WorldWideScience

Sample records for decrease vegetative competitiveness

  1. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of life-history evolution commonly assumes a trade-off between sexual and vegetative reproduction. Hence, production of flowers and fruits should have measurable costs in terms of reduced vegetative growth. This trade-off may be meaningful for breeding of forage and turf grasses as red...

  2. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of life-history evolution commonly assumes a trade-off between sexual and vegetative reproduction. Hence, production of flowers and fruits should have measurable costs in terms of reduced vegetative growth. This trade-off may be meaningful for breeding of forage and turf grasses...

  3. Will a decreasing winter rainfall cause a shift in Succulent Karoo boundaries? Evidence from competition and vegetation-change analyses.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shiponeni, NN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available that indigenous plants of the SOI showed significant nestedness. Supporting this, we found that homogenisation of island floras increased with distance between islands, due to the decreasing similarity of indigenous plants with island distance. Homogenisation.... Will a decreasing winter rainfall cause a shift in Succulent Karoo bound- aries? Evidence from competition and vegetation-change analyses N.N. Shiponeni1, N. Allsopp2, P.J. Carrick3, M. Vogel4, M.T. Hoffman3 & M. Keil5 1) Dept. of Biological Sciences...

  4. Intensity of competition in the market of greenhouse vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the competitive environment of the market greenhouse vegetables. Revealed specific features of the industry, determining the level of intensity of competition in the market greenhouse vegetables. Classified factors internal and external environment, identify indicators that affect the state of the market. The factors that determine the intensity of competition in the market greenhouse vegetables.The main competitors on the Russian market of greenhouse production.Identified indicators of the intensity level of competition, in particular: the level of monopolization of the market greenhouse vegetables, the level of concentration of production in the industry, the generalized index of the intensity of the competitive environment.Shows a comparative analysis of competitors’ market greenhouse vegetables in Udmurtia.Revealed competitive advantages which can help local producers to reduce the pressure of competition and intra-industry to occupy a leading position in the Russian market of greenhouse vegetable production.The dynamics of economic performance of Russian producers. Ways of improving the competitiveness of enterprises for the production of greenhouse vegetables

  5. Understanding the impact of plant competition on the coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, M.P.; Dekker, S.C.; Anten, Niels; Rietkerk, M.G.; de Arellano, Jordi Vila-Guerau

    2015-01-01

    Competition between plants for resources is an important selective force. As a result competition through natural selection determines vegetation functioning and associated atmospheric interactions. Our aim was to investigate how the coupling between vegetation and atmosphere is influenced by plant

  6. Understanding the impact of plant competition on the coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van M.P.; Dekker, S.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Rietkerk, M.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.

    2015-01-01

    Competition between plants for resources is an important selective force. As a result competition through natural selection determines vegetation functioning and associated atmospheric interactions. Our aim was to investigate how the coupling between vegetation and atmosphere is influenced by plant

  7. Spatial vegetation patterns and neighborhood competition among woody plants in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Justin; Augustine, David J; Hanan, Niall P; Ratnam, Jayashree; Sankaran, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    The majority of research on savanna vegetation dynamics has focused on the coexistence of woody and herbaceous vegetation. Interactions among woody plants in savannas are relatively poorly understood. We present data from a 10-yr longitudinal study of spatially explicit growth patterns of woody vegetation in an East African savanna following exclusion of large herbivores and in the absence of fire. We examined plant spatial patterns and quantified the degree of competition among woody individuals. Woody plants in this semiarid savanna exhibit strongly clumped spatial distributions at scales of 1-5 m. However, analysis of woody plant growth rates relative to their conspecific and heterospecific neighbors revealed evidence for strong competitive interactions at neighborhood scales of up to 5 m for most woody plant species. Thus, woody plants were aggregated in clumps despite significantly decreased growth rates in close proximity to neighbors, indicating that the spatial distribution of woody plants in this region depends on dispersal and establishment processes rather than on competitive, density-dependent mortality. However, our documentation of suppressive effects of woody plants on neighbors also suggests a potentially important role for tree-tree competition in controlling vegetation structure and indicates that the balanced-competition hypothesis may contribute to well-known patterns in maximum tree cover across rainfall gradients in Africa. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Is competition needed for ecological character displacement? Does displacement decrease competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Peter A; Cortez, Michael H

    2015-12-01

    Interspecific competition for resources is generally considered to be the selective force driving ecological character displacement, and displacement is assumed to reduce competition. Skeptics of the prevalence of character displacement often cite lack of evidence of competition. The present article uses a simple model to examine whether competition is needed for character displacement and whether displacement reduces competition. It treats systems with competing resources, and considers cases when only one consumer evolves. It quantifies competition using several different measures. The analysis shows that selection for divergence of consumers occurs regardless of the level of between-resource competition or whether the indirect interaction between the consumers is competition (-,-), mutualism (+,+), or contramensalism (+,-). Also, divergent evolution always decreases the equilibrium population size of the evolving consumer. Whether divergence of one consumer reduces or increases the impact of a subsequent perturbation of the other consumer depends on the parameters and the method chosen for measuring competition. Divergence in mutualistic interactions may reduce beneficial effects of subsequent increases in the other consumer's population. The evolutionary response is driven by an increase in the relative abundance of the resource the consumer catches more rapidly. Such an increase can occur under several types of interaction.

  9. Understanding the impact of plant competition on the coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere.

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon, M.P.; Dekker, S.C.; Anten, Niels; Rietkerk, M.G.; de Arellano, Jordi Vila-Guerau

    2015-01-01

    Competition between plants for resources is an important selective force. As a result competition through natural selection determines vegetation functioning and associated atmospheric interactions. Our aim was to investigate how the coupling between vegetation and atmosphere is influenced by plant competition. Though included in some coupled vegetation-atmosphere models, little attention has been paid to systematically study the impact of plant competition in determining the evolution of sur...

  10. Severity of seabed spatial competition decreases towards the poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D K A; Neutel, A M

    2016-04-25

    For more than a century ecologists have considered that competitive interactions between species are more intense at low latitudes [1,2]. This is frequently invoked as either an explanation or a consequence of higher species richness in the tropics, also suggesting that competition shifts from intra- to inter-specific towards the tropics [1]. Another common assumption is that within a community, intraspecific competition needs to be relatively strong, compared to inter-specific competition, in order to enable stable coexistence of species [3]. However, many analyses have found no consistent large scale geographic patterns in the intensity of intra- or interspecific competition [4]. Here, we show a clear latitudinal trend in contest competition for space in nearshore marine environments, for bryozoans (sessile, colonial, suspension feeding animals). Bryozoans form species-rich assemblages with other encrusting fauna and flora (corraline algae), and are highly abundant across the globe [5]. We find that whilst the intensity of competition (percentage of bryozoan colonies involved in direct physical spatial interactions with bryozoan or other encrusters) differed little with latitude, its severity (percentage of bryozoan colonies involved in contests with a win/loss outcome, leading to death of the loser) was three times lower at the poles than in the tropics. The cause of this change in severity was a strong shift in taxonomic relatedness of competitors, from interactions between species of different families dominating at lower latitudes, to mainly intraspecific competition at the poles.

  11. An Analysis on Export Competitiveness of Vegetables from China to ASEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwei; WANG

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area has promoted the friendly bilateral economic cooperation,and ASEAN has become one of the largest vegetable export markets for China. Using constant market share( CMS) model,this paper analyzes the export competitiveness of vegetables from China to ASEAN and the main influencing factors. The results show that competitiveness is the main factor in promoting the export growth of vegetables from China to ASEAN,and compared with demand effect and structure effect,competitiveness effect makes the greatest contribution to export growth.

  12. Understanding the impact of plant competition on the coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loon, Marloes P.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Anten, Niels P. R.; Rietkerk, Max; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Competition between plants for resources is an important selective force. As a result competition through natural selection determines vegetation functioning and associated atmospheric interactions. Our aim was to investigate how the coupling between vegetation and atmosphere is influenced by plant competition. Though included in some coupled vegetation-atmosphere models, little attention has been paid to systematically study the impact of plant competition in determining the evolution of surface and atmospheric variables. We used a coupled vegetation-atmosphere model and included a new representation of plant competition. We compared the model results with diurnal data from Ameriflux Bondville site over a growing season. Including competition improved LAI (Leaf Area Index) and net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) predictions; if competition was not considered, there were strong deviations from observations. Remarkably, competition increased LAI while it reduced whole stand photosynthesis, resulting in a less negative NEE. Finally, independent of competition, latent heat flux, surface temperature, specific humidity, and atmospheric CO2 are well reproduced by the model. Only the sensible heat flux was overestimated, mainly due to the imbalance in the surface energy balance that can lead to lower measured sensible heat fluxes. Sensitivity analysis showed that the importance of plant competition on model outcomes increases with more nitrogen and water availability and may differ between soil types. We thus quantified the potential effect of plant competition in a coupled vegetation-atmosphere system and showed that it strongly influences this system, and therefore, we propose that competition should be considered in more vegetation-atmosphere models.

  13. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  14. Greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland: A grounded look at sector competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, S.; Breukers, A.; Schweiger, J.; Mack, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory that is sufficiently adapted to sector competitiveness. The case of greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland is used to explain differences in sector competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach – Interviews focusin

  15. How light competition between plants affects trait optimization and vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    How plants respond to climate change is of major concern, as plants will strongly impact future ecosystem functioning, food production and climate. Competition between plants for resources is an important selective force. As a result competition through natural selection determines vegetation functi

  16. Greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland: A grounded look at sector competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, S.; Breukers, A.; Schweiger, J.; Mack, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory that is sufficiently adapted to sector competitiveness. The case of greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland is used to explain differences in sector competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach – Interviews focusin

  17. Detection of Decreasing Vegetation Cover Based on Empirical Orthogonal Function and Temporal Unmixing Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Xu; Ruishan Chen; Xiaoshi Xing; Wenpeng Lin

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in the energy exchange of the land surface, biogeochemical cycles, and hydrological cycles. MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) is considered as a quantitative indicator for examining dynamic vegetation changes. This paper applied a new method of integrated empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and temporal unmixing analysis (TUA) to detect the vegetation decreasing cover in Jiangsu Province of China. The empir...

  18. Acupuncture decreases competitive anxiety prior to a competition in young athletes: a randomized controlled trial pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Sahar; Shayestehfar, Monir; Memari, Amir-Hossein; SeifBarghi, Tohid; Sobhani, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    Background Although a certain level of competitive anxiety may increase performance, many athletes with anxiety experience uncontrolled negative feelings and cognition that in turn can have overwhelming effects on their performance. Methods We aimed to assess the effect of acupuncture on competitive anxiety of the adolescent football players prior to the competition using psychological and physiological markers. A total of 30 athletes were randomly and equally allocated to either acupuncture or sham control group. Results The results of t-test on posttest scores showed that acupuncture had a significant effect on cognitive anxiety (p=0.001) and somatic anxiety (p0.05). Furthermore, the results showed that acupuncture significantly decreased the skin conductance in acupuncture group compared to sham group (p=0.006) (p<0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, the results suggested that acupuncture has the capacity to decrease cognitive and somatic anxiety prior to competition in adolescent athletes while this was accompanied by significant physiological changes.

  19. Decreased vegetation growth in response to summer drought in Central Asia from 2000 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao-jie; Wang, Xin-ping; Zhang, Xiao-xiao

    2016-10-01

    Climate change scenarios predict that Central Asia may experience an increase in the frequency and magnitude of temperature and precipitation extremes by the end of the 21st century, but the response regularity of different types of vegetation to climate extremes is uncertain. Based on remote-sensed vegetation index and in-situ meteorological data for the period of 2000-2012, we examined the diverse responses of vegetation to climate mean/extremes and differentiated climatic and anthropogenic influence on the vegetation in Central Asia. Our results showed that extensive vegetation degradation was related to summer water deficit as a result of the combined effect of decreased precipitation and increased potential evapotranspiration. Water was a primary climatic driver for vegetation changes regionally, and human-induced changes in vegetation confined mainly to local areas. Responses of vegetation to water stress varied in different vegetation types. Grasslands were most responsive to water deficit followed by forests and desert vegetation. Climate extremes caused significant vegetation changes, and different vegetation types had diverse responses to climate extremes. Grasslands represented a symmetric response to wet and dry periods. Desert vegetation was more responsive during wet years than in dry years. Forests responded more strongly to dry than to wet years due to a severe drought occurred in 2008. This study has important implications for predicting how vegetation ecosystems in drylands respond to climate mean/extremes under future scenarios of climate change.

  20. Detection of Decreasing Vegetation Cover Based on Empirical Orthogonal Function and Temporal Unmixing Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays an important role in the energy exchange of the land surface, biogeochemical cycles, and hydrological cycles. MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index is considered as a quantitative indicator for examining dynamic vegetation changes. This paper applied a new method of integrated empirical orthogonal function (EOF and temporal unmixing analysis (TUA to detect the vegetation decreasing cover in Jiangsu Province of China. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF statistical results provide vegetation decreasing/increasing trend as prior information for temporal unmixing analysis. Temporal unmixing analysis (TUA results could reveal the dominant spatial distribution of decreasing vegetation. The results showed that decreasing vegetation areas in Jiangsu are distributed in the suburbs and newly constructed areas. For validation, the vegetation’s decreasing cover is revealed by linear spectral mixture from Landsat data in three selected cities. Vegetation decreasing areas pixels are also calculated from land use maps in 2000 and 2010. The accuracy of integrated empirical orthogonal function and temporal unmixing analysis method is about 83.14%. This method can be applied to detect vegetation change in large rapidly urbanizing areas.

  1. Weakening Growth Response and Decreasing Resistance of Global Vegetation to Long-Term Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; He, B.; Wang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Drought has dramatic direct and indirect impacts on vegetation and terrestrial ecosystem stability, including decreases in growth and subsequent decreases in CO2 absorption. Although much research has been focused on the response of vegetation to drought, it remains unclear whether biomes are becoming more resistant or more vulnerable to drought. In this study, we used the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI, a variable timescale drought index) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, an indicator of vegetation growth) to detect the sensitivity of vegetation growth to drought across 12- 24month timescales and to detect the change in this sensitivity over recent decades. We found that vegetation growth was most sensitive to drought at 16-17 months in water-limited regions, implying pronounce legacy effects from previous year water conditions. In addition, we detected reduced coupling between drought and vegetation growth, likely caused by decreases in water deficiency conditions (i.e., drought abatement). Rainfall use efficiency (RUE) decreased as drought conditions abated, leading to the shortening of time to vegetation response from an average of 18.1 months to 17.2 months. The decrease in RUE indicates a decrease in the resistance of vegetation to longer-term drought. The results of this study contribute to the overall understanding of the resistance and resilience of ecosystems to drought conditions.

  2. Ecological characteristics and new competitiveness strategies in fresh vegetables market

    OpenAIRE

    Cembalo, Luigi; Cicia, Gianni; Del Giudice, Teresa; Scarpa, Riccardo; Tagliafierro, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    The intense process of internationalisation of the food market is giving rise to new competitive scenarios. The growth of market shares by new export countries, along with other consumer and retailer's issues impose different marketing policies for agri-food products. In particular, a wider awareness of consumers for environmental and health issues is modifying the structure of demand for fresh products. In the past, the country of origin and a convenient quality/price ratio were the main str...

  3. Inter-species competition-facilitation in stochastic riparian vegetation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tealdi, Stefano; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2013-02-07

    Riparian vegetation is a highly dynamic community that lives on river banks and which depends to a great extent on the fluvial hydrology. The stochasticity of the discharge and erosion/deposition processes in fact play a key role in determining the distribution of vegetation along a riparian transect. These abiotic processes interact with biotic competition/facilitation mechanisms, such as plant competition for light, water, and nutrients. In this work, we focus on the dynamics of plants characterized by three components: (1) stochastic forcing due to river discharges, (2) competition for resources, and (3) inter-species facilitation due to the interplay between vegetation and fluid dynamics processes. A minimalist stochastic bio-hydrological model is proposed for the dynamics of the biomass of two vegetation species: one species is assumed dominant and slow-growing, the other is subdominant, but fast-growing. The stochastic model is solved analytically and the probability density function of the plant biomasses is obtained as a function of both the hydrologic and biologic parameters. The impact of the competition/facilitation processes on the distribution of vegetation species along the riparian transect is investigated and remarkable effects are observed. Finally, a good qualitative agreement is found between the model results and field data.

  4. Fruits and vegetables increase plasma carotenoids and vitamins and decrease homocysteine in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Schuurman, C.R.W.C.; Verhagen, H.; Berg, H. van den; Kok, F.J.; Poppel, G. van

    2000-01-01

    Observational epidemiologic studies have shown that a high consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases. Little is known about the bioavailability of constituents from vegetables and fruits and the effect of these constituents on markers for disease ri

  5. Vegetation Evolution with Degenerating Soil Ecology Under Unequal Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhen-Shan; QI Xiang-Zhen

    2004-01-01

    A vegetation evolution model influenced by a degeneration of soil ecological functions was set up. Three ideal communities of a) trees, b) shrubs, and c) herbage populations were first simulated. Then numerical simulations of the evolutionary and developmental processes of a natural forest community, which is composed of over 100 species,were conducted. Results of the study showed that a) in all communities, soil degeneration not only drove some weaker species to extinction, but also a few dominant ones; b) there were different response scales with species in an ideal tree metapopulation that could persist as long as a thousand years, with shrubs in an ideal shrub metapopulation that could persevere for several hundred years, and with species in an ideal herbage metapopulation that could become extinct within 10 years; and c) each metapopulation experienced three evolutionary stages during adaptation to the environment: a) the stage of compelled adaptation or resistance, b) the adjusted stage, and c) the stabilized stage.

  6. Competition for nitrogen between European beech and sycamore maple shifts in favour of beech with decreasing light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Judy; Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant species use different strategies for maximizing growth and fitness under changing environmental conditions. At the ecosystem level, seedlings in particular compete with other vegetation components for light and nitrogen (N), which often constitute growth-limiting resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of light availability on the competition for N between seedlings of European beech and sycamore maple and analysed the consequences of this competition for the composition of N metabolites in fine roots. Our results show different strategies in N acquisition between beech and sycamore maple. Both species responded to reduced light availability by adapting their morphological and physiological traits with a decrease in biomass and net assimilation rate and an increase in specific leaf area and leaf area ratio. For beech seedlings, competition with sycamore maple led to a reduction in organic N uptake capacity. Reduced light availability led to a decrease in ammonium, but an increase in glutamine-N uptake capacity in sycamore maple. However, this response was stronger compared with that of beech and was accompanied by reduced growth. Thus, our results suggest better adaptation of N acquisition to reduced light availability in beech compared with sycamore maple seedlings.

  7. Disruption of foraging by a dominant invasive species to decrease its competitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian Ludwig; Suckling, David Maxwell; Lester, Philip John

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to biodiversity when dominant within their newly established habitat. The globally distributed Argentine ant Linepithema humile has been reported to break the trade-off between interference and exploitative competition, achieve high population densities, and overpower nests of many endemic ant species. We have used the sensitivity of the Argentine ant to the synthetic trail pheromone (Z)-9-hexadecanal to investigate species interactions for the first time. We predicted that disrupting Argentine ant trail following behaviour would reduce their competitive ability and create an opportunity for three other resident species to increase their foraging success. Argentine ant success in the control was reduced with increasing pheromone concentration, as predicted, but interactions varied among competing resident species. These behavioural variations provide an explanation for observed differences in foraging success of the competing resident species and how much each of these individual competitors can increase their foraging if the competitive ability of the dominant invader is decreased. The mechanism for the observed increase in resource acquisition of resident species appears to be a decrease in aggressive behaviour displayed by the Argentine ant, which may create an opportunity for other resident species to forage more successfully. Our demonstration of species interactions with trail pheromone disruption is the first known case of reduced dominance under a pheromone treatment in ants.

  8. Disruption of foraging by a dominant invasive species to decrease its competitive ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Ludwig Westermann

    Full Text Available Invasive species are a major threat to biodiversity when dominant within their newly established habitat. The globally distributed Argentine ant Linepithema humile has been reported to break the trade-off between interference and exploitative competition, achieve high population densities, and overpower nests of many endemic ant species. We have used the sensitivity of the Argentine ant to the synthetic trail pheromone (Z-9-hexadecanal to investigate species interactions for the first time. We predicted that disrupting Argentine ant trail following behaviour would reduce their competitive ability and create an opportunity for three other resident species to increase their foraging success. Argentine ant success in the control was reduced with increasing pheromone concentration, as predicted, but interactions varied among competing resident species. These behavioural variations provide an explanation for observed differences in foraging success of the competing resident species and how much each of these individual competitors can increase their foraging if the competitive ability of the dominant invader is decreased. The mechanism for the observed increase in resource acquisition of resident species appears to be a decrease in aggressive behaviour displayed by the Argentine ant, which may create an opportunity for other resident species to forage more successfully. Our demonstration of species interactions with trail pheromone disruption is the first known case of reduced dominance under a pheromone treatment in ants.

  9. Disruption of Foraging by a Dominant Invasive Species to Decrease Its Competitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian Ludwig; Suckling, David Maxwell; Lester, Philip John

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to biodiversity when dominant within their newly established habitat. The globally distributed Argentine ant Linepithema humile has been reported to break the trade-off between interference and exploitative competition, achieve high population densities, and overpower nests of many endemic ant species. We have used the sensitivity of the Argentine ant to the synthetic trail pheromone (Z)-9-hexadecanal to investigate species interactions for the first time. We predicted that disrupting Argentine ant trail following behaviour would reduce their competitive ability and create an opportunity for three other resident species to increase their foraging success. Argentine ant success in the control was reduced with increasing pheromone concentration, as predicted, but interactions varied among competing resident species. These behavioural variations provide an explanation for observed differences in foraging success of the competing resident species and how much each of these individual competitors can increase their foraging if the competitive ability of the dominant invader is decreased. The mechanism for the observed increase in resource acquisition of resident species appears to be a decrease in aggressive behaviour displayed by the Argentine ant, which may create an opportunity for other resident species to forage more successfully. Our demonstration of species interactions with trail pheromone disruption is the first known case of reduced dominance under a pheromone treatment in ants. PMID:24594633

  10. The Impact of Competitive Foods on Children’s Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: An Observational Plate Waste Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie W. Cole

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effect of competitive foods on children’s consumption of lunch meals in elementary schools in Mississippi. The objective of this observational study was to examine how competitive food purchases affect entrée, fruit, and vegetable consumption using the quarter-waste method. A total of 862 meals and purchase of competitive foods were observed. Children who purchased ice cream or pudding were 1.6 times more likely to throw away more than 50% of their entrée, 3.5 times more likely to not eat their vegetables, and more than two times more likely to not eat their fruit than children who did not purchase ice cream or pudding. Children who purchased chips were also less likely to consume more than 50% of their entrée. These findings suggest that competitive foods can impact children’s fruit and vegetable consumption.

  11. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  12. Decreased semantic competitive inhibition in Parkinson's disease: Evidence from an investigation of word search performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Wendy L; Chenery, Helen J; Angwin, Anthony J; Murdoch, Bruce E; Silburn, Peter A; Copland, David A

    2010-10-01

    Aberrant semantic competitive inhibition has been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether PD-related alterations cause an increase or a decrease in lateral inhibition, however, remains unclear. Accordingly, the present study aimed to examine semantic inhibition during lexical-semantic processing in non-demented people with PD. Twenty-two people with PD and 18 matched controls completed a computerized word search task in which both the relationship between the background items and the target (related or unrelated) and the search type (open e.g., any dog or closed e.g., collie) were manipulated. It was hypothesized that decreased semantic inhibition would be evidenced by abnormally short response times for open searches among words related to the target, while increased inhibition would lead to abnormally long response times. Analysis of the results revealed that control participants performed open searches faster for unrelated vs related word lists. In contrast, the PD group recorded similar response times regardless of background items. Hence, the present findings are consistent with the notion of decreased semantic competitive inhibition in PD and suggest that an impaired ability to inhibit unwanted information during lexical retrieval may underlie observed deficits on semantic tasks such as verbal fluency.

  13. CHAIN FOOD ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COMPETITIVENESS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLES GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Pawlewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of Polish agriculture is insuffi cient state horizontal integration of agricultural producers. Identifi cation of factors that affect the improvement of the competitiveness of producer groups in the food chain can help in the development of such entities. The aim of the publication is to present activities that should improve competitiveness in the food chain which are undertaken by groups of raw materials producers on the example of fruit and vegetable producers groups operating in Kujawsko-Pomorskie region. In studies the method of participant observation interview were used. The measurement was conducted in late April and May 2013 and included 19 leaders of producer groups. According to them the most important factor infl uencing the market position of the groups in the food chain, was the high quality of the manufactured goods in farms affi liated farmers. Few respondents identifi ed marketing as an opportunity to strengthen the competitive advantage of producer groups in the food supply chain. This is due to the fact that farmers are far removed in the supply chain from consumers with whom they have contact only in the form of market random retail.

  14. Spatial decoupling of facilitation and competition at the origin of gapped vegetation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Nicolas; Couteron, Pierre; Lefever, René; Deblauwe, Vincent; Lejeune, Olivier

    2008-06-01

    Spatially periodic vegetation patterns, forming gaps, bands, labyrinths, or spots, are characteristic of arid and semiarid landscapes. Self-organization models can explain this variety of structures within a unified conceptual framework. All these models are based on the interplay of positive and negative effects of plants on soil water, but they can be divided according to whether they assume the interactions to be mediated by water redistribution through runoff/diffusion or by plants' organs. We carried out a multi-proxy approach of the processes operating in a gapped pattern in southwest Niger dominated by a shrub species. Soil moisture within the root layer was monitored in time and space over one month of the rainy season. Soil water recharge displayed no spatial variation with respect to vegetation cover, but the stock half-life under cover was twice that of bare areas. A kernel of facilitation by the aboveground parts of shrubs was parameterized, and soil water half-life was significantly correlated to the cumulated facilitative effects of shrubs. The kernel range was found to be smaller than the canopy radius (81%). This effect of plants on soil water dynamics, probably through a reduction of evaporation by shading, is shown to be a better explanatory variable than potentially relevant soil and topography parameters. The root systems of five individuals of Combretum micranthum G. Don were excavated. Root density data were used as a proxy to parameterize a kernel function of interplant competition. The range of this kernel was larger than the canopy radius (125%). The facilitation-to-competition range ratio, reflecting the above-to-belowground ratio of plant lateral extent, was smaller than 1 (0.64), a result supporting models assuming that patterning may emerge from an adaptation of plant morphology to aridity and shallow soils by means of an extended lateral root system. Moreover, observed soil water gradients had directions opposite to those assumed by

  15. Does the sex difference in competitiveness decrease in selective sub-populations? A test with intercollegiate distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaner, Robert O; Lowen, Aaron; Rogers, William; Saksa, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in some preferences and motivations are well established, but it is unclear whether they persist in selective sub-populations, such as expert financial decision makers, top scientists, or elite athletes. We addressed this issue by studying competitiveness in 1,147 varsity intercollegiate distance runners. As expected, across all runners, men reported greater competitiveness with two previously validated instruments, greater competitiveness on a new elite competitiveness scale, and greater training volume, a known correlate of competitiveness. Among faster runners, the sex difference decreased for one measure of competitiveness but did not decrease for the two other competitiveness measures or either measure of training volume. Across NCAA athletic divisions (DI, DII, DIII), the sex difference did not decrease for any competitiveness or training measure. Further analyses showed that these sex differences could not be attributed to women suffering more injuries or facing greater childcare responsibilities. However, women did report greater commitment than men to their academic studies, suggesting a sex difference in priorities. Therefore, policies aiming to provide men and women with equal opportunities to flourish should acknowledge that sex differences in some kinds of preferences and motivation may persist even in selective sub-populations.

  16. Does the sex difference in competitiveness decrease in selective sub-populations? A test with intercollegiate distance runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, Aaron; Rogers, William; Saksa, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in some preferences and motivations are well established, but it is unclear whether they persist in selective sub-populations, such as expert financial decision makers, top scientists, or elite athletes. We addressed this issue by studying competitiveness in 1,147 varsity intercollegiate distance runners. As expected, across all runners, men reported greater competitiveness with two previously validated instruments, greater competitiveness on a new elite competitiveness scale, and greater training volume, a known correlate of competitiveness. Among faster runners, the sex difference decreased for one measure of competitiveness but did not decrease for the two other competitiveness measures or either measure of training volume. Across NCAA athletic divisions (DI, DII, DIII), the sex difference did not decrease for any competitiveness or training measure. Further analyses showed that these sex differences could not be attributed to women suffering more injuries or facing greater childcare responsibilities. However, women did report greater commitment than men to their academic studies, suggesting a sex difference in priorities. Therefore, policies aiming to provide men and women with equal opportunities to flourish should acknowledge that sex differences in some kinds of preferences and motivation may persist even in selective sub-populations. PMID:25922790

  17. Does the sex difference in competitiveness decrease in selective sub-populations? A test with intercollegiate distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Deaner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in some preferences and motivations are well established, but it is unclear whether they persist in selective sub-populations, such as expert financial decision makers, top scientists, or elite athletes. We addressed this issue by studying competitiveness in 1,147 varsity intercollegiate distance runners. As expected, across all runners, men reported greater competitiveness with two previously validated instruments, greater competitiveness on a new elite competitiveness scale, and greater training volume, a known correlate of competitiveness. Among faster runners, the sex difference decreased for one measure of competitiveness but did not decrease for the two other competitiveness measures or either measure of training volume. Across NCAA athletic divisions (DI, DII, DIII, the sex difference did not decrease for any competitiveness or training measure. Further analyses showed that these sex differences could not be attributed to women suffering more injuries or facing greater childcare responsibilities. However, women did report greater commitment than men to their academic studies, suggesting a sex difference in priorities. Therefore, policies aiming to provide men and women with equal opportunities to flourish should acknowledge that sex differences in some kinds of preferences and motivation may persist even in selective sub-populations.

  18. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  19. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All param

  20. CO2 leakage-induced vegetation decline is primarily driven by decreased soil O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-04-15

    To assess the potential risks of carbon capture and storage (CCS), studies have focused on vegetation decline caused by leaking CO2. Excess soil CO2 caused by leakage can affect soil O2 concentrations and soil pH, but how these two factors affect plant development remains poorly understood. This hinders the selection of appropriate species to mitigate potential negative consequences of CCS. Through pot experiments, we simulated CO2 leakage to examine its effects on soil pH and soil O2 concentrations. We subsequently assessed how maize growth responded to these changes in soil pH and O2. Decreased soil O2 concentrations significantly reduced maize biomass, and explained 69% of the biomass variation under CO2 leakage conditions. In contrast, although leaked CO2 changed soil pH significantly (from 7.32 to 6.75), it remained within the optimum soil pH range for maize growth. This suggests that soil O2 concentration, not soil pH, influences plant growth in these conditions. Therefore, in case of potential CO2 leakage risks, hypoxia-tolerant species should be chosen to improve plant survival, growth, and yield.

  1. Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  2. Decreased Empathic Responses to the 'Lucky Guy' in Love: The Effect of Intrasexual Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Zhang, Fangxiao; Wei, Chunli; Xu, Jialin; Wang, Qianfeng; Zhu, Lei; Roberts, Ian D; Guo, Xiuyan

    2016-01-01

    People have a greater desire to date highly attractive partners, which induces intrasexual competition between same-sex individuals. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether and how intrasexual competition modulates pain empathy for a same-sex rival and the underlying neural mechanism. Participants were scanned while processing the pain of a same-sex 'lucky guy' who had an attractive partner and one with a plain partner. The results revealed that participants reported lower pain intensity for the lucky guy. Neurally, reduced pain-related activations in anterior insula and anterior mid-cingulate cortex and increased activations in right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and medial prefrontal gyrus (MPFC) were found for the lucky guy compared to the one with a plain partner. Right SFG and MPFC activations could predict participants' subsequent pain intensity ratings for the lucky guy. These findings suggest intrasexual competition can modulate normal empathic responses.

