate immunity may interact to influence components of the MetS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene-gene combination effect and interactions among ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP polymorphisms for serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Gene-gene interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are poorly understood. The present study observed gene-gene combination effect and interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP in serum HDL-C from a cross-sectional study in the Japanese population. METHODS: The study population comprised 1,535 men and 1,515 women aged 35-69 years who were enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC Study. We selected 13 SNPs in the ABCA1, APOA1, CETP, and SR-B1 genes in the reverse cholesterol transport system. The effects of genetic and environmental factors were assessed using general linear and logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, and region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alcohol consumption and daily activity were positively associated with HDL-C levels, whereas smoking had a negative relationship. The T allele of CETP, rs3764261, was correlated with higher HDL-C levels and had the highest coefficient (2.93 mg/dL/allele among the 13 SNPs, which was statistically significant after applying the Bonferroni correction (p<0.001. Gene-gene combination analysis revealed that CETP rs3764261 was associated with high HDL-C levels with any combination of SNPs from ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, although no gene-gene interaction was apparent. An increasing trend for serum HDL-C was also observed with an increasing number of alleles (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a multiplier effect from a polymorphism in CETP with ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, as well as a dose-dependence according to the number of alleles present.

  4. Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and its association with periodontal disease in Korean adults: findings based on the 2012-2014 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Park, Jeong-Won; Lim, Hyoung-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Sun; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 12,249 individuals (4,941 men and 7,308 women) who took part in the 2012-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized the TG/HDL-C ratio into three groups. Periodontal disease was defined as a community pocket index score ≥3 with at least one affected site. Multiple logistic analyses were used to analyze the association between TG/HDL-C ratio and periodontal disease. In the study population, prevalence of periodontal disease was 31.6% in men and 21% in women. Compared to the lowest tertile group, OR (95% CI) of the highest tertile group for periodontal disease was 1.474 (1.220-1.780) in men and 1.259 (1.041-1.522) in women after adjusting for age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, current smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, household income, oral health behavior, and use of anti-dyslipidemia medication. Our study suggests that the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. TG/HDL-C ratio is a simple and useful marker to reflect insulin resistance. And periodontal disease is also known to be related with insulin resistance. This study indicates that TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults.

  5. Serum Lipoprotein Changes in Dogs with Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Behling?Kelly, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background People with renal disease develop a dyslipidemia that contributes to progression of renal injury and development of cardiovascular disease. Lipoproteins in dogs with renal disease have not been investigated. Hypothesis Dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have dyslipidemia characterized by increased lower density lipoproteins and decreased high?density lipoproteins (HDLs). The degree of dyslipidemia is positively correlated with severity of disease, as reflected by serum creatini...

  6. Association of extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies including 43,407 individuals: The EPOCH-JAPAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Aya; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2018-02-08

    The effect of very high or extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well described. Although a few recent studies have reported the adverse effects of extremely high levels of HDL-C on CVD events, these did not show a statistically significant association between extremely high levels of HDL-C and cause-specific CVD mortality. In addition, Asian populations have not been studied. We examine the impact of extremely high levels of HDL-C on cause-specific CVD mortality using pooled data of Japanese cohort studies. We performed a large-scale pooled analysis of 9 Japanese cohorts including 43,407 participants aged 40-89 years, dividing the participants into 5 groups by HDL-C levels, including extremely high levels of HDL-C ≥2.33 mmol/L (≥90 mg/dL). We estimated the adjusted hazard ratio of each HDL-C category for all-cause death and cause-specific deaths compared with HDL-C 1.04-1.55 mmol/L (40-59 mg/dL) using a cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. During a 12.1-year follow-up, 4995 all-cause deaths and 1280 deaths due to overall CVD were identified. Extremely high levels of HDL-C were significantly associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD mortality (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-4.09 for total) and increased risk for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. In addition, the risk for extremely high HDL-C was more evident among current drinkers. We showed extremely high levels of HDL-C had an adverse effect on atherosclerotic CVD mortality in a pooled analysis of Japanese cohorts. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth hormone increases and insulin-like growth factor-I decreases circulating lipoprotein(a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Wang, X L; Klinger, B; Silbergeld, A; Wilcken, D E

    1997-04-01

    Elevated serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Genetic factors appear to account for the major variance in Lp(a) levels but the contribution hormones make in modulating Lp(a) levels is not yet clear. In the present investigation we determined the effects of human growth hormone (hGH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on circulating Lp(a). Four groups of patients were studied. Group a: adults with GH deficiency (n = 7) treated with hGH (0.05 U/kg/day, s.c.); group b: girls with Turner syndrome (n = 7) treated with hGH (0.1 U/kg/day, s.c.); group c: prepubertal boys with idiopathic short stature (n = 6) treated with the GH secretagogue (GHRP) hexarelin (60 micrograms t.i.d. intranasally); group d: Laron syndrome patients (n = 10) treated with IGF-I (100-200 micrograms/kg/day, s.c.). Following overnight fasting, serum was sampled before the initiation of treatment and during 6-9 months treatment. Serum IGF-I rose significantly in all the subjects in all four groups. In the first three groups in which IGF-I was elevated by exogenous or endogenous GH stimulation, serum Lp(a) increased significantly (119 +/- 35%, P hGH or GHRP (65.2 +/- 31%, P = 0.109; 93.7 +/- 53%, P = 0.062; 353.8 +/- 52.7%, P hGH in children and adults and the role of Lp(a) as a CAD risk factor.

  8. [THE EFFECT OF SATINS: ACTIVATION OF LIPOLYSIS AND ABSORPTION BY INSULIN-DEPENDED CELLS LIPOPROTEINS OF VERY LOW DENSITY, INCREASING OF BIO-AVAILABILITY OF POLYENOIC FATTY ACIDS AND DECREASING OF CHOLESTEROL OF LIPOPROTEINS OF LOW DENSITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Malyshev, P P; Amelyushkina, V A; Aripovsky, A V; Smirnov, G P; Polevaya, T Yu; Kabo, S I; Kukhartchuk, V V

    2015-10-01

    The Russian cardiologic R&D production complex of Minzdrav of Russia, 121552 Moscow, Russia The statins are synthetic xenobiotics alien to animal cells. They are unlikely capable to manifest pleiotropic effect. It is feasible to evaluate effect of statins by stages: a) initially a specific inhibition of synthesis of cholesterol alcohol; b) further indirect activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density; c) nonspecific activation of cells' receptor absorption of palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density and then d) linoleic and linolenic lipoproteins of low density with all polyenoic fatty acids. On balance, statins activate absorption ofpolyenoic fatty acids by cells. Just they manifest physiological, specific pleiotropic effect. The statins inhibit synthesis of pool of cholesterol alcohol-lipoproteins of very low density condensed between phosphatidylcholines in polar mono-layer phosphatidylcholines+cholesterol alcohol on surface oftriglycerides. The low permeability of mono-layer separates substrate-triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density and post-heparin lipoprotein lipase in hydrophilic blood plasma. The higher is ratio cholesterol alcohol/phosphatidylcholines in mono-layer of lipoproteins of very low density the slower is lipolysis, formation of ligand lipoproteins of very low density and their absorption by cells under apoB-100-endocytosis. The statins normalize hyperlipemia by force of a) activation of absorption oflipoproteins of very low density by insulin-depended cells and b) activation of absorption of lipoproteins of low density by all cells, increasing of bio-availability of polyenoic fatty acids, activation of apoB-100-endocytosis. The limitation in food of content of palmitic saturated fatty acid and increasing of content of ω-3 polyenoic fatty acids improve "bio-availability" of polyenoic fatty acids and their absorption by cells and also decreases cholesterol alcohol/phosphatidylcholines and

  9. Apolipoprotein A-V Deficiency Results in MarkedHypertriglyceridemia Attributable to Decreased Lipolysis ofTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Removal of Their Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosskopf, Itamar; Baroukh, Nadine; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kamari,Yehuda; Harats, Dror; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Cooper, AllenD.

    2005-09-01

    Objective--ApoAV, a newly discovered apoprotein, affectsplasma triglyceride level. To determine how this occurs, we studiedtriglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism in mice deficient inapoAV. Methods and Results No significant difference in triglycerideproduction rate was found between apoa5_/_ mice and controls. Thepresence or absence of apoAV affected TRL catabolism. After the injectionof 14C-palmitate and 3H-cholesterol labeled chylomicrons and 125I-labeledchylomicron remnants, the disappearance of 14C, 3H, and 125I wassignificantly slower in apoa5_/_ mice relative to controls. This wasbecause of diminished lipolysis of TRL and the reduced rate of uptake oftheir remnants in apoa5_/_ mice. Observed elevated cholesterol level wascaused by increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol inapoa5_/_ mice. VLDL from apoa5_/_ mice were poor substrate forlipoprotein lipase, and did not bind to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)receptor as well as normal very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). LDLreceptor levels were slightly elevated in apoa5_/_ mice consistent withlower remnant uptake rates. These alterations may be the result of thelower apoE-to-apoC ratio found in VLDL isolated from apoa5_/_mice.Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the absence ofapoAV slows lipolysis of TRL and the removal of their remnants byregulating their apoproteins content after secretion.

  10. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein....... There were no interactions between any of these baseline variables and the effect of treatment on outcome strokes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent stroke or TIA and no coronary heart disease, only lower baseline HDL-C predicted the risk of recurrent stroke with HDL-C, triglycerides, and LDL/HDL ratio...

  11. High Density Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.

  12. Congestive heart failure is associated with lipoprotein components in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease Insights from the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial (IDEAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Strandberg, Timo E; Faergeman, Ole

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very few, if any, studies have assessed the ability of apolipoproteins to predict new-onset of congestive heart failure (HF) in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). AIMS: To employ the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial...... with the occurrence of new-onset HF. Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried less predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoA-1 was the single variable most strongly associated with HF. LDL-C was less predictive than both non......-HDL-C (total cholesterol minus HDL-C) and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to HF after adjustment for potential confounders, among which diabetes had a stronger correlation with HF than did hypertension. ApoB/apoA-1 carried approximately 2.2 times more of the statistical information...

  13. Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.

    2005-01-01

    Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...

  14. Increased fluidity and oxidation of malarial lipoproteins: relation with severity and induction of endothelial expression of adhesion molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looareesuwan Sornchai

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oxidative stress has been demonstrated in malaria. The potential oxidative modification of lipoproteins derived from malaria patients was studied. These oxidized lipids may have role in pathogenesis of malaria. Method The plasma lipid profile and existence of oxidized forms of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL were investigated in malaria (17 mild and 24 severe patients and 37 control subjects. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs, conjugated dienes, tryptophan fluorescence and fluidity of lipoproteins were determined as markers of oxidation. The biological effect of malarial lipoproteins was assessed by the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Results Malarial lipoproteins had decreased cholesterol (except in VLDL and phospholipid. The triglyceride levels were unchanged. The cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of LDL was decreased in malaria, but increased in VLDL and HDL. TBARs and conjugate dienes were increased in malarial lipoproteins, while the tryptophan fluorescence was decreased. The fluidity of lipoproteins was increased in malaria. These indicated the presence of oxidized lipoproteins in malaria by which the degree of oxidation was correlated with severity. Of three lipoproteins from malarial patients, LDL displayed the most pronounced oxidative modification. In addition, oxidized LDL from malaria patients increased endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. Conclusion In malaria, the lipoproteins are oxidatively modified, and the degree of oxidation is related with severity. Oxidized LDL from malarial patients increases the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. These suggest the role of oxidized lipoproteins, especially LDL, on the pathogenesis of disease.

  15. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  16. Short-term red wine consumption promotes differential effects on plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, sympathetic activity, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive, and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana CM Andrade

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10 or arterial hypertension (n=9, or healthy controls (n=7 were given red wine (250 mL/night for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01 and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05. Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine.

  17. Increased plasma total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... leaves of Viscum album (Mistletoe) on plasma cholesterol and albumin levels in male Wistar rats was studied. Lethality studies revealed that the extract had an LD50 value of 417.0mg/kg mice, intraperitoneally. The rats were randomly divided into seven (7) groups of 5 rats per group with one animal per metabolic cage.

  18. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Robinson, John F; McIntyre, Adam D; Ban, Matthew R; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Hegele, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Dietary supplementation with long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid isomers decreases atherosclerosis and alters lipoprotein proteomes in LDLr-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Hong; Gordon, Scott M; Sviridov, Denis; Wang, Shuibang; Danner, Robert L; Pryor, Milton; Vaisman, Boris; Shichijo, Yuka; Doisaki, Nobushige; Remaley, Alan T

    2017-07-01

    Concentrated fish oils, containing a mixture of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA) with aliphatic chains longer than 18 C atoms (i.e., C20:1 and C22:1), have been shown to attenuate atherosclerosis development in mouse models. It is not clear, however, how individual LCMUFA isomers may act on atherosclerosis. In the present study, we used saury fish oil-derived concentrates enriched in either C20:1 or C22:1 isomer fractions to investigate their individual effect on atherosclerosis and lipoprotein metabolism. LDLR-deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice were fed a Western diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) of either C20:1 or C22:1 concentrate for 12 wk. Compared to the control Western diet with no supplement, both LCMUFA isomers increased hepatic levels of LCMUFA by 2∼3-fold (p atherosclerosis in LDLr -/- mice and this may partly occur through activation of the Ppar signaling pathways and favorable alterations in the proteome of lipoproteins. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Lipoproteins HDL and coronary artery disease: a molecular mechanism of fibrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaletha, Krystian; Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Anand, Izabela Sein; Rybakowska, Iwona; Nagel-Starczynowska, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    The importance of dyslipidemia in the development of cardiovascular disease is now recognized as a central factor of equal, if not greater significance than any other risk factor. Although correction of high level of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been regarded now as the main goal of therapy, it has now been reaffirmed that the contribution of low level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to the risk of ischaemic heart disease should also be considered. In the therapy of dislipidemias with hipertriglyceridemia and decreased level of HDL lipoprotein fibrates play an especially important role. In the article the molecular mechanism of fibrates action is presented.

  1. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  2. Sevelamer does not decrease lipopolysaccharide or soluble CD14 levels but decreases soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in individuals with untreated HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Netanya G; Zhang, Xinyan; Bosch, Ronald J; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Choi, Andrew I; Robinson, Janet K; Fine, Derek M; Coombs, Robert W; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Landay, Alan L; Douek, Daniel C; Tressler, Randall; Read, Sarah W; Wilson, Cara C; Deeks, Steven G; Lederman, Michael M; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits. NCT 01543958. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gylling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%–10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein

  4. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Helena; Simonen, Piia

    2015-09-17

    The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%-10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein particles will be

  5. Remnant lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: To review recent advances in the field of remnant lipoproteins and remnant cholesterol with a focus on cardiovascular disease risk. Recent findings: In line with previous years' research, current observational, genetic, and mechanistic studies find remnant lipoproteins (defined...

  6. Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 ameliorates inflammation and decreases atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 is thought to play modulatory roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Here we evaluated the effects of a specific lp-PLA2 inhibitor on atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice and its associated mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ApoE-deficient mice fed an atherogenic high-fat diet for 17 weeks were divided into two groups. One group was administered the specific lp-PLA2 inhibitor, darapladib (50 mg/kg/day; p.o. daily for 6 weeks, while the control group was administered saline. We observed no differences in body weight and serum lipids levels between the two groups at the end of the dietary period. Notably, serum lp-PLA2 activity as well as hs-CRP (C-reactive protein and IL-6 (Interleukin-6 levels were significantly reduced in the darapladib group, compared with the vehicle group, while the serum PAF (platelet-activating factor levels were similar between the two groups. Furthermore, the plaque area through the arch to the abdominal aorta was reduced in the darapladib group. Another finding of interest was that the macrophage content was decreased while collagen content was increased in atherosclerotic lesions at the aortic sinus in the darapladib group, compared with the vehicle group. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR performed to determine the expression patterns of specific inflammatory genes at atherosclerotic aortas revealed lower expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1 and TNF-α in the darapladib group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inhibition of lp-PLA2 by darapladib leads to attenuation of in vivo inflammation and decreased plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice, supporting an anti-atherogenic role during the progression of atherosclerosis.

  7. Current drive in high density tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Seiichiro; Jotaki, Eriko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Nagao, Akihiro; Nakamura, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoki; Itoh, Satoshi

    1989-01-01

    Current drive in high density tokamak plasma is investigated, with special attention given to mode conversion and proximity conditions that characterize the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the case of current drive by lower hybrid waves. A simple model is used to evaluate the current drive efficiency, and its dependence on various parameters associated with equipment is investigated to provide information required in designing experimental equipment. A strong troidal magnetic field is necessary to produce high density plasma, and incident electromagnetic waves should have a high frequency to prevent the mode conversion, suggesting that a high frequency and a strong troidal field are essential to permit desirable propagation of incident electromagnetic waves. The evaluation of the current drive efficiency shows that the proximity conditions and the power spectrum of the lower hybrid waves entering the plasma are of importance. The average refraction factor in the direction of the troidal field should be larger than but close to that determined from the proximity conditions in order to increase the drive efficiency. As the intensity of the troidal field increases, the refraction factor determined from the proximity conditions decreases, leading to an increase in the drive efficiency. (N.K.)

  8. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  9. Oxidized lipoproteins induce long-lasting inhibition of nitric oxide synthase from a murine endothelioma cell line (bEnd.4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogliatto, G; Musanti, R; Pirillo, A; Ghiselli, G

    1995-04-01

    The vascular endothelium produces nitric oxide, which has vasodilatory properties. It has been postulated that some lipoproteins may increase arterial vascular tone by decreasing the availability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. The mechanism underlying this effect, however, is still poorly understood. We investigated the effect of native and oxidized human low- and high-density lipoproteins on the nitric oxide synthetic activity of an endothelioma cell line (bEnd.4). Oxidized lipoproteins were obtained by incubation with CuSO4. The production of nitric oxide by the cells was monitored by quantifying the nitrite concentration in the medium using Greiss reagent. The synthesis of nitric oxide by the bEnd.4 cell line was calcium-dependent and was abolished by a selective inhibitor of the constitutive nitric oxide synthase. Incubation with oxidized lipoproteins caused a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide synthetic activity. At a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml cholesterol, oxidized low- and high-density lipoproteins inhibited the production of nitric oxide by 27 and 51%, respectively, within 6h. The lipid fraction obtained from the native or the oxidized lipoproteins mimicked the effect of the intact lipoproteins. These results support the involvement of oxidized lipoproteins in the modulation of endothelial functions relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Concentração plasmática de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade em novilhas mestiças doadoras de embriões tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Total plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels in crossbred heifer embryo donors treated with bovine recombinant somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á.M. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi o de estudar as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL em novilhas mestiças tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST. Coletas de sangue foram feitas durante dois ciclos estrais, normal e superovulado, em 26 fêmeas distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 = aplicação de 500mg de rbST no terceiro dia do ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação e T2 = controle. Análises dos metabólitos sangüíneos foram feitas utilizando-se o método enzimático, cujas concentrações médias plasmáticas de colesterol total e de HDL durante o ciclo estral normal não foram diferentes (P>0,05 entre os dois tratamentos: 87,9 e 25,8mg/dl e 85,9 e 26,7mg/dl para T1 e T2, respectivamente. O ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação foi dividido em três períodos: P1 = do estro à inseminação artificial (0 ao15º dia, P2 = da inseminação artificial até a coleta de embriões (15º ao 21º dia e P3 = da coleta até o final do período experimental (21º ao 27º dia. As concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e HDL no P1 não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em P2 e P3 houve diferença nas concentrações de HDL e colesterol total entre os dois tratamentos: 29,0 e 88,5mg/dl (T1 e 27,1 e 81,8mg/dl (T2 no P2; e 30,4 e 88,0mg/dl (T1 e 26,6 e 80,5mg/dl (T2 no P3, respectivamente (PThe objective of the experiment was to study the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in crossbred heifers treated with bovine recombinant somatotropina (rbST. Blood samples were collected for two estrous cycles, normal and superovulated, from 26 animals randomly distributed into two treatments: T1 - injected with 500mg rbST on day 3 of estrous cycle and T2 - control. The lipidic metabolite levels were determined by an enzymatic method, and plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL in normal estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments: 87

  11. Lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome: pathophysiological and interventional studies employing stable isotopy and modelling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dick C; Barrett, P Hugh R; Watts, Gerald F

    2004-09-01

    The accompanying review in this issue of Clinical Science [Chan, Barrett and Watts (2004) Clin. Sci. 107, 221-232] presented an overview of lipoprotein physiology and the methodologies for stable isotope kinetic studies. The present review focuses on our understanding of the dysregulation and therapeutic regulation of lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome based on the application of stable isotope and modelling methods. Dysregulation of lipoprotein metabolism in metabolic syndrome may be due to a combination of overproduction of VLDL [very-LDL (low-density lipoprotein)]-apo (apolipoprotein) B-100, decreased catabolism of apoB-containing particles and increased catabolism of HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-apoA-I particles. These abnormalities may be consequent on a global metabolic effect of insulin resistance, partly mediated by depressed plasma adiponectin levels, that collectively increases the flux of fatty acids from adipose tissue to the liver, the accumulation of fat in the liver and skeletal muscle, the hepatic secretion of VLDL-triacylglycerols and the remodelling of both LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and HDL particles in the circulation. These lipoprotein defects are also related to perturbations in both lipolytic enzymes and lipid transfer proteins. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism in the metabolic syndrome is well complemented by extensive cell biological data. Nutritional modifications may favourably alter lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome by collectively decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB and the catabolism of HDL-apoA-I, as well as by potentially increasing the clearance of LDL-apoB. Several pharmacological treatments, such as statins, fibrates or fish oils, can also correct the dyslipidaemia by diverse kinetic mechanisms of action, including decreased secretion and increased catabolism of apoB, as well as increased secretion and decreased catabolism of apoA-I. The complementary

  12. Sex, plasma lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis: prevailing assumptions and outstanding questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsland, I F; Wynn, V; Crook, D; Miller, N E

    1987-12-01

    We review the hypothesis that the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is higher in men than in women due to differences in plasma lipoprotein risk factors between the sexes. Men and women appear to be equally susceptible to the effects of lipoprotein risk factors for CHD, and the difference between the sexes in lipoprotein risk factors for CHD appears to be consistent with their being, at least in part, responsible for the sex difference in CHD. This is apparent both when men and women of equal age are compared, and when age-related variations in the sex differences in plasma lipoproteins and CHD are considered. Differences between the sexes in lipoprotein concentrations are still present when sex differences in adiposity, cigarette smoking, physical activity, and diet are taken into account. Evidence relating these sex differences in CHD and lipoproteins to the effects of sex hormones is critically examined. It is commonly accepted that androgens induce changes in lipoprotein concentrations that would predispose towards CHD, whereas estrogens are held to have opposite effects. However, much of the evidence for this comes from studies of changes associated with administration of synthetic gonadal steroids or with changes in gonadal function. Studies of differences in lipoprotein metabolism in normal men and women are extremely limited. In males high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels fall at puberty, correlating with the rise in plasma testosterone concentrations. In females, HDL levels do not change at puberty, despite the rise in estrogen concentrations. Evidence for lipoprotein changes during the menopause, when estrogen levels decline, is equivocal. Similarly, the evidence for an increase in CHD incidence at the menopause is inconclusive. National mortality data indicate that the decreasing sex difference in CHD after 50 years of age is due to a declining rate of increase in men rather than to an acceleration in CHD incidence in women. In men

  13. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  14. Distribution of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate into human plasma lipoprotein fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butenhoff, J.L.; Pieterman, E.; Ehresman, D.J.; Gorman, G.S.; Olsen, G.W.; Chang, S.C.; Princen, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Some cross-sectional epidemiological studies have reported positive associations of serum concentrations of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol with serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). However, the strength of the reported associations is inconsistent for

  15. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    KAUST Repository

    Chauke, Chesa G.

