Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution
Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2005-10-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution
Decoy-state quantum key distribution with two-way classical postprocessing
Ma Xiongfeng; Fung, C.-H.F.; Chen Kai; Lo, H.-K.; Dupuis, Frederic; Tamaki, Kiyoshi
2006-01-01
Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols when a coherent-state source is used. Previously, data postprocessing schemes based on one-way classical communications were considered for use with decoy states. In this paper, we develop two data postprocessing schemes for the decoy-state method using two-way classical communications. Our numerical simulation (using parameters from a specific QKD experiment as an example) results show that our scheme is able to extend the maximal secure distance from 142 km (using only one-way classical communications with decoy states) to 181 km. The second scheme is able to achieve a 10% greater key generation rate in the whole regime of distances. We conclude that decoy-state QKD with two-way classical postprocessing is of practical interest
General Theory of Decoy-State Quantum Cryptography with Dark Count Rate Fluctuation
Xiang, Gao; Shi-Hai, Sun; Lin-Mei, Liang
2009-01-01
The existing theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography assumes that the dark count rate is a constant, but in practice there exists fluctuation. We develop a new scheme of the decoy state, achieve a more practical key generation rate in the presence of fluctuation of the dark count rate, and compare the result with the result of the decoy-state without fluctuation. It is found that the key generation rate and maximal secure distance will be decreased under the influence of the fluctuation of the dark count rate
Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations
Wang Xiangbin; Yang Lin; Peng Chengzhi; Pan Jianwei
2009-01-01
We show how to calculate the fraction of single-photon counts of the 3-intensity decoy-state quantum cryptography faithfully with both statistical fluctuations and source errors. Our results rely only on the bound values of a few parameters of the states of pulses.
Zhu, Jian-Rong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin
2017-10-01
The decoy-state method has been widely used in commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. In view of the practical decoy-state QKD with both source errors and statistical fluctuations, we propose a universal model of full parameter optimization in biased decoy-state QKD with phase-randomized sources. Besides, we adopt this model to carry out simulations of two widely used sources: weak coherent source (WCS) and heralded single-photon source (HSPS). Results show that full parameter optimization can significantly improve not only the secure transmission distance but also the final key generation rate. And when taking source errors and statistical fluctuations into account, the performance of decoy-state QKD using HSPS suffered less than that of decoy-state QKD using WCS.
Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.
Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2009-04-13
We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.
Detector decoy quantum key distribution
Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos
2009-01-01
Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-04-23
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.
Wang Le; Zhao Sheng-Mei; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. (paper)
Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis of a Decoy State Enabled Quantum Key Distribution System
2015-03-26
ltsnet.net Colin V. McLaughlin Research Physicist, Advanced Photonics Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 Colin.Mclaughlin@nrl.navy.mil...and dirty version. In this figure, the green and red decoy Y1 yields appear to vary more than the black and blue signal Y1 yields. As illustrated
How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss
Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas
2011-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.
How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss
Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Hübel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas
2011-12-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.
Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen
2015-12-01
In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the
Decoy state method for quantum cryptography based on phase coding into faint laser pulses
Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2017-12-01
We discuss the photon number splitting attack (PNS) in systems of quantum cryptography with phase coding. It is shown that this attack, as well as the structural equations for the PNS attack for phase encoding, differs physically from the analogous attack applied to the polarization coding. As far as we know, in practice, in all works to date processing of experimental data has been done for phase coding, but using formulas for polarization coding. This can lead to inadequate results for the length of the secret key. These calculations are important for the correct interpretation of the results, especially if it concerns the criterion of secrecy in quantum cryptography.
Quantum secure direct communication network with superdense coding and decoy photons
Deng Fuguo; Li Xihan; Li Chunyan; Zhou Ping; Zhou Hongyu
2007-01-01
A quantum secure direct communication network scheme is proposed with quantum superdense coding and decoy photons. The servers on a passive optical network prepare and measure the quantum signal, i.e. a sequence of the d-dimensional Bell states. After confirming the security of the photons received from the receiver, the sender codes his secret message on them directly. For preventing a dishonest server from eavesdropping, some decoy photons prepared by measuring one photon in the Bell states are used to replace some original photons. One of the users on the network can communicate to any other one. This scheme has the advantage of high capacity, and it is more convenient than others as only a sequence of photons is transmitted in quantum line
Decoy-state BB84 protocol using space division multiplexing in silicon photonics
Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD), a technique based on quantum physics, provides unconditional secure quantum keys to be shared between two or more clients (Alice and Bob) [1]. Most QKD systems are implemented in a point-to-point link using bulky and expensive devices. Consequently a large scale...... experiments have already demonstrated conventional binary QKD systems, using polarization and phase reference degrees of freedom [2, 3]. In this paper, we show the first silicon chip-to-chip decoy-state BB84 protocol based on spatial degrees of freedom (the cores of a multi-core fiber-MCF-). By tuning...... the superposition of the quantum state between cores, combined with a positive/negative phase relation. A train of weak coherent pulses (5 kHz repetition and 10 ns wide) are injected into the transmitter chip (Alice), where multiple variable optical attenuators (VOAs) are used to decrease the number of photons per...
Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels
Rosenberg, D; Peterson, C G; Harrington, J W; Rice, P R; Dallmann, N; Tyagi, K T; McCabe, K P; Hughes, R J; Nordholt, J E; Nam, S; Baek, B; Hadfield, R H
2009-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential for widespread real-world applications, but no secure long-distance experiment has demonstrated the truly practical operation needed to move QKD from the laboratory to the real world due largely to limitations in synchronization and poor detector performance. Here, we report results obtained using a fully automated, robust QKD system based on the Bennett Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with low-noise superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) and decoy levels to produce a secret key with unconditional security over a record 140.6 km of optical fibre, an increase of more than a factor of five compared with the previous record for unconditionally secure key generation in a practical QKD system.
Viennot, David, E-mail: david.viennot@utinam.cnrs.fr; Aubourg, Lucile
2016-02-15
We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.
Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile
2016-01-01
We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.
Quantum state sharing against the controller's cheating
Shi, Run-hua; Zhong, Hong; Huang, Liu-sheng
2013-08-01
Most existing QSTS schemes are equivalent to the controlled teleportation, in which a designated agent (i.e., the recoverer) can recover the teleported state with the help of the controllers. However, the controller may attempt to cheat the recoverer during the phase of recovering the secret state. How can we detect this cheating? In this paper, we considered the problem of detecting the controller's cheating in Quantum State Sharing, and further proposed an effective Quantum State Sharing scheme against the controller's cheating. We cleverly use Quantum Secret Sharing, Multiple Quantum States Sharing and decoy-particle techniques. In our scheme, via a previously shared entanglement state Alice can teleport multiple arbitrary multi-qubit states to Bob with the help of Charlie. Furthermore, by the classical information shared previously, Alice and Bob can check whether there is any cheating of Charlie. In addition, our scheme only needs to perform Bell-state and single-particle measurements, and to apply C-NOT gate and other single-particle unitary operations. With the present techniques, it is feasible to implement these necessary measurements and operations.
Ma Zhihao; Chen Jingling
2011-01-01
In this work we study metrics of quantum states, which are natural generalizations of the usual trace metric and Bures metric. Some useful properties of the metrics are proved, such as the joint convexity and contractivity under quantum operations. Our result has a potential application in studying the geometry of quantum states as well as the entanglement detection.
Roa, Luis; Retamal, Juan Carlos; Saavedra, Carlos
2002-01-01
A proposal for a physical implementation of a quantum-state discrimination protocol using an ion in a linear trap is studied, where two nonorthogonal quantum states are codified using two electronic states of the ion. In addition, a protocol is given for discriminating superpositions of nonorthogonal entangled states between ions inside widely separated optical cavities. The discrimination protocol is extended to the case of N linearly independent nonorthogonal quantum states lying in a space of 2N-1 dimensions
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
Spehner, Dominique [Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Fourier, F-38000 Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique et Modélisation des Milieux Condensés, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2014-07-15
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
Spehner, Dominique
2014-01-01
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature
Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states
Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua [School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Guihua [Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: sdguoying@gmail.com, E-mail: rhshi@mail.edu.com, E-mail: ghzeng@sjtu.edu.cn
2010-04-15
A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.
Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states
Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Zeng, Guihua
2010-01-01
A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.
Quantum information with Gaussian states
Wang Xiangbin; Hiroshima, Tohya; Tomita, Akihisa; Hayashi, Masahito
2007-01-01
Quantum optical Gaussian states are a type of important robust quantum states which are manipulatable by the existing technologies. So far, most of the important quantum information experiments are done with such states, including bright Gaussian light and weak Gaussian light. Extending the existing results of quantum information with discrete quantum states to the case of continuous variable quantum states is an interesting theoretical job. The quantum Gaussian states play a central role in such a case. We review the properties and applications of Gaussian states in quantum information with emphasis on the fundamental concepts, the calculation techniques and the effects of imperfections of the real-life experimental setups. Topics here include the elementary properties of Gaussian states and relevant quantum information device, entanglement-based quantum tasks such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography with weak and strong Gaussian states and the quantum channel capacity, mathematical theory of quantum entanglement and state estimation for Gaussian states
Furusawa, Akira
2015-01-01
This book explains what quantum states of light look like. Of special interest, a single photon state is explained by using a wave picture, showing that it corresponds to the complementarity of a quantum. Also explained is how light waves are created by photons, again corresponding to the complementarity of a quantum. The author shows how an optical wave is created by superposition of a "vacuum" and a single photon as a typical example. Moreover, squeezed states of light are explained as "longitudinal" waves of light and Schrödinger's cat states as macroscopic superposition states.
Osborne, Tobias J.; Eisert, Jens; Verstraete, Frank
2010-01-01
We show how continuous matrix product states of quantum fields can be described in terms of the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics of a lower-dimensional auxiliary boundary field by demonstrating that the spatial correlation functions of the bulk field correspond to the temporal statistics of the boundary field. This equivalence (1) illustrates an intimate connection between the theory of continuous quantum measurement and quantum field theory, (2) gives an explicit construction of the boundary field allowing the extension of real-space renormalization group methods to arbitrary dimensional quantum field theories without the introduction of a lattice parameter, and (3) yields a novel interpretation of recent cavity QED experiments in terms of quantum field theory, and hence paves the way toward observing genuine quantum phase transitions in such zero-dimensional driven quantum systems.
Gao Gan; Wang Liping
2010-01-01
By swapping the entanglement of genuine four-particle entangled states, we propose a bidirectional quantum secure communication protocol. The biggest merit of this protocol is that the information leakage does not exist. In addition, the ideas of the 'two-step' transmission and the block transmission are employed in this protocol. In order to analyze the security of the second sequence transmission, decoy states are used. (general)
Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging
Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh
2011-01-01
We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.
Quantum States Transfer by Analogous Bell States
Mei Di; Li Chong; Yang Guohui; Song Heshan
2008-01-01
Transmitting quantum states by channels of analogous Bell states is studied in this paper. We analyze the transmitting process, constructed the probabilitic unitary operator, and gain the largest successful transfer quantum state probability.
Hook, D W
2008-01-01
A geometric framework for quantum mechanics arose during the mid 1970s when authors such as Cantoni explored the notion of generalized transition probabilities, and Kibble promoted the idea that the space of pure quantum states provides a natural quantum mechanical analogue for classical phase space. This central idea can be seen easily since the projection of Schroedinger's equation from a Hilbert space into the space of pure spaces is a set of Hamilton's equations. Over the intervening years considerable work has been carried out by a variety of authors and a mature description of quantum mechanics in geometric terms has emerged with many applications. This current offering would seem ideally placed to review the last thirty years of progress and relate this to the most recent work in quantum entanglement. Bengtsson and Zyczkowski's beautifully illustrated volume, Geometry of Quantum States (referred to as GQS from now on) attempts to cover considerable ground in its 466 pages. Its topics range from colour theory in Chapter 1 to quantum entanglement in Chapter 15-to say that this is a whirlwind tour is, perhaps, no understatement. The use of the work 'introduction' in the subtitle of GQS, might suggest to the reader that this work be viewed as a textbook and I think that this interpretation would be incorrect. The authors have chosen to present a survey of different topics with the specific aim to introduce entanglement in geometric terms-the book is not intended as a pedagogical introduction to the geometric approach to quantum mechanics. Each of the fifteen chapters is a short, and mostly self-contained, essay on a particular aspect or application of geometry in the context of quantum mechanics with entanglement being addressed specifically in the final chapter. The chapters fall into three classifications: those concerned with the mathematical background, those which discuss quantum theory and the foundational aspects of the geometric framework, and
Realizing Controllable Quantum States
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku
1. Entanglement in solid states. Orbital entanglement and violation of bell inequalities in mesoscopic conductors / M. Büttiker, P. Samuelsson and E. V. Sukhoruk. Teleportation of electron spins with normal and superconducting dots / O. Sauret, D. Feinberg and T. Martin. Entangled state analysis for one-dimensional quantum spin system: singularity at critical point / A. Kawaguchi and K. Shimizu. Detecting crossed Andreev reflection by cross-current correlations / G. Bignon et al. Current correlations and transmission probabilities for a Y-shaped diffusive conductor / S. K. Yip -- 2. Mesoscopic electronics. Quantum bistability, structural transformation, and spontaneous persistent currents in mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm loops / I. O. Kulik. Many-body effects on tunneling of electrons in magnetic-field-induced quasi one-dimensional systems in quantum wells / T. Kubo and Y. Tokura. Electron transport in 2DEG narrow channel under gradient magnetic field / M. Hara et al. Transport properties of a quantum wire with a side-coupled quantum dot / M. Yamaguchi et al. Photoconductivity- and magneto-transport studies of single InAs quantum wires / A. Wirthmann et al. Thermoelectric transports in charge-density-wave systems / H. Yoshimoto and S. Kurihara -- 3. Mesoscopic superconductivity. Parity-restricted persistent currents in SNS nanorings / A. D. Zaikin and S. V. Sharov. Large energy dependence of current noise in superconductingh/normal metal junctions / F. Pistolesi and M. Houzet. Generation of photon number states and their superpositions using a superconducting qubit in a microcavity / Yu-Xi Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori. Andreev interferometry for pumped currents / F. Taddei, M. Governale and R. Fazio. Suppression of Cooper-pair breaking against high magnetic fields in carbon nanotubes / J. Haruyama et al. Impact of the transport supercurrent on the Josephson effect / S. N. Shevchenko. Josephson current through spin-polarized Luttinger liquid / N. Yokoshi and S. Kurihara
High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state
Wang, Yang [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su, E-mail: 2010thzz@sina.com [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2017-04-25
High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.
High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state
Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei
2017-01-01
High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-01-01
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-10-29
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Unbound states in quantum heterostructures
Ferreira R
2006-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWe report in this review on the electronic continuum states of semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots and highlight the decisive part played by the virtual bound states in the optical properties of these structures. The two particles continuum states of Quantum Dots control the decoherence of the excited electron – hole states. The part played by Auger scattering in Quantum Dots is also discussed.
Investigating Quantum Modulation States
2016-03-01
Coherent state quantum data encryption is highly interoperable with current classical optical infrastructure in both fiber and free space optical networks...hub’s field of regard has a transmit/receive module that are endpoints of the Lyot filter stage tree within the hub’s backend electro-optics control... mobile airborne and space-borne networking. Just like any laser communication technology, QC links are affected by several sources of distortions
Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering
Dell' Anno, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)]. E-mail: dellanno@sa.infn.it; De Siena, Silvio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: desiena@sa.infn.it; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.it
2006-05-15
We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information.
Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering
Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2006-01-01
We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
Rodrigues, R. de Lima; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques
2001-12-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D
2001-01-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.
Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing via Introducing Auxiliary Particles Using a Pure Entangled State
Xia Yan; Song Jie; Song Heshan; Huang Xiaoli
2008-01-01
We propose a new multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol via introducing auxiliary particles using a non-maximally entangled (pure) two-particle state without a Bell measurement. The communication parties utilize decoy particles to check eavesdropping. After ensuring the security of the quantum channel, the sender encodes the secret message and transmits it to the receiver by using controlled-NOT operation and von Neumann measurement. If and only if all the agents agree to collaborate, they can read out the secret message
Symmetric extendibility of quantum states
Nowakowski, Marcin L.
2015-01-01
Studies on symmetric extendibility of quantum states become especially important in a context of analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, distilabillity and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyse composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part with a particular attention devoted to one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of quantum state. We underpin those results with geome...
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
Set discrimination of quantum states
Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng
2002-01-01
We introduce a notion of set discrimination, which is an interesting extension of quantum state discrimination. A state is secretly chosen from a number of quantum states, which are partitioned into some disjoint sets. A set discrimination is required to identify which set the given state belongs to. Several essential problems are addressed in this paper, including the condition of perfect set discrimination, unambiguous set discrimination, and in the latter case, the efficiency of the discrimination. This generalizes some important results on quantum state discrimination in the literature. A combination of state and set discrimination and the efficiency are also studied
Yang Yuguang; Wen Qiaoyan
2009-01-01
Following some ideas of the quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol (2008, Phys. Lett. A 372, 1957), we propose an efficient quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol for comparing information of equality with the help of a third party (TP). The protocol can ensure fairness, efficiency and security. The protocol is fair, which means that one party knows the sound result of the comparison if and only if the other one knows the result. The protocol is efficient with the help of the TP for calculating. However, the TP cannot learn any information about the players' respective private inputs and even about the comparison result and cannot collude with any player. The protocol is secure for the two players, that is, any information about their respective secret inputs will not leak except the final computation result. A precise proof of security of the protocol is presented. Applications of this protocol may include private bidding and auctions, secret ballot elections, commercial business, identification in a number of scenarios and so on
Multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states
Almeida, Mafalda L.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Acin, Antonio
2010-01-01
We present a general method for characterizing the quantum correlations obtained after local measurements on multipartite systems. Sufficient conditions for a quantum system to be fully nonlocal according to a given partition, as well as being (genuinely) multipartite fully nonlocal, are derived. These conditions allow us to identify all completely connected graph states as multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states. Moreover, we show that this feature can also be observed in mixed states: the tensor product of five copies of the Smolin state, a biseparable and bound entangled state, is multipartite fully nonlocal.
Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Quantum States Using Entanglement States
Ying, Guo; Da-Zu, Huang; Gui-Hua, Zeng; Ho, Lee Moon
2008-01-01
A multi-partite-controlled quantum secret sharing scheme using several non-orthogonal entanglement states is presented with unconditional security. In this scheme, the participants share the secret quantum state by exchanging the secret polarization angles of the disordered travel particles. The security of the secret quantum state is also guaranteed by the non-orthogonal multi-partite-controlled entanglement states, the participants' secret polarizations, and the disorder of the travelling particles. Moreover, the present scheme is secure against the particle-number splitting attack and the intercept-and-resend attack. It may be still secure even if the distributed quantum state is embedded in a not-so-weak coherent-state pulse
Zhou, Ping; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu
2007-01-01
We present a general scheme for multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary m-qudit (d-dimensional quantum system) state by using non-maximally entangled states as the quantum channel. The sender performs m generalized Bell-state measurements on her 2m particles, the controllers take some single-particle measurements with the measuring basis X d and the receiver only needs to introduce one auxiliary two-level particle to extract quantum information probabilistically with the fidelity unit if he cooperates with all the controllers. All the parties can use some decoy photons to set up their quantum channel securely, which will forbid a dishonest party to eavesdrop freely. This scheme is optimal as the probability that the receiver obtains the originally unknown m-qudit state equals the entanglement of the quantum channel
Camouflage, Concealment, and Decoys
2010-11-26
otherwise dull Note. Use canned milk or powdered eggs to increase the binding properties of field-expedient paints. RADAR-ABSORBING MATERIAL 3-72. RAM... falsification of evidence, inducing him to react in a manner prejudicial to his interests. decoy An imitation in any sense of a person, an object
Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B
2014-09-15
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case.
Observer dependence of quantum states in relativistic quantum field theories
Malin, S.
1982-01-01
Quantum states can be understood as either (i) describing quantum systems or (ii) representing observers' knowledge about quantum systems. These different meanings are shown to imply different transformation properties in relativistic field theories. The rules for the reduction of quantum states and the transformation properties of quantum states under Lorentz transformations are derived for case (ii). The results obtained are applied to a quantum system recently presented and analyzed by Aharonov and Albert. It is shown that the present results, combined with Aharonov and Albert's, amount to a proof of Bohr's view that quantum states represent observers' knowledge about quantum systems
Quantum States as Ordinary Information
Ken Wharton
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.
Statistical representation of quantum states
Montina, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2007-05-15
In the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, the state is described by an abstract wave function in the representation space. Conversely, in a realistic interpretation, the quantum state is replaced by a probability distribution of physical quantities. Bohm mechanics is a consistent example of realistic theory, where the wave function and the particle positions are classically defined quantities. Recently, we proved that the probability distribution in a realistic theory cannot be a quadratic function of the quantum state, in contrast to the apparently obvious suggestion given by the Born rule for transition probabilities. Here, we provide a simplified version of this proof.
Quantum cosmology and stationary states
Padmanabhan, T.
1983-01-01
A model for quantum gravity, in which the conformal part of the metric is quantized using the path integral formalism, is presented. Einstein's equations can be suitably modified to take into account the effects of quantum conformal fluctuations. A closed Friedman model can be described in terms of well-defined stationary states. The ''ground state'' sets a lower bound (at Planck length) to the scale factor preventing the collapse. A possible explanation for matter creation and quantum nature of matter is suggested. (author)
Multiple-Access Quantum-Classical Networks
Razavi, Mohsen
2011-10-01
A multi-user network that supports both classical and quantum communication is proposed. By relying on optical code-division multiple access techniques, this system offers simultaneous key exchange between multiple pairs of network users. A lower bound on the secure key generation rate will be derived for decoy-state quantum key distribution protocols.
Strategies for state-dependent quantum deleting
Song Wei; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang
2004-01-01
A quantum state-dependent quantum deleting machine is constructed. We obtain a upper bound of the global fidelity on N-to-M quantum deleting from a set of K non-orthogonal states. Quantum networks are constructed for the above state-dependent quantum deleting machine when K=2. Our deleting protocol only involves a unitary interaction among the initial copies, with no ancilla. We also present some analogies between quantum cloning and deleting
Tracking the decoy: Maximizing the decoy effect through sequential experimentation
Kaptein, M.C.; Emden, R. van; Iannuzzi, D.
2016-01-01
The decoy effect is one of the best known human biases violating rational choice theory. According to a large body of literature, people may be persuaded to switch from one offer to another by the presence of a third option (the decoy) that, rationally, should have no influence on the
Tracking the decoy : Maximizing the decoy effect through sequential experimentation
Kaptein, M.C; Van Emden, Robin; Iannuzzi, Davide
2016-01-01
The decoy effect is one of the best known human biases violating rational choice theory. According to a large body of literature, people may be persuaded to switch from one offer to another by the presence of a third option (the decoy) that, rationally, should have no influence on the
Tracking the decoy: maximizing the decoy effect through sequential experimentation
Kaptein, M.C.; van Emden, R.; Iannuzzi, D.
2016-01-01
The decoy effect is one of the best known human biases violating rational choice theory. According to a large body of literature, people may be persuaded to switch from one offer to another by the presence of a third option (the decoy) that, rationally, should have no influence on the
Preparation of freezing quantum state for quantum coherence
Yang, Lian-Wu; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Feng; Du, Shao-jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie
2018-06-01
We provide a method to prepare the freezing quantum state for quantum coherence via unitary operations. The initial product state consists of the control qubit and target qubit; when it satisfies certain conditions, the initial product state converts into the particular Bell diagonal state under the unitary operations, which have the property of freezing of quantum coherence under quantum channels. We calculate the frozen quantum coherence and corresponding quantum correlations, and find that the quantities are determined by the control qubit only when the freezing phenomena occur.
Loss energy states of nonstationary quantum systems
Dodonov, V.V.; Man'ko, V.I.
1978-01-01
The concept of loss energy states is introduced. The loss energy states of the quantum harmonic damping oscillator are considered in detail. The method of constructing the loss energy states for general multidimensional quadratic nonstationary quantum systems is briefly discussed
Wang Chao; Liu Jian-Wei; Shang Tao; Chen Xiu-Bo; Bi Ya-Gang
2015-01-01
This study proposes two novel fault tolerant deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) schemes resistant to collective noise using logical Bell states. Either DSQC scheme is constructed based on a new coding function, which is designed by exploiting the property of the corresponding logical Bell states immune to collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. The secret message can be encoded by two simple unitary operations and decoded by merely performing Bell measurements, which can make the proposed scheme more convenient in practical applications. Moreover, the strategy of one-step quanta transmission, together with the technique of decoy logical qubits checking not only reduces the influence of other noise existing in a quantum channel, but also guarantees the security of the communication between two legitimate users. The final analysis shows that the proposed schemes are feasible and robust against various well-known attacks over the collective noise channel. (paper)
Coherent states in the quantum multiverse
Robles-Perez, S.; Hassouni, Y.; Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.
2010-01-01
In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.
Coherent states in the quantum multiverse
Robles-Perez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.e [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain); Hassouni, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte des Sciences-Universite Sidi Med Ben Abdellah, Avenue Ibn Batouta B.P: 1014, Agdal Rabat (Morocco); Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain)
2010-01-11
In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.
Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
We revisit the definition of rotating thermal states for scalar and fermion fields in unbounded Minkowski space–time. For scalar fields such states are ill-defined everywhere, but for fermion fields an appropriate definition of the vacuum gives thermal states regular inside the speed-of-light surface. For a massless fermion field, we derive analytic expressions for the thermal expectation values of the fermion current and stress–energy tensor. These expressions may provide qualitative insights into the behaviour of thermal rotating states on more complex space–time geometries
Quantum Secure Direct Communication Using W State
Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Chi Feng
2008-01-01
A theoretical scheme of quantum secure direct communication using teleportation is proposed. In the scheme, the sender needs to prepare a class of three-particle W states to use as quantum channel. The two communicators may communicate after they test the security of the quantum channel. The security of the protocol is ensured by quantum entanglement and quantum no-cloning theorem. The receiver can obtain the secret message determinately if the quantum channel is secure
Quantum state of the multiverse
Robles Pérez, Salvador; González-Díaz, Pedro F.
2010-01-01
A third quantization formalism is applied to a simplified multiverse scenario. A well-defined quantum state of the multiverse is obtained which agrees with standard boundary condition proposals. These states are found to be squeezed, and related to accelerating universes: they share similar properties to those obtained previously by Grishchuk and Siderov. We also comment on related works that have criticized the third quantization approach. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
Quantum state of the multiverse
Robles-Perez, Salvador; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.
2010-01-01
A third quantization formalism is applied to a simplified multiverse scenario. A well-defined quantum state of the multiverse is obtained which agrees with standard boundary condition proposals. These states are found to be squeezed, and related to accelerating universes: they share similar properties to those obtained previously by Grishchuk and Siderov. We also comment on related works that have criticized the third quantization approach.
Quantum State Description Complexity (Invited Talk)
Vazirani, Umesh V.
2011-01-01
Quantum states generally require exponential sized classical descriptions, but the long conjectured area law provides hope that a large class of natural quantum states can be described succinctly. Recent progress in formally proving the area law is described.
Quantum tomography via equidistant states
Paiva-Sanchez, C.; Burgos-Inostroza, E.; Jimenez, O.; Delgado, A.
2010-01-01
We study the possibility of performing quantum state tomography via equidistant states. This class of states allows us to propose a nonsymmetric informationally complete Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) based tomographic scheme. The scheme is defined for odd dimensions N and involves the measurement of N 2 transition probabilities and an inversion, which can be analytically carried out by Fourier transform. The scheme can be modified to allow the reconstruction of states in the case of even dimensions at the expense of increasing the number of measurements to 3N 2 /2.
Geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in an N-partite quantum state
Hassan, Ali Saif M; Joag, Pramod S
2012-01-01
Quantum discord, as introduced by Ollivier and Zurek (2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 017901), is a measure of the discrepancy between quantum versions of two classically equivalent expressions for mutual information and is found to be useful in quantification and application of quantum correlations in mixed states. It is viewed as a key resource present in certain quantum communication tasks and quantum computational models without containing much entanglement. An early step toward the quantification of quantum discord in a quantum state was by Dakic et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 190502) who introduced a geometric measure of quantum discord and derived an explicit formula for any two-qubit state. Recently, Luo and Fu (2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 034302) introduced a generic form of the geometric measure of quantum discord for a bipartite quantum state. We extend these results and find generic forms of the geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in a general N-partite quantum state. Further, we obtain computable exact formulas for the geometric measure of quantum discord and total quantum correlations in an N-qubit quantum state. The exact formulas for the N-qubit quantum state can be used to get experimental estimates of the quantum discord and the total quantum correlation. (paper)
Quantum Bit Commitment and the Reality of the Quantum State
Srikanth, R.