  3. Designing forest vegetation management strategies based on the mechanisms and dynamics of crop tree competition by neighbouring vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Balandier; C. Collet; James H. Miller; P.E. Reynolds; S.M. Zedaker

    2006-01-01

    Plant interactions can be defined as the ways plants act upon the growth, fitness, survival and reproduction of other plants, largely by modifying their environment. These interactions can be positive (facilitation) or negative (competition or exploitation). During plantation establishment or natural forest regeneration after a disturbance, high light levels and,...

  4. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bridoux

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political arena

  5. Dissociation from beloved unhealthy brands decreases preference for and consumption of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Rebecca K; Connell, Paul M; Finkelstein, Stacey R

    2015-09-01

    Many people form strong bonds with brands, including those for unhealthy foods. Thus, prompting people to dissociate from beloved but unhealthy food brands is an intuitively appealing means to shift consumption away from unhealthy options and toward healthy options. Contrary to this position, we demonstrate that dissociating from unhealthy but beloved brands diminishes people's interest in consuming vegetables because the dissociation depletes self-regulatory resources. Across three experimental studies, we manipulate dissociation from two beloved brands both implicitly (studies 1-2) and explicitly (study 3) and observe effects on both preference for vegetables (studies 2-3) and actual vegetable consumption (study 1). In study 1, participants consumed fewer vegetables following dissociation from (vs. association with) a beloved candy brand. Study 2 demonstrates that the effect of depletion on preference for vegetables is more pronounced for those who strongly identify with the brand, as these individuals are most depleted by the dissociation attempt. Finally, study 3 illustrates that the difficulty experienced when trying to dissociate from beloved brands drives the observed effects on vegetable preference and consumption for those who strongly (vs. weakly) identify with the brand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕思思

    2007-01-01

    <正> The term competition reminds me of asoul-stirring fight between a mother monkeyand a crocodile,The crocodile caught her babywhen the baby was drinking water in a pool,Inthe end,the mother got her baby,but herbaby’s body only,She lost her child forever,just for a mouthful of water.Such is competition,cruel and merciless,But if we see the other side of the coin,we’ll

  7. Groundwater recharge decrease with increased vegetation density in the Brazilian Cerrado 2322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the cons...

  8. Recent developments in microbial oils production: a possible alternative to vegetable oils for biodiesel without competition with human food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries vegetable oils are consumed as human food but it also finds applications in biodiesel production which is attracting more attention. But due to being in competition with food it could not be sustainable and leads the need to search for alternative. Nowdays microbes-derived oils (single cell oils seem to be alternatives for biodiesel production due to their similar composition to that of vegetable oils. However, the cold flow properties of the biodiesel produced from microbial oils are unacceptable and have to be modified by an efficient transesterification. Glycerol which is by product of transesterification can be valorised into some more useful products so that it can also be utilised along with biodiesel to simplify the downstream processing. The review paper discusses about various potent microorganisms for biodiesel production, enzymes involved in the lipid accumulation, lipid quantification methods, catalysts used in transesterification (including enzymatic catalyst and valorisation of glycerol.

  9. Vegetation pattern formation in semiarid systems induced by long-range competition in the absence of facilitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Calabrese, Justin M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Lopez, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    Regular patterns and spatial organization of vegetation have been observed in many arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide, covering a diverse range of plant taxa and soil types. A key common ingredient in these systems is that plant growth is severely limited by water availability, and thus plants likely compete strongly for water. The study of such patterns is especially interesting because their features may reveal much about the underlying physical and biological processes that generated them in addition to giving information on the characteristics of the ecosystem. It is possible, for instance, to infer their resilience against anthropogenic disturbances or climatic changes that could cause abrupt shifts in the system and lead it to a desert state. Therefore much research has focused on identifying the underlying mechanisms that can produce spatial patterning in water-limited systems (Klausmeier, 1999). They are believed to arise from the interplay between long-range competition and facilitation processes acting at smaller distances (Borgogno et al., 2009). This combination of mechanisms is justified by arguing that water percolates more readily through the soil in vegetated areas (short range), and that plants compete for water resources over greater distances via long lateral roots (long range). However, recent studies have shown that even in the limit of local facilitation patterns may still appear (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013). In this work (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013b), we show that, under rather general conditions, long-range competition alone is the minimal ingredient to shape gapped and stripped vegetation patterns typical of models that also account for facilitation in addition to competition. To this end we propose a simple, general model for the dynamics of vegetation, which includes only long-range competition between plants. Competition is introduced through a nonlocal term, where the kernel function quantifies the intensity of the interaction

  10. DECREASING INDIRECT FISCAL PRESSURE – ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR COMPETITIVENESS ENHANCING OF ROMANIA’S TOURISM SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Loredana POPESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Present condition of Romanian economy is (still! bad enough, given the yet existent (aftereffects of world economic and financial crisis, so that this economy badly needs bolstering up in any manner whatsoever; considering this perspective, and Romania’s tourism potential, Romania’s tourism sector can become a hub of/for economic recovery. But, in order to do this, Romania’s policymakers need not lose from sight Romania’s long term objectives, whilst trying to attain (just the short term ones. For the latter’ achievement fiscal policy is a main tool, but if this tool is used in extremis tourism sector will definitely suffer. On the other hand, it is also true fiscal policy, if used wisely, is more than able to be an essential tool with which one can enhance competitiveness of Romania’s tourism sector.

  11. Decreasing deer browsing pressure influenced understory vegetation dynamics over 30 years

    OpenAIRE

    Boulanger, Vincent; Baltzinger, Christophe; Saïd, Sonia; Ballon, Philippe; Picard, Jean-Francois; Dupouey, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Key message Thanks to the concomitant recordings of vegetation and deer browsing sampled first in 1976, then resurveyed in 2006, we show that forest plant communities shifted in response to deer population dynamics, stand management and eutrophication. Context and aims High deer populations alter forest under-story dynamics worldwide. However, no study ever attempted to rank the importance of deer herbivory relatively to other environmental drivers. In the Arc-en-Barrois National Forest (...

  12. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Harris

    Full Text Available Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP. Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae, assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures

  13. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.;

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...

  14. Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallian, Aimee; Ordiz, Andrés; Metz, Matthew C; Milleret, Cyril; Wikenros, Camilla; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R; Kindberg, Jonas; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wabakken, Petter; Swenson, Jon E; Sand, Håkan

    2017-02-08

    Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as a proxy of kill rate. Although brown bears can monopolize wolf kills, we found no support in either study system for the common assumption that they cause wolves to kill more often. On the contrary, our results showed the opposite effect. In Scandinavia, wolf packs sympatric with brown bears killed less often than allopatric packs during both spring (after bear den emergence) and summer. Similarly, the presence of bears at wolf-killed ungulates was associated with wolves killing less often during summer in Yellowstone. The consistency in results between the two systems suggests that brown bear presence actually reduces wolf kill rate. Our results suggest that the influence of predation on lower trophic levels may depend on the composition of predator communities.

  15. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  16. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  17. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  18. Vegetation succession as affected by decreasing nitrogen deposition, soil characteristics and site management: A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Dobben, van H.F.; Berendse, F.

    2009-01-01

    After many years of increasing nitrogen deposition, the deposition rates are now decreasing. A major question is whether this will result in the expected positive effects on plant species diversity. Long-term experiments that investigate the effects of decreasing deposition are not available. Model

  19. Revising traditional theory on the link between plant body size and fitness under competition: evidence from old-field vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Amanda J; Aarssen, Lonnie W

    2014-04-01

    The selection consequences of competition in plants have been traditionally interpreted based on a "size-advantage" hypothesis - that is, under intense crowding/competition from neighbors, natural selection generally favors capacity for a relatively large plant body size. However, this conflicts with abundant data, showing that resident species body size distributions are usually strongly right-skewed at virtually all scales within vegetation. Using surveys within sample plots and a neighbor-removal experiment, we tested: (1) whether resident species that have a larger maximum potential body size (MAX) generally have more successful local individual recruitment, and thus greater local abundance/density (as predicted by the traditional size-advantage hypothesis); and (2) whether there is a general between-species trade-off relationship between MAX and capacity to produce offspring when body size is severely suppressed by crowding/competition - that is, whether resident species with a larger MAX generally also need to reach a larger minimum reproductive threshold size (MIN) before they can reproduce at all. The results showed that MIN had a positive relationship with MAX across resident species, and local density - as well as local density of just reproductive individuals - was generally greater for species with smaller MIN (and hence smaller MAX). In addition, the cleared neighborhoods of larger target species (which had relatively large MIN) generally had - in the following growing season - a lower ratio of conspecific recruitment within these neighborhoods relative to recruitment of other (i.e., smaller) species (which had generally smaller MIN). These data are consistent with an alternative hypothesis based on a 'reproductive-economy-advantage' - that is, superior fitness under competition in plants generally requires not larger potential body size, but rather superior capacity to recruit offspring that are in turn capable of producing grand-offspring - and hence

  20. Obtaining fruit and vegetables for the lowest prices: pricing survey of different outlets and geographical analysis of competition effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L Pearson

    Full Text Available AIMS: Inadequate fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption is an important dietary risk factor for disease internationally. High F&V prices can be a barrier to dietary intake and so to improve understanding of this topic we surveyed prices and potential competition between F&V outlet types. METHODS: Over a three week early autumn period in 2013, prices were collected bi-weekly for 18 commonly purchased F&Vs from farmers' markets (FM selling local produce (n = 3, other F&V markets (OFVM (n = 5, supermarkets that neighbored markets (n = 8, and more distant supermarkets (n = 8, (in urban Wellington and Christchurch areas of New Zealand. Prices from an online supermarket were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 3120 prices were collected. Most F&Vs (13/18 were significantly cheaper at OFVMs than supermarkets. Over half of the F&Vs (10/18 were significantly cheaper at nearby compared to distant supermarkets, providing evidence of a moderate 'halo effect' in price reductions in supermarkets that neighbored markets. Weekend (vs midweek prices were also significantly cheaper at nearby (vs distant supermarkets, supporting evidence for a 'halo effect'. Ideal weekly 'food basket' prices for a two adult, two child family were: OFVMs (NZ$76, online supermarket ($113, nearby supermarkets ($124, distant supermarkets ($127, and FMs ($138. This represents a savings of $49 per week (US$26 by using OFVMs relative to (non-online supermarkets. Similarly, a shift from non-online supermarkets to the online supermarket would generate a $13 saving. CONCLUSIONS: In these locations general markets appear to be providing some substantially lower prices for fruit and vegetables than supermarkets. They also appear to be depressing prices in neighboring supermarkets. These results, when supplemented by other needed research, may help inform the case for interventions to improve access to fruit and vegetables, particularly for low-income populations.

  1. Evolutionary Modeling Predicts a Decrease in Postcopulatory Sperm Viability as a Response to Increasing Levels of Sperm Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engqvist, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Sperm competition has been found to have a strong influence on the evolution of many male and female reproductive traits. Theoretical models have shown that, with increasing levels of sperm competition, males are predicted to increase ejaculate investment, and there is ample empirical evidence suppo

  2. Decreasing of transfer of caesium and strontium radionuclides from soil to vegetation - Use of modified aluminosilicates for decreasing of transfer of caesium and strontium radionuclides from soil to vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronina, Anna V.; Blinova, Marina O.; Semenischev, Vladimir S.; Kutergin, Andrey S. [Ural federal university, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The method of addition of sorbents to soils is seemed to be the most efficient for decreasing of transfer of radionuclides from soil to vegetation. Using sorbents should possess affinity to natural systems, high specificity and selectivity and also irreversibility of sorption of radionuclides for effective retention of radionuclides as well as to prevent their migration into vegetation and further movement through food chains. Specificity, selectivity and reversibility of sorption of caesium and strontium radionuclides by natural aluminosilicates (glauconite, clinoptilolite) and modified ferrocyanide sorbents based on them was studied in this work. It was shown that the natural glauconite sorbs caesium from tap water with distribution coefficient K{sub d} = 10{sup (3.5±0.1)} mL/g, static exchange capacity of Cs is 11.0 mg/g; it shows lower specificity to strontium: K{sub d} = 10(2.5±0.1) mL/g, static exchange capacity = 9 mg/g. For clinoptilolite these parameters are for caesium K{sub d} = 10(4.4±0.5) mL/g, static exchange capacity 210 mg/g; for strontium K{sub d} = 10(3.5±0.1) mL/g, capacity = 12 mg/g. Ferrocyanide sorbents concentrate caesium radionuclides more effectively: distribution coefficient of Cs from tap water by mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on glauconite is 10(5.9±1.6) mL/g, static exchange capacity of Cs is (63.0±2.0) mg/g; for mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on clinoptilolite these characteristics are respectively 10(7.4±1.3) mL/g, 500 mg/g. In case of modified sorbents specificity to strontium remains the same as for natural aluminosilicates. Reversibility of sorption of caesium by natural glauconite and ferrocyanide sorbent was determined as caesium leaching degree from saturated samples. High caesium leaching rates and degrees are typical for natural glauconite irrespective of leachant salinity: total degree of leaching after 35 days of leaching was: mineral water = 63.4%, tap water = 41.6% and rain water = 28.8%. For

  3. Application of a Coupled Vegetation Competition and Groundwater Simulation Model to Study Effects of Sea Level Rise and Storm Surges on Coastal Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yean Teh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change poses challenges to areas such as low-lying coastal zones, where sea level rise (SLR and storm-surge overwash events can have long-term effects on vegetation and on soil and groundwater salinities, posing risks of habitat loss critical to native species. An early warning system is urgently needed to predict and prepare for the consequences of these climate-related impacts on both the short-term dynamics of salinity in the soil and groundwater and the long-term effects on vegetation. For this purpose, the U.S. Geological Survey’s spatially explicit model of vegetation community dynamics along coastal salinity gradients (MANHAM is integrated into the USGS groundwater model (SUTRA to create a coupled hydrology–salinity–vegetation model, MANTRA. In MANTRA, the uptake of water by plants is modeled as a fluid mass sink term. Groundwater salinity, water saturation and vegetation biomass determine the water available for plant transpiration. Formulations and assumptions used in the coupled model are presented. MANTRA is calibrated with salinity data and vegetation pattern for a coastal area of Florida Everglades vulnerable to storm surges. A possible regime shift at that site is investigated by simulating the vegetation responses to climate variability and disturbances, including SLR and storm surges based on empirical information.

  4. Application of a coupled vegetation competition and groundwater simulation model to study effects of sea level rise and storm surges on coastal vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Turtora, Michael; DeAngelis, Don; Jiang Jiang,; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Smith, Thomas; Koh, Hock Lye

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change poses challenges to areas such as low-lying coastal zones, where sea level rise (SLR) and storm-surge overwash events can have long-term effects on vegetation and on soil and groundwater salinities, posing risks of habitat loss critical to native species. An early warning system is urgently needed to predict and prepare for the consequences of these climate-related impacts on both the short-term dynamics of salinity in the soil and groundwater and the long-term effects on vegetation. For this purpose, the U.S. Geological Survey’s spatially explicit model of vegetation community dynamics along coastal salinity gradients (MANHAM) is integrated into the USGS groundwater model (SUTRA) to create a coupled hydrology–salinity–vegetation model, MANTRA. In MANTRA, the uptake of water by plants is modeled as a fluid mass sink term. Groundwater salinity, water saturation and vegetation biomass determine the water available for plant transpiration. Formulations and assumptions used in the coupled model are presented. MANTRA is calibrated with salinity data and vegetation pattern for a coastal area of Florida Everglades vulnerable to storm surges. A possible regime shift at that site is investigated by simulating the vegetation responses to climate variability and disturbances, including SLR and storm surges based on empirical information.

  5. Marble waste and pig manure amendments decrease metal availability, increase soil quality and facilitate vegetation development in bare mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Acosta, José A.; Gómez, M. Dolores; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In order to bring out a functional and sustainable land use in a highly contaminated mine tailing, firstly environmental risks have to be reduced or eliminated by suitable reclamation activities. Tailing ponds pose environmental hazards, such as acidity and toxic metals reaching to waters through wind and water erosions and leaching. As a consequence, soils have no vegetation and low soil organic matter and nutrients. Various physicochemical and biochemical properties, together with exchangeable metals were measured before, 6 months and 12 months after the application of marble waste and pigs manure as reclamation strategy in a tailing pond from SE Spain to reduce hazards for environment and human health. Three months after the last addition of amendments, eight different native shrub species where planted for phytostabilization. Results showed the pH increased up to neutrality. Aggregates stability, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, bioavailable phosphorus and potassium, microbial biomass and microbial activity increased with the application of the amendments, while exchangeable metals drastically decreased (~90%). After one year of plantation, only 20% planted species died, with a high growth of survivals reaching flowering and fructification. This study confirms the high effectiveness of initial applications of marble wastes together with pig manure and plantation of shrub species to initialize the recovery of the ecosystem in bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions. Key Words: pig manure, marble waste, heavy metals, mine soil. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project MIPOLARE (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000439). J.A. Acosta acknowledges a "Saavedra Fajardo" contract from Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia (Spain)

  6. Decrease of lichens in Arctic ecosystems: the role of wildfire, caribou, reindeer, competition and climate in north-western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle Joly; Randi R. Jandt; David R. Klein

    2009-01-01

    We review and present a synthesis of the existing research dealing with changing Arctic tundra ecosystems, in relation to caribou and reindeer winter ranges. Whereas pan-Arctic studies have documented the effects on tundra vegetation from simulated climate change, we draw upon recent long-term regional studies in Alaska that have documented the actual, on-the-ground...

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  8. Is the interaction between Retama sphaerocarpa and its understorey herbaceous vegetation always reciprocally positive? Competition?facilitation shift during Retama establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, Tíscar; López-Pintor, Antonio; Rey Benayas, José M.

    2004-10-01

    Retama sphaerocarpa is a Mediterranean shrub that when adult, facilitates the establishment of herbaceous plants under its canopy. We test the hypothesis that during the establishment of R. sphaerocarpa seedlings, the interaction with the herbaceous plants is negative. We carried out a greenhouse experiment in which seedlings of R. sphaerocarpa were grown under different conditions of competition with herbs, watering and date of emergence. Measurements of seedling mortality, biomass and growth were taken during the first growing season. We found a significant relationship between R. sphaerocarpa seedling mortality and competition in early spring, presumably due to higher water demand of herbaceous plants. Generally, presence of herbaceous species, lower availability of water and late emergence had negative effects on biomass and growth of Retama seedlings. Additional water compensated for the negative effects of competition, except on leaves and cladodes of Retama seedlings, suggesting that other resources, such as light, could be the subject of competition. In contrast, Retama seedlings exerted a positive influence on the herbaceous plants by increasing their survival and biomass, probably as a consequence of the high availability of nutrients provided by the Rhizobia nodules in the roots of Retama seedlings. We concluded that, at the regeneration stage of the shrub, the interaction between the herbaceous vegetation and the shrub is negative for the shrub and positive for the herbs. This suggests a shift from competition to facilitation with age of Retama, as reciprocal positive interactions have been described between herbaceous plants and adult individuals of the shrub.

  9. Vegetable consumption is linked to decreased visceral and liver fat and improved insulin resistance in overweight Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lauren T; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Goran, Michael I; Weigensberg, Marc J; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2014-11-01

    There are limited data on the influence of vegetable consumption on adiposity and metabolic health, specifically nonstarchy vegetables and vegetables that are dark green and deep orange/yellow (also known as nutrient-rich vegetables). Our study examines the relationship between vegetable intake and adiposity, liver fat, and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. This cross-sectional study of 175 overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) Latino youth (aged 8 to 18 years), with data collected during 2006-2011, included the following: dietary intake via multiple 24-hour recalls, total body fat via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, adipose tissue distribution and liver fat via magnetic resonance imaging, and insulin dynamics via frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Linear regression and analysis of covariance were used for analysis, with the following a priori covariates: age, sex, energy intake, and total body fat. Participants who consumed the most nonstarchy vegetables (mean intake=1.7±1.0 servings/day) compared with the least (mean intake=0.1±0.1 servings/day) had 44% less liver fat (10.0%±8.5% vs 5.6%±8.7%; P=0.01). Nutrient-rich vegetable intake was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=0.19; P=0.03). Consumers of nutrient-rich vegetables (mean intake=0.3±0.4 servings/day [n=107]), compared with nonconsumers (n=68), had 31% increased insulin sensitivity (1.6±1.6 vs 2.1±1.3×10(⁻⁴)/min/μU/mL; P=0.03) and 17% less visceral adipose tissue (2.3±0.9 vs 1.9±0.7 L; P=0.01). Consumption of specific vegetable types by overweight Latino youth is associated with positive metabolic outcomes, including reduced visceral and liver fat and risk factors for type 2 diabetes, even when consumed in small quantities. These may be relevant targets for interventions.

  10. 漳州市果蔬出口国际竞争力分析%Analysis of International Competitiveness and Strategy of Fruits and Vegetables Export in Zhangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莉莉

    2015-01-01

    分析漳州市果蔬出口品种结构和国际市场地理分布两方面的特征与变化,综合运用贸易竞争力指数、市场占有率指数等三项国际竞争力指标对漳州市不同种类果蔬的出口竞争力进行数据分析。结果表明,漳州市果蔬出口贸易竞争力较高;出口增长优势相对薄弱;市场占有率逐年缓慢下降且与发达国家相比存在一定的差距;出口市场过于集中、低价出口模式受挑战、地域品牌国际竞争力薄弱以及农产品出口成品增加等四个主导因素对出口贸易增长有影响;建议:加快建设绿色蔬菜标准化体系,加强绿色农业创新,打造国际品牌,完善农产品市场调控机制。%The paper systematically discusses the features and changes of export stucture and international trade geography of Zhangzhou's fruits and vegetables .It takes TC ,MS and other competitive indexes to analyze export competitiveness of Zhan‐gzhou's different kinds of fruits and vegetables .The result showes that Zhangzhou's fruits and vegetables has international competitiveness ;and the Export growth advantage is weak ;and also the MS index is weaker than develpoed countries .On the basis of the above ,this paper mainly analyzes three leading factors of the expot growth including concentration of export market ,low‐price model ,lack of international brand ,and increasing of export cost .Consequently ,it puts forward some rec‐ommendations for improving international competitiveness of Zhangzhou's fruits and vegatables .Estabilishing standardization system of green vegetables ,innovation of green technology ,subdivision of international market ,building the international brand and improvement of agricultural market regulation are all included .

  11. Storage of Fruits and Vegetables in Refrigerator Increases their Phenolic Acids but Decreases the Total Phenolics, Anthocyanins and Vitamin C with Subsequent Loss of their Antioxidant Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilesh J.; Talati, Jayant G.

    2017-01-01

    It is of paramount importance for consumers, scientists and industrialists to understand how low-temperature storage of food items affects their bioactive compounds and properties. This study evaluated the effects of cold storage on total phenolics (TP), phenolic acids profile (PA), total anthocyanins (TA), total ascorbic acid (Vit. C) and antioxidant activity (AA) of 19 fruits and vegetables, collected from local Indian markets and stored in refrigerator (4 °C) during 15 days. Content of TP was highest in dill and amaranth and decreased (up to 29.67%) with storage. Leafy vegetables (amaranth, dill, onion, fenugreek and spinach) contained higher amounts of the 12 PA revealed by UPLC-UV; ellagic, gallic, sinapic and vanillic acids levels were the highest; chlorogenic acid (ρ = 0.423), syringic acid (ρ = 0.403) and sinapic acid (ρ = 0.452) mostly correlated with TP; and the PA increased during storage. Highest contents of Vit C estimated by AOAC, DCPIP and DNP methods were found in amaranth, dill and pomegranate, and decreased with storage. Pomegranate showed highest TA levels and low-temperature storage did not significantly increase TA, which was the largest contributor of TP in fruits and vegetables (ρ = 0.661). Storage induced a drastic decrease of AA, which mostly correlated with TP (ρ = 0.808, 0.690 and 0.458 for DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, respectively). Spearman’s correlation confirmed by principal component analysis demonstrated that dill, pomegranate and amaranth had the highest overall antioxidant capacity, whereas orange juice and carrot showed the lowest. The results provide support for a key-role of TP, followed by Vit. C and TA in antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables, which could be interesting dietary sources of natural antioxidants for prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress. PMID:28737734

  12. L655,240, acting as a competitive BACE1 inhibitor,efficiently decreases β-amyloid peptide production in HEK293-APPswe cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin LU; Wu-yan CHEN; Zhi-yuan ZHU; Jing CHEN; Ye-chun XU; Morakot KAEWPET; Vatcharin RUKACHAISIRIKUL; Li-li CHEN; Xu SHEN

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To identify a small molecule L655,240 as a novel β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitor and to investigate its effects on β-amyloid (Aβ)generation in vitro.Methods: Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to characterize the inhibitory effect of L655,240 on BACE1.Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology-based assay was performed to study the binding affinity of L655,240 for BACE1.The selectivity of L655,240 toward BACE1 over other aspartic proteases was determined with enzymatic assay.The effects of L655,240 on Aβ40,Aβ42,and sAPPβ production were studied in HEK293 cells stably expressing APP695 Swedish mutantK595N/M596L (HEK293-APPswe cells).The activities of BACE1,ν-secretase and α-secretase were assayed,and both the mRNA and protein levels of APP and BACE1 were evaluated using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis.Results: L655,240 was determined to be a competitive,selective BACE1 inhibitor (IC50=4.47±1.37 μmol/L),which bound to BACE1 directly (KD=17.9±0.72 μmol/L).L655,240 effectively reduced Aβ40,Aβ42,and sAPPβ production by inhibiting BACE1 without affecting the activities of y-secretase and α-secretase in HEK293-APPswe cells.L655,240 has no effect on APP and BACE1 mRNA or protein levels in HEK293-APPswe cells.Conclusion: The small molecule L655,240 is a novel BACE1 inhibitor that can effectively decreases Aβ production in vitro,thereby highlighting its therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Early Stages of Sea-Level Rise Lead To Decreased Salt Marsh Plant Diversity through Stronger Competition in Mediterranean-Climate Marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Akana E; Shurin, Jonathan B

    2017-01-01

    Climate change shuffles species ranges and creates novel interactions that may either buffer communities against climate change or exacerbate its effect. For instance, facilitation can become more prevalent in salt marshes under stressful conditions while competition is stronger in benign environments. Sea-level rise (SLR) is a consequence of climate change that affects the distribution of stress from inundation and salinity. To determine how interactions early in SLR are affected by changes in these two stressors in Mediterranean-climate marshes, we transplanted marsh turfs to lower elevations to simulate SLR and manipulated cover of the dominant plant species, Salicornia pacifica (formerly Salicornia virginica). We found that both S. pacifica and the subordinate species were affected by inundation treatments, and that subordinate species cover and diversity were lower at low elevations in the presence of S. pacifica than when it was removed. These results suggest that the competitive effect of S. pacifica on other plants is stronger at lower tidal elevations where we also found that salinity is reduced. As sea levels rise, stronger competition by the dominant plant will likely reduce diversity and cover of subordinate species, suggesting that stronger species interactions will exacerbate the effects of climate change on the plant community.

  14. Analysis of International Competitiveness of China's Vegetables Export Trade Based on "10+3" FTA Framework%基于“10+3”FTA框架的中国蔬菜国际竞争力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莹; 穆月英

    2012-01-01

    The integration of the East Asia region and its regional liberalization are constantly influencing the development of China's vegetable export trade, and make the analysis of China's international competitiveness of vegetable export extremely significant. On analyzing the basic characteristics of China's vegetable export trade, this paper used price comparison within the region, the regional revealed comparative advantages and trade competitiveness index to carry out preliminary analysis. Finally the CMS model is applied to analyze the structural reasons for the changes in comparativeness. The results show that our vegetable export share to Japan and South Korea is declining, while that to ASEAN is continuously rising, but within the international and "10+3" range, the revealed comparative advantage of our vegetable export is weakening. Under "10+3" FTA framework, the demands for our vegetable export still show the trend of sustainable expansion. The export share and amount decline in mainly due to the improper structure of our vegetable export trade commodity.%东亚区域一体化与区域自由化的国际环境在不断影响着中国蔬菜出口贸易的发展,使得对作为世界上蔬菜贸易大国的中国的蔬菜国际竞争力成为分析的重点.本文在分析中国蔬菜出口贸易基本特点的基础上,首先运用区域性价格比较、区域显示性比较优势以及贸易竞争力指数对蔬菜国际竞争力进行初步分析,最后运用CMS模型对蔬菜国际竞争力变动的结构原因进行分解分析.得出主要结论:我国对日本、韩国蔬菜出口份额不断下降,而对东盟蔬菜出口份额持续上升;我国蔬菜出口在国际和“10+3”范围的显示性比较优势存在减弱趋势;“10+3”FTA框架下,我国出口蔬菜需求存在持续扩张趋势,但由于我国出口蔬菜贸易商品结构不当,造成出口份额与出口额的下降.

  15. Long-term decrease in satellite vegetation indices in response to environmental variables in an iconic desert riparian ecosystem: the Upper San Pedro, Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River is one of the few remaining undammed rivers that maintain a vibrant riparian ecosystem in the southwest United States. However, its riparian forest is threatened by diminishing groundwater and surface water inputs, due to either changes in watershed characteristics such as changes in riparian and upland vegetation, or human activities such as regional groundwater pumping. We used satellite vegetation indices to quantify the green leaf density of the groundwater-dependent riparian forest from 1984 to 2012. The river was divided into a southern, upstream (mainly perennial flow) reach and a northern, downstream (mainly intermittent and ephemeral flow) reach. Pre-monsoon (June) Landsat normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed a 20% drop for the northern reach (P  0·05). NDVI and enhanced vegetation index values were positively correlated (P factor in reducing river flows. Climate change, regional groundwater pumping, changes in the intensity of monsoon rain events and lack of overbank flooding are feasible explanations for deterioration of the riparian forest in the northern reach.

  16. The Weird Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government faces the task of stabilizing vegetable prices to avoid steep increases and dips Fluctuations of vegetable prices in China have recently caused near panic in the domestic market.Purchase prices for farm produce are decreasing dramatically

  17. Competition for light and water increases tree carbon allocation to fine roots and leaves in a next-generation dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichstein, J. W.; Zhang, T.; Weng, E.; Farrior, C.; Dybzinski, R.; Birdsey, R.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The response of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle to climate change is a key uncertainty in land models. An important component of this uncertainty concerns plant functional diversity, which is typically represented in land models by ~10 functional types (PFTs) with fixed traits. However, few land models include the individual-level competitive mechanisms that largely determine how plant functional traits are distributed in time and space in real ecosystems. We have developed a new land model that represents height-structured competition for light with a simple canopy space-filling algorithm, the perfect plasticity approximation (PPA). The new land model, LM3-PPA, allows for an arbitrary number of PFTs (or 'species') whose spatial-temporal distributions are determined by the outcome of competition for light and water. We performed experiments with a modified version of LM3-PPA in 10 eastern U.S. grid cells and across simulated precipitation gradients to determine how competition for light and water affects tree C allocation to leaves, fine roots, and wood across climate gradients and in response to episodic drought. We studied the performance of 16 allocational types ('species') in monoculture and in competition with each other to determine the competitively-optimal, NPP-maximizing, and biomass-maximizing C allocation strategy under different environmental conditions. Under chronically moist conditions, competitively-optimal, NPP-maximizing, and biomass-maximizing trees all had similar C allocation. However, under chronically dry conditions, competitively-optimal trees allocated more C to both fine roots and leaves, and less C to wood, compared to NPP- or biomass-maximizing strategies. When subject to episodic drought, the most drought-tolerant allocational strategies had relatively low allocation to leaves (and thus low leaf area and low water demand). Thus, the "over-investment" in leaves that results from resource competition increases the vulnerability of

  18. 世界主要木本植物油产业发展变动与国际竞争力分析%Analysis on the World's Major Woody Vegetable Oil Industry Development and International Competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时小琳; 卢素兰; 郑洁

    2014-01-01

    运用USDA、FAOSTAT和UN Comtrade中的相关数据,分析了世界主要木本植物油产业发展的变动情况,总结出其生产、消费、进出口贸易的特点和规律,并对椰子油、橄榄油、棕榈油和棕榈仁油各自出口额排名前5位国家的主要木本植物油的国际竞争力进行比较研究,采用进出口数据评价法中最常用的RCA指数作为评价指标来判断其国际竞争力的强弱。%Using the relevant data from USDA, FAOSTAT and UN Comtrade, this paper analyzes the world's major woody vegetable oil industry development, summarizes the characteristics of its production, consumption, import and export trade, and does research on the international competitiveness of the major woody vegetable oil of these countries which are ranked in the top five for the coconut oil, olive oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil’s exports. As the most commonly used evaluation index, RCA index is used to judge the strength of the international competitiveness.