    2014-01-22

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.©2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove

    2007-09-01

    An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

  17. Variability of lipid and lipoprotein concentrations during puberty in Brazilian boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Leite, Neiva; Titski, Ana Cláudia C Kapp; Brito, Lilian Messias Sampaio; Boguszewski, Margaret C S

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of lipid profile in children and adolescents is important for early diagnosis of dyslipidemias. Physiological changes might be observed in the concentration of the lipid profile components, according to the stage of sexual maturation. To evaluate the variation in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in boys during puberty. The sample consisted of 570 male adolescents with ages between 10 and 17 years. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were determined by the enzymatic method, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Puberty was classified according to Tanner references. The percentile criterion was adopted for the distribution and identification of lipoprotein levels. The analysis of variance and description tests with ppuberty was observed. LDL-C levels rose during stage 3 of development, decreasing at the end of the pubertal process. TG levels did not change significantly with pubertal status. Lipid and lipoprotein concentrations tend to undergo changes during puberty in boys. The use of percentile values can be very useful to track variations in lipid and lipoprotein levels during the maturation process.

  18. Continuous infusion of adrenocorticotropin elevates circulating lipoprotein cholesterol and corticosterone concentrations in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, M A; Laiche, S A; Thompson, J R; Pond, A L; Peebles, E D

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of elevated corticosterone (CORT) on circulating lipoprotein cholesterol during a 1-wk period. For this study, 15 commercial broilers were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Group 1 served as the control (CON) and received no treatment, whereas Groups 2 and 3 received subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps containing either physiological saline (PS) or adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), respectively. The ACTH was delivered at a rate of 8 IU/kg of BW/d. Blood samples were taken at Time 0 (before implants) and on Days 2, 4, and 7 postimplantation. Continuous infusion of ACTH increased plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and CORT during the postimplantation period. The group treated with ACTH also exhibited a decrease in BW during the last 2 sampling d. There were no differences in any of the serum constituents measured between CON and PS birds, which suggest that CON birds can serve as useful controls. These data suggest that birds given a continuous infusion of ACTH at 8 IU/kg of BW/d can experience changes in plasma lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations along with changes in other blood parameters and may serve as a useful model in accelerated lipoprotein production.

  19. A clustering analysis of lipoprotein diameters in the metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL) particle...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5590 - Lipoprotein X immunolog-ical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques lipoprotein X (a high-density lipoprotein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of lipoprotein X aids in the diagnosis of obstructive liver disease. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  1. Magnetization of High Density Hadronic Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, Constanca; da Providencia, João

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the magnetization of a high density relativistic fluid of elementary particles is studied. At very high densities, such as may be found in the interior of a neutron star, when the external magnetic field is gradually increased, the energy of the normal phase of the fluid...... in the particle fluid. For nuclear densities above 2 to 3 rho(0), where rho(0) is the equilibrium nuclear density, the resulting magnetic field turns out to be rather huge, of the order of 10(17) Gauss....

  2. Lipoprotein heterogeneity in persons with Spinal Cord Injury: a model of prolonged sitting and restricted physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fountaine, Michael F; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Emmons, Racine R; Kirshblum, Steven C; Galea, Marinella; Spungen, Ann M; Bauman, William A

    2015-07-28

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) often have low levels of physical activity, which predispose to increased adiposity and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and, generally, normal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. In spite of the mixed lipoprotein profile, the SCI population has been reported to have an elevated risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy may permit a more precise quantification of lipoprotein particle (P) species, enabling a more accurate inference of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the SCI population. Fasting blood samples were obtained on 83 persons with chronic SCI and 62 able-bodied (AB) subjects. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI), triglycerides (TG), and P number and size of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein), LDL, and HDL subclasses were determined. AB and SCI subjects were stratified based on HDL-C (i.e., Low insulin resistance by the Lipoprotein-Insulin Resistance (LP-IR) score. In the SCI-Low group, the decreased number and reduced size of lipoprotein P were more prevalent and may be associated with increased waist circumference (i.e., abdominal adiposity), relatively elevated TG values (compared to the other subgroups), and an underlying subclinical state of insulin resistance. Prolonged sitting and restricted physical activity in individuals with SCI had the most profound effect on the HDL-C and its lipoprotein P subclasses, but not on LDL-C, however its P subclasses were also unfavorably affected but not to the same degree. The quantification of lipoprotein P characteristics may be a potent tool for the determination of risk for CVD in persons with SCI.

  3. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. High-density lipopoprotein antioxidant capacity, subpopulation distribution and paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Krisztina; Tarr, Tünde; Lőrincz, Hajnalka; Borbás, Viktor; Seres, Ildikó; Harangi, Mariann; Fülöp, Péter; Paragh, György

    2016-03-22

    The causes of increased cardiovascular risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are not understood thoroughly, although presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and disease-specific agents were also proposed. In this study, we investigated the quantitative changes in the lipid profile, as well as qualitative characteristics of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and markers of inflammation and disease activity in SLE patients. Lipoprotein levels were determined in 51 SLE patients and 49 healthy controls, matched in age and gender. HDL antioxidant capacity was determined spectrophotometrically with a cell-free method of hemin-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis was used for HDL subfraction analysis. Human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and oxidized LDL concentrations, as well as interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were determined. HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 concentrations decreased significantly in SLE subjects. Also, PON1 arylesterase activity (125.65 ± 26.87 vs. 148.35 ± 39.34 U/L, p = 0.001) and total HDL antioxidant capacity (165.82 ± 58.28% vs. 217.71 ± 54.36%, p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in patients compared to controls. Additionally, all HDL subfraction concentrations were significantly decreased in patients, while the levels of the examined inflammatory markers were significantly elevated in SLE subjects. The latter correlated positively with disease activity, and negatively with HDL concentration and total HDL antioxidant capacity, respectively. PON1 arylesterase activity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were independent predictors of total HDL antioxidant capacity. Induced by the systemic inflammation, altered composition and antioxidant activity may diminish the anti-atherogenic effect of HDL and therefore may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of SLE patients.

  5. Consumption of nonfat milk results in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Hiroya; Takiwaki, Masaki; Yamashita, Mine; Kawasaki, Kenji; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Honda, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    An increase in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a well-known risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Dairy consumption may lower the risk of atherosclerosis; however, studies on the effects of milk on cardiovascular risk factors are still scarce. We were interested in investigating whether the intake of milk improves the atherogenic lipoprotein profile. We investigated the effects of consuming whole or nonfat milk on plasma lipoprotein composition in healthy Japanese subjects as a pilot study. Normolipidemic subjects consumed 500 ml of whole milk (whole milk group; n=7) or nonfat milk (nonfat milk group; n=7) every day for 2 weeks. The consumption of nonfat milk resulted in a lowering of plasma triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid levels and TG level in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) C-III level. In addition, the TG/cholesterol ratios in HDL and LDL were significantly decreased, and LDL particles became larger. In contrast, the only changes observed following whole milk consumption were increases in the plasma levels of apoC-III and apoE. These findings suggest that consumption of nonfat milk, but not whole milk, may result in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile, and that the constituents of nonfat milk may improve lipid metabolism.

  6. High Density Jet Fuel Supply and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    6 ) (i ) ( 8 ) (91 ( coal tar , tar sands extract, shale oil) to jet fuels, although not necessarily high density fuels. All the above work has...Jet Fuel Analysis Workshop, Golden, Colorado, November 14, 1985. 2. A. Korosi, J. N. Rubin, Stone and Webster Engineering Corp, " Hydroprocessing of...Moore, Ashland Petroleum Co., "Jet Fuel Production from Tar Sands and Heavy Oil," by ART/Reduced Crude Conversion Process’, March 26, 1985. 8. A. F

  7. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  8. High density, low open porosity magnesia ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alecu, I.D.; Stead, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many modern high-tech applications require magnesia ceramic components with high bulk densities and very low apparent porosities. Quite commonly, bulk densities above 3500 kg.m -3 and open porosities close to zero are specified for such applications of magnesia ceramics. The paper presents the recent achievements of Rojan Advanced Ceramics in the field of high density, very low open porosity magnesia ceramic materials and special products, including labware and planar components. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  9. Spin polarization in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providênci, Constanca

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model...... the so-called 2 flavor super-conducting phase to the ferromagnetic phase arises. The color-flavor-locked phase may be completely hidden by the FP....

  10. Decrease in glomerular filtration rate by plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in subjects with normal kidney function assessed by urinalysis and plasma creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yasuko; Homma, Yasuhiko; Igarashi, Mihoko; Miyano, Ryuusuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Momoo; Tanigaki, Toshimori; Shiina, Yutaka; Homma, Koichiro

    2010-06-01

    It has not been well defined whether plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) progresses arteriolosclerosis (arteriosclerosis of small arteries) or not. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) is an indicator of the function of renal arterioles and capillaries of glomeruli. The relationship between e-GFR and plasma LDL-C was studied to estimate the effect of plasma LDL-C on the function of renal arterioles and capillaries of glomeruli to speculate the effect of plasma LDL-C on arteriolosclerosis. Major coronary risk factors; blood pressure, plasma lipids, and fasting plasma glucose were compared among 4 groups of examinees of a health evaluation and promotion center separated by e-GFR, namely, Control group, Group 1, 2, 3 from highest e-GFR to lowest e-GFR. Numbers of total male and female subjects were 4602 and 2920, respectively. Plasma LDL-C levels were significantly high in Group 2 and 3 in all male subjects and high in Group 1, 2, and 3 in male subjects with age of fifties, compared with Control group. Plasma LDL-C levels were significantly high in Group 1, 2, and 3 in all female subjects and high in Group 2 and 3 in female subjects with age of fifties, compared with Control group. Plasma levels of LDL-C were not significantly different at each years of age in subjects with age of fifties in both sex. BMI and waist circumference were higher in male subjects with low e-GFR but not in female subjects. Blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were not high in subjects in Group 1, 2, and 3, compared with Control group in all subjects and subjects with age of fifties in both sex. We concluded that the high plasma level of LDL-C was the major risk factor among coronary risk factors to reduce GFR probably due to impairing the function of renal arterioles and capillaries of glomeruli in subjects with normal kidney function assessed by urinalysis and plasma creatinine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipid composition and lipopolysaccharide binding capacity of lipoproteins in plasma and lymph of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Johannes H. M.; Lemaire, Luciënne C. J. M.; van den Ende, Abraham E.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; van Lanschot, J. Jan B.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major glycolipid component of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes, is a potent endotoxin responsible for many of the directly or indirectly induced symptoms of infection. Lipoproteins (in particular, high-density lipoproteins) sequester LPS, thereby

  12. The causal effects of alcohol on lipoprotein subfraction and triglyceride levels using a Mendelian randomization analysis: The Nagahama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Arai, Hidenori; Hirao, Yuhko; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kosugi, Shinji; Ito, Yasuki; Nakayama, Takeo; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2017-02-01

    Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption may increase circulating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the effect of alcohol on biologically important lipoprotein subfractions remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to clarify the effects of alcohol on lipoprotein subfractions using a Mendelian randomization analysis. The study subjects consisted of 8364 general Japanese individuals. The rs671 polymorphism in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene, a rate-controlling enzyme of alcohol metabolism, was used as an instrumental variable. Lipoprotein subfractions were measured by a homogeneous assay. The biologically active *1 allele of the ALDH2 genotype was strongly associated with alcohol consumption in men (p Alcohol may increase HDL-C levels irrespective of the particle size. Moreover, alcohol may decrease the total LDL-C, although the proportion of atherogenic small-dense LDL-C increased partially due to a potential inter-relationship with decreased triglyceride levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High density nonmagnetic cobalt in thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, Nasrin; Singh, Surendra; Basu, Saibal; Roy, Anupam; Movva, Hema C. P.; Dev, B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Recently high density (HD) nonmagnetic (NM) cobalt has been discovered in a cobalt thin film, grown on Si(111). This cobalt film had a natural cobalt oxide at the top. The oxide layer forms when the film is taken out of the electron-beam deposition chamber and exposed to air. Thin HD NM cobalt layers were found near the cobalt/silicon and the cobalt-oxide/cobalt interfaces, while the thicker mid-depth region of the film was hcp cobalt with normal density and normal magnetic moment. If an ultr...

  14. High density data recording for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDeusen, A.L.; Crist, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and AlliedSignal Aerospace have collaboratively developed a high density data monitoring system for beam diagnostic activities. The 128 channel data system is based on a custom multi-channel high speed digitizer card for the VXI bus. The card is referred to as a Modular Input VXI (MIX) digitizer. Multiple MIX cards are used in the complete system to achieve the necessary high channel density requirements. Each MIX digitizer card also contains programmable signal conditioning, and enough local memory to complete an entire beam scan without assistance from the host processor

  15. High density, low open porosity magnesia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alecu, I.D.; Stead, R.J. [Rojan Advanced Ceramics Pty Ltd, Osborne Park, WA (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Many modern high-tech applications require magnesia ceramic components with high bulk densities and very low apparent porosities. Quite commonly, bulk densities above 3500 kg.m{sup -3} and open porosities close to zero are specified for such applications of magnesia ceramics. The paper presents the recent achievements of Rojan Advanced Ceramics in the field of high density, very low open porosity magnesia ceramic materials and special products, including labware and planar components. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society 4 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Models for Experimental High Density Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradecki, Tomasz; Swoboda, Julia; Nowak, Katarzyna; Dziechciarz, Klaudia

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the effects of research on models of high density housing. The authors present urban projects for experimental high density housing estates. The design was based on research performed on 38 examples of similar housing in Poland that have been built after 2003. Some of the case studies show extreme density and that inspired the researchers to test individual virtual solutions that would answer the question: How far can we push the limits? The experimental housing projects show strengths and weaknesses of design driven only by such indexes as FAR (floor attenuation ratio - housing density) and DPH (dwellings per hectare). Although such projects are implemented, the authors believe that there are reasons for limits since high index values may be in contradiction to the optimum character of housing environment. Virtual models on virtual plots presented by the authors were oriented toward maximising the DPH index and DAI (dwellings area index) which is very often the main driver for developers. The authors also raise the question of sustainability of such solutions. The research was carried out in the URBAN model research group (Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architecture students. The models reflect architectural and urban regulations that are valid in Poland. Conclusions might be helpful for urban planners, urban designers, developers, architects and architecture students.

  17. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the oxylipin composition of lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic, statin-treated subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Newman

    Full Text Available Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities.To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL. They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3 for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs, ketones (KETEs, epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs.At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean |95% CI| being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL; 42% |31, 57| followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL; 27% |20, 36|; and LDL 21% |16, 28|. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% |-33, -12|, p = 0.0003, and expanded EPA-(322% |241, 422|, p<0.0001 and DHA-derived oxylipins (123% |80, 176|, p<0.0001.Each lipoprotein class carries a unique oxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00959842.

  18. Cortical high-density counterstream architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Nikola T; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Van Essen, David C; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kennedy, Henry

    2013-11-01

    Small-world networks provide an appealing description of cortical architecture owing to their capacity for integration and segregation combined with an economy of connectivity. Previous reports of low-density interareal graphs and apparent small-world properties are challenged by data that reveal high-density cortical graphs in which economy of connections is achieved by weight heterogeneity and distance-weight correlations. These properties define a model that predicts many binary and weighted features of the cortical network including a core-periphery, a typical feature of self-organizing information processing systems. Feedback and feedforward pathways between areas exhibit a dual counterstream organization, and their integration into local circuits constrains cortical computation. Here, we propose a bow-tie representation of interareal architecture derived from the hierarchical laminar weights of pathways between the high-efficiency dense core and periphery.

  19. Drum vortons in high density QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, Kirk B. W.; Metlitski, Max A.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2003-01-01

    Recently it was shown that high density QCD supports of number of topological defects. In particular, there are U(1) Y strings that arise due to K 0 condensation that occurs when the strange quark mass is relatively large. The unique feature of these strings is that they possess a nonzero K + condensate that is trapped on the core. In the following we will show that these strings (with nontrivial core structure) can form closed loops with conserved charge and currents trapped on the string world sheet. The presence of conserved charges allows these topological defects, called vortons, to carry angular momentum, which makes them classically stable objects. We also give arguments demonstrating that vortons carry angular momentum very efficiently (in terms of energy per unit angular momentum) such that they might be the important degrees of freedom in the cores of neutron stars

  20. Serum amyloid A3 is a high density lipoprotein-associated acute-phase protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Lisa R; De Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Shridas, Preetha; Noffsinger, Victoria P; den Hartigh, Laura; Chait, Alan; De Beer, Frederick C; Webb, Nancy R

    2018-02-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a family of acute-phase reactants. Plasma levels of human SAA1/SAA2 (mouse SAA1.1/2.1) can increase ≥1,000-fold during an acute-phase response. Mice, but not humans, express a third relatively understudied SAA isoform, SAA3. We investigated whether mouse SAA3 is an HDL-associated acute-phase SAA. Quantitative RT-PCR with isoform-specific primers indicated that SAA3 and SAA1.1/2.1 are induced similarly in livers (∼2,500-fold vs. ∼6,000-fold, respectively) and fat (∼400-fold vs. ∼100-fold, respectively) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice. In situ hybridization demonstrated that all three SAAs are produced by hepatocytes. All three SAA isoforms were detected in plasma of LPS-injected mice, although SAA3 levels were ∼20% of SAA1.1/2.1 levels. Fast protein LC analyses indicated that virtually all of SAA1.1/2.1 eluted with HDL, whereas ∼15% of SAA3 was lipid poor/free. After density gradient ultracentrifugation, isoelectric focusing demonstrated that ∼100% of plasma SAA1.1 was recovered in HDL compared with only ∼50% of SAA2.1 and ∼10% of SAA3. Thus, SAA3 appears to be more loosely associated with HDL, resulting in lipid-poor/free SAA3. We conclude that SAA3 is a major hepatic acute-phase SAA in mice that may produce systemic effects during inflammation. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits oxidation of high density lipoprotein particles in a manner distinct from docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Samuel C R; Mason, R Preston

    2018-02-05

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces oxidation of ApoB-containing particles in vitro and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. EPA may produce these effects through a potent antioxidant mechanism, which may facilitate LDL clearance and slow plaque progression. We hypothesize that EPA antioxidant effects may extend to ApoA-containing particles like HDL, potentially preserving certain atheroprotective functions. HDL was isolated from human plasma and incubated at 37 °C in the absence (vehicle) or presence of EPA and/or DHA; 5.0 or 10.0 μM each. Samples were then subjected to copper-induced oxidation (10 μM). HDL oxidation was inhibited similarly by EPA and DHA up to 1 h. EPA (10 μM) maintained significant HDL oxidation inhibition of 89% (0.622 ± 0.066 μM MDA; p < .001) at 4 h, with continued inhibition of 64% at 14 h, vs. vehicle (5.65 ± 0.06 to 2.01 ± 0.10 μM MDA; p < .001). Conversely, DHA (10 μM) antioxidant benefit was lost by 4 h. At a lower concentration (5 μM), EPA antioxidant activity remained at 81% (5.53 ± 0.15 to 1.03 ± 0.10 μM MDA; p < .001) at 6 h, while DHA lost all antioxidant activity by 4 h. The antioxidant activity of EPA was preserved when combined with an equimolar concentration of DHA (5 μM each). EPA pretreatment prevented HDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner that was preserved over time. These results suggest unique lipophilic and electron stabilization properties for EPA as compared to DHA with respect to inhibition of HDL oxidation. These antioxidant effects of EPA may enhance certain atheroprotective functions for HDL. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidation of Cholesterol Does Not Alter Significantly Its Uptake into High-Density Lipoprotein Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karilainen, T.; Timr, Štěpán; Vattulainen, I.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 13 (2015), s. 4594-4600 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * free energy profiles * cholesterol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.187, year: 2015

  3. Antioxidative activity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL: Mechanistic insights into potential clinical benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brites

    2017-12-01

    Antioxidative function of HDL can be impaired in several metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Structural and compositional anomalies in the HDL proteome and lipidome underlie such functional deficiency. Concomitant normalization of the metabolism, circulating levels, composition and biological activities of HDL particles, primarily those of small, dense HDL3, can constitute future therapeutic target.

  4. Hepatic lipase, genetically elevated high-density lipoprotein, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine Holm; Kamstrup, Pia R; Andersen, Rolf V

    2008-01-01

    .76-1.88), 1.04 (0.96-1.13), and 1.08 (0.89-1.30), respectively. Hazard/odds ratios for ICD in carriers vs. noncarriers of the four remaining hepatic lipase genetic variants did not differ consistently from 1.0. CONCLUSION: Hepatic lipase genetic variants with elevated levels of HDL cholesterol did...

  5. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholosterol May Discriminate Mild and Severe Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Can

    2011-08-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Blood HDL cholesterol levels measured at delivery were reduced in patients with preeclampsia, and patients with reduced levels of HDL cholesterol had a substantially higher probability of the disease severity in comparision to those with mild preeclampsia or those controls.

  6. Changes in postprandial lipoproteins of low and high density caused by moderate alcohol consumption with dinner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, A. van; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Gent, T. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the effects of consumption of moderate amounts of beer, wine or spirits with evening dinner on plasma LDL and HDL levels as well as composition in 11 healthy middle-aged men. Forty grams of alcohol were consumed daily with dinner for a period of 3 weeks. Mineral water was used as a

  7. Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Dollé, M.E.T.; Imholz, S.; Slot, van 't R.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Wijmenga, C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The known genetic variants determining plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explain only part of its variation. Three hundred eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 251 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to HDL-C metabolism were selected and genotyped in 3,575 subjects

  8. Association of apolipoprotein M with high-density lipoprotein kinetics in overweight-obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Esther M M; Watts, Gerald F; Chan, Dick C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between plasma apoM concentration and HDL apoA-I and apoA-II kinetics in 60 overweight-obese, insulin resistant men. METHODS: Plasma apoM concentration was determined using a sandwich ELISA with two monoclonal antibodies (CV....01, respectively) and negatively associated with HDL apoA-I and apoA-II fractional catabolic rate (FCR) (r=-0.291, p=0.03 and r=-0.291, p=0.026, respectively). No significant associations were observed between plasma apoM and HDL apoA-I and apoA-II production rate. In multivariate regression models, both plasma...

  9. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S.; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Robinson, John F.; McIntyre, Adam D.; Ban, Matthew R.; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J.; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. PMID:28870971

  10. High-density lipoprotein modulates glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drew, Brian G; Duffy, Stephen J; Formosa, Melissa F

    2009-01-01

    -activated protein kinase, in skeletal muscle. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received both intravenous reconstituted HDL (rHDL: 80 mg/kg over 4 hours) and placebo on separate days in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. A greater fall in plasma glucose from...... baseline occurred during rHDL than during placebo (at 4 hours rHDL=-2.6+/-0.4; placebo=-2.1+/-0.3 mmol/L; P=0.018). rHDL increased plasma insulin (at 4 hours rHDL=3.4+/-10.0; placebo= -19.2+/-7.4 pmol/L; P=0.034) and also the homeostasis model assessment beta-cell function index (at 4 hours rHDL=18.......9+/-5.9; placebo=8.6+/-4.4%; P=0.025). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta phosphorylation in skeletal muscle biopsies was increased by 1.7+/-0.3-fold after rHDL, indicating activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Both HDL and apolipoprotein AI increased glucose uptake (by 177+/-12% and 144...

  11. Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and high-density lipoprotein concentrations: A community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In cross-sectional studies and short-term clinical trials, it has been suggested that there is a positive dose-response relation between alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations. However, prospective data have been limited. Objective: We sought to determine the association between tota...

  12. High-relaxivity gadolinium-modified high-density lipoproteins as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Geninatti-Crich, Simonetta; Cormode, David P.; Barazza, Alessandra; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Chen, Wei; Giovenzana, Giovanni B.; Fisher, Edward A.; Aime, Silvio; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing desire to produce high-relaxivity, Gd-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. These may allow for lower doses to be used, which is especially important in view of the current safety concerns surrounding Gd in patients. Here we report the synthesis of a

  13. Effects of vegetarian diets on chylomicron metabolism and high density lipoprotein qualitative aspects (HDL)

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Christiano de Matos Vinagre

    2010-01-01

    Dietas vegetarianas oferecem baixo conteúdo calórico, baixos níveis de gordura saturada, colesterol, proteína animal e mais altos de gordura polinsaturada, carboidratos, fibras, magnésio, boro, folato e antioxidantes. Todos esses nutrientes influenciam nos fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares como hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus, obesidade e dislipidemias. Níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total, colesterol de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL), de lipoproteína de densidade ...