2018-01-01
Quantum bit commitment is insecure in the standard non-relativistic quantum cryptographic framework, essentially because Alice can exploit quantum steering to defer making her commitment. Two assumptions in this framework are that: (a) Alice knows the ensembles of evidence E corresponding to either commitment; and (b) system E is quantum rather than classical. Here, we show how relaxing assumption (a) or (b) can render her malicious steering operation indeterminable or inexistent, respectively. Finally, we present a secure protocol that relaxes both assumptions in a quantum teleportation setting. Without appeal to an ontological framework, we argue that the protocol's security entails the reality of the quantum state, provided retrocausality is excluded.
Chang Yan; Zhang Shi-Bin; Yan Li-Li; Han Gui-Hua
2015-01-01
By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0′〉 state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0′〉. By using the |0′〉 state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping–pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. (paper)
Quantum learning of coherent states
Sentis, Gael [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Barcelona (Spain); Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)
2015-12-15
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Quantum learning of coherent states
Sentis, Gael; Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-01-01
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots
Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.
2001-01-01
We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)
Disjoint states and quantum games
Kowalski, A M; Plastino, A
2013-01-01
We cast in game theory terms the physics associated with the interaction between (i) matter and (ii) a single mode of an electromagnetic field within a cavity. Thereby, we introduce a game admitting both classical and quantal players. Strategies are determined by the initial conditions of the associated dynamical system, whose time evolution is characterized by the existence of attractors that represent possible results of the game. Two types of quantum states are considered: perfectly distinguishable or partially overlapping ones. (paper)
Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions
Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.
1996-01-01
The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.
Quantum state tomography of neutron
Hasegawa, Y.; Loidl, R.; Filipp, S.; Klepp, J.; Rauch, H.
2005-01-01
Full text: Non-local correlations between subsystems sufficiently separated in spacetime have been extensively discussed in the light of the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) paradox, together with the Bell's inequality. Within quantum terminology, such a non-locality can be interpreted as a consequence of the correlation between commuting observables due to the different position. Thus, a more general concept, i.e., contextuality, compared to non-locality can be introduced to describe other striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. As an example of quantum contextuality, we accomplished a neutron interferometric experiment to show a violation of Bell-liKEX inequality with the use of an entanglement of the path and the spin degrees of freedoms. We proceeded to qualify the state which is used in the experiment by applying the quantum tomography method. This result justifies our treatment of neutrons' entanglement and, in addition, provides further possibilities to utilize their entanglement to study, for instance, decoherence, depolarization and other non-unitary mapping with neutrons. Ref. 1 (author)
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
Li Zhenni; Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui
2011-01-01
We present schemes for a type of one-parameter bipartite quantum state to probe quantum entanglement, quantum discord, the classical correlation, and the quantum state based on cavity QED. It is shown that our detection does not influence all these measured quantities. We also discuss how the spontaneous emission introduced by our probe atom influences our detection.
Geometry of Gaussian quantum states
Link, Valentin; Strunz, Walter T
2015-01-01
We study the Hilbert–Schmidt measure on the manifold of mixed Gaussian states in multi-mode continuous variable quantum systems. An analytical expression for the Hilbert–Schmidt volume element is derived. Its corresponding probability measure can be used to study typical properties of Gaussian states. It turns out that although the manifold of Gaussian states is unbounded, an ensemble of Gaussian states distributed according to this measure still has a normalizable distribution of symplectic eigenvalues, from which unitarily invariant properties can be obtained. By contrast, we find that for an ensemble of one-mode Gaussian states based on the Bures measure the corresponding distribution cannot be normalized. As important applications, we determine the distribution and the mean value of von Neumann entropy and purity for the Hilbert–Schmidt measure. (paper)
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.
2015-01-01
We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...
Distinguishability of quantum states and shannon complexity in quantum cryptography
Arbekov, I. M.; Molotkov, S. N.
2017-07-01
The proof of the security of quantum key distribution is a rather complex problem. Security is defined in terms different from the requirements imposed on keys in classical cryptography. In quantum cryptography, the security of keys is expressed in terms of the closeness of the quantum state of an eavesdropper after key distribution to an ideal quantum state that is uncorrelated to the key of legitimate users. A metric of closeness between two quantum states is given by the trace metric. In classical cryptography, the security of keys is understood in terms of, say, the complexity of key search in the presence of side information. In quantum cryptography, side information for the eavesdropper is given by the whole volume of information on keys obtained from both quantum and classical channels. The fact that the mathematical apparatuses used in the proof of key security in classical and quantum cryptography are essentially different leads to misunderstanding and emotional discussions [1]. Therefore, one should be able to answer the question of how different cryptographic robustness criteria are related to each other. In the present study, it is shown that there is a direct relationship between the security criterion in quantum cryptography, which is based on the trace distance determining the distinguishability of quantum states, and the criterion in classical cryptography, which uses guesswork on the determination of a key in the presence of side information.
Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states
Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....
A practical two-way system of quantum key distribution with untrusted source
Chen Ming-Juan; Liu Xiang
2011-01-01
The most severe problem of a two-way 'plug-and-play' (p and p) quantum key distribution system is that the source can be controlled by the eavesdropper. This kind of source is defined as an “untrusted source . This paper discusses the effects of the fluctuation of internal transmittance on the final key generation rate and the transmission distance. The security of the standard BB84 protocol, one-decoy state protocol, and weak+vacuum decoy state protocol, with untrusted sources and the fluctuation of internal transmittance are studied. It is shown that the one-decoy state is sensitive to the statistical fluctuation but weak+vacuum decoy state is only slightly affected by the fluctuation. It is also shown that both the maximum secure transmission distance and final key generation rate are reduced when Alice's laboratory transmittance fluctuation is considered. (general)
Past Quantum States of a Monitored System
Gammelmark, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
A density matrix ρ(t) yields probabilistic information about the outcome of measurements on a quantum system. We introduce here the past quantum state, which, at time T, accounts for the state of a quantum system at earlier times t...(t) and E(t), conditioned on the dynamics and the probing of the system until t and in the time interval [t, T], respectively. The past quantum state is characterized by its ability to make better predictions for the unknown outcome of any measurement at t than the conventional quantum state at that time....... On the one hand, our formalism shows how smoothing procedures for estimation of past classical signals by a quantum probe [M. Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 250403 (2009)] apply also to describe the past state of the quantum system itself. On the other hand, it generalizes theories of pre- and postselected...
Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well
Prodanović, Nikola, E-mail: elnpr@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Milanović, Vitomir [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2013-11-01
We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.
Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States
YU Chang-Shui; WANG Ya-Hong; SONG He-Shan
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. Ifa non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1 - √1 - C2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation,Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.
Quantum - statistical equation of state
Kalitkin, N.N.; Kuz'mina, L.V.
1976-01-01
An atom model is considered which allows uniform description of the equation of an equilibrium plasma state in the range of densities from gas to superhigh ones and in the temperature range from 1-5 eV to a ten of keV. Quantum and exchange corrections to the Thomas-Fermi thermodynamic functions at non zero temperatures have been calculated. The calculated values have been compared with experimental data and with calculations performed by more accurate models. The differences result from the fact that a quantum approach does not allow for shell effects. The evaluation of these differences makes it possible to indicate the limits of applicability of the Thomas-Fermi model with quantum and exchange corrections. It turns out that if at zero temperature the model may be applied only for high compressions, at the temperature more than 1 eV it well describes the behaviour of plasma in a very wide range of densities and agrees satisfactorily with experiment even for non-ideal plasma
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.
2016-04-01
We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.
Quantum state discrimination and its applications
Bae, Joonwoo; Kwek, Leong-Chuan
2015-01-01
Quantum state discrimination underlies various applications in quantum information processing tasks. It essentially describes the distinguishability of quantum systems in different states, and the general process of extracting classical information from quantum systems. It is also useful in quantum information applications, such as the characterization of mutual information in cryptographic protocols, or as a technique for deriving fundamental theorems on quantum foundations. It has deep connections to physical principles such as relativistic causality. Quantum state discrimination traces a long history of several decades, starting with the early attempts to formalize information processing of physical systems such as optical communication with photons. Nevertheless, in most cases, the problems of finding optimal strategies of quantum state discrimination remain unsolved, and related applications are valid in some limited cases only. The present review aims to provide an overview on quantum state discrimination, covering some recent progress, and addressing applications in some selected areas. This review serves to strengthen the link between results in quantum state discrimination and quantum information applications, by showing the ways in which the fundamental results are exploited in applications and vice versa. (topical review)
Transfer of an unknown quantum state, quantum networks, and memory
Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, G.S.
2004-01-01
We present a protocol for transfer of an unknown quantum state. The protocol is based on a two-mode cavity interacting dispersively in a sequential manner with three-level atoms in the Λ configuration. We propose a scheme for quantum networking using an atomic channel. We investigate the effect of cavity decoherence in the entire process. Further, we demonstrate the possibility of an efficient quantum memory for arbitrary superposition of two modes of a cavity containing one photon
Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states
The influences of relative motion, the size of the wave packet and the average momentum of the particles on different types of correlations present in bipartite quantum states are investigated. In particular, the dynamics of the quantum mutual information, the classical correlation and the quantum discord on the ...
An Efficient and Secure Arbitrary N-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol Using Bell States
Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ching-Nung; Gao, Pei-Pei; Yu, Wen-Bin
2018-01-01
Two quantum key agreement protocols using Bell states and Bell measurement were recently proposed by Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(11), 2391-2405, 2014). However, Zhu et al. pointed out that there are some security flaws and proposed an improved version (Quantum Inf. Process. 14(11), 4245-4254, 2015). In this study, we will show Zhu et al.'s improvement still exists some security problems, and its efficiency is not high enough. For solving these problems, we utilize four Pauli operations { I, Z, X, Y} to encode two bits instead of the original two operations { I, X} to encode one bit, and then propose an efficient and secure arbitrary N-party quantum key agreement protocol. In the protocol, the channel checking with decoy single photons is introduced to avoid the eavesdropper's flip attack, and a post-measurement mechanism is used to prevent against the collusion attack. The security analysis shows the present protocol can guarantee the correctness, security, privacy and fairness of quantum key agreement.
Unknown quantum states: The quantum de Finetti representation
Caves, Carlton M.; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Schack, Ruediger
2002-01-01
We present an elementary proof of the quantum de Finetti representation theorem, a quantum analog of de Finetti's classical theorem on exchangeable probability assignments. This contrasts with the original proof of Hudson and Moody [Z. Wahrschein. verw. Geb. 33, 343 (1976)], which relies on advanced mathematics and does not share the same potential for generalization. The classical de Finetti theorem provides an operational definition of the concept of an unknown probability in Bayesian probability theory, where probabilities are taken to be degrees of belief instead of objective states of nature. The quantum de Finetti theorem, in a closely analogous fashion, deals with exchangeable density-operator assignments and provides an operational definition of the concept of an ''unknown quantum state'' in quantum-state tomography. This result is especially important for information-based interpretations of quantum mechanics, where quantum states, like probabilities, are taken to be states of knowledge rather than states of nature. We further demonstrate that the theorem fails for real Hilbert spaces and discuss the significance of this point
Coherent states in quantum physics
Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2009-01-01
This self-contained introduction discusses the evolution of the notion of coherent states, from the early works of Schrödinger to the most recent advances, including signal analysis. An integrated and modern approach to the utility of coherent states in many different branches of physics, it strikes a balance between mathematical and physical descriptions.Split into two parts, the first introduces readers to the most familiar coherent states, their origin, their construction, and their application and relevance to various selected domains of physics. Part II, mostly based on recent original results, is devoted to the question of quantization of various sets through coherent states, and shows the link to procedures in signal analysis. Title: Coherent States in Quantum Physics Print ISBN: 9783527407095 Author(s): Gazeau, Jean-Pierre eISBN: 9783527628292 Publisher: Wiley-VCH Dewey: 530.12 Publication Date: 23 Sep, 2009 Pages: 360 Category: Science, Science: Physics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:
Secret Sharing of a Quantum State.
Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-07-15
Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.
Introduction to quantum-state estimation
Teo, Yong Siah
2016-01-01
Quantum-state estimation is an important field in quantum information theory that deals with the characterization of states of affairs for quantum sources. This book begins with background formalism in estimation theory to establish the necessary prerequisites. This basic understanding allows us to explore popular likelihood- and entropy-related estimation schemes that are suitable for an introductory survey on the subject. Discussions on practical aspects of quantum-state estimation ensue, with emphasis on the evaluation of tomographic performances for estimation schemes, experimental realizations of quantum measurements and detection of single-mode multi-photon sources. Finally, the concepts of phase-space distribution functions, which compatibly describe these multi-photon sources, are introduced to bridge the gap between discrete and continuous quantum degrees of freedom. This book is intended to serve as an instructive and self-contained medium for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students to gra...
Neural-network quantum state tomography
Torlai, Giacomo; Mazzola, Guglielmo; Carrasquilla, Juan; Troyer, Matthias; Melko, Roger; Carleo, Giuseppe
2018-05-01
The experimental realization of increasingly complex synthetic quantum systems calls for the development of general theoretical methods to validate and fully exploit quantum resources. Quantum state tomography (QST) aims to reconstruct the full quantum state from simple measurements, and therefore provides a key tool to obtain reliable analytics1-3. However, exact brute-force approaches to QST place a high demand on computational resources, making them unfeasible for anything except small systems4,5. Here we show how machine learning techniques can be used to perform QST of highly entangled states with more than a hundred qubits, to a high degree of accuracy. We demonstrate that machine learning allows one to reconstruct traditionally challenging many-body quantities—such as the entanglement entropy—from simple, experimentally accessible measurements. This approach can benefit existing and future generations of devices ranging from quantum computers to ultracold-atom quantum simulators6-8.
Ground states of quantum spin systems
Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.
1978-07-01
The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume
Quantum state transfer and network engineering
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M
2013-01-01
Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the en
Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States
Kanamori, Yoshito [University of Alaska; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Gregory, Don A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL
2009-01-01
When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.
Noncyclic geometric changes of quantum states
Kult, David; Sjoeqvist, Erik; Aaberg, Johan
2006-01-01
Non-Abelian quantum holonomies, i.e., unitary state changes solely induced by geometric properties of a quantum system, have been much under focus in the physics community as generalizations of the Abelian Berry phase. Apart from being a general phenomenon displayed in various subfields of quantum physics, the use of holonomies has lately been suggested as a robust technique to obtain quantum gates; the building blocks of quantum computers. Non-Abelian holonomies are usually associated with cyclic changes of quantum systems, but here we consider a generalization to noncyclic evolutions. We argue that this open-path holonomy can be used to construct quantum gates. We also show that a structure of partially defined holonomies emerges from the open-path holonomy. This structure has no counterpart in the Abelian setting. We illustrate the general ideas using an example that may be accessible to tests in various physical systems
Engineering arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states
Pechen, Alexander
2011-01-01
Controlled manipulation by atomic- and molecular-scale quantum systems has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. A fundamental problem is to provide deterministic methods for controlled engineering of arbitrary quantum states. This work proposes a deterministic method for engineering arbitrary pure and mixed states of a wide class of quantum systems. The method exploits a special combination of incoherent and coherent controls (incoherent and coherent radiation) and has two properties which are specifically important for manipulating by quantum systems: it realizes the strongest possible degree of their state control, complete density matrix controllability, meaning the ability to steer arbitrary pure and mixed initial states into any desired pure or mixed final state, and it is all-to-one, such that each particular control transfers all initial system states into one target state.
Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states
Gottesman, Daniel; Preskill, John
2001-01-01
We prove the security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator. Our proof employs quantum error-correcting codes that encode a finite-dimensional quantum system in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of an oscillator, and protect against errors that shift the canonical variables p and q. If the noise in the quantum channel is weak, squeezing signal states by 2.51 dB (a squeeze factor e r =1.34) is sufficient in principle to ensure the security of a protocol that is suitably enhanced by classical error correction and privacy amplification. Secure key distribution can be achieved over distances comparable to the attenuation length of the quantum channel
Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems
Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"
2007-01-01
The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...
Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State
Guo Ying; Zeng Guihua; Lee, Moon Ho
2008-01-01
A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes
Quantum Nanomechanics: State Engineering and Measurement
Woolley, M. J.; Milburn, G. J.; Doherty, A. C.
2011-01-01
There has recently been a surge of interest in the study of mechanical systems near the quantum limit. Such experiments are motivated by both fundamental interest in studying quantum mechanics with macroscopic engineered systems and potential applications as ultra-sensitive transducers, or even in quantum information processing. A particularly promising system is a microwave cavity optomechanical system, in which a nanomechanical resonator is embedded within (and capacitively coupled to) a superconducting microwave cavity. Here we discuss two schemes for the generation and measurement of quantum states of the nanomechanical resonator. A quantum squeezed state may be generated via mechanical parametric amplification, while a number state may be conditionally generated via continuous measurement and feedback control mediated by a superconducting qubit.
Operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states
Andersson, O; Heydari, H
2013-01-01
The geometric phase has found a broad spectrum of applications in both classical and quantum physics, such as condensed matter and quantum computation. In this paper, we introduce an operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states, based on spectral weighted traces of holonomies, and we prove that it generalizes the standard definition of the geometric phase for mixed states, which is based on quantum interferometry. We also introduce higher order geometric phases, and prove that under a fairly weak, generically satisfied, requirement, there is always a well-defined geometric phase of some order. Our approach applies to general unitary evolutions of both non-degenerate and degenerate mixed states. Moreover, since we provide an explicit formula for the geometric phase that can be easily implemented, it is particularly well suited for computations in quantum physics. (paper)
Controlled quantum teleportation with Bell states
Wang Tian-Yin; Wen Qiao-Yan
2011-01-01
We propose a new scheme for controlled quantum teleportation with Bell states in which classical keys for controllers' portion are used. We also discuss the security of the proposed scheme and show that it can satisfy the requirements for controlled quantum teleportation. The comparison between this scheme and the previous ones shows that it is more economical and efficient. (general)
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-12-01
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-01-01
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)
2012-12-15
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Quantum Discord Determines the Interferometric Power of Quantum States
Girolami, Davide; Souza, Alexandre M.; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Filgueiras, Jefferson G.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-05-01
Quantum metrology exploits quantum mechanical laws to improve the precision in estimating technologically relevant parameters such as phase, frequency, or magnetic fields. Probe states are usually tailored to the particular dynamics whose parameters are being estimated. Here we consider a novel framework where quantum estimation is performed in an interferometric configuration, using bipartite probe states prepared when only the spectrum of the generating Hamiltonian is known. We introduce a figure of merit for the scheme, given by the worst-case precision over all suitable Hamiltonians, and prove that it amounts exactly to a computable measure of discord-type quantum correlations for the input probe. We complement our theoretical results with a metrology experiment, realized in a highly controllable room-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance setup, which provides a proof-of-concept demonstration for the usefulness of discord in sensing applications. Discordant probes are shown to guarantee a nonzero phase sensitivity for all the chosen generating Hamiltonians, while classically correlated probes are unable to accomplish the estimation in a worst-case setting. This work establishes a rigorous and direct operational interpretation for general quantum correlations, shedding light on their potential for quantum technology.
Fractional Quantum Hall States in a Ge Quantum Well.
Mironov, O A; d'Ambrumenil, N; Dobbie, A; Leadley, D R; Suslov, A V; Green, E
2016-04-29
Measurements of the Hall and dissipative conductivity of a strained Ge quantum well on a SiGe/(001)Si substrate in the quantum Hall regime are reported. We analyze the results in terms of thermally activated quantum tunneling of carriers from one internal edge state to another across saddle points in the long-range impurity potential. This shows that the gaps for different filling fractions closely follow the dependence predicted by theory. We also find that the estimates of the separation of the edge states at the saddle are in line with the expectations of an electrostatic model in the lowest spin-polarized Landau level (LL), but not in the spin-reversed LL where the density of quasiparticle states is not high enough to accommodate the carriers required.
Unambiguous discrimination of mixed quantum states
Zhang Chi; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng
2006-01-01
The problem of unambiguous discrimination between mixed quantum states is addressed by isolating the part of each mixed state which has no contribution to discrimination and by employing the strategy of set discrimination of pure states. A necessary and sufficient condition of unambiguous mixed state discrimination is presented. An upper bound of the efficiency is also derived
Quantum state transfer and network engineering
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Jex, Igor
2014-01-01
Presents the basics of large-scale quantum information processing and networking. Covers most aspects of the problems of state transfer and quantum network engineering. Reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field. Presents various theoretical approaches as well as possible implementations and related experiments. Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the engineering of quantum networks are discussed in the framework of various quantum optical and condensed matter systems, emphasizing the interdisciplinary character of the research area. Each chapter is a review of theoretical or experimental achievements on a particular topic, written by leading scientists in the field. The volume aims at both newcomers as well as experienced researchers.
Classical topology and quantum states
structures) can be reconstructed using Gel'fand–Naimark theory and its ..... pair production and annihilation [23], quantum gravity too can be expected to become ..... showed their utility for research of current interest such as topology change ...
Scalable on-chip quantum state tomography
Titchener, James G.; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Solntsev, Alexander S.; Szameit, Alexander; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.
2018-03-01
Quantum information systems are on a path to vastly exceed the complexity of any classical device. The number of entangled qubits in quantum devices is rapidly increasing, and the information required to fully describe these systems scales exponentially with qubit number. This scaling is the key benefit of quantum systems, however it also presents a severe challenge. To characterize such systems typically requires an exponentially long sequence of different measurements, becoming highly resource demanding for large numbers of qubits. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel and scalable method for characterizing quantum systems based on expanding a multi-photon state to larger dimensionality. We establish that the complexity of this new measurement technique only scales linearly with the number of qubits, while providing a tomographically complete set of data without a need for reconfigurability. We experimentally demonstrate an integrated photonic chip capable of measuring two- and three-photon quantum states with statistical reconstruction fidelity of 99.71%.
Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State
Wang Jin-Zheng; Jia Xiao-Yu; Wang Shi-Kun
2014-01-01
We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation. (general)
High-capacity quantum secure direct communication with two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled states
Wu, FangZhou; Yang, GuoJian; Wang, HaiBo; Xiong, Jun; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, FuGuo
2017-12-01
This study proposes the first high-capacity quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) with two-photon six-qubit hyper-entangled Bell states in two longitudinal momentum and polarization degrees of freedom (DOFs) of photon pairs, which can be generated using two 0.5 mm-thick type-I β barium borate crystal slabs aligned one behind the other and an eight-hole screen. The secret message can be independently encoded on the photon pairs with 64 unitary operations in all three DOFs. This protocol has a higher capacity than previous QSDC protocols because each photon pair can carry 6 bits of information, not just 2 or 4 bits. Our QSDC protocol decreases the influence of decoherence from environment noise by exploiting the decoy photons to check the security of the transmission of the first photon sequence. Compared with two-way QSDC protocols, our QSDC protocol is immune to an attack by an eavesdropper using Trojan horse attack strategies because it is a one-way quantum communication. The QSDC protocol has good applications in the future quantum communication because of all these features.
The symmetric extendibility of quantum states
Nowakowski, Marcin L
2016-01-01
Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states. (paper)
Nuclear spin states and quantum logical operations
Orlova, T.A.; Rasulov, E.N.
2006-01-01
Full text: To build a really functional quantum computer, researchers need to develop logical controllers known as 'gates' to control the state of q-bits. In this work , equal quantum logical operations are examined with the emphasis on 1-, 2-, and 3-q-bit gates.1-q-bit quantum logical operations result in Boolean 'NOT'; the 'NOT' and '√NOT' operations are described from the classical and quantum perspective. For the 'NOT' operation to be performed, there must be a means to switch the state of q-bits from to and vice versa. For this purpose either a light or radio pulse of a certain frequency can be used. If the nucleus has the spin-down state, the spin will absorb a portion of energy from electromagnetic current and switch into the spin-up state, and the radio pulse will force it to switch into state. An operation thus described from purely classical perspective is clearly understood. However, operations not analogous to the classical type may also be performed. If the above mentioned radio pulses are only half the frequency required to cause a state switch in the nuclear spin, the nuclear spin will enter the quantum superposition state of the ground state (↓) and excited states (↑). A recurring radio pulse will then result in an operation equivalent to 'NOT', for which reason the described operation is called '√NOT'. Such an operation allows for the state of quantum superposition in quantum computing, which enables parallel processing of several numbers. The work also treats the principles of 2-q-bit logical operations of the controlled 'NOT' type (CNOT), 2-q-bit (SWAP), and the 3-q-bit 'TAFFOLI' gate. (author)
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
Jurco, B.; Stovicek, P.; CTU, Prague
1996-01-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A l , B l , C l and D l . The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
Jurco, B. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Stovicek, P. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Mathematics]|[CTU, Prague (Czech Republic). Doppler Inst.
1996-12-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A{sub l}, B{sub l}, C{sub l} and D{sub l}. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
Jurco, B
1996-01-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for all simple quantum compact groups. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit and interpret the coherent state as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R--matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q--deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel--Weil construction) are described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non--commutative differential geometry is suggested.}
Solvable model of quantum microcanonical states
Bender, Carl M; Brody, Dorje C; Hook, Daniel W
2005-01-01
This letter examines the consequences of a recently proposed modification of the postulate of equal a priori probability in quantum statistical mechanics. This modification, called the quantum microcanonical postulate (QMP), asserts that for a system in microcanonical equilibrium all pure quantum states having the same energy expectation value are realized with equal probability. A simple model of a quantum system that obeys the QMP and that has a nondegenerate spectrum with equally spaced energy eigenvalues is studied. This model admits a closed-form expression for the density of states in terms of the energy eigenvalues. It is shown that in the limit as the number of energy levels approaches infinity, the expression for the density of states converges to a δ function centred at the intermediate value (E max + E min )/2 of the energy. Determining this limit requires an elaborate asymptotic study of an infinite sum whose terms alternate in sign. (letter to the editor)
Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
Quantum information processing with graph states
Schlingemann, Dirk-Michael
2005-04-01
Graph states are multiparticle states which are associated with graphs. Each vertex of the graph corresponds to a single system or particle. The links describe quantum correlations (entanglement) between pairs of connected particles. Graph states were initiated independently by two research groups: On the one hand, graph states were introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf as a resource for a new model of one-way quantum computing, where algorithms are implemented by a sequence of measurements at single particles. On the other hand, graph states were developed by the author of this thesis and ReinhardWerner in Braunschweig, as a tool to build quantum error correcting codes, called graph codes. The connection between the two approaches was fully realized in close cooperation of both research groups. This habilitation thesis provides a survey of the theory of graph codes, focussing mainly, but not exclusively on the author's own research work. We present the theoretical and mathematical background for the analysis of graph codes. The concept of one-way quantum computing for general graph states is discussed. We explicitly show how to realize the encoding and decoding device of a graph code on a one-way quantum computer. This kind of implementation is to be seen as a mathematical description of a quantum memory device. In addition to that, we investigate interaction processes, which enable the creation of graph states on very large systems. Particular graph states can be created, for instance, by an Ising type interaction between next neighbor particles which sits at the points of an infinitely extended cubic lattice. Based on the theory of quantum cellular automata, we give a constructive characterization of general interactions which create a translationally invariant graph state. (orig.)
Quantum Teleportation of Tripartite Arbitrary State via W State
XUE Zheng-Yuan; YI You-Min; CAO Zhuo-Liang
2005-01-01
A scheme of teleportation of a tripartite state via W state is suggested. The W state serves as quantum channels. Standard Bell-state measurements and Von Neumann measurements are performed. After the sender operates the measurements and informs the receiver her results, he can reconstruct the original state by the corresponding unitary transformation. The probability of the successful teleportation is also obtained.
Quantum state transfer with untunable couplings
Gagnebin, P. K.; Skinner, S. R.; Behrman, E. C.; Steck, J. E.
2007-01-01
We present a general scheme for implementing bidirectional quantum state transfer in a quantum swapping channel. Unlike many other schemes for quantum computation and communication, our method does not require qubit couplings to be switched on and off. The only control variable is the bias acting on individual qubits. We show how to derive the parameters of the system (fixed and variable) such that perfect state transfer can be achieved. Since these parameters vary linearly with the pulse width, our scheme allows flexibility in the time scales under which qubits evolve. Unlike quantum spin networks, our scheme allows the transmission of several quantum states at a time, requiring only a two qubit separation between quantum states. By pulsing the biases of several qubits at the same time, we show that only eight bias control lines are required to achieve state transfer along a channel of arbitrary length. Furthermore, when the information to be transferred is purely classical in nature, only three bias control lines are required, greatly simplifying the circuit complexity
Quantum operations, state transformations and probabilities
Chefles, Anthony
2002-01-01
In quantum operations, probabilities characterize both the degree of the success of a state transformation and, as density operator eigenvalues, the degree of mixedness of the final state. We give a unified treatment of pure→pure state transformations, covering both probabilistic and deterministic cases. We then discuss the role of majorization in describing the dynamics of mixing in quantum operations. The conditions for mixing enhancement for all initial states are derived. We show that mixing is monotonically decreasing for deterministic pure→pure transformations, and discuss the relationship between these transformations and deterministic local operations with classical communication entanglement transformations
Quantum cloning of mixed states in symmetric subspaces
Fan Heng
2003-01-01
Quantum-cloning machine for arbitrary mixed states in symmetric subspaces is proposed. This quantum-cloning machine can be used to copy part of the output state of another quantum-cloning machine and is useful in quantum computation and quantum information. The shrinking factor of this quantum cloning achieves the well-known upper bound. When the input is identical pure states, two different fidelities of this cloning machine are optimal
Improving decoy databases for protein folding algorithms
Lindsey, Aaron; Yeh, Hsin-Yi (Cindy); Wu, Chih-Peng; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.