  19. Dietary Intake of Fiber, Fruit and Vegetables Decreases the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones in Women: A Women's Health Initiative Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, MD; Hsi, RS; Chi, T; Shara, N; Wactawski-Wende, J; Kahn, AJ; Wang, H.; Hou, L; Stoller, ML

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Results Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p

  20. Inferring local competition intensity from patch size distributions: a test using biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2012-01-01

    Dryland vegetation is inherently patchy. This patchiness goes on to impact ecology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Recently, researchers have proposed that dryland vegetation patch sizes follow a power law which is due to local plant facilitation. It is unknown what patch size distribution prevails when competition predominates over facilitation, or if such a pattern could be used to detect competition. We investigated this question in an alternative vegetation type, mosses and lichens of biological soil crusts, which exhibit a smaller scale patch-interpatch configuration. This micro-vegetation is characterized by competition for space. We proposed that multiplicative effects of genetics, environment and competition should result in a log-normal patch size distribution. When testing the prevalence of log-normal versus power law patch size distributions, we found that the log-normal was the better distribution in 53% of cases and a reasonable fit in 83%. In contrast, the power law was better in 39% of cases, and in 8% of instances both distributions fit equally well. We further hypothesized that the log-normal distribution parameters would be predictably influenced by competition strength. There was qualitative agreement between one of the distribution's parameters (μ) and a novel intransitive (lacking a 'best' competitor) competition index, suggesting that as intransitivity increases, patch sizes decrease. The correlation of μ with other competition indicators based on spatial segregation of species (the C-score) depended on aridity. In less arid sites, μ was negatively correlated with the C-score (suggesting smaller patches under stronger competition), while positive correlations (suggesting larger patches under stronger competition) were observed at more arid sites. We propose that this is due to an increasing prevalence of competition transitivity as aridity increases. These findings broaden the emerging theory surrounding dryland patch size distributions

  1. The effect of nitrogen and glyphosate on survival and colonisation of perennial grass species in an agro-ecosystem: does the relative importance of survival decrease with competitive ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Beate; Mathiassen, Solvejg K; Kudsk, Per

    2013-01-01

    The ecological success of a plant species is typically described by the observed change in plant abundance or cover, but in order to more fully understand the fundamental plant ecological processes, it is necessary to inspect the underlying processes of survival and colonization and how they are affected by environmental conditions. A general ecological hypothesis on the effect of environmental gradients on demographic parameters is proposed and tested. The hypothesis is that decreasing fitness or competitive ability along an environmental gradient is associated with an increasing importance of survival for regulating the abundance of the species. The tested hypothesis is related to both the stress gradient hypothesis and whether the importance of competition increases along productivity gradients. The combined effect of nitrogen and glyphosate on the survival and colonization probability of two perennial grass species, Festuca ovina and Agrostis capillaris, which are known to differ in their responses to both glyphosate and nitrogen treatments, is calculated using pin-point cover data in permanent frames. We found that the relative importance of survival increased with the level of glyphosate for the glyphosate sensitive A. capillaris and decreased for the glyphosate tolerant F. ovina. Likewise, increasing levels of nitrogen increased the importance of survival for the relative nitrophobic F. ovina. Consequently, the proposed hypothesis was corroborated in this specific study. The proposed method will enable predictions of the effects of agricultural practices on community dynamics in a relatively simple setup eliminating the need to quantify all the interaction among the species in the plant community. The method will be immediately useful for the regulation of non-cultivated buffer strips between agricultural fields and semi-natural and natural biotopes such as hedgerows and waterways.

  2. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  3. Friendly competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change.

  4. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  5. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  6. Does prescribed fire benefit wetland vegetation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, C.; Bounds, D.L.; Ruby, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fire on wetland vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States are poorly known, despite the historical use of fire by federal, state, and private landowners in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Prescribed fire is widely used by land managers to promote vegetation that is beneficial to migratory waterfowl, muskrats, and other native wildlife and to reduce competition from less desirable plant species. We compared vegetative response to two fire rotations, annual burns and 3-year burns, and two control sites, Control 1 and Control 2. We tested the effects of fire within six tidal marsh wetlands at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge and Fishing Bay Wildlife Management Area in Maryland. We examined changes in total live biomass (all species), total stem density, litter, and changes in live biomass and stem density of four dominant wetland plant species (11 variables). Our results suggest that annual prescribed fires will decrease the accumulation of litter, increase the biomass and stem densities of some wetland plants generally considered less desirable for wildlife, and have little or no effect on other wetland plants previously thought to benefit from fire. ?? 2011 US Government.

  7. Water management can reinforce plant competition in salt-affected semi-arid wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Janaine Z.; Vogwill, Ryan; Hipsey, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The diversity of vegetation in semi-arid, ephemeral wetlands is determined by niche availability and species competition, both of which are influenced by changes in water availability and salinity. Here, we hypothesise that ignoring physiological differences and competition between species when managing wetland hydrologic regimes can lead to a decrease in vegetation diversity, even when the overall wetland carrying capacity is improved. Using an ecohydrological model capable of resolving water-vegetation-salt feedbacks, we investigate why water surface and groundwater management interventions to combat vegetation decline have been more beneficial to Casuarina obesa than to Melaleuca strobophylla, the co-dominant tree species in Lake Toolibin, a salt-affected wetland in Western Australia. The simulations reveal that in trying to reduce the negative effect of salinity, the management interventions have created an environment favouring C. obesa by intensifying the climate-induced trend that the wetland has been experiencing of lower water availability and higher root-zone salinity. By testing alternative scenarios, we show that interventions that improve M. strobophylla biomass are possible by promoting hydrologic conditions that are less specific to the niche requirements of C. obesa. Modelling uncertainties were explored via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Overall, the study demonstrates the importance of including species differentiation and competition in ecohydrological models that form the basis for wetland management.

  8. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  9. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  10. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  11. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  12. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  13. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  14. Optimal Competition : A Benchmark for Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces optimal competition: the best form of competition in an industry that a competition authority can achieve under the information constraint that it cannot observe firms' effciency levels.We show that the optimal competition outcome in an industry becomes more competitive as more

  15. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  16. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  17. Apparent competition and native consumers exacerbate the strong competitive effect of an exotic plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Dutra, Humberto P; Marquis, Robert J; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Direct and indirect effects can play a key role in invasions, but experiments evaluating both are rare. We examined the roles of direct competition and apparent competition by exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) by manipulating (1) L. maackii vegetation, (2) presence of L. maackii fruits, and (3) access to plants by small mammals and deer. Direct competition with L. maackii reduced the abundance and richness of native and exotic species, and native consumers significantly reduced the abundance and richness of native species. Although effects of direct competition and consumption were more pervasive, richness of native plants was also reduced through apparent competition, as small-mammal consumers reduced richness only when L. maackii fruits were present. Our experiment reveals the multiple, interactive pathways that affect the success and impact of an invasive exotic plant: exotic plants may directly benefit from reduced attack by native consumers, may directly exert strong competitive effects on native plants, and may also benefit from apparent competition.

  18. The future of competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Gary; Jensen, Boris Brorman; Miessen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition....

  19. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  20. Biased inheritance of the protein PatN frees vegetative cells to initiate patterned heterocyst differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Douglas D; Wong, Francis C Y; Meeks, John C

    2012-09-18

    Heterocysts, cells specialized for nitrogen fixation in certain filamentous cyanobacteria, appear singly in a nonrandom spacing pattern along the chain of vegetative cells. A two-stage, biased initiation and competitive resolution model has been proposed to explain the establishment of this spacing pattern. There is substantial evidence that competitive resolution of a subset of cells initiating differentiation occurs by interactions between a self-enhancing activator protein, HetR, and a diffusible pentapeptide inhibitor PatS-5 (RGSGR). Results presented here show that the absence of a unique membrane protein, PatN, in Nostoc punctiforme strain ATCC 29133 leads to a threefold increase in heterocyst frequency and a fourfold decrease in the vegetative cell interval between heterocysts. A PatN-GFP translational fusion shows a pattern of biased inheritance in daughter vegetative cells of ammonium-grown cultures. Inactivation of another heterocyst patterning gene, patA, is epistatic to inactivation of patN, and transcription of patA increases in a patN-deletion strain, implying that patN may function by modulating levels of patA. The presence of PatN is hypothesized to decrease the competency of a vegetative cell to initiate heterocyst differentiation, and the cellular concentration of PatN is dependent on cell division that results in cells transiently depleted of PatN. We suggest that biased inheritance of cell-fate determinants is a phylogenetic domain-spanning paradigm in the development of biological patterns.

  1. General Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains vector digital data for vegetation groupings in New Mexico at a 1:1,000,000 scale. The source software was ARC/INFO 5.0.1 and the conversion...

  2. Bank Mergers, Competition and Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2004-01-01

    We model the impact of bank mergers on loan competition, reserve holdings and aggregate liquidity. A merger changes the distribution of liquidity shocks and creates an internal money market, leading to financial cost efficiencies and more precise estimates of liquidity needs. The merged banks may increase their reserve holdings through an internalization effect or decrease them because of a diversification effect. The merger also affects loan market competition, which in turn modifies the dis...

  3. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

    2008-03-31

    Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

  4. Effects of fertility, weed density and crop competition on biomass partitioning in Centaurea cyanus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Chachulski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental factors on biomass partitioning of annual arable weed Centaurea cyanus was analysed. We investigated the effect of fertilisation, density and competition with the winter rye crop on the reproductive investment. Three fertiliser treatments and three density levels were applied. In Centaurea cyanus differences in the pattern of biomass allocation to reproduction are related to plant size. The relationship between reproductive and vegetative mass is close to linear. It is consistent with the model of linear size-dependent reproductive output. In Centaurea cyanus this model worked well for size differences that have been generated by interspecific competition, nutrients supply and density. Our data support the hypothesis that plastic changes in relationship between vegetative and generative biomass are environmentally-induced. Significantly different relationship between vegetative and reproductive biomass were detected among populations growing at different density and fertility levels. The fertilisation with mineral fertiliser and manure resulted in an increase of generative biomass allocated to flowerheads and a decrease of reproductive effort. Generative dry weight increased more rapidly with plant size in higher densities of population and at lower fertility levels. The experiment showed that the rate of weight allocated to reproductive structures was bigger under the pressure of competition with cereal crop. At low fertility level and high density, when the individuals were small, generative biomass increased faster with plant size. The production of seeds was not directly dependent on biomass allocated into total reproductive structures. At low level, of nutrient supply C. cyanus gave more offspring per gram of its biomass. We discuss the results in context of life-history theory. From the strategic point of view, size-dependent variation in reproductive effort and in efficiency of reproduction can be

  5. Investigation of North American Vegetation Variability under Recent Climate: A Study Using the SSiB4/TRIFFID Biophysical/Dynamic Vegetation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqiu; Xue, Yongkang; MacDonald, Glen; Cox, Peter M.; Collatz, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that current dynamic vegetation models have serious weaknesses in reproducing the observed vegetation dynamics and contribute to bias in climate simulations. This study intends to identify the major factors that underlie the connections between vegetation dynamics and climate variability and investigates vegetation spatial distribution and temporal variability at seasonal to decadal scales over North America (NA) to assess a 2-D biophysical model/dynamic vegetation model's (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4, coupled with the Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID)) ability to simulate these characteristics for the past 60 years (1948 through 2008). Satellite data are employed as constraints for the study and to compare the relationships between vegetation and climate from the observational and the simulation data sets. Trends in NA vegetation over this period are examined. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis, leaf drop threshold temperatures, and competition coefficients in the Lotka-Volterra equation, which describes the population dynamics of species competing for some common resource, have been identified as having major impacts on vegetation spatial distribution and obtaining proper initial vegetation conditions in SSiB4/TRIFFID. The finding that vegetation competition coefficients significantly affect vegetation distribution suggests the importance of including biotic effects in dynamical vegetation modeling. The improved SSiB4/TRIFFID can reproduce the main features of the NA distributions of dominant vegetation types, the vegetation fraction, and leaf area index (LAI), including its seasonal, interannual, and decadal variabilities. The simulated NA LAI also shows a general increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Both simulation and satellite observations reveal that LAI increased substantially in the southeastern U.S. starting from the 1980

  6. Investigation of North American vegetation variability under recent climate: A study using the SSiB4/TRIFFID biophysical/dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqiu; Xue, Yongkang; MacDonald, Glen; Cox, Peter M.; Collatz, G. James

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that current dynamic vegetation models have serious weaknesses in reproducing the observed vegetation dynamics and contribute to bias in climate simulations. This study intends to identify the major factors that underlie the connections between vegetation dynamics and climate variability and investigates vegetation spatial distribution and temporal variability at seasonal to decadal scales over North America (NA) to assess a 2-D biophysical model/dynamic vegetation model's (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4, coupled with the Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID)) ability to simulate these characteristics for the past 60 years (1948 through 2008). Satellite data are employed as constraints for the study and to compare the relationships between vegetation and climate from the observational and the simulation data sets. Trends in NA vegetation over this period are examined. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis, leaf drop threshold temperatures, and competition coefficients in the Lotka-Volterra equation, which describes the population dynamics of species competing for some common resource, have been identified as having major impacts on vegetation spatial distribution and obtaining proper initial vegetation conditions in SSiB4/TRIFFID. The finding that vegetation competition coefficients significantly affect vegetation distribution suggests the importance of including biotic effects in dynamical vegetation modeling. The improved SSiB4/TRIFFID can reproduce the main features of the NA distributions of dominant vegetation types, the vegetation fraction, and leaf area index (LAI), including its seasonal, interannual, and decadal variabilities. The simulated NA LAI also shows a general increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Both simulation and satellite observations reveal that LAI increased substantially in the southeastern U.S. starting from the 1980

  7. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  8. Lime and Phosphate Could Reduce Cadmium Uptake by Five Vegetables Commonly Grown in South ChinaABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Wan-Neng; LI Zhi-An; QIU Jing; ZOU Bi; LI Ning-Yu; ZHUANG Ping; WANG Gang

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in artificially Cd-contaminated (5 mg Cd kg-1) soils to investigate the feasibility of using lime (3 g kg-1) or phosphate (80 mg P kg-1) to mitigate uptake of Cd by vegetables. Five common vegetables in South China, including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. ramosa Hort.), Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa L. subsp. Chinensis (L.) var. parachinensis (L. H. Bailey) Hanect], Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. albiflora Kuntze), white amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and purslane (Amaranthus viridis L.), were grown in the soils and harvested after 60 d. The results showed that liming significantly reduced Cd uptake by most vegetables by 40%-50% (or a maximum of 70%), mainly due to immobilization of soil Cd. Increased availability of Ca in the soil might also contribute to the Cd uptake reduction as a result of absorption competition between Ca and Cd. Liming caused biomass reduction in white amaranth and purslane, but did not influence growth of the other vegetables. Phosphate decreased Cd uptake by vegetables by 12%-23%. Compared with lime, phosphate decreased, to a smaller extent, the bioavailability of Cd in most cases. Phosphate markedly promoted growth of vegetables. Changes in soil chemistry by adding lime or phosphate did not markedly influence nutrient uptake of vegetables except that lime increased Ca content and phosphate increased P content in shoots of the vegetables. The results suggested that a proper application of lime could be effective in reducing Cd uptake of vegetables, and phosphate could promote growth of the vegetables as well as alleviate the toxicity of Cd.

  9. CHINA-ASEAN International Competition in Fruit and Vegetable Product Export: An Empirical Analysis Based on American, Japanese, Korean, EU and Hong Kong Markets%中国与东盟果蔬产品出口国际竞争研究——基才美、日、韩、欧盟和香港市场的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国松; 朱晶

    2011-01-01

    以果蔬产品出口为研究对象,借助市场集中度指数、出口多样性指数、出口相似度指数以及CTG指数全面分析了中国与东盟国家在主要目标市场上的贸易关系。研究结果表明中国与东盟的果蔬产品在主要目标市场存在较强的竞争关系,且中国在部分产品上具有竞争优势。因此,中国在巩固已有市场的同时,可借助中国独有的竞争优势,开拓与东盟错位竞争的新市场。%This paper regards the export of fruit and vegetable products as research objects and applies market concentration index, export diversity index, export similarity index and CTG index to probe into the trade relationship between China and ASEAN in the major target markets comprehensively. It finds that there exists a strong competition between China and ASEAN in the fruit and vegetable field and China shows notable comparative advantages over ASEAN on some specific products. Therefore, China can compete with ASEAN by using its unique advantages to develop new parallel markets, and simultaneously maintain its present share in the worldwide fruit and vegetable markets.

  10. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  11. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  12. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  13. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely......We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  14. Identification of Forest Vegetation Using Vegetation Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Spectral feature of forest vegetation with remote sensing techniques is the research topic all over the world, because forest plays an important role in human beings' living environment. Research on vegetation classification with vegetation index is still very little recently. This paper proposes a method of identifying forest types based on vegetation indices,because the contrast of absorbing red waveband with reflecting near-infrared waveband strongly for different vegetation types is recognized as the theoretic basis of vegetation analysis with remote sensing. Vegetation index is highly related to leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation cover. Vegetation index reflects photosynthesis intensity of plants and manifests different forest types. According to reflectance data of forest canopy and soil line equation NIR=1.506R+0.0076 in Jingyuetan, Changchun of China, many vegetation indices are calculated and analyzed. The result shows that the relationships between vegetation indices and forest types are that perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) identifies broadleaf forest and coniferous forest the most easily;the next is transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index(TSVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index(MSVI), but their calculation is complex. Ratio vegetation index (RVT) values of different coniferous forest vary obviously, so RVI can classify conifers.Therefore, the combination of PVI and RVI is evaluated to classify different vegetation types.

  15. Vegetation Map and Vegetation Monographs of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ke

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vegetation Map of China As the most significant component of an ecosystem,vegetation plays the most important role in maintaining biodiversity and providing the necessary resources for human beings.A vegetation map shows the major vegetation types of a region and their geographic distribution patterns.

  16. Crop-weed competition between sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and Convolvulus arvensis L. in substitutive experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinczi, G; Takács, A; Horváth, J

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of a substitutive experiment is that the proportions of two species in the mixtures are varied while the overall density of the two species is maintained constant - a replacement series. In our experiments early competition between sunflower and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) was studied in a replacement studies under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were set up with the following treatments: 1, sunflower 100% (6 plants pot(-1)); 2, sunflower 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)); 3, sunflower 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)); 4, C. arvensis 100% (6 plants pot(-1)). Sixty eight days after sowing dry weight of shoots and roots were measured and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content was also determined. Dry biomass production of sunflower was almost twice higher as compared to that of C. arvensis without interspecific competition. Dry weight of sunflower and C. arvensis shoots and roots for a plant continuously decreased by reducing their proportion in the mixtures. Higher biomass production of sunflower suggests, that its development is faster at the beginning of vegetation penod, therefore sunflower has better competitive ability in sunflower--C. arvensis mixtures in the early competition as compared to C. arvensis. Shoot:root ratio of plants did not change considerably in mixtures, but generally was ten times higher in sunflower plants, as compared to that of C. arvensis. Shoots generally contained macro elements at higher concentration as compared to those of roots. Total NPK content of sunflower was reduced by 53 and 82% for a pot, as its proportion decreased in the mixtures. More severe reduction in NPK content was observed in case of C. arvensis, which also proves stronger competitive ability of sunflower in the early vegetation.

  17. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition....

  18. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon–water–energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in the new Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the water use efficiency and leaf area index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, a negative feedback mechanism in the vegetation–soil water system is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large leaf area index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

  19. On the mechanisms of vegetation succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han

    1992-01-01

    The present study was set up in order to investigate mechanisms of succession, meaning the explanation of species dynamics from the underlying process( e.g. colonization, nutrient dynamics, resource competition, vegetation structure). We investigated species dynamics during succession, quantified th

  20. Staphylococci in Competition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A. C.; Black, J. J.; Gunderson, M. F.

    1964-01-01

    Foods containing large amounts of carbohydrate have frequently been involved in staphylococcal food poisoning. Custard has been considered to be a highly favorable culture medium for staphylococci; however, it may be a selective medium rather than an ideal one. The influence of dextrose, lactose, and sucrose in varying amounts from 0.25 to 18%, and of starch, on the growth of staphylococci in mixed populations with saprophytes was determined. The inhibitory effect of the sugars was much greater on the saprophyte population than on the staphylococci. Of the three sugars, sucrose was most inhibitory to the saprophytes. It greatly decreased their lag periods as the concentration of sugar increased. Dextrose was the least inhibitory; in fact, 0.5% dextrose gave considerable stimulus to saprophyte growth. This sharply repressed staphylococcal growth. Lactose occupied an intermediate position. Rapid onset of the death phase of the staphylococci was observed in all increased sugar concentrations and seemed to be a pH effect rather than a result of competition. Sucrose exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of saprophytes at and above room temperature. In the presence of 2.5% corn starch, staphylococcal growth in mixed cultures was slightly inhibited, while the death phase was sharply accelerated. Thus, carbohydrates exert their influence on staphylococcal growth in mixed cultures through their effect on the saprophytes by decreasing or increasing competition. PMID:14106944

  1. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (pTaekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Empirical Analysis of the Vegetable Industry in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We first introduce the status quo of the development of vegetable industry in Hebei Province,and then conduct empirical analysis of the development of vegetable industry in Hebei Province.Further,we analyze the development advantage of the vegetable industry in Hebei Province using SAI(Scale Advantage Indices) and SCA(Symmetric Comparative Advantage),drawing the conclusion that the vegetable industry in Hebei Province has much room for development;at the same time,we analyze the factors influencing vegetable consumption of residents in Hebei Province through the regression model,drawing the conclusion that the vegetable consumer price index is the main factor affecting the consumption.Finally we make recommendations for the development of vegetable industry in Hebei Province as follows:increasing financial input,promoting policy guarantee capacity;implementing brand strategy,promoting the competitiveness of products;improving the ecological environment,promoting industrialization of pollution-free vegetables.

  3. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon-water-energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in a new carbon-water-energy coupled model to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximizes biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Area Index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, an important negative feedback mechanism is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large Leaf Area Index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

  4. COMPETITIVENESS AND SUPPORTING THE BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mester Liana-Eugenia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness designates efficiency, productivity, success, adaptability, quality products, optimum costs. Competitiveness is a complex concept which defines the ability of a firm or country to cope with actual or potential competition companies or countries on a particular market, on the world market respectively and it is synonymous with economic efficiency; competitiveness reflects a certain state of the economic activity arising from a certain resource consumption in order to achieve economic goods. Supporting the national competitiveness and flexibility is aimed at a sustained increase in productivity relying on the diversification and the innovation of the domestic industrial base. The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012 ranks Romania as the 77th out of 142 assessed economies. Romania has access to a large market and free trade area, which makes it attractive for many foreign companies, but Romania needs a coherent economic policy that changes the approach used today - from the traditionalist design of restructuring following the resources and, therefore, related to the comparative advantage to finding solutions that stimulate the activities based on knowledge and information so that they allow the emphasis of the competitive advantages. This paper aims to identify the factors and reasons that gave rise to the level of competitiveness for some activities or fields of activities from the economy of Romania during the reporting period, as well as the possibilities that would lead to increasing and supporting the competitiveness of the national economy.

  5. Audubon vegetation monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the summary and the analysis of vegetative data for the Audubon Refuge from NPWRC. The data included measurements of vegetation density, vegetation...

  6. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  7. Decreased summer water table depth affects peatland vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Limpens, J.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Schouten, M.G.C.; Berendse, F.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change can be expected to increase the frequency of summer droughts and associated low water tables in ombrotrophic peatlands. We studied the effects of periodic water table drawdown in a mesocosm experiment. Mesocosms were collected in Southern Sweden, and subsequently brought to an

  8. Decreased summer water table depth affects peatland vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Limpens, J.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Schouten, M.G.C.; Berendse, F.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change can be expected to increase the frequency of summer droughts and associated low water tables in ombrotrophic peatlands. We studied the effects of periodic water table drawdown in a mesocosm experiment. Mesocosms were collected in Southern Sweden, and subsequently brought to an experim

  9. Physics Competitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, ErzséBet SzéP, Jenö

    The following sections are included: * Description of Physics Competitions in Hungary * Training of the Hungarian Team before the International Physics Olympiad * Few Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition for 15 - 16 Year Old students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Year Old Students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * solving this equation we obtain m = 18kg * The work done is 427 joule - 80 joule 347 joule * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Pear Old Students

  10. Emergence of river dynamics through changing vegetation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, Mijke; Kleinhans, Maarten; Middelkoop, Hans; Geerling, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation interacts with morphodynamic processes in rivers to create distinct habitat mosaics supporting a large biodiversity. The aim of our work is to quantitatively investigate the emergent patterns in vegetation and river morphology at the river reach scale by dynamically modelling the processes and their interactions. Here, we coupled an advanced morphodynamic model to a novel dynamic riparian vegetation model to study the interaction between vegetation and morphodynamics. Vegetation colonizes bare substrate within the seed dispersal window, passes several growth stages with different properties and can die through flooding, desiccation, uprooting, scour or burial. We have compared river morphology and vegetation patterns of scenarios without vegetation, with static vegetation that does not grow or die and several dynamic vegetation scenarios with a range of vegetation strategies and eco-engineering properties. Results show that dynamic vegetation has a decreased lateral migration of meander bends and maintains its active meandering behavior as opposed to the scenarios without vegetation and with static vegetation. Also the patterns in vegetation and fluvial morphology and the vegetation age distribution mostly resemble the natural situation when compared to aerial photos of the study area. We find that river dynamics, specifically sinuosity and sediment transport, are very sensitive to vegetation properties that determine vegetation density, settlement location and survival. Future work will include the effects of invasive species, addition of silt and the effect of various river management strategies.

  11. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  12. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  13. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  14. Supplementing managed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  15. THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS: THE INSTITUTIONS AND INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna TARANENKO

    2010-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of the causes of decreasing Ukraine’s global competitiveness position, and the influence of the factors: “Higher education and training”, “Innovation”, “Institutions” on the global competitiveness of Ukrainian economy. The possibilities of increasing the global competitive position of Ukraine by intensification of innovative activity, development of the set of measures on strengthening the innovative components of global competitiveness have been examined....

  16. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...

  17. Mechanisms of herbaceous vegetation restoration successions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, Lubov

    2017-04-01

    The vegetation dynamics study is an important sector of research in phytocenology. The changing vegetation mechanisms' studying with the purpose of forecasting and management processes is an urgent theoretical and practical task. We consider succession as successive series of composition changes and phytocenoses structure caused by internal reasons and external ones. In this case, we are dealing with natural, secondary and progressive successions. The rapid sequential change of associations aimed at restoring coenotic environment and not resulting in ecogenesis stage changes is called demattia. Fully restored coenotic environment corresponds to vegetation sublimation. The way to this most stable state goes via a number of derived associations, each of them can be seen as long phytocenotic sustainable phenomenon, but different in time. The ability of living beings to reproduce in one way or another, their spreading, filling the space and confrontation to adverse conditions presents an important preservation mechanism and biodiversity increase, as well as its sustainability. The bio-diversity indicator is very significant for stability maintainment and phytocenosis estimation. Succession mechanisms classification provides three categories of relationships between organisms in the successional series: model relief or stimulation corresponds to the phase of endoecological succession which means that early settlers in their activities change the environment, making it available for the next wave of colonists. The model of tolerance manifests itself in the form of competitive relationships, resulting in selection of more competitive species with a pronounced feature S. According to the inhibition model, all types of community are able to colonize open spaces, they are resistant to competitors invasion, but the later species are able to inhabit and increase their number only after the loss of any of the predecessors. The predecessors change environment settings making it

  18. The effect of swimming on oral health status: competitive versus non-competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ercole, Simonetta; Tieri, Marco; Martinelli, Diego; Tripodi, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Young swimmers are particularly susceptible to the onset of oral diseases. Objective To evaluate the oral health status in young competitive and non-competitive swimmers, involving an assessment of salivary cariogenic bacteria and secretory IgA (S-IgA) concentration. Material and Methods Before training sessions (T1), 54 competitive and 69 non-competitive swimmers had the following parameters assessed: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), Plaque Index (PlI), and Gingival Index (GI). At T1 and after training sessions (T2), stimulated saliva was collected and microbiological and immunological analyses were performed. Results Competitive swimmers trained 2.02±0.09 hours 5 times a week, while non-competitive swimmers trained 2.03±0.18 hours a week. A total of 14.7% of competitive swimmers suffered dental trauma related to sports. Only 11.76% of the competitive swimmers took a daily dose of fluoride, against 32.65% of non-competitive swimmers (p=0.029). Neither group followed an established diet or presented statistically significant differences in terms of nutritional supplement drink and chocolate intake. There were statistically significant differences in terms of oral hygiene. No significant difference in clinical indexes (DMFT, PlI, and GI) was present. S. mutans was harbored by 18.6% of competitive and the 32.2% of non-competitive swimmers. S. sobrinus was detected in 22.03% of competitive and 91.6% of non-competitive swimmers (pcompetitive swimmers. The average S-IgA of competitive swimmers decreased significantly at T2 (p<0.05). The pool water had a daily average pH of 7.22. Conclusions Microbial markers, immune status and sporting characteristics are important for establishing guidelines for management of training load in order to minimize physical stress and the risk of oral infection.

  19. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  20. Vegetation establishment in convectively accelerated streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzy, B.; McLelland, S. J.; Molnar, P.; Camporeale, C.; Perona, P.