  14. Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract ameliorates lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaf Hussain Shaik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE on lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase (PON in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarcted rats. PON is an excellent serum antioxidant enzyme which involves in the protection of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C from the process of oxidation for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ISO caused a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid peroxidation whereas significant decrease in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. ISO administration also significantly decreased the activities of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, PON and lipoprotein lipase whereas significantly increased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase. Oral pretreatment of TpFE at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bw and gallic acid (15 mg/kg bw for 30 days challenged with concurrent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bw on 29th and 30th day significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and the activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes. Also TpFE significantly elevated the serum antioxidant enzyme PON. This is the first report revealed that pretreatment with TPFE ameliorated lipid metabolic marker enzymes and increased the antioxidant PON in ISO treated male albino Wistar rats. Keywords: Terminalia pallida fruit, Gallic acid, Isoproterenol, Lipid metabolism marker enzymes, Paraoxonase, Myocardial infarction

  15. Effects of obesity and body fat distribution on lipids and lipoproteins in nondiabetic American Indians: The Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Hannah, J; Gray, R S; Jablonski, K A; Henderson, J A; Robbins, D C; Lee, E T; Welty, T K; Howard, B V

    2000-09-01

    To examine the relationship between obesity and lipoprotein profiles and compare the effects of total obesity and central adiposity on lipids/lipoproteins in American Indians. Participants were 773 nondiabetic American Indian women and 739 men aged 45 to 74 years participating in the Strong Heart Study. Total obesity was estimated using body mass index (BMI). Central obesity was measured as waist circumference. Lipoprotein measures included triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Partial and canonical correlation analyses were used to examine the associations between obesity and lipids/ lipoproteins. Women were more obese than men in Arizona (median BMI 32.1 vs. 29.2 kg/m2) and South Dakota and North Dakota (28.3 vs. 28.0 kg/m2), but there was no sex difference in waist circumference. Men had higher apoB and lower apoAI levels than did women. In women, when adjusted for center, gender, and age, BMI was significantly related to HDL cholesterol (r = -0.24, p HDL cholesterol (r = -0.23, p correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, p correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = -0.35, p HDL cholesterol decreased with waist circumference (r = -0.36, p correlation analysis, waist circumference received a greater weight (0.86) than did BMI (0.17) in women. However, the canonical weights were similar for waist (0.46) and BMI (0.56) in men. Only HDL cholesterol (-1.02) carried greater weight in women, whereas in men, triglycerides (0.50), and HDL cholesterol (-0.64) carried a large amount of weight. All the correlation coefficients between BMI, waist circumference, and the first canonical variable of lipids/lipoproteins or between the individual lipid/lipoprotein variables and the first canonical variable of obesity were smaller in women than in men. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol showed clinically meaningful changes with BMI and waist circumference in men. All

  16. Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Rizzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk.

  17. The effects of exercise on the lipoprotein subclass profile: a meta-analysis of 10 interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzynski, Mark A.; Burton, Jeffrey; Rankinen, Tuomo; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Hagberg, James M.; Landers-Ramos, Rian; Leon, Arthur S.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Rao, D.C.; Seip, Richard L.; Skinner, James S.; Slentz, Cris A.; Thompson, Paul D.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Kraus, William E.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal was to examine lipoprotein subclass responses to regular exercise as measured in 10 exercise interventions derived from six cohorts. Methods Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify average particle size, total and subclass concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein particles (VLDL-P, LDL-P, and HDL-P, respectively) before and after an exercise intervention in 1,555 adults from six studies, encompassing 10 distinct exercise programs: APOE (N=106), DREW (N=385), GERS (N=79), HERITAGE (N=715), STRRIDE I (N=168) and II (N=102). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the overall estimate of mean change across the unadjusted and adjusted mean change values from each exercise group. Results Meta-analysis of unadjusted data showed that regular exercise induced significant decreases in the concentration of large VLDL-P, small LDL-P, and medium HDL-P and mean VLDL-P size, with significant increases in the concentration of large LDL-P and large HDL-P and mean LDL-P size. These changes remained significant in meta-analysis with adjustment for age, sex, race, baseline body mass index, and baseline trait value. Conclusions Despite differences in exercise programs and study populations, regular exercise produced putatively beneficial changes in the lipoprotein subclass profile across 10 exercise interventions. Further research is needed to examine how exercise-induced changes in lipoprotein subclasses may be associated with (concomitant changes in) cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26520888

  18. High-density hybrid interconnect methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.; Zimmermann, L.; Moor, P.De; Hoof, C.Van

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The presentation gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of hybrid integration and in particular the IMEC technological approaches that will be able to address future hybrid detector needs. The dense hybrid flip-chip integration of an array of detectors and its dedicated readout electronics can be achieved with a variety of solderbump techniques such as pure Indium or Indium alloys, Ph-In, Ni/PbSn, but also conducting polymers... Particularly for cooled applications or ultra-high density applications, Indium solderbump technology (electroplated or evaporated) is the method of choice. The state-of-the-art of solderbump technologies that are to a high degree independent of the underlying detector material will be presented and examples of interconnect densities between 5x1E4cm-2 and 1x1E6 cm-2 will be demonstrated. For several classes of detectors, flip-chip integration is not allowed since the detectors have to be illuminated from the top. This applies to image sensors for EUV applications such as GaN/AlGaN based detectors and to MEMS-based sensors. In such cases, the only viable interconnection method has to be through the (thinned) detector wafer followed by a solderbump-based integration. The approaches for dense and ultra-dense through-the-wafer interconnect 'vias' will be presented and wafer thinning approaches will be shown

  19. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  20. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hyun Cho1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric,1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activityin the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigatedthe cineole’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitiesin lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineolehad inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteinsin general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ionremoval ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Hypercholesterolemiawas induced in zebrafish using cholesterol-feedingtreatment, 4% cholesterol, for 3 weeks. After feeding with orwithout the addition of cineole, the results revealed that cineolepossessed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activitiesin hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. In addition, serum amyloidA and interleukin-6 levels were lowered and lipid accumulationwas decreased in the liver. Conclusively, 1,8-cineole wasfound to have anti-oxidant activities in lipoprotein metabolismboth in vitro and in vivo with simultaneous reduction of lipidaccumulation in the liver of zebrafish.

  1. Effect of the Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Particles in Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Single-Arm, Open-Label Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer Joan; Hanes, Douglas Allen; Schafer, Morgan Beth; Mikolai, Jeremy; Zwickey, Heather

    2015-05-01

    Elevated blood cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Probiotics have been investigated as potential cholesterol-lowering therapies, but no previous studies have assessed the effect of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii on cholesterol levels in human volunteers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of S. boulardii on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein particles in hypercholesterolemic adults. This study was a single-arm, open-label pilot study. Twelve hypercholesterolemic participants were recruited into the study; one dropped out. Participants took 5.6×10(10) colony forming unit (CFU) encapsulated S. boulardii (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079) twice daily for an 8-week period. Fasting concentrations of cholesterol (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], and triglycerides), lipoprotein particles (very-low-density lipoprotein-particle [VLDL-P], remnant lipoprotein particle [RLP-P], total LDL-P, LDL III-P, LDL IV-P, total HDL-P, and HDL 2b-P), and additional cardiovascular biomarkers (apo B-100, lipoprotein [a], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, fibrinogen, and insulin) were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks. Remnant lipoprotein particles decreased by 15.5% (p=0.03) over the 8-week period. The remaining outcome measures were not significantly altered. In this pilot study, 8 weeks of daily supplementation with S. boulardii lowered remnant lipoprotein, a predictive biomarker and potential therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of coronary artery disease.

  2. Effect of lithocholic acid feeding on plasma lipoproteins and binding of radioiodinated human lipoproteins to hepatic membranes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, G; Kessie, G; Berlin, E; Nair, P P

    1992-06-01

    1. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed diets containing 0.25% lithocholic acid for 6 weeks exhibited elevated serum cholesterol. 2. The rats were fed diets containing 5 or 20% fat with and without the lithocholate and/or oxytetracycline-HCl. 3. The cholesterol elevation was associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) and not very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) or low density lipoprotein (LDL). 4. Specific binding of human [125I]HDL to hepatic membranes was lowered in lithocholate-fed rats, but binding of human [125I]LDL to these membranes was not affected.

  3. Relationship of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and body fat to concentrations of plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merians, D R; Haskell, W L; Vranizan, K M; Phelps, J; Woods, P D; Superko, R

    1985-06-01

    To investigate the relationship of exercise and oral contraceptive use to plasma lipids and lipoproteins, a cross-sectional study was designed to compare lipid levels in 96 exercising and non-exercising women who used or did not use oral contraceptives. Exercisers had significantly lower plasma triglyceride concentrations and low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios than non-exercisers after adjustment for differences in pill type distribution between groups. Women using progestin-dominant pills had significantly lower plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentrations and significantly higher low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios compared with women using estrogen/progestin-balanced pills. As body fat was significantly associated with both pill type and physical activity, it is unclear how much of these lipoprotein differences were due to body fat, exercise, or pill use. Regular physical activity together with reduced body fat partially compensated for plasma lipoprotein differences associated with oral contraceptive use.

  4. Analysis of lipoproteins by capillary zone electrophoresis in microfluidic devices: Assay development and surface roughness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiller, Bruce H.; Ceriotti, Laura; Shibata, Takayuki; Rein, Dietrich; Roberts, Matthew A.; Lichtenberg, Jan; German, J. Bruce; De Rooij, Nico F.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    The development of a new assay for lipoproteins by capillary electrophoresis in fused-silica capillaries and in glass microdevices is described in this paper. The separation of low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins by capillary zone electrophoresis is demonstrated in fused-silica

  5. Determination of plasminogen/plasmin system components and indicators of lipoproteins oxidative modification under arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Yusova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was investigated of levels of oxidative modification of lipoproteins and content of plasminogen/plasmin system components – tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA and plasminogen activators inhibitor-1 (PAI-I, in patients with stage II arterial hypertension (AHT and resistant form. It was established that t-PA level in blood plasma of the patients is 2 times lower under stage II hypertension than normal and 2.5 times lower under resistant AHT. The inhibitor activity is 1.5 and 2 times higher consequently. It is concluded that patients with AHT have a decreased fibrinolytic potential, which can cause thrombotic states. Our evaluation showed a significant accumulation of products of lipid and protein oxidation, decrease of activity of antioxidant enzymes and changes of the activity of high density-lipoproteins-associated enzymes (decrease of paraoxonase-1 activity, increase of myeloperoxidase activity. Oxidized lipoproteins, t-PA and PAI-1 can be used as prognostic markers of development of complications and for evaluating the efficacy of therapy in patients with arterial hypertension.

  6. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the oxylipin composition of lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic, statin-treated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John W; Pedersen, Theresa L; Brandenburg, Verdayne R; Harris, William S; Shearer, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities. To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL). They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs), ketones (KETEs), epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs). At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs) were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean |95% CI|) being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL); 42% |31, 57| followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); 27% |20, 36|; and LDL 21% |16, 28|. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% |-33, -12|, p = 0.0003), and expanded EPA-(322% |241, 422|, poxylipins (123% |80, 176|, poxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00959842.

  7. Laser Direct Routing for High Density Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Wilfrido Alejandro

    Diffused Link. A high density Laser Vertical Link with resistance values below 10 ohms was developed, studied and tested using design of experiment methodologies. The vertical link offers excellent advantages in the area of quick prototyping of electronic circuits, but even more important, due to having similar characteristics to a foundry produced via, it gives quick transfer from the prototype system verification stage to the mass production stage.

  8. A1330V variant of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene decreases Wnt signaling and affects the total body bone mineral density in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Tomohiko; Shiraki, Masataka; Usui, Takahiko; Sasaki, Noriko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The Wnt co-receptor, namely, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), initiates Wnt signal transduction. Recently, we and several other groups have shown that there is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the exon 18 of the LRP5 gene that leads to an amino acid change (3989C > T, A1330V), and is associated with lumbar spine, femoral neck, and radial bone mineral density (BMD), and incidence of fracture. These data suggest that the A1330V variation in the LRP5 gene may affect the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. However, the functional basis of the A1330V variation remains unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the A1330V variation on Wnt activity. We also investigated the association between this LRP5 SNP and total body BMD using 739 postmenopausal women. LRP5 with the A1330V SNP were transiently coexpressed with Wnt3a in 293T cells and their activity was evaluated by the TCF-Lef reporter assay. In vitro, the TCF-Lef activity in presence of Wnt3a in cells expressing LRP5 and carrying the T allele (Valine at 1330 (V1330)) of exon 18 was significantly reduced as compared to the wild-type allele. The association between the A1330V SNP and total body BMD were replicated in 739 postmenopausal Japanese women (AA vs. VV; P = 0.0026). These data suggest that the V1330 variant in the LRP5 gene decreases Wnt activity, which in turn decreases the BMD.

  9. Clinical significance of diminution of high-density areas in basal cisterns following acute aneurysmal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Takeda, Rihei; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Sato, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Hidetoshi

    1983-01-01

    We analyzed the sequential changes in the high density in basal cisterns in the acute stage of aneurysmal bleeding. We could recognize Group 3 (clot or thick layer), according to Fisher's classification, in 66.3% of the intracranial aneurysms at admission (83 cases). In the early stage of an intracranial aneurysm, a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was detected in all the patients on CT. We evaluated 40 cases of Group 3 sequentially on CT. This investigation showed that 55% of the Grade I--Ii group, 27.3% of the Grade III group, and 11.1% of the Grade IV--V group changed to Group 2(thin or diffuse pattern) in approximately 20 hours on the average. As for the correlation between the high density in basal cisterns and the neurological condition (Hunt and Hess), we found a neurological improvement in the decreased-high-density group. The unchanged- high-density group showed deterioration. Compared with the decreased-high-density group, the unchanged group showed a greater increase in the CVI (Cerebro Ventricular Index). RI ( 111 In) cisternography also showed a disturbance of the CSF circulation. To lower the vasospasm it is important to decrease the high density in an early stage by carrying out CSF. It was considered to be prognostic when a CT scan was performed within 24 hours after SAH. (author)

  10. [Blood serum lipoprotein spectrum in myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremushkin, G G; Goriacheva, A V; Kolomenskaia, T I; Solomatina, L G; Ovcharenko, R P

    1979-11-01

    The lipoprotein spectrum was studied in polyacrylamide gel and by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel in 236 patients with myocardial infarction in different periods of the disease, in 45 patients with unstable angina pectoris, in 75 healthy persons and in 8 dogs with experimental myocardial infarction. Besides an increase in the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides and a decrease in the level of diglycerides in blood serum, there is a disturbance in the ratio of phospholipid fractions, mainly in myocardial infarction. The level of pre-beta-lipoproteins was increased in the acute period of myocardial infarction, the level of beta-lipoproteins in the subacute period. Complications and concomitant inflammatory diseases were attended by a higher level of beta-lipoproteins. A connection was noted between the lipoprotein spectrum, predominantly of the pre-beta-fraction, and the ABO phenotype and the season.

  11. Lipoprotein(a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Kamstrup, Pia R; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are no recommendations in guidelines on measuring lipoprotein(a) in the fasting or nonfasting state, or on the influence of inflammation. We tested the hypotheses that lipoprotein(a) levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake, and to inflammation. Also, we......(a) levels did not change in response to normal food intake: median fasting levels were 17.3 mg/dL, while median levels at 3-4 h since last meal were 19.4 mg/dL(p = 0.38). Lipoprotein(a) levels increased minimally with increasing levels of C-reactive protein(CRP): median lipoprotein(a) levels at CRP ... tested whether normal food intake or inflammation influenced lipoprotein(a)'s ability to predict ischemic heart disease. METHODS: We studied 34 829 individuals from the Danish general population using the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study. RESULTS: Lipoprotein...

  12. In vitro studies of PBT Nonwoven Fabrics adsorbent for the removal of low density lipoprotein from hyperlipemia plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Ye; Wang Hong [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610052 (China); Yang Chao [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhong Rui [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610052 (China); Lei Yu [Chengdu Blood Center, Chengdu 610041 (China); Sun Kang [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Jiaxin, E-mail: jxliu8122@vip.sina.com [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610052 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Polyanion ligands such as acrylic acid (AA) and heparin were grafted on PBT Nonwoven Fabrics (PBTNF) to study their effect on the adsorption of low density lipoprotein (LDL). These modified PBTNFs were characterized by Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy. The blood compatibilities of the modified PBTNFs were examined using in vitro hemolysis rate (HR), platelet adhesion, total protein (TP) and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results showed that direct immobilized heparin could improve PBTNF-PAA's blood compatibility and decrease the adsorption capability of useful high density lipoprotein, but would possess so low bioactivity that could not further improve the absorption of LDL and TC. Since the PBTNF-PAA55-Heparin adsorbent had quite good adsorption selectivity for these proteins, it can be an excellent candidate for depletion of LDL with good blood compatibility.

  13. In vitro studies of PBT Nonwoven Fabrics adsorbent for the removal of low density lipoprotein from hyperlipemia plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ye; Wang Hong; Yang Chao; Zhong Rui; Lei Yu; Sun Kang; Liu Jiaxin

    2011-01-01

    Polyanion ligands such as acrylic acid (AA) and heparin were grafted on PBT Nonwoven Fabrics (PBTNF) to study their effect on the adsorption of low density lipoprotein (LDL). These modified PBTNFs were characterized by Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy. The blood compatibilities of the modified PBTNFs were examined using in vitro hemolysis rate (HR), platelet adhesion, total protein (TP) and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results showed that direct immobilized heparin could improve PBTNF-PAA's blood compatibility and decrease the adsorption capability of useful high density lipoprotein, but would possess so low bioactivity that could not further improve the absorption of LDL and TC. Since the PBTNF-PAA55-Heparin adsorbent had quite good adsorption selectivity for these proteins, it can be an excellent candidate for depletion of LDL with good blood compatibility.

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Lipoprotein Subclasses and the APOE Genotype Influence Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzàlez, Marta; Ribalta, Josep; Vives, Glòria; Iftimie, Simona; Ferré, Raimón; Plana, Núria; Guardiola, Montse; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Masana, Lluís; Castro, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have accelerated atherosclerosis. Since the conventional lipid profile (total plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol) is not consistently altered in SLE, we hypothesized that investigation of

  15. The effect of water stress on super-high- density 'Koroneiki' olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Arnon; Naor, Amos; Ben-Gal, Alon; Harlev, Guy; Zipori, Isaac; Schneider, Doron; Birger, Reuven; Peres, Moti; Gal, Yoni; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-08-15

    Over the last two decades, the area of cultivated super-high-density olive orchards has increased rapidly. Water stress is an important tool in super-high-density orchards to reduce tree growth and promote suitability for overhead mechanical harvesters. Little is known regarding the effect of water stress in super-high-density orchards on oil quality parameters. In this study the effect of irrigation rate on oil quality parameters was evaluated in a six-year-old super-high-density 'Koreneiki' olive orchard for five consecutive seasons. Five water status levels, determined by irrigating in order to maintain various midday stem water potential threshold values (-1.5, -2, -2.5, -3 and -4 MPa), were applied during the oil accumulation stage. The MUFA/PUFA ratio and free fatty acid content generally decreased as a function of increasing tree water stress. In most seasons a reduction in polyphenols was found with decreasing irrigation level. Peroxide value was not affected by the water stress level. The present study demonstrates that limiting irrigation and exposure of olive trees to water stress in a super-high-density orchard lowers free fatty acid content and therefore benefits oil quality. However, the decreased MUFA/PUFA ratio and the reduction in polyphenol content that were also found under increased water stress negatively influence oil quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Analysis of surface degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Analysis of surface degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) insulation ... ammonium chloride as the contaminant, in high density polyethylene ..... liquid in the material. When diffusion is driven by the concentration gradient and if there is no chemical change between liquid and material, this would result in mass.

  17. Testosterone increases the muscle protein synthesis rate but does not affect very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I; Patterson, Bruce W; Reeds, Dominic N; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2012-03-15

    Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (∼10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ∼45% (P testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women.

  18. Native and Reconstituted Plasma Lipoproteins in Nanomedicine: Physicochemical Determinants of Nanoparticle Structure, Stability, and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Henry J; Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K; Ferrari, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    Although many acute and chronic diseases are managed via pharmacological means, challenges remain regarding appropriate drug targeting and maintenance of therapeutic levels within target tissues. Advances in nanotechnology will overcome these challenges through the development of lipidic particles, including liposomes, lipoproteins, and reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) that are potential carriers of water-soluble, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. Herein we summarize the properties of human plasma lipoproteins and rHDL, identify the physicochemical determinants of lipid transfer between phospholipid surfaces, and discuss strategies for increasing the plasma half-life of lipoprotein- and liposome-associated molecules.

  19. Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Shapiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol-rich, apolipoprotein B (apoB-containing lipoproteins are now widely accepted as the most important causal agents of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Multiple unequivocal and orthogonal lines of evidence all converge on low-density lipoprotein and related particles as being the principal actors in the genesis of atherosclerosis. Here, we review the fundamental role of atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease and several other humoral and parietal factors that are required to initiate and maintain arterial degeneration. The biology of foam cells and their interactions with high-density lipoproteins, including cholesterol efflux, are also briefly reviewed.

  20. Cholesterol synthesis by human fetal hepatocytes: effect of lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.R.; Simpson, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of various lipoproteins on the rate of cholesterol synthesis of human fetal liver cells maintained in culture. This was accomplished by measuring the rate of incorporation of tritium from tritiated water or carbon 14-labeled acetate into cholesterol in human fetal liver cells. Optimal conditions for each assay were determined. When human fetal liver cells were maintained in the presence of low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol synthesis was inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion. Intermediate--density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein also suppressed cholesterol synthesis in human fetal liver cells. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein stimulated cholesterol synthesis in human fetal liver cells. The results of the present as well as our previous investigations suggest that multiple interrelationships exist between fetal liver cholesterol synthesis and lipoprotein-cholesterol utilization by the human fetal adrenal gland and that these processes serve to regulate the lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in fetal plasma

  1. Genetics of Lipid and Lipoprotein Disorders and Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S; Hegele, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Plasma lipids, namely cholesterol and triglyceride, and lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein, serve numerous physiological roles. Perturbed levels of these traits underlie monogenic dyslipidemias, a diverse group of multisystem disorders. We are on the verge of having a relatively complete picture of the human dyslipidemias and their components. Recent advances in genetics of plasma lipids and lipoproteins include the following: (1) expanding the range of genes causing monogenic dyslipidemias, particularly elevated LDL cholesterol; (2) appreciating the role of polygenic effects in such traits as familial hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia; (3) accumulating a list of common variants that determine plasma lipids and lipoproteins; (4) applying exome sequencing to identify collections of rare variants determining plasma lipids and lipoproteins that via Mendelian randomization have also implicated gene products such as NPC1L1 , APOC3 , LDLR , APOA5 , and ANGPTL4 as causal for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; and (5) using naturally occurring genetic variation to identify new drug targets, including inhibitors of apolipoprotein (apo) C-III, apo(a), ANGPTL3, and ANGPTL4. Here, we compile this disparate range of data linking human genetic variation to plasma lipids and lipoproteins, providing a "one stop shop" for the interested reader.

  2. Lipoprotein-specific transport of circulating lipid peroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahotupa, Markku; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Vuorimaa, Timo; Vasankari, Tommi

    2010-10-01

    Serum lipoproteins, the carriers of cholesterol and other lipophilic substances in blood, are known to contain variable amounts of lipid peroxides. We investigated the transport of food-derived and endogenously formed lipid peroxides by serum lipoproteins under physiological conditions. Five independent trials were conducted in which different groups of healthy volunteers either consumed a test meal (a standard hamburger meal rich in lipid peroxides) or underwent strenuous physical exercise. The transport function was characterized by analyzing the kinetics of lipid peroxides in lipoprotein fractions. For evaluation of their potential involvement, indicators of oxidative stress (8-isoprostanes, malondialdehyde, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine), antioxidant functions (total antioxidant potential, paraoxonase activity), and serum lipids were also analyzed. We found that food lipid peroxides are incorporated into serum triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and low-density lipoprotein, directing the flow of lipid peroxides towards peripheral tissues. High-density lipoprotein appears to have an opposite and protective function, and is able to respond to oxidative stress by substantially increasing the reverse transport of lipid peroxides. We propose that the specific atherosclerosis-related effects of serum lipoproteins are not explained by cholesterol transport alone and may rather result from the transport of the more directly atherogenic lipid peroxides.