2014-01-01
energetically stable) from non-native structures. Decoy databases are collections of non-native structures used to test and verify these functions. We present a method to evaluate and improve the quality of decoy databases by adding novel structures and removing
Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules
Bayer, Manfred
2002-03-01
Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For
Threshold quantum state sharing based on entanglement swapping
Qin, Huawang; Tso, Raylin
2018-06-01
A threshold quantum state sharing scheme is proposed. The dealer uses the quantum-controlled-not operations to expand the d-dimensional quantum state and then uses the entanglement swapping to distribute the state to a random subset of participants. The participants use the single-particle measurements and unitary operations to recover the initial quantum state. In our scheme, the dealer can share different quantum states among different subsets of participants simultaneously. So the scheme will be very flexible in practice.
Quantum Secure Communication Scheme with W State
Wang Jian; Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojng
2007-01-01
We present a quantum secure communication scheme using three-qubit W state. It is unnecessary for the present scheme to use alternative measurement or Bell basis measurement. Compared with the quantum secure direct communication scheme proposed by Cao et al. [H.J. Cao and H.S. Song, Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 (2006) 290], in our scheme, the detection probability for an eavesdropper's attack increases from 8.3% to 25%. We also show that our scheme is secure for a noise quantum channel.
Observability of Quantum State of Black Hole
David, J R; Mandal, G; Wadia, S R; David, Justin R.; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.
1997-01-01
We analyze terms subleading to Rutherford in the $S$-matrix between black hole and probes of successively high energies. We show that by an appropriate choice of the probe one can read off the quantum state of the black hole from the S-matrix, staying asymptotically far from the BH all the time. We interpret the scattering experiment as scattering off classical stringy backgrounds which explicitly depend on the internal quantum numbers of the black hole.
Fidelity induced distance measures for quantum states
Ma Zhihao; Zhang Fulin; Chen Jingling
2009-01-01
Fidelity plays an important role in quantum information theory. In this Letter, we introduce new metric of quantum states induced by fidelity, and connect it with the well-known trace metric, Sine metric and Bures metric for the qubit case. The metric character is also presented for the qudit (i.e., d-dimensional system) case. The CPT contractive property and joint convex property of the metric are also studied.
Dicke states in multiple quantum dots
Sitek, Anna; Manolescu, Andrei
2013-10-01
We present a theoretical study of the collective optical effects which can occur in groups of three and four quantum dots. We define conditions for stable subradiant (dark) states, rapidly decaying super-radiant states, and spontaneous trapping of excitation. Each quantum dot is treated like a two-level system. The quantum dots are, however, realistic, meaning that they may have different transition energies and dipole moments. The dots interact via a short-range coupling which allows excitation transfer across the dots, but conserves the total population of the system. We calculate the time evolution of single-exciton and biexciton states using the Lindblad equation. In the steady state the individual populations of each dot may have permanent oscillations with frequencies given by the energy separation between the subradiant eigenstates.
Distinguishing computable mixtures of quantum states
Grande, Ignacio H. López; Senno, Gabriel; de la Torre, Gonzalo; Larotonda, Miguel A.; Bendersky, Ariel; Figueira, Santiago; Acín, Antonio
2018-05-01
In this article we extend results from our previous work [Bendersky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 230402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.230402] by providing a protocol to distinguish in finite time and with arbitrarily high success probability any algorithmic mixture of pure states from the maximally mixed state. Moreover, we include an experimental realization, using a modified quantum key distribution setup, where two different random sequences of pure states are prepared; these sequences are indistinguishable according to quantum mechanics, but they become distinguishable when randomness is replaced with pseudorandomness within the experimental preparation process.
Duality constructions from quantum state manifolds
Kriel, J. N.; van Zyl, H. J. R.; Scholtz, F. G.
2015-11-01
The formalism of quantum state space geometry on manifolds of generalised coherent states is proposed as a natural setting for the construction of geometric dual descriptions of non-relativistic quantum systems. These state manifolds are equipped with natural Riemannian and symplectic structures derived from the Hilbert space inner product. This approach allows for the systematic construction of geometries which reflect the dynamical symmetries of the quantum system under consideration. We analyse here in detail the two dimensional case and demonstrate how existing results in the AdS 2 /CF T 1 context can be understood within this framework. We show how the radial/bulk coordinate emerges as an energy scale associated with a regularisation procedure and find that, under quite general conditions, these state manifolds are asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions of a class of classical dilaton gravity models. For the model of conformal quantum mechanics proposed by de Alfaro et al. [1] the corresponding state manifold is seen to be exactly AdS 2 with a scalar curvature determined by the representation of the symmetry algebra. It is also shown that the dilaton field itself is given by the quantum mechanical expectation values of the dynamical symmetry generators and as a result exhibits dynamics equivalent to that of a conformal mechanical system.
Quantum communication with coherent states of light
Khan, Imran; Elser, Dominique; Dirmeier, Thomas; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2017-06-01
Quantum communication offers long-term security especially, but not only, relevant to government and industrial users. It is worth noting that, for the first time in the history of cryptographic encoding, we are currently in the situation that secure communication can be based on the fundamental laws of physics (information theoretical security) rather than on algorithmic security relying on the complexity of algorithms, which is periodically endangered as standard computer technology advances. On a fundamental level, the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the non-orthogonality of the quantum states used. So even coherent states are well suited for this task, the quantum states that largely describe the light generated by laser systems. Depending on whether one uses detectors resolving single or multiple photon states or detectors measuring the field quadratures, one speaks of, respectively, a discrete- or a continuous-variable description. Continuous-variable QKD with coherent states uses a technology that is very similar to the one employed in classical coherent communication systems, the backbone of today's Internet connections. Here, we review recent developments in this field in two connected regimes: (i) improving QKD equipment by implementing front-end telecom devices and (ii) research into satellite QKD for bridging long distances by building upon existing optical satellite links. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.
A Scheme of Controlled Quantum State Swapping
Zha Xinwei; Zou Zhichun; Qi Jianxia; Song Haiyang
2012-01-01
A scheme for controlled quantum state swapping is presented using maximally entangled five-qubit state, i.e., Alice wants to transmit an entangled state of particle a to Bob and at the same time Bob wants to transmit an entangled state of particle b to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. The operations used in this swapping process including C-not operation and a series of single-qubit measurements performed by Alice, Bob, and Charlie.
Quantum teleportation of entangled squeezed vacuum states
蔡新华
2003-01-01
An optical scheme for probabilistic teleporting entangled squeezed vacuum states (SVS) is proposed. In this scheme,the teleported state is a bipartite entangled SVS,and the quantum channel is a tripartite entangled SVS.The process of the teleportation is achieved by using a 50/50 symmetric beamsplitter and photon detectors with the help of classical information.
Engineering quantum hyperentangled states in atomic systems
Nawaz, Mehwish; -Islam, Rameez-ul; Abbas, Tasawar; Ikram, Manzoor
2017-11-01
Hyperentangled states have boosted many quantum informatics tasks tremendously due to their high information content per quantum entity. Until now, however, the engineering and manipulation of such states were limited to photonic systems only. In present article, we propose generating atomic hyperentanglement involving atomic internal states as well as atomic external momenta states. Hypersuperposition, hyperentangled cluster, Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states are engineered deterministically through resonant and off-resonant Bragg diffraction of neutral two-level atoms. Based on the characteristic parameters of the atomic Bragg diffraction, such as comparatively large interaction times and spatially well-separated outputs, such decoherence resistant states are expected to exhibit good overall fidelities and offer the evident benefits of full controllability, along with extremely high detection efficiency, over the counterpart photonic states comprised entirely of flying qubits.
Quantum Correlations in Mixed-State Metrology
Kavan Modi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We analyze the effects of quantum correlations, such as entanglement and discord, on the efficiency of phase estimation by studying four quantum circuits that can be readily implemented using NMR techniques. These circuits define a standard strategy of repeated single-qubit measurements, a classical strategy where only classical correlations are allowed, and two quantum strategies where nonclassical correlations are allowed. In addition to counting space (number of qubits and time (number of gates requirements, we introduce mixedness as a key constraint of the experiment. We compare the efficiency of the four strategies as a function of the mixedness parameter. We find that the quantum strategy gives sqrt[N] enhancement over the standard strategy for the same amount of mixedness. This result applies even for highly mixed states that have nonclassical correlations but no entanglement.
N multipartite GHZ states in quantum networks
Caprara Vivoli, Valentina; Wehner, Stephanie
Nowadays progress in experimental quantum physics has brought to a significant control on systems like nitrogen-vacancy centres, ion traps, and superconducting qubit clusters. These systems can constitute the key cells of future quantum networks, where tasks like quantum communication at large scale and quantum cryptography can be achieved. It is, though, still not clear which approaches can be used to generate such entanglement at large distances using only local operations on or between at most two adjacent nodes. Here, we analyse three protocols that are able to generate genuine multipartite entanglement between an arbitrary large number of parties. In particular, we focus on the generation of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Moreover, the performances of the three methods are numerically compared in the scenario of a decoherence model both in terms of fidelity and entanglement generation rate. V.C.V. is founded by a NWO Vidi Grant, and S.W. is founded by STW Netherlands.
Parallel state transfer and efficient quantum routing on quantum networks.
Chudzicki, Christopher; Strauch, Frederick W
2010-12-31
We study the routing of quantum information in parallel on multidimensional networks of tunable qubits and oscillators. These theoretical models are inspired by recent experiments in superconducting circuits. We show that perfect parallel state transfer is possible for certain networks of harmonic oscillator modes. We extend this to the distribution of entanglement between every pair of nodes in the network, finding that the routing efficiency of hypercube networks is optimal and robust in the presence of dissipation and finite bandwidth.
Exotic states in quantum nanostructures
2002-01-01
Mesoscopic physics has made great strides in the last few years It is an area of research that is attractive to many graduate students of theoretical condensed matter physics The techniques that are needed to understand it go beyond the conventional perturbative approaches that still form the bulk of the graduate lectures that are given to students Even when the non-perturbative techniques are presented, they often are presented within an abstract context It is important to have lectures given by experts in the field, which present both theory and experiment in an illuminating and inspiring way, so that the impact of new methodology on novel physics is clear It is an apt time to have such a volume since the field has reached a level of maturity The pedagogical nature of the articles and the variety of topics makes it an important resource for newcomers to the field The topics range from the newly emerging area of quantum computers and quantum information using Josephson junctions to the formal mathematical me...
Projective loop quantum gravity. I. State space
Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas
2016-12-01
Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over one big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Kijowski to describe quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces. Beside the physical motivations for this approach, it could help designing a quantum state space holding the states we need. In a latter work by Okolów, the description of a theory of Abelian connections within this framework was developed, an important insight being to use building blocks labeled by combinations of edges and surfaces. The present work generalizes this construction to an arbitrary gauge group G (in particular, G is neither assumed to be Abelian nor compact). This involves refining the definition of the label set, as well as deriving explicit formulas to relate the Hilbert spaces attached to different labels. If the gauge group happens to be compact, we also have at our disposal the well-established Ashtekar-Lewandowski Hilbert space, which is defined as an inductive limit using building blocks labeled by edges only. We then show that the quantum state space presented here can be thought as a natural extension of the space of density matrices over this Hilbert space. In addition, it is manifest from the classical counterparts of both formalisms that the projective approach allows for a more balanced treatment of the holonomy and flux variables, so it might pave the way for the development of more satisfactory coherent states.
Prati, Enrico
2015-01-01
Long living coherent quantum states have been observed in biological systems up to room temperature. Light harvesting in chromophoresis realized by excitonic systems living at the edge of quantum chaos, where energy level distribution becomes semi-Poissonian. On the other hand, artificial materials suffer the loss of coherence of quantum states in quantum information processing, but semiconductor materials are known to exhibit quantum chaotic conditions, so the exploitation of similar conditions are to be considered. The advancements of nanofabrication, together with the control of implantation of individual atoms at nanometric precision, may open the experimental study of such special regime at the edge of the phase transitions for the electronic systems obtained by implanting impurity atoms in a silicon transistor. Here I review the recent advancements made in the field of theoretical description of the light harvesting in biological system in its connection with phase transitions at the few atoms scale and how it would be possible to achieve transition point to quantum chaotic regime. Such mechanism may thus preserve quantum coherent states at room temperature in solid state devices, to be exploited for quantum information processing as well as dissipation-free quantum electronics. (paper)
Quantum state propagation in linear photonic bandgap structures
Severini, S; Tricca, D; Sibilia, C; Bertolotti, M; Perina, Jan
2004-01-01
In this paper we investigate the propagation of a generic quantum state in a corrugated waveguide, which reproduces a photonic bandgap structure. We find the conditions that assure the outcoming state to preserve the quantum properties of the incoming state. Then, focusing on a particular quantum state (realized by two counter-propagating coherent states), we study the possibility of preserving the quantum properties of this particular double coherent state even in the presence of absorption phenomena during propagation in the structure
Electronic states in a quantum lens
Rodriguez, Arezky H.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Ulloa, S. E.; Marin-Antuna, J.
2001-01-01
We present a model to find analytically the electronic states in self-assembled quantum dots with a truncated spherical cap (''lens'') geometry. A conformal analytical image is designed to map the quantum dot boundary into a dot with semispherical shape. The Hamiltonian for a carrier confined in the quantum lens is correspondingly mapped into an equivalent operator and its eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the corresponding Dirichlet problem are analyzed. A modified Rayleigh-Schro''dinger perturbation theory is presented to obtain analytical expressions for the energy levels and wave functions as a function of the spherical cap height b and radius a of the circular cross section. Calculations for a hard wall confinement potential are presented, and the effect of decreasing symmetry on the energy values and eigenfunctions of the lens-shape quantum dot is studied. As the degeneracies of a semicircular geometry are broken for b≠a, our perturbation approach allows tracking of the split states. Energy states and electronic wave functions with m=0 present the most pronounced influence on the reduction of the lens height. The method and expressions presented here can be straightforwardly extended to deal with more general Hamiltonians, including strains and valence-band coupling effects in Group III--V and Group II--VI self-assembled quantum dots
Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping
Martens, Craig C., E-mail: cmartens@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)
2015-10-14
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Quantum communications system with integrated photonic devices
Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, Charles Glen; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Hughes, Richard John
2017-11-14
Security is increased in quantum communication (QC) systems lacking a true single-photon laser source by encoding a transmitted optical signal with two or more decoy-states. A variable attenuator or amplitude modulator randomly imposes average photon values onto the optical signal based on data input and the predetermined decoy-states. By measuring and comparing photon distributions for a received QC signal, a single-photon transmittance is estimated. Fiber birefringence is compensated by applying polarization modulation. A transmitter can be configured to transmit in conjugate polarization bases whose states of polarization (SOPs) can be represented as equidistant points on a great circle on the Poincare sphere so that the received SOPs are mapped to equidistant points on a great circle and routed to corresponding detectors. Transmitters are implemented in quantum communication cards and can be assembled from micro-optical components, or transmitter components can be fabricated as part of a monolithic or hybrid chip-scale circuit.
Coherent semiclassical states for loop quantum cosmology
Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison
2011-01-01
The spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model with a massless scalar field in loop quantum cosmology admits a description in terms of a completely solvable model. This has been used to prove that: (i) the quantum bounce that replaces the big bang singularity is generic; (ii) there is an upper bound on the energy density for all states, and (iii) semiclassical states at late times had to be semiclassical before the bounce. Here we consider a family of exact solutions to the theory, corresponding to generalized coherent Gaussian and squeezed states. We analyze the behavior of basic physical observables and impose restrictions on the states based on physical considerations. These turn out to be enough to select, from all the generalized coherent states, those that behave semiclassical at late times. We study then the properties of such states near the bounce where the most 'quantum behavior' is expected. As it turns out, the states remain sharply peaked and semiclassical at the bounce and the dynamics is very well approximated by the ''effective theory'' throughout the time evolution. We compare the semiclassicality properties of squeezed states to those of the Gaussian semiclassical states and conclude that the Gaussians are better behaved. In particular, the asymmetry in the relative fluctuations before and after the bounce are negligible, thus ruling out claims of so-called 'cosmic forgetfulness'.
On the epistemic view of quantum states
Skotiniotis, Michael; Roy, Aidan; Sanders, Barry C.
2008-01-01
We investigate the strengths and limitations of the Spekkens toy model, which is a local hidden variable model that replicates many important properties of quantum dynamics. First, we present a set of five axioms that fully encapsulate Spekkens' toy model. We then test whether these axioms can be extended to capture more quantum phenomena by allowing operations on epistemic as well as ontic states. We discover that the resulting group of operations is isomorphic to the projective extended Clifford group for two qubits. This larger group of operations results in a physically unreasonable model; consequently, we claim that a relaxed definition of valid operations in Spekkens' toy model cannot produce an equivalence with the Clifford group for two qubits. However, the new operations do serve as tests for correlation in a two toy bit model, analogous to the well known Horodecki criterion for the separability of quantum states
Optimal signal states for quantum detectors
Oreshkov, Ognyan; Calsamiglia, John; Munoz-Tapia, Ramon; Bagan, Emili
2011-01-01
Quantum detectors provide information about the microscopic properties of quantum systems by establishing correlations between those properties and a set of macroscopically distinct events that we observe. The question of how much information a quantum detector can extract from a system is therefore of fundamental significance. In this paper, we address this question within a precise framework: given a measurement apparatus implementing a specific POVM measurement, what is the optimal performance achievable with it for a specific information readout task and what is the optimal way to encode information in the quantum system in order to achieve this performance? We consider some of the most common information transmission tasks-the Bayes cost problem, unambiguous message discrimination and the maximal mutual information. We provide general solutions to the Bayesian and unambiguous discrimination problems. We also show that the maximal mutual information is equal to the classical capacity of the quantum-to-classical channel describing the measurement, and study its properties in certain special cases. For a group covariant measurement, we show that the problem is equivalent to the problem of accessible information of a group covariant ensemble of states. We give analytical proofs of optimality in some relevant cases. The framework presented here provides a natural way to characterize generalized quantum measurements in terms of their information readout capabilities.
Quantum-state comparison and discrimination
Hayashi, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.
2018-05-01
We investigate the performance of discrimination strategy in the comparison task of known quantum states. In the discrimination strategy, one infers whether or not two quantum systems are in the same state on the basis of the outcomes of separate discrimination measurements on each system. In some cases with more than two possible states, the optimal strategy in minimum-error comparison is that one should infer the two systems are in different states without any measurement, implying that the discrimination strategy performs worse than the trivial "no-measurement" strategy. We present a sufficient condition for this phenomenon to happen. For two pure states with equal prior probabilities, we determine the optimal comparison success probability with an error margin, which interpolates the minimum-error and unambiguous comparison. We find that the discrimination strategy is not optimal except for the minimum-error case.
Quantum Entanglement in Neural Network States
Dong-Ling Deng
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Machine learning, one of today’s most rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields, promises an unprecedented perspective for solving intricate quantum many-body problems. Understanding the physical aspects of the representative artificial neural-network states has recently become highly desirable in the applications of machine-learning techniques to quantum many-body physics. In this paper, we explore the data structures that encode the physical features in the network states by studying the quantum entanglement properties, with a focus on the restricted-Boltzmann-machine (RBM architecture. We prove that the entanglement entropy of all short-range RBM states satisfies an area law for arbitrary dimensions and bipartition geometry. For long-range RBM states, we show by using an exact construction that such states could exhibit volume-law entanglement, implying a notable capability of RBM in representing quantum states with massive entanglement. Strikingly, the neural-network representation for these states is remarkably efficient, in the sense that the number of nonzero parameters scales only linearly with the system size. We further examine the entanglement properties of generic RBM states by randomly sampling the weight parameters of the RBM. We find that their averaged entanglement entropy obeys volume-law scaling, and the meantime strongly deviates from the Page entropy of the completely random pure states. We show that their entanglement spectrum has no universal part associated with random matrix theory and bears a Poisson-type level statistics. Using reinforcement learning, we demonstrate that RBM is capable of finding the ground state (with power-law entanglement of a model Hamiltonian with a long-range interaction. In addition, we show, through a concrete example of the one-dimensional symmetry-protected topological cluster states, that the RBM representation may also be used as a tool to analytically compute the entanglement spectrum. Our
Properties of Nonabelian Quantum Hall States
Simon, Steven H.
2004-03-01
The quantum statistics of particles refers to the behavior of a multiparticle wavefunction under adiabatic interchange of two identical particles. While a three dimensional world affords the possibilities of Bosons or Fermions, the two dimensional world has more exotic possibilities such as Fractional and Nonabelian statistics (J. Frölich, in ``Nonperturbative Quantum Field Theory", ed, G. t'Hooft. 1988). The latter is perhaps the most interesting where the wavefunction obeys a ``nonabelian'' representation of the braid group - meaning that braiding A around B then B around C is not the same as braiding B around C then A around B. This property enables one to think about using these exotic systems for robust topological quantum computation (M. Freedman, A. Kitaev, et al, Bull Am Math Soc 40, 31 (2003)). Surprisingly, it is thought that quasiparticles excitations with such nonabelian statistics may actually exist in certain quantum Hall states that have already been observed. The most likely such candidate is the quantum Hall ν=5/2 state(R. L. Willett et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1776-1779 (1987)), thought to be a so-called Moore-Read Pfaffian state(G. Moore and N. Read, Nucl Phys. B360 362 (1991)), which can be thought of as a p-wave paired superconducting state of composite fermions(M. Greiter, X. G. Wen, and F. Wilczek, PRL 66, 3205 (1991)). Using this superconducting analogy, we use a Chern-Simons field theory approach to make a number of predictions as to what experimental signatures one should expect for this state if it really is this Moore-Read state(K. Foster, N. Bonesteel, and S. H. Simon, PRL 91 046804 (2003)). We will then discuss how the nonabelian statistics can be explored in detail using a quantum monte-carlo approach (Y. Tserkovnyak and S. H. Simon, PRL 90 106802 (2003)), (I. Finkler, Y. Tserkovnyak, and S. H. Simon, work in progress.) that allows one to explicitly drag one particle around another and observe the change in the wavefunctions
Local copying of orthogonal entangled quantum states
Anselmi, Fabio; Chefles, Anthony; Plenio, Martin B
2004-01-01
In classical information theory one can, in principle, produce a perfect copy of any input state. In quantum information theory, the no cloning theorem prohibits exact copying of non-orthogonal states. Moreover, if we wish to copy multiparticle entangled states and can perform only local operations and classical communication (LOCC), then further restrictions apply. We investigate the problem of copying orthogonal, entangled quantum states with an entangled blank state under the restriction to LOCC. Throughout, the subsystems have finite dimension D. We show that if all of the states to be copied are non-maximally entangled, then novel LOCC copying procedures based on entanglement catalysis are possible. We then study in detail the LOCC copying problem where both the blank state and at least one of the states to be copied are maximally entangled. For this to be possible, we find that all the states to be copied must be maximally entangled. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for LOCC copying under these conditions. For two orthogonal, maximally entangled states, we provide the general solution to this condition. We use it to show that for D = 2, 3, any pair of orthogonal, maximally entangled states can be locally copied using a maximally entangled blank state. However, we also show that for any D which is not prime, one can construct pairs of such states for which this is impossible
Quantum speed limits for Bell-diagonal states
Han Wei; Jiang Ke-Xia; Zhang Ying-Jie; Xia Yun-Jie
2015-01-01
The lower bounds of the evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system, defined as quantum speed limit time, can characterize the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. We study the quantum speed limit time between the composite quantum states and their target states in the presence of nondissipative decoherence. For the initial states with maximally mixed marginals, we obtain the exact expressions of the quantum speed limit time which mainly depend on the parameters of the initial states and the decoherence channels. Furthermore, by calculating the quantum speed limit time for the time-dependent states started from a class of initial states, we discover that the quantum speed limit time gradually decreases in time, and the decay rate of the quantum speed limit time would show a sudden change at a certain critical time. Interestingly, at the same critical time, the composite system dynamics would exhibit a sudden transition from classical decoherence to quantum decoherence. (paper)
Local temperature in quantum thermal states
Garcia-Saez, Artur; Ferraro, Alessandro; Acin, Antonio
2009-01-01
We consider blocks of quantum spins in a chain at thermal equilibrium, focusing on their properties from a thermodynamical perspective. In a classical system the temperature behaves as an intensive magnitude, above a certain block size, regardless of the actual value of the temperature itself. However, a deviation from this behavior is expected in quantum systems. In particular, we see that under some conditions the description of the blocks as thermal states with the same global temperature as the whole chain fails. We analyze this issue by employing the quantum fidelity as a figure of merit, singling out in detail the departure from the classical behavior. As it may be expected, we see that quantum features are more prominent at low temperatures and are affected by the presence of zero-temperature quantum phase transitions. Interestingly, we show that the blocks can be considered indeed as thermal states with a high fidelity, provided an effective local temperature is properly identified. Such a result may originate from typical properties of reduced subsystems of energy-constrained Hilbert spaces. Finally, the relation between local and global temperatures is analyzed as a function of the size of the blocks and the system parameters.
Quantum oscillators in the canonical coherent states
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, A.F. de; Ferreira, K. de Araujo [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Vaidya, A.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2001-11-01
The main characteristics of the quantum oscillator coherent states including the two-particle Calogero interaction are investigated. We show that these Calogero coherent states are the eigenstates of the second-order differential annihilation operator which is deduced via Wigner-Heisenberg algebraic technique and correspond exactly to the pure uncharged-bosonic states. They posses the important properties of non-orthogonality and completeness. The minimum uncertainty relation for the Wigner oscillator coherent states are investigated. New sets of even and odd coherent states are point out. (author)
Criteria for reachability of quantum states
Schirmer, S.G.; Solomon, A.I. [Quantum Processes Group and Department of Applied Maths, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)]. E-mails: S.G.Schirmer@open.ac.uk; A.I.Solomon@open.ac.uk; Leahy, J.V. [Department of Mathematics and Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)]. E-mail: leahy@math.uoregon.edu
2002-10-11
We address the question of which quantum states can be inter-converted under the action of a time-dependent Hamiltonian. In particular, we consider the problem as applied to mixed states, and investigate the difference between pure- and mixed-state controllabilities introduced in previous work. We provide a complete characterization of the eigenvalue spectrum for which the state is controllable under the action of the symplectic group. We also address the problem of which states can be prepared if the dynamical Lie group is not sufficiently large to allow the system to be controllable. (author)
Quantum gambling using three nonorthogonal states
Hwang, Won-Young; Matsumoto, Keiji
2002-01-01
We provide a quantum gambling protocol using three (symmetric) nonorthogonal states. The bias of the proposed protocol is less than that of previous ones, making it more practical. We show that the proposed scheme is secure against nonentanglement attacks. The security of the proposed scheme against entanglement attacks is shown heuristically
Fermionic topological quantum states as tensor networks
Wille, C.; Buerschaper, O.; Eisert, J.
2017-06-01
Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states, play an important role in the description of strongly correlated quantum lattice systems. They do not only serve as variational states in numerical simulation methods, but also provide a framework for classifying phases of quantum matter and capture notions of topological order in a stringent and rigorous language. The rapid development in this field for spin models and bosonic systems has not yet been mirrored by an analogous development for fermionic models. In this work, we introduce a tensor network formalism capable of capturing notions of topological order for quantum systems with fermionic components. At the heart of the formalism are axioms of fermionic matrix-product operator injectivity, stable under concatenation. Building upon that, we formulate a Grassmann number tensor network ansatz for the ground state of fermionic twisted quantum double models. A specific focus is put on the paradigmatic example of the fermionic toric code. This work shows that the program of describing topologically ordered systems using tensor networks carries over to fermionic models.
Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states
2016-09-21
Sep 21, 2016 ... particles on different types of correlations present in bipartite quantum states are investigated. In particular, the ... the focus of research for the last few years. Many re- ..... figures, the qualitative behaviour of all the three types ...
Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state
Cao Haijing; Chen Zhonghua; Song Heshan
2008-01-01
A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state
Quantum teleportation via a W state
Joo, Jaewoo; Park, Young-Jai; Oh, Sangchul; Kim, Jaewan
2003-01-01
We investigate two schemes of quantum teleportation with a W state, which belongs to a different class from the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger class. In the first scheme, the W state is shared by three parties, one of whom, called a sender, performs a Bell measurement. It is shown that the quantum information of an unknown state is split between two parties and recovered with a certain probability. In the second scheme, a sender takes two particles of the W state and performs positive operator valued measurements. For the two schemes, we calculate the success probability and the average fidelity. We show that the average fidelity of the second scheme cannot exceed that of the first one
Bound states in curved quantum waveguides
Exner, P.; Seba, P.