    2013-12-01

    We study the conditions for vegetation establishment within river reaches with converging boundaries. Common to many such rivers worldwide is the existence of a limiting front (e.g., Figure 1a) beyond which all the riverbed vegetation is uprooted by flooding events. There are however exceptions, which leads to an interesting ecomorphodynamic problem (existence and position of the front). We use a theoretical 1-D framework based on morphodynamic equations modified in order to account for the presence of vegetation (Perona et al., submitted), and obtain the link between the position of the vegetated front and river eco-hydraulic variables under steady and unsteady conditions. We apply our framework to a number of flume experiments (unsteady flow) where Avena sativa L. (common oat) seedlings grow subject to periodic flow disturbances within a convergent flume channel (Figure 1b). We find that depending on the outcome of the competition between hydrological and biological processes there is either a limiting spatial front within the convergent section beyond which vegetation cannot survive, or vegetation colonizes the entire riverbed. The existence and the position of the front depend on the ability for vegetation to take root efficiently and withstand uprooting by the flow of the convectively accelerated stream (Crouzy et al., in press). The active role of vegetation and of unit streampower in this particular ecomorphodynamic process are then discussed in relation to the conceptual model of Gurnell and Petts (2006), and under the light of our theoretical and experimental results. REFERENCES - Crouzy, B., K. Edmaier, N. Pasquale and P. Perona (in press). Impact of floods on the statistical distribution of riverbed vegetation. Geomorphology doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.09.013. - Gurnell A., Petts G. (2006). Trees as riparian engineers: The Tagliamento River, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31: 1558--1574. - Perona, P., B. Crouzy, S. Mc Lelland, P. Molnar

  1. The response of mire vegetation to water level drawdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Kirsi; Laine, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2010-05-01

    Mires have a significant role in climate change mitigation due to their enormous carbon storage and due to the fluxes of greenhouse gases between ecosystem and the atmosphere. Mire vegetation is controlled by ecohydrology, climate and by the competition of plants on light and nutrients. The water logged conditions create a challenging environment for both vascular plants and bryophytes; therefore majority of plants growing in these habitats are highly specialized. Global warming is predicted to affect mire vegetation indirectly through increased evapotranspiration leading to decreased water table levels down to 14-22 centimeters. Water level drawdown is likely to affect the vegetation composition and consequently the ecosystem functioning of mires. Previous studies covering the first years following water table level drawdown have shown that vascular plants benefit from a lower water table and hollow-specific Sphagnum species suffer. In addition to changes in plant abundances the diversity of plant communities decreases. The lawn and hollow communities of Sphagna and sedges are found to be the most sensitive plant groups. It has been shown that surveys on vegetation changes can have different results depending on the time scale. The short and long term responses are likely vary in heterogenous mire vegetation; therefore predictions can be done more reliably with longer surveys. We applied BACI (before-after-control-impact) experimental approach to study the responses of different functional mire plant groups to water level drawdown. There are 3 control plots, 3 treatment plots with moderate water level drawdown and 3 plots drained for forestry 40 years ago as a reference. The plots are located in meso-, oligo- and ombrotrophic sites in Lakkasuo (Orivesi, Finland). The vegetation was surveyed from permanent sampling points before ditching in 2000 and during the years 2001-2003 and 2009. The data was analyzed with NMDS (PC-Ord) and DCA (CANOCO). Overall results show

  2. [Effects of aboveground and belowground competition between grass and tree on elm seedlings growth in Horqin Sandy Land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Jiang, De-ming; Chen, Zhuo; Toshio, Oshida

    2011-08-01

    Elm sparse woodland steppe plays an important role in vegetation restoration and landscape protection in Horqin Sandy Land. In this paper, a two-factor and two-level field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of aboveground and belowground competition between grass and tree on the growth of elm seedlings in the Sandy Land. Five aspects were considered, i.e., seedling biomass, belowground biomass/aboveground biomass, stem height, ratio of root to stem, and leaf number. For the one-year-old elm seedlings, their biomass showed a trend of no competition > aboveground competition > full competition > belowground competition, belowground biomass / aboveground biomass showed a trend of belowground competition > full competition > no competition > aboveground competition, stem height showed a trend of aboveground competition > no competition > full competition > belowground competition, root/stem ratio showed a trend of belowground competition > full competition > no competition > aboveground competition, and leaf number showed a trend of aboveground competition > no competition > belowground competition > full competition. Belowground competition had significant effects on the growth of one-year-old elm seedlings, while aboveground competition did not have. Neither belowground competition nor aboveground competition had significant effects on the growth of two-year-old elm seedlings. It was suggested that in Horqin Sandy Land, grass affected the growth of elm seedlings mainly via below-ground competition, but the belowground competition didn' t affect the resource allocation of elm seedlings. With the age increase of elm seedlings, the effects of grass competition on the growth of elm seedlings became weaker.

  3. Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstler, Georges; Falster, Daniel; Coomes, David A; Hui, Francis; Kooyman, Robert M; Laughlin, Daniel C; Poorter, Lourens; Vanderwel, Mark; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Wright, S Joseph; Aiba, Masahiro; Baraloto, Christopher; Caspersen, John; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hanewinkel, Marc; Herault, Bruno; Kattge, Jens; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Hendrik; Uriarte, Maria; Richardson, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Sun, I-Fang; Ståhl, Göran; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Westerlund, Bertil; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Zeng, Hongcheng; Zimmerman, Jess K; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-14

    Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data from more than 3 million trees in over 140,000 plots across the world to show how three key functional traits--wood density, specific leaf area and maximum height--consistently influence competitive interactions. Fast maximum growth of a species was correlated negatively with its wood density in all biomes, and positively with its specific leaf area in most biomes. Low wood density was also correlated with a low ability to tolerate competition and a low competitive effect on neighbours, while high specific leaf area was correlated with a low competitive effect. Thus, traits generate trade-offs between performance with competition versus performance without competition, a fundamental ingredient in the classical hypothesis that the coexistence of plant species is enabled via differentiation in their successional strategies. Competition within species was stronger than between species, but an increase in trait dissimilarity between species had little influence in weakening competition. No benefit of dissimilarity was detected for specific leaf area or wood density, and only a weak benefit for maximum height. Our trait-based approach to modelling competition makes generalization possible across the forest ecosystems of the world and their highly diverse species composition.

  4. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  5. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  6. Total Vegetation 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are polygons that contain vegetated pixels in the May, 2002 imagery from aerial overflight of the Grand Canyon. Vegetation was mapped between stage elevations...

  7. Competition in treasury auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Elsinger, Helmut; Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp; Zulehner, Christine

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of competition on the outcome of Austrian Treasury auctions. Austria's EU accession led to an increase in the number of banks participating in treasury auctions. We use structural estimates of bidders' private values to examine the effect of increased competition on auction performance: We find that increased competition reduced bidder surplus substantially, but less than reduced form estimates would suggest. A significant component of the surplus reduction is due to m...

  8. Elephant movement closely tracks precipitation-driven vegetation dynamics in a Kenyan forest-savanna landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Beck, Pieter Sa; Ngene, Shadrack M; Skidmore, Andrew K; Douglas-Hamilton, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the ranging behavior of elephants in relation to precipitation-driven dynamics of vegetation. Movement data were acquired for five bachelors and five female family herds during three years in the Marsabit protected area in Kenya and changes in vegetation were mapped using MODIS normalized difference vegetation index time series (NDVI). In the study area, elevations of 650 to 1100 m.a.s.l experience two growth periods per year, while above 1100 m.a.s.l. growth periods last a year or longer. We find that elephants respond quickly to changes in forage and water availability, making migrations in response to both large and small rainfall events. The elevational migration of individual elephants closely matched the patterns of greening and senescing of vegetation in their home range. Elephants occupied lower elevations when vegetation activity was high, whereas they retreated to the evergreen forest at higher elevations while vegetation senesced. Elephant home ranges decreased in size, and overlapped less with increasing elevation. A recent hypothesis that ungulate migrations in savannas result from countervailing seasonally driven rainfall and fertility gradients is demonstrated, and extended to shorter-distance migrations. In other words, the trade-off between the poor forage quality and accessibility in the forest with its year-round water sources on the one hand and the higher quality forage in the low-elevation scrubland with its seasonal availability of water on the other hand, drives the relatively short migrations (the two main corridors are 20 and 90 km) of the elephants. In addition, increased intra-specific competition appears to influence the animals' habitat use during the dry season indicating that the human encroachment on the forest is affecting the elephant population.

  9. Quantification of dynamic soil-vegetation feedbacks following an isotopically labelled precipitation pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piayda, Arndt; Dubbert, Maren; Siegwolf, Rolf; Cuntz, Matthias; Werner, Christiane

    2017-05-01

    The presence of vegetation alters hydrological cycles of ecosystems. Complex plant-soil interactions govern the fate of precipitation input and water transitions through ecosystem compartments. Disentangling these interactions is a major challenge in the field of ecohydrology and a pivotal foundation for understanding the carbon cycle of semi-arid ecosystems. Stable water isotopes can be used in this context as tracer to quantify water movement through soil-vegetation-atmosphere interfaces. The aim of this study is to disentangle vegetation effects on soil water infiltration and distribution as well as dynamics of soil evaporation and grassland water use in a Mediterranean cork oak woodland during dry conditions. An irrigation experiment using δ18O labelled water was carried out in order to quantify distinct effects of tree and herbaceous vegetation on the infiltration and distribution of event water in the soil profile. Dynamic responses of soil and herbaceous vegetation fluxes to precipitation regarding event water use, water uptake depth plasticity, and contribution to ecosystem soil evaporation and transpiration were quantified. Total water loss to the atmosphere from bare soil was as high as from vegetated soil, utilizing large amounts of unproductive evaporation for transpiration, but infiltration rates decreased. No adjustments of main root water uptake depth to changes in water availability could be observed during the experiment. This forces understorey plants to compete with adjacent trees for water in deeper soil layers at the onset of summer. Thus, understorey plants are subjected to chronic water deficits faster, leading to premature senescence at the onset of drought. Despite this water competition, the presence of cork oak trees fosters infiltration and reduces evapotranspirative water losses from the understorey and the soil, both due to altered microclimatic conditions under crown shading. This study highlights complex soil-plant-atmosphere and

  10. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  11. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  12. Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekens, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD) hosts information on all plant communities in the Netherlands. This substantial archive consists of over 600.000 recent and historic vegetation descriptions. The data provide information on more than 85 years of vegetation recording in various habitats covering te

  13. Modelling the effects of plant facilitation-competition mechanisms on semiarid landscape co-evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saco, Patricia M.

    2015-04-01

    Semiarid landscapes function as tightly coupled systems with strong biogeomorphic feedbacks. Worldwide, a vast portion of these areas are covered by patchy vegetation consisting of mixed herbaceous and woody plant species that interact exhibiting both competition and facilitation effects. Though the role of facilitative interactions in plant communities has received considerable attention in the last two decades, their effects on the coevolution of landscapes are still not clearly understood. Here a modelling framework is used to investigate the effects of facilitative interactions among vegetation species, as well as their role on the coevolution of water redistribution, vegetation patterns, and landforms. The model simulates the dynamics of and interactions between coexisting grasses and shrubs under varying competition-facilitation conditions. We explore facilitation effects associated with changes in micro environmental conditions for water availability in dry environments focussing on the role of infiltration enhancement and shading effects. Field experiments have shown that in many semiarid environments vegetation enhances infiltration. However, herbaceous and woody plants seem to have varying hydrologic traits in different areas and it is therefore not clear which species has the greatest contribution to infiltration enhancement. This study tests alternative hypothesis, varying the relative contributions to total infiltration of both species, through a sensitivity analysis of the key parameters affecting infiltration. We analyze the results by examining the simulated spatial patterns of biomass density, soil moisture and erosion. Results indicate that final vegetation cover structure and hydrologic connectivity strongly depend on the facilitation mechanisms included in the model. We find that the removal of woody species can lead to alternative steady states, including an increase on herbaceous cover, which is the expected outcome of these management

  14. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  15. An invasive clonal plant benefits from clonal integration more than a co-occurring native plant in nutrient-patchy and competitive environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wenhua; Fan, Shufeng; Yu, Dan; Xie, Dong; Liu, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, however, little is known about the different roles of clonal integration effects between invasive and native plants. Here, we hypothesize that clonal integration affect growth, photosynthetic performance, biomass allocation and thus competitive ability of invasive and native clonal plants, and invasive clonal plants benefit from clonal integration more than co-occurring native plants in heterogeneous habitats. To test these hypotheses, two stoloniferous clonal plants, Alternanthera philoxeroides (invasive), Jussiaea repens (native) were studied in China. The apical parts of both species were grown either with or without neighboring vegetation and the basal parts without competitors were in nutrient- rich or -poor habitats, with stolon connections were either severed or kept intact. Competition significantly reduced growth and photosynthetic performance of the apical ramets in both species, but not the biomass of neighboring vegetation. Without competition, clonal integration greatly improved the growth and photosynthetic performance of both species, especially when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. When grown with neighboring vegetation, growth of J. repens and photosynthetic performance of both species were significantly enhanced by clonal integration with the basal parts in both nutrient-rich and -poor habitats, while growth and relative neighbor effect (RNE) of A. philoxeroides were greatly improved by clonal integration only when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. Moreover, clonal integration increased A. philoxeroides's biomass allocation to roots without competition, but decreased it with competition, especially when the basal ramets were in nutrient-rich sections. Effects of clonal integration on biomass allocation of J. repens was similar to that of A. philoxeroides but with less significance. These results supported our hypothesis that invasive clonal plants A. philoxeroides benefits

  16. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  17. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  18. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  19. Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunstler, Georges; Falster, Daniel; Coomes, David A.; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we

  20. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Luc; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Diet plays an important part in the maintenance of optimal cardiovascular health. This Review summarizes the evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. This evidence is based on observational cohort studies, nutrition prevention trials with fruit and vegetables, and investigations of the effects of fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the evidence supporting a cardioprotective effect comes from observational epidemiological studies; these studies have reported either weak or nonsignificant associations. Controlled nutritional prevention trials are scarce and the existing data do not show any clear protective effects of fruit and vegetables on coronary heart disease. Under rigorously controlled experimental conditions, fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a decrease in blood pressure, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. However, the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma lipid levels, diabetes, and body weight have not yet been thoroughly explored. Finally, the hypothesis that nutrients in fruit and vegetables have a protective role in reducing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and preventing complications of atherosclerosis has not been tested in prevention trials. Evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease remains scarce thus far.

  1. PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES IN THE AMUR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokoz Svetlana Vladimirovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Amur region of vegetables in special farms, peasant farmers, and personal subsidiary farms. In the course of agrarian reform in the country, there was a change in the role of each sector, the main production of vegetables in the field moved into the private sector of the population that now produce 87% of vegetable production. The value of gross output in the agricultural enterprises decreased compared to the 1988 – 1991 years. 30 times and now stands at 3% of the total harvest. Peasant farmers produce up to 10% vegetables. Vegetable production in the field for the whole period was lower than recommended intakes of man (139 kg per year in half. Residents are deficient in vegetables, which are a major source of vitamins, fiber, enzymes, minerals and other valuable substances. Products grown on farms, in a trading network of the city was almost no, but basically once implemented special consumers: Ministry of Defence, educational and medical institutions, etc., as well as exported to Khabarovsk, Primorsky Krai, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. Export of vegetables outside the region due to the lack of storage facilities and processing plants. Lack of vegetables in the Amur region filled the importation of products from China. According to statistics from the import of this product is 40%, which puts us in the economic dependence.

  2. Exhibitionist eating: Who wins eating competitions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wansink

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: How and why does competition and spectator involvement influence eating behaviors? The primary objective of this article is to explore the nature of eating competitions with the goal of identifying implications for other social situations.Design: Study 1 investigated how many chicken wings were eaten by men and women in a 30-minute eating competition when cheering spectators either were or were not present (compared to a control condition. A second study sought to explain Study 1’s findings through a survey of 93 students who rated male or female competitive eaters (in randomized order based on intelligence, attractiveness, health, strength, and how romantic they expected the eaters to be.Results: Exploratory findings show competitive eaters ate approximately four times as many chicken wings as a similar control group, and the presence of a cheering audience further increased wing consumption for males (but decreased consumption for females. Study 2 suggests part of the over-performance of males may be related to a shared positive perception that competitive male eaters are strong and virile. Conclusions: Even in relatively low-stakes environments, competitive visibility may dramatically increase how much males eat. These preliminary results help illuminate recent discoveries that males overeat in various social situations where there are opportunities for men to show off. This may have relevance for dining behavior – especially among younger males – at parties, banquets, group dinners, and similar social situations.

  3. Incipient motion of sediment in presence of submerged flexible vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Hong-wu Tang; Han-qing Zhao; Xuan-yu Zhao; Sheng-qi Lu¨

    2015-01-01

    The presence of submerged vegetation on river beds can change the water flow structure and alter the state of sediment motion. In this study, the incipient motion of sediment in the presence of submerged flexible vegetation in open channels was investigated in a laboratory experiment. The vegetation was simulated with flexible rubber cylinders arranged in parallel arrays. The effect of the vegetation density, water depth, and sediment grain size on the incipient motion was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the incipient motion velocity of sediment increases as the vegetation density decreases and the water depth and sediment grain size increase. With flexible plants, the incipient motion velocity of sediment is lower than it is without vegetation, and is larger than it is with rigid vegetation. A general incipient motion velocity equation was derived, which can be applied to both flexible and rigid vegetation conditions.

  4. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Borlaug 411, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States); Lazarus, William [Department of Applied Economics, 231 Classroom Office Building, 1994 Buford Avenue, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L{sup -1} of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L{sup -1} and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L{sup -1} depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L{sup -1} and from 0.14 to 0.33 L{sup -1}, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L{sup -1} for soybean and 0.44 L{sup -1} for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L{sup -1}. (author)

  5. Effects of resource competition and herbivory on plant performance along a natural productivity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Wal, R; Egas, M; Bakker, J; van der Veen, A.

    2000-01-01

    1 The effects of resource competition and herbivory on a target species, Triglochin maritima, were studied along a productivity gradient of vegetation biomass in a temperate salt marsh. 2 Transplants were used to measure the impact of grazing, competition and soil fertility over two growing seasons.

  6. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Boer, de W.; Hooven, ten F.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivit

  7. Economics of vegetable oil processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheithauer, R.; Dripchak, K.

    1988-05-01

    Vegetable oils offer great promise as a diesel fuel substitute, given the similarity in their physical and chemical properties. This report examines the cost of converting oilseeds to oil, as a first step in evaluating the potential competitiveness of vegetable oil fuels. Processing costs for typical existing US facilities - including solvent, prepress-solvent, and mechanical extraction technologies - were reviewed. The capital costs of a dedicated rapeseed oil processing facility in the southeastern US were also estimated. A third objective was to estimate the costs of modifying existing processing facilities to crush multiple oilseeds, since the oilseed industry has considerable excess capacity. Using existing excess capacity to crush oilseeds for 60 days per year resulted in savings for each of the three extraction technologies with prepress-solvent extraction being the minimum cost technology. The 17 southeastern prepress-solvent facilities identified could produce over 34 million gallons of rapeseed oil per year if each are operated for an additional 60 days per year. This would require over 312,000 acres of winter rapeseed production, providing an excellent opportunity for early introduction of this crop for energy purposes. 57 figs.

  8. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer......This study sheds light on the role that the competitive environment plays in determining how elements of market orientation and elements of entrepreneurial orientation interact to influence business success. We develop a model in which we postulate that market orientation, entrepreneurial...... orientations. Also, these moderating effects are stronger for firms operating in highly competitive environments. For the innovativeness component of entrepreneurship, however, the positive relationship between innovativeness and ROA decreases as the competitive environment becomes more hostile....

  9. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  10. Competition in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Christensen, Søren

    Competition in education has two functions: selection and motivation. How do these two functions correlate, contradict or co-exist? How has the educational system reflected on the relation between competition as motivational technology and as a technology for selection? The aim of this paper...... is to formulate the problem of competition in education as a relation between selection and motivation and provide an analytical strategy to grasp this problem. Our ambition is to theorize the problem and give empirical illustrations of how the connection between selection and motivation has been articulated...... in various educational institutions and programs....

  11. Next generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven; Langan, Liam

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are a powerful tool to project the past, current and future distribution of vegetation and associated water and carbon fluxes. However, most models are limited by how they define vegetation and by their simplistic representation of competition. We discuss how concepts from community assembly theory and coexistence theory can help to improve vegetation models. We further present a new trait- and individual-based dynamic vegetation model (the aDGVM2) that allows each individual plant to adopt a unique combination of trait values. These traits define how each individual plant grows and competes with other plants under given environmental conditions. The performance of individual plants in turn drives the assembly of a plant community. A genetic optimisation algorithm is used to simulate the inheritance of traits and different levels of reproductive isolation between individuals. Together these model properties allow the assembly of plant communities that are well adapted to a site's biotic and abiotic conditions. Simulated communities can be classified into different plant functional types or biome types by using trait data bases. We illustrate that the aDGVM2 can simulate (1) how environmental conditions and changes in these conditions influence the trait spectra of assembled plant communities, (2) that fire selects for traits that enhance fire protection and reduces trait diversity, and (3) the emergence of communities dominated by life history strategies that are suggestive of colonisation-competition trade-offs. The aDGVM2 deals with functional diversity and competition fundamentally differently from current dynamic vegetation models. We argue that this approach will yield novel insights as to how vegetation may respond to climate change and we believe that it could foster fruitful collaborations between research communities that focus on plant functional traits, plant competition, plant physiology, systems ecology and earth system

  12. Unification of the methodology of competitiveness evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Marina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the comparison of the modern methods of competitiveness evaluation and testing the results in practice at a production plant in order to unify the methodology. Analysis of the publications shows that the existing diversity in methods of the competitiveness evaluation complicates the choice of a method and interpretation of the results, which confirms the need to classify and unify the methods available today. The authors suggest that the standardized method of competitiveness evaluation should combine matrix and graphical methods. In our study, we have shown that SWOT-analysis should be carried out in two stages: firstly, it is necessary to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the company, taking into account the following factors: marketing, production, economic and financial situation, technology, the administration and personnel; secondly, it is essential to assess the opportunities and threats with the allowance for the political, legal, and economic situation, the impact of market as well as social, cultural and natural environmental factors. The proposed methodology of competitiveness evaluation has been tested at the industrial enterprise "Olvita ltd", which is dynamically developing and successfully operates on the food market of Ukraine; it specializes in processing, logistics and distribution of fresh and frozen vegetables, fruits and berries, as well as ready-to cook meat products. The results have shown that the competitiveness evaluation remains a pressing issue that requires simple and fairly demonstrative methods, one of which is a method that combines both graphical and matrix approaches. The advantage of the proposed method is its sufficiently high visualizations and record of personal approaches in evaluating the scores for strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities and threats. In the future, the authors are planning to examine and systemize the indicators used in the competitiveness

  13. Technology Drives Vegetable Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Arobot for vegetable planting is able to examine growing conditions, detect disease of the vegetables and pick up the ripe ones through identifying the color; a tomato tree is able to produce up to 3,000kgs of tomatoes; sweet potatoes are growing in the air; fish and vegeta-bles are living together harmoniously...Viewing these, you may doubt that you were in a fancy world.Actually, you are here at the 12th China (Shouguang) International Vegetable Sci-tech Fair.

  14. Competition from Isotopic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During later MOIS3, in Europe two populations were present, autochthonous Neanderthals and modern humans. Ecological competition between these two populations has often been evoked but never demonstrated. Our aim is to establish whether resource competition occurred. In this paper, in order to examine the possibility of ecological competition between these two populations, 599 isotopic data were subjected to rigorous statistical treatment and analysis through mixing models. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary strategies of Neanderthals and modern humans over time. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans shared dietary habits in the particular environmental context of MOIS3 characterised in Europe by climatic deterioration. In this environmental context, the resource competition between Neanderthals and modern humans may have accelerated the disappearance of the Neanderthal population.

  15. Competition between Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    1985-01-01

    Examined competition and physical attractiveness among women. Results indicated that a large number of females are highly critical of other women, particularly attractive ones, and are highly concerned about their own appearance in relation to other women. (Author/BL)

  16. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  17. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  18. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  19. Competition and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheating Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Competition and Cheating Page Content Article Body My son tends to cheat when he plays games. What should we do? Cheating is the result ...

  20. Allocation of New Construction Land Based on Land Competitiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Connotation of land competitiveness is expatiated from both the narrow sense and broad sense. Evaluation index system of land competitiveness is established according to the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and 2008 China Land Resources Statistical Yearbook. Efficiency Coefficient Method and Principal Component Analysis Method are used to evaluate the land competitiveness of 31 provincial units in China. Result shows that in the year 2007, land competitiveness gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The land competitiveness and GDP per unit land have significant negative correlation. The rank of approved new construction land has low positive correlation with the rank of land competitiveness in China. This indicates that there is little correlation between the allocation of regional new construction land and the land use efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that regional allocation of new construction land should be treated differently based on the evaluation result of land competitiveness.

  1. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...

  2. FameLab competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Are you 18 to 35 years old and studying or working in science in Switzerland? Are you passionate about your job and keen on exciting public imagination with a vision of the 21st century of science? Then this competition is for you!   For more information, check out http://www.famelab.ch/ or http://famelab.org/ or write to info@famelab.ch. Read more about the Famelab competition in this Bulletin article.  

  3. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  4. Racial Discrimination and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine; Alexey Levkov; Yona Rubinstein

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of competition on racial discrimination. The dismantling of inter- and intrastate bank restrictions by U.S. states from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s reduced financial market imperfections, lowered entry barriers facing nonfinancial firms, and boosted the rate of new firm formation. We use bank deregulation to identify an exogenous intensification of competition in the nonfinancial sector, and evaluate its impact on the racial wage gap, which is that component ...

  5. Competitiveness in mass tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Claver Cortés, Enrique; Molina-Azorín, José F.; Pereira-Moliner, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers an indepth analysis of a second-generation destination specializing in sun and sand mass tourism: Benidorm, Spain. Contrary to the view of many researchers, it is argued that such destinations need not inevitably decline and can in fact continue to be competitive. The persistence of this sun and sand mass tourism model is shown empirically through an analysis of its evolution and competitive situation. The paper offers suggestions about the strategies Benidorm hotels s...

  6. Competition and Offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Antonio Rodriguez-Lopez

    2012-01-01

    I present a model of offshoring decisions with heterogeneous firms, random adjustment costs, and endogenous markups. The model shows an inverted-U relationship between firm-level productivity and the probability of offshoring; hence, the most productive firms are less likely to offshore than some lower-productivity firms. A tougher competitive environment has two opposing effects on firm-level offshoring likelihood: a Schumpeterian effect--accounting for the negative effect of competition on ...

  7. Untangling healthcare competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, I C; McDaniel, R R

    1993-11-01

    Traditional approaches to competition may be inappropriate for healthcare providers. Neoclassical economics makes the implicit assumption that a single actor embodies consumption, compensation, and benefit from a transaction. In healthcare, this assumption does not hold. Instead, such actions are accomplished by three separate actors--consumers (physicians), customers (third-party payers), and clients (patients). A hospital simultaneously competes in three arenas. Hospitals compete for physicians along a technological dimension. Competition for third-party payers takes on a financial dimension. Hospitals compete for patients along a marketing dimension. Because of the complex marketplace interactions among hospital, patient, physician, and third-party payer, the role of price in controlling behavior is difficult to establish. The dynamics underlying the hospital selection decision--that is, the decision maker's expectations of services and the convenience of accessing services--must also be considered. Healthcare managers must understand the interrelationships involved in the three-pronged competitive perspective for several reasons. This perspective clarifies the multiple facets of competition a hospital faces. It also disentangles the actions previously fulfilled by the traditional single buyer. It illuminates the critical skills underlying the competition for each audience. Finally, it defines the primary criterion each audience uses in sorting among hospitals. Recognition of the multifaceted nature of competition among healthcare providers will help demystify market behavior and thereby improve internal organizational communication systems, managers' ability to focus on appropriate activities, and the hospital's ability to adapt to changing market conditions.

  8. Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Jennie; Bonsall, Michael B; Wright, Denis J; Raymond, Ben

    2011-08-01

    Classical models of the evolution of virulence predict that multiple infections should select for elevated virulence, if increased competitiveness arises from faster growth. However, diverse modes of parasite competition (resource-based, antagonism, immunity manipulation) can lead to adaptations with different implications for virulence. Using an experimental evolution approach we investigated the hypothesis that selection in mixed-strain infections will lead to increased antagonism that trades off against investment in virulence. Selection in mixed infections led to improved suppression of competitors in the bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. Increased antagonism was associated with decreased virulence in three out of four selected lines. Moreover, mixed infections were less virulent than single-strain infections, and between-strain competition tended to decrease pathogen growth in vivo and in vitro. Spiteful interactions among these bacteria may be favoured because of the high metabolic costs of virulence factors and the high risk of mixed infections.

  9. The effect of swimming on oral health status: competitive versus non-competitive athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta D’ERCOLE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Young swimmers are particularly susceptible to the onset of oral diseases. Objective To evaluate the oral health status in young competitive and non-competitive swimmers, involving an assessment of salivary cariogenic bacteria and secretory IgA (S-IgA concentration. Material and Methods Before training sessions (T1, 54 competitive and 69 non-competitive swimmers had the following parameters assessed: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT, Plaque Index (PlI, and Gingival Index (GI. At T1 and after training sessions (T2, stimulated saliva was collected and microbiological and immunological analyses were performed. Results Competitive swimmers trained 2.02±0.09 hours 5 times a week, while non-competitive swimmers trained 2.03±0.18 hours a week. A total of 14.7% of competitive swimmers suffered dental trauma related to sports. Only 11.76% of the competitive swimmers took a daily dose of fluoride, against 32.65% of non-competitive swimmers (p=0.029. Neither group followed an established diet or presented statistically significant differences in terms of nutritional supplement drink and chocolate intake. There were statistically significant differences in terms of oral hygiene. No significant difference in clinical indexes (DMFT, PlI, and GI was present. S. mutans was harbored by 18.6% of competitive and the 32.2% of non-competitive swimmers. S. sobrinus was detected in 22.03% of competitive and 91.6% of non-competitive swimmers (p<0.05. S. sanguinis was found only in the saliva of competitive swimmers. The average S-IgA of competitive swimmers decreased significantly at T2 (p<0.05. The pool water had a daily average pH of 7.22. Conclusions Microbial markers, immune status and sporting characteristics are important for establishing guidelines for management of training load in order to minimize physical stress and the risk of oral infection.

  10. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  11. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  12. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  13. Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M.

    Competition for pollinators occurs when, in a community of flowering plants, several simultaneously flowering plant species depend on the same pollinator. Competition for pollinators increases interspecific pollen transfer rates, thereby reducing the number of viable offspring. In order to decrease

  14. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  15. Cellular antioxidant activity of common vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Derito, Christopher M; Liu, M Keshu; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Liu, Rui Hai

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important to screen fruits, vegetables, natural products, and dietary supplements for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity using a cell culture model and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the CAA, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. Beets, broccoli, and red pepper had the highest CAA values, whereas cucumber had the lowest. CAA values were significantly correlated to total phenolic content. Potatoes were found to be the largest contributors of vegetable phenolics and CAA to the American diet. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is an effective strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  16. Competitive interactions among raptors in boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Harri; Mykrä, Sakari; Kurki, Sami; Tornberg, Risto; Jungell, Sven

    2004-11-01

    We examined inter-specific interactions among goshawks ( Accipiter gentilis), common buzzards (Buteo buteo) and honey buzzards (Pernis apivorus) in western Finland in 1983-1996. Because goshawks are among the largest birds of prey species in boreal forests they may take over the nest of smaller and less-competitive forest-dwelling raptors when searching for suitable places for breeding. Accordingly, more than half of newly established goshawk territories were found on the territories previously occupied by the common buzzard and the honey buzzard. Otherwise, territory sharing between these species was rare. Fledgling production of honey buzzards was not associated with the presence of goshawks, probably owing to the almost 2 months later onset of breeding. This probably decreases competitive interactions between these two species. An intensive interference competition, instead, seemed to be evident between common buzzards and goshawks, because the fledgling production of common buzzards was decreased by 20% as a result of failures during incubation and nestling period in the vicinity (raptors, imposing upon the original owners of the nest, because building a large stick nest is probably energetically costly. As a large raptor, the goshawk apparently has a competitive advantage over smaller ones, and may have an ever-increasing impact on smaller birds of prey, if there is a lack of sheltered forests inducing competition for the available nest sites.

  17. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  18. Political Failures and Intergovernmental Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hindriks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In normative public economics, intergovernmental competition is usually viewed as harmful. Although empirical support for this position does not abound, market integration has intensified competition among developed countries. In this paper we argue that when assessing welfare effects of intergovernmental competition for various forms of political failures (the public choice critique, the outcome is ambiguous and competition can be welfare improving.