  3. Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Doris M.; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; Roo, de Niels; Trautwein, Elke A.; Duynhoven, van John; Mensink, Ronald P.; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP)

  4. A lipoprotein lipase mutation (Asn291Ser) is associated with reduced HDL cholesterol levels in premature atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymer, P.W.A.; Gagné, S E; Groenemeyer, B E; Zhang, H; Forsyth, I; Jansen, H; Seidell, J C; Kromhout, D.; Lie, K E; Kastelein, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDC) is recognized as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We now show in approximately 1 in 20 males with proven atherosclerosis that an Asn291Ser mutation in the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene is associated with

  5. A large discoidal lipoprotein present in only one of two closely related crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, Stefanie; Hoeger, Ulrich; Schenk, Sven

    2008-08-01

    The hemolymph lipoproteins of two European freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus and Astacus leptodactylus, were isolated and characterized. The former species possesses two sex-independent lipoproteins, which can be related to the formerly described high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/beta-glucan binding protein and very high-density lipoprotein/clotting protein from other crustaceans. The latter species, however, contains an additional third lipoprotein with a unique structure. It is a large discoidal HDL with a diameter of 42 nm, a thickness of 7 nm and a density of 1.1 g/ml. SDS-PAGE revealed two different apolipoproteins with molecular masses of 240 and 85 kDa, respectively, arranged in a 1:1 stoichiometry as judged from cross linking experiments. The lipid content of this lipoprotein was 67%, far higher than in every other crustacean lipoprotein described so far. The native molecular mass of this HDL-type lipoprotein was estimated to be about 930 kDa. The lipid content of the other lipoproteins ranged between 25 and 30% for the HDL/beta-glucan binding protein and 6-8% for the VHDL/clotting protein.

  6. Usefulness of dynamic subtraction CT for intracranial high density lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Ryo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Taro; Kumazaki, Tatsuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Dynamic subtraction CT (DSCT) using a high speed Rotate/Rotate CT Scanner (Toshiba Xforce) was performed on 10 patients with intracranial high density lesions such as brain tumors and vascular malformations. In comparison with conventional contrast enhanced CT, the technique of dynamic subtraction CT enabled us to evaluate more clearly the contrast enhancement of high density lesions and to separate more easily the lesions from hematoma and calcification, which are shown as avascular areas. The results suggest that DSCT is a valuable method for evaluating the contrast enhancement of intracranial high density lesions. (author).

  7. rs11613352 polymorphism (TT genotype) associates with a decrease of triglycerides and an increase of HDL in familial hypercholesterolemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledo, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Mata, Pedro; Alonso, Rodrigo; Badimon, Lina

    2015-04-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a locus on chromosome 12q13.3 associated with plasma levels of triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with rs11613352 being the lead single nucleotide polymorphism in this genome-wide association study locus. The aim of the study is to investigate the involvement of rs11613352 in a population with high cardiovascular risk due to familial hypercholesterolemia. The single nucleotide polymorphism was genotyped by Taqman(®) assay in a cohort of 601 unrelated familial hypercholesterolemia patients and its association with plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was analyzed by multivariate methods based on linear regression. Minimal allele frequency was 0.17 and genotype frequencies were 0.69, 0.27, and 0.04 for CC, CT, and TT genotypes, respectively. The polymorphism is associated in a recessive manner (TT genotype) with a decrease in triglyceride levels (P=.002) and with an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P=.021) after adjusting by age and sex. The polymorphism rs11613352 may contribute to modulate the cardiovascular risk by modifying plasma lipid levels in familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  9. Observable to explore high density behaviour of symmetry energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Aman D.

    2011-01-01

    We aim to see the sensitivity of collective transverse in-plane flow to symmetry energy at low as well as high densities and also to see the effect of different density dependencies of symmetry energy on the same.

  10. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  11. 128x128 Ultra-High Density Optical Interconnect Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA programs like Tertiary Planet Finder (TPF) require high density deformable mirrors with upto 16,000 actuators to enable direct imaging of planets around...

  12. Wake high-density electroencephalographic spatiospectral signatures of Insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombo, Michele A.; Ramautar, Jennifer R.; Wei, Yishul; Gomez-Herrero, Germán; Stoffers, Diederick; Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; van der Werf, Ysbrand; Cajochen, Christian; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although daytime complaints are a defining characteristic of insomnia, most EEG studies evaluated sleep only. We used high-density electroencephalography to investigate wake resting state oscillations characteristic of insomnia disorder (ID) at a fine-grained spatiospectral

  13. The high density effects in the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M.A.; Gay Ducati, M.B.; Ayala Filho, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    The high density effects in the Drell-Yan process (q q-bar → γ * →l + l - ) are investigated for pA collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. In particular, we use a set of nuclear parton distributions that describes the present nuclear eA and pA data in the DGLAP approach including the high density effects introduced in the perturbative Glauber-Mueller approach. (author)

  14. Copy Number Variation Detection via High-Density SNP Genotyping

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Kai Wang & Maja Bucan ### INTRODUCTION High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays recently have been used for copy number variation (CNV) detection and analysis, because the arrays can serve a dual role for SNP- and CNV-based association studies. They also can provide considerably higher precision and resolution than traditional techniques. Here we describe PennCNV, a computational protocol designed for CNV detection from high-density SNP genotyping d...

  15. High-density lipoproteincholesterol, reverse cholesterol transport, and cardiovascular risk: a tale of genetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cimmino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol deposition plays a central role in atherogenesis. The accumulation of lipid material is the result of an imbalance between the influx and efflux of cholesterol within the arterial wall. High levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol are considered the major mechanism responsible for the influx and accumulation of cholesterol in the arterial wall, while high-density lipoprotein (HDL- cholesterol seems responsible for its efflux. The mechanism by which cholesterol is removed from extra-hepatic organs and delivered to the liver for its catabolism and excretion is called reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. Epidemiological evidence has associated high levels of HDL-cholesterol/ApoA-I with protection against atherosclerotic disease, but the ultimate mechanism(s responsible for the beneficial effect is not well established. HDLs are synthesized by the liver and small intestine and released to the circulation as a lipid-poor HDL (nascent HDL, mostly formed by ApoA-I and phospholipids. Through their metabolic maturation, HDLs interact with the ABCA1 receptor in the macrophage surface increasing their lipid content by taking phospholipids and cholesterol from macrophages becoming mature HDL. The cholesterol of the HDLs is transported to the liver, via the scavenger receptor class B, type I, for further metabolization and excretion to the intestines in the form of bile acids and cholesterol, completing the process of RCT. It is clear that an inherited mutation or acquired abnormality in any of the key players in RCT mat affect the atherosclerotic process.

  16. Effect of classic ketogenic diet treatment on lipoprotein subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo de Lima, Patricia; Baldini Prudêncio, Mariana; Murakami, Daniela Kawamoto; Pereira de Brito Sampaio, Leticia; Figueiredo Neto, Antônio Martins; Teixeira Damasceno, Nágila Raquel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the classic ketogenic diet (KD) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. This prospective study recruited children and adolescents of either sex, whose epilepsy was refractory to treatment with multiple drugs. To be included, the patient had to have an indication for treatment with the KD and be treated as an outpatient. At baseline and after 3 and 6 mo of the KD, lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], triacylglycerols [TG], LDL cholesterol [LDL-C], and HDL cholesterol [HDL-C]), apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB), 10 subfractions of HDL, 7 subfractions of LDL, LDL phenotype, and LDL size were analyzed using the Lipoprint system. The lipid profile components (TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, and apoB) increased during the 3-mo follow-up, and remained consistent after 6 mo of treatment. Similarly, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios, representing atherogenic particles, significantly increased. In contrast, qualitative lipoprotein characteristics progressively changed during the follow-up period. Small LDL subfractions increased, and this profile was related with reduced LDL size (27.3 nm to 26.7 nm). The LDL phenotype became worse; 52.1% of the patients had a non-A phenotype after 6 mo of the KD. Small HDL subfractions decreased only after 6 mo of the KD. KD treatment promotes negative changes in lipoprotein size and phenotype, contributing to atherogenic risk in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental hypothyroidism modulates the expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor by the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabottolo, Lia; Trezzi, Ermanno; Roma, Paola; Catapano, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of exprimental hypothyroidism of the catabolism of plasma lipoproteins and on the expression of low density lipoprotein receptors by the liver was investigated in rats made hypothyroid by surgery. The animals developed mild hypercholesterolemia, mainly due to an increase of plasma low density lipoprotein, while other lipoprotein classes were only marginally affected. Kinetic studies using ( 125 I)LDL indicated that a decreased fractional catabolic rate of the lipoprotein was responsible for this finding in agreement with the in vitro observation of a reduced binding of lipoproteins to liver membranes from hyperthyroid rats and with the demonstrations, by ligand blotting analysis, of a decreasd expression of lipoprotein receptors in liver membranes. These data suggest that hypothyroidism affects lipoprotein distribution also by decreasing the catabolism of low density lipoproteins by the liver (author)

  18. Pemberian Whey-Dangke dalam Air Minum Menekan Kadar Kolesterol, Trigliserida dan Lipoprotein Darah Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulmiyati Sulmiyati

    2017-06-01

    of 10%; P2 = whey dangke added with a concentration of 20%; P3 = whey dangke added with a concentration of 30%; P4 = whey dangke added with a concentration of 40%; and P5 = whey dangke added with a concentration of 50%. The sample in this research is the broiler cobb strain SR 707. Variable measured in this study were lower cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein, HDL (high density lipoprotein and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein blood broiler.Each variable were determined after 15 days post treatment. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and if it shows the real effect followed by Least Significant Difference Test. The results showed that administration of whey dangke in water does not provide significant effect (P> 0.05 on the variable of cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein, but it looks downward trend in cholesterol levels along with increased concentration of whey dangke. It can be concluded that in vivo test results demonstrate that administration of whey dangke in water for broilers at concentrations of 50% showed a decrease in cholesterol levels up to 15%.

  19. Lipoprotein Particle Concentrations in Children and Adults following Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jonathan; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Victoria; Sato, Yuichiro Z.; Jimenez-Fernandez, Susan; Newfield, Ron S.; Pourfarzib, Ray; Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Gordon, John B.; Daniels, Lori B.; Burns, Jane C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that children and adults with history of Kawasaki disease (KD) are more likely to have abnormal lipoprotein particle profiles that could place them at increased risk of atherosclerosis later in life. Study design Fasting serum samples were obtained from 192 children and 63 adults with history of KD and 90 age-similar healthy controls. Lipoprotein particle (P) concentrations and sizes were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (Liposcience Inc., Raleigh, NC) and serum was assayed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)-C. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL)-C was estimated using the Friedewald formula. Data were analyzed in a least-square means model adjusting for age and sex and using Holm correction for multiple comparisons. Results Compared with respective control groups, both adult and pediatric subjects with KD had significantly lower mean very-low-density lipoprotein-chylomicron particle concentrations (VLDLC-P), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), TG, and TC concentrations. Pediatric subjects with KD had significantly lower LDL-P and LDL-C concentrations and lower mean TC/HDL-C ratio (ppediatric and adult subjects with KD regardless of their aneurysm status are no more likely than age-similar, healthy controls to have lipid patterns associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:25039043

  20. Effect of two oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene or norgestimate on different lipid and lipoprotein parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegratz, I; Jung-Hoffmann, C; Gross, W; Kuhl, H

    1998-08-01

    The effect of a triphasic oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene (EE/GSD) on various lipid and lipoprotein parameters was compared with that of a monophasic formulation containing 35 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 250 micrograms norgestimate (EE/NGM). Blood samples were collected from 46 women on days 2, 11, and 21 of the preceding control cycle and of the third, sixth, and twelfth treatment cycles. There was no significant difference between formulations with regard to the influence on any measured parameter. As compared with controls, a significant increase was observed in the plasma levels of total triglycerides (24-78%), total phospholipids (7-20%), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides (61-76%), VLDL-phospholipids (14-60%), low density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides (8-35%), LDL-phospholipids (28-30%), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (8-16%), HDL 3-cholesterol (11-20%), HDL-triglycerides (17-66%), HDL-phospholipids, HDL 3-phospholipids (7-11%), apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (5-20%) and apo A-II (10-40%) during treatment with both formulations. In contrast, the LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly decreased. These changes in lipid metabolism appear to reflect a predominance of the effect of the estrogen component. The results indicate that both low dose oral contraceptives containing different progestins and different amounts of EE do not exert a deleterious effect on lipoprotein metabolism, as high HDL-cholesterol and low LDL-cholesterol levels are known as low risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In contrast to endogenous hypertriglyceridemia, an EE-induced rise in triglyceride levels does not appear to increase cardiovascular risk if LDL is not increased.

  1. Native and Reconstituted Plasma Lipoproteins in Nanomedicine: Physicochemical Determinants of Nanoparticle Structure, Stability, and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Pownall, Henry J.; Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Although many acute and chronic diseases are managed via pharmacological means, challenges remain regarding appropriate drug targeting and maintenance of therapeutic levels within target tissues. Advances in nanotechnology will overcome these challenges through the development of lipidic particles, including liposomes, lipoproteins, and reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) that are potential carriers of water-soluble, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. Herein we summarize the p...

  2. Lower Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Are Associated with Severe Dengue Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope H Biswas

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a flavivirus of worldwide importance, with approximately 4 billion people across 128 countries at risk of infection, and up to 390 million infections and 96 million clinically apparent cases estimated annually. Previous in vitro studies have shown that lipids and lipoproteins play a role in modifying virus infectivity. However, the relationship between development of severe dengue and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, respectively, is unclear. We analyzed data from 789 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases and 447 other febrile illnesses (OFI in a prospective pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua between August 2005 and January 2013, using three different classifications of dengue severity: World Health Organization (WHO 1997, WHO 2009, and standardized intervention categories. Total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels decreased over the course of illness and were generally lower with increasing dengue severity, regardless of classification scheme. Greater decreases in LDL-C than HDL-C were observed among dengue-positive patients compared to patients with OFI and among severe dengue compared to mild dengue cases. Furthermore, daily cholesterol levels declined with daily albumin blood levels. To examine the effect of cholesterol at presentation on subsequent risk of development of severe dengue, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable modified Poisson models. We found that lower total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels at presentation were associated with subsequent risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome using the WHO 1997 dengue severity classification, and thus that the reduction in LDL-C is likely driving the decreases observed in total serum cholesterol levels among dengue-positive patients. Our results suggest that cholesterol blood levels are important correlates of

  3. Soy milk powder supplemented with phytosterol esters reduced serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia independently of lipoprotein E genotype: a random clinical placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shan; Zhang, Ran; Ji, Ya-Cheng; Hao, Jia-Yin; Ma, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xu-Dong; Xiao, Rong; Yu, Huan-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Phytosterols (PSs) are reported to lower the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations enriched in some fatty foods, such as margarine. However, these high-fat foods are not very suitable for older people. Soy milk is the favorite food for elderly people in China; therefore, we hypothesized that the consumption of soy milk powder supplemented with PSs would decrease the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese people independent of the genotypes of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Mild to moderate hyperlipidemic patients (n = 170) were recruited from different communities and treated with placebo soy milk powder or 3.4 g PS esters-enriched soy milk powder (2.0 g/d free PS in 30 g soy milk powder). The fasting serum lipid profiles at the baseline and after 3 and 6 months of intervention were measured. The ApoE genotype was also determined. After 3 months of PS intervention, the serum lipid profile was not changed significantly in either group. The serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased by 9.3%, 11.4%, and 12.6%, respectively, in the PS group at the end of the intervention (6 months) compared with the control group, whereas the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not affected significantly. In the PS group, both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers had a similar response to PS consumption. These findings suggested that PS-fortified soy milk powder was effective in lowering the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese volunteers with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-density-plasma diagnostics in magnetic-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The lectures will begin by defining high density in the context of magnetic confinement fusion research and listing some alternative reactor concepts, ranging from n/sub e/ approx. 2 x 10 14 cm -3 to several orders of magnitude greater, that offer potential advantages over the main-line, n/sub e/ approx. 1 x 10 14 cm -3 , Tokamak reactor designs. The high density scalings of several major diagnostic techniques, some favorable and some disadvantageous, will be discussed. Special emphasis will be given to interferometric methods, both electronic and photographic, for which integral n/sub e/dl measurements and associated techniques are accessible with low wavelength lasers. Reactor relevant experience from higher density, smaller dimension devices exists. High density implies high β, which implies economies of scale. The specialized features of high β diagnostics will be discussed

  5. High-density scintillating glasses for a proton imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, I. J.; Dettmann, M. A.; Herrig, V.; Thune, Z. L.; Zieser, A. J.; Michalek, S. F.; Been, M. O.; Martinez-Szewczyk, M. M.; Koster, H. J.; Wilkinson, C. J.; Kielty, M. W.; Jacobsohn, L. G.; Akgun, U.

    2017-06-01

    High-density scintillating glasses are proposed for a novel proton-imaging device that can improve the accuracy of the hadron therapy. High-density scintillating glasses are needed to build a cost effective, compact calorimeter that can be attached to a gantry. This report summarizes the study on Europium, Terbium, and Cerium-doped scintillating glasses that were developed containing heavy elements such as Lanthanum, Gadolinium, and Tungsten. The density of the samples reach up to 5.9 g/cm3, and their 300-600 nm emission overlaps perfectly with the peak cathode sensitivity of the commercial photo detectors. The developed glasses do not require any special quenching and can be poured easily, which makes them a good candidate for production in various geometries. Here, the glass making conditions, preliminary tests on optical and physical properties of these scintillating, high-density, oxide glasses developed for a novel medical imaging application are reported.

  6. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  7. Blood Lipoproteins under the Action of Exogenous Sex Steroids in the Postresuscitation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Shcherbakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of reproductive hormones on the blood lipoprotein spectrum in the postresuscitation period after cardiac arrest. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on 66 mature albino rats of either sex weighing 200—250 g. Ten-minute cardiac arrest was induced by intrathoracic ligation of the vascular bundle. At 30 min after resuscitation, 49 animals were intramuscularly injected placebo and 17 animals were administered gyn-odian depot (Schering, Germany. The investigators measured the plasma concentrations of progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, estradiol, and estriol, as well as the levels of triglycerides, total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterols. Blood was sampled on days 2 and 16 in the absence of therapy and on day 16 of sex steroid therapy. Results. By day 2 postresuscitation, the progesterone/estradiol ratio increased by approximately 1.8 times in males and females. Despite the fact that there were no changes in the concentrations of triglycerides, VLDL and HDL cholesterols in both males and females at that time, but the level of LDL cholesterol increased. Gender-related differences in the LDL spectrum by day 2 postresuscitation remained only in the levels of LDL cholesterol. Despite the normalization of progesterone levels, the concentrations of triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol decreased by day 16 of the postresuscitative period in the absence of therapy. There were no gender-related differences in the lipoprotein spectrum at this stage. The exogenous estradiol in combination with dehydroepiandrosterone caused a significant increase in the concentration of HLD cholesterol and a reduction in that of VLDL cholesterol in males and females both. Conclusion. Under gynodian action, the lipid spectrum was indicative of the exogenous estra-diol and

  8. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats. Rats were pretreated with p-coumaric acid (8 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 7 days and then injected with isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) on 8th and 9th day to induce myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol was indicated by increased level of cardiac sensitive marker and elevated ST-segments in the electrocardiogram. Also, the levels/concentrations of serum and heart cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were increased in myocardial infarcted rats. Isoproterenol also increased the levels of serum low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It also enhanced the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. p-Coumaric acid pretreatment revealed preventive effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram studied in myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study confirmed the free radical scavenging property of p-coumaric acid. Thus, p-coumaric acid prevented cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in lipids, lipoproteins, and electrocardiogram, by virtue of its antihypertrophic, antilipidemic, and free radical scavenging effects in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Absorption and transport of deuterium-substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol in human lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traber, M.G.; Ingold, K.U.; Burton, G.W.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-08-01

    Oral administration of a single dose of tri- or hexadeuterium substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d3- or d6-alpha-T-Ac) to humans was used to follow the absorption and transport of vitamin E in plasma lipoproteins. Three hr after oral administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (15 mg) to 2 subjects, plasma levels of d3-alpha-T were detectable; these increased up to 10 hr, reached a plateau at 24 hr, then decreased. Following administration of d6-alpha-T-Ac (15-16 mg) to 2 subjects, the percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol in chylomicrons increased more rapidly than the corresponding percentage in whole plasma. Chylomicrons and plasma lipoproteins were isolated from 2 additional subjects following administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (140 or 60 mg). The percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol increased most rapidly in chylomicrons, then in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), followed by essentially identical increases in low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) and lastly, in the red blood cells. This pattern of appearance of deuterated tocopherol is consistent with the concept that newly absorbed vitamin E is secreted by the intestine into chylomicrons; subsequently, chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver from which the vitamin E is secreted in VLDL. The metabolism of VLDL in the circulation results in the simultaneous delivery of vitamin E into LDL and HDL.

  10. Positron camera with high-density avalanche chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfrass, D.; Enghardt, W.; Fromm, W.D.; Wohlfarth, D.; Hennig, K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of an extensive investigation of the properties of high-density avalanche chambers (HIDAC) are presented. This study has been performed in order to optimize the layout of HIDAC detectors, since they are intended to be applied as position sensitive detectors for annihilation radiation in a positron emission tomograph being under construction. (author)

  11. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous...

  12. High-density QCD phase transitions inside neutron stars: Glitches ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... ... of different high-density phases and associated phase transitions. We study effectsof density fluctuations during transitions with and without topological defect production and study the effect on pulsar timings due to changing moment of inertia of the star. We also discuss gravitational wave production due ...

  13. Intraocular inflammation following endotamponade with high-density silicone oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Tilanus, M.A.D.; Klevering, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of a mixture of silicone oil and partially fluorinated alkanes (high-density silicone oil) has recently been suggested as intraocular tamponade in complicated retinal detachment of the inferior quadrants. We describe a series of patients who developed a clinical picture

  14. Current situation of lipoprotein apheresis in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, U; Taseva, K; Fischer, S; Passauer, J; Bornstein, S R

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the situation pertinent to treatment via lipoprotein apheresis in the federal state of Saxony, Germany in 2010. In total, 119 predominately male patients were treated in 10 centers; the majority of the patients was older than the mean age of the general population. Several risk factors were present, particularly a familial predisposition and hypertension. All patients had experienced cardiovascular events and the majority was taking statins. Patient data from the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus in Dresden concurred with data derived from patients treated at nephrological practices. In the mean, patients attended the centers for about 6 years, the majority weekly. LDL cholesterol concentrations prior to apheresis were clearly higher than target levels; apheresis sessions decreased LDL cholesterol by 69%. Lipoprotein(a) levels could be measured in 75 patients and were effectively reduced by lipoprotein apheresis. In Saxony, 29 patients per 1 million inhabitants received lipoprotein apheresis, which is higher than the proportion of patients treated in Germany as a whole. The need for this extracorporeal treatment seems to be much greater than its current utilization. Among the patients only one homozygous patient with familial hypercholesterolemia was observed. Physicians should be actively informed about this therapeutic possibility to reduce the cardiovascular risk efficiently. The introduction of new drugs may alter the position of lipoprotein apheresis within the therapeutic spectrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex steroids and lipoprotein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers Leuven, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism is involved in atherogenesis. Female sex-hormones have substantial effects on both lipoprotein metabolism and the vessel wall. Cholesterol, one of the major lipids in lipoproteins, is both the substrate for, and the target of, the steroidal sex hormones.

  16. High density plasmas formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Velarde, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Velarde, G.; Bravo, E.; Eliezer, S.; Florido, R.; Garcia Rubiano, J.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Gil de la Fe, J. M.; Leon, P. T.; Martel, P.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Relano, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, E.; Lachaise, M.; Oliva, E.