1987-01-01
We study free quantum particle living on a curved planar strip Ω of a fixed width d with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It can serve as a model for electrons in thin films on a cylindrical-type substrate, or in a curved quantum wire. Assuming that the boundary of Ω is infinitely smooth and its curvature decays fast enough at infinity, we prove that a bound state with energy below the first transversal mode exists for all sufficiently small d. A lower bound on the critical width is obtained using the Birman-Schwinger technique. (orig.)
Wigner tomography of multispin quantum states
Leiner, David; Zeier, Robert; Glaser, Steffen J.
2017-12-01
We study the tomography of multispin quantum states in the context of finite-dimensional Wigner representations. An arbitrary operator can be completely characterized and visualized using multiple shapes assembled from linear combinations of spherical harmonics [A. Garon, R. Zeier, and S. J. Glaser, Phys. Rev. A 91, 042122 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.042122]. We develop a general methodology to experimentally recover these shapes by measuring expectation values of rotated axial spherical tensor operators and provide an interpretation in terms of fictitious multipole potentials. Our approach is experimentally demonstrated for quantum systems consisting of up to three spins using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Asymmetry and coherence weight of quantum states
Bu, Kaifeng; Anand, Namit; Singh, Uttam
2018-03-01
The asymmetry of quantum states is an important resource in quantum information processing tasks such as quantum metrology and quantum communication. In this paper, we introduce the notion of asymmetry weight—an operationally motivated asymmetry quantifier in the resource theory of asymmetry. We study the convexity and monotonicity properties of asymmetry weight and focus on its interplay with the corresponding semidefinite programming (SDP) forms along with its connection to other asymmetry measures. Since the SDP form of asymmetry weight is closely related to asymmetry witnesses, we find that the asymmetry weight can be regarded as a (state-dependent) asymmetry witness. Moreover, some specific entanglement witnesses can be viewed as a special case of an asymmetry witness—which indicates a potential connection between asymmetry and entanglement. We also provide an operationally meaningful coherence measure, which we term coherence weight, and investigate its relationship to other coherence measures like the robustness of coherence and the l1 norm of coherence. In particular, we show that for Werner states in any dimension d all three coherence quantifiers, namely, the coherence weight, the robustness of coherence, and the l1 norm of coherence, are equal and are given by a single letter formula.
Random unitary maps for quantum state reconstruction
Merkel, Seth T.; Riofrio, Carlos A.; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Flammia, Steven T.
2010-01-01
We study the possibility of performing quantum state reconstruction from a measurement record that is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under repeated application of a single random unitary map, U 0 . We show that while this single-parameter orbit in operator space is not informationally complete, it can be used to yield surprisingly high-fidelity reconstruction. For a d-dimensional Hilbert space with the initial observable in su(d), the measurement record lacks information about a matrix subspace of dimension ≥d-2 out of the total dimension d 2 -1. We determine the conditions on U 0 such that the bound is saturated, and show they are achieved by almost all pseudorandom unitary matrices. When we further impose the constraint that the physical density matrix must be positive, we obtain even higher fidelity than that predicted from the missing subspace. With prior knowledge that the state is pure, the reconstruction will be perfect (in the limit of vanishing noise) and for arbitrary mixed states, the fidelity is over 0.96, even for small d, and reaching F>0.99 for d>9. We also study the implementation of this protocol based on the relationship between random matrices and quantum chaos. We show that the Floquet operator of the quantum kicked top provides a means of generating the required type of measurement record, with implications on the relationship between quantum chaos and information gain.
Geodesics in thermodynamic state spaces of quantum gases
Oshima, H.; Obata, T.; Hara, H.
2002-01-01
The geodesics for ideal quantum gases are numerically studied. We show that 30 ideal quantum state is connected to an ideal classical state by geodesics and that the bundle of geodesics for Bose gases have a tendency of convergence
Cryptanalysis of Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Quantum State Using Entangled States
Su-Juan, Qin; Qiao-Yan, Wen; Fu-Chen, Zhu
2008-01-01
Security of a quantum secret sharing of quantum state protocol proposed by Guo et al. [Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 (2008) 16] is reexamined. It is shown that an eavesdropper can obtain some of the transmitted secret information by monitoring the classical channel or the entire secret by intercepting the quantum states, and moreover, the eavesdropper can even maliciously replace the secret message with an arbitrary message without being detected. Finally, the deep reasons why an eavesdropper can attack this protocol are discussed and the modified protocol is presented to amend the security loopholes
Locking classical correlations in quantum States.
DiVincenzo, David P; Horodecki, Michał; Leung, Debbie W; Smolin, John A; Terhal, Barbara M
2004-02-13
We show that there exist bipartite quantum states which contain a large locked classical correlation that is unlocked by a disproportionately small amount of classical communication. In particular, there are (2n+1)-qubit states for which a one-bit message doubles the optimal classical mutual information between measurement results on the subsystems, from n/2 bits to n bits. This phenomenon is impossible classically. However, states exhibiting this behavior need not be entangled. We study the range of states exhibiting this phenomenon and bound its magnitude.
Conditional expectations associated with quantum states
Niestegge, Gerd
2005-01-01
An extension of the conditional expectations (those under a given subalgebra of events and not the simple ones under a single event) from the classical to the quantum case is presented. In the classical case, the conditional expectations always exist; in the quantum case, however, they exist only if a certain weak compatibility criterion is satisfied. This compatibility criterion was introduced among others in a recent paper by the author. Then, state-independent conditional expectations and quantum Markov processes are studied. A classical Markov process is a probability measure, together with a system of random variables, satisfying the Markov property and can equivalently be described by a system of Markovian kernels (often forming a semigroup). This equivalence is partly extended to quantum probabilities. It is shown that a dynamical (semi)group can be derived from a given system of quantum observables satisfying the Markov property, and the group generators are studied. The results are presented in the framework of Jordan operator algebras, and a very general type of observables (including the usual real-valued observables or self-adjoint operators) is considered
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.
2012-01-01
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J
2012-10-13
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.
The structure of states and maps in quantum theory
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 3. The structure of states and maps in quantum theory. Sudhavathani Simon S P ... The structure of statistical state spaces in the classical and quantum theories are compared in an interesting and novel manner. Quantum state spaces and maps on them ...
Delgado, Francisco
2017-12-01
Quantum information processing should be generated through control of quantum evolution for physical systems being used as resources, such as superconducting circuits, spinspin couplings in ions and artificial anyons in electronic gases. They have a quantum dynamics which should be translated into more natural languages for quantum information processing. On this terrain, this language should let to establish manipulation operations on the associated quantum information states as classical information processing does. This work shows how a kind of processing operations can be settled and implemented for quantum states design and quantum processing for systems fulfilling a SU(2) reduction in their dynamics.
Quantum coherence generated by interference-induced state selectiveness
Garreau, Jean Claude
2001-01-01
The relations between quantum coherence and quantum interference are discussed. A general method for generation of quantum coherence through interference-induced state selection is introduced and then applied to `simple' atomic systems under two-photon transitions, with applications in quantum optics and laser cooling.
Probabilistic coding of quantum states
Grudka, Andrzej; Wojcik, Antoni; Czechlewski, Mikolaj
2006-01-01
We discuss the properties of probabilistic coding of two qubits to one qutrit and generalize the scheme to higher dimensions. We show that the protocol preserves the entanglement between the qubits to be encoded and the environment and can also be applied to mixed states. We present a protocol that enables encoding of n qudits to one qudit of dimension smaller than the Hilbert space of the original system and then allows probabilistic but error-free decoding of any subset of k qudits. We give a formula for the probability of successful decoding
Quantum correlations support probabilistic pure state cloning
Roa, Luis, E-mail: lroa@udec.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Jara-Figueroa, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolución 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
2014-02-01
The probabilistic scheme for making two copies of two nonorthogonal pure states requires two auxiliary systems, one for copying and one for attempting to project onto the suitable subspace. The process is performed by means of a unitary-reduction scheme which allows having a success probability of cloning different from zero. The scheme becomes optimal when the probability of success is maximized. In this case, a bipartite state remains as a free degree which does not affect the probability. We find bipartite states for which the unitarity does not introduce entanglement, but does introduce quantum discord between some involved subsystems.
Extreme Violation of Local Realism in Quantum Hypergraph States.
Gachechiladze, Mariami; Budroni, Costantino; Gühne, Otfried
2016-02-19
Hypergraph states form a family of multiparticle quantum states that generalizes the well-known concept of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and more broadly graph states. We study the nonlocal properties of quantum hypergraph states. We demonstrate that the correlations in hypergraph states can be used to derive various types of nonlocality proofs, including Hardy-type arguments and Bell inequalities for genuine multiparticle nonlocality. Moreover, we show that hypergraph states allow for an exponentially increasing violation of local realism which is robust against loss of particles. Our results suggest that certain classes of hypergraph states are novel resources for quantum metrology and measurement-based quantum computation.
Block-free optical quantum Banyan network based on quantum state fusion and fission
Zhu Chang-Hua; Meng Yan-Hong; Quan Dong-Xiao; Zhao Nan; Pei Chang-Xing
2014-01-01
Optical switch fabric plays an important role in building multiple-user optical quantum communication networks. Owing to its self-routing property and low complexity, a banyan network is widely used for building switch fabric. While, there is no efficient way to remove internal blocking in a banyan network in a classical way, quantum state fusion, by which the two-dimensional internal quantum states of two photons could be combined into a four-dimensional internal state of a single photon, makes it possible to solve this problem. In this paper, we convert the output mode of quantum state fusion from spatial-polarization mode into time-polarization mode. By combining modified quantum state fusion and quantum state fission with quantum Fredkin gate, we propose a practical scheme to build an optical quantum switch unit which is block free. The scheme can be extended to building more complex units, four of which are shown in this paper. (general)
Quantum state of the black hole interior
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.
2015-01-01
If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of “Fermi sea” of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object that has passed through to the BH interior and show that, once it has crossed over the near-horizon threshold, the object meets its demise extremely fast. This result cannot be attributed to a “firewall”, as the trauma to the in-falling object only begins after it has passed through the near-horizon region and enters a region where semiclassical spacetime ends but the energy density is still parametrically smaller than Planckian.
Channel capacities versus entanglement measures in multiparty quantum states
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2010-01-01
For quantum states of two subsystems, highly entangled states have a higher capacity of transmitting classical as well as quantum information, and vice versa. We show that this is no more the case in general: Quantum capacities of multiaccess channels, motivated by communication in quantum networks, do not have any relation with genuine multiparty entanglement measures. Importantly, the statement is demonstrated for arbitrary multipartite entanglement measures. Along with revealing the structural richness of multiaccess channels, this gives us a tool to classify multiparty quantum states from the perspective of its usefulness in quantum networks, which cannot be visualized by any genuine multiparty entanglement measure.
Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi
2008-11-01
A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.
Quantum Darwinism for mixed-state environment
Quan, Haitao; Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech
2009-03-01
We exam quantum darwinism when a system is in the presence of a mixed environment, and we find a general relation between the mutual information for the mixed-state environment and the change of the entropy of the fraction of the environment. We then look at a particular solvable model, and we numerically exam the time evolution of the ``mutual information" for large environment. Finally we discuss about the exact expressions for all entropies and the mutual information at special time.
Ancilla-approximable quantum state transformations
Blass, Andreas [Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Gurevich, Yuri [Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States)
2015-04-15
We consider the transformations of quantum states obtainable by a process of the following sort. Combine the given input state with a specially prepared initial state of an auxiliary system. Apply a unitary transformation to the combined system. Measure the state of the auxiliary subsystem. If (and only if) it is in a specified final state, consider the process successful, and take the resulting state of the original (principal) system as the result of the process. We review known information about exact realization of transformations by such a process. Then we present results about approximate realization of finite partial transformations. We not only consider primarily the issue of approximation to within a specified positive ε, but also address the question of arbitrarily close approximation.
Ancilla-approximable quantum state transformations
Blass, Andreas; Gurevich, Yuri
2015-01-01
We consider the transformations of quantum states obtainable by a process of the following sort. Combine the given input state with a specially prepared initial state of an auxiliary system. Apply a unitary transformation to the combined system. Measure the state of the auxiliary subsystem. If (and only if) it is in a specified final state, consider the process successful, and take the resulting state of the original (principal) system as the result of the process. We review known information about exact realization of transformations by such a process. Then we present results about approximate realization of finite partial transformations. We not only consider primarily the issue of approximation to within a specified positive ε, but also address the question of arbitrarily close approximation
Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation
Antonio, B; Anders, J; Markham, D
2014-01-01
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of H-dot as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated. (paper)
Realization of quantum state privacy amplification in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system
Hao, Liang; Wang, Chuan; Long, Gui Lu
2010-01-01
Quantum state privacy amplification (QSPA) is the quantum analogue of classical privacy amplification. If the state information of a series of single-particle states has some leakage, QSPA reduces this leakage by condensing the state information of two particles into the state of one particle. Recursive applications of the operations will eliminate the quantum state information leakage to a required minimum level. In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of a quantum state privacy amplification protocol in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. The density matrices of the states are constructed in the experiment, and the experimental results agree well with theory.
Neural-Network Quantum States, String-Bond States, and Chiral Topological States
Glasser, Ivan; Pancotti, Nicola; August, Moritz; Rodriguez, Ivan D.; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2018-01-01
Neural-network quantum states have recently been introduced as an Ansatz for describing the wave function of quantum many-body systems. We show that there are strong connections between neural-network quantum states in the form of restricted Boltzmann machines and some classes of tensor-network states in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that short-range restricted Boltzmann machines are entangled plaquette states, while fully connected restricted Boltzmann machines are string-bond states with a nonlocal geometry and low bond dimension. These results shed light on the underlying architecture of restricted Boltzmann machines and their efficiency at representing many-body quantum states. String-bond states also provide a generic way of enhancing the power of neural-network quantum states and a natural generalization to systems with larger local Hilbert space. We compare the advantages and drawbacks of these different classes of states and present a method to combine them together. This allows us to benefit from both the entanglement structure of tensor networks and the efficiency of neural-network quantum states into a single Ansatz capable of targeting the wave function of strongly correlated systems. While it remains a challenge to describe states with chiral topological order using traditional tensor networks, we show that, because of their nonlocal geometry, neural-network quantum states and their string-bond-state extension can describe a lattice fractional quantum Hall state exactly. In addition, we provide numerical evidence that neural-network quantum states can approximate a chiral spin liquid with better accuracy than entangled plaquette states and local string-bond states. Our results demonstrate the efficiency of neural networks to describe complex quantum wave functions and pave the way towards the use of string-bond states as a tool in more traditional machine-learning applications.
Extended superposed quantum-state initialization using disjoint prime implicants
Rosenbaum, David; Perkowski, Marek
2009-01-01
Extended superposed quantum-state initialization using disjoint prime implicants is an algorithm for generating quantum arrays for the purpose of initializing a desired quantum superposition. The quantum arrays generated by this algorithm almost always use fewer gates than other algorithms and in the worst case use the same number of gates. These improvements are achieved by allowing certain parts of the quantum superposition that cannot be initialized directly by the algorithm to be initialized using special circuits. This allows more terms in the quantum superposition to be initialized at the same time which decreases the number of gates required by the generated quantum array.
Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer
Mao Wenjin
2005-01-01
A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed
A Quantum Version of Wigner's Transition State Theory
Schubert, R.; Waalkens, H.; Wiggins, S.
A quantum version of a recent realization of Wigner's transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed builds on a quantum normal form which locally decouples the quantum dynamics near the transition state to any desired order in (h) over bar. This leads to an explicit
A Quantum Version of Wigner’s Transition State Theory
Schubert, R.; Waalkens, H.; Wiggins, S.
2009-01-01
A quantum version of a recent realization of Wigner’s transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed builds on a quantum normal form which locally decouples the quantum dynamics near the transition state to any desired order in ħ. This leads to an explicit algorithm to
Quantum Enhanced Imaging by Entangled States
2009-07-01
Zeilinger (GHZ) class and the W class. The GHZ-like entangled state 1,1,1 and the W-like state 2,1 were studied during the course of the QSP Program...D. M. Greenberger, M. Horne and A. Zeilinger , in Bell’s Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Concepts of the Universe, ed. M. Kafatos (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1989...Daniell, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82,1345 (1999); Z. Zhao, T. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, A.-N. Zhang, M. Zukowski, and J.-W. Pan, Phys
Majorization uncertainty relations for mixed quantum states
Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Krawiec, Aleksandra; Życzkowski, Karol
2018-04-01
Majorization uncertainty relations are generalized for an arbitrary mixed quantum state ρ of a finite size N. In particular, a lower bound for the sum of two entropies characterizing the probability distributions corresponding to measurements with respect to two arbitrary orthogonal bases is derived in terms of the spectrum of ρ and the entries of a unitary matrix U relating both bases. The results obtained can also be formulated for two measurements performed on a single subsystem of a bipartite system described by a pure state, and consequently expressed as an uncertainty relation for the sum of conditional entropies.
States and state-preparing procedures in quantum mechanics
Benioff, P.A.; Ekstein, Hans
D'Espagnat and others have shown that different preparation procedures that mix systems prepared in unequivalent states and objectively different, are nevertheless assigned the same state. This unpalatable result follows from the usual interpretative rules of quantum mechanics. It is shown here that this result is incompatible with the strengthened interpretative rules (requiring randomness of the measurement outcome sequence) recently proposed. Thus, the randomness requirement restores reasonableness
Coherent states in quantum mechanics; Estados coerentes em mecanica quantica
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rafaelr@cbpf.br; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica
2001-12-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
Quantum computer with mixed states and four-valued logic
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2002-01-01
In this paper we discuss a model of quantum computer in which a state is an operator of density matrix and gates are general quantum operations, not necessarily unitary. A mixed state (operator of density matrix) of n two-level quantum systems is considered as an element of 4 n -dimensional operator Hilbert space (Liouville space). It allows us to use a quantum computer model with four-valued logic. The gates of this model are general superoperators which act on n-ququat state. Ququat is a quantum state in a four-dimensional (operator) Hilbert space. Unitary two-valued logic gates and quantum operations for an n-qubit open system are considered as four-valued logic gates acting on n-ququats. We discuss properties of quantum four-valued logic gates. In the paper we study universality for quantum four-valued logic gates. (author)
Quantum state transfer between light and matter via teleportation
Krauter, Hanna; Sherson, Jacob Friis; Polzik, Eugene Simon
2010-01-01
that teleportation is also an important element of future quantum networks and it can be an ingredient for quantum computation. This article reports for the first time the teleportation from light to atoms. In the experiment discussed, the quantum state of a light beam is transferred to an atomic ensemble. The key......Quantum teleportation is an interesting feature of quantum mechanics. Entanglement is used as a link between two remote locations to transfer a quantum state without physically sending it – a process that cannot be realized utilizing merely classical tools. Furthermore it has become evident...
Generalized Choi states and 2-distillability of quantum states
Chen, Lin; Tang, Wai-Shing; Yang, Yu
2018-05-01
We investigate the distillability of bipartite quantum states in terms of positive and completely positive maps. We construct the so-called generalized Choi states and show that it is distillable when it has negative partial transpose. We convert the distillability problem of 2-copy n× n Werner states into the determination of the positivity of an Hermitian matrix. We obtain several sufficient conditions by which the positivity holds. Further, we investigate the case n=3 by the classification of 2× 3× 3 pure states.
Bipartite quantum states and random complex networks
Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Giorda, Paolo
2012-01-01
We introduce a mapping between graphs and pure quantum bipartite states and show that the associated entanglement entropy conveys non-trivial information about the structure of the graph. Our primary goal is to investigate the family of random graphs known as complex networks. In the case of classical random graphs, we derive an analytic expression for the averaged entanglement entropy S-bar while for general complex networks we rely on numerics. For a large number of nodes n we find a scaling S-bar ∼c log n +g e where both the prefactor c and the sub-leading O(1) term g e are characteristic of the different classes of complex networks. In particular, g e encodes topological features of the graphs and is named network topological entropy. Our results suggest that quantum entanglement may provide a powerful tool for the analysis of large complex networks with non-trivial topological properties. (paper)
Non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and quantum state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms
Ostmann, Maike; Minář, Jiří; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor
2017-12-01
Motivated by recent progress in the experimental manipulation of cold atoms in optical lattices, we study three different protocols for non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms. The protocols we discuss are based on the blockade mechanism between atoms which, when excited to a Rydberg state, interact through a van der Waals potential, and rely on single-site addressing. Specifically, we discuss protocols for efficient creation of an antiferromagnetic GHZ state, a class of matrix product states including a so-called Rydberg crystal and for the state transport of a single-qubit quantum state between two ends of a chain of atoms. We identify system parameters allowing for the operation of the protocols on timescales shorter than the lifetime of the Rydberg states while yielding high fidelity output states. We discuss the effect of positional disorder on the resulting states and comment on limitations due to other sources of noise such as radiative decay of the Rydberg states. The proposed protocols provide a testbed for benchmarking the performance of quantum information processing platforms based on Rydberg atoms.
Tightening Quantum Speed Limits for Almost All States.
Campaioli, Francesco; Pollock, Felix A; Binder, Felix C; Modi, Kavan
2018-02-09
Conventional quantum speed limits perform poorly for mixed quantum states: They are generally not tight and often significantly underestimate the fastest possible evolution speed. To remedy this, for unitary driving, we derive two quantum speed limits that outperform the traditional bounds for almost all quantum states. Moreover, our bounds are significantly simpler to compute as well as experimentally more accessible. Our bounds have a clear geometric interpretation; they arise from the evaluation of the angle between generalized Bloch vectors.
Reexamination of optimal quantum state estimation of pure states
Hayashi, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.
2005-01-01
A direct derivation is given for the optimal mean fidelity of quantum state estimation of a d-dimensional unknown pure state with its N copies given as input, which was first obtained by Hayashi in terms of an infinite set of covariant positive operator valued measures (POVM's) and by Bruss and Macchiavello establishing a connection to optimal quantum cloning. An explicit condition for POVM measurement operators for optimal estimators is obtained, by which we construct optimal estimators with finite POVMs using exact quadratures on a hypersphere. These finite optimal estimators are not generally universal, where universality means the fidelity is independent of input states. However, any optimal estimator with finite POVM for M(>N) copies is universal if it is used for N copies as input
Self-calibrating quantum state tomography
Brańczyk, A M; Mahler, D H; Rozema, L A; Darabi, A; Steinberg, A M; James, D F V
2012-01-01
We introduce and experimentally demonstrate a technique for performing quantum state tomography (QST) on multiple-qubit states despite incomplete knowledge about the unitary operations used to change the measurement basis. Given unitary operations with unknown rotation angles, our method can be used to reconstruct the density matrix of the state up to local σ z rotations as well as recover the magnitude of the unknown rotation angle. We demonstrate high-fidelity self-calibrating tomography on polarization-encoded one- and two-photon states. The unknown unitary operations are realized in two ways: using a birefringent polymer sheet—an inexpensive smartphone screen protector—or alternatively a liquid crystal wave plate with a tuneable retardance. We explore how our technique may be adapted for QST of systems such as biological molecules where the magnitude and orientation of the transition dipole moment is not known with high accuracy. (paper)
Self-calibrating quantum state tomography
Branczyk, A M; Mahler, D H; Rozema, L A; Darabi, A; Steinberg, A M; James, D F V, E-mail: branczyk@physics.utoronto.ca [CQIQC and IOS, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 Saint George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada)
2012-08-15
We introduce and experimentally demonstrate a technique for performing quantum state tomography (QST) on multiple-qubit states despite incomplete knowledge about the unitary operations used to change the measurement basis. Given unitary operations with unknown rotation angles, our method can be used to reconstruct the density matrix of the state up to local {sigma}{sub z} rotations as well as recover the magnitude of the unknown rotation angle. We demonstrate high-fidelity self-calibrating tomography on polarization-encoded one- and two-photon states. The unknown unitary operations are realized in two ways: using a birefringent polymer sheet-an inexpensive smartphone screen protector-or alternatively a liquid crystal wave plate with a tuneable retardance. We explore how our technique may be adapted for QST of systems such as biological molecules where the magnitude and orientation of the transition dipole moment is not known with high accuracy. (paper)
Quantumness of bipartite states in terms of conditional entropies
Li, Nan; Luo, Shunlong; Zhang, Zhengmin
2007-01-01
Quantum discord, as defined by Olliver and Zurek (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 017901) as the difference of two natural quantum extensions of the classical mutual information, plays an interesting role in characterizing quantumness of correlations. Inspired by this idea, we will study quantumness of bipartite states arising from different quantum analogs of the classical conditional entropy. Our approach is intrinsic, in contrast to the Olliver-Zurek method that involves extrinsic local measurements. For this purpose, we introduce two alternative variants of quantum conditional entropies via conditional density operators, which in turn are intuitive quantum extensions of equivalent classical expressions for the conditional probability. The significance of these quantum conditional entropies in characterizing quantumness of bipartite states is illustrated through several examples
Quantum Information Protocols with Gaussian States of Light
Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann
and hardware for secure quantum key distribution. These technologies directly exploit quantum effects, and indeed this is where they offer advantages to classical products. This thesis deals with the development and implementation of quantum information protocols that utilize the rather inexpensive resource......Quantum cryptography is widely regarded as the most mature field within the context of quantum information in the sense that its application and development has produced companies that base their products on genuine quantum mechanical principles. Examples include quantum random number generators...... of Gaussian states. A quantum information protocol is essentially a sequence of state exchanges between some number of parties and a certain ordering of quantum mechanical unitary operators performed by these parties. An example of this is the famous BB84 protocol for secret key generation, where photons...
Quantum discord for two-qubit X states
Ali, Mazhar; Rau, A. R. P.; Alber, G.
2010-01-01
Quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation, is defined as the difference between quantum mutual information and classical correlation in a bipartite system. In general, this correlation is different from entanglement, and quantum discord may be nonzero even for certain separable states. Even in the simple case of bipartite quantum systems, this different kind of quantum correlation has interesting and significant applications in quantum information processing. So far, quantum discord has been calculated explicitly only for a rather limited set of two-qubit quantum states and expressions for more general quantum states are not known. In this article, we derive explicit expressions for quantum discord for a larger class of two-qubit states, namely, a seven-parameter family of so called X states that have been of interest in a variety of contexts in the field. We also study the relation between quantum discord, classical correlation, and entanglement for a number of two-qubit states to demonstrate that they are independent measures of correlation with no simple relative ordering between them.
Quantum locking of classical correlations and quantum discord of classical-quantum states
BOIXO, S.; AOLITA, L.; CAVALCANTI, D.; MODI, K.; WINTER, A.
2011-01-01
A locking protocol between two parties is as follows: Alice gives an encrypted classical message to Bob which she does not want Bob to be able to read until she gives him the key. If Alice is using classical resources, and she wants to approach unconditional security, then the key and the message must have comparable sizes. But if Alice prepares a quantum state, the size of the key can be comparatively negligible. This effect is called quantum locking. Entanglement does not play a role in thi...
Improving decoy databases for protein folding algorithms
Lindsey, Aaron
2014-01-01
Copyright © 2014 ACM. Predicting protein structures and simulating protein folding are two of the most important problems in computational biology today. Simulation methods rely on a scoring function to distinguish the native structure (the most energetically stable) from non-native structures. Decoy databases are collections of non-native structures used to test and verify these functions. We present a method to evaluate and improve the quality of decoy databases by adding novel structures and removing redundant structures. We test our approach on 17 different decoy databases of varying size and type and show significant improvement across a variety of metrics. We also test our improved databases on a popular modern scoring function and show that they contain a greater number of native-like structures than the original databases, thereby producing a more rigorous database for testing scoring functions.
An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer
Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.
2014-01-01
We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer
Nonexistence of a universal quantum machine to examine the precision of unknown quantum states
Pang, Shengshi; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Zeng-Bing
2011-01-01
In this work, we reveal a type of impossibility discovered in our recent research which forbids comparing the closeness of multiple unknown quantum states with any nontrivial threshold in a perfect or unambiguous way. This impossibility is distinct from the existing impossibilities in that it is a ''collective'' impossibility on multiple quantum states; most other ''no-go'' theorems are concerned with only one single state each time, i.e., it is an impossibility on a nonlocal quantum operation. This impossibility may provide new insight into the nature of quantum mechanics, and it implies more limitations on quantum information tasks than the existing no-go theorems.
DecoyFinder: an easy-to-use python GUI application for building target-specific decoy sets.