  19. Competitively tight graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Suh-Ryung; Park, Boram; Sano, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The competition graph of a digraph $D$ is a (simple undirected) graph which has the same vertex set as $D$ and has an edge between $x$ and $y$ if and only if there exists a vertex $v$ in $D$ such that $(x,v)$ and $(y,v)$ are arcs of $D$. For any graph $G$, $G$ together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number $k(G)$ of $G$ is the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number $k(G)$ for a graph $G$ and it has been one of the important research problems in the study of competition graphs. Opsut~[1982] suggested that the edge clique cover number $\\theta_E(G)$ should be closely related to $k(G)$ by showing $\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+2 \\leq k(G) \\leq \\theta_E(G)$. In this note, we study on these inequalities. We first show that for any positive integer $m$ satisfying $2 \\leq m \\leq |V(G)|$, there is a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+m$ and characterize a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\...

  20. Co-evolution of landforms and vegetation under the influence of orographic precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetemen, Omer; Srivastava, Ankur; Saco, Patricia M.

    2017-04-01

    Landforms are controlled by the interaction between tectonics, climate, and vegetation. Orography induced precipitation not only has implications on erosion resistance through vegetation dynamics but also affects erosive forces through modifying runoff production. The implications of elevated precipitation due to orography on landscape morphology requires a numerical framework that integrates a range of ecohydrologic and geomorphic processes to explore the competition between erosive and resisting forces in catchments where pronounced orographic precipitation prevails. In this study, our aim was to realistically represent ecohydrology driven by orographic precipitation and explore its implications on landscape evolution through a numerical model. The model was used to investigate how ecohydro-geomorphic differences caused by differential precipitation patterns as a result of orographic influence and rain-shadow effect lead to differences in the organization of modelled topography, soil moisture, and plant biomass. We use the CHILD landscape evolution model equipped with a vegetation dynamics component that explicitly tracks above- and below-ground biomass, and a precipitation forcing component that simulates rainfall as a function of elevation and orientation. The preliminary results of the model have shown how the competition between an increased shear stress through runoff production and an enhanced resistance force due to denser canopy cover, shape the landscape. Hillslope asymmetry between polar- and equator-facing hillslopes are enhanced (diminished) when they coincide with windward (leeward) side of the mountain series. The mountain divide accommodates itself by migrating toward the windward direction to increase (decrease) hillslope gradients on windward (leeward) slopes. These results clearly demonstrate the strong coupling between landform evolution and climate processes.

  1. Novelties in Competition Regulation in Romania. Impact on Competitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LEFTER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon the coming into force of the Law No. 149/2011, the recent changes in the Competition Law bring a significant decrease of the fines level, while encouraging competitors to support the maintenance of a healthy and transparent competition. However, some provisions require application guidelines, while others are tougher than the European law principles.

  2. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  3. Remote sensing-based vegetation indices for monitoring vegetation change in the semi-arid region of Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A., Majdaldin; Osunmadewa, B. A.; Csaplovics, E.; Aralova, D.

    2016-10-01

    Land degradation, a phenomenon referring to (drought) in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and anthropogenic activities most especially in the semi-arid lands of Sudan, where vast majority of the rural population depend solely on agriculture and pasture for their daily livelihood, the ecological pattern had been greatly influenced thereby leading to loss of vegetation cover coupled with climatic variability and replacement of the natural tree composition with invasive mesquite species. The principal aim of this study is to quantitatively examine the vigour of vegetation in Sudan through different vegetation indices. The assessment was done based on indicators such as soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Cloud free multi-spectral remotely sensed data from LANDSAT imagery for the dry season periods of 1984 and 2009 were used in this study. Results of this study shows conversion of vegetation to other land use type. In general, an increase in area covered by vegetation was observed from the NDVI results of 2009 which is a contrast of that of 1984. The results of the vegetation indices for NDVI in 1984 (vegetated area) showed that about 21% was covered by vegetation while 49% of the area were covered with vegetation in 2009. Similar increase in vegetated area were observed from the result of SAVI. The decrease in vegetation observed in 1984 is as a result of extensive drought period which affects vegetation productivity thereby accelerating expansion of bare surfaces and sand accumulation. Although, increase in vegetated area were observed from the result of this study, this increase has a negative impact as the natural vegetation are degraded due to human induced activities which gradually led to the replacement of the natural vegetation with invasive tree species. The results of the study shows that NDVI perform better than by SAVI.

  4. Climate and CO2 modulate the C3-C4 balance and δ13C signal in simulated vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jolly

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil pollen data and δ13C measurements from cores collected in peatbogs or lakes have shown major changes in the terrestrial vegetation during Late Quaternary. Although the effect of climate on the C3-C4 balance has been discussed for 50 years, the impact of a low atmospheric CO2 during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM was emphasized recently and conflicting evidence exists. In this paper, we use a physiologically-based biome model (BIOME4 in an iterative mode to simulate vegetation response to changing mean climate conditions and atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2. In particular, we investigate the transition from LGM to present conditions in two sites which changed from either a C4- or a C3-dominated vegetation to the opposite pole, respectively at Kuruyange (Burundi and Lingtaï (Central Loess Plateau, China. The response of the C3-C4 balance and δ13C signal in the simulated vegetation are investigated. The results show that the vegetation is primarily sensitive to temperature and pCO2. Rainfall impacted the simulated variables below a threshold which decreased with higher pCO2. Climate and pCO2 interacted differently between the two sites showing indirect effects on the δ13C signal. Moreover, the plant functional types (PFTs differed in their composition and in their response between the two sites, emphasizing that the competition between C3 and C4 plants cannot be hardly considered as a simple binary scheme. Our results confirm the advantages of using process-based models to understand past vegetation changes and the need to take account of multiple drivers when the C3-C4 balance is reconstructed from a palaeo-δ13C signal.

  5. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  6. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  7. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This millennium, confronted with a globalization of means leading as fast as possible at certain pursued aims, highlights the importance of competitiveness from the perspective of the continuous fight against limitation of resources. In this context, the machine of life evolution and economy has got an engine named competitiveness. The rules of circulation should focus on all livings to whom, from the perspective of survival and natural, human and social life accomplishment, the well- known concept of health may be attached. At the same time, competitiveness through environment health should try to reach the convergent performances which means that any form of superior knowledge and experience should always take into consideration environment health.

  8. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...... reconstructs how the institutionalisation of competition as a specific type of policy tool which has been used by emerging modern states to establish its authority vis-à-vis competing claims to authority. It furthermore engages in an examination of corporatist and governance based attempts to respectively curb...... and expand the use of competition as a tool for organising social processes and the implications of the se attempts for the state of statehood....

  9. Do competitive interactions in dry heathlands explain plant abundance patterns and species coexistence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ransijn, Johannes; Damgaard, Christian; Schmidt, Inger Kappel

    2015-01-01

    Plant community patterns in space and time may be explained by the interactions between competing plant species. The presented study investigates this in a nutrient and species poor ecosystem. The study presents a methodology for inferring competitive interactions from yearly vegetation inventories...... and uses this to assess the outcome of competitive interactions and to predict community patterns and dynamics in a Northwest-European dry heathland. Inferred competitive interactions from five consecutive years of measurements in permanent vegetation frames at a single dry heathland site were used...... to predict the community dynamics of C. vulgaris and D. flexuosa. This was compared with the observed plant community structure at 198 Danish dry heathland sites. Interspecific competition will most likely lead to competitive exclusion of D. flexuosa at the observed temporal and spatial scale...

  10. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    put under pressure. Thus, the two central actors involved inarchitectural competitions, architects and building clients, are continually influenced by such developments, interpreting and adaptingto changes according to their interests and horizons. During a project reviewing Nordic research literature...... on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...

  11. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  12. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  13. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... policy, innovation, alliances, industrial policy...

  14. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely......We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...

  15. Market Entry, Product Quality And Price Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Sameer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study an entrant firm’s product quality choice and the price competition arising between the entrant and the incumbent firm. We show that the entrant firm should introduce a relatively higher (lower quality than the incumbent firm when the consumers’ valuation for quality is sufficiently large (small. We also study how the incumbent firm modifies its price in response to the ensuing price competition. We find that the incumbent firm should decrease its price. We also profile how the incumbent firm’s price non-linearly depends on consumers’ valuation for quality.

  16. Nursing: the hospital's competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, F A; Preziosi, P

    1988-09-01

    The health care marketplace is becoming increasingly competitive. The hospital has a built-in marketing force with the nursing department, because nurses are in constant, direct contact with the customer. Nursing must identify the case mix profile of the community and focus the hospital product lines to meet community needs. The nursing department should decentralize, change, measure, and innovate the staff mix needed to operationalize these product lines. The development of nursing practice standards for the case mix will help to identify the staff mix needed and create systems to efficiently manage the product lines. Nursing management must become aware of cross-subsidization and downward skill substitution of nursing personnel. Nursing information systems must generate quality reports that invoke cost consciousness on the part of nursing staff. Quality assurance programs must become unit based and complete with frequent audits to correlate length of stay with nursing quality. Correlations must be determined between nursing productivity and case mix to determine the hospital's niche in the marketplace. The transformation of health care into a competitive business industry has created many opportunities for nursing. The health care industry's incentives for efficiency along with the decreasing demand for inpatient hospital services will be the forces driving health care toward a competitive marketplace. The hospital's nursing department should be strategically positioned to become accountable for increasing market share and enhancing quality patient outcomes. The focus has shifted from the theoretical to the tactical, which is a step in the right direction, particularly for nursing. Nursing, if strategically positioned, will not only thrive but will also excel in this chaotic environment by capturing the opportunities and being innovative.

  17. Self-organization, scaling and collapse in a coupled automaton model of foragers and vegetation resources with seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, D.; López-Corona, O.

    2009-10-01

    We introduce a model of travelling agents (e.g., frugivorous animals) who feed on randomly located vegetation patches and disperse their seeds, thus modifying the spatial distribution of the resources in the long term. It is assumed that the survival probability of a seed increases with the distance to its parent patch and decreases with the size of the colonized patch. In turn, the foraging agents use a deterministic strategy with memory that makes them visit the largest possible patches accessible within minimal travelling distances. The combination of these interactions produce complex spatio-temporal patterns. If the patches have a small initial size, the vegetation total mass (biomass) increases with time and reaches a maximum corresponding to a self-organized critical state with power-law-distributed patch sizes and Lévy-like movement patterns for the foragers. However, this state collapses as the biomass sharply decreases to reach a noisy stationary regime characterized by corrections to scaling. In systems with low plant competition, the efficiency of the foraging rules leads to the formation of heterogeneous vegetation patterns with 1/fα frequency spectra, and contributes, rather counter-intuitively, to lower the biomass levels.

  18. The effects of within- and between-group competition on trust and trustworthiness among acquaintances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guofang; Lin, Chongde; Xin, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that between-group competition is a key stimulator of trust and trustworthiness. Another important but neglected type of competition may also affect trust and trustworthiness: within-group competition, especially competition among acquaintances. The present study investigated the effects of both within- and between-group competition on trust and trustworthiness, which were measured using an investment game played by acquaintances. We found that, compared to the participants' performance in the non-competition condition, when individuals were motivated to compete with their in-group members or the other groups for financial rewards, they demonstrated more trust. When individuals were motivated to compete with their in-group members, they exhibited lower trustworthiness than in non-competition and between-group competition. In addition, within-group competition decreased the trustor's payoff while both within- and between- group competition increased the trustee's payoff. Finally, we found that males trusted their group members more than females.

  19. Vegetation survey of Sengwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Craig

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach and initial results of a vegetation survey of the Sengwa Wildlife Area are outlined. The objectives were to produce a vegetation classification and map sufficiently detailed to serve as a base for the management of the natural vegetation. The methods adopted consist of (a stratification of the area into homogeneous units using 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs; (b plotless random sampling of each stratum by recording cover abundance on the Braun-Blaunquet scale for all woody species; and (c analysis of the data by indicator species analysis using the computer programme 'Twinspan’. The classification produced is successful in achieving recognizable vegetation types which tie in well with known environmental features.

  20. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  1. Total Vegetation 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1992 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University for use in the...

  2. Total Vegetation 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1973 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  3. Total Vegetation 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1965 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  4. Total Vegetation 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1984 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  5. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  6. Positioning for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  7. Competition in Individualized CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of competition and cooperation on learning through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A questionnaire was administered to 457 Israeli fourth graders who used two CAI arithmetic systems. The characteristics of the systems are discussed, and the results of the survey are correlated to students' gender and achievement levels.…

  8. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining locatio

  9. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive

  10. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  11. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  12. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  13. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...

  14. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit......This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how...... the institutionalization of competition as a specific type of policy tool has been used by emerging modern states to establish their authority vis-à-vis competing claims to public authority in society. The article, furthermore, engages in an examination of (neo-)corporatist and governance-based attempts both to curb...... and to expand the use of competition as a tool for organizing social processes, and the implications of these attempts for the state of statehood....

  15. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive re

  16. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  17. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  18. A Swimming Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹成兵; 邓新华

    2004-01-01

    Last Sunday, there was a swimming competition in our school. It had been a short time since I learned how to swim. Mr. Zhang, our PE teacher, said I had a gift in swimming and that competing in the game would help build up my confidence and courage. With his encouragement,I signed up for the swimming race.

  19. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit...

  20. Authentication of vegetable oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J S; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity of vegetable oils continues to be a challenge and the target of many studies. Consumers expectancy on healthier products that conform to the labelled information, and the vast amount of legislation a bout the correct characterisation and classification of vegetable oils have boosted a number of scientific works on this subject. Analytical t echniques to face this challenge are, at least, as manifold as ar e the ways of adulteration, ranging fro...

  1. Competitive advantages of Caedibacter-infected Paramecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jürgen; Czubatinski, Lars; Wegmann, Silke; Hubner, Markus; Alter, Margret; Albrecht, Petra

    2002-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria of the genus Caedibacter limit the reproduction of their host, the freshwater ciliate Paramecium. Reproduction rates of infected strains of paramecia were significantly lower than those of genetically identical strains that had lost their parasites after treatment with an antibiotic. Interference competition occurs when infected paramecia release a toxic form of the parasitic bacterium that kills uninfected paramecia. In mixed cultures of infected and uninfected strains of either P tetraurelia or of P novaurelia, the infected strains outcompeted the uninfected strains. Infection of new host paramecia seems to be rare. Infection of new hosts was not observed in either mixtures of infected with uninfected strains, or after incubation of paramecia with isolated parasites. The competitive advantages of the host paramecia, in combination with their vegetative reproduction, makes infection of new hosts by the bacterial parasites unnecessary, and could be responsible for the continued existence of "killer paramecia" in nature. Caedibacter parasites are not a defensive adaptation. Feeding rates and reproduction of the predators Didinium nasutum (Ciliophora) and Amoeba proteus (Amoebozoa, Gymnamoebia) were not influenced by whether or not their paramecia prey were infected. Infection of the predators frequently occurred when they preyed on infected paramecia. Caedibacter-infected predators may influence competition between Paramecium strains by release of toxic parasites into the environment that are harmful to uninfected strains.

  2. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  3. Estimation of vegetative mercury emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Jiannong; ZHANG Xiaoshan; Shang Gyoo SHIM

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative mercury emissions were estimated within the framework of Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS3 V3.11). In this estimation, the 19 categories of U.S. Geological Survey landcover data were incorporated to generate the vegetation-specific mercury emissions in a 81-km Lambert Conformal model grid coveting the total Chinese continent. The surface temperature and cloud-corrected solar radiation from a Mesoscale Meteorological model (MMS) were retrieved and used for calculating the diurnal variation. The implemented emission factors were either evaluated from the measured mercury flux data for forest, agriculture and water, or assumed for other land fields without available flux data. Annual simulations using the MM5 data were performed to investigate the seasonal emission variation. From the sensitivity analysis using two sets of emission factors, the vegetative mercury emissions in China domain were estimated to range from a lower limit of 79×103 kg/year to an upper limit of 177×103 kg/year. The modeled vegetative emissions were mainly generated from the eastern and southern China. Using the estimated data, it is shown that mercury emissions from vegetation are comparable to that from anthropogenic sources during summer. However, the vegetative emissions decrease greatly during winter, leaving anthropogenic sources as the major sources of emission.

  4. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  5. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As. The target hazard quotient (THQ method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  6. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  7. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  8. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  9. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  10. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-29

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  11. Decreasing strabismus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, A; Williams, B; Arora, A K; McNamara, R; Yates, J; Fielder, A

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there has been a consistent change across countries and healthcare systems in the frequency of strabismus surgery in children over the past decade. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on all strabismus surgery performed in NHS hospitals in England and Wales, on children aged 0–16 years between 1989 and 2000, and between 1994 and 2000 in Ontario (Canada) hospitals. These were compared with published data for Scotland, 1989–2000. Results: Between 1989 and 1999–2000 the number of strabismus procedures performed on children, 0–16 years, in England decreased by 41.2% from 15 083 to 8869. Combined medial rectus recession with lateral rectus resection decreased from 5538 to 3013 (45.6%) in the same period. Bimedial recessions increased from 489 to 762, oblique tenotomies from 43 to 121, and the use of adjustable sutures from 29 to 44, in 2000. In Ontario, operations for squint decreased from 2280 to 1685 (26.1%) among 0–16 year olds between 1994 and 2000. Conclusion: The clinical impression of decrease in the frequency of paediatric strabismus surgery is confirmed. In the authors’ opinion this cannot be fully explained by a decrease in births or by the method of healthcare funding. Two factors that might have contributed are better conservative strabismus management and increased subspecialisation that has improved the quality of surgery and the need for re-operation. This finding has a significant impact upon surgical services and also on the training of ophthalmologists. PMID:15774914

  12. Development of freeze dried vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The development of freeze dried vegetables to be used in the Apollo food system is discussed. After the initial selection and screening of vegetables, several types of freeze dried vegetables were prepared in small batches. From these small batches, two vegetables were judged satisfactory for further testing and evaluation. These vegetables, mashed potatoes and asparagus, were subjected to storage at 100 deg plus or minus 5 F. for two weeks and then taste tested. The vegetables were also tested to determine if they complied with the microbiological requirements for Apollo food. The space food prototype production guide for the vegetables is submitted.

  13. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  14. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  15. Endogeneous Risk in Monopolistic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Damjanovic

    2012-01-01

    We consider a model of financial intermediation with a monopolistic competition market structure. A non-monotonic relationship between the risk measured as a probability of default and the degree of competition is established.

  16. The Value of Competitive Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Contract FAR authority citations (from GAO, 2010) A few other notable reasons why some agencies inhibit competition are the following: a. Lack of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT THE VALUE OF COMPETITIVE CONTRACTING By: Pamela A...

  17. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  18. Competition in Soccer Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one......-dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...

  19. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    take into account logistics service supplier strategic management. We also contribute with better understanding of value creation in order to escape commoditization and differentiate services through relationships (customers and/or other hauliers). Practical implications concern hauliers’ strategy...... a competitive value proposition? We will illustrate the strategy-as-practice with two projects, and discuss implications in terms of capabilities needed to create an effective value proposition and hence competitiveness. The theoretical contribution is in theorizing haulier strategic development in which we...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management...

  20. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    to failure several times. Before the current situation of the company, it remains challenging in the future as well. Hence, the Nespresso story provides interesting space for discussion and learning about what innovation is, how innovation emerges, and under which circumstances innovation can serve...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...... offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and the success of a company on the long term. The case is designed to give practitioners a better understanding on what an innovation as, and how competitive advantages can be linked to innovation. Originality/value This case of Nespresso...

  1. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice....

  2. Managed competition that works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caper, P

    1993-05-19

    President Clinton has advocated managed competition within a global budget as a long-term strategy for simultaneously controlling health care costs and expanding access to medical care to all Americans. This proposal is intended to show how these two seemingly conflicting goals can be simultaneously accomplished. Managed competition, as it has been conceptualized to date, is primarily a strategy for reforming the system of providing health services. To work, it must be joined with a strategy for reforming our system of financing and paying for those services and of limiting overall system capacity. "Managed Competition That Works" is a proposal that would create a single trust-funded national system of health insurance, implemented through a system of vouchers to individuals. Global budgeting would be accomplished through establishment of the voucher's value each year. The trust fund would pay health plans for all medical care by capitation, but health plans would be free to negotiate a variety of payment arrangements with physicians, hospitals, and other providers. All plans would be required to offer a standard package of benefits, but would have great flexibility in offering benefits beyond the scope of the standard package, if those benefits replace high-cost with lower-cost services or permit the plan to compete more effectively for market share. This proposal would establish firm but acceptable national budget limits; provide universal, comprehensive, and uniform insurance coverage; eliminate cost shifting; encourage competition; reward efficiency-improving innovation; greatly reduce the need for centralized micromanagement of medical care; and retain local determination and a somewhat reduced level of consumer choice. Although this proposal is written as a national plan, trust funds could be implemented at the state level, if problems associated with portability of benefits among states could be solved.

  3. Competition and dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, J; Sørensen, R

    2000-07-01

    Dental services for adults are different from all other Norwegian health services in that they are provided by private producers (dentists) who have full freedom to establish a practice. They have had this freedom since the end of World War II. A further liberalization of the market for dental services occurred in November 1995, when the so-called normal tariff was repealed. The system changed from a fixed fee system to a deregulated fee system. In principle, the market for dental services for adults operates as a free competitive market, in which dentists must compete for a market share. The aim of this study was to study the short-term effects of competition. A comprehensive set of data on fees, practice characteristics, treatment profiles and factors that dentists take into account when determining fees was analysed. The main finding was that competition has a weak effect. No support was found for the theory that the level of fees is the result of monopolistic competition or monopoly. The results also provided some evidence against the inducement hypothesis. At this stage, it is interesting to notice that dentists do not seem to exploit the power they have to control the market. One explanation, which is consistent with the more recent literature, is that physicians' behaviour to a large extent is influenced by professional norms and caring concerns about their patients. Financial incentives are important, but these incentives are constrained by norms other than self-interest. The interpretation of the results should also take into account that the deregulation has operated for a short time and that dentists and patients may not yet have adjusted to changes in the characteristics of the market.

  4. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  5. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  6. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  7. APPROACHES ON THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan PETRIŞOR; Natalia Ana STRĂIN (SILAŞ)

    2013-01-01

    Within this study, we approached the concept of "competitive intelligence" (CI), which we consider a key element for the success of a business, especially in the current period, characterized by numerous economic and financial turbulence. According to Society of Competitive Intelligence (SCIP), competitive intelligence is defined as a method of ethical and moral collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding the competitive environment, opportunities, vulnerabilities, and int...

  8. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  9. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...

  10. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...

  11. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2014-01-01

    scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular, but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  12. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  13. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  14. Competitive Environments and Protective Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.

    2005-01-01

    The class of two-person competition games is introduced and analyzed.For any game in this class the set of Nash equilibria is convex, equilibrium strategies are exchangeable, and all Nash equilibria lead to the same payoff vector. Competition games are compared to other competitive environments such

  15. Competition policy and cartel size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.M.; Harrington Jr., J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines endogenous cartel formation in the presence of a competition authority. Competition policy makes the most inclusive stable cartels less inclusive. In particular, small firms that might have been cartel members in the absence of a competition authority are no longer members. Regar

  16. Competition policy and cartel size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.M.; Harrington Jr., J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines endogenous cartel formation in the presence of a competition authority. Competition policy makes the most inclusive stable cartels less inclusive. In particular, small firms that might have been cartel members in the absence of a competition authority are no longer members.

  17. Competitive Environments and Protective Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.

    2005-01-01

    The class of two-person competition games is introduced and analyzed.For any game in this class the set of Nash equilibria is convex, equilibrium strategies are exchangeable, and all Nash equilibria lead to the same payoff vector. Competition games are compared to other competitive environments such

  18. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Sears

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, the structure of the environment is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact structural heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics and producing competitive advantages. Applying a generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between a competition's structure and its scoring dynamics. Despite wide structural variations, we find the same three-phase pattern in the tempo of events observed in many sports. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. The most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data...

  19. Hospital survival in a competitive environment: the competitive constituency model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehreth, J

    1993-01-01

    Organizational theory is extended to develop a method for administrators to assess hospital effectiveness in a competitive environment. First, the literature pertaining to organizational effectiveness and survival is synthesized to show the lack of consideration for the effects of competition. Second, the article integrates the effects of competition on organizational effectiveness through a competitive constituency model. A step-by-step procedure is proposed to apply the theory in an organizational setting. The model explicitly addresses differences in power relations between hospitals, their competition, and their stakeholders. The relative nature of effectiveness is explored by comparing the hospital to its competition using criteria developed through specific goals of stakeholders. The distinction between managerial and organizational effectiveness constructs is clarified. Finally, the practical application of this model is demonstrated by assessing the effectiveness of a hospital in the competitive environment of Seattle, Washington, where two hospitals have recently closed.

  20. Future vegetation patterns and primary production in the coastal wetlands of East China under sea level rise, sediment reduction, and saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhen-Ming; Cao, Hao-Bin; Cui, Li-Fang; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effects of sea level rise (SLR), sediment reduction (SR), and saltwater intrusion (SWI) on the vegetation patterns and primary production of one exotic (Spartina alterniflora) and two native dominant (Scirpus mariqueter and Phragmites australis) species in the coastal wetlands of East China, range expansion monitoring and stress experiments were conducted, followed by model prediction. After a rapid invasion period, the expansion rate of S. alterniflora slowed down due to the decreasing availability of suitable habitat under prolonged inundation. SLR was shown to decrease the colonization of S. alterniflora and the native P. australis up to 2100. In contrast, the native S. mariqueter that has a high tolerance of inundation increased in area following SLR, due to a reduction in competition from S. alterniflora in low-lying habitats and even recolonized areas previously invaded by the exotic species. The combination of SLR and SR resulted in further degradation of S. alterniflora and P. australis, while the area of S. mariqueter was not reduced significantly. The decrease in the area of vegetation would reduce the gross primary production under SLR and SR. SWI exacerbates the impacts, especially for P. australis, because S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter have a higher tolerance of salinity. Thus, the coastal vegetation pattern was predicted to be modified due to species-specific adaption to changed geophysical features. This study indicated that the native species better adapted to prolonged inundation and increased salinity might once again become key contributors to primary production on the muddy coasts of East China.

  1. Vegetation moderates impacts of tourism usage on bird communities along roads and hiking trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Isabelle D; Hagenloh, Gerald; Croft, David B

    2013-11-15

    Bird communities inhabiting ecosystems adjacent to recreational tracks may be adversely affected by disturbance from passing tourism traffic, vehicle-related mortality, habitat alteration and modified biotic relationships such as the increase of strong competitors. This study investigated the effects of tourist usage of roads vs. hiking trails on bird communities in gorges of the Flinders Ranges, a popular South Australian tourist destination in the arid-lands. High tourist usage along roads decreased the individual abundance and species richness of birds relative to low usage trails. The decrease in species richness, though less pronounced, also occurred at high-usage sites along trails. Changes in the species response to recreational disturbance/impacts varied depending on the ecology of the species. Bigger, more competitive birds with a generalist diet were overrepresented at high-usage sites along roads and trails. Species using microhabitats in lower vegetation layers were more sensitive. However, structural and floristic complexity of vegetation was a more important factor influencing bird abundance than tourist usage. Sites with a better developed shrub and tree layer sustained higher species abundance and richer communities. Importantly, vegetation qualities moderated the negative effect of high usage on the individual abundance of birds along roads, to the extent that such an effect was absent at sites with the best developed shrub and tree layer. To protect avifauna along recreational tracks in arid-lands gorges, we recommend the closure of some gorges or sections for vehicle or any access. Further, open space particularly for camping needs to be minimized as it creates areas of high tourist usage with modified habitat that provides birds with little buffer from disturbance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    , enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers...... and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes....... No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL...

  3. Competition in a Business Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J

    Competition and cooperation stabilize and structure business networks. In business research there is little focus on network based competition between firms and on how firms compete to gain network position. We review a range of conceptualizations of competition and cooperation and work towards...... a meaning of network competition and network cooperation based on goal structures within activity structures inside a firm network context. We conclude by presenting a framework to understand how network competition and cooperation are played out. We complete the paper with the opportunities for future...... research and also managerial thinking about network strategy and implementation....

  4. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  5. The impact of flood variables on riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzubakova, Katarina; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The riparian vegetation of Alpine rivers often grows in temporally dynamic riverine environments which are characterized by pronounced meteorological and hydrological fluctuations and high resource competition. Within these relatively rough conditions, riparian vegetation fulfils essential ecosystem functions such as water retention, biomass production and habitat to endangered species. The identification of relevant flood attributes impacting riparian vegetation is crucial for a better understanding of the vegetation dynamics in the riverine ecosystem. Hence, in this contribution we aim to quantify the ecological effects of flood attributes on riparian vegetation and to analyze the spatial coherence of flood-vegetation interaction patterns. We analyzed a 500 m long and 300-400 m wide study reach located on the Maggia River in southern Switzerland. Altogether five floods between 2008 and 2011 with return periods ranging from 1.4 to 20.1 years were studied. To assess the significance of the flood attributes, we compared post-flood to pre-flood vegetation vigour to flood intensity. Pre- and post-flood vegetation vigour was represented by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which was computed from images recorded by high resolution ground-based cameras. Flood intensity was expressed in space in the study reach by six flood attributes (inundation duration, maximum depth, maximum and total velocity, maximum and total shear stress) which were simulated by the 2D hydrodynamic model BASEMENT (VAW, ETH Zurich). We considered three floodplain units separately (main bar, secondary bar, transitional zone). Based on our results, pre-flood vegetation vigour largely determined vegetation reaction to the less intense floods (R = 0.59-0.96). However for larger floods with a strong erosive effect, its contribution was significantly lower (R = 0.59-0.68). Using multivariate regression analysis we show that pre-flood vegetation vigour and maximum velocity proved to be

  6. Improving Fishpond Sediment by Aquatic Vegetable Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuously intensive fish farming results in pond degradation that needs to be improved. Therefore, the experiment rotating intensive fish culture with two aquatic vegetables lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and water chestnuts (Eleocharis dulcis cultivation is conducted aiming at determining the effect of rotation as a sediment management technique on improving the pond sediment and assessing the food safety risk of the vegetables cultivated in the pond sediment from the aspects of heavy metal. The results showed that after rotation, the content of Total Nitrogen (TN and Organic Matter (OM in the upper 10 cm sediment decreased significantly (p<0.05, with TN content reduced 1.05 and 0.74 g/kg; OM content reduced 0.59 and 0.37%, respectively. The contents of Organic-Phosphorus (OP and Fe/Al-bound Phosphorus (Fe/Al-P in the sediment decreased significantly (p<0.05, with OP reduced 0.05 and 0.04 g/kg, Fe/Al-P reduced 0.19 and 0.15 g/kg, respectively. The heavy metal contents of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr and Zn except Cu in the pond sediment were under Chinese National II Soil Criterion and the contents of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu and Zn in edible vegetable rhizomes satisfied Safety Requirements for Non-environmental Pollution Vegetable. Rotation of fish culture with aquatic vegetables cultivation effectively mitigated excessive nutrient load in the sediment while recycled the nutrient in the sediment to produce safe vegetables. It could be considered as a viable sediment quality improving technique.