    2005-01-01

    In inertially confined fusion (ICF), high densities are required to obtain high gains. In Fast Ignition, a high density, low temperature plasma can be obtained during the compression. If the final temperature reached is low enough, the electrons of the plasma can be degenerate. In degenerate plasmas. Bremsstrahlung emission is strongly suppressed an ignition temperature becomes lower than in classical plasmas, which offers a new design window for ICF. The main difficulty of degenerate plasmas in the compression energy needed for high densities. Besides that, the low specific heat of degenerate electrons (as compared to classical values) is also a problem because of the rapid heating of the plasma. Fluid dynamic evolution of supernovae remnants is a very interesting problem in order to predict the thermodynamical conditions achieved in their collision regions. Those conditions have a strong influence in the emission of light and therefore the detection of such events. A laboratory scale system has been designed reproducing the fluid dynamic field in high energy experiments. The evolution of the laboratory system has been calculated with ARWEN code, 2D Radiation CFD that works with Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Results are compared with simulations on the original system obtained with a 3D SPH astrophysical code. New phenomena at the collision plane and scaling of the laboratory magnitudes will be described. Atomic physics for high density plasmas has been studied with participation in experiments to obtain laser produced high density plasmas under NLTE conditions, carried out at LULI. A code, ATOM3R, has been developed which solves rate equations for optically thin plasmas as well as for homogeneous optically thick plasmas making use of escape factors. New improvements in ATOM3R are been done to calculate level populations and opacities for non homogeneous thick plasmas in NLTE, with emphasis in He and H lines for high density plasma diagnosis. Analytical expression

  17. Plant sterols-enriched diet decreases small, dense LDL-cholesterol levels in children with hypercholesterolemia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoufi, Anastasia; Vorre, Styliani; Soldatou, Alexandra; Tsentidis, Charalampos; Kossiva, Lydia; Drakatos, Antonios; Marmarinos, Antonios; Gourgiotis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-03

    Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) molecules are more atherogenic compared with large buoyant ones. Phytosterols-enriched diets are effective in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in hyperlipidemic children without significant adverse effects. Limited data on the impact of such a diet on sdLDL-C levels is available in adults while there are no reports concerning children. The purpose of this study is to prospectively evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of 2 g of plant sterols on sdLDL-C levels in children with hypercholesterolemia. Fifty-nine children, 25 with LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/l (130 mg/dl) and 34 with LDL-C yogurt-drink enriched with 2 g of plant sterols was added to the daily diet of hypercholesterolemic children and 6-12 months later lipid profiles were reassessed. Direct quantitative methods were used to measure LDL-C and sdLDL-C levels. The consumption of plant sterols reduced sdLDL-C significantly (p cholesterol (NonHDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels also decreased significantly (p 10% in sixteen children (64%), independently from baseline levels, sex, age and body mass index (BMI). High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], and triglycerides (TGs) levels remained unaffected. Plant sterols decrease sdLDL-C significantly and may be beneficial for children with hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Opposing effects of apolipoprotein m on catabolism of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Gordts, Philip L S M

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Plasma apolipoprotein (apo)M is mainly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL-bound apoM is antiatherogenic in vitro. However, plasma apoM is not associated with coronary heart disease in humans, perhaps because of a positive correlation with plasma low-density lipoprotein...... (LDL). Objective: We explored putative links between apoM and very-low-density (VLDL)/LDL metabolism and the antiatherogenic potential of apoM in vivo. Methods and Results: Plasma apoM was increased approximately 2.1 and approximately 1.5 fold in mice lacking LDL receptors (Ldlr(-/-)) and expressing...... dysfunctional LDL receptor-related protein 1 (Lrp1(n2/n2)), respectively, but was unaffected in apoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Thus, pathways controlling catabolism of VLDL and LDL affect plasma apoM. Overexpression ( approximately 10-fold) of human apoM increased (50% to 70%) and apoM deficiency decreased...

  19. Lipoproteins tethered dendrimeric nanoconstructs for effective targeting to cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti, E-mail: keertijain02@gmail.com; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar, E-mail: neelesh81mph@gmail.com; Jain, N. K., E-mail: dr.jnarendr@gmail.com [Dr. H. S. Gour University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2013-10-15

    In the present investigation, poly (propylene imine) dendrimers up to fifth generation (PPI G5.0) were synthesized using ethylene diamine and acrylonitrile. Lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein; HDL and low-density lipoprotein; LDL) were isolated from human plasma by discontinuous density gradient ultracentrifugation, characterized and tethered to G5.0 PPI dendrimers to construct LDL- and HDL-conjugated dendrimeric nanoconstructs for tumor-specific delivery of docetaxel. Developed formulations showed sustained release characteristics in in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. The cancer targeting potential of lipoprotein coupled dendrimers was investigated by ex vivo cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2 cells) and biodistribution studies in albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain. Lipoprotein anchored dendrimeric nanoconstructs showed significant uptake by cancer cells as well as higher biodistribution of docetaxel to liver and spleen. It is concluded that these precisely synthesized engineered dendrimeric nanoconstructs could serve as promising drug carrier for fighting with the fatal disease, i.e., cancer, attributed to their defined targeting and therapeutic potential.

  20. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  1. Operation and control of high density tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenberger, S.E.; McAlees, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The incentive for high density operation of a tokamak reactor is discussed. The plasma size required to attain ignition is determined. Ignition is found to be possible in a relatively small system provided other design criteria are met. These criteria are described and the technology developments and operating procedures required by them are outlined. The parameters for such a system and its dynamic behavior during the operating cycle are also discussed

  2. An atomic impurity in a high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1981-07-01

    We present a self-consistent theory based on the local density functional approach to study the electron structure of an atom imbedded in a high density plasma. We consider a neon atom as an impurity relevant to high compression laser fusion experiments for our analysis and indicate the usefulness of this approach to study level shifts where linear theories like Debye-Hueckel or Thomas-Fermi model will fail. (author)

  3. Evaporation of carbon using electrons of a high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhl, S.; Camps, E.; Escobar A, L.; Garcia E, J.L.; Olea, O.

    1999-01-01

    The high density plasmas are used frequently in the preparation of thin films or surface modification, for example to nitridation. In these processes, are used mainly the ions and the neutrals which compose the plasma. However, the electrons present in the plasma are not used, except in the case of chemical reactions induced by collisions, although the electron bombardment usually get hot the work piece. Through the adequate polarization of a conductor material, it is possible to extract electrons from a high density plasma at low pressure, that could be gotten the evaporation of this material. As result of the interaction between the plasma and the electron flux with the vapor produced, this last will be ionized. In this work, it is reported the use of this novelty arrangement to prepare carbon thin films using a high density argon plasma and a high purity graphite bar as material to evaporate. It has been used substrates outside plasma and immersed in the plasma. Also it has been reported the plasma characteristics (temperature and electron density, energy and ions flux), parameters of the deposit process (deposit rate and ion/neutral rate) as well as the properties of the films obtained (IR absorption spectra and UV/Vis, elemental analysis, hardness and refractive index. (Author)

  4. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol in humans and mice with monogenic disturbances of high density lipoprotein metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karuna, Ratna; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Motazacker, Mohammad M

    2011-01-01

    BI and hepatic lipase were associated with elevated HDL concentrations of either sterol. Compared to family controls and relative to the concentrations of total 27OHC and cholesterol, lower 27OHC-ester but normal cholesterylester levels were found in HDL of heterozygous LCAT mutation carriers and non...

  5. Physical activity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids levels, in men and women from the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Ioanna

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has long been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. In this work we evaluated the effect of physical activity on lipid levels, in a sample of cardiovascular disease free people. Methods The ATTICA study is a population – based cohort that has randomly enrolled 2772 individuals, stratified by age – gender (according to the census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, 1376 were men (45 ± 12 years old, range: 18 – 86 and 1396 women (45 ± 13 years old, range: 18 – 88. We assessed the relationship between physical activity status (measured in kcal/min expended per day and several lipids, after taking into account the effect of several characteristics of the participants. Results 578 (42% men and 584 (40% women were classified as physically active. Compared to sedentary physically active women had significantly lower levels of total serum cholesterol (p Conclusions Substantial independent increases in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations were observed in women, but not in men, in a Mediterranean cohort.

  6. Paraoxonase-1 L55M polymorphism with fatty acid composition of phospholipids in high-density lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghatreh Samani K

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: Allele (L from L55M polymorphism had a higher frequency in patients with higher LDL-C concentrations. PON1 genotypes seemed to have a modifying role on paraoxonase-1 activity after lovastatin therapy.

  7. Determinants of total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys and men with special reference to diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    At present it is assumed that atherosclerosis begins in childhood and that this process may ultimately result in the manifestations of coronary heart disease later in life. For this reason it is relevant to study the distribution of risk indicators for coronary heart disease (CHD) in children from

  8. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein infusion modulates fatty acid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drew, BG; Carey, AL; Natoli, AK

    2011-01-01

    investigated the effect of rHDL infusion on fatty acid oxidation and lipolysis. Thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes received separate infusions of rHDL and placebo in a randomized, cross-over study. Fatty acid metabolism was assessed using steady-state tracer methodology, and plasma lipids were measured...... by mass spectrometry (lipidomics). In vitro studies were undertaken in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. rHDL infusion inhibited fasting-induced lipolysis (P = 0.03), fatty acid oxidation (P ..., providing a possible mechanistic link for the apparent reductions in lipolysis observed in vivo. In contrast, circulating NEFA increased after rHDL infusion (P

  9. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  10. Receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein stimulates bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, L.H.; Davis, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the lipoprotein-mediated stimulation of bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. Adding 280 micrograms/ml of cholesterol in the form of human or rat low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the culture medium increased bile acid synthesis by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. As a result of the uptake of LDL, the synthesis of [14C]cholesterol from [2-14C]acetate was decreased and cellular cholesteryl ester mass was increased. Further studies demonstrated that rat apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) both stimulated bile acid synthesis 1.5-fold, as well as inhibited the formation of [14C]cholesterol from [2-14C]acetate. Reductive methylation of LDL blocked the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as the stimulation of bile acid synthesis, suggesting that these processes require receptor-mediated uptake. To identify the receptors responsible, competitive binding studies using 125I-labeled apoE-free LDL and 125I-labeled apoE-rich HDL were performed. Both apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL displayed an equal ability to compete for binding of the other, suggesting that a receptor or a group of receptors that recognizes both apolipoproteins is involved. Additional studies show that hepatocytes from cholestyramine-treated rats displayed 2.2- and 3.4-fold increases in the binding of apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL, respectively. These data show for the first time that receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver is intimately linked to processes activating bile acid synthesis

  11. Lactosaminated Fab fragments specific for low density lipoproteins/hepatocyte targeting and hypolipoproteinemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, F; Via, D P; Bocan, T M; Gotto, A M; Smith, L C

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that Fab fragments of IgGs modified by lactosamination (lac-Fab) can direct macromolecules, including low density lipoproteins (LDL), to the liver. In the present paper we demonstrate that lac-Fab that is specific for LDL is an effective and selective hypolipoprotein agent. A plasma pool of about 60 mg/dl of apoprotein B (apo B) was induced in rats by bolus injection of human LDL (hLDL), which increased the cholesterol value to about 150 mg/dl. Three hours after injection of the highest dose of lac-Fab, the total cholesterol decreased to 80 mg/dl, compared to 120 mg/dl in control animals. Studies conducted with 131I-tyramine-cellobiose-labeled LDL indicated that the liver was the only organ in which lac-Fab increased LDL uptake and degradation. The effect of lac-Fab was dose-dependent. With amounts of lac-Fab between 13 to 42 mg/kg body weight, the amount of hLDL cleared through the lac-Fab mechanism ranged from 30% to 70% of the initial pool. Analysis of the plasma lipoprotein subfractions revealed that high density lipoprotein levels were not affected. Histologic examination of liver sections after sequential injection of fluorescently labeled hLDL and lac-Fab indicated specific uptake in the hepatocytes when compared to control sections obtained from animals injected with Dil-LDL alone. The uptake of fluorescent LDL induced by lac-Fab was completely prevented by a co-injection of an excess of asialofetuin. We conclude that lac-Fab that is specific for LDL is a selective hypolipoproteinemic agent and a specific carrier to the hepatocytes.

  12. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  13. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta' , N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S [STMicroelectronics, Industial and Multi-segment Sector R and D, Catania (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10{sup 5}) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10{sup 1} Hz to 10{sup 6} Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl{sub 2}/Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  14. The Induction of Cytokine Release in Monocytes by Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL Is Related to Its Higher Ceramide Content than Native LDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ordoñez-Llanos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL(− is a minor modified LDL subfraction that is present in blood. LDL(− promotes inflammation and is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that the increase of cytokine release promoted by this lipoprotein subfraction in monocytes is counteracted by high-density lipoprotein (HDL. HDL also inhibits a phospholipase C-like activity (PLC-like intrinsic to LDL(−. The aim of this work was to assess whether the inhibition of the PLC-like activity by HDL could decrease the content of ceramide (CER and diacylglycerol (DAG generated in LDL(−. This knowledge would allow us to establish a relationship between these compounds and the inflammatory activity of LDL(−. LDL(− incubated at 37 °C for 20 h increased its PLC-like activity and, subsequently, the amount of CER and DAG. We found that incubating LDL(− with HDL decreased both products in LDL(−. Native LDL was modified by lipolysis with PLC or by incubation with CER-enriched or DAG-enriched liposomes. The increase of CER in native LDL significantly increased cytokine release, whereas the enrichment in DAG did not show these inflammatory properties. These data point to CER, a resultant product of the PLC-like activity, as a major determinant of the inflammatory activity induced by LDL(− in monocytes.

  15. The Induction of Cytokine Release in Monocytes by Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Is Related to Its Higher Ceramide Content than Native LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Montserrat; Sanchez-Quesada, Jose Luis; Beloki, Lorea; Ordoñez-Llanos, Jordi; Benitez, Sonia

    2013-01-28

    Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL(-)) is a minor modified LDL subfraction that is present in blood. LDL(-) promotes inflammation and is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that the increase of cytokine release promoted by this lipoprotein subfraction in monocytes is counteracted by high-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL also inhibits a phospholipase C-like activity (PLC-like) intrinsic to LDL(-). The aim of this work was to assess whether the inhibition of the PLC-like activity by HDL could decrease the content of ceramide (CER) and diacylglycerol (DAG) generated in LDL(-). This knowledge would allow us to establish a relationship between these compounds and the inflammatory activity of LDL(-). LDL(-) incubated at 37 °C for 20 h increased its PLC-like activity and, subsequently, the amount of CER and DAG. We found that incubating LDL(-) with HDL decreased both products in LDL(-). Native LDL was modified by lipolysis with PLC or by incubation with CER-enriched or DAG-enriched liposomes. The increase of CER in native LDL significantly increased cytokine release, whereas the enrichment in DAG did not show these inflammatory properties. These data point to CER, a resultant product of the PLC-like activity, as a major determinant of the inflammatory activity induced by LDL(-) in monocytes.

  16. The application of high density tape recording to image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, P.

    1976-01-01

    The Image Processing Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center has the requirement to move volumes of digital data (100 billion data bits per day) that exceed the capacity of conventional computer tape. This paper presents the requirements for a high-density digital tape recorder compatible with conventional computer systems. The steps leading to the formulation of these requirements are described. The use and interaction of the recorder with the various elements in the facility are treated. The formulation of the requirements resulted in the selection of a tape transport modified for digital serial-in, serial-out operation. This selection followed a competitive procurement action.

  17. High Density Thermal Energy Storage with Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Wirz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to storing thermal energy with supercritical fluids is being investigated, which if successful, promises to transform the way thermal energy is captured and utilized. The use of supercritical fluids allows cost-affordable high-density storage with a combination of latent heat and sensible heat in the two-phase as well as the supercritical state. This technology will enhance penetration of several thermal power generation applications and high temperature water for commercial use if the overall cost of the technology can be demonstrated to be lower than the current state-of-the-art molten salt using sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic mixtures.

  18. Viscosity and attenuation of sound wave in high density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1985-01-01

    The penetration of low frequency sound wave into the fuel deuterium is discussed as for laser fusion. The sound velocity and the attenuation constant due to viscosity are calculated for high density (n = 10 24 -- 10 27 cm -3 , T = 10 -1 -- 10 4 eV) deuterium. The shear viscosity of free electron gas and the bulk viscosity due to ion-ion interaction mainly contribute to the attenuation of sound wave. The sound wave of the frequency below 10 10 Hz can easily penetrate through the compressed fuel deuterium of diameter 1 -- 10 3 μm. (author)

  19. Biofuels Barrier Properties of Polyamide 6 and High Density Polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Fillot L.-A.; Ghiringhelli S.; Prebet C.; Rossi S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of the biofuels barrier properties of PolyAmide 6 (PA6) and High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) is presented. Model fuels were prepared as mixtures of toluene, isooctane and ethanol, the ethanol volume fraction varying between 0% and 100%. Barrier properties were determined at 40°C by gravimetric techniques or gas chromatography measurements, and it was shown that polyamide 6 permeability is lower than that of polyethylene on a wide range of ethanol contents up to 85%...

  20. Onion extract (Allium cepa L.), quercetin and catechin up-regulate paraoxonase 1 activity with concomitant protection against low-density lipoprotein oxidation in male Wistar rats subjected to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Nidhi; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) protects the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is a major anti-atherosclerotic protein component of high-density lipoprotein. We explored the effect of onion extract and flavonoids (quercetin and catechin) in the regulation of PON1 expression and correlating with oxidised LDL levels in male Wistar rats subjected to mercuric chloride (HgCl₂) induced oxidative insult. Rats were divided into eight groups: Control, Experimental (HgCl₂), Experimental + onion/catechin/quercetin, Positive control (Normal + onion/catechin/quercetin). Treatment continued for 4 weeks. PON1 activity and radical scavenging activity decreased in the Experimental group (P Onion extract significantly attenuated the adverse effects of HgCl₂ by up-regulating PON1 activity (P onion and also foods containing quercetin and catechins.

  1. Effect of Fish Oil on Serum Levels of Lipid Profile, Lipoprotein (a, Apolipoprotein A-1 and B, Fasting Sugar and Insulin, and InsulinResistance in the Elderly Residents of Kahrizak Charity Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fakhrzadeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on lipid profiles, lipoprotein (a, apolipoprotein A-1 and apolipoprotein B, fasting glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance in a group of Iranian elderly subjects. Methods & Materials: In this clinical trial, 124 elderly residents of the KahrizakCharity Foundation, aged 65 and older were divided into two intervention (consumption of 1 gram per day of fish oil and control (consumption of placebo groups. Blood sampling was done at the baseline and at the end of the study. Results: After 6 months, TG and apo A-1 increased significantly (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly in the control group (P=0.009. Overall and comparative effects of fish oil were positively significant (P=0.02. Conclusion: fish oil intake can be effective in reduction of serumtriglycerides in elderly.

  2. Neonatal hemodynamic response to visual cortex activity: high-density near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Steve M.; Gregg, Nick M.; White, Brian R.; Zeff, Benjamin W.; Bjerkaas, Katelin A.; Inder, Terrie E.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2010-03-01

    The neurodevelopmental outcome of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants is a major clinical concern with many infants displaying neurobehavioral deficits in childhood. Functional neuroimaging may provide early recognition of neural deficits in high-risk infants. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the advantage of providing functional neuroimaging in infants at the bedside. However, limitations in traditional NIRS have included contamination from superficial vascular dynamics in the scalp. Furthermore, controversy exists over the nature of normal vascular, responses in infants. To address these issues, we extend the use of novel high-density NIRS arrays with multiple source-detector distances and a superficial signal regression technique to infants. Evaluations of healthy term-born infants within the first three days of life are performed without sedation using a visual stimulus. We find that the regression technique significantly improves brain activation signal quality. Furthermore, in six out of eight infants, both oxy- and total hemoglobin increases while deoxyhemoglobin decreases, suggesting that, at term, the neurovascular coupling in the visual cortex is similar to that found in healthy adults. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using high-density NIRS arrays in infants to improve signal quality through superficial signal regression, and provide a foundation for further development of high-density NIRS as a clinical tool.

  3. The role of phospholipid transfer protein in lipoprotein-mediated neutralization of the procoagulant effect of anionic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslakovic, C; Jauhiainen, M; Ehnholm, C; Dahlbäck, B

    2010-04-01

    Serum has the ability to neutralize the procoagulant properties of anionic liposomes, with transfer of phospholipids (PLs) to both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) mediates transfer of PLs between HDL and other lipoproteins and conversion of HDL into larger and smaller particles. To examine the role of PLTP in the neutralization of procoagulant liposomes. Procoagulant liposomes were incubated with different lipoproteins in the presence or absence of PLTP, and then tested for their ability to stimulate thrombin formation. In the absence of added PLTP, the lipoprotein-enriched fraction, total HDL, HDL(3) and very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) were all able to neutralize the procoagulant properties of the liposomes. In these samples, endogenous PLTP was present, as judged by Western blotting. In contrast, no PLTP was present in LDL, HDL(2) and lipoprotein-deficient serum, all of which displayed no ability to neutralize the procoagulant liposomes. The phospholipid (PL) transfer activity was dependent on both enzyme (PLTP) and PL acceptor (lipoproteins). After treatment of the VHDL fraction with antiserum against PLTP, the neutralization of procoagulant activity was reduced, but could be regained by the addition of active PLTP. The neutralizing activity was dependent on a catalytically active form of PLTP, and addition of a low activity form of PLTP had no effect. In conclusion, PLTP was found to mediate transfer of anionic PLs to HDL and LDL, thereby neutralizing the effect of procoagulant liposomes, resulting in a reduction of procoagulant activity.

  4. Spirochetal Lipoproteins and Immune Evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulides, Alexei; Boyadjian, Ani; Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Spirochetes are a major threat to public health. However, the exact pathogenesis of spirochetal diseases remains unclear. Spirochetes express lipoproteins that often determine the cross talk between the host and spirochetes. Lipoproteins are pro-inflammatory, modulatory of immune responses, and enable the spirochetes to evade the immune system. In this article, we review the modulatory effects of spirochetal lipoproteins related to immune evasion. Understanding lipoprotein-induced immunomodulation will aid in elucidating innate pathogenesis processes and subsequent adaptive mechanisms potentially relevant to spirochetal disease vaccine development and treatment. PMID:28424696

  5. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  6. The impact of high-density barium use in double contrast radiographic methods for gastric cancer screening in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Shizuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Use of high-density barium (= or > 180 w/v%) has been widely spread in community-based mass screening for gastric cancer in Japan. However, the impact on outcomes of the screening has not been fully evaluated. Then, we investigated the advantage of high-density barium use by comparing the outcomes between a period with high-density barium and that with low-density barium (barium decreases the positive finding rate in initial mass screening x-ray examinations by 12% (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 - 0.90) and increase the gastric cancer detection rate by diagnostic examination by 15% (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.31). We conclude that introduction of high-density barium has improved the efficiency of mass screening for gastric cancer by decreasing unnecessary diagnostic examinations and reducing the total personal and public health costs. Thus, nationwide use of high-density barium is recommended for mass gastric cancer screening in Japan.

  7. Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Shafqat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.

  8. Loop formation of microtubules during gliding at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lynn; Ross, Jennifer L; Tuezel, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton, including the associated proteins, forms a complex network essential to multiple cellular processes. Microtubule-associated motor proteins, such as kinesin-1, travel on microtubules to transport membrane bound vesicles across the crowded cell. Other motors, such as cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-5, are used to organize the cytoskeleton during mitosis. In order to understand the self-organization processes of motors on microtubules, we performed filament-gliding assays with kinesin-1 motors bound to the cover glass with a high density of microtubules on the surface. To observe microtubule organization, 3% of the microtubules were fluorescently labeled to serve as tracers. We find that microtubules in these assays are not confined to two dimensions and can cross one other. This causes microtubules to align locally with a relatively short correlation length. At high density, this local alignment is enough to create 'intersections' of perpendicularly oriented groups of microtubules. These intersections create vortices that cause microtubules to form loops. We characterize the radius of curvature and time duration of the loops. These different behaviors give insight into how crowded conditions, such as those in the cell, might affect motor behavior and cytoskeleton organization.

  9. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Du

    Full Text Available Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  10. Manufacture of sintered bricks of high density from beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointud, R.; Rispal, Ch.; Le Garec, M.