Cereto-Massagué, Adrià; Guasch, Laura; Valls, Cristina; Mulero, Miquel; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago
2012-06-15
Decoys are molecules that are presumed to be inactive against a target (i.e. will not likely bind to the target) and are used to validate the performance of molecular docking or a virtual screening workflow. The Directory of Useful Decoys database (http://dud.docking.org/) provides a free directory of decoys for use in virtual screening, though it only contains a limited set of decoys for 40 targets.To overcome this limitation, we have developed an application called DecoyFinder that selects, for a given collection of active ligands of a target, a set of decoys from a database of compounds. Decoys are selected if they are similar to active ligands according to five physical descriptors (molecular weight, number of rotational bonds, total hydrogen bond donors, total hydrogen bond acceptors and the octanol-water partition coefficient) without being chemically similar to any of the active ligands used as an input (according to the Tanimoto coefficient between MACCS fingerprints). To the best of our knowledge, DecoyFinder is the first application designed to build target-specific decoy sets. A complete description of the software is included on the application home page. A validation of DecoyFinder on 10 DUD targets is provided as Supplementary Table S1. DecoyFinder is freely available at http://URVnutrigenomica-CTNS.github.com/DecoyFinder.
Probabilistic Teleportation of Arbitrary Two-Qubit Quantum State via Non-Symmetric Quantum Channel
Kan Wang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Quantum teleportation has significant meaning in quantum information. In particular, entangled states can also be used for perfectly teleporting the quantum state with some probability. This is more practical and efficient in practice. In this paper, we propose schemes to use non-symmetric quantum channel combinations for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary two-qubit quantum state from sender to receiver. The non-symmetric quantum channel is composed of a two-qubit partially entangled state and a three-qubit partially entangled state, where partially entangled Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ state and W state are considered, respectively. All schemes are presented in detail and the unitary operations required are given in concise formulas. Methods are provided for reducing classical communication cost and combining operations to simplify the manipulation. Moreover, our schemes are flexible and applicable in different situations.
Spatial evolution of quantum mechanical states
Christensen, N. D.; Unger, J. E.; Pinto, S.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.
2018-02-01
The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved traditionally as an initial-time value problem, where its solution is obtained by the action of the unitary time-evolution propagator on the quantum state that is known at all spatial locations but only at t = 0. We generalize this approach by examining the spatial evolution from a state that is, by contrast, known at all times t, but only at one specific location. The corresponding spatial-evolution propagator turns out to be pseudo-unitary. In contrast to the real energies that govern the usual (unitary) time evolution, the spatial evolution can therefore require complex phases associated with dynamically relevant solutions that grow exponentially. By introducing a generalized scalar product, for which the spatial generator is Hermitian, one can show that the temporal integral over the probability current density is spatially conserved, in full analogy to the usual norm of the state, which is temporally conserved. As an application of the spatial propagation formalism, we introduce a spatial backtracking technique that permits us to reconstruct any quantum information about an atom from the ionization data measured at a detector outside the interaction region.
Hall viscosity of hierarchical quantum Hall states
Fremling, M.; Hansson, T. H.; Suorsa, J.
2014-03-01
Using methods based on conformal field theory, we construct model wave functions on a torus with arbitrary flat metric for all chiral states in the abelian quantum Hall hierarchy. These functions have no variational parameters, and they transform under the modular group in the same way as the multicomponent generalizations of the Laughlin wave functions. Assuming the absence of Berry phases upon adiabatic variations of the modular parameter τ, we calculate the quantum Hall viscosity and find it to be in agreement with the formula, given by Read, which relates the viscosity to the average orbital spin of the electrons. For the filling factor ν =2/5 Jain state, which is at the second level in the hierarchy, we compare our model wave function with the numerically obtained ground state of the Coulomb interaction Hamiltonian in the lowest Landau level, and find very good agreement in a large region of the complex τ plane. For the same example, we also numerically compute the Hall viscosity and find good agreement with the analytical result for both the model wave function and the numerically obtained Coulomb wave function. We argue that this supports the notion of a generalized plasma analogy that would ensure that wave functions obtained using the conformal field theory methods do not acquire Berry phases upon adiabatic evolution.
Probabilistic cloning and deleting of quantum states
Feng Yuan; Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng
2002-01-01
We construct a probabilistic cloning and deleting machine which, taking several copies of an input quantum state, can output a linear superposition of multiple cloning and deleting states. Since the machine can perform cloning and deleting in a single unitary evolution, the probabilistic cloning and other cloning machines proposed in the previous literature can be thought of as special cases of our machine. A sufficient and necessary condition for successful cloning and deleting is presented, and it requires that the copies of an arbitrarily presumed number of the input states are linearly independent. This simply generalizes some results for cloning. We also derive an upper bound for the success probability of the cloning and deleting machine
Quantum nonlinear lattices and coherent state vectors
Ellinas, Demosthenes; Johansson, M.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1999-01-01
for the state vectors invokes the study of the Riemannian and symplectic geometry of the CSV manifolds as generalized phase spaces. Next, we investigate analytically and numerically the behavior of mean values and uncertainties of some physically interesting observables as well as the modifications...... (FP) model. Based on the respective dynamical symmetries of the models, a method is put forward which by use of the associated boson and spin coherent state vectors (CSV) and a factorization ansatz for the solution of the Schrodinger equation, leads to quasiclassical Hamiltonian equations of motion...... state vectors, and accounts for the quantum correlations of the lattice sites that develop during the time evolution of the systems. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Unstable quantum states and rigged Hilbert spaces
Gorini, V.; Parravicini, G.
1978-10-01
Rigged Hilbert space techniques are applied to the quantum mechanical treatment of unstable states in nonrelativistic scattering theory. A method is discussed which is based on representations of decay amplitudes in terms of expansions over complete sets of generalized eigenvectors of the interacting Hamiltonian, corresponding to complex eigenvalues. These expansions contain both a discrete and a continuum contribution. The former corresponds to eigenvalues located at the second sheet poles of the S matrix, and yields the exponential terms in the survival amplitude. The latter arises from generalized eigenvectors associated to complex eigenvalues on background contours in the complex plane, and gives the corrections to the exponential law. 27 references
Can a quantum state over time resemble a quantum state at a single time?
Horsman, Dominic; Heunen, Chris; Pusey, Matthew F; Barrett, Jonathan; Spekkens, Robert W
2017-09-01
The standard formalism of quantum theory treats space and time in fundamentally different ways. In particular, a composite system at a given time is represented by a joint state, but the formalism does not prescribe a joint state for a composite of systems at different times. If there were a way of defining such a joint state, this would potentially permit a more even-handed treatment of space and time, and would strengthen the existing analogy between quantum states and classical probability distributions. Under the assumption that the joint state over time is an operator on the tensor product of single-time Hilbert spaces, we analyse various proposals for such a joint state, including one due to Leifer and Spekkens, one due to Fitzsimons, Jones and Vedral, and another based on discrete Wigner functions. Finding various problems with each, we identify five criteria for a quantum joint state over time to satisfy if it is to play a role similar to the standard joint state for a composite system: that it is a Hermitian operator on the tensor product of the single-time Hilbert spaces; that it represents probabilistic mixing appropriately; that it has the appropriate classical limit; that it has the appropriate single-time marginals; that composing over multiple time steps is associative. We show that no construction satisfies all these requirements. If Hermiticity is dropped, then there is an essentially unique construction that satisfies the remaining four criteria.
Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.
Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-01-25
Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0〉 and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity.
Roughness as classicality indicator of a quantum state
Lemos, Humberto C. F.; Almeida, Alexandre C. L.; Amaral, Barbara; Oliveira, Adélcio C.
2018-03-01
We define a new quantifier of classicality for a quantum state, the Roughness, which is given by the L2 (R2) distance between Wigner and Husimi functions. We show that the Roughness is bounded and therefore it is a useful tool for comparison between different quantum states for single bosonic systems. The state classification via the Roughness is not binary, but rather it is continuous in the interval [ 0 , 1 ], being the state more classic as the Roughness approaches to zero, and more quantum when it is closer to the unity. The Roughness is maximum for Fock states when its number of photons is arbitrarily large, and also for squeezed states at the maximum compression limit. On the other hand, the Roughness approaches its minimum value for thermal states at infinite temperature and, more generally, for infinite entropy states. The Roughness of a coherent state is slightly below one half, so we may say that it is more a classical state than a quantum one. Another important result is that the Roughness performs well for discriminating both pure and mixed states. Since the Roughness measures the inherent quantumness of a state, we propose another function, the Dynamic Distance Measure (DDM), which is suitable for measure how much quantum is a dynamics. Using DDM, we studied the quartic oscillator, and we observed that there is a certain complementarity between dynamics and state, i.e. when dynamics becomes more quantum, the Roughness of the state decreases, while the Roughness grows as the dynamics becomes less quantum.
Using a quantum dot system to realize perfect state transfer
Li Ji; Wu Shi-Hai; Zhang Wen-Wen; Xi Xiao-Qiang
2011-01-01
There are some disadvantages to Nikolopoulos et al.'s protocol [Nikolopoulos G M, Petrosyan D and Lambropoulos P 2004 Europhys. Lett. 65 297] where a quantum dot system is used to realize quantum communication. To overcome these disadvantages, we propose a protocol that uses a quantum dot array to construct a four-qubit spin chain to realize perfect quantum state transfer (PQST). First, we calculate the interaction relation for PQST in the spin chain. Second, we review the interaction between the quantum dots in the Heitler—London approach. Third, we present a detailed program for designing the proper parameters of a quantum dot array to realize PQST. (general)
Quantum limits of Eisenstein series and scattering states
Petridis, Y.N.; Raulf, N.; Risager, Morten S.
2013-01-01
We identify the quantum limits of scattering states for the modular surface. This is obtained through the study of quantum measures of non-holomorphic Eisenstein series away from the critical line. We provide a range of stability for the quantum unique ergodicity theorem of Luo and Sarnak....
Erratum to "Quantum Limits of Eisenstein Series and Scattering States''
Petridis, Y.N.; Raulf, N.; Risager, Morten S.
2013-01-01
We identify the quantum limits of scattering states for the modular surface. This is obtained through the study of quantum measures of non-holomorphic Eisenstein series away from the critical line. We provide a range of stability for the quantum unique ergodicity theorem of Luo and Sarnak...
Canonical Quantum Teleportation of Two-Particle Arbitrary State
HAO Xiang; ZHU Shi-Qun
2005-01-01
The canonical quantum teleportation of two-particle arbitrary state is realized by means of phase operator and number operator. The maximally entangled eigenstates between the difference of phase operators and the sum of number operators are considered as the quantum channels. In contrast to the standard quantum teleportation, the different unitary local operation of canonical teleportation can be simplified by a general expression.
Quantum state correction of relic gravitons from quantum gravity
Rosales, Jose-Luis
1996-01-01
The semiclassical approach to quantum gravity would yield the Schroedinger formalism for the wave function of metric perturbations or gravitons plus quantum gravity correcting terms in pure gravity; thus, in the inflationary scenario, we should expect correcting effects to the relic graviton (Zel'dovich) spectrum of the order (H/mPl)^2.
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)
2014-03-24
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Quantum computing based on space states without charge transfer
Vyurkov, V.; Filippov, S.; Gorelik, L.
2010-01-01
An implementation of a quantum computer based on space states in double quantum dots is discussed. There is no charge transfer in qubits during a calculation, therefore, uncontrolled entanglement between qubits due to long-range Coulomb interaction is suppressed. Encoding and processing of quantum information is merely performed on symmetric and antisymmetric states of the electron in double quantum dots. Other plausible sources of decoherence caused by interaction with phonons and gates could be substantially suppressed in the structure as well. We also demonstrate how all necessary quantum logic operations, initialization, writing, and read-out could be carried out in the computer.
Hadjisawas, Nicolas.
1982-01-01
After a critical study of the logical quantum mechanics formulations of Jauch and Piron, classical and quantum versions of statistical inference are studied. In order to do this, the significance of the Jaynes and Kulback principles (maximum likelihood, least squares principles) is revealed from the theorems established. In the quantum mechanics inference problem, a ''distance'' between states is defined. This concept is used to solve the quantum equivalent of the classical problem studied by Kulback. The ''projection postulate'' proposition is subsequently deduced [fr
Quantum Phase Transitions in Matrix Product States
Jing-Min, Zhu
2008-01-01
We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous
Quantum phase transitions in matrix product states
Zhu Jingmin
2008-01-01
We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous. (authors)
On the definition of entropy for quantum unstable states
Civitarese, Osvaldo; Gadella, Manuel
2015-01-01
The concept of entropy is central to the formulation of the quantum statistical mechanics, and it is linked to the definition of the density operator and the associated probabilities of occupation of quantum states. The extension of this scheme to accommodate for quantum decaying states is conceptually difficult, because of the nature of these states. Here we present a way to treat quantum unstable states in the context of statistical mechanics. We focuss on the definition of the entropy and avoid the use of complex temperatures
Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures
Hu Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.
2002-01-01
We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations
Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks
Vollmer, Christina E.
2014-01-01
The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With
Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks
Vollmer, Christina E.
2014-01-24
The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With
Creating cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states
Zhang, Wei-Wei; Gao, Fei; Goyal, Sandeep K; Sanders, Barry C; Simon, Christoph
2016-01-01
Cat states are coherent quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states and are useful for understanding the boundary between the classical and the quantum world. Due to their macroscopic nature, cat states are difficult to prepare in physical systems. We propose a method to create cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states of the walker. Since the quantum walks can be performed on any quantum system, our proposal enables a platform-independent realization of the cat states. We further show that the linear dispersion relation of the effective quantum walk Hamiltonian, which governs the dynamics of the delocalized states, is responsible for the formation of the cat states. We analyze the robustness of these states against environmental interactions and present methods to control and manipulate the cat states in the photonic implementation of quantum walks. (paper)
Multi-dimensional photonic states from a quantum dot
Lee, J. P.; Bennett, A. J.; Stevenson, R. M.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.
2018-04-01
Quantum states superposed across multiple particles or degrees of freedom offer an advantage in the development of quantum technologies. Creating these states deterministically and with high efficiency is an ongoing challenge. A promising approach is the repeated excitation of multi-level quantum emitters, which have been shown to naturally generate light with quantum statistics. Here we describe how to create one class of higher dimensional quantum state, a so called W-state, which is superposed across multiple time bins. We do this by repeated Raman scattering of photons from a charged quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. We show this method can be scaled to larger dimensions with no reduction in coherence or single-photon character. We explain how to extend this work to enable the deterministic creation of arbitrary time-bin encoded qudits.
State sum models for quantum gravity
Barrett, John W.
2000-01-01
This paper reviews the construction of quantum field theory on a 4-dimensional spacetime by combinatorial methods, and discusses the recent developments in the direction of a combinatorial construction of quantum gravity.
Error Free Quantum Reading by Quasi Bell State of Entangled Coherent States
Hirota, Osamu
2017-12-01
Nonclassical states of light field have been exploited to provide marvellous results in quantum information science. Usefulness of nonclassical states in quantum information science depends on whether a physical parameter as a signal is continuous or discrete. Here we present an investigation of the potential of quasi Bell states of entangled coherent states in quantum reading of the classical digital memory which was pioneered by Pirandola (Phys.Rev.Lett.,106,090504,2011). This is a typical example of discrimination for discrete quantum parameters. We show that the quasi Bell state gives the error free performance in the quantum reading that cannot be obtained by any classical state.
Hybrid cluster state proposal for a quantum game
Paternostro, M; Tame, M S; Kim, M S
2005-01-01
We propose an experimental implementation of a quantum game algorithm in a hybrid scheme combining the quantum circuit approach and the cluster state model. An economical cluster configuration is suggested to embody a quantum version of the Prisoners' Dilemma. Our proposal is shown to be within the experimental state of the art and can be realized with existing technology.The effects of relevant experimental imperfections are also carefully examined
Quantum key distribution using three basis states
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 5. Quantum key distribution using three ... This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum ...
Entropic Lower Bound for Distinguishability of Quantum States
Seungho Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For a system randomly prepared in a number of quantum states, we present a lower bound for the distinguishability of the quantum states, that is, the success probability of determining the states in the form of entropy. When the states are all pure, acquiring the entropic lower bound requires only the density operator and the number of the possible states. This entropic bound shows a relation between the von Neumann entropy and the distinguishability.
Symmetric-bounce quantum state of the universe
Page, Don N., E-mail: don@phys.ualberta.ca [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, 11322 – 89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada)
2009-09-01
A proposal is made for the quantum state of the universe that has an initial state that is macroscopically time symmetric about a homogeneous, isotropic bounce of extremal volume and that at that bounce is microscopically in the ground state for inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic perturbation modes. The coarse-grained entropy is minimum at the bounce and then grows during inflation as the modes become excited away from the bounce and interact (assuming the presence of an inflaton, and in the part of the quantum state in which the inflaton is initially large enough to drive inflation). The part of this pure quantum state that dominates for observations is well approximated by quantum processes occurring within a Lorentzian expanding macroscopic universe. Because this part of the quantum state has no negative Euclidean action, one can avoid the early-time Boltzmann brains and Boltzmann solar systems that appear to dominate observations in the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary wavefunction.
Symmetric-bounce quantum state of the universe
Page, Don N.
2009-01-01
A proposal is made for the quantum state of the universe that has an initial state that is macroscopically time symmetric about a homogeneous, isotropic bounce of extremal volume and that at that bounce is microscopically in the ground state for inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic perturbation modes. The coarse-grained entropy is minimum at the bounce and then grows during inflation as the modes become excited away from the bounce and interact (assuming the presence of an inflaton, and in the part of the quantum state in which the inflaton is initially large enough to drive inflation). The part of this pure quantum state that dominates for observations is well approximated by quantum processes occurring within a Lorentzian expanding macroscopic universe. Because this part of the quantum state has no negative Euclidean action, one can avoid the early-time Boltzmann brains and Boltzmann solar systems that appear to dominate observations in the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary wavefunction
Controlled quantum-state transfer in a spin chain
Gong, Jiangbin; Brumer, Paul
2007-01-01
Control of the transfer of quantum information encoded in quantum wave packets moving along a spin chain is demonstrated. Specifically, based on a relationship with control in a paradigm of quantum chaos, it is shown that wave packets with slow dispersion can automatically emerge from a class of initial superposition states involving only a few spins, and that arbitrary unspecified traveling wave packets can be nondestructively stopped and later relaunched with perfection. The results establish an interesting application of quantum chaos studies in quantum information science
Tensor network states in time-bin quantum optics
Lubasch, Michael; Valido, Antonio A.; Renema, Jelmer J.; Kolthammer, W. Steven; Jaksch, Dieter; Kim, M. S.; Walmsley, Ian; García-Patrón, Raúl
2018-06-01
The current shift in the quantum optics community towards experiments with many modes and photons necessitates new classical simulation techniques that efficiently encode many-body quantum correlations and go beyond the usual phase-space formulation. To address this pressing demand we formulate linear quantum optics in the language of tensor network states. We extensively analyze the quantum and classical correlations of time-bin interference in a single fiber loop. We then generalize our results to more complex time-bin quantum setups and identify different classes of architectures for high-complexity and low-overhead boson sampling experiments.
Quantum discord of Bell cat states under amplitude damping
Daoud, M; Laamara, R Ahl
2012-01-01
The evolution of pairwise quantum correlations of Bell cat states under amplitude damping is examined using the concept of quantum discord which goes beyond entanglement. A closed expression of the quantum discord is explicitly derived. We used the Koashi–Winter relation, a relation which facilitates the optimization process of the conditional entropy. We also discuss the temporal evolution of bipartite quantum correlations under a dephasing channel and compare the behaviors of quantum discord and entanglement whose properties are characterized through the concurrence. (paper)
Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory
Bussieres, Felix [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)
2014-07-01
Quantum teleportation is a cornerstone of quantum information science due to its essential role in several important tasks such as the long-distance transmission of quantum information using quantum repeaters. In this context, a challenge of paramount importance is the distribution of entanglement between remote nodes, and to use this entanglement as a resource for long-distance light-to-matter quantum teleportation. In this talk I will report on the demonstration of quantum teleportation of the polarization state of a telecom-wavelength photon onto the state of a solid-state quantum memory. Entanglement is established between a rare-earth-ion doped crystal storing a single photon that is polarization-entangled with a flying telecom-wavelength photon. The latter is jointly measured with another flying qubit carrying the polarization state to be teleported, which heralds the teleportation. The fidelity of the polarization state of the photon retrieved from the memory is shown to be greater than the maximum fidelity achievable without entanglement, even when the combined distances travelled by the two flying qubits is 25 km of standard optical fibre. This light-to-matter teleportation channel paves the way towards long-distance implementations of quantum networks with solid-state quantum memories.
Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chaojing; Zhang Quan
2011-01-01
It is established that a single quantum cryptography protocol usually cooperates with other cryptographic systems, such as an authentication system, in the real world. However, few protocols have been proposed on how to combine two or more quantum protocols. To fill this gap, we propose a composed quantum protocol, containing both quantum identity authentication and quantum key distribution, using squeezed states. Hence, not only the identity can be verified, but also a new private key can be generated by our new protocol. We also analyze the security under an optimal attack, and the efficiency, which is defined by the threshold of the tolerant error rate, using Gaussian error function. (general)
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states
Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao
2014-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.
Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states
Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Li Lvjun
2009-01-01
Recently Boyer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140501 (2007)] suggested the idea of semiquantum key distribution (SQKD) in which Bob is classical and they also proposed a semiquantum key distribution protocol (BKM2007). To discuss the security of the BKM2007 protocol, they proved that their protocol is completely robust. This means that nonzero information acquired by Eve on the information string implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. The BKM2007 protocol uses four quantum states to distribute a secret key. In this paper, we simplify their protocol by using less than four quantum states. In detail, we present five different SQKD protocols in which Alice sends three quantum states, two quantum states, and one quantum state, respectively. Also, we prove that all the five protocols are completely robust. In particular, we invent two completely robust SQKD protocols in which Alice sends only one quantum state. Alice uses a register in one SQKD protocol, but she does not use any register in the other. The information bit proportion of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state but uses a register is the double as that in the BKM2007 protocol. Furthermore, the information bit rate of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state and does not use any register is not lower than that of the BKM2007 protocol.
Stationary states of two-level open quantum systems
Gardas, Bartlomiej; Puchala, Zbigniew
2011-01-01
A problem of finding stationary states of open quantum systems is addressed. We focus our attention on a generic type of open system: a qubit coupled to its environment. We apply the theory of block operator matrices and find stationary states of two-level open quantum systems under certain conditions applied on both the qubit and the surrounding.
Teleportation of Quantum States through Mixed Entangled Pairs
ZHENG Shi-Biao
2006-01-01
@@ We describe a protocol for quantum state teleportation via mixed entangled pairs. With the help of an ancilla,near-perfect teleportation might be achieved. For pure entangled pairs, perfect teleportation might be achieved with a certain probability without using an ancilla. The protocol is generalized to teleportation of multiparticle states and quantum secret sharing.
Quantum Key Distribution Using Four-Qubit W State
Cai Haijing; Song Heshan
2006-01-01
A new theoretical quantum key distribution scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed, where four-qubit symmetric W state functions as quantum channel. It is shown that two legitimate users can secretly share a series of key bits by using Bell-state measurements and classical communication.
Topology in quantum states. PEPS formalism and beyond
Aguado, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik. Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1. D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cirac, J I [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik. Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1. D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vidal, G [School of Physical Sciences. University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072 (Australia)
2007-11-15
Topology has been proposed as a tool to protect quantum information encoding and processes. Work concerning the meaning of topology in quantum states as well as its characterisation in the projected entangled pair state (PEPS) formalism and related schemes is reviewed.
Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States
Andrey Gromov
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k^{6} order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.
Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States
Gromov, Andrey; Son, Dam Thanh
2017-10-01
We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP) mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k6 order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH) transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.
Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems
Banchi, L.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Cuccoli, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.
2010-01-01
The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.
Handel, P.H.
1998-01-01
The author's recent application of the new Quantum Information Theory Approach (QIT) to Infra Quantum Physics (IQP) explains for the first time the apparent lack of unitarity caused by the entropy increase in the Quantum 1/f Effect (Q1/fE). This allows for a better understanding of the quantum 1/f effect in this paper, showing no resultant entropy increase and therefore no violation of unitarity. This new interpretation involves the concept of von Neumann Quantum Entropy, including the new negative conditional entropy concept for quantum entangled states introduced by QIT. The Q1/fE was applied to many high-tech systems, in particular to ultra small electronic devices. The present paper explains how the additional entropy implied by the Q1/fE arises in spite of the entropy-conserving evolution of the system. On this basis, a general derivation of the conventional and coherent quantum 1/f effect is given. (author)
Study of a Quantum Dot in an Excited State
Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht
We have studied the first excited singlet state of a quantum dot via quantal density functional theory (QDFT). The quantum dot is represented by a 2D Hooke's atom in an external magnetostatic field. The QDFT mapping is from an excited singlet state of this interacting system to one of noninteracting fermions in a singlet ground state. The results of the study will be compared to (a) the corresponding mapping from a ground state of the quantum dot and (b) to the similar mapping from an excited singlet state of the 3D Hooke's atom.
Quantum Teamwork for Unconditional Multiparty Communication with Gaussian States
Zhang, Jing; Adesso, Gerardo; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2009-08-01
We demonstrate the capability of continuous variable Gaussian states to communicate multipartite quantum information. A quantum teamwork protocol is presented according to which an arbitrary possibly entangled multimode state can be faithfully teleported between two teams each comprising many cooperative users. We prove that N-mode Gaussian weighted graph states exist for arbitrary N that enable unconditional quantum teamwork implementations for any arrangement of the teams. These perfect continuous variable maximally multipartite entangled resources are typical among pure Gaussian states and are unaffected by the entanglement frustration occurring in multiqubit states.
Superposing pure quantum states with partial prior information
Dogra, Shruti; Thomas, George; Ghosh, Sibasish; Suter, Dieter
2018-05-01
The principle of superposition is an intriguing feature of quantum mechanics, which is regularly exploited in many different circumstances. A recent work [M. Oszmaniec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.110403] shows that the fundamentals of quantum mechanics restrict the process of superimposing two unknown pure states, even though it is possible to superimpose two quantum states with partial prior knowledge. The prior knowledge imposes geometrical constraints on the choice of input states. We discuss an experimentally feasible protocol to superimpose multiple pure states of a d -dimensional quantum system and carry out an explicit experimental realization for two single-qubit pure states with partial prior information on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor.
Generation of Exotic Quantum States of a Cold Atomic Ensemble
Christensen, Stefan Lund
Over the last decades quantum effects have become more and more controllable, leading to the implementations of various quantum information protocols. These protocols are all based on utilizing quantum correlation. In this thesis we consider how states of an atomic ensemble with such correlations...... can be created and characterized. First we consider a spin-squeezed state. This state is generated by performing quantum non-demolition measurements of the atomic population difference. We show a spectroscopically relevant noise reduction of -1.7dB, the ensemble is in a many-body entangled state...... — a nanofiber based light-atom interface. Using a dual-frequency probing method we measure and prepare an ensemble with a sub-Poissonian atom number distribution. This is a first step towards the implementation of more exotic quantum states....
Peřinová, Vlasta; Lukš, Antonín
2015-01-01
The SU(2) group is used in two different fields of quantum optics, the quantum polarization and quantum interferometry. Quantum degrees of polarization may be based on distances of a polarization state from the set of unpolarized states. The maximum polarization is achieved in the case where the state is pure and then the distribution of the photon-number sums is optimized. In quantum interferometry, the SU(2) intelligent states have also the property that the Fisher measure of information is equal to the inverse minimum detectable phase shift on the usual simplifying condition. Previously, the optimization of the Fisher information under a constraint was studied. Now, in the framework of constraint optimization, states similar to the SU(2) intelligent states are treated. (paper)
Ramírez-Porras, A.; García, O.; Vargas, C.; Corrales, A.; Solís, J.D.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models
Ramírez-Porras, A., E-mail: aramirez@fisica.ucr.ac.cr [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); García, O. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Vargas, C. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Corrales, A. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Solís, J.D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica)
2015-08-30
Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models.
Physics student ideas on quantum state and its formal representations
Zuccarini, G.
2014-01-01
Developing a quantum way of thinking is a core and challenging task for physics students. The concept of quantum state, whose physical meaning is connected to the formal structure of the theory, plays an important role in the construction of a quantum perspective and in student difficulties elicited by research. A questionnaire and interview protocol were devised to explore student understanding of the state concept in connection to the properties of its formal representations and to quantum behavior. Results of a calibration of research instruments performed on 6 physics students from different universities are here presented.
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Five-Qubit Entangled State
Lin Song; Liu Xiao-Fen; Gao Fei
2011-01-01
Recently, a genuine five-qubit entangled state has been achieved by Brown et al.[J. Phys. A 38 (2005) 1119]. Later it was indicated that this state can be used for quantum teleportation and quantum state sharing. Here we build a quantum secure direct communication protocol with this state, and prove that it is secure in ideal conditions. In the protocol, the sender performs unitary transformations to encode a secret message on his/her particles and sends them to the receiver. The receiver then performs projective determinate measurement to decode the secret message directly. Furthermore, this protocol utilizes superdense coding to achieve a high intrinsic efficiency and source capacity. (general)
Generating continuous variable optical quantum states and entanglement
Lam, P.K.; Bowen, W.P.; Schnabel, R.; Treps, N.; Buchler, B.C.; Bachor, H.-A.; Ralph, T.C.