  7. Modeling the Impact of Vegetation Structure on Canopy Radiative Transfer for a Global Vegetation Dynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni-Meister, W.; Kiang, N.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    The transmission of light through plant canopies results in vertical profiles of light intensity that affect the photosynthetic activity and gas exchange of plants, their competition for light, and the canopy energy balance. The accurate representation of the canopy light profile is then important for predicting ecological dynamics. The study presents a simple canopy radiative transfer scheme to characterize the impact of the horizontal and vertical vegetation structure heterogeneity on light profiles. Actual vertical foliage profile and a clumping factor which are functions of tree geometry, size and density and foliage density are used to characterize the vertical and horizontal vegetation structure heterogeneity. The simple scheme is evaluated using the ground and airborne lidar data collected in deciduous and coniferous forests and was also compared with the more complex Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model and the two-stream scheme currently being used to describe light interactions with vegetation canopy in most GCMs. The simple modeled PAR profiles match well with the ground data, lidar and full GORT model prediction, it performs much better than the simple Beer's&plaw used in two stream scheme. This scheme will have the same computation cost as the current scheme being used in GCMs, but provides better photosynthesis, radiative fluxes and surface albedo estimates, thus is suitable for a global vegetation dynamic model embedded in GCMs.

  8. Smart phone video game simulation of parent-child interaction: Learning skills for effective vegetable parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher levels of vegetable intake have been associated with decreased risks of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, several cancers, and possibly obesity, but vegetable intake is generally low. Preference is an important determinant of vegetable intake, and food preferences are initiated early in life, ...

  9. Next-generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Simon; Langan, Liam; Higgins, Steven I

    2013-05-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are powerful tools to project past, current and future vegetation patterns and associated biogeochemical cycles. However, most models are limited by how they define vegetation and by their simplistic representation of competition. We discuss how concepts from community assembly theory and coexistence theory can help to improve vegetation models. We further present a trait- and individual-based vegetation model (aDGVM2) that allows individual plants to adopt a unique combination of trait values. These traits define how individual plants grow and compete. A genetic optimization algorithm is used to simulate trait inheritance and reproductive isolation between individuals. These model properties allow the assembly of plant communities that are adapted to a site's biotic and abiotic conditions. The aDGVM2 simulates how environmental conditions influence the trait spectra of plant communities; that fire selects for traits that enhance fire protection and reduces trait diversity; and the emergence of life-history strategies that are suggestive of colonization-competition trade-offs. The aDGVM2 deals with functional diversity and competition fundamentally differently from current DGVMs. This approach may yield novel insights as to how vegetation may respond to climate change and we believe it could foster collaborations between functional plant biologists and vegetation modellers.

  10. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  11. Grains and Starchy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  12. Coma / Vegetative State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a coma? A coma is a profound or deep state of unconsciousness (consciousness being the awareness of the ... opening or making sounds) than a person in deep coma. Characteristics of the vegetative state include: Return of a sleep-wake cycle with ...

  13. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  14. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  15. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  16. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  17. Attention competition with advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  18. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...... of lean improvements as well as organizational learning....

  19. Entrepreneurship and corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics reforms are not enough for long-range stability. Transition enterprises in domestic economy hasn't prepare itself for the market economy. It has some specific characteristics which are analyzed in this paper. Entrepreneurship is the corner stone for enterprise development in the sense of achieving sustainable competitiveness in the contemporary globalized world economy. There are two possibilities to introduce it in transition enterprises: (a self-development (development by itself or evolution and (b create partnerships or alliance with some reputable competitor. In current situation, author proposal is for the second solution.

  20. Competitive Moves over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    its viability to survive in the marketplace. The study begins with a review of sourcing literature to position the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies changed over time in response...... the firm; (c) organizations are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes....

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced the Vegetation Spatial Database Coverage (vegetation map) for the...

  2. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we re

  3. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  4. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  5. VEGETATIVE SUPPORT OF CARDIAC ACTIVITY IN ATHLETES WITH DIFFERENT ANTHROPOMETRIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Kudrya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research – to study the features of the functioning of the cardiovascular system and regulatory mechanisms of the young athletes of different heights.Materials and methods. The study included athletes aged 15-16 (32 girls and 36 boys engaged in competitive sports. To study the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system using mathematical methods and spectral analysis of heart rate variability. To characterize the vegetative support the circulatory apparatus, all subjects performed an active orthostatic test.Results. The features of vegetative maintenance of heart activity in tall athletes: stress regulatory mechanisms observed resting in tall men and decrease the functionality of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system during active orthostatic test in athletes of different sex. Athletes tall urgent adaptation of the cardiovascular system to changing external conditions associated with activation of suprasegmental divisions of the autonomic nervous system and the excessive activation of the sympathetic division, which is an inefficient way of adaptation.Conclusion. Thus, high growth is evident not only in the increase of total size of the body of athletes, but also in the peculiarities of morphofunctional state involved, indicating the need of individual rationing of loads for tall players. The revealed morphofunctional characteristics of the organism tall athletes allow us to recommend an increase in the proportion of aerobic exercise to enhance the adaptive capacities of the organism. 

  6. The spatial relationship between salt marsh vegetation patterns, soil elevation and tidal channels using remote sensing at Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zongsheng; ZHOU Yunxuan; TIAN Bo; DING Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of vegetation-environment relationships has always been a study hotspot in ecology. A number of biotic, hydrologic and edaphic factors have great influence on the distribution of macrophytes within salt marsh. Since the exotic speciesSpartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) was introduced in 1995, a rapid expansion has occurred at Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve (CDNR) in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary, China. Several important vegetation-environment factors including soil elevation, tidal channels density (TCD), vegetation classification and fractional vegetation cover (FVC) were extracted by remote sensing method combined with field measurement. To ignore the details in interaction between biological and physical process, the relationship between them was discussed at a large scale of the whole saltmarsh. The results showed that Scirpus mariqueter (S. mariqueter) can endure the greatest elevation variance with 0.33 m throughout the marsh in CDNR. But it is dominant in the area less than 2.5 m with the occurrence frequency reaching 98%.S. alterniflora has usually been found on the most elevated soils higher than 3.5 m but has a narrow spatial distribution. The rapid decrease ofS. mariqueter can be explained by stronger competitive capacity ofS. alterniflora on the high tidal flat. FVC increases with elevation which shows significant correlation with elevation (r=0.30,p<0.001). But the frequency distribution of FVC indicates that vegetation is not well developed on both elevated banks near tidal channels from the whole scale mainly due to tidal channel lateral swing and human activities. The significant negative correlation (r=–0.20,p<0.001) was found between FVC and TCD, which shows vegetation is restricted to grow in higher TCD area corresponding to lower elevation mainly occupied byS. mariqueter communities. The maximum occurrence frequency of this species reaches to 97% at the salt marsh with TCD more than 8 m/m2.

  7. Ecogeomorphology of Sand Dunes Shaped by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoar, H.

    2014-12-01

    Two dune types associated with vegetation are known: Parabolic and Vegetated Linear Dunes (VLDs), the latters are the dominant dune type in the world deserts. Parabolic dunes are formed in humid, sub-humid and semi-arid environments (rather than arid) where vegetation is nearby. VLDs are known today in semiarid and arid lands where the average yearly rainfall is ≥100 mm, enough to support sparse cover of vegetation. These two dune types are formed by unidirectional winds although they demonstrate a different form and have a distinct dynamics. Conceptual and mathematical models of dunes mobility and stability, based on three control parameters: wind power (DP), average annual precipitation (p), and the human impact parameter (μ) show that where human impact is negligible the effect of wind power (DP) on vegetative cover is substantial. The average yearly rainfall of 60-80 mm is the threshold of annual average rainfall for vegetation growth on dune sand. The model is shown to follow a hysteresis path, which explains the bistability of active and stabilized dunes under the same climatic conditions with respect to wind power. We have discerned formation of parabolic dunes from barchans and transverse dunes in the coastal plain of Israel where a decrease in human activity during the second half of the 20th century caused establishment of vegetation on the crest of the dunes, a process that changed the dynamics of these barchans and transverse dunes and led to a change in the shape of the windward slope from convex to concave. These dunes gradually became parabolic. It seems that VLDs in Australia or the Kalahari have always been vegetated to some degree, though the shrubs were sparser in colder periods when the aeolian erosion was sizeable. Those ancient conditions are characterized by higher wind power and lower rainfall that can reduce, but not completely destroy, the vegetation cover, leading to the formation of lee (shadow) dunes behind each shrub. Formation of

  8. Investigation of Vegetation Dynamics using Long-Term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Bellone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is the most extensively used satellite-derived index of vegetation health and density. Since climate is one of the most important factors affecting vegetation condition, satellite-derived vegetation indexes have been often used to evaluate climatic and environmental changes at regional and global scale. The proposed study attempted to investigate the temporal vegetation dynamics in the whole Africa using historical NDVI time-series. Approach: For this aim, 15 day maximum value NDVI composites at 8 km spatial resolution produced from the NASA Global Inventory Mapping and Monitoring System (GIMMS had been used. They were derived from data collected daily by NOAA AVHRR satellites. The AVHRR NDVI GIMMS dataset was freely available and gives global coverage over an extensive time period. First of all, the selected NDVI base data had been geometrically pre-processed and organized into a historical database implemented in order to grant their spatial integration. Starting from this archive, monthly and yearly NDVI historical time-series, extended from 1982-2006, had been then developed and analysed on a pixel basis. Several routines hade been developed in IDL (Interactive Data Language programming tool with the purpose of applying suitable statistical analysis techniques to the historical information in the database in order to identify the long-term trend components of generated NDVI time-series and extract vegetation dynamics. Specific tests had been then considered in order to define the validity of results. Results: The existence of clear regional trends of NDVI, both decreasing and increasing had been showed, which helped to highlight areas subject, respectively to reduction or increase in vegetation greenness. Conclusion: As the relationship between the NDVI and vegetation productivity was well established, these estimated long-term trend components may be also, with much more

  9. Tax competition: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Božidar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax competition is increasingly attracting the attention of not only experts Although it is difficult to define precisely, grosso modo, it is actually a competition between states (jurisdictions in attracting capital (investors by tax instruments, especially tax incentives. The first recorded cases of tax competition emerged in 12th century (attracting wool weavers into regions of North Italy-Piemont. Today, tax competition has undreamt-of and very dynamic forms, both territorial and sectored. However, tax competition is accompanied not only by positive but also by rather strong negative effects. Positive effects worth mentioning are the following: 1. control of power, 2. innovations, and 3. incentives. However, negative effects, embodied in "unfair tax competition", provoke a range of unwanted and important distortions in international trade. All of them arise from requirements and wants of tax payers (especially companies to minimize or evade their tax obligations, on the one hand, as well as.

  10. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality.

  11. The effect of product market competition on job instability

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of product market competition on job instability as proxied by the use of fixed-term labor contracts. Using both worker data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey and firm data from the Spanish Business Strategies Survey, I show that job instability rises with competition. In particular, a one standard deviation increase in competition in an economic sector decreases the probability that a fixed-term worker gets an open-ended contract within that sector in a given...

  12. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Greenwood, J.R.; Achim, A.; Gardiner, B.A.; Nicoll, B.C.; Cammeraat, E.; Mickovski, S.B.; Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  13. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Norris; J.R. Greenwood; A. Achim; B.A. Gardiner; B.C. Nicoll; E. Cammeraat; S.B. Mickovski

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  14. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  15. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new...... of advanced offshoring, exploring what causes firms to offshore some of their more advanced tasks. Our findings indicate that while the lower cost of unskilled, labor-intensive processes is the main driver for firms that offshore less advanced tasks, the offshoring of advanced tasks is part of firms’ strategy...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  16. Driving Competitiveness Through Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    countries and emerging economies. It is our hope that this booklet can assist managers to analyze and plan a servitization strategy. The text is brief and comprehensive to supplement a workshop, but can also be used separately as a quick guide on steps to follow for a manager when considering servitization......Servitization, or adding services to the manufactured product, has become a strategy for increasing financial margins, getting closer to the customer and prolonging product lives. This is especially applicable to Western hemisphere companies in their efforts to compete with companies from low cost...... for the company. This booklet is produced to serve as a documentation of a research project together with industry on how servitization can be a strategy to enhance the competitiveness of manufacturing firms....

  17. Vegetative tillering in creeping bentgrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattani, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Growth and development of creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) under non-competitive and competitive conditions were studied.Growth chamber experiments under non-competitive conditions with high and low tiller producing bentgrass populations produced plants with differing tiller appearance

  18. Vegetative tillering in creeping bentgrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cattani, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Growth and development of creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) under non-competitive and competitive conditions were studied.

    Growth chamber experiments under non-competitive conditions with high and low tiller producing bentgrass populations

  19. Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these

  20. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) provides a literature review of wave dissipation by vegetation. INTRODUCTION: Flooding...coastal mangrove forests of Vietnam (Quartel et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Mazda et al. 1997), salt marshes of the United States (Bradley and...et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Cooper 2005, Möller and Spencer 2002, Möller et al. 1999). A year-long study by Cooper (2005) found that wave

  1. Mitigation of drought negative effect on ecosystem productivity by vegetation mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Hoof, Catherine; Lambert, Fabrice

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation diversity and interaction is thought to have a beneficial effect on ecosystem functioning, particularly improving ecosystem resistance to drought. This is of significant importance in the context of a warmer world, as extreme events such as droughts become more likely. Most of the studies performed so far on vegetation interaction are based on observations. Here we use the land surface model JULES to study the potential of vegetation mixing to mitigate the negative effect of drought events on the land surface through interaction, a mechanism which is difficult to study in situ at large scales. Using a set of simulations with mixed and unmixed vegetation, we show that the carbon, water, and energy fluxes are significantly affected by vegetation competition for water resources. The interaction is in general beneficial for the ecosystem carbon assimilation due to a better use of water resources. This benefit is highest when traits between vegetation types concerning resource competition overlap least. For a tree-grass combination, mixing improves carbon assimilation by 5% to 8% during summer. The benefit of mixing increases further under progressively more resource-limited conditions up to an inflection point with a benefit of 14%, after which it falls back to zero under extremely dry conditions. Mixing also tends to reduce the interannual variability of the ecosystem carbon sink and therefore improves the resistance of the ecosystem. Our results highlight the importance of vegetation interaction in climate simulations and impact studies and the potential of vegetation mixing as a mitigation tool.

  2. Sport competitions in Antique Chersoneses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutiev A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is examined the content of physical education in Chersoneses in the ancient period. It is shown the participation of citizens in the Chersoneses competitions at various levels. Stressed the importance of physical culture, sports, sports training, organizing and conducting athletic competitions. Show the direction of physical education of youth, training for local and Panhellenic competitions, military service. The role of the teacher of gymnastics in physical education students in public schools. It is noted that the study involved in Chersoneses pedagogical methods and techniques. It is established that the citizens of Chersoneses actively participated in Panhellenic competitions and they became the victors.

  3. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications for competitive advantage of firms. The paper focuses on competitive advantage and the link among strategy, reputation and corporate communications.

  4. Competition in the Mashup Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Shiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mashups combine data from multiple sources to create innovative web applications. Data providers gain compelling advantages in offering an open application programming interface (API, but face a competitive environment where growth occurs by virtue of developers' independent choices and where competitors are also complementors. This article explores the nature of competition within the mashup ecosystem by focusing on competitive actions taken by API providers and their link to mashup network structure. The resulting insights help entrants and incumbents refine their competitive strategies within this complex and unique environment.

  5. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  6. Mapping your competitive position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  7. Competition between influenza A virus genome segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Widjaja

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV contains a segmented negative-strand RNA genome. How IAV balances the replication and transcription of its multiple genome segments is not understood. We developed a dual competition assay based on the co-transfection of firefly or Gaussia luciferase-encoding genome segments together with plasmids encoding IAV polymerase subunits and nucleoprotein. At limiting amounts of polymerase subunits, expression of the firefly luciferase segment was negatively affected by the presence of its Gaussia luciferase counterpart, indicative of competition between reporter genome segments. This competition could be relieved by increasing or decreasing the relative amounts of firefly or Gaussia reporter segment, respectively. The balance between the luciferase expression levels was also affected by the identity of the untranslated regions (UTRs as well as segment length. In general it appeared that genome segments displaying inherent higher expression levels were more efficient competitors of another segment. When natural genome segments were tested for their ability to suppress reporter gene expression, shorter genome segments generally reduced firefly luciferase expression to a larger extent, with the M and NS segments having the largest effect. The balance between different reporter segments was most dramatically affected by the introduction of UTR panhandle-stabilizing mutations. Furthermore, only reporter genome segments carrying these mutations were able to efficiently compete with the natural genome segments in infected cells. Our data indicate that IAV genome segments compete for available polymerases. Competition is affected by segment length, coding region, and UTRs. This competition is probably most apparent early during infection, when limiting amounts of polymerases are present, and may contribute to the regulation of segment-specific replication and transcription.

  8. First Brazilian patent for dielectric vegetable oil for transformers; Primeira patente brasileira de oleo dieletrico vegetal para transformadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carioca, Jose O.B.; Carvalho, Paulo C.M.; Correa, Raimundo G.C.; Bernardo, Francisco A.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Coelho Junior, Luiz G. [2 Companhia Energetica do Ceara (COELCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Abreu, Rosa F.A. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper discuss the development of different insulating oils for electric power transformers during the last hundred years and analyze comparatively the potential for the use of vegetable oils as a source for green dielectric oils, due to its high level of biodegradability, nontoxic, material compatibility, good electric strength and insulation properties, long-term oxidative and thermal stability, relatively low pour point and reasonable cost. Based on these premises, the authors developed a new type of insulating fluid based on Brazilian vegetable oils never used before for this purpose. This product is competitive with similar and patented products developed from canola and soya vegetable oils. Recently a new patent related with the process for the production of this fluid was submitted to the World Industrial Property Organization - WIPO. (author)

  9. Investigation of North American vegetation variability under recent climate - A study using the SSiB4/TRIFFID biophysical/dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Xue, Y.; MacDonald, G. M.; Cox, P. M.; Collatz, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study applies a 2-D biophysical model/dynamic vegetation model (SSiB4/TRIFFID) to investigate the dominant factors affecting vegetation equilibrium conditions, to assess the model's ability to simulate seasonal to decadal variability for the past 60 years (from 1948 through 2008), to analyze vegetation spatiotemporal characteristics over North America (NA), and to identify the relationships between vegetation and climate. Satellite data are employed as constraints for this study. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis, leaf drop threshold temperatures, and competition coefficients in the Lotka-Volterra equation have major impact on the vegetation spatial distribution and reach to equilibrium status in SSiB4/TRIFFID. The phenomenon that vegetation competition coefficients affect equilibrium suggests the importance of including biotic effects in dynamical vegetation modeling. SSiB4/TRIFFID can reproduce the features of NA distributions of dominant vegetation types, the vegetation fraction, and LAI, including its seasonal, interannual, and decadal variability, well compared with satellite-derived products. The NA LAI shows an increasing trend after the 1970s in responding to warming. Meanwhile, both simulation and satellite observations reveal LAI increased in the southeastern U.S. starting from the 1980s. The effects of the severe drought during 1987-1992 and the last decade in the southwestern U.S.on vegetation are also evident from the simulated and satellite-derived LAIs.Both simulated and satellite-derived LAIs have the strongest correlations with air temperature at northern middle to high latitudes in spring through their effect on photosynthesis and phenological processes. During the summer, the areas with positive correlations retreat northward. Meanwhile, in southwestern dry lands, the negative correlations appear due to the heat stress there during the summer. Furthermore, there are also positive correlations between soil wetness and LAI, which

  10. The role of below-ground competition during early stages of secondary succession: the case of 3-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in an abandoned grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Coll, Lluis; Balandier, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    In abandoned or extensively managed grasslands, the mechanisms involved in pioneer tree species success are not fully explained. Resource competition among plants and microclimate modifications have been emphasised as possible mechanisms to explain variation of survivorship and growth. In this study, we evaluated a number of mechanisms that may lead to successful survival and growth of seedlings of a pioneer tree species (Pinus sylvestris) in a grass-dominated grassland. Three-year-old Scots pines were planted in an extensively managed grassland of the French Massif Central and for 2 years were either maintained in bare soil or subjected to aerial and below-ground interactions induced by grass vegetation. Soil temperatures were slightly higher in bare soil than under the grass vegetation, but not to an extent explaining pine growth differences. The tall grass canopy reduced light transmission by 77% at ground level and by 20% in the upper part of Scots pine seedlings. Grass vegetation presence also significantly decreased soil volumetric water content (Hv) and soil nitrate in spring and in summer. In these conditions, the average tree height was reduced by 5% compared to trees grown in bare soil, and plant biomass was reduced by 85%. Scots pine intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g), measured by leaf gas-exchange, increased when Hv decreased owing to a rapid decline of stomatal conductance (g). This result was also confirmed by delta 13C analyses of needles. A summer 15N labelling of seedlings and grass vegetation confirmed the higher NO3 capture capacity of grass vegetation in comparison with Scots pine seedlings. Our results provide evidence that the seedlings' success was linked to tolerance of below-ground resource depletion (particularly water) induced by grass vegetation based on morphological and physiological plasticity as well as to resource conservation.

  11. Microbial transformations of nitrogen, sulfur and iron dictate vegetation composition in wetlands: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon P.M. Lamers

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of studies on rhizospheric interactions between microbial communities and vegetation focus on pathogens, mycorrhizal symbiosis, and/or carbon transformations. Although the biogeochemical transformations of nitrogen (N, sulfur (S and iron (Fe have profound effects on plants, these effects have received far less attention. Firstly, all three elements are plant nutrients, and microbial activity significantly changes their mobility and availability. Secondly, microbial oxidation with oxygen supplied by radial oxygen loss (ROL from roots in wetlands causes acidification, while reduction using alternative electron acceptors leads to generation of alkalinity, affecting pH in the rhizosphere and hence plant composition. Thirdly, reduced species of all three elements may become phytotoxic. In addition, Fe cycling is tightly linked to that of S and phosphorus (P. As water level fluctuations are very common in wetlands, rapid changes in the availability of oxygen and alternative terminal electron acceptors will result in strong changes in the prevalent microbial redox reactions, with significant effects on plant growth. Depending on geological and hydrological settings, these interacting microbial transformations change the conditions and resource availability for plants, which are strong drivers of vegetation development and composition by changing relative competitive strengths. Conversely, microbial composition is strongly driven by vegetation composition. Therefore, the combination of micro- and macroecological knowledge is essential to understand the biogeochemical and biological key factors driving heterogeneity and total (i.e., micro-macro community composition at different spatial and temporal scales. As N and S inputs have drastically increased due to anthropogenic forcing and Fe inputs have decreased at a global scale, this combined approach has become even more urgent.

  12. Ecological adaptation strategies of annual plants in artificial vegetation-stabilized sand dune in Shapotou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingguang; LI Xinrong; WANG Xinping; WANG Gang

    2004-01-01

    Taking annual plant Eragrostis poaeides in the artificial vegetation-stabilized sand dune in the Shapotou Experimental Research Station as example, study has been done on the adaptation strategies of annual plants to random environment through fixed quadrat observations of population changes and fixed plant determinations of individual growth, seed germination,population dynamics, spatial distribution pattern of population, competition and regulation. During the growing season, the survival rate of annual plants depends on the precipitation intensity and precipitation duration which activate the germination of seeds. The optimal germination strategy of annual plants in this habitat during the growing season appears as continuous germination under suitable conditions. Such continuous germination is an adaptive characteristic of annual plants to random environment. In addition, the variation processes of population size and regulation mechanism of E. poaeoides are studied. Statistical results of natural population in four consecutive years show that water condition in the habitat is the leading factor affecting the population dynamics of E. poaeoides. During the establishment period E. poaeoides had a higher death rate, but in the middle to later period they could survive stably. Due to the limitation of soil moisture, the competition among individuals for water inevitably led to self-thinning phenomena. Under very arid condition, the survival curve of annual herbs entirely appears as Deevey Ⅲ type (C type), but under relatively adequate precipitation condition, the survival curve appears as intermediate type. The strategy of life history obviously appears as r-strategy. Plant species of r-strategy often occurs in the early succession stage of the communities. In the relatively adequate and evenly-distributed rainfall years, E. poaeoides population exhibited a density-dependent, i. e., survival rate increased with decrease in population density. The main pattern to

  13. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  14. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  15. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  16. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  17. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  18. How to use competitive intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-02-01

    Keeping tabs on the competition is a necessity, not a luxury, for organizations operating in today's health-care marketplace. This article, the second of two, explores various strategies for using competitive intelligence and suggests ways to ensure organization-wide commitment to gathering and using this information as part of an overall strategic plan.

  19. The need for competitive intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-01-01

    Often associated with marketing warfare, competitive intelligence has become an essential part of health-care organizations' strategic planning efforts. Without overstepping ethical boundaries, providers can gather a vast array of "intelligence" about their competition from public sources, from the marketplace and from competitors themselves.

  20. Competitive strategy a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    By adopting five basic practices, your organization will be ready to advance to the next level of competitive fitness: Develop a reliable financial baseline. Insist on development of a competitive intelligence database system. Employ rigorous business planning. Advocate for focus and discipline. Really commit to competing.

  1. Competitive dimensions of human resources

    OpenAIRE

    Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna; Prokopenko Olha Volodymyrіvna; Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.

  2. Prediction of Competitive Microbial Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

     Prediction of competitive microbial growth is becoming important for microbial food safety. There would be two approaches to predict competitive microbial growth with mathematical models. The first approach is the development of a growth model for competitive microbes. Among several candidates for the competition model considered, the combination of the primary growth model of the new logistic (NL) model and the competition model of the Lotka-Vorttera (LV) model showed the best performance in predicting microbial competitive growth in the mixed culture of two species. This system further successfully predicted the growth of three competitive species in mixed culture. The second approach is the application of the secondary model especially for the parameter of the maximum cell population in the primary growth model. The combination of the NL model and a polynomial model for the maximum population successfully predicted Salmonella growth in raw ground beef. This system further successfully predicted Salmonella growth in beef at various initial concentrations and temperatures. The first approach requires microbial growth data in monoculture for analysis. The second approach to the prediction of competitive growth from the viewpoint of microbial food safety would be more suitable for practical application.

  3. Competitive dimensions of human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.

  4. Essays on competition in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters of a theoretical nature, all related to the topic of competition in the financial sector. The first chapter studies how competition for talented workers induces banks to set variable wage schemes, and how these wage schemes can lead to excessive risk. The secon

  5. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  6. The competition for supplier resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Suppliers can have a major influence on the overall competitiveness of a firm. When firms lack certain capabilities or resources within their own organization, collaborations with suppliers can help them to acquire these resources and capabilities externally and improve competitive advantage. Howeve

  7. A Survey of Robotic Competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Balogh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of robotic competitions all over the world, their short history and present state is given. Contests are classified according to their difficulty and conditions. Typical competition categories, also with interesting robot constructions are described. Sense, advantages and disadvantages of contests are discussed, especially concerning educational purposes. At the same time, our experiences with organising the contest Istrobot are presented.

  8. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  9. Analysis of physical characteristics of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piamba Tulcan, Oscar Edwin [Universidade Nacional da Colombia (UNAL), Bogota (Colombia). Fac. de Ingenieria; Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: oepiambat@unal.edu.co; Andrade, Danielle Oliveira de; Andrade, Ednilton Tavares de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e do Meio Ambiente; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    Different vegetable oils were characterized using standardized methods. The evaluated characteristics were density, viscosity, flow point, cloud point and corrosion. The obtained data was tabulated and compared with average composition values of oils in percentage of fatty acids and iodine number for each oil. In this analysis it is shown that viscosity decreases with the increase of the iodine number, and density decrease. The cloud and flow point have greater relation with the presence of saturated or highly unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The index of corrosion is greater when oil saturation or its iodine number are increased. (author)

  10. Estimation of vegetation cover resilience from satellite time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Simoniello

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is a fundamental concept for understanding vegetation as a dynamic component of the climate system. It expresses the ability of ecosystems to tolerate disturbances and to recover their initial state. Recovery times are basic parameters of the vegetation's response to forcing and, therefore, are essential for describing realistic vegetation within dynamical models. Healthy vegetation tends to rapidly recover from shock and to persist in growth and expansion. On the contrary, climatic and anthropic stress can reduce resilience thus favouring persistent decrease in vegetation activity.

    In order to characterize resilience, we analyzed the time series 1982–2003 of 8 km GIMMS AVHRR-NDVI maps of the Italian territory. Persistence probability of negative and positive trends was estimated according to the vegetation cover class, altitude, and climate. Generally, mean recovery times from negative trends were shorter than those estimated for positive trends, as expected for vegetation of healthy status. Some signatures of inefficient resilience were found in high-level mountainous areas and in the Mediterranean sub-tropical ones. This analysis was refined by aggregating pixels according to phenology. This multitemporal clustering synthesized information on vegetation cover, climate, and orography rather well. The consequent persistence estimations confirmed and detailed hints obtained from the previous analyses. Under the same climatic regime, different vegetation resilience levels were found. In particular, within the Mediterranean sub-tropical climate, clustering was able to identify features with different persistence levels in areas that are liable to different levels of anthropic pressure. Moreover, it was capable of enhancing reduced vegetation resilience also in the southern areas under Warm Temperate sub-continental climate. The general consistency of the obtained results showed that, with the help of suited analysis

  11. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Rebecca S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United States has declined over the past decade; consequently, the gap between dietary recommendations and vegetable intake is widening. The primary aim of this study is to determine if drinking vegetable juice is a practical way to help meet daily dietary recommendations for vegetable intake consistent with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet. The secondary aim is to assess the effect of a vegetable juice on measures of cardiovascular health. Methods We conducted a 12-week, randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study consisting of 3 groups of free-living, healthy volunteers who participated in study visits at the Ragle Human Nutrition Research Center at the University of California, Davis. All subjects received education on the DASH diet and 0, 8 or 16 fluid ounces of vegetable juice daily. Assessments were completed of daily vegetable servings before and after incorporation of vegetable juice and cardiovascular health parameters including blood pressure. Results Without the juice, vegetable intake in all groups was lower than the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and DASH diet recommendations. The consumption of the vegetable juice helped participants reach recommended intake. In general, parameters associated with cardiovascular health did not change over time. However, in the vegetable juice intervention groups, subjects who were pre-hypertensive at the start of the study showed a significant decrease in blood pressure during the 12-week intervention period. Conclusion Including 1-2 cups of vegetable juice daily was an effective and acceptable way for healthy adults to close the dietary vegetable

  12. Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur- containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.

  13. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  14. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well as s...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts.......Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well...... as societal well-being. This chapter discusses several emerging issues, including the effect of increased demand for nonprovisioning ecosystem services ( biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration), urbanization, bioenergy, and teleconnections. Three major types of land-use competition are discerned...

  15. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A

    2001-12-22

    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  16. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    reforms, carry out a comparative analysis between EU and U.S. competition policies, detect convergence or divergence, and account for the degree of convergence and for the relevant mechanisms triggering convergence. The main focus is on the analysis of anticartel enforcement policy, antimonopoly policy......In spite of the evidence of strong influence on the incorporation of policy provisions from the U.S. antitrust into the recent competition policy reforms in the European Union (EU), few considerable attempts have been made to analyze the influence of U.S. antitrust on EU competition policy...... in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy...

  17. Arsenic uptake and speciation in vegetables grown under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Juhasz, A L; Weber, J

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) by vegetables is a potential human exposure pathway. The speciation of As in vegetables is an important consideration due to the varying toxicity of different As species. In this study, common Australian garden vegetables were hydroponically grown with As-contaminated irrigation water to determine the uptake and species of As present in vegetable tissue. The highest concentrations of total As were observed in the roots of all vegetables and declined in the aerial portions of the plants. Total As accumulation in the edible portions of the vegetables decreased in the order radish > mung bean > lettuce = chard. Arsenic was present in the roots of radish, chard, and lettuce as arsenate (As(V)) and comprised between 77 and 92% of the total As present, whereas in mung beans, arsenite (As(III)) comprised 90% of the total As present. In aerial portions of the vegetables, As was distributed equally between both As(V) and As(III) in radish and chard but was present mainly as As(V) in lettuce. The presence of elevated As in vegetable roots suggests that As species may be complexed by phytochelatins, which limits As translocation to aerial portions of the plant.

  18. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  19. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  20. From monopoly to competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J-M.