    1959-01-01

    Beryllium oxide bricks of nuclear purity 100 x 100 x 50 and 100 x 100 x 100 mm of very high density (between 2.85 and 3.00) are manufactured by sintering under pressure in graphite moulds at temperatures between 1,750 and 1,850 deg. C, and under a pressure of 150 kg/cm 2 . The physico-chemical state of the saw material is of considerable importance with regard to the success of the sintering operation. In addition, a study of the sintering of a BeO mixture with 3 to 5 per cent of boron introduced in the form of boric acid, boron carbide or elementary boron shows that high densities can only be obtained by sintering under pressure. For technical reasons of manufacture, only the mixture based on boron carbide is used. The sintering is carried out in graphite moulds at 1500 deg. C under 150 kg/cm 2 pressure, and bricks can be obtained with density between 2,85 and 2,90. Laboratory studies and the industrial manufacture of various sinters are described in detail. (author) [fr

  11. Development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.; Totev, T.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities at Argonne National Laboratory have been involved in development of LEU dispersion fuel for research and test reactors from the beginning of RERTR program. This paper presents development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication for full size plate type fuel elements. A brief description of Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities where development of the technology was carried out is given. A flow diagram of the manufacturing process is presented. U-Mo powder was manufactured by the rotating electrode process. The atomization produced a U-Mo alloy powder with a relatively uniform size distribution and a nearly spherical shape. Test plates were fabricated using tungsten and depleted U-7 wt.% Mo alloy, 4043 Al and Al-2 wt% Si matrices with Al 6061 aluminum alloy for the cladding. During the development of the technology of manufacturing of full size high density LEU dispersion fuel plates special attention was paid to meet the required homogeneity, bonding, dimensions, fuel out of zone and other mechanical characteristics of the plates.

  12. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangang; Blanche, Timothy J; Harrison, Reid R; Lester, Henry A; Masmanidis, Sotiris C

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  13. The fibrate drug gemfibrozil disrupts lipoprotein metabolism in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prindiville, John S.; Mennigen, Jan A.; Zamora, Jake M.; Moon, Thomas W.; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Gemfibrozil (GEM) is a fibrate drug consistently found in effluents from sewage treatment plants. This study characterizes the pharmacological effects of GEM on the plasma lipoproteins of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Our goals were to quantify the impact of the drug on: 1) lipid constituents of lipoproteins (phospholipids (PL), triacylglycerol (TAG), and cholesterol), 2) lipoprotein classes (high, low and very low density lipoproteins), and 3) fatty acid composition of lipoproteins. Potential mechanisms of GEM action were investigated by measuring lipoprotein lipase activity (LPL) and the hepatic gene expression of LPL and of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β, and γ isoforms. GEM treatment resulted in decreased plasma lipoprotein levels (- 29%) and a reduced size of all lipoprotein classes (lower PL:TAG ratios). However, the increase in HDL-cholesterol elicited by GEM in humans failed to be observed in trout. Therefore, HDL-cholesterol cannot be used to assess the impact of the drug on fish. GEM also modified lipoprotein composition by reducing the abundance of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, thereby potentially reducing the nutritional quality of exposed fish. The relative gene expression of LPL was increased, but the activity of the enzyme was not, and we found no evidence for the activation of PPAR pathways. The depressing effects of GEM on fish lipoproteins demonstrated here may be a concern in view of the widespread presence of fibrates in aquatic environments. Work is needed to test whether exposure to environmental concentrations of these drugs jeopardizes the capacity of fish for reproduction, temperature acclimation or migratory behaviors.

  14. Disturbances of lipoprotein metabolism in metabolic syndro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Czyżewska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia in metabolic syndrome (MS, called the atherogenic triad, includes elevated levels of plasma triglycerides (TGs, low levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-CH, and the presence of small dense low-density lipoproteins (sdLDLs with normal or slightly elevated LDL-CH levels. Insulin resistance drives the increase in the three main sources of TG for VLDL synthesis: fatty-acid flux from adipose tissue, de novo lipogenesis, and uptake of remnant lipoproteins. Overproduction of VLDL, predominantly triglyceride-rich large VLDL1 particles, induces the cascade of events which lead to abnormalities of other plasma lipoproteins. The accumulation of VLDL in plasma and decreased activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL impair the catabolism of chylomicrons. Moreover, hyperinsulinemia induces increased intestinal production of chylomicrons. These factors cause augmented postprandial lipemia. Hepatic overproduction of VLDL leads to an increased level of VLDL remnants in plasma. Highly atherogenic sdLDLs are generated from VLDL1 particles by the action of LPL, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP, and hepatic lipase (HL. In the presence of hypertriglyceridemia, accelerated CETP-mediated lipid transfer generates TG-enriched HDL particles. This enhances HDL catabolism mediated by HL and endothelial lipase (EL. The assessment of risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in MS related to low HDL-CH and the presence of sdLDL particles may be improved by the incorporation of measurements of apolipoproteins (apo-B and apoA-I into clinical practice. In addition, the concentration of non-HDL-CH may be useful in quantifying apo-B-containing atherogenic lipoproteins.

  15. Use of 3H-colesterol and its kinetics to assess the dynamics of the cholesterol metabolism in human lipoprotein fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, K.D.; Marek, H.; Fieber, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of the dynamics of 3 H cholesterols in very low, low and high density lipoproteins, resp. lipoproteins after oral administration in normal subjects and in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia type II a and II b is described. Specific activity-time-curves of the lipoprotein fractions isolated by means of discontinuous ultracentrifugation were recorded. In order to optimize the centrifugation activity-electrophoresis-profiles of the separating steps were recorded. The fractions obtained were characterized by the determination of cholesterol, agarose electrophoresis and radioactivity measurement. The turnover of the tracer in the lipoproteins was determined on the basis of the maximum values of the specific activity-time-curves. Hyperlipoproteinemia patients showed time shifts of the maximum values especially with regard to esterized cholesterols and high density lipoprotein cholesterol as compared to healthy persons. (author)

  16. Thermal Stability and Rheological Behaviors of High-Density Polyethylene/Fullerene Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Liping; Song, Ping'an; Cao, Zhenhu; Fang, Zhengping; Guo, Zhenghong

    2012-01-01

    High-density polyethylene/fullerene (HDPE/C60) nanocomposites with the C60 loading that varied from 0.5 to 5.0% by weight were prepared via melt compounding. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the presence of C60 could remarkably enhance the thermal properties of HDPE. A very low C60 loading (0.5 wt%) increased the onset degradation temperature from 3 8 9 ∘ C to 4 5 9 ∘ C and decreased the heat release from 3176 J/g to 1490 J/g. Th...

  17. Reduced scattering-matrix algorithm for high-density plasmonic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchon, Patrick; Pardo, Fabrice; Haïdar, Riad; Vincent, Grégory; Pelouard, Jean-Luc

    2010-10-01

    We describe a method to compute S-matrix interface terms using a selection of eigenmodes. When solving the modal equation, the computation of left and right eigenvectors leads to rectangular eigenmodes matrices. Expressions of S-matrix interface terms are then expressed so as to allow for a significant reduction of the computation cost. The reduction is even further decreased in the case of the B-spline modal method, which deals with sparse matrices. Its convergence is illustrated on a high-density plasmonic structure and compared to a full modal method.

  18. Characterization of High Density Concrete by Ultrasonic Goniometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Noor Azreen Masenwat; Nasharuddin Isa; Mohamad Haniza Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of ultrasonic goniometer measurements on concrete containing hematite. Local hematite stones were used as aggregates to produce high density concrete for application in X-and gamma shielding. Concrete cube samples (150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm) containing hematite as coarse aggregates were prepared by changing mix ratio, water to cement ratio (w/ c) and types of fine aggregate. All samples were cured in water for 7 days. After 28 days of casting, the concrete cubes were then cut into small size of about 10 mm x 20 mm x 30 mm so that it can be fitted into goniometer specimen holder. From this measurement, longitudinal, shear and surface Rayleigh waves in the concrete can be determined. The measurement results are explained and discussed. (author)

  19. High-density percutaneous chronic connector for neural prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Bennett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2015-09-22

    A high density percutaneous chronic connector, having first and second connector structures each having an array of magnets surrounding a mounting cavity. A first electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the first connector structure and a second electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the second connector structure, with a feedthrough interconnect matrix positioned between a top side of the first electrical feedthrough array and a bottom side of the second electrical feedthrough array to electrically connect the first electrical feedthrough array to the second electrical feedthrough array. The two arrays of magnets are arranged to attract in a first angular position which connects the first and second connector structures together and electrically connects the percutaneously connected device to the external electronics, and to repel in a second angular position to facilitate removal of the second connector structure from the first connector structure.

  20. Method of producing high density silicon carbide product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method of sintering silicon carbide powders containing boron or boron - containing compounds as densification aids to produce a high-density silicon carbide ceramic material is described. It has been found that higher densification can be obtained by sintering the powders in an atmosphere containing boron. Boron may be introduced in the form of a gas, e.g. boron trichloride, mixed with the inert gas used, i.e. nitrogen, argon or helium, or boron compounds, e.g. boron carbide, may be applied to the interior of the sintering chamber as solutions or slurries. Alternatively a boron compound, per se, in the sintering chamber, or furnace components containing a significant amount of boron may be used. (U.K.)

  1. Radiation resistance testing of high-density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical tests following gamma inrradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to assess the adequacy of this material for use in high-integrity containers (HICs). These tests were motivated by experience in nuclear power plants in which polyethylene electrical insulation detoriorated more rapidly than expected due to radiation-induced oxidation. This suggested that HDPE HICs used for radwaste disposal might degrade more rapidly than would be expected in the absence of the radiation field. Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend testing on these materials following irradiation will be presented along with preliminary results on creep during irradiation

  2. Evaluation of the radiation resistance of high-density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.; Barletta, R.R.

    1984-03-01

    Mechanical tests following gamma irradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to provide data to help assess the adequacy of this material for use in high integrity containers (HICs). Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend tests on these materials following irradiation are presented along with results on creep during irradiation. 8 references, 9 figures, 2 tables

  3. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Moore, B.T.

    1988-12-01

    The behaviour of four high-density sintered tungsten alloys has been evluated and compared with that of pure tungsten. Rates of corrosion during the cyclic humidity and the salt mist tests were ascertained from weight loss measurements. Insight into the corrosion mechanism was gained from the nature of the corrosion products and an examination of the corroded surfaces. In the tests, the alloy 95% W, 2.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe was the most corrosion resistant. The data showed that copper as an alloying element accelerates corrosion of tungsten alloys. Both attack on the tungsten particles and the binder phase were observed together with tungsten grain loss. 6 refs., 3 tabs.,

  4. Neutron shielding properties of a borated high-density glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Aly Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron shielding properties of a borated high density glass system was characterized experimentally. The total removal macroscopic cross-section of fast neutrons, slow neutrons as well as the linear attenuation coefficient of total gamma rays, primary in addition to secondary, were measured experimentally under good geometric condition to characterize the attenuation properties of (75-x B2O3-1Li2O-5MgO-5ZnO-14Na2O-xBaO glassy system. Slabs of different thicknesses from the investigated glass system were exposed to a collimated beam of neutrons emitted from 252Cf and 241Am-Be neutron sources in order to measure the attenuation properties of fast and slow neutrons as well as total gamma rays. Results confirmed that barium borate glass was suitable for practical use in the field of radiation shielding.

  5. Scoping study. High density polyethylene (HDPE) in salstone service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2005-02-18

    An evaluation of the use of high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes in Saltstone service has been conducted due to the potential benefits that could be derived from such usage. HDPE is one of the simplest hydrocarbon polymers and one of the most common polymers utilized in the production of geomembranes, which means that its costs are relatively low. Additionally, HDPE geomembranes have an extremely low permeability and an extremely low water vapor diffusional flux, which means that it is a good barrier to contaminant transport. The primary consideration in association with HDPE geomembranes in Saltstone service is the potential impact of Saltstone on the degradation of the HDPE geomembranes. Therefore, the evaluation documented herein has primarily focused upon the potential HDPE degradation in Saltstone service.

  6. A distributed current stimulator ASIC for high density neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong Hoan Park; Chaebin Kim; Seung-Hee Ahn; Tae Mok Gwon; Joonsoo Jeong; Sang Beom Jun; Sung June Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed neural stimulator scheme. Instead of a single stimulator ASIC in the package, multiple ASICs are embedded at each electrode site for stimulation with a high density electrode array. This distributed architecture enables the simplification of wiring between electrodes and stimulator ASIC that otherwise could become too complex as the number of electrode increases. The individual ASIC chip is designed to have a shared data bus that independently controls multiple stimulating channels. Therefore, the number of metal lines is determined by the distributed ASICs, not by the channel number. The function of current steering is also implemented within each ASIC in order to increase the effective number of channels via pseudo channel stimulation. Therefore, the chip area can be used more efficiently. The designed chip was fabricated with area of 0.3 mm2 using 0.18 μm BCDMOS process, and the bench-top test was also conducted to validate chip performance.

  7. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  8. High-current discharge channel contraction in high density gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutberg, Ph. G.; Bogomaz, A. A.; Pinchuk, M. E.; Budin, A. V.; Leks, A. G.; Pozubenkov, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Research results for discharges at current amplitudes of 0.5-1.6 MA and current rise rate of ∼10 10 A/s are presented. The discharge is performed in the hydrogen environment at the initial pressure of 5-35 MPa. Initiation is implemented by a wire explosion. The time length of the first half-period of the discharge current is 70-150 μs. Under such conditions, discharge channel contraction is observed; the contraction is followed by soft x-ray radiation. The phenomena are discussed, which are determined by high density of the gas surrounding the discharge channel. These phenomena are increase of the current critical value, where the channel contraction begins and growth of temperature in the axis region of the channel, where the initial density of the gas increases.

  9. High Density Memory Based on Quantum Device Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWagt, Paul; Frazier, Gary; Tang, Hao

    1995-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of ultra-high density memory based on quantum devices. Starting from overall constraints on chip area, power consumption, access speed, and noise margin, we deduce boundaries on single cell parameters such as required operating voltage and standby current. Next, the possible role of quantum devices is examined. Since the most mature quantum device, the resonant tunneling diode (RTD) can easily be integrated vertically, it naturally leads to the issue of 3D integrated memory. We propose a novel method of addressing vertically integrated bistable two-terminal devices, such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) and Esaki diodes, that avoids individual physical contacts. The new concept has been demonstrated experimentally in memory cells of field effect transistors (FET's) and stacked RTD's.

  10. Measurements of uranium mass confined in high density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeffler, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An X-ray absorption method for measuring the amount of uranium confined in high density, rf-heated uranium plasmas is described. A comparison of measured absorption of 8 keV X-rays with absorption calculated using Beer Law indicated that the method could be used to measure uranium densities from 3 times 10 to the 16th power atoms/cu cm to 5 times 10 to the 18th power atoms/cu cm. Tests were conducted to measure the density of uranium in an rf-heated argon plasma with UF6 infection and with the power to maintain the discharge supplied by a 1.2 MW rf induction heater facility. The uranium density was measured as the flow rate through the test chamber was varied. A maximum uranium density of 3.85 times 10 to the 17th power atoms/cu cm was measured.

  11. The Pulsed High Density Experiment (PHDX) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slough, John P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Andreason, Samuel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-27

    The purpose of this paper is to present the conclusions that can be drawn from the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) formation experiments conducted on the Pulsed High Density experiment (PHD) at the University of Washington. The experiment is ongoing. The experimental goal for this first stage of PHD was to generate a stable, high flux (>10 mWb), high energy (>10 KJ) target FRC. Such results would be adequate as a starting point for several later experiments. This work focuses on experimental implementation and the results of the first four month run. Difficulties were encountered due to the initial on-axis plasma ionization source. Flux trapping with this ionization source acting alone was insufficient to accomplish experimental objectives. Additional ionization methods were utilized to overcome this difficulty. A more ideal plasma source layout is suggested and will be explored during a forthcoming work.

  12. Simulation of extrusion of high density polyethylene tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutelieris Antonios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of extruded polyethylene films rods, tubes and pipes is a typical industrial process that has been extensively investigated over many years. In this study the extrusion of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE tubes was simulated by using the 3D finite element simulation software StarCCM+®. The simulation was applied in order to examine the influence of design and operational parameters on the characteristics and the soundness of the tube and for optimizing the overall quality of the product. Two alternative die configurations were studied; one with a four inputs head and the other with an eight inputs head. From the results obtained it is concluded that extrusion with the eight inputs head die design results in better overall pipe quality; this design was implemented successfully in an industrial production line.

  13. Preparations of high density (Th,U)O2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Ikawa, Katsuichi

    1986-07-01

    Preparations of high density and homogeneous (Th,U)O 2 pellets by a powder metallurgy method were examined. (Th,U)O 2 powders were prepared by calcining coprecipitates of ammonium uranate and thorium hydroxide derived from nitrates and mixed sols, and by calcining mixed oxalates precipitated from nitrates. (Th,U)O 2 pellets were characterized with respect to sinterability, lattice parameter, microstructure, homogeneity and stoichiometry. Sintering atmospheres had a significant effect upon all the properties of the derived pellets. The sinterability of (Th,U)O 2 was most favourable in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres for ThO 2 -rich and UO 2 -rich compositions, respectively, and can be enhanced by presence of water vapour in sintering atmospheres. In addition, highly homogeneous (Th,U)O 2 pellets with 99 % in theoretical density were derived from the sol powders. (author)

  14. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.

    2016-01-07

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  15. The stability of the High-Density Z-Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Nebel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber-initiated High Density Z-Pinches at Los Alamos, NRL, and Karlsruhe have shown anomalously good stability. Kink modes are never seen, and sausage modes are at least delayed until late in the discharge. The success of these devices in reaching fusion conditions may depend on maintaining and understanding this anomalous stability. We have developed two numerical methods to study the stability in the regime where fluid theory is valid. While our methods are applicable to all modes, we will describe them only for the m = 0 sausage mode. The appearance of sausage modes late in the discharge and the total absence of kink modes suggest that an understanding of sausage modes is more urgent, and it is also simpler. 14 refs., 8 figs

  16. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A [Albuquerque, NM; Davis, Donald W [Albuquerque, NM; Chavez, Bart D [Albuquerque, NM; Gallegos, Phillip L [Albuquerque, NM; Wicker, Ryan B [El Paso, TX; Medina, Francisco R [El Paso, TX

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  17. Sound waves and shock waves in high-density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of compressing the cryogenic hollow pellet of inertial confinement nuclear fusion with multiple adiabatic shock waves is discussed, on the basis of the estimation of the properties of a high-density deuterium plasma (10 24 -10 27 cm -3 , 10 -1 -10 4 eV), such as the velocity and the attenuation constant of the adiabatic sound wave, the width of the shock wave, and the surface tension. It is found that in the course of compression the wavelength of the adiabatic sound wave and the width of the weak shock wave sometimes become comparable to or exceed the fuel shell width of the pellet, and that the surface tension is negative. These results show that it is rather difficult to compress stably the hollow pellet with successive weak shock waves. (author)

  18. Lipophilic antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipoprotein classes: distribution and interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, V.H.; Weber, Christine; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    (nine women, nine men), mean age 26 +/- 3 y, recruited among the university students; no dropouts. Interventions: Three supplementation periods of 10 days: 100 m/day CoQ(10), 350 mg/day D-alpha -tocopherol, and 2g/day concentrated fish oil. Fasting venous blood samples were collected twice before...... the first period and then after each period. Plasma and isolated lipoproteins were analysed for cholesterol, triacylglycerol, alpha- and gamma -tocopherol, CoQ(10), and fatty acid composition. Results: Significant (P tocopherol occurred in all lipoprotein classes after...... supplementation. CoQ(10) was primarily incorporated into low-density lipoprotein (LDL). alpha -tocopherol and fish oil n-3 PUFAs had similar patterns. They were equally distributed between LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), with a smaller part in VLDL. The total sum of PUFA was unchanged following all...

  19. The glass transition in high-density amorphous ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerting, Thomas; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Handle, Philip H; Seidl, Markus; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Gainaru, Catalin; Böhmer, Roland

    2015-01-01

    There has been a long controversy regarding the glass transition in low-density amorphous ice (LDA). The central question is whether or not it transforms to an ultraviscous liquid state above 136 K at ambient pressure prior to crystallization. Currently, the most widespread interpretation of the experimental findings is in terms of a transformation to a superstrong liquid above 136 K. In the last decade some work has also been devoted to the study of the glass transition in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) which is in the focus of the present review. At ambient pressure HDA is metastable against both ice I and LDA, whereas at > 0.2 GPa HDA is no longer metastable against LDA, but merely against high-pressure forms of crystalline ice. The first experimental observation interpreted as the glass transition of HDA was made using in situ methods by Mishima, who reported a glass transition temperature T g of 160 K at 0.40 GPa. Soon thereafter Andersson and Inaba reported a much lower glass transition temperature of 122 K at 1.0 GPa. Based on the pressure dependence of HDA's T g measured in Innsbruck, we suggest that they were in fact probing the distinct glass transition of very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA). Very recently the glass transition in HDA was also observed at ambient pressure at 116 K. That is, LDA and HDA show two distinct glass transitions, clearly separated by about 20 K at ambient pressure. In summary, this suggests that three glass transition lines can be defined in the p-T plane for LDA, HDA, and VHDA.

  20. Enabling Airspace Integration for High Density Urban Air Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric Richard

    2017-01-01

    Aviation technologies and concepts have reached a level of maturity that may soon enable an era of on-demand mobility (ODM) fueled by quiet, efficient, and largely automated air taxis. However, successfully bringing such a system to fruition will require introducing orders of magnitude more aircraft to a given airspace volume than can be accommodated by the traditional air traffic control system, among other important technical challenges. The airspace integration problem is further compounded by requirements to set aside appropriate ground infrastructure for take-off and landing areas and ensuring these new aircraft types and their operations do not burden traditional airspace users and air traffic control. These challenge for ODM may be significantly reduced by extending the concepts and technologies developed to manage small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) at low altitude the UAS traffic management (UTM) system to higher altitudes and aircraft with humans onboard in controlled airspace, or by equipping ODM aircraft with advanced sensors, algorithms, and interfaces. The precedent of operational freedom inherent in visual flight rules and the technologies developed for large UAS and commercial aircraft automation will contribute to the evolution of an ODM system enabled by UTM. This paper describes the set of air traffic services, normally provided by the traditional air traffic system, that an ODM system would implement to achieve the high densities needed for ODMs economic viability. Finally, the paper proposes a framework for integrating, evaluating, and deploying low-, medium-, and high-density ODM concepts that build on each other to ensure operational and economic feasibility at every step.

  1. Genetics of non-conventional lipoprotein fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoprotein subclass measures associate with cardiometabolic disease risk. Currently the information that lipoproteins convey on disease risk over that of traditional demographic and lipid measures is minimal, and so their use is clinics is limited. However, lipoprotein subclass perturbations repres...

  2. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Michael

    2012-06-06

    AbstractBackgroundMany of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects.MethodsUsing a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i) an inactive control trial (CON), ii) exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF), and iii) after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL).ResultsThe intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG) determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large) particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium) particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm) was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state.ConclusionsThese findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in LPL activity.