2002-01-01
Full text: Quantum information research has recently been shown to have many applications in the field of communication and information processing. Quantum states and entanglement play a central role to almost all quantum information protocols, and form the basic building blocks for larger quantum information networks. We present an overview of the research activities at the quantum optics group at the ANU relating to this area. In particular, we demonstrate technology to suppress the noise on a coherent laser beam to below that of even vacuum. This quantum state of light is called 'squeezed light'. We show experimentally that by mixing two squeezed beams on a beam splitter, a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled beams can be created. This kind of entanglement exhibits below shot noise correlations between both the phase and amplitude quandratures of two beams. Our experimental results show conclusively that our entangled beams demonstrate the famous EPR paradox
Efficient quantum state transfer in an engineered chain of quantum bits
Sandberg, Martin; Knill, Emanuel; Kapit, Eliot; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P.
2016-03-01
We present a method of performing quantum state transfer in a chain of superconducting quantum bits. Our protocol is based on engineering the energy levels of the qubits in the chain and tuning them all simultaneously with an external flux bias. The system is designed to allow sequential adiabatic state transfers, resulting in on-demand quantum state transfer from one end of the chain to the other. Numerical simulations of the master equation using realistic parameters for capacitive nearest-neighbor coupling, energy relaxation, and dephasing show that fast, high-fidelity state transfer should be feasible using this method.
Preservation of quantum states via a super-Zeno effect on ensemble quantum computers
Ting-Ting, Ren; Jun, Luo; Xian-Ping, Sun; Ming-Sheng, Zhan
2009-01-01
Following a recent proposal by Dhar et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 100405), we demonstrate experimentally the preservation of quantum states in a two-qubit system based on a super-Zeno effect using liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Using inverting radiofrequency pulses and delicately selecting time intervals between two pulses, we suppress the effect of decoherence of quantum states. We observe that preservation of the quantum state |11) with the super-Zeno effect is three times more efficient than the ordinary one with the standard Zeno effect. (general)
Quantum states and their marginals. From multipartite entanglement to quantum error-correcting codes
Huber, Felix Michael
2017-01-01
At the heart of the curious phenomenon of quantum entanglement lies the relation between the whole and its parts. In my thesis, I explore different aspects of this theme in the multipartite setting by drawing connections to concepts from statistics, graph theory, and quantum error-correcting codes: first, I address the case when joint quantum states are determined by their few-body parts and by Jaynes' maximum entropy principle. This can be seen as an extension of the notion of entanglement, with less complex states already being determined by their few-body marginals. Second, I address the conditions for certain highly entangled multipartite states to exist. In particular, I present the solution of a long-standing open problem concerning the existence of an absolutely maximally entangled state on seven qubits. This sheds light on the algebraic properties of pure quantum states, and on the conditions that constrain the sharing of entanglement amongst multiple particles. Third, I investigate Ulam's graph reconstruction problems in the quantum setting, and obtain legitimacy conditions of a set of states to be the reductions of a joint graph state. Lastly, I apply and extend the weight enumerator machinery from quantum error correction to investigate the existence of codes and highly entangled states in higher dimensions. This clarifies the physical interpretation of the weight enumerators and of the quantum MacWilliams identity, leading to novel applications in multipartite entanglement.
Understanding squeezing of quantum states with the Wigner function
Royer, Antoine
1994-01-01
The Wigner function is argued to be the only natural phase space function evolving classically under quadratic Hamiltonians with time-dependent bilinear part. This is used to understand graphically how certain quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians induce squeezing of quantum states. The Wigner representation is also used to generalize Ehrenfest's theorem to the quantum uncertainties. This makes it possible to deduce features of the quantum evolution, such as squeezing, from the classical evolution, whatever the Hamiltonian.
Adiabatic rotation, quantum search, and preparation of superposition states
Siu, M. Stewart
2007-01-01
We introduce the idea of using adiabatic rotation to generate superpositions of a large class of quantum states. For quantum computing this is an interesting alternative to the well-studied 'straight line' adiabatic evolution. In ways that complement recent results, we show how to efficiently prepare three types of states: Kitaev's toric code state, the cluster state of the measurement-based computation model, and the history state used in the adiabatic simulation of a quantum circuit. We also show that the method, when adapted for quantum search, provides quadratic speedup as other optimal methods do with the advantages that the problem Hamiltonian is time independent and that the energy gap above the ground state is strictly nondecreasing with time. Likewise the method can be used for optimization as an alternative to the standard adiabatic algorithm
Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms
Hu, Jiawei, E-mail: hujiawei@nbu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Yu, Hongwei, E-mail: hwyu@hunnu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)
2015-12-15
We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.
Quantum probabilities of composite events in quantum measurements with multimode states
Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D
2013-01-01
The problem of defining quantum probabilities of composite events is considered. This problem is of great importance for the theory of quantum measurements and for quantum decision theory, which is a part of measurement theory. We show that the Lüders probability of consecutive measurements is a transition probability between two quantum states and that this probability cannot be treated as a quantum extension of the classical conditional probability. The Wigner distribution is shown to be a weighted transition probability that cannot be accepted as a quantum extension of the classical joint probability. We suggest the definition of quantum joint probabilities by introducing composite events in multichannel measurements. The notion of measurements under uncertainty is defined. We demonstrate that the necessary condition for mode interference is the entanglement of the composite prospect together with the entanglement of the composite statistical state. As an illustration, we consider an example of a quantum game. Special attention is paid to the application of the approach to systems with multimode states, such as atoms, molecules, quantum dots, or trapped Bose-condensed atoms with several coherent modes. (paper)
Realization of deterministic quantum teleportation with solid state qubits
Andreas Wallfraff
2014-01-01
Using modern micro and nano-fabrication techniques combined with superconducting materials we realize electronic circuits the dynamics of which are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Making use of the strong interaction of photons with superconducting quantum two-level systems realized in these circuits we investigate both fundamental quantum effects of light and applications in quantum information processing. In this talk I will discuss the deterministic teleportation of a quantum state in a macroscopic quantum system. Teleportation may be used for distributing entanglement between distant qubits in a quantum network and for realizing universal and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Previously, we have demonstrated the implementation of a teleportation protocol, up to the single-shot measurement step, with three superconducting qubits coupled to a single microwave resonator. Using full quantum state tomography and calculating the projection of the measured density matrix onto the basis of two qubits has allowed us to reconstruct the teleported state with an average output state fidelity of 86%. Now we have realized a new device in which four qubits are coupled pair-wise to three resonators. Making use of parametric amplifiers coupled to the output of two of the resonators we are able to perform high-fidelity single-shot read-out. This has allowed us to demonstrate teleportation by individually post-selecting on any Bell-state and by deterministically distinguishing between all four Bell states measured by the sender. In addition, we have recently implemented fast feed-forward to complete the teleportation process. In all instances, we demonstrate that the fidelity of the teleported states are above the threshold imposed by classical physics. The presented experiments are expected to contribute towards realizing quantum communication with microwave photons in the foreseeable future. (author)
Geometric picture of quantum discord for two-qubit quantum states
Shi Mingjun; Jiang Fengjian; Sun Chunxiao; Du Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
Among various definitions of quantum correlations, quantum discord has attracted considerable attention. To find an analytical expression for quantum discord is an intractable task. Exact results are known only for very special states, namely two-qubit X-shaped states. We present in this paper a geometric viewpoint, from which two-qubit quantum discord can be described clearly. The known results on X state discord are restated in the directly perceivable geometric language. As a consequence, the dynamics of classical correlations and quantum discord for an X state in the presence of decoherence is endowed with geometric interpretation. More importantly, we extend the geometric method to the case of more general states, for which numerical as well as analytical results on quantum discord have not yet been obtained. Based on the support of numerical computations, some conjectures are proposed to help us establish the geometric picture. We find that the geometric picture for these states has an intimate relationship with that for X states. Thereby, in some cases, analytical expressions for classical correlations and quantum discord can be obtained.
Blind Quantum Signature with Controlled Four-Particle Cluster States
Li, Wei; Shi, Jinjing; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying
2017-08-01
A novel blind quantum signature scheme based on cluster states is introduced. Cluster states are a type of multi-qubit entangled states and it is more immune to decoherence than other entangled states. The controlled four-particle cluster states are created by acting controlled-Z gate on particles of four-particle cluster states. The presented scheme utilizes the above entangled states and simplifies the measurement basis to generate and verify the signature. Security analysis demonstrates that the scheme is unconditional secure. It can be employed to E-commerce systems in quantum scenario.
Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states
Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael
2012-01-01
Quantum key distribution enables two remote parties to grow a shared key, which they can use for unconditionally secure communication over a certain distance. The maximal distance depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel. Several quantum key distribution schemes...... based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...... entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising...
Quantum-dot cluster-state computing with encoded qubits
Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Levy, Jeremy
2005-01-01
A class of architectures is advanced for cluster-state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors and present a means of error protection
Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control.
McDonald, M; McGuyer, B H; Apfelbeck, F; Lee, C-H; Majewska, I; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T
2016-07-07
Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold (88)Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.
The Efficiency of Quantum Identity Testing of Multiple States
Kada, Masaru; Nishimura, Harumichi; Yamakami, Tomoyuki
2008-01-01
We examine two quantum operations, the Permutation Test and the Circle Test, which test the identity of n quantum states. These operations naturally extend the well-studied Swap Test on two quantum states. We first show the optimality of the Permutation Test for any input size n as well as the optimality of the Circle Test for three input states. In particular, when n=3, we present a semi-classical protocol, incorporated with the Swap Test, which approximates the Circle Test efficiently. Furt...
Helical quantum states in HgTe quantum dots with inverted band structures.
Chang, Kai; Lou, Wen-Kai
2011-05-20
We investigate theoretically the electron states in HgTe quantum dots (QDs) with inverted band structures. In sharp contrast to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, the quantum states in the gap of the HgTe QD are fully spin-polarized and show ringlike density distributions near the boundary of the QD and spin-angular momentum locking. The persistent charge currents and magnetic moments, i.e., the Aharonov-Bohm effect, can be observed in such a QD structure. This feature offers us a practical way to detect these exotic ringlike edge states by using the SQUID technique.
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi
2015-01-01
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels
A secure quantum group signature scheme based on Bell states
Zhang Kejia; Song Tingting; Zuo Huijuan; Zhang Weiwei
2013-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum group signature with Bell states, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. Compared with the recent quantum group signature protocols, our scheme is focused on the most general situation in practice, i.e. only the arbitrator is trusted and no intermediate information needs to be stored in the signing phase to ensure the security. Furthermore, our scheme has achieved all the characteristics of group signature—anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability, by using some current developed quantum and classical technologies. Finally, a feasible security analysis model for quantum group signature is presented. (paper)
Two-state vector formalism and quantum interference
Hashmi, F A; Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M Suhail
2016-01-01
We show that two-state vector formalism (TSVF), applied to quantum systems that make use of delicate interference effects, can lead to paradoxes. We consider a few schemes of nested Mach–Zehnder interferometers that make use of destructive interference. A particular interpretation of TSVF applied to these schemes makes predictions that are contradictory to quantum theory and can not always be verified. Our results suggest that TSVF might not be a suitable tool to describe quantum systems that make use of delicate quantum interference effects. (paper)
Zounia, M.; Shamirzaie, M.; Ashouri, A.
2017-09-01
In this paper quantum teleportation of an unknown quantum state via noisy maximally bipartite (Bell) and maximally tripartite (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)) entangled states are investigated. We suppose that one of the observers who would receive the sent state accelerates uniformly with respect to the sender. The interactions of the quantum system with its environment during the teleportation process impose noises. These (unital and nonunital) noises are: phase damping, phase flip, amplitude damping and bit flip. In expressing the modes of the Dirac field used as qubits, in the accelerating frame, the so-called single mode approximation is not imposed. We calculate the fidelities of teleportation, and discuss their behaviors using suitable plots. The effects of noise, acceleration and going beyond the single mode approximation are discussed. Although the Bell states bring higher fidelities than GHZ states, the global behaviors of the two quantum systems with respect to some noise types, and therefore their fidelities, are different.
Magneto-conductance fingerprints of purely quantum states in the open quantum dot limit
Mendoza, Michel; Ujevic, Sebastian
2012-06-01
We present quantum magneto-conductance simulations, at the quantum low energy condition, to study the open quantum dot limit. The longitudinal conductance G(E,B) of spinless and non-interacting electrons is mapped as a function of the magnetic field B and the energy E of the electrons. The quantum dot linked to the semi-infinite leads is tuned by quantum point contacts of variable width w. We analyze the transition from a quantum wire to an open quantum dot and then to an effective closed system. The transition, as a function of w, occurs in the following sequence: evolution of quasi-Landau levels to Fano resonances and quasi-bound states between the quasi-Landau levels, followed by the formation of crossings that evolve to anti-crossings inside the quasi-Landau level region. After that, Fano resonances are created between the quasi-Landau states with the final generation of resonant tunneling peaks. By comparing the G(E,B) maps, we identify the closed and open-like limits of the system as a function of the applied magnetic field. These results were used to build quantum openness diagrams G(w,B). Also, these maps allow us to determine the w-limit value from which we can qualitatively relate the closed system properties to the open one. The above analysis can be used to identify single spinless particle effects in experimental measurements of the open quantum dot limit.
Magneto-conductance fingerprints of purely quantum states in the open quantum dot limit
Mendoza, Michel; Ujevic, Sebastian
2012-01-01
We present quantum magneto-conductance simulations, at the quantum low energy condition, to study the open quantum dot limit. The longitudinal conductance G(E,B) of spinless and non-interacting electrons is mapped as a function of the magnetic field B and the energy E of the electrons. The quantum dot linked to the semi-infinite leads is tuned by quantum point contacts of variable width w. We analyze the transition from a quantum wire to an open quantum dot and then to an effective closed system. The transition, as a function of w, occurs in the following sequence: evolution of quasi-Landau levels to Fano resonances and quasi-bound states between the quasi-Landau levels, followed by the formation of crossings that evolve to anti-crossings inside the quasi-Landau level region. After that, Fano resonances are created between the quasi-Landau states with the final generation of resonant tunneling peaks. By comparing the G(E,B) maps, we identify the closed and open-like limits of the system as a function of the applied magnetic field. These results were used to build quantum openness diagrams G(w,B). Also, these maps allow us to determine the w-limit value from which we can qualitatively relate the closed system properties to the open one. The above analysis can be used to identify single spinless particle effects in experimental measurements of the open quantum dot limit. (paper)
Induced bipartite entanglement from three qubit states and quantum teleportation
Park, Dae-Kil; Son, Jin-Woo; Cha, Seong-Keuck [Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea, Republic of)
2010-06-15
Only Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states are well known to have genuine tripartite entanglement in all three qubit states. The entanglement of quantum state is also well known to play an important role in various quantum information processes. Then, the following question naturally arises: which one is better between the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and the W states in real quantum information processing? We try to give an answer to this question from two aspects. First, we compute the induced bipartite entanglement for a mixture consisting of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states. If the entanglement is the only physical resource for information processing, the induced bipartite entanglement suggests that Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states are equally good. Second, we choose the bipartite teleportation scheme as an example of quantum information processing using the mixture as a quantum channel and compute the average fidelities. Our calculation shows that the W state is slightly more robust than the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state when a small perturbation disturbs the teleportation process. This slight discrepancy seems to imply that entanglement is not the only resource for quantum information processing.
Induced bipartite entanglement from three qubit states and quantum teleportation
Park, Dae-Kil; Son, Jin-Woo; Cha, Seong-Keuck
2010-01-01
Only Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states are well known to have genuine tripartite entanglement in all three qubit states. The entanglement of quantum state is also well known to play an important role in various quantum information processes. Then, the following question naturally arises: which one is better between the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and the W states in real quantum information processing? We try to give an answer to this question from two aspects. First, we compute the induced bipartite entanglement for a mixture consisting of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states. If the entanglement is the only physical resource for information processing, the induced bipartite entanglement suggests that Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states are equally good. Second, we choose the bipartite teleportation scheme as an example of quantum information processing using the mixture as a quantum channel and compute the average fidelities. Our calculation shows that the W state is slightly more robust than the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state when a small perturbation disturbs the teleportation process. This slight discrepancy seems to imply that entanglement is not the only resource for quantum information processing.
Optimized Binomial Quantum States of Complex Oscillators with Real Spectrum
Zelaya, K D; Rosas-Ortiz, O
2016-01-01
Classical and nonclassical states of quantum complex oscillators with real spectrum are presented. Such states are bi-orthonormal superpositions of n +1 energy eigenvectors of the system with binomial-like coefficients. For large values of n these optimized binomial states behave as photon added coherent states when the imaginary part of the potential is cancelled. (paper)
Khan, Salahuddin; Jayabalan, J., E-mail: jjaya@rrcat.gov.in; Chari, Rama; Pal, Suparna [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Oak, S. M. [Semiconductor Physics and Devices Lab., Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)
2014-08-18
We report tunneling assisted beating of carriers in a near-surface single GaAsP/AlGaAs quantum well using transient reflectivity measurement. The observed damped oscillating signal has a period of 120 ± 6 fs which corresponds to the energy difference between lh1 and hh2 hole states in the quantum well. Comparing the transient reflectivity signal at different photon energies and with a buried quantum well sample, we show that the beating is caused by the coherent coupling between surface state and the hole states (lh1 and hh2) in the near-surface quantum well. The dependence of decay of coherence of these tunneling carriers on the excitation fluence is also reported. This observation on the coherent tunneling of carrier is important for future quantum device applications.
Khan, Salahuddin; Jayabalan, J.; Chari, Rama; Pal, Suparna; Porwal, Sanjay; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Oak, S. M.
2014-01-01
We report tunneling assisted beating of carriers in a near-surface single GaAsP/AlGaAs quantum well using transient reflectivity measurement. The observed damped oscillating signal has a period of 120 ± 6 fs which corresponds to the energy difference between lh1 and hh2 hole states in the quantum well. Comparing the transient reflectivity signal at different photon energies and with a buried quantum well sample, we show that the beating is caused by the coherent coupling between surface state and the hole states (lh1 and hh2) in the near-surface quantum well. The dependence of decay of coherence of these tunneling carriers on the excitation fluence is also reported. This observation on the coherent tunneling of carrier is important for future quantum device applications.
Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states
Etcheverry, S.; Cañas, G.; Gómez, E. S.; Nogueira, W. A. T.; Saavedra, C.; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.
2013-01-01
The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD. PMID:23897033
Mixed quantum states in higher categories
Chris Heunen
2014-12-01
Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.
Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions
Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler
2014-01-01
The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)
About the structure of quantum intermediate state of superconductors
Ledenev, O.P.
2008-01-01
The calculation of spatial structure of a quantum intermediate state in Type I superconductors is completed. Theoretical model of thermodynamics of considered state was proposed by Andreev. It is shown, that in a quantum case, the period of structure appears significantly smaller and has different dependence on both the magnetic field and temperature than in the classical intermediate Landau state. The decrease of thickness of normal layers results in increase of characteristic distance between the quantum Andreev levels of electronic excitations, and the transition to the quantum intermediate from classical state is realized at higher temperatures ∼1 K, than it was supposed in previous works. The comparison of calculation data with experimental results, for example using the sample of mono-crystal gallium, is conducted
Partial separability and entanglement criteria for multiqubit quantum states
Seevinck, M.P.; Uffink, J.B.M.
2008-01-01
We explore the subtle relationships between partial separability and entanglement of subsystems in multiqubit quantum states and give experimentally accessible conditions that distinguish between various classes and levels of partial separability in a hierarchical order. These conditions take the
Discrete Wigner function and quantum-state tomography
Leonhardt, Ulf
1996-05-01
The theory of discrete Wigner functions and of discrete quantum-state tomography [U. Leonhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4101 (1995)] is studied in more detail guided by the picture of precession tomography. Odd- and even-dimensional systems (angular momenta and spins, bosons, and fermions) are considered separately. Relations between simple number theory and the quantum mechanics of finite-dimensional systems are pointed out. In particular, the multicomplementarity of the precession states distinguishes prime dimensions from composite ones.
Entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states
Cai Xin-Hua; Guo Jie-Rong; Nie Jian-Jun; Jia Jin-Ping
2006-01-01
The proposals on entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states are presented.In these proposals,the entanglement between two coherent states,|α〉and |-α〉,with the same amplitude but a phase difference of π is utilized as a quantum channel.The processes of the entanglement diversion and the teleportation are achieved by using the 5050 symmetric beam splitters,the phase shifters and the photodetectors with the help of classical information.
Weaving and neural complexity in symmetric quantum states
Susa, Cristian E.; Girolami, Davide
2018-04-01
We study the behaviour of two different measures of the complexity of multipartite correlation patterns, weaving and neural complexity, for symmetric quantum states. Weaving is the weighted sum of genuine multipartite correlations of any order, where the weights are proportional to the correlation order. The neural complexity, originally introduced to characterize correlation patterns in classical neural networks, is here extended to the quantum scenario. We derive closed formulas of the two quantities for GHZ states mixed with white noise.
Control of trapped-ion quantum states with optical pulses
Rangan, C.; Monroe, C.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Bloch, A.M.
2004-01-01
We present new results on the quantum control of systems with infinitely large Hilbert spaces. A control-theoretic analysis of the control of trapped-ion quantum states via optical pulses is performed. We demonstrate how resonant bichromatic fields can be applied in two contrasting ways--one that makes the system completely uncontrollable and the other that makes the system controllable. In some interesting cases, the Hilbert space of the qubit-harmonic oscillator can be made finite, and the Schroedinger equation controllable via bichromatic resonant pulses. Extending this analysis to the quantum states of two ions, a new scheme for producing entangled qubits is discovered
Laforest, Martin
single and multi qubit systems. Even though liquid state NMR is argued to be unsuitable for scalable quantum information processing, it remains the best test-bed system to experimentally implement, verify and develop protocols aimed at increasing the control over general quantum information processors. For this reason, all the protocols described in this thesis have been implemented in liquid state NMR, which then led to further development of control and analysis techniques.
Measuring the effective phonon density of states of a quantum dot in cavity quantum electrodynamics
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Kreiner-Møller, Asger
2013-01-01
We employ detuning-dependent decay-rate measurements of a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity to study the influence of phonon dephasing in a solid-state quantum-electrodynamics experiment. The experimental data agree with a microscopic non-Markovian model accounting for dephasing from...... longitudinal acoustic phonons, and the analysis explains the difference between nonresonant cavity feeding in different nanocavities. From the comparison between experiment and theory we extract the effective phonon density of states experienced by the quantum dot in the nanocavity. This quantity determines...
Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states
Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.
2010-01-01
Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.
Fractional quantum Hall states of atoms in optical lattices
Soerensen, Anders S.; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2005-01-01
We describe a method to create fractional quantum Hall states of atoms confined in optical lattices. We show that the dynamics of the atoms in the lattice is analogous to the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field if an oscillating quadrupole potential is applied together with a periodic modulation of the tunneling between lattice sites. In a suitable parameter regime the ground state in the lattice is of the fractional quantum Hall type, and we show how these states can be reached by melting a Mott-insulator state in a superlattice potential. Finally, we discuss techniques to observe these strongly correlated states
Experimental verification of quantum discord in continuous-variable states
Hosseini, S; Haw, J Y; Assad, S M; Chrzanowski, H M; Janousek, J; Symul, T; Lam, P K; Rahimi-Keshari, S; Ralph, T C
2014-01-01
We introduce a simple and efficient technique to verify quantum discord in unknown Gaussian states and a certain class of non-Gaussian states. We show that any separation in the peaks of the marginal distributions of one subsystem conditioned on two different outcomes of homodyne measurements performed on the other subsystem indicates correlation between the corresponding quadratures, and hence nonzero discord. We also apply this method to non-Gaussian states that are prepared by overlapping a statistical mixture of coherent and vacuum states on a beam splitter. We experimentally demonstrate this technique by verifying nonzero quantum discord in a bipartite Gaussian and certain non-Gaussian states. (paper)
Gaussian density matrices: Quantum analogs of classical states
Mann, A.; Revzen, M.
1993-01-01
We study quantum analogs of clasical situations, i.e. quantum states possessing some specific classical attribute(s). These states seem quite generally, to have the form of gaussian density matrices. Such states can always be parametrized as thermal squeezed states (TSS). We consider the following specific cases: (a) Two beams that are built from initial beams which passed through a beam splitter cannot, classically, be distinguished from (appropriately prepared) two independent beams that did not go through a splitter. The only quantum states possessing this classical attribute are TSS. (b) The classical Cramer's theorem was shown to have a quantum version (Hegerfeldt). Again, the states here are Gaussian density matrices. (c) The special case in the study of the quantum version of Cramer's theorem, viz. when the state obtained after partial tracing is a pure state, leads to the conclusion that all states involved are zero temperature limit TSS. The classical analog here are gaussians of zero width, i.e. all distributions are δ functions in phase space. (orig.)
Finite Correlation Length Implies Efficient Preparation of Quantum Thermal States
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Kastoryano, Michael J.
2018-05-01
Preparing quantum thermal states on a quantum computer is in general a difficult task. We provide a procedure to prepare a thermal state on a quantum computer with a logarithmic depth circuit of local quantum channels assuming that the thermal state correlations satisfy the following two properties: (i) the correlations between two regions are exponentially decaying in the distance between the regions, and (ii) the thermal state is an approximate Markov state for shielded regions. We require both properties to hold for the thermal state of the Hamiltonian on any induced subgraph of the original lattice. Assumption (ii) is satisfied for all commuting Gibbs states, while assumption (i) is satisfied for every model above a critical temperature. Both assumptions are satisfied in one spatial dimension. Moreover, both assumptions are expected to hold above the thermal phase transition for models without any topological order at finite temperature. As a building block, we show that exponential decay of correlation (for thermal states of Hamiltonians on all induced subgraphs) is sufficient to efficiently estimate the expectation value of a local observable. Our proof uses quantum belief propagation, a recent strengthening of strong sub-additivity, and naturally breaks down for states with topological order.
A general framework for unambiguous detection of quantum states
Eldar, Y.
2004-01-01
Full Text:The problem of detecting information stored in the state of a quantum system is a fundamental problem in quantum information theory. Several approaches have emerged to distinguishing between a collection of non-orthogonal quantum states. We consider the problem of unambiguous detection where we seek a measurement that with a certain probability returns an inconclusive result, but such that if the measurement returns an answer, then the answer is correct with probability 1. We begin by considering unambiguous discrimination between a set of linearly independent pure quantum states. We show that the design of the optimal measurement that minimizes the probability of an inconclusive result can be formulated as a semidefinite programming problem. Based on this formulation, we develop a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for an optimal quantum measurement. We show that the optimal measurement can be computed very efficiently in polynomial time by exploiting the many well-known algorithms for solving semidefinite programs, which are guaranteed to converge to the global optimum. Using the general conditions for optimality, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions so that the measurement that results in an equal probability of an inconclusive result for each one of the quantum states is optimal. We refer to this measurement as the equal-probability measurement (EPM). We then show that for any state set, the prior probabilities of the states can be chosen such that the EPM is optimal. Finally, we consider state sets with strong symmetry properties and equal prior probabilities for which the EPM is optimal. We next develop a general framework for unambiguous state discrimination between a collection of mixed quantum states, which can be applied to any number of states with arbitrary prior probabilities. In particular, we derive a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for an optimal measurement that minimizes the probability of an inconclusive
Toward a Definition of Complexity for Quantum Field Theory States.
Chapman, Shira; Heller, Michal P; Marrochio, Hugo; Pastawski, Fernando
2018-03-23
We investigate notions of complexity of states in continuous many-body quantum systems. We focus on Gaussian states which include ground states of free quantum field theories and their approximations encountered in the context of the continuous version of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. Our proposal for quantifying state complexity is based on the Fubini-Study metric. It leads to counting the number of applications of each gate (infinitesimal generator) in the transformation, subject to a state-dependent metric. We minimize the defined complexity with respect to momentum-preserving quadratic generators which form su(1,1) algebras. On the manifold of Gaussian states generated by these operations, the Fubini-Study metric factorizes into hyperbolic planes with minimal complexity circuits reducing to known geodesics. Despite working with quantum field theories far outside the regime where Einstein gravity duals exist, we find striking similarities between our results and those of holographic complexity proposals.
Toward a Definition of Complexity for Quantum Field Theory States
Chapman, Shira; Heller, Michal P.; Marrochio, Hugo; Pastawski, Fernando
2018-03-01
We investigate notions of complexity of states in continuous many-body quantum systems. We focus on Gaussian states which include ground states of free quantum field theories and their approximations encountered in the context of the continuous version of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. Our proposal for quantifying state complexity is based on the Fubini-Study metric. It leads to counting the number of applications of each gate (infinitesimal generator) in the transformation, subject to a state-dependent metric. We minimize the defined complexity with respect to momentum-preserving quadratic generators which form s u (1 ,1 ) algebras. On the manifold of Gaussian states generated by these operations, the Fubini-Study metric factorizes into hyperbolic planes with minimal complexity circuits reducing to known geodesics. Despite working with quantum field theories far outside the regime where Einstein gravity duals exist, we find striking similarities between our results and those of holographic complexity proposals.
Probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states
Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Wen; Liao, Yanlin; Zhang, Ziyun
2018-02-01
It is well known that a quantum state, secretly chosen from a certain set, can be probabilistically cloned with positive cloning efficiencies if and only if all the states in the set are linearly independent. In this paper, we focus on probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states. We show that a linearly-independent subset of linearly-dependent quantum states {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩} can be probabilistically cloned if and only if any state in the subset cannot be expressed as a linear superposition of the other states in the set {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩}. The optimal cloning efficiencies are also investigated.
Direct measurement of nonlinear properties of bipartite quantum states.
Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Castagnoli, Giuseppe; Ekert, Artur; Horodecki, Paweł; Alves, Carolina Moura; Sergienko, Alexander Vladimir
2005-12-09
Nonlinear properties of quantum states, such as entropy or entanglement, quantify important physical resources and are frequently used in quantum-information science. They are usually calculated from a full description of a quantum state, even though they depend only on a small number of parameters that specify the state. Here we extract a nonlocal and a nonlinear quantity, namely, the Renyi entropy, from local measurements on two pairs of polarization-entangled photons. We also introduce a "phase marking" technique which allows the selection of uncorrupted outcomes even with nondeterministic sources of entangled photons. We use our experimental data to demonstrate the violation of entropic inequalities. They are examples of nonlinear entanglement witnesses and their power exceeds all linear tests for quantum entanglement based on all possible Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities.
Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 State
El Allati, A.; Hassouni, Y.; Medeni, M.B. Ould
2012-01-01
A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ 4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information. Moreover, the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information. Then, the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ 4 states between the legitimate users. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message. Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies, capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good. The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed. (general)
The structure of states and maps in quantum theory
In classical theory, the statistical state space of a two-state system is a closed line segment ... state space of of a d-level quantum system has such a simple geometry as that of a sphere. ..... positive map cannot represent any physical process.
Minimized state complexity of quantum-encoded cryptic processes
Riechers, Paul M.; Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.
2016-05-01
The predictive information required for proper trajectory sampling of a stochastic process can be more efficiently transmitted via a quantum channel than a classical one. This recent discovery allows quantum information processing to drastically reduce the memory necessary to simulate complex classical stochastic processes. It also points to a new perspective on the intrinsic complexity that nature must employ in generating the processes we observe. The quantum advantage increases with codeword length: the length of process sequences used in constructing the quantum communication scheme. In analogy with the classical complexity measure, statistical complexity, we use this reduced communication cost as an entropic measure of state complexity in the quantum representation. Previously difficult to compute, the quantum advantage is expressed here in closed form using spectral decomposition. This allows for efficient numerical computation of the quantum-reduced state complexity at all encoding lengths, including infinite. Additionally, it makes clear how finite-codeword reduction in state complexity is controlled by the classical process's cryptic order, and it allows asymptotic analysis of infinite-cryptic-order processes.
Quantum State Transfer from a Single Photon to a Distant Quantum-Dot Electron Spin
He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming; Wei, Yu-Jia; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Kai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven
2017-08-01
Quantum state transfer from flying photons to stationary matter qubits is an important element in the realization of quantum networks. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots provide a promising solid-state platform hosting both single photon and spin, with an inherent light-matter interface. Here, we develop a method to coherently and actively control the single-photon frequency bins in superposition using electro-optic modulators, and measure the spin-photon entanglement with a fidelity of 0.796 ±0.020 . Further, by Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state projection on the frequency, path, and polarization degrees of freedom of a single photon, we demonstrate quantum state transfer from a single photon to a single electron spin confined in an InGaAs quantum dot, separated by 5 m. The quantum state mapping from the photon's polarization to the electron's spin is demonstrated along three different axes on the Bloch sphere, with an average fidelity of 78.5%.
Active control of a plasmonic metamaterial for quantum state engineering
Uriri, S. A.; Tashima, T.; Zhang, X.; Asano, M.; Bechu, M.; Güney, D. Ö.; Yamamoto, T.; Özdemir, Ş. K.; Wegener, M.; Tame, M. S.
2018-05-01
We experimentally demonstrate the active control of a plasmonic metamaterial operating in the quantum regime. A two-dimensional metamaterial consisting of unit cells made from gold nanorods is investigated. Using an external laser, we control the temperature of the metamaterial and carry out quantum process tomography on single-photon polarization-encoded qubits sent through, characterizing the metamaterial as a variable quantum channel. The overall polarization response can be tuned by up to 33% for particular nanorod dimensions. To explain the results, we develop a theoretical model and find that the experimental results match the predicted behavior well. This work goes beyond the use of simple passive quantum plasmonic systems and shows that external control of plasmonic elements enables a flexible device that can be used for quantum state engineering.
Engineering squeezed states of microwave radiation with circuit quantum electrodynamics
Li Pengbo; Li Fuli
2011-01-01
We introduce a squeezed state source for microwave radiation with tunable parameters in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We show that when a superconducting artificial multilevel atom interacting with a transmission line resonator is suitably driven by external classical fields, two-mode squeezed states of the cavity modes can be engineered in a controllable fashion from the vacuum state via adiabatic following of the ground state of the system. This scheme appears to be robust against decoherence and is realizable with present techniques in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Measurement and quasi-states in quantum mechanics
Harper, C.D.
1987-01-01
Part of the task of quantum logic is to account for the collapse of the state vector during measurement. A difficulty in this is that it is not obvious how to describe measurement quantum mechanically as the interaction of two or more systems; interacting quantum-mechanical systems do not possess states, so their states cannot collapse. This dissertation shows that component systems of a composite system possess families of state-like vectors. These are the quasi-projections of the state vector of the composite system, each associated with a family of commutable observables. Often these quasi-projections cluster so closely around a quasi-state that they are practically indistinguishable from it. A description of measurement based on quasi-projections reveals the apparent collapse of the state vector during measurement to be illusory. The continuous evolution of the state of the composite system give rise to abrupt changes in the quasi-projections which make it appear that the state has changed. The quasi-projections cease to cluster near one quasi-state, are momentarily scattered, and then cluster again near another quasi-state. The concept of quasi-projection is also used to generalize the quantum logic of Birkhoff and von Neumann in such a fashion that a proposition can always be assigned a truth value
Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions
Moon, Christopher
2010-04-28
The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.
Deterministic quantum state transfer and remote entanglement using microwave photons.
Kurpiers, P; Magnard, P; Walter, T; Royer, B; Pechal, M; Heinsoo, J; Salathé, Y; Akin, A; Storz, S; Besse, J-C; Gasparinetti, S; Blais, A; Wallraff, A
2018-06-01
Sharing information coherently between nodes of a quantum network is fundamental to distributed quantum information processing. In this scheme, the computation is divided into subroutines and performed on several smaller quantum registers that are connected by classical and quantum channels 1 . A direct quantum channel, which connects nodes deterministically rather than probabilistically, achieves larger entanglement rates between nodes and is advantageous for distributed fault-tolerant quantum computation 2 . Here we implement deterministic state-transfer and entanglement protocols between two superconducting qubits fabricated on separate chips. Superconducting circuits 3 constitute a universal quantum node 4 that is capable of sending, receiving, storing and processing quantum information 5-8 . Our implementation is based on an all-microwave cavity-assisted Raman process 9 , which entangles or transfers the qubit state of a transmon-type artificial atom 10 with a time-symmetric itinerant single photon. We transfer qubit states by absorbing these itinerant photons at the receiving node, with a probability of 98.1 ± 0.1 per cent, achieving a transfer-process fidelity of 80.02 ± 0.07 per cent for a protocol duration of only 180 nanoseconds. We also prepare remote entanglement on demand with a fidelity as high as 78.9 ± 0.1 per cent at a rate of 50 kilohertz. Our results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on a master-equation description of the system. This deterministic protocol has the potential to be used for quantum computing distributed across different nodes of a cryogenic network.
Security analysis of the decoy method with the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths
Hayashi, Masahito; Nakayama, Ryota
2014-01-01
This paper provides a formula for the sacrifice bit-length for privacy amplification with the Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol for finite key lengths, when we employ the decoy method. Using the formula, we can guarantee the security parameter for a realizable quantum key distribution system. The key generation rates with finite key lengths are numerically evaluated. The proposed method improves the existing key generation rate even in the asymptotic setting. (paper)
Knot theory and a physical state of quantum gravity
Liko, Tomas; Kauffman, Louis H
2006-01-01
We discuss the theory of knots, and describe how knot invariants arise naturally in gravitational physics. The focus of this review is to delineate the relationship between knot theory and the loop representation of non-perturbative canonical quantum general relativity (loop quantum gravity). This leads naturally to a discussion of the Kodama wavefunction, a state which is conjectured to be the ground state of the gravitational field with positive cosmological constant. This review can serve as a self-contained introduction to loop quantum gravity and related areas. Our intent is to make the paper accessible to a wider audience that may include topologists, knot theorists, and other persons innocent of the physical background to this approach to quantum gravity. (topical review)
Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.
Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent
2017-12-01
We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.
Wigner function and the probability representation of quantum states
Man’ko Margarita A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The relation of theWigner function with the fair probability distribution called tomographic distribution or quantum tomogram associated with the quantum state is reviewed. The connection of the tomographic picture of quantum mechanics with the integral Radon transform of the Wigner quasidistribution is discussed. The Wigner–Moyal equation for the Wigner function is presented in the form of kinetic equation for the tomographic probability distribution both in quantum mechanics and in the classical limit of the Liouville equation. The calculation of moments of physical observables in terms of integrals with the state tomographic probability distributions is constructed having a standard form of averaging in the probability theory. New uncertainty relations for the position and momentum are written in terms of optical tomograms suitable for directexperimental check. Some recent experiments on checking the uncertainty relations including the entropic uncertainty relations are discussed.
New method for control over exciton states in quantum wells
Maslov, A Yu; Proshina, O V
2010-01-01
The theoretical study of the exciton states in the quantum well is performed with regard to the distinctions of the dielectric properties of quantum well and barrier materials. The strong exciton-phonon interaction is shown to be possible in materials with high ionicity. This leads to the essential modification of the exciton states. The relationship between the exciton binding energy, along with oscillator strength and the barrier material dielectric properties is found. This suggests the feasibility of the exciton spectrum parameter control by the choice of the barrier material. It is shown that such exciton spectrum engineering also is possible in the quantum wells based on the materials with low ionicity. The reason is the dielectric confinement effect in the quantum wells.
Enhanced arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states
Wang Chao; Liu Jian-Wei; Shang Tao
2014-01-01
We investigate the existing arbitrated quantum signature schemes as well as their cryptanalysis, including intercept-resend attack and denial-of-service attack. By exploring the loopholes of these schemes, a malicious signatory may successfully disavow signed messages, or the receiver may actively negate the signature from the signatory without being detected. By modifying the existing schemes, we develop counter-measures to these attacks using Bell states. The newly proposed scheme puts forward the security of arbitrated quantum signature. Furthermore, several valuable topics are also presented for further research of the quantum signature scheme
Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise
Abel, Benjamin Simon
2008-12-19
In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)
Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise
Abel, Benjamin Simon
2008-01-01
In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)
Weak measurements and quantum weak values for NOON states
Rosales-Zárate, L.; Opanchuk, B.; Reid, M. D.
2018-03-01
Quantum weak values arise when the mean outcome of a weak measurement made on certain preselected and postselected quantum systems goes beyond the eigenvalue range for a quantum observable. Here, we propose how to determine quantum weak values for superpositions of states with a macroscopically or mesoscopically distinct mode number, that might be realized as two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate or photonic NOON states. Specifically, we give a model for a weak measurement of the Schwinger spin of a two-mode NOON state, for arbitrary N . The weak measurement arises from a nondestructive measurement of the two-mode occupation number difference, which for atomic NOON states might be realized via phase contrast imaging and the ac Stark effect using an optical meter prepared in a coherent state. The meter-system coupling results in an entangled cat-state. By subsequently evolving the system under the action of a nonlinear Josephson Hamiltonian, we show how postselection leads to quantum weak values, for arbitrary N . Since the weak measurement can be shown to be minimally invasive, the weak values provide a useful strategy for a Leggett-Garg test of N -scopic realism.
Quantum paradox of choice: More freedom makes summoning a quantum state harder
Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian
2016-06-01
The properties of quantum information in space-time can be investigated by studying operational tasks, such as "summoning," in which an unknown quantum state is supplied at one point and a call is made at another for it to be returned at a third. Hayden and May [arXiv:1210.0913] recently proved necessary and sufficient conditions for guaranteeing successful return of a summoned state for finite sets of call and return points when there is a guarantee of at most one summons. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions when there may be several possible summonses and complying with any one constitutes success, and we demonstrate the existence of an apparent paradox: The extra freedom makes it strictly harder to complete the summoning task. This result has practical applications for distributed quantum computing and cryptography and implications for our understanding of relativistic quantum information and its localization in space-time.
Theory of Spin States of Quantum Dot Molecules
Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Scheibner, M.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Doty, M. F.; Gammon, D.; Korenev, V. L.
2007-04-01
The photoluminescence spectrum of an asymmetric pair of coupled InAs quantum dots in an applied electric field shows a rich pattern of level anticrossings, crossings and fine structure that can be understood as a superposition of charge and spin configurations. We present a theoretical model that provides a description of the energy positions and intensities of the optical transitions in exciton, biexciton and charged exciton states of coupled quantum dots molecules.
Black hole state degeneracy in loop quantum gravity
Agullo, Ivan; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique
2008-01-01
The combinatorial problem of counting the black hole quantum states within the isolated horizon framework in loop quantum gravity is analyzed. A qualitative understanding of the origin of the band structure shown by the degeneracy spectrum, which is responsible for the black hole entropy quantization, is reached. Even when motivated by simple considerations, this picture allows to obtain analytical expressions for the most relevant quantities associated to this effect
Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.
2001-08-27
We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field ({approx}10 T) and at low temperature {approx}1 K .
Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.
2001-01-01
We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field (∼10 T) and at low temperature ∼1 K
Jones, K.R.W.
1990-11-01
A new entropic analogue is given of the recently reported information on theoretic limits to knowledge of states. A natural relationship between the quantum correlation information and the quantum mechanical entropy is thereby revealed. Some progress is made towards a rigorous proof of both results and a complete solution to the problem of asymptotic optimal measurement. In particular the elementary convex analysis was employed to prove that the optimal operator valued measure must be a rank-one projection valued measure. 11 refs
Quantum Logic Networks for Probabilistic and Controlled Teleportation of Unknown Quantum States
GAO Ting
2004-01-01
We present simplification schemes for probabilistic and controlled teleportation of the unknown quantum states of both one particle and two particles and construct efficient quantum logic networks for implementing the new schemes by means of the primitive operations consisting of single-qubit gates, two-qubit controlled-not gates, Von Neumann measurement, and classically controlled operations. In these schemes the teleportation are not always successful but with certain probability.
Heparin octasaccharide decoy liposomes inhibit replication of multiple viruses
Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Velazquez, Lourdes; Pham, Serena; Qaisar, Natasha; Delaney, James C.; Viswanathan, Karthik; Albers, Leila; Comolli, James C.; Shriver, Zachary; Knipe, David M.; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.; Fygenson, Deborah K.; Trevejo, Jose M.
2016-01-01
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan that serves as a cellular attachment site for a number of significant human pathogens, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV3), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Decoy receptors can target pathogens by binding to the receptor pocket on viral attachment proteins, acting as ‘molecular sinks’ and preventing the pathogen from binding to susceptible host cells. Decoy receptors functionalized with HS could bind to pathogens and prevent infection, so we generated decoy liposomes displaying HS-octasaccharide (HS-octa). These decoy liposomes significantly inhibited RSV, hPIV3, and HSV infectivity in vitro to a greater degree than the original HS-octa building block. The degree of inhibition correlated with the density of HS-octa displayed on the liposome surface. Decoy liposomes with HS-octa inhibited infection of viruses to a greater extent than either full-length heparin or HS-octa alone. Decoy liposomes were effective when added prior to infection or following the initial infection of cells in vitro. By targeting the well-conserved receptor-binding sites of HS-binding viruses, decoy liposomes functionalized with HS-octa are a promising therapeutic antiviral agent and illustrate the utility of the liposome delivery platform. PMID:25637710
A scheme of quantum state discrimination over specified states via weak-value measurement
Chen, Xi; Dai, Hong-Yi; Liu, Bo-Yang; Zhang, Ming
2018-04-01
The commonly adopted projective measurements are invalid in the specified task of quantum state discrimination when the discriminated states are superposition of planar-position basis states whose complex-number probability amplitudes have the same magnitude but different phases. Therefore we propose a corresponding scheme via weak-value measurement and examine the feasibility of this scheme. Furthermore, the role of the weak-value measurement in quantum state discrimination is analyzed and compared with one in quantum state tomography in this Letter.
Phonon squeezed states: quantum noise reduction in solids
Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco
1999-03-01
This article discusses quantum fluctuation properties of a crystal lattice, and in particular, phonon squeezed states. Squeezed states of phonons allow a reduction in the quantum fluctuations of the atomic displacements to below the zero-point quantum noise level of coherent phonon states. Here we discuss our studies of both continuous-wave and impulsive second-order Raman scattering mechanisms. The later approach was used to experimentally suppress (by one part in a million) fluctuations in phonons. We calculate the expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators, as well as the effects of the phonon squeezed states on macroscopically measurable quantities, such as changes in the dielectric constant. These results are compared with recent experiments. Further information, including preprints and animations, are available in http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/∼nori/squeezed.html.
Network-based Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Graph State
Ma, Hongling; Li, Fei; Mao, Ningyi; Wang, Yijun; Guo, Ying
2017-08-01
Implementing an arbitrated quantum signature(QAS) through complex networks is an interesting cryptography technology in the literature. In this paper, we propose an arbitrated quantum signature for the multi-user-involved networks, whose topological structures are established by the encoded graph state. The determinative transmission of the shared keys, is enabled by the appropriate stabilizers performed on the graph state. The implementation of this scheme depends on the deterministic distribution of the multi-user-shared graph state on which the encoded message can be processed in signing and verifying phases. There are four parties involved, the signatory Alice, the verifier Bob, the arbitrator Trent and Dealer who assists the legal participants in the signature generation and verification. The security is guaranteed by the entanglement of the encoded graph state which is cooperatively prepared by legal participants in complex quantum networks.
Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots
Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.
2014-01-01
In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications
Two Electron States in a Quantum Ring on a Sphere
Kazaryan, Eduard M.; Shahnazaryan, Vanik A.; Sarkisyan, Hayk A.
2014-01-01
Two electron states in a quantum ring on a spherical surface are discussed. The problem is discussed within the frameworks of Russell–Saunders coupling scheme, that is, the spin–orbit coupling is neglected. Treating Coulomb interaction as a perturbation, the energy correction for different states is calculated. The dependence of the Coulomb interaction energy on external polar boundary angle of quantum ring is obtained. In analogue with the helium atom the concept of states exchange time is introduced, and its dependence on geometrical parameters of the ring is shown. (author)
Recent advances in bound state quantum electrodynamics
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
1977-06-01
Recent developments are reviewed in four areas of computational quantum electrodynamics: a new relativistic two-body formalism equal in rigor to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism but with strong calculational advantages is discussed; recent work on the computation of the decay rate of bound systems (positronium in particular) is presented; limits on possible composite structure of leptons are discussed; a new multidimensional integration program ('VEGAS') suitable for higher order calculations is presented
Infinite degeneracy of states in quantum gravity
Hackett, Jonathan; Wan Yidun
2011-01-01
The setting of Braided Ribbon Networks is used to present a general result in spin-networks embedded in manifolds: the existence of an infinite number of species of conserved quantities. Restricted to three-valent networks the number of such conserved quantities in a given network is shown to be determined by the number of nodes in the network. The implication of these conserved quantities is discussed in the context of Loop Quantum Gravity.
Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states
Zhang, Lin, E-mail: godyalin@163.com [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Pati, Arun K., E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India)
2017-02-15
Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.
Alternative fidelity measure between two states of an N-state quantum system
Chen Jingling; Fu Libin; Zhao Xiangeng; Ungar, Abraham A.
2002-01-01
An alternative fidelity measure between two states of a qunit, an N-state quantum system, is proposed. It has a hyperbolic geometric interpretation, and it reduces to the Bures fidelity in the special case when N=2
A conformal field theory description of fractional quantum Hall states
Ardonne, E.
2002-01-01
In this thesis, we give a description of fractional quantum Hall states in terms of conformal field theory (CFT). As was known for a long time, the Laughlin states could be written in terms of correlators of chiral vertex operators of a c=1 CFT. It was shown by G. Moore and N. Read that more general
Equivalence of quantum states under local unitary transformations
Fei Shaoming; Jing Naihuan
2005-01-01
In terms of the analysis of fixed point subgroup and tensor decomposability of certain matrices, we study the equivalence of quantum bipartite mixed states under local unitary transformations. For non-degenerate case an operational criterion for the equivalence of two such mixed bipartite states under local unitary transformations is presented
Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states
Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.
2007-01-01
We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...
Description of quantum states using in free space optic communication
Kučera, Petr
2017-11-01
In the article we concentrate our attention on the quantum description of states which are prepared by light sources. The main goal of the article is the determination of density matrix of background radiation source. It is shown that these matrix elements satisfy Geometric distribution in the number state representation.
State-independent quantum contextuality for continuous variables
Plastino, Angel R.; Cabello, Adan
2010-01-01
Recent experiments have shown that nature violates noncontextual inequalities regardless of the state of the physical system. So far, all these inequalities involve measurements of dichotomic observables. We show that state-independent quantum contextuality can also be observed in the correlations between measurements of observables with genuinely continuous spectra, highlighting the universal character of the effect.
Physical states in Quantum Einstein-Cartan Gravity
Cianfrani, Francesco
2016-01-01
The definition of physical states is the main technical issue of canonical approaches towards Quantum Gravity. In this work, we outline how those states can be found in Einstein-Cartan theory via a continuum limit and they are given by finite dimensional representations of the Lorentz group.
Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics
Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Prezhdo, Oleg; Maniadis, Panagiotis
2013-01-01
In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) – a spatial time-periodic localization of energy – are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space – a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes – high order tunneling modes – that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments
Quantum secure direct communication scheme using a W state and teleportation
Cao Haijing; Song Heshan
2006-01-01
A theoretical scheme for quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is proposed, where a three-qubit symmetric W state functions as a quantum channel. Two legitimate communicators can transmit their secret information by using quantum teleportation and local measurements
Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival
Teaching physics implies making choices. In the case of teaching quantum physics, besides an educational choice - the didactic strategy - another choice must be made, an epistemological one, concerning the interpretation of quantum theory itself. These two choices are closely connected. We have chosen a didactic strategy that privileges the phenomenological-conceptual approach, with emphasis upon quantum features of the systems, instead of searching for classical analogies. This choice has led us to present quantum theory associated with an orthodox, yet realistic, interpretation of the concept of quantum state, considered as the key concept of quantum theory, representing the physical reality of a system, independent of measurement processes. The results of the mplementation of this strategy, with three groups of engineering students, showed that more than a half of them attained a reasonable understanding of the basics of quantum mechanics (QM) for this level. In addition, a high degree of satisfaction was attained with the classes as 80% of the students of the experimental groups claimed to have liked it and to be interested in learning more about QM.
Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states
Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio
2018-02-01
Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \
VanMeter, N. M.; Lougovski, P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Uskov, D. B.; Kieling, K.; Eisert, J.
2007-01-01
We introduce schemes for linear-optical quantum state generation. A quantum state generator is a device that prepares a desired quantum state using product inputs from photon sources, linear-optical networks, and postselection using photon counters. We show that this device can be concisely described in terms of polynomial equations and unitary constraints. We illustrate the power of this language by applying the Groebner-basis technique along with the notion of vacuum extensions to solve the problem of how to construct a quantum state generator analytically for any desired state, and use methods of convex optimization to identify bounds to success probabilities. In particular, we disprove a conjecture concerning the preparation of the maximally path-entangled |n,0>+|0,n> (NOON) state by providing a counterexample using these methods, and we derive a new upper bound on the resources required for NOON-state generation
Xu Shu-Jiang; Wang Lian-Hai; Ding Qing-Yan; Zhang Shu-Hui; Chen Xiu-Bo
2016-01-01
In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. (paper)
Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots
Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.
2013-03-01
The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).
Quantum theory of the solid state
Callaway, Joseph
1991-01-01
This new edition presents a comprehensive, up-to-date survey of the concepts and methods in contemporary condensed matter physics, emphasizing topics that can be treated by quantum mechanical methods. The book features tutorial discussions of a number of current research topics.Also included are updated treatments of topics that have developed significantly within the past several years, such as superconductivity, magnetic impurities in metals, methods for electronic structure calculations, magnetic ordering in insulators and metals, and linear response theory. Advanced level graduate students
Influence of scattering processes on electron quantum states in nanowires
Pozdnyakov Dmitry
2007-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractIn the framework of quantum perturbation theory the self-consistent method of calculation of electron scattering rates in nanowires with the one-dimensional electron gas in the quantum limit is worked out. The developed method allows both the collisional broadening and the quantum correlations between scattering events to be taken into account. It is an alternativeper seto the Fock approximation for the self-energy approach based on Green’s function formalism. However this approach is free of mathematical difficulties typical to the Fock approximation. Moreover, the developed method is simpler than the Fock approximation from the computational point of view. Using the approximation of stable one-particle quantum states it is proved that the electron scattering processes determine the dependence of electron energy versus its wave vector.
Architectural design for a topological cluster state quantum computer
Devitt, Simon J; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae; Fowler, Austin G; Stephens, Ashley M; Greentree, Andrew D; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L
2009-01-01
The development of a large scale quantum computer is a highly sought after goal of fundamental research and consequently a highly non-trivial problem. Scalability in quantum information processing is not just a problem of qubit manufacturing and control but it crucially depends on the ability to adapt advanced techniques in quantum information theory, such as error correction, to the experimental restrictions of assembling qubit arrays into the millions. In this paper, we introduce a feasible architectural design for large scale quantum computation in optical systems. We combine the recent developments in topological cluster state computation with the photonic module, a simple chip-based device that can be used as a fundamental building block for a large-scale computer. The integration of the topological cluster model with this comparatively simple operational element addresses many significant issues in scalable computing and leads to a promising modular architecture with complete integration of active error correction, exhibiting high fault-tolerant thresholds.
Characterization of particle states in relativistic classical quantum theory
Horwitz, L.P.; Rabin, Y.
1977-02-01
Classical and quantum relativistic mechanics are studied. The notion of a ''particle'' is defined in the classical case and the interpretation of mechanics in space-time is clarified. These notions are carried over to the quantum theory, as much as possible. The relation between the results of Feyman's path integral approach and the theory of Horwitz and Piron is discussed. The ''particle'' interpretation is shown to imply an asymptotic condition for scattering. A general method of constructing the dynamical mass spectrum of composite ''particle'' states is discussed. An interference experiment is proposed to affirm the interpretation and applicability of Stueckelberg type wave functions for actual physical phenomena. Some discussion of the relation of this relativistic quantum theory to Feynman's approach to quantum field theory is also given
Optimal Classical Simulation of State-Independent Quantum Contextuality
Cabello, Adán; Gu, Mile; Gühne, Otfried; Xu, Zhen-Peng
2018-03-01
Simulating quantum contextuality with classical systems requires memory. A fundamental yet open question is what is the minimum memory needed and, therefore, the precise sense in which quantum systems outperform classical ones. Here, we make rigorous the notion of classically simulating quantum state-independent contextuality (QSIC) in the case of a single quantum system submitted to an infinite sequence of measurements randomly chosen from a finite QSIC set. We obtain the minimum memory needed to simulate arbitrary QSIC sets via classical systems under the assumption that the simulation should not contain any oracular information. In particular, we show that, while classically simulating two qubits tested with the Peres-Mermin set requires log224 ≈4.585 bits, simulating a single qutrit tested with the Yu-Oh set requires, at least, 5.740 bits.