    1997-12-31

    For nearly a century, electric utilities have been vertically integrated, having control over power generation, distribution and transmission. They virtually monopolized the markets which they served. In 1977, during the energy crisis, the electric utilities were challenged with the establishment of the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and in 1978 by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). This independent agency, which was initially set up to promote new energy sources and cogeneration, was also a major player in regulating electric power transmission and wholesale trade. PURPA required that electric utilities buy their electricity from qualifying independent power producers. In 1996, FERC orders 888 and 889 were issued which opened up competition to a large degree. Traditional utilities were forced to unbundle their generating and transmission costs. Order 889 opened up information systems to show available transmission capacity on power grids. By setting up a division to take charge of its power transmission system, Hydro-Quebec hopes to gain full access to transmission setups and the wholesale electricity market in the US. 1 fig.

  1. Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph M.; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Alenius, Teija; Birks, H. John B.; Bjune, Anne E.; Christiansen, Jörg; Dodson, John; Edwards, Kevin J.; Giesecke, Thomas; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Kangur, Mihkel; Lorenz, Sebastian; Poska, Anneli; Schult, Manuela; Seppä, Heikki

    2014-04-01

    We present pollen-based reconstructions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of northern European regional vegetation abundance through the Holocene. We apply the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using fossil pollen records from eighteen sites within five modern biomes in the region. The eighteen sites are classified into four time-trajectory types on the basis of principal components analysis of both the REVEALS-based vegetation estimates (RVs) and the pollen percentage (PPs). The four trajectory types are more clearly separated for RVs than PPs. Further, the timing of major Holocene shifts, rates of compositional change, and diversity indices (turnover and evenness) differ between RVs and PPs. The differences are due to the reduction by REVEALS of biases in fossil pollen assemblages caused by different basin size, and inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal properties. For example, in comparison to the PPs, the RVs show an earlier increase in Corylus and Ulmus in the early-Holocene and a more pronounced increase in grassland and deforested areas since the mid-Holocene. The results suggest that the influence of deforestation and agricultural activities on plant composition and abundance from Neolithic times was stronger than previously inferred from PPs. Relative to PPs, RVs show a more rapid compositional change, a largest decrease in turnover, and less variable evenness in most of northern Europe since 5200 cal yr BP. All these changes are primarily related to the strong impact of human activities on the vegetation. This study demonstrates that RV-based estimates of diversity indices, timing of shifts, and rates of change in reconstructed vegetation provide new insights into the timing and magnitude of major human disturbance on Holocene regional vegetation, features that are critical in the assessment of human impact on vegetation, land-cover, biodiversity, and climate in the past.

  2. Monitoring vegetation dynamics with SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI time-series data in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongxiu; Sun, Zhandong; Xu, Yongming

    2009-09-01

    Desertification in the arid and semiarid regions directly influences the density and growth status of vegetation, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) has been widely used to monitor vegetation changes. This study analyzed the spatial patters of vegetation activity and its temporal variability in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China since 1998 to 2007 with NDVI data derived from SPOT4 Vegetation. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the NDVI was used as a parameter to characterize the change of vegetation and to compare the amount of variation in different sets of sample data. The method of quantifying changes in CoV values for each pixel was based on linear regression. The slope of linear regression was acted as the criterion for the change direction: pixels with a negative slope are considered to represent ground area with decreasing amounts of vegetation, vice versa. In this paper, We calculated (1) the inter-annual CoV based on the yearly ONDVI, the sum of the monthly NDVI in the growing season (from April to October), for each pixel between 1998-2007 to reveal the spatial patterns of vegetation activity, (2) the intra-annual CoV based on monthly NDVI by MVC to reflect vegetation seasonal dynamics, (3) the slope (") of the intra-annual CoV regression line for each pixel to identify the overall long-term trend of vegetation dynamics. This experiment demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CoV and its regression analysis based on long term SPOT-VGT NDVI time-series data for vegetation dynamics monitoring.

  3. Detecting Wind Farm Impacts on Local Vegetation Growth in Texas and Illinois Using MODIS Vegetation Greenness Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible impacts of real-world wind farms (WFs on vegetation growth using two vegetation indices (VIs, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, at a ~250 m resolution from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradimeter (MODIS for the period 2003–2014. We focus on two well-studied large WF regions, one in western Texas and the other in northern Illinois. These two regions differ distinctively in terms of land cover, topography, and background climate, allowing us to examine whether the WF impacts on vegetation, if any, vary due to the differences in atmospheric and boundary conditions. We use three methods (spatial coupling analysis, time series analysis, and seasonal cycle analysis and consider two groups of pixels, wind farm pixels (WFPs and non-wind-farm pixels (NWFPs, to quantify and attribute such impacts during the pre- and post-turbine periods. Our results indicate that the WFs have insignificant or no detectible impacts on local vegetation growth. At the pixel level, the VI changes demonstrate a random nature and have no spatial coupling with the WF layout. At the regional level, there is no systematic shift in vegetation greenness between the pre- and post-turbine periods. At interannual and seasonal time scales, there are no confident vegetation changes over WFPs relative to NWFPs. These results remain robust when the pre- and post-turbine periods and NWFPs are defined differently. Most importantly, the majority of the VI changes are within the MODIS data uncertainty, suggesting that the WF impacts on vegetation, if any, cannot be separated confidently from the data uncertainty and noise. Overall, there are some small decreases in vegetation greenness over WF regions, but no convincing observational evidence is found for the impacts of operating WFs on vegetation growth.

  4. Competitiveness of the region : content, factors, policies

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a framework conception of regional competitiveness. The notion of regional competitiveness as well as approaches to the classification of competi-tiveness factors are considered in detail. The author elaborates a set of indicators of re-gional competitiveness. The article also dis-cusses three groups of factors which can influence the competitiveness of any region.

  5. How light competition between plants affects their response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Schieving, Feike; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P R

    2014-09-01

    How plants respond to climate change is of major concern, as plants will strongly impact future ecosystem functioning, food production and climate. Here, we investigated how vegetation structure and functioning may be influenced by predicted increases in annual temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentration, and modeled the extent to which local plant-plant interactions may modify these effects. A canopy model was developed, which calculates photosynthesis as a function of light, nitrogen, temperature, CO2 and water availability, and considers different degrees of light competition between neighboring plants through canopy mixing; soybean (Glycine max) was used as a reference system. The model predicts increased net photosynthesis and reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration under atmospheric CO2 increase. When CO2 elevation is combined with warming, photosynthesis is increased more, but transpiration is reduced less. Intriguingly, when competition is considered, the optimal response shifts to producing larger leaf areas, but with lower stomatal conductance and associated vegetation transpiration than when competition is not considered. Furthermore, only when competition is considered are the predicted effects of elevated CO2 on leaf area index (LAI) well within the range of observed effects obtained by Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. Together, our results illustrate how competition between plants may modify vegetation responses to climate change.

  6. [Correlation analysis on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of different vegetations and climatic factors in Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-He; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1982-2006 NDVI remote sensing data and meteorological data of Southwest China, and by using GIS technology, this paper interpolated and extracted the mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and drought index in the region, and analyzed the correlations of the annual variation of NDVI in different vegetation types (marsh, shrub, bush, grassland, meadow, coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, alpine vegetation, and cultural vegetation) with corresponding climatic factors. In 1982-2006, the NDVI, mean annual temperature, and annual precipitation had an overall increasing trend, and the drought index decreased. Particularly, the upward trend of mean annual temperature was statistically significant. Among the nine vegetation types, the NDVI of bush and mash decreased, and the downward trend was significant for bush. The NDVI of the other seven vegetation types increased, and the upward trend was significant for coniferous forest, meadow, and alpine vegetation, and extremely significant for shrub. The mean annual temperature in the areas with all the nine vegetation types increased significantly, while the annual precipitation had no significant change. The drought index in the areas with marsh, bush, and cultural vegetation presented an increasing trend, that in the areas with meadow and alpine vegetation decreased significantly, and this index in the areas with other four vegetation types had an unobvious decreasing trend. The NDVI of shrub and coniferous forest had a significantly positive correlation with mean annual temperature, and that of shrub and meadow had significantly negative correlation with drought index. Under the conditions of the other two climatic factors unchanged, the NDVI of coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, and alpine vegetation showed the strongest correlation with mean annual temperature, that of grass showed the strongest correlation with annual precipitation, and the NDVI of mash, shrub, grass, meadow, and cultural

  7. Spatial competition dynamics between reef corals under ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Fine, Maoz

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, including ocean acidification (OA), represents a major threat to coral-reef ecosystems. Although previous experiments have shown that OA can negatively affect the fitness of reef corals, these have not included the long-term effects of competition for space on coral growth rates. Our multispecies year-long study subjected reef-building corals from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) to competitive interactions under present-day ocean pH (pH 8.1) and predicted end-of-century ocean pH (pH 7.6). Results showed coral growth is significantly impeded by OA under intraspecific competition for five out of six study species. Reduced growth from OA, however, is negligible when growth is already suppressed in the presence of interspecific competition. Using a spatial competition model, our analysis indicates shifts in the competitive hierarchy and a decrease in overall coral cover under lowered pH. Collectively, our case study demonstrates how modified competitive performance under increasing OA will in all likelihood change the composition, structure and functionality of reef coral communities. PMID:28067281

  8. Spatial competition dynamics between reef corals under ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Fine, Maoz

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, including ocean acidification (OA), represents a major threat to coral-reef ecosystems. Although previous experiments have shown that OA can negatively affect the fitness of reef corals, these have not included the long-term effects of competition for space on coral growth rates. Our multispecies year-long study subjected reef-building corals from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) to competitive interactions under present-day ocean pH (pH 8.1) and predicted end-of-century ocean pH (pH 7.6). Results showed coral growth is significantly impeded by OA under intraspecific competition for five out of six study species. Reduced growth from OA, however, is negligible when growth is already suppressed in the presence of interspecific competition. Using a spatial competition model, our analysis indicates shifts in the competitive hierarchy and a decrease in overall coral cover under lowered pH. Collectively, our case study demonstrates how modified competitive performance under increasing OA will in all likelihood change the composition, structure and functionality of reef coral communities.

  9. A method for estimating vegetation change over time and space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIMaihe; NorbertKraeuchi

    2003-01-01

    Plant diversity is used as an indicator of the well-being of vegetation and ecological systems. Human activities and global change drive vegetation change in composition and competition of species through plant invasions and replacement of existing species on a given scale. However, species diversity indices do not consider the effects of invasions on the diversity value and on the functions of ecosystems. On the other hand, the existing methods for diversity index can not be used directly for cross-scale evaluation of vegetation data. Therefore, we proposed a 3-dimensional model derived from the logistic equation for estimating vegetation change, using native and non-native plant diversity. The two variables, based on the current and the theoretical maximum diversity of native plants on a given scale, and the result of the model are relative values without units, and are therefore scale-independent. Hence, this method developed can be used directly for cross-scale evaluations nf vegetation data, and indirectly for estimatinu ecosvstem or environmental chanue.

  10. Sample-Based Vegetation Distribution Information Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchan Xu

    Full Text Available In constructing and visualizing a virtual three-dimensional forest scene, we must first obtain the vegetation distribution, namely, the location of each plant in the forest. Because the forest contains a large number of plants, the distribution of each plant is difficult to obtain from actual measurement methods. Random approaches are used as common solutions to simulate a forest distribution but fail to reflect the specific biological arrangements among types of plants. Observations show that plants in the forest tend to generate particular distribution patterns due to growth competition and specific habitats. This pattern, which represents a local feature in the distribution and occurs repeatedly in the forest, is in line with the "locality" and "static" characteristics in the "texture data", making it possible to use a sample-based texture synthesis strategy to build the distribution. We propose a vegetation distribution data generation method that uses sample-based vector pattern synthesis. A sample forest stand is obtained first and recorded as a two-dimensional vector-element distribution pattern. Next, the large-scale vegetation distribution pattern is synthesized automatically using the proposed vector pattern synthesis algorithm. The synthesized distribution pattern resembles the sample pattern in the distribution features. The vector pattern synthesis algorithm proposed in this paper adopts a neighborhood comparison technique based on histogram matching, which makes it efficient and easy to implement. Experiments show that the distribution pattern synthesized with this method can sufficiently preserve the features of the sample distribution pattern, making our method meaningful for constructing realistic forest scenes.

  11. Vegetation Mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (South-west Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmadreza Mehrabian; Alireza Naqinezhad; Abdolrassoul Salman Mahiny; Hossein Mostafavi; Homan Liaghati; Mohsen Kouchekzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Add regions of the wodd occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions,vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of add regions is necessary and modem vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps.Sixteen map units covering t2 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata,Salicornia europaaa-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  12. Marketing Aspect of Banking Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieizviestna Olena V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the need for application of marketing tools in order to improve competitiveness and competitive advantages of banks. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the relationship between the competitiveness of the commercial bank and its share in the banking market has been discovered. In the process of studying the integration of the strategy of maximizing customer satisfaction in the practice of strategic competition in the banking market there was presented the author’s position regarding the need to take into account the structure of the customer loyalty, as it is it that helps to properly distribute the bank’s marketing efforts. It has been proved that the technology of bank marketing should not only include the systems of identifying customer needs, creation of new financial products, but also contribute to the formation of the multi-factor strategic model of competitive strategy of the bank competitive development. It has been proposed to use the SWOT-analysis in order to effectively manage the bank’s competitiveness.

  13. Competition for nutrient and light: stable coexistence, alternative stable states, or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankton species

  14. Competition for nutrients and light: Stable coexistence, alternative stable states or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankto

  15. Postglacial climate changes and vegetation responses in northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, M.

    2010-07-01

    Europe. The gradual warming trend was interrupted by a cold event approx8200 cal yr BP. The maximum temperatures, approx1.5-3.0 deg C above modern values, were attained approx8000-4000 cal yr BP. This mid- Holocene peak warmth was coupled with low lake levels, low effective humidity and summertime drought. The late Holocene (approx4000 cal yr BP-present) was characterized by gradually decreasing temperatures, higher lake levels and higher effective humidity. Moreover, the gradual trends of the late Holocene were probably superimposed by higher-frequency variability. The spatial variability of the Holocene temperature and moisture balance patterns were tentatively attributed to the differing heat capacities of continents and oceans, changes in atmospheric circulation modes and position of sites and subregions with respect to large water bodies and topographic barriers. The combination of physical and biological proxy archives is a pivotal aspect of this work, because non-climatic factors, such as postglacial migration, disturbances and competitive interactions, can influence reshuffl ing of vegetation and hence, pollen-based climate reconstructions. The oxygen-isotope records and other physical proxies presented in this work manifest that postglacial climate changes were the main driver of the establishment and expansion of temperate and boreal tree populations, and hence, large-scale and long-term vegetation patterns were in dynamic equilibrium with climate. A notable exception to this pattern may be the postglacial invasion of Norway spruce (P. abies) and the related suppression of mid-Holocene temperate forest. This salient step in north-European vegetation history, the development of the modern boreal ecosystem, cannot be unambiguously explained by current evidence of postglacial climate changes. The results of this work highlight that plant populations, including long-lived trees, may be able to respond strikingly rapidly to changes in climate. Moreover, interannual

  16. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  17. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  18. Project safety as a sustainable competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenthin, David

    2004-01-01

    To be consistently profitable, a construction company must complete projects in scope, on schedule, and on budget. At the same time, the nature of the often high-risk work performed by construction companies can result in high accident rates. Clients and other stakeholders are placing increasing pressure on companies to decrease those accident rates. Clients routinely demand copies of safety plans and evidence of past results at the "pre-qualification" or "request for proposal" stages of the procurement process. Are high accident rates and the associated costs just a part of business? Companies that deliver on scope, schedule, and budget have a competitive advantage. Is it possible for projects with low accident rates to use it as a competitive advantage? Is the value added by safety just a temporary or parity issue, or does a successful safety program offer significant advantage to the company and the client? This article concludes that in the case of a high-risk industry, such as the construction industry, an organization with a successful safety program can promote safety performance as a sustainable competitive advantage. It is a choice the company can make.

  19. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  20. Impact of herbaceous understory vegetation to ecosystem water cycle, productivity and infiltration in a semi arid oak woodland assessed by stable oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbert, Maren; Piayda, Arndt; Silva, Filipe Costa e.; Correia, Alexandra C.; Pereira, Joao S.; Cuntz, Matthias; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    vegetation strongly increased rain infiltration, specifically during strong rain events. In conclusion, beneficial understory vegetation effects were dominant. However, the observed vulnerability of the understory vegetation to drought and competition for water with trees suggests, that increased drought and altered precipitation pattern as predicted in future climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean basin not only threaten understory development. They also very likely decrease rain infiltration and ground water recharge by decreasing understory vegetation cover and increasing amount of heavy precipitation events with high run-off from sealed bare soils. This in turn can severely diminish cork-oak productivity and hence the resilience of the ecosystem toward drought (Costa e Silva et al., in rev.). Dubbert, M; Cuntz, M; Piayda, A; Maguas, C; Werner, C: Partitioning evapotranspiration - Testing the Craig and Gordon model with field measurements of oxygen isotope ratios of evaporative fluxes. J Hydrol (2013) Dubbert, M; Piayda, A; Cuntz, M; Correia, AC; Costa e Silva, F; Pereira, JS; Werner, C: Stable oxygen isotope and flux partitioning demonstrates understory of an oak savanna contributes up to half of ecosystem carbon and water exchange, Frontiers in Plant Science (2014a) Dubbert, M; Mosena, A; Piayda, A; Cuntz, M; Correia, AC; Pereira, JS; Werner, C: Influence of tree cover on herbaceous layer development and carbon and water fluxes in a Portuguese cork oak woodland., Acta Oecologica

  1. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolescent in a process of creative destruction. For given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. It is shown that several patterns of exports may arise depending primarily on the size of fixed trade costs. At a given point in time firms therefore...

  2. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolescent in a process of creative destruction. For given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. It is shown that several patterns of exports may arise depending primarily on the size of fixed trade costs. At a given point in time firms therefore...

  3. The effects of understory vegetation on P availability in Pinus radiata forest stands:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Arivin Rivaie

    2014-01-01

    In many second-rotation Pinus radiata forest planta-tions, there has been a steady trend towards wider tree spacing and an increased rate of application of P fertiliser. Under these regimes, the potential for understory growth is expected to in-crease through increased light and greater nutrient resources. Therefore, understory vegetation could become a more signifi-cant component of P cycling in P. radiata forests than under closely-spaced stands. Studies have shown that growth rates and survival of trees is reduced in the presence of understory vegeta-tion due to the competition of understory vegetation with trees. Other studies have suggested that understory vegetation might have beneficial effects on nutrient cycling and conservation within forest stands. This review discusses the significance of understory vegetation in radiata pine forest stands, especially their role in enhancing or reducing P availability to forest trees.

  4. [Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosheleva, O V; Kodentsova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Strong opinion about reducing vitamin C content in traditional cultivars of fruits and vegetables as a result of intensive farming practices, on the one hand, and depletion of soil, waste of fertilizers, on the other hand, takes place. The aim of the study was to assess changes in vitamin C content in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the 40s of last century to the present. Available national and foreign data from official tables of the chemical composition tables published in different years, including the most typical values, based on the results conducted in a number of research institutes, laboratories and university departments, as well as some original investigations and unpublished own results were used to analyze possible changes of vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables. For comparison we take into consideration only results from the most common and affordable since the last century method of visual titration, which has a relative error of 20%. Analysis of vitamin C content conducted according 5-58 studies from the 40s of the last century to the present, for 32 types of greens and vegetables (potatoes, various types of cabbage and onion, garlic, carrot, turnip, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, peas, turnip, garden radish, parsnip, rhubarb, parsley, dill, lettuce, onion, spinach, sorrel), and according to 6-50 studies of 24 sorts of fruits (apple, pear, mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, black currant, red and white) has been done. It was found that the average content of vitamin varies slightly. Deviations from the average for all the years of research do not exceed the standard deviation. Analysis of longitudinal data did not confirm a vitamin C decrease. This means that vitamin value C of fruits and vegetables remains approximately constant, due to the successful selection of new

  5. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  6. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  7. Vegetated dune morphodynamics during recent stabilization of the Mu Us dune field, north-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Mason, Joseph A.; Lu, Huayu

    2015-01-01

    The response of dune fields to changing environmental conditions can be better understood by investigating how changing vegetation cover affects dune morphodynamics. Significant increases in vegetation and widespread dune stabilization over the years 2000-2012 are evident in high-resolution satellite imagery of the Mu Us dune field in north-central China, possibly a lagged response to changing wind strength and temperature since the 1970s. These trends provide an opportunity to study how dune morphology changes with increasing vegetation stabilization. Vegetation expansion occurs mainly by expansion of pre-existing patches in interdunes. As vegetation spreads from interdunes onto surrounding dunes, it modifies their shapes in competition with wind-driven sand movement, primarily in three ways: 1) vegetation anchoring horns of barchans transforms them to parabolic dunes; 2) vegetation colonizes stoss faces of barchan and transverse dunes, resulting in lower dune height and an elongated stoss face, with shortening of barchan horns; and 3) on transverse dunes, the lee face is fixed by plants that survive sand burial. Along each of these pathways of stabilization, dune morphology tends to change from more barchanoid to more parabolic forms, but that transformation is not always completed before full stabilization. Artificial stabilization leads to an extreme case of "frozen" barchans or transverse dunes with original shapes preserved by rapid establishment of vegetation. Observations in the Mu Us dune field emphasize the point that vegetation growth and aeolian sand transport not only respond to external factors such as climate but also interact with each other. For example, some barchans lose sand mass during vegetation fixation, and actually migrate faster as they become smaller, and vegetation growth on a barchan's lower stoss face may alter sand transport over the dune in a way that favors more rapid stabilization. Conceptual models were generalized for the

  8. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  9. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  10. Keynote address: Coal competitiveness and energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, G. [IEA Coal Research, Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    The competitiveness of coal versus gas, nuclear and renewables for power generation is discussed. It is concluded that coal is competitive on existing plant but it needs to accelerate technology development faster than the competition to sustain its future.

  11. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effect less than 90 days prior to the effective date of a reduction in force, a description of the... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which...

  12. Competition in natural populations of Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.

    1995-01-01

    I investigated the competitive relationships between two species of Daphnia, D. galeata and D. cucullata, and their interspecific hybrid. The term hemispecific competition was introduced to describe competition between parental species and hybrids. In eutrophic Tjeukemeer both parental species were

  13. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  14. Nutrition education effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meredith G; Rhee, Yeong; Honrath, Kerrie; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Terbizan, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on weight and decreased risk for chronic disease, Americans' intake of fruits and vegetables is well below the recommended daily servings. While previous studies have assessed fruit and vegetable consumption and the influence of educational interventions on fruit and vegetable intake, no studies to date have examined the effects of nutrition education combined with provision of fruits and vegetables on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fruit and vegetable consumption patterns, including intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, provide education about benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, expose participants to different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and improve fruit and vegetable consumption. Fifty-four adults (19 men/35 women; 44.7 ± 12.1 y) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition lessons focused on benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and three-day food records. Findings suggested that while the majority of participants failed to consume the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day, nutrition education was helpful in improving the consumption frequency of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables among overweight and obese adults.

  15. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Chinese Agricultural Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products, in relation to the rest of the world, based on the index of revealed comparative advantage, using lots of data during period of 1980 to 2000. The index is useful in identifying the demarcation between comparative advantage and comparative disadvantage, though a problem exits when using it. China is shown to have a comparative advantage in a range of agricultural products, including edible vegetables and tea. This complements the findings of those studies that have used price and cost based on approaches in identifying competitiveness in agricultural products. Results indicated that the RCA values had been weakening over the 21-year period. These have vastly different implication for the future reform in China's agriculture.

  16. The Ecohydrologic Role of Coexistence and Competition in Semiarid Hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanjalili, M. J.; Saco, P. M.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Through its influence on runoff and erosion-deposition processes, vegetation remarkably regulates different aspects of landscape dynamics. Here, the influence of different plant functional traits on the coexistence of different species in arid and semi-arid regions with patchy vegetation is investigated using an ecohydrology model. The model simulates coevolving changes in biomass patterns for two species, as well as overland flow and soil moisture dynamics. Vegetation patterns emerge as a result of facilitation (shading and infiltration) and competition mechanisms as well as varying seed dispersal strategies. The results show that the survival of only one species or the coexistence of both species not only strongly depends on environmental stresses, but also on differences in hillslope micro and macro topography. These vegetation patterns have very different hydrologic signatures and the potential to trigger remarkably different geomorphic responses. Based on these results we establish new hypothesis that will be used to further investigate the role of plant interspecific and intraspecific feedbacks on landscape coevolution processes.

  17. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  18. Sustainability of greenhouse fruit vegetables; Spain versus The Netherlands; Development of a monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der N.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability is becoming more and more important in the competitive battle between the greenhouse-grown fruiting vegetables produced in Spain and the Netherlands. A monitoring system has been developed. Sustainability is a broad concept regarding primary producers and other links in the chain. How

  19. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...... to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels...... and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges...

  20. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  1. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Labini, Francesco Sylos

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation$-$that is, the competitiveness of its research system$-$and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is...

  2. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  3. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  4. Logistics systems optimization under competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Tsan Ming; Govindan, Kannan; Ma, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, optimization on logistics and supply chain systems is a crucial and critical issue in industrial and systems engineering. Important areas of logistics and supply chain systems include transportation control, inventory management, and facility location planning. Under a competitive market...

  5. The Third International Timetabling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard; Di Gaspero, Luca; Kingston, Jeffrey H.; McCollum, Barry; Schaerf, Andrea; Kjenstad, D.; Riise, A.; Nordlander, T.E.; McCollum, B.; Burke, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the organizers’ report on the Third International Timetabling Competition (ITC2011), run during the first half of 2012. Its participants tackled 35 instances of the high school timetabling problem, taken from schools in 10 countries.

  6. Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gomezelj Omerzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential sourceof competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessmentof knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view,which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resourcesand capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute,a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategicallyrelevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993. When firmshave access to similar resources, it is those companies that are able tomaximize the utilization of those resources that attain a competitiveadvantage. Among various strategic resources and capabilities that helpdetermine the extent of competitive advantages, a pivotal role is oftenassigned to knowledge – as both a resource in itself and an integratingfactor that makes other resources and capabilities effective – especiallyin complex and dynamic environments.

  7. DXC'11 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Diagnostic Problem I of the Third International Diagnostic Competition. Three file formats are...

  8. An amusement park physics competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  9. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-01-01

    The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...

  10. Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Suzanne S; Burton, Monique S

    2009-01-01

    Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions can be a challenging task for the sports medicine physician and other medical personnel because of the complexity and aerial nature of the sport. A broad understanding of the six gymnastics disciplines, along with the type of competitions, injury epidemiology, and the common acute gymnastics injuries will help sports medicine professionals in planning and delivering optimal care to the injured or ill gymnast.

  11. LOGISTICS - SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana SCRIOSTEANU; Popescu, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the logistics if source of competitive advantage. Logistics can offer a source of competitive advantage, such as a superior position compared to the competitors regarding cost reductions, service diversity and satisfaction of consumer requirements. The logistic activities generate cost and give value to the final product .Despite that the same logistic activity can be done in many ways, with different costs and performance , the evaluation of the activities and the links b...

  12. Competitiveness of Slovenian Cargo Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojka Počuča

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Slovenian cargo shipping, its system oforganisation, ownership, age and value stntcture. It shows theimportance of shipping in the Slovenian overseas trade and itsimpact on the state's balance of payments. The analysis of thecompetitiveness of shipping was made from the viewpoint ofoperation costs and in comparison with the competitiveness ofEU shippers. The paper concludes with a proposal of possiblesystemic solutions which improve the competitiveness of Slovenianshipping.

  13. COMPETITIVENESS TEXTILE CLUSTER PERU MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Huby, Ana María; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Amador Murguía, María Eugenia; Universidad de Guadalajara

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the research study entitled "A comparative study in Peru- Mexico textile cluster in determining competitive strategies" that was developed in 2010 by the author in collaboration with a team of researchers at the University of Guadalajara. This article basically presents the results in comparative terms of the competitive situation of the textile cluster, Peru and Mexico, "Gamarra" and "Zapotlanejo" respectively representing the textile industry in their countries,...

  14. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    OpenAIRE

    Mitić Sanja; Ognjanov Galjina

    2013-01-01

    Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications ...

  15. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R.; Lewis, J.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the ...

  16. Spatial competition between shopping centers

    OpenAIRE

    António Brandão; João Correia-da-Silva; Joana Pinho

    2010-01-01

    We study competition between two shopping centers (department stores or shopping malls) located at the extremes of a linear city. In contrast with the existing literature, we do not restrict consumers to make all their purchases at a single place. We obtain this condition as an equilibrium result. In the case of competition between a shopping mall and a department store, we find that the shops at the mall, taken together, obtain a lower profit than the department store. However, the shops at ...

  17. Yardstick Competition and Policy Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Rincke, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    A simple model of yardstick competition between jurisdictions is presented. Governments of jurisdictions face the alternative to choose between an old and a new policy with stochastic payoffs. The new policy is superior to the old policy in one state of the world, and inferior in the other. Governments are either benevolent, serving the interest of the voter, or rent-seeking. An equilibrium with yardstick competition is shown to exist where bad governments having a good government in their ne...

  18. Transfer of cadmium from soil to vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg(-1)) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg(-1)). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg(-1)). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (y = ax(b)), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils.

  19. Transfer of cadmium from soil to vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Zhang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg(-1 compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg(-1. 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg(-1. The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (y = ax(b, and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils.

  20. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau(1981―2006):Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981―1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990―1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999―2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002―2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation

  1. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau (1981―2006): Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981-1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990-1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999-2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002-2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation construction has

  2. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  3. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  4. Test of multi-spectral vegetation index for floating and canopy-forming submerged vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Jung; Kirui, Philemon; Natarajan, Harene

    2008-12-01

    Remote sensing of terrestrial vegetation has been successful thanks to the unique spectral characteristics of green vegetation, low reflectance in red and high reflectance in Near-InfraRed (NIR). These spectral characteristics were used to develop vegetation indices, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, the NIR absorption by water and light scattering from suspended particles reduces the practical application of such indices in aquatic vegetation studies, especially for the Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) that grows below water surface. We experimentally tested if NDVI can be used to depict canopies of aquatic plants in shallow waters. A 100-gallonoutdoor tank was lined with black pond liners, a black panel or SAV shoots were mounted on the bottom, and filled with water up to 0.5 m. We used a GER 1500 spectroradiometer to collect spectral data over floating waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and also over the tanks that contain SAV and black panel at varying water depths. The measured upwelling radiance was converted to % reflectance; and we integrated the hyperspectral reflectance to match the Red and NIR bands of three satellite sensors: Landsat 7 ETM, SPOT 5 HRG, and ASTER. NDVI values ranged 0.6-0.65 when the SAV canopy was at the water level, then they decreased linearly (slope of 0.013 NDVI/meter) with water depth increases in clear water. When corrected for water attenuation using the data obtained from the black panel, the NDVI values significantly increased at all depths that we tested (0.1 - 0.5 m). Our results suggest the conventional NDVI: (1) can be used to depict SAV canopies at water surface; (2) is not a good indicator for SAV that is adapted to live underwater or other aquatic plants that are submerged during flooding even at shallow waters (0.3 m); and (3) the index values can significantly improve if information on spectral reflectance attenuation caused by water volume increases is collected simultaneously

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING THE VEGETABLE FARMING EFFICIENCY IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora STOEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency is the major economic category, which measures the final result and the expenses related to the production and provides value expression. The article aims to analyze the prospects and conditions for the development of field vegetable production in Bulgaria. Field vegetable farming is a traditional and fast developing sector of the Bulgarian agriculture. Its condition and development is determined by the various natural and geographic conditions in the country and the experience in cultivating and farming vegetable crops, which are traditional for the Bulgarian population. The vegetable farming is organized in individual private agricultural farms and agricultural farming cooperatives and is performed in small areas. The crisis in the vegetable farming raised a lot of questions that need to be answered. It is necessary to overcome the decrease in vegetable production. This can happen by establishing efficiently operating organizational companies. The most important reasons for the reported decrease are the result of the improperly conducted reforms in the agriculture industry as a result of which the economic condition of the sector is declining. A serious flaw is that the farmers are selecting certain crop production without conducting any preliminary marketing and without any signed contracts for produce realization.