  3. Metabolic factors clustering, lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein E phenotypes in premature coronary artery disease in French Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; McNicoll, S; Marcil, M; Connelly, P; Lussier-Cacan, S; Davignon, J; Latour, Y; Genest, J

    1997-03-01

    Plasma lipoprotein cholesterol abnormalities, diabetes, hypertension and smoking have all been identified as independent predictors of cardiovascular events. Clustering of multiple risk factors suggests a common metabolic link among high blood pressure, insulin resistance, plasma lipoprotein abnormalities and obesity. New guidelines for the management of dyslipidemias target patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD), and high risk patients with multiple risk factors and severe genetic lipoprotein disorders, such as familial hypercholesterolemia. To determine the prevalence of lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and metabolic disorders in premature CAD, 243 men and 61 women with premature CAD (occurring before age 60 years) and 203 age- and sex-matched controls (152 men, 61 women) were studied. After correcting for beta-blocker use (40% of men and 54% of women), hypertension and diabetes were seen more frequently in CAD patients than in controls. In men and women, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) were significantly higher, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was lower, in CAD patients than in controls. By stratifying patients according to LDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratio (5 or less, or greater than 5) and by triglyceride levels (less than 2.3 mmol/L, or 2.3 mmol/L or greater), significantly more men and women with CAD were found to have an elevated LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio and elevated triglycerides (13.8% versus 1.9%, men and women combined, CAD versus controls, P women versus 11.7% in controls (P women, low HDL cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), the presence of diabetes, smoking and apolipoprotein B levels were all predictors of risk (P < 0.05). However, the clustering of risk factors may be the best predictor of risk. In this selected population, HDL and lipoprotein (a) are the best metabolic markers of premature CAD; metabolic factor clustering is common in

  4. Hypervariable region 1 deletion and required adaptive envelope mutations confer decreased dependency on scavenger receptor class B type I and low-density lipoprotein receptor for hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Serre, Stéphanie B N; Ramirez, Santseharay

    2014-01-01

    Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of envelope protein 2 (E2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) serves important yet undefined roles in the viral life cycle. We previously showed that the viability of HVR1-deleted JFH1-based recombinants with Core-NS2 of H77 (H77(ΔHVR1), genotype 1a) and S52 (S52(ΔHVR1......), genotype 3a) in Huh7.5 cells was rescued by E2 substitutions N476D/S733F and an E1 substitution, A369V, respectively; HVR1-deleted J6 (J6(ΔHVR1), genotype 2a) was fully viable. In single-cycle production assays, where HCV RNA was transfected into entry-deficient Huh7-derived S29 cells with low CD81...... expression, we found no effect of HVR1 deletion on replication or particle release for H77 and S52. HCV pseudoparticle assays in Huh7.5 cells showed that HVR1 deletion decreased entry by 20- to 100-fold for H77, J6, and S52; N476D/S733F restored entry for H77(ΔHVR1), while A369V further impaired S52(ΔHVR1...

  5. Hemostasis and Lipoprotein Indices Signify Exacerbated Lung Injury in TB With Diabetes Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhengwei; Shi, Jingyun; Dorhoi, Anca; Zhang, Jie; Soodeen-Lalloo, Adiilah K; Tan, WenLing; Yin, Hongyun; Sha, Wei; Li, Weitong; Zheng, Ruijuan; Liu, Zhonghua; Yang, Hua; Qin, Lianhua; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaochen; Wu, Chunyan; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Feng, Yonghong

    2017-12-07

    Exacerbated immunopathology is a frequent consequence of TB that is complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM); however, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined. In the two groups of age- and sex-matched patients with TB and DM (DM-TB) and with TB and without DM, we microscopically evaluated the areas of caseous necrosis and graded the extent of perinecrotic fibrosis in lung biopsies from the sputum smear-negative (SN) patients. We scored acid-fast bacilli in sputum smear-positive (SP) patients and compiled CT scan data from both the SN and SP patients. We compared inflammatory biomarkers and routine hematologic and biochemical parameters. Binary logistic regression analyses were applied to define the indices associated with the extent of lung injury. Enlarged caseous necrotic areas with exacerbated fibrotic encapsulations were found in SN patients with DM-TB, consistent with the higher ratio of thick-walled cavities and more bacilli in the sputum from SP patients with DM-TB. Larger necrotic foci were detected in men compared with women within the SN TB groups. Significantly higher fibrinogen and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were observed in SN patients with DM-TB. Regression analyses revealed that diabetes, activation of the coagulation pathway (shown by increased platelet distribution width, decreased mean platelet volume, and shortened prothrombin time), and dyslipidemia (shown by decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C, and apolipoprotein A) are risk factors for severe lung lesions in both SN and SP patients with TB. Hemostasis and dyslipidemia are associated with granuloma necrosis and fibroplasia leading to exacerbated lung damage in TB, especially in patients with DM-TB. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Wake High-Density Electroencephalographic Spatiospectral Signatures of Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michele A.; Ramautar, Jennifer R.; Wei, Yishul; Gomez-Herrero, Germán; Stoffers, Diederick; Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Cajochen, Christian; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although daytime complaints are a defining characteristic of insomnia, most EEG studies evaluated sleep only. We used high-density electroencephalography to investigate wake resting state oscillations characteristic of insomnia disorder (ID) at a fine-grained spatiospectral resolution. Methods: A case-control assessment during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) was performed in a laboratory for human physiology. Participants (n = 94, 74 female, 21–70 y) were recruited through www.sleepregistry.nl: 51 with ID, according to DSM-5 and 43 matched controls. Exclusion criteria were any somatic, neurological or psychiatric condition. Group differences in the spectral power topographies across multiple frequencies (1.5 to 40 Hz) were evaluated using permutation-based inference with Threshold-Free Cluster-Enhancement, to correct for multiple comparisons. Results: As compared to controls, participants with ID showed less power in a narrow upper alpha band (11–12.7 Hz, peak: 11.7 Hz) over bilateral frontal and left temporal regions during EO, and more power in a broad beta frequency range (16.3–40 Hz, peak: 19 Hz) globally during EC. Source estimates suggested global rather than cortically localized group differences. Conclusions: The widespread high power in a broad beta band reported previously during sleep in insomnia is present as well during eyes closed wakefulness, suggestive of a round-the-clock hyperarousal. Low power in the upper alpha band during eyes open is consistent with low cortical inhibition and attentional filtering. The fine-grained HD-EEG findings suggest that, while more feasible than PSG, wake EEG of short duration with a few well-chosen electrodes and frequency bands, can provide valuable features of insomnia. Citation: Colombo MA, Ramautar JR, Wei Y, Gomez-Herrero G, Stoffers D, Wassing R, Benjamins JS, Tagliazucchi E, van der Werf YD, Cajochen C, Van Someren EJW. Wake high-density electroencephalographic spatiospectral

  7. High-density force myography: A possible alternative for upper-limb prosthetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmand, Ashkan; Scheme, Erik; Englehart, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Several multiple degree-of-freedom upper-limb prostheses that have the promise of highly dexterous control have recently been developed. Inadequate controllability, however, has limited adoption of these devices. Introducing more robust control methods will likely result in higher acceptance rates. This work investigates the suitability of using high-density force myography (HD-FMG) for prosthetic control. HD-FMG uses a high-density array of pressure sensors to detect changes in the pressure patterns between the residual limb and socket caused by the contraction of the forearm muscles. In this work, HD-FMG outperforms the standard electromyography (EMG)-based system in detecting different wrist and hand gestures. With the arm in a fixed, static position, eight hand and wrist motions were classified with 0.33% error using the HD-FMG technique. Comparatively, classification errors in the range of 2.2%-11.3% have been reported in the literature for multichannel EMG-based approaches. As with EMG, position variation in HD-FMG can introduce classification error, but incorporating position variation into the training protocol reduces this effect. Channel reduction was also applied to the HD-FMG technique to decrease the dimensionality of the problem as well as the size of the sensorized area. We found that with informed, symmetric channel reduction, classification error could be decreased to 0.02%.

  8. Characterization of blood lipoproteins and validation of cholesterol and triacylglycerol assays for free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, John P; Frank, Nicholas; Greller, Katie A; Harlow, Henry J; Ben-David, Merav

    2013-05-01

    Blood triacylglycerol (TG) and lipoproteins are important variables for evaluating nutritional status of wildlife, but measurements are often expensive and difficult. Performance of a small, portable blood analyzer intended for human medical diagnostics was evaluated in measuring these variables in plasma and serum from free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus), which are experiencing nutritional stress related to sea ice loss. The analyzer accurately tracked changes in concentration of total cholesterol (Ctotal), cholesterol associated with high-density lipoprotein (CHDL), and TG during a validation protocol of diluting samples and spiking them with exogenous cholesterol and glycerol. Values of Ctotal and TG agreed well with values obtained by other methods (ultracentrifugation followed by colorimetric assays); agreement was variable for values of cholesterol associated with specific lipoproteins. Similar to a study of captive polar bears, ultracentrifugation methods revealed greater TG in very low-density lipoproteins than in low-density lipoprotein, which is unusual and merits additional study.

  9. Membrane receptors for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, P.I.; Beck, G.; Zucker, S.

    1981-01-01

    Physiologic concentrations of human plasma very low density lipoproteins inhibit the DNA synthesis of lymphocytes stimulated by allogeneic cells or lectins. In this report reachers have compared the effects of isolated lipoproteins [very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL)] and lipoprotein-depleted plasma (LDP) on DNA synthesis by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes. The relative potency for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation was VLDL greater than LDL greater than HDL greater than LDP. Fifty percent inhibition of DNA synthesis was observed at a VLDL protein concentration of 1.5--2.0 microgram/ml. Researchers have further demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for VLDL on human lymphocytes. Native VLDL was more effective than LDL in competing for 125I-VLDL binding sites. Subsequent to binding to lymphocytes, 125I-VLDL was internalized and degraded to acid-soluble products. Based on a Scatchard analysis of VLDL binding at 4 degrees C, the number of VLDL receptors per lymphocyte was estimated at 28,000 +/- 1300. Based on an estimated mean binding affinity for the VLDL receptor complex at half saturation of approximately 8.8 X 10(7) liter/mole, it is estimated that 91% of lymphocyte VLDL receptors are occupied at physiologic VLDL concentrations in blood. Although the immune regulatory role of plasma lipoproteins is uncertain, researchers suggest tha VLDL and LDL-In may maintain circulating blood lymphocytes in a nonproliferative state via their respective cell receptor mechanisms

  10. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) status and SFA intake exhibit different relations with serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol : a mechanistic explanation centered around lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Nunez, Begona; Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; De Graaf, Deti J.; Breeuwsma, Benjamin B.; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    We investigated the relations between fatty acid status and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio in five Tanzanian ethnic groups and one Dutch group. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol

  11. Comparison of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet and a higher-fat DASH diet on blood pressure and lipids and lipoproteins: a randomized controlled trial123

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Sally; Bergeron, Nathalie; Williams, Paul T; Bray, George A; Sutherland, Barbara; Krauss, Ronald M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) dietary pattern, which is high in fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods, significantly lowers blood pressure as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.

  12. High density operation on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Gao

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the operation region has been studied in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak, and progress on the extension of the HT-7 ohmic discharge operation region is reported. A density corresponding to 1.2 times the Greenwald limit was achieved by RF boronization. The density limit appears to be connected to the impurity content and the edge parameters, so the best results are obtained with very clean plasmas and peaked electron density profiles. The peaking factors of electron density profiles for different current and line averaged densities were observed. The density behaviour and the fuelling efficiency for gas puffing (20-30%), pellet injection (70-80%) and molecular beam injection (40-50%) were studied. The core crash sawteeth and MHD behaviour, which were induced by an injected pellet, were observed and the events correlated with the change of current profile and reversed magnetic shear. The MARFE phenomena on HT-7 are summarized. The best correlation has been found between the total input ohmic power and the product of the edge line averaged density and Z eff . HT-7 could be easily operated in the high density region MARFE-free using RF boronization. (author)

  13. Measurements of uranium mass confined in high density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeffler, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    An x-ray absorption method for measuring the amount of uranium confined in high-density, rf-heated uranium plasmas is described. Preliminary tests were conducted to calibrate the measurement system using argon, uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), and mixtures of argon and UF 6 at room temperature. A comparison of measured absorption of 8 keV x-rays with absorption calculated using Beer's Law indicated the method could be used to measure uranium densities from 3 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 to 3 x 10 18 atoms/cm 3 . Tests were conducted to measure the density of uranium in an rf-heated argon plasma with UF 6 injection and with the power to maintain the discharge supplied by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) 1.2-MW rf induction heater facility. The uranium density was measured as the UF 6 flow rate through the test chamber was varied. A maximum uranium density of 3.85 x 10 17 atoms/cm 3 was measured

  14. Silicon micromachining using a high-density plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, S.A.; Ashraf, H.; Atabo, L.; Chambers, A.; Hall, S.; Hopkins, J.; Nicholls, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dry etching of Si is critical in satisfying the demands of the micromachining industry. The micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) community requires etches capable of high aspect ratios, vertical profiles, good feature size control and etch uniformity along with high throughput to satisfy production requirements. Surface technology systems' (STS's) high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch tool enables a wide range of applications to be realized whilst optimizing the above parameters. Components manufactured from Si using an STS ICP include accelerometers and gyroscopes for military, automotive and domestic applications. STS's advanced silicon etch (ASE TM ) has also allowed the first generation of MEMS-based optical switches and attenuators to reach the marketplace. In addition, a specialized application for fabricating the next generation photolithography exposure masks has been optimized for 200 mm diameter wafers, to depths of ∼750 μm. Where the profile is not critical, etch rates of greater than 8 μm min -1 have been realized to replace previous methods such as wet etching. This is also the case for printer applications. Specialized applications that require etching down to pyrex or oxide often result in the loss of feature size control at the interface; this is an industry wide problem. STS have developed a technique to address this. The rapid progression of the industry has led to development of the STS ICP etch tool, as well as the process. (author)

  15. High-density housing that works for all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Arif

    2010-03-15

    In an urbanising world, the way people fit into cities is vastly important - socially, economically, environmentally, even psychologically. So density, or the number of people living in a given area, is central to urban design and planning. Both governments and markets tend to get density wrong, leading to overcrowding, urban sprawl or often both. A case in point are the high-rise buildings springing up throughtout urban Asia - perceived as key features of that widely touted concept, the 'world-class city'. While some may offer a viable solution to land pressures and density requirements, many built to house evicted or resettled 'slum' dwellers are a social and economic nightmare - inconveniently sited, overcrowded and costly. New evidence from Karachi, Pakistan, reveals a real alternative. Poor people can create liveable high-density settlements as long as community control, the right technical assistance and flexible designs are in place. A city is surely 'world-class' only when it is cosmopolitan – built to serve all, including the poorest.

  16. High-Density Quantum Sensing with Dissipative First Order Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Weimer, Hendrik

    2018-04-01

    The sensing of external fields using quantum systems is a prime example of an emergent quantum technology. Generically, the sensitivity of a quantum sensor consisting of N independent particles is proportional to √{N }. However, interactions invariably occurring at high densities lead to a breakdown of the assumption of independence between the particles, posing a severe challenge for quantum sensors operating at the nanoscale. Here, we show that interactions in quantum sensors can be transformed from a nuisance into an advantage when strong interactions trigger a dissipative phase transition in an open quantum system. We demonstrate this behavior by analyzing dissipative quantum sensors based upon nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamond. Using both a variational method and a numerical simulation of the master equation describing the open quantum many-body system, we establish the existence of a dissipative first order transition that can be used for quantum sensing. We investigate the properties of this phase transition for two- and three-dimensional setups, demonstrating that the transition can be observed using current experimental technology. Finally, we show that quantum sensors based on dissipative phase transitions are particularly robust against imperfections such as disorder or decoherence, with the sensitivity of the sensor not being limited by the T2 coherence time of the device. Our results can readily be applied to other applications in quantum sensing and quantum metrology where interactions are currently a limiting factor.

  17. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Bombaci, S.A.; Garrard, W.N.C.; Moore, B.T.; Smith, B.S.

    1988-12-01

    The corrosion behaviour of tungsten and high-density tungsten alloys (W ≥ 90 weight %) has been examined electrochemically through anodic polarization measurements, instantaneous corrosion rate measurements, galvanic coupling, and surface potential mapping. In the anodic polarization tests, pure tungsten and the four alloys studied underwent transitions from an active state to a state where any further increase in potential produced no further increase in current. The presence of chloride ions increased corrosion rates. Predictions of likely trends in corrosion rates from the above electrochemical tests were not in complete agreement with those obtained by the long-term immersion tests. Similarly, a consistent prediction of the likely nature of the corrosion products that would result from long-term immersion testing was not obtained from the above studies. Predictions about which alloys would be susceptible to a crevice effect were in agreement with the immersion testing results, namely those alloys not containing Cu would be the most susceptible. Some insight into the nature of the corrosion mechanism is afforded by the work on galvanic coupling and surface potential mapping. This supported the view that galvanic corrosion plays a part in the corrosion process. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 19 figs

  18. High density scalp EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Britton, Jeffrey W; Van Gompel, Jamie; Lagerlund, Terrance L; So, Elson; Wong-Kisiel, Lilly C; Cascino, Gregory C; Brinkman, Benjamin H; Nelson, Cindy L; Watson, Robert; Worrell, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Localization of seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy using the 10-20 system scalp EEG is often challenging because neocortical seizure can spread rapidly, significant muscle artifact, and the suboptimal spatial resolution for seizure generators involving mesial frontal lobe cortex. Our aim in this study was to determine the value of visual interpretation of 76 channel high density EEG (hdEEG) monitoring (10-10 system) in patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy, and to evaluate concordance with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional EEG, and intracranial EEG (iEEG). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 14 consecutive patients who underwent hdEEG monitoring for suspected frontal lobe seizures. The gold standard for localization was considered to be iEEG. Concordance of hdEEG findings with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional 10-20 EEG, and iEEG as well as correlation of hdEEG localization with surgical outcome were examined. hdEEG localization was concordant with iEEG in 12/14 and was superior to conventional EEG 3/14 (pfrontal epilepsy requiring localization of epileptogenic brain. hdEEG may assist in developing a hypothesis for iEEG monitoring and could potentially augment EEG source localization. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The physics of the high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Hammel, J.E.; Lewis, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    The fiber-initiated High-Density Z-Pinch (HDZP) is a novel concept in which fusion plasma could be produced by applying 2 MV along a thin filament of frozen deuterium, 20-30 μm in diameter, 5-10 cm long. The megamp-range currents that result would ohmically heat the fiber to fusion temperatures in 100 ns while maintaining nearly constant radius. The plasma pressure would be held stably by the self-magnetic field for many radial sound transit times during the current-rise phase while, in the case of D-T, a significant fraction of the fiber undergoes thermonuclear fusion. This paper presents results of Los Alamos HDZP studies. Existing and new experiments are described. A succession of theoretical studies, including 1D self-similar and numerical studies of the hot plasma phase, 1D and 2D numerical studies of the cold startup phase, and 3D numerical studies of stability in the hot regime, are then presented. 9 refs., 4 figs

  20. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  1. Performance of ultra-high-density microelectrode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, D.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.gunning@physics.gla.ac.uk; Chichilnisky, E.J. [Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037 6099 (United States); Litke, A.M. [Santa Cruz Institute forParticle Physics, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O' Shea, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Smith, K.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Mathieson, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-11

    Imaging the electrical output activity of biological cells is important to gain an understanding of how cell networks process information. This has implications for the understanding of brain processing, such as that performed by the retina in encoding the visual scene. The performance and electrical quality of a state-of-the-art high-density 519-microelectrode array, that recorded simultaneously from hundreds of live retinal output cells (ganglion cells) is reported on. The fabrication process for these devices has been optimised and their electrical characteristics examined. The electrode arrays typically exhibit an impedance of {approx}200 k{omega} at 1 kHz and the RMS noise of the whole recording system is 7 {mu}V with a signal to noise ratio of 20:1. With a view to direct stimulation of retinal ganglion cells, a low impedance Z=300 k{omega} iridium oxide interface capable of delivering large currents Q {sub cap}=4 mC/cm{sup 2} to cells was also developed.

  2. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 \\upmu m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detector wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered aluminum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97 %.

  3. Irradiation testing of high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Trybus, C.L.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles have been designed, fabricated, and inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Irradiation of these experiments began in August 1997. These irradiation tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density dispersion fuels. Each of the two irradiation vehicles contains 32 'microplates'. Each microplate is aluminum clad, having an aluminum matrix phase and containing one of the following compositions as the fuel phase: U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru, U10Mo-0.05Sn, U2Mo, or U 3 Si 2 . These experiments will be discharged at peak fuel burnups of approximately 40 and 80 at.% U 235 . Of particular interest are the extent of reaction of the fuel and matrix phases and the fission gas retention/swelling characteristics of these new fuel alloys. This paper presents the design of the irradiation vehicles and the irradiation conditions. (author)

  4. LTCC magnetic components for high density power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebourgeois, Richard; Labouré, Eric; Lembeye, Yves; Ferrieux, Jean-Paul

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with multilayer magnetic components for power electronics application and specifically for high frequency switching. New formulations based on nickel-zinc-copper spinel ferrites were developed for high power and high frequency applications. These ferrites can be sintered at low temperature (around 900°C) which makes them compatible with the LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) technology. Metallic parts of silver or gold can be fully integrated inside the ferrite while guaranteeing the integrity of both the ferrite and the metal. To make inductors or transformers with the required properties, it is mandatory to have nonmagnetic parts between the turns of the winding. Then it is essential to find a dielectric material, which can be co-sintered both with the ferrite and the metal. We will present the solution we found to this problem and we will describe the results we obtained for a multilayer co-sintered transformer. We will see that these new components have good performance compared with the state of the art and are very promising for developing high density switching mode power supplies.

  5. Using NEG-pumping near a high density internal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Alexander; Marton, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard; Zmeskal, Johann [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer Subatomare Physik, OeAW (Germany); Orth, Herbert [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The universal detector PANDA will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). It will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. To ensure low background, the residual gas load in the interaction zone and in the antiproton beam-pipe has to be minimised. Most of the gas load will come from the high density internal hydrogen target. As the detector will cover almost the full solid angle, the installation of pumps near the interaction zone is impossible. Therefore the use of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes has been considered as an alternative. Two setups with NEG coated tubes have been installed at SMI as prototypes of the PANDA interaction zone. General parameters of the NEG-film, its outgassing behaviour, the pumping speed and the pumping capacity for hydrogen have been tested. The results of the studies on the PANDA-interaction region are presented.

  6. High-density polyethylene dosimetry by transvinylene FTIR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Silverman, J.; Al-Sheikhly, M.

    1999-01-01

    and electrons. The useful dose range of 0.053 cm thick high-density polyethylene film (rho = 0.961 g cm(-3); melt index = 0.8 dg min(-1)), for irradiations by (60)Co gamma radiation and 2.0 and 0.4 MeV electron beams in deaerated atmosphere (Na gas), is about 50-10(3) kGy for FTIR transvinylene......The formation of transvinylene unsaturation, -CH=CH-, due to free-radical or cationic-initiated dehydrogenation by irradiation, is a basic reaction in polyethylene and is useful for dosimetry at high absorbed doses. The radiation-enhanced infrared absorption having a maximum at nu = 965 cm......(-l) (lambda = 10.36 mu m) is stable in air and can be measured by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The quantitative analysis is a useful means of product end-point dosimetry for radiation processing with gamma rays and electrons, where polyethylene is a component of the processed product...

  7. Properties of recycled high density polyethylene and coffee dregs composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Piedade Cestari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE-R and coffee dregs (COFD were elaborated. The blends were made at the proportions of 100-0, 90-10, 80-20, 70-30, 60-40, 50-50 and 40-60% polymer-filler ratio. The materials were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TGA, and compressive resistance test. The compounding was done using a two-stage co-kneader system extruder, and then cylindrical specimens were injection molded. All composites had a fine dispersion of the COFD into the polymeric matrix. The composites degraded in two steps. The first one was in a temperature lower than the neat HDPE, but higher than the average processing temperature of the polymer. The melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of the composites resulted similar to the neat HDPE ones. The compressive moduli of the composites resulted similar to the neat polymer one. The results show that these composites have interesting properties as a building material.

  8. Performance of ultra-high-density microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, D. E.; Chichilnisky, E. J.; Litke, A. M.; O'Shea, V.; Smith, K. M.; Mathieson, K.

    2007-06-01

    Imaging the electrical output activity of biological cells is important to gain an understanding of how cell networks process information. This has implications for the understanding of brain processing, such as that performed by the retina in encoding the visual scene. The performance and electrical quality of a state-of-the-art high-density 519-microelectrode array, that recorded simultaneously from hundreds of live retinal output cells (ganglion cells) is reported on. The fabrication process for these devices has been optimised and their electrical characteristics examined. The electrode arrays typically exhibit an impedance of ˜200 kΩ at 1 kHz and the RMS noise of the whole recording system is 7 μV with a signal to noise ratio of 20:1. With a view to direct stimulation of retinal ganglion cells, a low impedance Z=300 kΩ iridium oxide interface capable of delivering large currents Qcap=4 mC/cm 2 to cells was also developed.

  9. High-Density Stretchable Electrode Grids for Chronic Neural Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Khodagholy, Dion; Dielacher, Bernd; Stauffer, Flurin; Renz, Aline F; Buzsáki, György; Vörös, János

    2018-02-28

    Electrical interfacing with neural tissue is key to advancing diagnosis and therapies for neurological disorders, as well as providing detailed information about neural signals. A challenge for creating long-term stable interfaces between electronics and neural tissue is the huge mechanical mismatch between the systems. So far, materials and fabrication processes have restricted the development of soft electrode grids able to combine high performance, long-term stability, and high electrode density, aspects all essential for neural interfacing. Here, this challenge is addressed by developing a soft, high-density, stretchable electrode grid based on an inert, high-performance composite material comprising gold-coated titanium dioxide nanowires embedded in a silicone matrix. The developed grid can resolve high spatiotemporal neural signals from the surface of the cortex in freely moving rats with stable neural recording quality and preserved electrode signal coherence during 3 months of implantation. Due to its flexible and stretchable nature, it is possible to minimize the size of the craniotomy required for placement, further reducing the level of invasiveness. The material and device technology presented herein have potential for a wide range of emerging biomedical applications. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Inelastic neutron scattering from high-density fcc 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.; Eckert, J.; Shirane, G.

    1978-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations in high-density crystals of fcc 4 He have been measured along high-symmetry directions by the neutron-inelastic-scattering technique. A recent study of the lattice dynamics of fcc 4 He by Eckert et al. has been extended to cover the fcc phase diagram at pressures below 5 kbar. Molar volumes of 9.03, 9.43, and 9.97 cm 3 /mole have been studied in the temperature range from near the melting curve to near the fcc-hcp transition line. The phonon dispersion relations are in good agreement with a first-order self-consistent phonon theory calculation by Goldman. The observed phonon-group line shapes at large energy and momentum transfers show evidence for multiphonon scattering in agreement with calculations by Glyde. Eckert et al. reported extremely large anharmonic isochoric temperature shifts of the phonon energies. The present work studied the shifts as a function of molar volume and temperature. Mode-Grueneisen-parameter dispersion curves have been measured using the present data and earlier measurements at lower density in the fcc phase by Traylor et al. Macroscopic Grueneisen parameters have been calculated from the phonon density of states obtained from the data

  11. High-Density Otologic Camps in Regions of Sparse Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Bizuayehu; Bitew, Asnake; Kiros, Nega; Redleaf, Miriam

    2018-03-01

    Aims/Purpose: When 2 models of otologic surgery instruction in Ethiopia are compared, high-density otologic surgery campaigns are more effective for accelerated skills transfer in areas of sparse expertise than the standard outpatient clinic/OR model. A continuously operating otolaryngology/head and neck surgery department in a large public hospital is compared with a nonprofit specialty hospital where outpatients are selected for weeklong surgical campaigns. The number and variety of otologic visits and operations in each setting, presence of expert supervision, and resident-trainees' surgical progress were tallied. The public hospital saw 84 otologic operations in 1 full year. Meanwhile, the ear specialty surgical campaign site saw 185 otologic operations in 6 surgical campaign weeks. All operations at both sites were performed primarily by trainees. Experienced otologists supervised 40% of operations at the public hospital and 100% at the surgical campaign site. At the end of the year, none of the 10 resident-trainees in the public hospital were able to perform a simple underlay tympanoplasty, compared to 6 of 12 resident-trainees in the campaign setting. Where otologic expertise is sparse, otologic surgical campaigns allow the most effective use of resources-patient pathology, medical facilities, trainee attendance, and imported instructors.

  12. Using NEG-pumping near a high density internal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Orth, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) is part of the international PANDA collaboration. The universal detector will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). PANDA will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. SMI contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. To ensure low background, the residual gas load in the interaction zone and in the antiproton beam-pipe has to be minimized. Most of the gas load, of course will come from the high density internal hydrogen target. Since the PANDA detector will cover almost the full solid angle, the installation of pumps near the interaction zone is impossible. Therefore, the use of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes has been considered as an alternative. Two setups with NEG coated tubes have been installed at SMI as prototypes of the PANDA interaction zone. The outgassing behavior, the pumping speed and the pumping capacity for hydrogen have been tested. The status of the studies of the interaction region will be presented. (author)

  13. SCAP gene polymorphisms decrease the risk of nonalcoholic fatty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured twice using a mercury sphygmo- manometer and the averages were recorded. Blood samples were collected after an overnight (>12 h) fasting. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG); serum lipid pro- files, such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein ...

  14. A study of HANARO core conversion using high density U-Mo fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, B.C.; Park, S.J.; Kim, H.; Kim, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, HANARO is using 3.15gU/cc U3Si/Al as a driver fuel. HANARO has seven vertical irradiation holes in the core region. Three of them including a central trap are located in the inner region of the core and mainly being used for material irradiation tests. Four of them are located in the reflector tank but cooled by primary coolant. They are used for fuel irradiation tests or radioisotope development tests. For minimum core modification using high density U-Mo fuels, no dimension change is assumed in the current fuel rods and the cladding thickness remains the same in this study. The high density U-Mo fuel will have up to about twice the linear uranium loading of a current HANARO driver fuel. Using this high density fuel 8 fuel sites can be replaced with irradiation sites. Three kinds of conceptual cores are considered using 5 gU/cc U-7Mo/Al and 16 gU/cc U-7Mo. The increase of the linear heat generation rate due to the decrease of total fuel length can be overcome by more uniform radial and axial power distribution using different uranium densities and different fuel meat diameters are introduced into those cores. The new core has 4.54 times larger surface-to-volume ratio than the reference core. The core uranium loading, linear heat generation rate, excess reactivity, and control rod worth as well as the neutron spectra are analysed for each core. (author)

  15. Lipoprotein lipase S447X variant associated with VLDL, LDL and HDL diameter clustering in the MetS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous analysis clustered 1,238 individuals from the general population Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs Network (GOLDN) study by the size of their fasting very low-density, low-density and high-density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL) using latent class analysis. From two of the eight identified gro...

  16. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  17. Modelling high density phenomena in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittenden, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    The application of hydrogen fibre Z-pinches to the study of the radiative collapse phenomenon is studied computationally. Two areas of difficulty, the formation of a fully ionized pinch from a cryogenic fibre and the processes leading to collapse termination, are addressed in detail. A zero-D model based on the energy equation highlights the importance of particle end losses and changes in the Coulomb logarithm upon collapse initiation and termination. A 1-D Lagrangian resistive MHD code shows the importance of the changing radial profile shapes, particularly in delaying collapse termination. A 1-D, three fluid MHD code is developed to model the ionization of the fibre by thermal conduction from a high temperature surface corona to the cold core. Rate equations for collisional ionization, 3-body recombination and equilibration are solved in tandem with fluid equations for the electrons, ions and neutrals. Continuum lowering is found to assist ionization at the corona-core interface. The high density plasma phenomena responsible for radiative collapse termination are identified as the self-trapping of radiation and free electron degeneracy. A radiation transport model and computational analogues for the effects of degeneracy upon the equation of state, transport coefficients and opacity are implemented in the 1-D, single fluid model. As opacity increases the emergent spectrum is observed to become increasingly Planckian and a fall off in radiative cooling at small radii and low frequencies occurs giving rise to collapse termination. Electron degeneracy terminates radiative collapse by supplementing the radial pressure gradient until the electromagnetic pinch force is balanced. Collapse termination is found to be a hybrid process of opacity and degeneracy effects across a wide range of line densities with opacity dominant at large line densities but with electron degeneracy becoming increasingly important at lower line densities. (author)

  18. Effects of rice policosanol on serum lipoproteins, homocysteine, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein in hypercholesterolaemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Zeljko; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Romić, Zeljko

    2005-01-01

    Policosanol is an agent that includes mixtures of aliphatic primary alcohols extracted primarily from sugar-cane wax. This mixture has been shown to lower total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in animal models, healthy volunteers and hypercholesterolaemic patients. This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of rice policosanol (Oryza sp.) 10 mg/day in 70 hypercholesterolaemic patients of both sexes aged 20-78 years in a randomised, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-centre trial. After an 8-week run-in period during which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, they were randomly assigned to receive rice policosanol 10mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks. During the next 8 weeks those patients who received policosanol during the first 8 weeks received placebo, and those who received placebo during the first 8 weeks, received policosanol. Total, LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), HDL2 and HDL3 cholesterol, triglycerides, oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), apoproteins (Apos) AI and B, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], fibrinogen, homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. Rice policosanol significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol from 7.37 +/- 1.42 mmol/L to 6.99 +/- 1.33 mmol/L (p = 0.007) and increased Apo AI from 1.49 +/- 0.39 mmol/L to 1.58 +/- 0.38 mmol/L (p = 0.037) but did not change plasma triglycerides, HDL, HDL2, HDL3 and LDL cholesterol, ox-LDL, Lp(a), Apo B, fibrinogen, homocysteine or CRP levels. Rice policosanol 10 mg/day moderately decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased Apo AI. Rice policosanol was also well tolerated, with no drug-related effects on safety parameters such as serum aminotransferases and creatine phosphokinase detected or found on physical examination.

  19. Effects of LY295427, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor up-regulator, on LDL receptor gene transcription and cholesterol metabolism in normal and hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, W R; Gadski, R A; Bean, J S; Beavers, L S; Schmidt, R J; Perry, D N; Murphy, A T; McClure, D B; Eacho, P I; Breau, A P; Archer, R A; Kauffman, R F

    1999-04-01

    The action of LY295427 [(3alpha,4alpha, 5alpha)-4-(2-propenylcholestan-3-ol)], a compound that derepresses low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression in a cell-based model, was examined in hamsters. It was found that the compound does not have an effect in normal chow-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R levels are not repressed, but exerts a marked hypocholesterolemic effect (>70% decrease) in cholesterol-coconut oil-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R is repressed. In this model, there is a dose-response for cholesterol lowering with an approximate ED50 value of 40 mg/kg/day and an inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and serum LY295427 levels. LDL-R mRNA is increased (2-fold) and liver cholesterol ester content is decreased (>90%). Unlike the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the decreased serum cholesterol is confined to the non-high-density lipoprotein fraction. Furthermore, LY295427 does not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, and it does not have a significant effect on cholesterol absorption. These data suggest that LY295427 acts in the hypercholesterolemic hamster by derepressing LDL-R transcription, thereby enhancing cholesterol clearance from the blood. The results with LY295427 suggest that compounds that act to increase LDL-R may represent a novel approach in the pharmacotherapy for hypercholesterolemia.

  20. A compact fast ionization gauge for in situ measurement of high-density neutral flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.

    2014-04-01

    A compact ionization gauge has been developed to carry out in situ measurements of high density (1020-1022 m-3) neutral gas flow dynamics with high temporal and spatial resolution. Key design aspects are discussed including gauge sensitivity and time response scaling with decreased probe dimensions, high-pressure operation, improved driver circuit bandwidth, and techniques for constructing a miniaturized probe head. Gas adsorption was discovered to significantly alter emission current and gauge sensitivity over timescales of several seconds. This effect must be taken into consideration when making time-resolved, high-density measurements. Over short timescales gauge response was predicted by scaling the sensitivity of a nominal Bayard-Alpert gauge to account for variations in probe dimensions and species-dependent ionization cross-section. Time-resolved neutral density profiles have been acquired in the Magnetized Shock Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory, providing data on the initial conditions of the ionization, plasmoid formation, and translation processes. It is shown that the desired density profiles can be achieved using a dynamic gas fill and that density can be scaled independently of the spatial profile.

  1. RRR- and SRR-alpha-tocopherols are secreted without discrimination in human chylomicrons, but RRR-alpha-tocopherol is preferentially secreted in very low density lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traber, M.G.; Burton, G.W.; Ingold, K.U.; Kayden, H.J. (New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Five subjects ingested in a single oral dose containing 50 mg each of 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5,7-(C2H3)2)tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) with natural stereochemistry, and of 2S,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5-C2H3)tocopheryl acetate (d3-SRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate). These are two of eight stereoisomers in synthetic vitamin E. By day 1 the plasma and red blood cells were enriched fourfold with d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (P less than 0.004). The ratio of d6-RRR-/d2-SRR- further increased over the succeeding 4 days, because the d3-SRR- decreased at a faster rate than did the d6-RRR-stereoisomer. Plasma and lipoproteins were isolated at intervals during the first day, and daily for 3 days, from four additional subjects fed a mixture of equal amounts of the deuterated tocopherols. The plasma contained similar concentrations of the two forms until 11 h, when the d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentration became significantly greater (P less than 0.05). The chylomicrons contained similar concentrations of the two deuterated tocopherols, but the VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) became preferentially enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol by 11 h. The pattern of the deuterated tocopherols shows that during chylomicron catabolism all of the plasma lipoproteins were labeled equally with both tocopherols, but that during the subsequent VLDL catabolism the low and high density lipoproteins became enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These results suggest the existence of a mechanism in the liver for assembling VLDL preferentially enriched in RRR- relative to SRR-alpha-tocopherol.

  2. Biofuels Barrier Properties of Polyamide 6 and High Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillot L.-A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparison of the biofuels barrier properties of PolyAmide 6 (PA6 and High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE is presented. Model fuels were prepared as mixtures of toluene, isooctane and ethanol, the ethanol volume fraction varying between 0% and 100%. Barrier properties were determined at 40°C by gravimetric techniques or gas chromatography measurements, and it was shown that polyamide 6 permeability is lower than that of polyethylene on a wide range of ethanol contents up to 85% of ethanol (E85 in the biofuel, permeability of PA6 being 100 times lower than that of HDPE for low ethanol content fuels (E5, E0. The time-lags were also compared, and on the whole range of ethanol contents, HDPE permeation kinetics appears to be much faster than that of PA6, the time lag for a 1 mm thick specimens in presence of E10 being 50 days for PA6 and 0.5 days for HDPE. The compositions of the solvent fluxes were analyzed by FID gas chromatography, and it turned out that the solvent flux was mainly made up of ethanol (minimum 95% in the case of PA6, whereas in the case of HDPE, solvent flux was mainly made up of hydrocarbons. The implication of this difference in the solvent flux composition is discussed in the present article, and a side effect called the “fuel exhaustion process” is presented. The influence of the sample thickness was then studied, and for the different biofuels compositions, the pervaporation kinetics of polyamide 6 appeared to evolve with the square of the thickness, a long transitory regime being highlighted in the case of PA6. This result implies that the time needed to characterize the steady state permeability of thick PA6 parts such as fuel tanks can be very long (one year or more, this duration being far superior to the Euros 5 or Euro 6 standard emission measurements time scale. The influence of temperature on the permeability was finally assessed, and the activation energy that is the signature of the temperature

  3. Characteristics of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl distribution among lipoproteins in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vomachka, M.S.; Vodicnik, M.J.; Lech, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake, distribution, and transfer of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) were examined in vitro with human and rat whole blood, plasma, and lipoprotein fractions. 6-CB distribution between plasma and erythrocytes as well as among lipoproteins was determined following sedimentation of erythrocytes and ultracentrifugal fractionation of plasma. In both rat and human whole blood, 70 to 75% of 6-CB partitioned into plasma and 25 to 30% into erythrocytes. The uptake of 6-CB into plasma was extremely rapid and the rate of uptake was found to be dependent upon temperature. The distribution of 6-CB among lipoproteins was relatively homogeneous with 20 to 30% being distributed in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL, d . 0.95-1.006 g/ml), 15 to 20% in low-density lipoproteins (LDL, d . 1.006-1.063 g/ml), and 15 to 25% in high-density lipoproteins (HDL, d . 1.063-1.21 g/ml). Over 25% of 6-CB was found in the remaining bottom fraction. In addition, each isolated fraction when incubated alone with 6-CB was shown capable of uptake. The relative proportion of 6-CB among the lipoproteins was independent of the level taken up by plasma. 6-CB was also found to transfer among lipoproteins. This exchange of 6-CB proved to be dependent upon the concentrations of both protein and triacylglycerol in the incubations. Two proteins in the bottom fraction (Bf), albumin and a steroid binding globulin, were capable of competing with the lipoproteins for 6-CB uptake

  4. Lipoprotein nanoplatform for targeted delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, Jerry D; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Zhou, Rong; Choi, Hoon; Chen, I-Wei; Li, Hui; Corbin, Ian; Popov, Anatoliy V; Cao, Weiguo; Song, Liping; Qi, Chenze; Marotta, Diane; Nelson, David S; Chen, Juan; Chance, Britton; Zheng, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) provides a highly versatile natural nanoplatform for delivery of optical and MRI contrast agents, photodynamic therapy agents and chemotherapeutic agents to normal and neoplastic cells that over express LDL receptors (LDLR). Extension to other lipoproteins ranging in diameter from approximately 5-10 nm (high density lipoprotein, HDL) to over a micron (chilomicrons) is feasible. Loading of contrast or therapeutic agents has been achieved by covalent attachment to protein side chains, intercalation into the phospholipid monolayer and extraction and reconstitution of the triglyceride/cholesterol ester core. Covalent attachment of folate to the lysine side chain amino groups was used to reroute the LDL from its natural receptor (LDLR) to folate receptors and could be utilized to target other receptors. A semi-synthetic nanoparticle has been constructed by coating magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) with carboxylated cholesterol and overlaying a monolayer ofphospholipid to which Apo A1, Apo E or synthetic amphoteric alpha-helical polypeptides were adsorbed for targeting HDL, LDL or folate receptors, respectively. These particles can be utilized for in situ loading of magnetite into cells for MRI monitored cell tracking or gene therapy.

  5. High density plasma heating in the Tokamak à configuration variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curchod, L.

    2011-04-01

    The Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) is a medium size magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion experiment designed for the study of the plasma performances as a function of its shape. It is equipped with a high power and highly flexible electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) system. Up to 3 MW of 2 nd harmonic EC power in ordinary (O 2 ) or extraordinary (X 2 ) polarization can be injected from TCV low-field side via six independently steerable launchers. In addition, up to 1.5 MW of 3 rd harmonic EC power (X 3 ) can be launched along the EC resonance from the top of TCV vacuum vessel. At high density, standard ECH and ECCD are prevented by the appearance of a cutoff layer screening the access to the EC resonance at the plasma center. As a consequence, less than 50% of TCV density operational domain is accessible to X 2 and X 3 ECH. The electron Bernstein waves (EBW) have been proposed to overcome this limitation. EBW is an electrostatic mode propagating beyond the plasma cutoff without upper density limit. Since it cannot propagate in vacuum, it has to be excited by mode conversion of EC waves in the plasma. Efficient electron Bernstein waves heating (EBH) and current drive (EBCD) were previously performed in several fusion devices, in particular in the W7-AS stellarator and in the MAST spherical tokamak. In TCV, the conditions for an efficient O-X-B mode conversion (i.e. a steep density gradient at the O 2 plasma cutoff) are met at the edge of high confinement (H-mode) plasmas characterized by the appearance of a pedestal in the electron temperature and density profiles. TCV experiments have demonstrated the first EBW coupling to overdense plasmas in a medium aspect-ratio tokamak via O-X-B mode conversion. This thesis work focuses on several aspects of ECH and EBH in low and high density plasmas. Firstly, the experimental optimum angles for the O-X-B mode conversion is successfully compared to the full-wave mode conversion calculation

  6. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M.; Brown, Robert J., E-mail: rbrown@mun.ca

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Lipoprotein hydrolysis products were produced by lipoprotein lipase. • Hydrolysis products lowers expression of macrophage cholesterol transporters. • Hydrolysis products reduces expression of select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products lowers cholesterol transporters and select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophages. - Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  7. The Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Highly Filled Rice Husk Biochar/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rice husk biochar/high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites were prepared via melt mixing followed by extrusion. Effects of biochar content and testing temperature on the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA of the composites were studied. Morphological analysis of the rice husk biochar and composites were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that biochar had a positive effect on dynamic viscoelasticity, creep resistance and stress relaxation properties of the composites, but the creep resistance and stress relaxation of the composites decreased with the increase of temperature. SEM analysis showed that HDPE components were embedded in the holes of the rice husk biochar, and it is believed that strong interaction was achieved.

  8. Thermal Stability and Rheological Behaviors of High-Density Polyethylene/Fullerene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-density polyethylene/fullerene (HDPE/C60 nanocomposites with the C60 loading that varied from 0.5 to 5.0% by weight were prepared via melt compounding. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results showed that the presence of C60 could remarkably enhance the thermal properties of HDPE. A very low C60 loading (0.5 wt% increased the onset degradation temperature from 389∘C to 459∘C and decreased the heat release from 3176 J/g to 1490 J/g. The larger the loading level of C60, the better the thermal stability of HDPE/C60 nanocomposites. Rheological investigation results showed that the free radical trapping effect of C60 was responsible for the improved thermal stability of HDPE.

  9. Strongly interacting matter at high densities with a soliton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Webster

    1998-12-01

    One of the major goals of modern nuclear physics is to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. The study of these 'extreme' conditions is the primary motivation for the construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory which will accelerate nuclei to a center of mass (c.m.) energy of about 200 GeV/nucleon. From a theoretical perspective, a test of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) requires the expansion of the conditions examined from one phase point to the entire phase diagram of strongly-interacting matter. In the present work we focus attention on what happens when the density is increased, at low excitation energies. Experimental results from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) indicate that this regime may be tested in the 'full stopping' (maximum energy deposition) scenario achieved at the AGS having a c.m. collision energy of about 2.5 GeV/nucleon for two equal- mass heavy nuclei. Since the solution of QCD on nuclear length-scales is computationally prohibitive even on today's most powerful computers, progress in the theoretical description of high densities has come through the application of models incorporating some of the essential features of the full theory. The simplest such model is the MIT bag model. We use a significantly more sophisticated model, a nonlocal confining soliton model developed in part at Kent. This model has proven its value in the calculation of the properties of individual mesons and nucleons. In the present application, the many-soliton problem is addressed with the same model. We describe nuclear matter as a lattice of solitons and apply the Wigner-Seitz approximation to the lattice. This means that we consider spherical cells with one soliton centered in each, corresponding to the average properties of the lattice. The average density is then varied by changing the size of the Wigner-Seitz cell. To arrive at a solution, we need to solve a coupled set of

  10. Scalp and Source Power Topography in Sleepwalking and Sleep Terrors: A High-Density EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnovo, Anna; Riedner, Brady A.; Smith, Richard F.; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine scalp and source power topography in sleep arousals disorders (SADs) using high-density EEG (hdEEG). Methods: Fifteen adult subjects with sleep arousal disorders (SADs) and 15 age- and gender-matched good sleeping healthy controls were recorded in a sleep laboratory setting using a 256 channel EEG system. Results: Scalp EEG analysis of all night NREM sleep revealed a localized decrease in slow wave activity (SWA) power (1–4 Hz) over centro-parietal regions relative to the rest of the brain in SADs compared to good sleeping healthy controls. Source modelling analysis of 5-minute segments taken from N3 during the first half of the night revealed that the local decrease in SWA power was prominent at the level of the cingulate, motor, and sensori-motor associative cortices. Similar patterns were also evident during REM sleep and wake. These differences in local sleep were present in the absence of any detectable clinical or electrophysiological sign of arousal. Conclusions: Overall, results suggest the presence of local sleep differences in the brain of SADs patients during nights without clinical episodes. The persistence of similar topographical changes in local EEG power during REM sleep and wakefulness points to trait-like functional changes that cross the boundaries of NREM sleep. The regions identified by source imaging are consistent with the current neurophysiological understanding of SADs as a disorder caused by local arousals in motor and cingulate cortices. Persistent localized changes in neuronal excitability may predispose affected subjects to clinical episodes. Citation: Castelnovo A, Riedner BA, Smith RF, Tononi G, Boly M, Benca RM. Scalp and source power topography in sleepwalking and sleep terrors: a high-density EEG study. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1815–1825. PMID:27568805

  11. Associations of apolipoprotein E and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 polymorphisms with dyslipidemia and generalized aggressive periodontitis in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H; Tian, Y; Meng, H; Hou, J; Xu, L; Zhang, L; Shi, D; Lu, R; Feng, X; Wang, X; Chen, Z

    2015-08-01

    Dyslipidemia is associated with aggressive periodontitis, a condition characterized by the rapid destruction of the periodontium. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) are involved in immunomodulation and inflammatory activity. We evaluated the association of LRP5 and APOE polymorphisms with serum lipid concentrations and generalized aggressive periodontitis within a Chinese population. Mean serum lipid concentrations were compared across LRP5 and APOE polymorphisms, among cases (n = 185) and controls (n = 138). Multivariable logi