  6. Do Gender Differences in Preferences for Competition Matter for Occupational Expectations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinjans, Kristin J.

    Occupational segregation by gender is prevalent and can explain some of the gender wage gap. I empirically investigate a possible explanation for this segregation: the gender difference in preferences for competition, which in recent experimental studies has been found to affect economic outcomes....... I find that women's greater distaste for competition decreases educational achievement. It can also explain part of the gender segregation in occupational fields. Specifically, accounting for distaste for competition reduces gender segregation in the fields of Law, Business & Management, Health...

  7. From coexistence to competitive exclusion: can overfishing change the outcome of competition in skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia L Ruocco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition for food could be a major force driving changes in the community structure of skates (Rajidae subjected to fishing exploitation. Under this hypothesis, small skates are released from competition with larger skates after fishing has depleted the larger species. Here, we compare the abundance patterns of two sympatric skates with similar niches but different life histories, Bathyraja albomaculata (larger and slow-reproducing and Bathyraja macloviana (smaller and faster-reproducing, before (1971, 1978 and after (1998-2004 a 108% increase in industrial bottom trawling on the southeastern South American shelf in order to test the prediction that B. macloviana should competitively exclude B. albomaculata after the increase in fishing mortality. In 1971 and 1978, there was no relationship between the abundance of both species, indicating that they coexisted over large scales. In 1998-2004, the relationship between the abundances of these skates was bell-shaped, indicating that both species increased in abundance at low densities until peaking, after which B. albomaculata decreased when B. macloviana became more abundant, consistent with resource competition. We tested whether food may be a potential limiting resource by comparing the diet of both species. The two species consumed mostly polychaetes, differing only in the consumption of polychaetes from the family Nephthyidae, which was much higher for B. macloviana. Bathyraja macloviana could replace B. albomaculata at high densities when food resources may become scarce. These results support the hypothesis that competition release is an important factor explaining the changes in skate communities in overexploited areas.

  8. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) is a product of the Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project, USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping...

  10. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  11. 24. Pricing in Bertrand competition with increasing marginal costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Brandts, J.

    2008-01-01

    Bertrand competition under decreasing returns involves a wide interval of pure strategy Nash equilibrium prices. We first present results of experiments in which two, three and four identical firms repeatedly interact in this environment. More firms lead to lower average prices. However, prices rema

  12. 39 CFR 3015.3 - Decrease in rates of general applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decrease in rates of general applicability. 3015.3... PRODUCTS § 3015.3 Decrease in rates of general applicability. (a) When the Postal Service determines to change a rate or rates of general applicability for any competitive product that results in a decrease in...

  13. [Remote sensing estimation of vegetation coverage in guangzhou based on the correction of atmospheric radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian-Zhou; Xia, Bei-Cheng

    2007-03-01

    Vegetation coverage is a basic parameter in describing landscape ecosystem, and an important index in assessing ecosystem health and security. Based on the four TM images in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005, and by using the correction model to deduct atmospheric radiation effect and the spatial operating model for TM image under unsupervised classification, the relationship model between vegetation coverage and normalized vegetation index was established, and the vegetation coverage in different phases in Guangzhou was calculated. The results showed that the vegetation coverage in Guangzhou decreased continuously from 1990 to 2000 but began to increase thereafter, which accorded with the economic development and environmental construction of the city. The model established in this paper could simulate well the dynamics of regional vegetation cover, and have the advantage in describing the dynamics of vegetation coverage more accurately, being available to the assessment of urban eco-environmental quality and its dynamic characters.

  14. [Effects of biochar and nitrification inhibitor incorporation on global warming potential of a vegetable field in Nanjing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Qiao-Ling; Fan, Chang-Hua; Sun, Li-Ying; Xiong, Zheng-Qin

    2014-09-01

    The influences of biochar and nitrification inhibitor incorporation on global warming potential (GWP) of a vegetable field were studied using the static chamber and gas chromatography method. Compared with the treatments without biochar addition, the annual GWP of N2O and CH4 and vegetable yield were increased by 8.7%-12.4% and 16.1%-52.5%, respectively, whereas the greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were decreased by 5.4%-28.7% following biochar amendment. Nitrification inhibitor significantly reduced the N2O emission while had little influence on CH4 emission, decreased GWP by 17.5%-20.6%, increased vegetable yield by 21.2%-40.1%, and decreased the GHGI significantly. The combined application of biochar and nitrification inhibitor significantly increased both vegetable yield and GWP, but to a greater extent for vegetable yield. Therefore, nitrification inhibitor incorporation could be served as an appropriate practice for increasing vegetable yield and mitigating GHG emissions in vegetable field.

  15. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  16. Vegetation and climate interactions: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, Gilles; de Boer, Hugo; Soh, Wuu-Kuang

    2017-04-01

    Plants play a key role in the climate system by influencing the hydrological cycle and the carbon cycle, as well as by affecting the Earths energy balance via changes in albedo. Moreover, changes in climate may result in adaptive responses in vegetation that can feedback to the climate system. The processes that are most dominantly affected depend on the time scale of interest. This session will explore climate and plant interactions and feedbacks through a very large spectrum of processes and time spans. At very short time scale (several minutes) plants may influence the formation of shallow cumulus clouds. At geological time scales (millions of years) evolutionary changes in plant functional traits, such as rooting depth, may influence mineral weathering rates and subsequent atmospheric CO2 levels. To introduce this session we will show that as soon as plants colonized continents the climate was deeply modified. This major change took place during Devonian and corresponds to the opening of a new terrestrial carbon reservoir (soil and vegetation) and therefore contribute to a large decrease of atmospheric CO2. But, this period is also associated with a large change in terrestrial albedo from dessert to vegetation cover. We shall explore the climate impact of such a "terrestrialisation" during Late Devonian (375 Ma). Building on from here, this session will investigate the climate-vegetation interactions through geological time (Late Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Holocene…) and Anthropocene projections. In modern times we are introducing a large quantity of CO2 to the atmospheric reservoir at extreme rates that is affecting the vegetation globally. Owing to recent developments the consequences of terrestrial biosphere interactions for climate change are accurately monitored and simulated through a hierarchy of different co=mplexity models. Therefore, we may predict major interactions which could take place during this century in terms of changes in the water cycle and

  17. RECENT ADVANCES IN TERRITORIAL COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Luminita Constantin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of territorial competitiveness – at national and regional level – from the perspective of the most important research undertaken in the international arena in order to build-up competitiveness indicators able to reveal the complexity and dynamics of this phenomenon in the contemporary society. A special emphasis is put on studies developed by prestigious organisations and research centres such as World Economic Forum, International Institute for Management Development, Cambridge Econometrics, ECORYS-NEI and so on.

  18. Political Globalization and the Competition State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state.......Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state....

  19. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  20. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  1. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  2. Political Globalization and the Competition State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state.......Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state....

  3. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  4. Interaction Enhanced Imperialist Competitive Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Shiou Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA is a new population-based evolutionary algorithm. It divides its population of solutions into several sub-populations, and then searches for the optimal solution through two operations: assimilation and competition. The assimilation operation moves each non-best solution (called colony in a sub-population toward the best solution (called imperialist in the same sub-population. The competition operation removes a colony from the weakest sub-population and adds it to another sub-population. Previous work on ICA focuses mostly on improving the assimilation operation or replacing the assimilation operation with more powerful meta-heuristics, but none focuses on the improvement of the competition operation. Since the competition operation simply moves a colony (i.e., an inferior solution from one sub-population to another sub-population, it incurs weak interaction among these sub-populations. This work proposes Interaction Enhanced ICA that strengthens the interaction among the imperialists of all sub-populations. The performance of Interaction Enhanced ICA is validated on a set of benchmark functions for global optimization. The results indicate that the performance of Interaction Enhanced ICA is superior to that of ICA and its existing variants.

  5. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  6. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  7. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale.

  8. Using fungi and yeasts to manage vegetable crop diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punja, Zamir K; Utkhede, Raj S

    2003-09-01

    Vegetable crops are grown worldwide as a source of nutrients and fiber in the human diet. Fungal plant pathogens can cause devastation in these crops under appropriate environmental conditions. Vegetable producers confronted with the challenges of managing fungal pathogens have the opportunity to use fungi and yeasts as biological control agents. Several commercially available products have shown significant disease reduction through various mechanisms to reduce pathogen development and disease. Production of hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics, competition for plant nutrients and niche colonization, induction of plant host defense mechanisms, and interference with pathogenicity factors in the pathogen are the most important mechanisms. Biotechnological techniques are becoming increasingly valuable to elucidate the mechanisms of action of fungi and yeasts and provide genetic characterization and molecular markers to monitor the spread of these agents.

  9. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Regularity of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables Produced in Inner Mongoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fujin ZHANG; Dekun HOU; Jiang HE; Tianyun GAO; Hong LUO; Songyan LANG; Xinxin ZHANG; Yiping YAO

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study regularity of pesticide residues in veg-etables produced in Inner Mongolia. [Method] Mathematical statistic analysis was carried out on 6 800 samples of veggies, fruits, leguminous vegetables, nuts and seeds produced in Inner Mongolia. [Result] The dominated vegetables in Inner Mon-golia were green leafy vegetables, solanaceous vegetables and melon vegetables, and their yields accounted for 70% of the total vegetables production. Since 2003, with the rapid increase of detected vegetable numbers, the status of vegetable qual-ity safety had entered into a new stage of sustainable steady after a rapid decline or periodic fluctuation, and the differences in safety levels were obvious, of which the range of exceeding standard rate of pesticide residues in solanaceous vegeta-bles, melon vegetables and leguminous vegetables (about 55% of the total vegeta-bles) was under 2%, with average values of 1.1%, 1.6% and 3.1%, respectively. They belonged to stable type. The exceeding standard rate of pesticide residues in green leafy vegetables and Chinese cabbage group (about 30% of total vegetables) presented a decreasing trend year by year, wondering in the range of 7%-10%. They belonged to main risk type. The time period of exceeding standard of pesticide residues in root vegetables and cole vegetables was under predictable, and its ex-ceeding standard rate in some years was over 5% (amplitude variation is over 15 percentage points). They belonged to random risk type. The kinds of pesticides, which exceeding standard rate in vegetables were relatively intensive, presented vari-ance in different vegetable species. 70% of the pesticides belonged to intermittent over-limits and the probability was below 5%. About 20% tradition pesticides often exceeded standard and their probabilities were over 30%. The exceeding standard of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides in vegetables presented a decreasing tend, while the risk of some new pesticides

  11. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Cuban-American and Anglo-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos M.; Pader, Olga F.

    1979-01-01

    The cooperative behavior of 144 children in three groups--Cuban-Americans in either private or public schools and Anglo-Americans--decreased when task instructions emphasized individual rewards. Only the Anglo-American children, who maintained a significant level of competitiveness throughout, significantly increased their competitive behavior in…

  12. Spatial Vegetation Data for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Dinosaur National Monument. The polygons were delineated following guidelines set by the...

  13. Spatial Vegetation Data for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through a series of image processing steps including unsupervised classification, ecological modeling and...

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Badlands National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for all coverages associated with the vegetation land cover and land use geospatial database for Badlands National Park and surrounding areas. The...

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Wupatki National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of the...

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data for Zion National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Zion National Park and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of the USGS/NPS...

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  18. Spatial Vegetation Data for Navajo National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation at NAVA was mapped and classified by a combination of field plot data collected in 2005 and photo interpretation from 1:12,000 scale color aerial...

  19. Spatial Vegetation Data for Glacier National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The geographic information system (GIS) format spatial data set of vegetation for Glacier National Park (GNP) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey...

  20. Spatial Vegetation Data for Hovenweep National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Hovenweep National Monument. The polygons were generated using guidelines set by the USGS-NPS...

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage is of Voyageurs National Park and extended environs, covering 156,886 hectares (387,674 acres). Voyageurs National Park...

  2. Next generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, S.; Higgins, S.; Langan, L.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are a powerful tool to project past, current and future vegetation patterns and the associated biogeochemical cycles. However, most models are limited by their representation of vegetation by using static and pre-defined plant functional types and by their simplistic representation of competition. We discuss how concepts from community assembly theory and coexistence theory can help to improve dynamic vegetation models. We present a trait- and individual-based dynamic vegetation model, the aDGVM2, that allows individual plants to adopt a unique combination of trait values. These traits define how individual plants grow, compete and reproduce under the given biotic and abiotic conditions. A genetic optimization algorithm is used to simulate trait inheritance and reproductive isolation between individuals. These model properties allow the assembly of plant communities that are adapted to biotic and abiotic conditions. We show (1) that the aDGVM2 can simulate coarse vegetation patterns in Africa, (2) that changes in the environmental conditions and disturbances strongly influence trait diversity and the assembled plant communities by influencing traits such as leaf phenology and carbon allocation patterns of individual plants and (3) that communities do not necessarily return to the initial state when environmental conditions return to the initial state. The aDGVM2 deals with functional diversity and competition fundamentally differently from current models and allows novel insights as to how vegetation may respond to climate change. We believe that the aDGVM2 approach could foster collaborations between research communities that focus on functional plant ecology, plant competition, plant physiology and Earth system science.

  3. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  4. Corporate reputation and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the international environment changes, a closer inspection of the competitiveness drivers that change along with it becomes necessary. The rules are changing - competition is getting tougher, stakeholders are multiplying and the role of companies as members of the society grows. Undoubtedly, intangible resources are the key factors of success on the market in the 21st century. A company that can create and improve intangible resources is one that will have a good business performance. This paper aims to describe the role of corporate reputation, as a valuable intangible resource, in gaining competitive advantage. The social relations and interpersonal relationships form the base of corporate reputation. The reputation encompasses all relevant aspects of corporate activity in communication with all stakeholders, both internal and external.

  5. Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details on the asp......The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details...... on the aspects of the problem, the data, and a summary of the methods used by selected top entries. We also discuss the lessons learned from this competition from the organizers’ perspective. The complete data set, including the solution data, is published along with this paper, in an effort to establish...

  6. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  7. Game on: creating competitive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patricia; Foreman, M Shane

    2004-01-01

    Whether you are opening a new imaging center or trying to keep an existing center competitive, there are 3 critical factors: customer service, marketing, and a "what's next?" attitude. Customer service: Outstanding customer service is what sticks in the minds of referring physicians and patients. Not only does providing better service differentiate you from the competition, but it also boosts employee morale and motivates people to acquire new skills. Marketing: From the front office staff to the radiologists,promoting the center should be part of every employee's job description. Simply paying lip service to the concept of marketing will not cut it. A "what's next?" attitude: Complacency is a luxury that does not exist in today's competitive health care arena. Three facilities provide examples of how these factors applied to their success.

  8. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng;

    2014-01-01

    : production versus production (e.g., food vs. fuel), production versus conservation (e.g., food production vs. conservation), and built-up environment versus production or conservation (e.g., food vs. urban). Sustainability impacts that result from land-use competition are analyzed and found to differ...... strongly between the different types of land-use competition. They are associated with important trade-offs and high uncertainty. Institutional aspects related to land-use competition are discussed using a conceptual model that distinguishes types of institutions (government, private, community) as well...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts....

  9. Postural stability decreases in elite young soccer players after a competitive soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Fontes, Ivo; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players.......To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players....

  10. Impact of vegetation die-off on spatial flow patterns over a tidal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Stijn; Moonen, Pieter; Schoelynck, Jonas; Govers, Gerard; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale die-off of tidal marsh vegetation, caused by global change, is expected to change flow patterns over tidal wetlands, and hence to affect valuable wetland functions such as reduction of shoreline erosion, attenuation of storm surges, and sedimentation in response to sea level rise. This study quantified for the first time the effects of large-scale (4 ha) artificial vegetation removal, as proxy of die-off, on the spatial flow patterns through a tidal marsh channel and over the surrounding marsh platform. After vegetation removal, the flow velocities measured on the platform increased by a factor of 2 to 4, while the channel flow velocities decreased by almost a factor of 3. This was associated with a change in flow directions on the platform, from perpendicular to the channel edges when vegetation was present, to a tendency of more parallel flow to the channel edges when vegetation was absent. Comparison with hydrodynamic model simulations explains that the vegetation-induced friction causes both flow reduction on the vegetated platform and flow acceleration towards the non-vegetated channels. Our findings imply that large-scale vegetation die-off would not only result in decreased platform sedimentation rates, but also in sediment infilling of the channels, which together would lead to further worsening of plant growth conditions and a potentially runaway feedback to permanent vegetation loss.

  11. Application of Remote Sensing Detection and GIS in Analysis of Vegetation Pattern Dynamics in the Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Chuangye; Liu Gaohuan

    2008-01-01

    Regional vegetation pattern dynamics has a great im-pact on ecosystem and climate change. Remote sensing data and geographical information system (GIS) analysis were widely used in the detection of vegetation pattern dynamics. In this study, the Yellow River Delta was selected as the study area. By using 1986, 1993, 1996, 1999 and 2005 remote sensing data as basic informa-tion resource, with the support of GIS, a wetland vegetation spa-tial information dataset was built up. Through selecting the land-scape metrics such as class area (CA), class percent of landscape (PL), number of patch (NP), largest patch index (LPI) and mean patch size (MPS) etc., the dynamics of vegetation pattern was analyzed. The result showed that the change of vegetation pattern is significant from 1986 to 2005. From 1986-1999, the area of the vegetation, the percent of vegetation, LPI and MPS decreased, the NP increased, the vegetation pattern tends to be fragmental. The decrease in vegetation area may well be explained by the fact of the nature environment evolution (Climate change and decrease in Yellow River runoff) and the increase in the population in the Yellow River Delta. However, from 1999-2005, the area of the vegetation, the percent of vegetation, LPI and MPS increased, while the NP decreased. This trend of restoration may be due to the implementation of water resources regulation for the Yellow River Delta since 1999.

  12. Vegetation - McKenzie Preserve [ds703

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The California Native Plant Society (CNPS) Vegetation Program produced a vegetation map and classification for approximately 11,600 acres primarily within Millerton...

  13. Intrasexual competition among males : Competitive towards men, prosocial towards women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Massar, Karlijn

    In a study among 40 males and 56 females, participants engaged in a series of decomposed social games in which they had to divide resources between themselves and either a same-sex or an opposite sex other. As predicted on the basis of theorizing on sexual selection, males behaved more competitively

  14. Can NCLB Survive the Competitiveness Competition? Education Outlook. Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Some see the George W. Bush administration's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) as the perfect complement to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) equity focus. The authors believe, however, that the prospects for synergy of these two agendas are not bright. In this essay, the authors discuss the history behind NCLB and the ACI, and argue…

  15. Intrasexual competition among males : Competitive towards men, prosocial towards women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Massar, Karlijn

    2012-01-01

    In a study among 40 males and 56 females, participants engaged in a series of decomposed social games in which they had to divide resources between themselves and either a same-sex or an opposite sex other. As predicted on the basis of theorizing on sexual selection, males behaved more competitively

  16. Competition in a Noncompetitive Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    different markets with di#erenit pctentad] levelb o# competition. Our behavior muSt certair:ly dl -pend upur. the type of marlet, we muit procure weapons...deal has been written about split buy techniques and problems. See Beltramo (1983), Boger and Liao (1985/87), Meeker (1984), Pelzer (1979), Sellers...Competition in the Procurement of Weapon Systems", JounAnaiQl!_8#1!1, Vol 4, Na 2 (Fall). Boger , D.C. and S.S. Liao (1985), "An Analysis oi Quantity

  17. Credit rating dynamics and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics if sophis......I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics...

  18. Magnitude Sensitive Competitive Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pelayo Campillos, Enrique; Buldain Pérez, David; Orrite Uruñuela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    En esta Tesis se presentan un conjunto de redes neuronales llamadas Magnitude Sensitive Competitive Neural Networks (MSCNNs). Se trata de un conjunto de algoritmos de Competitive Learning que incluyen un término de magnitud como un factor de modulación de la distancia usada en la competición. Al igual que otros métodos competitivos, MSCNNs realizan la cuantización vectorial de los datos, pero el término de magnitud guía el entrenamiento de los centroides de modo que se representan con alto de...

  19. An analysis of China's global industrial competitive strength based on vertical specialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaodi; SUN Jingwei

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1990s,China witnessed an increase in its international competitive strength in technology-inteusive and capital-intensive industries,and a decrease in strength in labor-intensive industries.This paper analyzes the effcct of vertical specialization on China's international industrial competitive strength,exphircs how different industries have varying reactions under its implementation,and employs theory to explain the possible causes of these reactions.It is found that vertical specialization can help to strengthen China's global industrial competitiveness,and on that basis,some suggestions are given on how to improve that competitiveness.

  20. Time motion analysis of international kickboxing competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Hssin, Nizar; Haddad, Monoem; Franchini, Emerson; Behm, David; Wong, Del P; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2014-06-17

    The objective of the study was to analyze the time structure of high-level kickboxing matches. A total of 45 combats from two male World Championships were monitored using a time motion analysis system. The combat time structure (i.e., high-intensity activity: HIA; low-intensity activity: LIA; and referee breaks or pauses) during competition and weight divisions was determined and compared. Results indicated that the time structures were HIA: 2.2± 1.2 s; LIA: 2.3± 0.8 s; pauses: 5.4± 4.3 s; and 3.4±1.2 s between two subsequent HIA. The fighting to non-fighting ratio was found to be 1:1. Moreover, the number of HIA and LIA and the time of LIA decreased in latter rounds (e.g., the average number of HIA were 27.1±7.1, 25.1±6.6 and 24.9±6.1 respectively for round1, 2 and 3), meanwhile the time and number of pauses increased (e.g., the average pause times were 12.8±11.4, 22.3±22.6 and 24.6±23.3s respectively for round1, 2 and 3). The activity times did not differ among weight categories. The present results confirm the intermittent nature of kickboxing competition and provide coaches with more information on how to structure training sessions to mimic the physical demands in competition.

  1. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  2. Vegetation - Lassen Foothills [ds564

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2007 Aerial Information Systems, Inc. (AIS) was contracted by the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) to produce a vegetation map for approximately 100,000...

  3. MARKETING WINTER VEGETABLES FROM MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin, Linda; Barrios, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    The North American winter-vegetable industry is highly integrated, with Mexican production supplying a large part of U.S. winter consumption needs. Imports from Mexico undergo a rigorous inspection procedure before entering the United States. In addition to Mexican firms, many U.S. firms are also involved in sourcing winter vegetables from Mexico. To compete well, both U.S. and Mexican firms must adapt to the changing market pressures, which reward firms that can source from many locations to...

  4. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Grass competition surpasses the effect of defoliation on a woody plant invader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Melina J.; Tognetti, Pedro M.; Mazía, Noemí

    2015-10-01

    Woody encroachment in grasslands represents a global phenomenon with strong consequences on ecosystem functioning. While the causes triggering this process can be multiple, there is consensus on the fact that anthropogenic activities play a central role in woody expansion. In particular, the loss of grass cover increases the chances of woody invasion, whereas the role of defoliation is less known. In this study our objective was to assess the simultaneous effect of competition generated by resident vegetation and woody seedling defoliation on the growth and survival of Gleditsia triacanthos seedlings, a woody invader in Argentina. We established a factorial pot experiment with two main factors: Gleditsia defoliation (2 levels: with and without defoliation) and pasture competition (3 levels: without pasture, clipped pasture and intact pasture). Our results showed that pasture competition reduced Gleditsia survival and tree growth, but that the effect of tree defoliation on tree growth depended on the magnitude of pasture competition. More widely, our results stress the existence of a hierarchy order of factors controlling Gleditsia establishment (survival + growth): grass competition was the main control and tree defoliation became important only in the absence of competition. This evidence suggests that maintaining a competitive grass cover along with a frequency of tree defoliation could diminish tree establishment in herbaceous communities.

  6. Missing in action: Species competition is a neglected predictor variable in species distribution modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpakairi, Kudzai Shaun; Ndaimani, Henry; Tagwireyi, Paradzayi; Gara, Tawanda Winmore; Zvidzai, Mark; Madhlamoto, Daphine

    2017-01-01

    The central role of species competition in shaping community structure in ecosystems is well appreciated amongst ecologists. However species competition is a consistently missing variable in Species Distribution Modelling (SDM). This study presents results of our attempt to incorporate species competition in SDMs. We used a suit of predictor variables including Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), as well as distance from roads, settlements and water, fire frequency and distance from the nearest herbivore sighting (of selected herbivores) to model individual habitat preferences of five grazer species (buffalo, warthog, waterbuck, wildebeest and zebra) with the Ensemble SDM algorithm for Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Our results showed that distance from the nearest animal sighting (a proxy for competition among grazers) was the best predictor of the potential distribution of buffalo, wildebeest and zebra but the second best predictor for warthog and waterbuck. Our findings provide evidence to that competition is an important predictor of grazer species' potential distribution. These findings suggest that species distribution modelling that neglects species competition may be inadequate in explaining the potential distribution of species. Therefore our findings encourage the inclusion of competition in SDM as well as potentially igniting discussions that may lead to improving the predictive power of future SDM efforts.

  7. Timing effects of heat-stress on plant physiological characteristics and growth: a field study with prairie vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More intense, more frequent, and longer heat-waves are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic agricultural, economic and ecological impacts. This field study examined how plant responded to heat-stress (HS treatment at different timing in naturally-occurring vegetation. HS treatment (5 days at 40.5 ºC were applied to 12 1m2 plots in restored prairie vegetation dominated by Andropogon gerardii (warm-season C4 grass and Solidago canadensis (warm-season C3 forb at different growing stages. During and after HS, air, canopy, and soil temperature were monitored; net CO2 assimilation (Pn, quantum yield of photosystem II (ФPSII, stomatal conductance (gs, and internal CO2 level (Ci of the dominant species were measured. One week after the last HS treatment, all plots were harvested and the biomass of above-ground tissue and flower weight of the two dominant species was determined. HS decreased physiological performance and growth for both species, with S. canadensis being affected more than A. gerardii, indicated by negative heat stress effect on both physiological and growth responses. There were significant timing effect of heat stress on the two species, with greater reductions in the photosynthesis and productivity occurred when heat stress was applied at later-growing season. The reduction in aboveground productivity in S. canadensis but not A. gerardii could have important implications for plant community structure by increasing the competitive advantage of A. gerardii in this grassland. The present experiment showed that heat stress, though ephemeral, may promote long-term effects on plant community structure, vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning of terrestrial biomes when more frequent and severe heat stress occur in the future.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Vegetation in Water-Limited Ecosystems: The Role of Interannual Rainfall Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Illescas, C. P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2001-12-01

    In water-limited ecosystems, soil water availability lies at the center of a complex coupling between vegetation and climate. Attempts to understand the temporal and spatial vegetation structure of such systems require the formulation of an spatially explicit model of evolutionary dynamics which accounts for temporal fluctuations in soil moisture amounts. Previous work has linked the analytical treatment of the vegetation-soil-climate system described by Laio et al. (2001) and Porporato et al. (2001) characterizing the impact of intraseasonal soil moisture variability on vegetation overall condition with the hierarchical competition-colonization model of Tilman (1994). In this way, the impact of interannual rainfall fluctuations is incorporated into a model of species competition. Such a hydrologically driven hierarchical competition-colonization model is here modified to differentiate between local and global seed dispersal abilities. Simulations at the La Copita savanna site in Texas where the herbaceous C4 Paspaleum setaceum and the woody Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite) coexist, suggest that interannual rainfall variability enhances the impact of local dispersion on the temporal evolution of species abundances as well as on the spatial structure of vegetation. Various descriptors of vegetation patterns, (e.g. cluster size distributions, fractal dimensions) and their sensitivity to interannual rainfall fluctuations will be discussed.

  9. Climate contributions to vegetation variations in Central Asian drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Li; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    (NDVI) data. In our study, most areas showed an increasing trend during 1982-1991, but experienced a significantly decreasing trend for 1992-2011. Vegetation changes were closely coupled to climate variables (precipitation and temperature) during 1982-1991 and 1992-2011, but the response trajectories...

  10. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are us

  11. Heterogeneous hydrogenation of vegetable oils : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, JW; Bouma, MJ; Schoon, NH; Beenackers, AACM

    1997-01-01

    Hardening of vegetable oils is reviewed from an engineering point of view. The present review focuses on kinetics of the hydrogenation and relevant transport and adsorption steps. It aims to contribute to accelerate new research to improve substantially on selectivities in general and a decrease of

  12. Terrestrial vegetation redistribution and carbon balance under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbrecht Tim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs compute the terrestrial carbon balance as well as the transient spatial distribution of vegetation. We study two scenarios of moderate and strong climate change (2.9 K and 5.3 K temperature increase over present to investigate the spatial redistribution of major vegetation types and their carbon balance in the year 2100. Results The world's land vegetation will be more deciduous than at present, and contain about 125 billion tons of additional carbon. While a recession of the boreal forest is simulated in some areas, along with a general expansion to the north, we do not observe a reported collapse of the central Amazonian rain forest. Rather, a decrease of biomass and a change of vegetation type occurs in its northeastern part. The ability of the terrestrial biosphere to sequester carbon from the atmosphere declines strongly in the second half of the 21st century. Conclusion Climate change will cause widespread shifts in the distribution of major vegetation functional types on all continents by the year 2100.

  13. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  14. Effects of Phenibut and Citrocard on Non-Competitive and Competitive Behavior during Provoked Aggression in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaya, A N; Tyurenkov, I N

    2015-05-01

    Anti-aggressive effects of phenibut (25 mg/kg) and its structural analogue citrocard (50 mg/kg) were revealed in rats under condition of provoked intraspecific aggression. These substances significantly decreased manifestations of aggression in animals: they increased the latency of attacks and reduced their number. Anti-aggressive effects of citrocard were more pronounced than effects of phenibut under conditions of non-competitive aggression induced by fear of inescapable painful exposure or under conditions of competitive aggression reflecting the ability of animals to reveal adaptive social communicative skills in aversive situation.

  15. Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk : the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Ros, Martine M.; Casagrande, Corinne; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Noethlings, Ute; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Misirli, Gesthimani; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Ocke, Marga C.; Lund, Eiliv; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Rodriguez Suarez, Laudina; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Hallmans, Goran; Palmqvist, Richard; Bingham, Sheila A.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Boffetta, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2009-01-01

    Background: A high consumption of fruit and vegetables is possibly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the findings to date are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the relation between self-reported usual consumption of fruit and vegetables and the incidence of CRC

  16. Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Huitink, Marlijn; Dijkstra, S.C.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Heijnen, Joris

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were

  17. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of transs......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither.......The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...

  18. Competition in a Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  19. The rd LAK data competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Dietze, Stefan; Herder, Eelco; d'Aquin, Mathieu; Taibi, Davide; Scheffel, Maren

    2017-01-01

    The LAK Data Challenge 2015 continues the research efforts of the previous data competitions in 2013 and 2014 by stimulating research on the evolving fields Learning Analytics (LA) and Educational Data Mining (EDM). Building on a series of activities of the LinkedUp project, the challenge aims to ge

  20. The Fetish of Global Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    A number of scholars have criticised the methodological nationalism of the mainstream study of capitalist diversity for ignoring a global convergence trend triggered by global competition. This contribution agrees with this criticism but insists on the need to take the diversities into account...