Urquiza-Carvalho, Gabriel Aires; Fragoso, Wallace Duarte; Rocha, Gerd Bruno
2016-08-05
In this work, we tested the PM6, PM6-DH+, PM6-D3, and PM7 enthalpies of formation in aqueous solution as scoring functions across 33 decoy sets to discriminate native structures or good models in a decoy set. In each set these semiempirical quantum chemistry methods were compared according to enthalpic and geometric criteria. Enthalpically, we compared the methods according to how much lower was the enthalpy of each native, when compared with the mean enthalpy of its set. Geometrically, we compared the methods according to the fraction of native contacts (Q), which is a measure of geometric closeness between an arbitrary structure and the native. For each set and method, the Q of the best decoy was compared with the Q0 , which is the Q of the decoy closest to the native in the set. It was shown that the PM7 method is able to assign larger energy differences between the native structure and the decoys in a set, arguably because of a better description of dispersion interactions, however PM6-DH+ was slightly better than the rest at selecting geometrically good models in the absence of a native structure in the set. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2008-11-01
Entanglement is known today as a key resource in many protocols from quantum computation and quantum information theory. However, despite the successful demonstration of several protocols, such as teleportation or quantum key distribution, there are still many open questions of how entanglement affects the efficiency of quantum algorithms or how it can be protected against noisy environments. The investigation of these and related questions often requires a search or optimization over the set of quantum states and, hence, a parametrization of them and various other objects. To facilitate this kind of studies in quantum information theory, here we present an extension of the FEYNMAN program that was developed during recent years as a toolbox for the simulation and analysis of quantum registers. In particular, we implement parameterizations of hermitian and unitary matrices (of arbitrary order), pure and mixed quantum states as well as separable states. In addition to being a prerequisite for the study of many optimization problems, these parameterizations also provide the necessary basis for heuristic studies which make use of random states, unitary matrices and other objects. Program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 231 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 416 085 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 11 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Linux Classification: 4.15 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decades
Local decoherence-resistant quantum states of large systems
Mishra, Utkarsh; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwal@hri.res.in
2015-02-06
We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states, each of which consists of a “minuscule” and a “large” sector, against local noise. In particular, the content of entanglement and other quantum correlations in the minuscule to large partition is independent of the number of particles in their large sectors, when all the particles suffer passage through local amplitude and phase damping channels. The states of the large sectors are distinct in terms of markedly different amounts of violation of Bell inequality. In case the large sector is macroscopic, such states are akin to the Schrödinger cat. - Highlights: • We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states of large systems. • We work with local noise models. • Decay of entanglement as well as information-theoretic quantum correlations considered. • The states are of the form of the Schrödinger cats, with minuscule and large sectors. • The states of the large sector are distinguishable by their violation of Bell inequality.
Observation of moving wave packets reveals their quantum state
Leonhardt, U.; Raymer, M.G.
1996-01-01
We show how to infer the quantum state of a wave packet from position probability distributions measured during the packet close-quote s motion in an arbitrary potential. We assume a nonrelativistic one-dimensional or radial wave packet. Temporal Fourier transformation and spatial sampling with respect to a newly found set of functions project the density-matrix elements out of the probability distributions. The sampling functions are derivatives of products of regular and irregular wave functions. We note that the ability to infer quantum states in this way depends on the structure of the Schroedinger equation. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Sufficient condition for a quantum state to be genuinely quantum non-Gaussian
Happ, L.; Efremov, M. A.; Nha, H.; Schleich, W. P.
2018-02-01
We show that the expectation value of the operator \\hat{{ \\mathcal O }}\\equiv \\exp (-c{\\hat{x}}2)+\\exp (-c{\\hat{p}}2) defined by the position and momentum operators \\hat{x} and \\hat{p} with a positive parameter c can serve as a tool to identify quantum non-Gaussian states, that is states that cannot be represented as a mixture of Gaussian states. Our condition can be readily tested employing a highly efficient homodyne detection which unlike quantum-state tomography requires the measurements of only two orthogonal quadratures. We demonstrate that our method is even able to detect quantum non-Gaussian states with positive–definite Wigner functions. This situation cannot be addressed in terms of the negativity of the phase-space distribution. Moreover, we demonstrate that our condition can characterize quantum non-Gaussianity for the class of superposition states consisting of a vacuum and integer multiples of four photons under more than 50 % signal attenuation.
Macroscopic Quantum States and Quantum Phase Transition in the Dicke Model
Lian Jin-Ling; Zhang Yuan-Wei; Liang Jiu-Qing
2012-01-01
The energy spectrum of Dicke Hamiltonians with and without the rotating wave approximation for an arbitrary atom number is obtained analytically by means of the variational method, in which the effective pseudo-spin Hamiltonian resulting from the expectation value in the boson-field coherent state is diagonalized by the spin-coherent-state transformation. In addition to the ground-state energy, an excited macroscopic quantum-state is found corresponding to the south- and north-pole gauges of the spin-coherent states, respectively. Our results of ground-state energies in exact agreement with various approaches show that these models exhibit a zero-temperature quantum phase transition of the second order for any number of atoms, which was commonly considered as a phenomenon of the thermodynamic limit with the atom number tending to infinity. The critical behavior of the geometric phase is analyzed. (general)
Surface states in thin versus thick organic quantum wells
Nguyen Ba An; Hanamura, E.
1995-08-01
Surface states are studied in dependence on thickness or organic quantum wells within the nearest layer approximation. It is shown that there is a material-dependent critical thickness. Structures, that have thickness thinner or thicker than the critical one, exhibit qualitatively different characteristics of surface states. Criteria for existence and sign rules for location of energy levels of surface states are established which are general and contain the results of the previous works as particular cases. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs
Exotic quantum states for charmed baryons at finite temperature
Jiaxing Zhao
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The significantly screened heavy-quark potential in hot medium provides the possibility to study exotic quantum states of three-heavy-quark systems. By solving the Schrödinger equation for a three-charm-quark system at finite temperature, we found that, there exist Borromean states which might be realized in high energy nuclear collisions, and the binding energies of the system satisfy precisely the scaling law for Efimov states in the resonance limit.
Entanglement purification of multi-mode quantum states
Clausen, J; Knoell, L; Welsch, D-G
2003-01-01
An iterative random procedure is considered allowing entanglement purification of a class of multi-mode quantum states. In certain cases, complete purification may be achieved using only a single signal state preparation. A physical implementation based on beam splitter arrays and non-linear elements is suggested. The influence of loss is analysed in the example of purification of entangled N-mode coherent states
On calculations of the ground state energy in quantum mechanics
Efimov, G.V.
1991-02-01
In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the Wick-ordering method called the oscillator representation suggested to calculate the ground-state energy for a wide class of potentials allowing the existence of a bound state. The following examples are considered: the orbital excitations of the ground-state in the Coulomb plus linear potential, the Schroedinger equation with a ''relativistic'' kinetic energy √p 2 +m 2 , the Coulomb three-body problem. (author). 22 refs, 2 tabs
Quantum teleportation and information splitting via four-qubit cluster state and a Bell state
Ramírez, Marlon David González; Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Cruz-Irisson, M.; Dong, Shi-Hai
2017-10-01
Quantum teleportation provides a "bodiless" way of transmitting the quantum state from one object to another, at a distant location, using a classical communication channel and a previously shared entangled state. In this paper, we present a tripartite scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary single qubit state, without losing the information of the state being teleported, via a fourqubit cluster state of the form | ϕ>1234 = α|0000>+ β|1010>+ γ|0101>- η|1111>, as the quantum channel, where the nonzero real numbers α, β, γ, and η satisfy the relation j αj2 + | β|2 + | γ|2 + | η|2 = 1. With the introduction of an auxiliary qubit with state |0>, using a suitable unitary transformation and a positive-operator valued measure (POVM), the receiver can recreate the state of the original qubit. An important advantage of the teleportation scheme demonstrated here is that, if the teleportation fails, it can be repeated without teleporting copies of the unknown quantum state, if the concerned parties share another pair of entangled qubit. We also present a protocol for quantum information splitting of an arbitrary two-particle system via the aforementioned cluster state and a Bell-state as the quantum channel. Problems related to security attacks were examined for both the cases and it was found that this protocol is secure. This protocol is highly efficient and easy to implement.
Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states
Metwally, N., E-mail: nmohamed31@gmail.com
2014-12-15
The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.
Unidirectional Quantum Remote Control： Teleportation of Control－State
ZHENGYi-Zhuang; GUYong-Jian; WUGui-Chu; GUOGuang-Can
2003-01-01
We investigate the problem of teleportation of unitary operations by unidirectional control-state telepor-ration and propose a scheme called unidirectional quantum remote control. The scheme is based on the isomorphism between operation and state. It allows us to store a unitary operation in a control state, thereby teleportatSon of the unitary operation can be implemented by unidirectional teleportation of the control-state. We find that the probability of success for implementing an arbitrary unitary operation on arbitrary A~-qubit state by unidirectional control-state teleportation is 4-M, and 2M ebits and 4M cbits are consumed in each teleportation.
Grover's quantum search algorithm for an arbitrary initial mixed state
Biham, Eli; Kenigsberg, Dan
2002-01-01
The Grover quantum search algorithm is generalized to deal with an arbitrary mixed initial state. The probability to measure a marked state as a function of time is calculated, and found to depend strongly on the specific initial state. The form of the function, though, remains as it is in the case of initial pure state. We study the role of the von Neumann entropy of the initial state, and show that the entropy cannot be a measure for the usefulness of the algorithm. We give few examples and show that for some extremely mixed initial states (carrying high entropy), the generalized Grover algorithm is considerably faster than any classical algorithm
Generating and using truly random quantum states in Mathematica
Miszczak, Jarosław Adam
2012-01-01
The problem of generating random quantum states is of a great interest from the quantum information theory point of view. In this paper we present a package for Mathematica computing system harnessing a specific piece of hardware, namely Quantis quantum random number generator (QRNG), for investigating statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states, which use Quantis QRNG as a source of randomness. It also provides procedures which can be used in simulations not related directly to quantum information processing. Program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7924 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 88 651 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C Computer: Requires a Quantis quantum random number generator (QRNG, http://www.idquantique.com/true-random-number-generator/products-overview.html) and supporting a recent version of Mathematica Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit) RAM: Case dependent Classification: 4.15 Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator. Running time: Generating 100 random numbers takes about 1 second, generating 1000 random density matrices takes more than a minute.
Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state.
Teufel, J D; Donner, T; Li, Dale; Harlow, J W; Allman, M S; Cicak, K; Sirois, A J; Whittaker, J D; Lehnert, K W; Simmonds, R W
2011-07-06
The advent of laser cooling techniques revolutionized the study of many atomic-scale systems, fuelling progress towards quantum computing with trapped ions and generating new states of matter with Bose-Einstein condensates. Analogous cooling techniques can provide a general and flexible method of preparing macroscopic objects in their motional ground state. Cavity optomechanical or electromechanical systems achieve sideband cooling through the strong interaction between light and motion. However, entering the quantum regime--in which a system has less than a single quantum of motion--has been difficult because sideband cooling has not sufficiently overwhelmed the coupling of low-frequency mechanical systems to their hot environments. Here we demonstrate sideband cooling of an approximately 10-MHz micromechanical oscillator to the quantum ground state. This achievement required a large electromechanical interaction, which was obtained by embedding a micromechanical membrane into a superconducting microwave resonant circuit. To verify the cooling of the membrane motion to a phonon occupation of 0.34 ± 0.05 phonons, we perform a near-Heisenberg-limited position measurement within (5.1 ± 0.4)h/2π, where h is Planck's constant. Furthermore, our device exhibits strong coupling, allowing coherent exchange of microwave photons and mechanical phonons. Simultaneously achieving strong coupling, ground state preparation and efficient measurement sets the stage for rapid advances in the control and detection of non-classical states of motion, possibly even testing quantum theory itself in the unexplored region of larger size and mass. Because mechanical oscillators can couple to light of any frequency, they could also serve as a unique intermediary for transferring quantum information between microwave and optical domains.
Manipulating quantum states with aspheric lenses
Wang Zhiwei; Ren Xifeng; Huang Yunfeng; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan
2005-01-01
We present an experimental demonstration to manipulate the width and position of the down-converted beam waist. Our results can be used to engineer the two-photon orbital angular momentum (OAM) entangled states (such as concentrating OAM entangled states) and generate Hermite-Gaussian (HG) modes entangled states
Resch, K J; Walther, P; Zeilinger, A
2005-02-25
We have performed the first experimental tomographic reconstruction of a three-photon polarization state. Quantum state tomography is a powerful tool for fully describing the density matrix of a quantum system. We measured 64 three-photon polarization correlations and used a "maximum-likelihood" reconstruction method to reconstruct the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. The entanglement class has been characterized using an entanglement witness operator and the maximum predicted values for the Mermin inequality were extracted.
Geometry of perturbed Gaussian states and quantum estimation
Genoni, Marco G; Giorda, Paolo; Paris, Matteo G A
2011-01-01
We address the non-Gaussianity (nG) of states obtained by weakly perturbing a Gaussian state and investigate the relationships with quantum estimation. For classical perturbations, i.e. perturbations to eigenvalues, we found that the nG of the perturbed state may be written as the quantum Fisher information (QFI) distance minus a term depending on the infinitesimal energy change, i.e. it provides a lower bound to statistical distinguishability. Upon moving on isoenergetic surfaces in a neighbourhood of a Gaussian state, nG thus coincides with a proper distance in the Hilbert space and exactly quantifies the statistical distinguishability of the perturbations. On the other hand, for perturbations leaving the covariance matrix unperturbed, we show that nG provides an upper bound to the QFI. Our results show that the geometry of non-Gaussian states in the neighbourhood of a Gaussian state is definitely not trivial and cannot be subsumed by a differential structure. Nevertheless, the analysis of perturbations to a Gaussian state reveals that nG may be a resource for quantum estimation. The nG of specific families of perturbed Gaussian states is analysed in some detail with the aim of finding the maximally non-Gaussian state obtainable from a given Gaussian one. (fast track communication)
The quantum potential and ''causal'' trajectories for stationary states and for coherent states
Barut, A.O.; Bozic, M.
1988-07-01
We show for stationary states in a central potential that the quantum action S is only a part of the classical action W and derive an expression for the ''quantum potential'' U Q in terms of the other part. The association of momenta of some ''particles'' in the causal interpretation of quantum mechanics by p-vector=∇S and by dp-vector'/dt=-∇(V+U Q ) gives for stationary states very different orbits which have no relation to classical orbits but express some flow properties of the quantum mechanical current. For coherent states, on the other hand, p-vector and p-vector' as well as the quantum mechanical average p-vector and classical momenta, all four, lead to essentially the same trajectories except for different integration constants. The spinning particle is also considered. (author). 27 refs, 2 figs
Qu, Zhiguo; Wu, Shengyao; Wang, Mingming; Sun, Le; Wang, Xiaojun
2017-12-01
As one of important research branches of quantum communication, deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) plays a significant role in quantum network. Quantum noises are prevalent in quantum communication, and it can seriously affect the safety and reliability of quantum communication system. In this paper, we study the effect of quantum noise on deterministic remote state preparation of an arbitrary two-particle state via different quantum channels including the χ state, Brown state and GHZ state. Firstly, the output states and fidelities of three DRSP algorithms via different quantum entangled channels in four noisy environments, including amplitude-damping, phase-damping, bit-flip and depolarizing noise, are presented, respectively. And then, the effects of noises on three kinds of preparation algorithms in the same noisy environment are discussed. In final, the theoretical analysis proves that the effect of noise in the process of quantum state preparation is only related to the noise type and the size of noise factor and independent of the different entangled quantum channels. Furthermore, another important conclusion is given that the effect of noise is also independent of how to distribute intermediate particles for implementing DRSP through quantum measurement during the concrete preparation process. These conclusions will be very helpful for improving the efficiency and safety of quantum communication in a noisy environment.
Applications of EPR steering in quantum teleportation and NOON states
Zárate, Laura Rosales
2018-04-01
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering refers to the type of correlations described in the EPR paradox, where one observer seems to affect ("steer") the state of other observer by using local measurements. There have been several works regarding characterization and quantification of EPR steering. One characteristic of this non-local correlation is that it can be asymmetric, while entanglement is symmetric. This asymmetric property is relevant for potential applications of EPR steering to quantum information, in particular to quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. This latter refers to the process where one observer sends an unknown quantum state to Bob, who is in a different location. They communicate by classical means. Here we will show that EPR steering is a necessary resource to obtain secure continuous variable teleportation. We will also consider NOON states, which is an example of an entangled state. For this state, we will present a steering signature. This contribution reviews the work derived in Refs. [1] and [2], which was presented as an invited talk in ELAF 2017.
Chen Libing; Jin Ruibo; Lu Hong
2008-01-01
Remote quantum-state discrimination is a critical step for the implementation of quantum communication network and distributed quantum computation. We present a protocol for remotely implementing the unambiguous discrimination between nonorthogonal states using quantum entanglements, local operations, and classical communications. This protocol consists of a remote generalized measurement described by a positive operator valued measurement (POVM). We explicitly construct the required remote POVM. The remote POVM can be realized by performing a nonlocal controlled-rotation operation on two spatially separated qubits, one is an ancillary qubit and the other is the qubit which is encoded by two nonorthogonal states to be distinguished, and a conventional local Von Neumann orthogonal measurement on the ancilla. The particular pair of states that can be remotely and unambiguously distinguished is specified by the state of the ancilla. The probability of successful discrimination is not optimal for all admissible pairs. However, for some subset it can be very close to an optimal value in an ordinary local POVM
Highly Nonclassical Quantum States and Environment Induced Decoherence
Foldi, Peter
2004-06-01
In this thesis concrete quantum systems are investigated in the framework of the environment induced decoherence. The focus is on the dynamics of highly nonclassical quantum states, the Wigner function of which are negative over some regions of their domains. One of the chosen physical systems is a diatomic molecule, where the potential energy of the nuclei is an anharmonic function of their distance. A system of two-level atoms, which can be important from the viewpoint of quantum information technology, is also investigated. A method is described that is valid in both systems and can determine the characteristic time of the decoherence in a dynamical way. The direction of the decoherence and its relation to energy dissipation is also studied. Finally, a scheme is proposed that can prepare decoherence-free states using the experimental techniques presently available.
Controlled teleportation of high-dimension quantum-states with generalized Bell-state measurement
Zhan You-Bang
2007-01-01
In this paper a scheme for controlled teleportation of arbitrary high-dimensional unknown quantum states is proposed by using the generalized Bell-basis measurement and the generalized Hadamard transformation. As two special cases, two schemes of controlled teleportation of an unknown single-qutrit state and an unknown two-qutrit state are investigated in detail. In the first scheme, a maximally entangled three-qutrit state is used as the quantum channel, while in the second scheme, an entangled two-qutrit state and an entangled three-qutrit state are employed as the quantum channels. In these schemes, an unknown qutrit state can be teleported to either one of two receivers, but only one of them can reconstruct the qutrit state with the help of the other. Based on the case of qutrits, a scheme of controlled teleportation of an unknown qudit state is presented.
Manipulating collective quantum states of ultracold atoms by probing
Wade, Andrew Christopher James
2015-01-01
The field of cold gases has grown dramatically over the past few decades. The exquisite experimental control of their environment and properties has lead to landmark achievements, and has motivated the pursuit of quantum technologies with ultracold atoms. At the same time, the theory of measureme......The field of cold gases has grown dramatically over the past few decades. The exquisite experimental control of their environment and properties has lead to landmark achievements, and has motivated the pursuit of quantum technologies with ultracold atoms. At the same time, the theory...... of measurements on quantum systems has grown into a well established field. Experimental demonstrations of nondestructive continuous measurements on individual quantum systems now occur in many laboratories. Such experiments with ultracold atoms have shown great progress, but the exploitation of the quantum...... nature of the measurement interaction and backaction is yet to be realised. This dissertation is concerned with ultracold atoms and their control via fully quantum mechanical probes. Nonclassical, squeezed and entangled states of matter and single photon sources are important for fundamental studies...
Perfect transfer of arbitrary states in quantum spin networks
Christandl, Matthias; Kay, Alastair; Datta, Nilanjana; Dorlas, Tony C.; Ekert, Artur; Landahl, Andrew J.
2005-01-01
We propose a class of qubit networks that admit perfect state transfer of any two-dimensional quantum state in a fixed period of time. We further show that such networks can distribute arbitrary entangled states between two distant parties, and can, by using such systems in parallel, transmit the higher-dimensional systems states across the network. Unlike many other schemes for quantum computation and communication, these networks do not require qubit couplings to be switched on and off. When restricted to N-qubit spin networks of identical qubit couplings, we show that 2 log 3 N is the maximal perfect communication distance for hypercube geometries. Moreover, if one allows fixed but different couplings between the qubits then perfect state transfer can be achieved over arbitrarily long distances in a linear chain. This paper expands and extends the work done by Christandl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187902 (2004)
Quantum Optics with Nanomechanical and Solid State Systems
Jaehne, K.
2009-01-01
This thesis presents theoretical studies in an interfacing field of quantum optics, nanomechanics and mesoscopic solid state physics and proposes new methods for the generation of particular quantum states and quantum state transfer for selected hybrid systems. The first part of this thesis focuses on the quantum limit of a macroscopic object, a nanomechanical resonator. This is studied for two different physical systems. The first one is a nanomechanical beam incorporated in a superconducting circuit, in particular a loop-shaped Cooper pair box (CPB) - circuit. We present a scheme for ground state cooling of the flexural mode of the nanomechanical beam. Via the Lorentz force coupling of the beam motion to circulating CPB-circuit currents, energy is transferred to the CPB qubit which acts as a dissipative two-level system. The cooling process is driven by a detuned gate-voltage drive acting on the CPB. We analyze the cooling force spectrum and present analytical expressions for the cooling rate and final occupation number for a wide parameter regime. In particular, we find that cooling is optimized in a strong drive regime, and we present the necessary conditions for ground-state cooling. In a second system, we investigate the creation of squeezed states of a mechanical oscillator (a vibrating membrane or a movable mirror) in an optomechanical setup. An optical cavity is driven by squeezed light and couples via radiation pressure to the mechanical oscillator, effectively providing a squeezed heat-bath for the mechanical oscillator. Under the conditions of laser cooling to the ground state, we find an efficient transfer of squeezing with roughly 60% of light squeezing conveyed to the mechanical oscillator (on a dB scale). We determine the requirements on the carrier frequency and the bandwidth of squeezed light. Beyond the conditions for ground state cooling, we predict mechanical squashing to be observable in current systems. The second part of the thesis is
State preparation for quantum information science and metrology
Samblowski, Aiko
2012-01-01
The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed
State preparation for quantum information science and metrology
Samblowski, Aiko
2012-06-08
The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed
Regret salience and accountability in the decoy effect
Terry Connolly
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Two experiments examined the impact on the decoy effect of making salient the possibility of post-decision regret, a manipulation that has been shown in several earlier studies to stimulate critical examination and improvement of decision process. Experiment 1 (N = 62 showed that making regret salient eliminated the decoy effect in a personal preference task. Experiment 2 (N = 242 replicated this finding for a different personal preference task and for a prediction task. It also replicated previous findings that external accountability demands do not reduce, and may exacerbate, the decoy effect. We interpret both effects in terms of decision justification, with different justification standards operating for different audiences. The decoy effect, in this account, turns on accepting a weak justification, which may be seen as adequate for an external audience or one's own inattentive self but inadequate under the more critical review triggered by making regret possibilities salient. Seeking justification to others (responding to accountability demands thus maintains or exacerbates the decoy effect; seeking justification to oneself (responding to regret salience reduces or eliminates it. The proposed mechanism provides a theoretical account both of the decoy effect itself and of how regret priming provides an effective debiasing procedure for it.
Coherent states in quaternionic quantum mechanics
Adler, Stephen L.; Millard, Andrew C.
1997-05-01
We develop Perelomov's coherent states formalism to include the case of a quaternionic Hilbert space. We find that, because of the closure requirement, an attempted quaternionic generalization of the special nilpotent or Weyl group reduces to the normal complex case. For the case of the compact group SU(2), however, coherent states can be formulated using the quaternionic half-integer spin matrices of Finkelstein, Jauch, and Speiser, giving a nontrivial quaternionic analog of coherent states.
Unified quantum no-go theorems and transforming of quantum pure states in a restricted set
Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Hui-Ran; Lai, Hong; Wang, Xiaojun
2017-12-01
The linear superposition principle in quantum mechanics is essential for several no-go theorems such as the no-cloning theorem, the no-deleting theorem and the no-superposing theorem. In this paper, we investigate general quantum transformations forbidden or permitted by the superposition principle for various goals. First, we prove a no-encoding theorem that forbids linearly superposing of an unknown pure state and a fixed pure state in Hilbert space of a finite dimension. The new theorem is further extended for multiple copies of an unknown state as input states. These generalized results of the no-encoding theorem include the no-cloning theorem, the no-deleting theorem and the no-superposing theorem as special cases. Second, we provide a unified scheme for presenting perfect and imperfect quantum tasks (cloning and deleting) in a one-shot manner. This scheme may lead to fruitful results that are completely characterized with the linear independence of the representative vectors of input pure states. The upper bounds of the efficiency are also proved. Third, we generalize a recent superposing scheme of unknown states with a fixed overlap into new schemes when multiple copies of an unknown state are as input states.
Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register
Wang, W.-B.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.
2015-07-01
As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.
Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.
2012-01-01
We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl–Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states. -- Highlights: ► Pairwise quantum correlations multipartite coherent states. ► Explicit expression of geometric quantum discord. ► Entanglement sudden death and quantum discord robustness. ► Generalized coherent states interpolating between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states
Daoud, M., E-mail: m_daoud@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University Ibnou Zohr, Agadir (Morocco); Ahl Laamara, R., E-mail: ahllaamara@gmail.com [LPHE-Modeling and Simulation, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Centre of Physics and Mathematics, CPM, CNESTEN, Rabat (Morocco)
2012-07-16
We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl–Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states. -- Highlights: ► Pairwise quantum correlations multipartite coherent states. ► Explicit expression of geometric quantum discord. ► Entanglement sudden death and quantum discord robustness. ► Generalized coherent states interpolating between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states.
Unidirectional Quantum Remote Control:Teleportation of Control-State
ZHENG Yi-Zhuang; GU Yong-Jian; WU Gui-Chu; GUO Guang-Can
2003-01-01
We investigate the problem of teleportation of unitary operations by unidirectional control-state telepor-tation and propose a scheme called unidirectional quantum remote control. The scheme is based on the isomorphismbetween operation and state. It allows us to store a unitary operation in a control state, thereby teleportation of theunitary operation can be implemented by unidirectional teleportation of the control-state. We find that the probabilityof success for implementing an arbitrary unitary operation on arbitrary M-qubit state by unidirectional control-stateteleportation is 4-M, and 2M ebits and 4M cbits are consumed in each teleportation.
Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states
Madsen, Lars Skovgaard
2012-01-01
photon numbers and the states where one of Stokes parameters is highly excited. To describe the polarization of these state we introduce several new polarization measures which take into account the covariance of the polarization and resolve the polarization manifolds. We experimentally demonstrate...
Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing
Tipsmark, Anders
2012-01-01
I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er...
Imaging of Coulomb-Driven Quantum Hall Edge States
Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Shabani, Javad; Shayegan, Mansour
2011-01-01
The edges of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime are divided into alternating metallic and insulating strips, with their widths determined by the energy gaps of the QHE states and the electrostatic Coulomb
On coherent states for the simplest quantum groups
Jurco, B. (Palackeho Univ., Olomouc (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Optics)
1991-01-01
The coherent states for the simplest quantum groups (q-Heisenberg-Weyl, SU{sub q}(2) and the discrete series of representations of SU{sub q}(1, 1)) are introduced and their properties investigated. The corresponding analytic representations, path integrals, and q-deformation of Berezin's quantization on C, a sphere, and the Lobatchevsky plane are discussed. (orig.).
On coherent states for the simplest quantum groups
Jurco, B.
1991-01-01
The coherent states for the simplest quantum groups (q-Heisenberg-Weyl, SU q (2) and the discrete series of representations of SU q (1, 1)) are introduced and their properties investigated. The corresponding analytic representations, path integrals, and q-deformation of Berezin's quantization on C, a sphere, and the Lobatchevsky plane are discussed. (orig.)
Extended SUSY quantum mechanics, intertwining operators and coherent states
Bagarello, F.
2008-01-01
We propose an extension of supersymmetric quantum mechanics which produces a family of isospectral Hamiltonians. Our procedure slightly extends the idea of intertwining operators. Several examples of the construction are given. Further, we show how to build up vector coherent states of the Gazeau-Klauder type associated to our Hamiltonians
Quantum state propagation in linear photonic bandgap structures
Severini, S.; Tricca, S.; Sibilia, C.; Peřina, Jan
2004-01-01
Roč. 6, - (2004), s. 110-114 ISSN 1464-4266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : photonic crystals * coupled mode theory * decoherence * quantum states propagation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.746, year: 2004
Quantum information processing using designed defect states in
Pedersen, Jesper; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger
2007-01-01
We propose a new physical implementation of spin qubits for quantum information processing, namely defect states in antidot lattices de¯ned in the two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. Calculations of the band structure of the periodic antidot lattice are presented...
Test-state approach to the quantum search problem
Sehrawat, Arun; Nguyen, Le Huy; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2011-01-01
The search for 'a quantum needle in a quantum haystack' is a metaphor for the problem of finding out which one of a permissible set of unitary mappings - the oracles - is implemented by a given black box. Grover's algorithm solves this problem with quadratic speedup as compared with the analogous search for 'a classical needle in a classical haystack'. Since the outcome of Grover's algorithm is probabilistic - it gives the correct answer with high probability, not with certainty - the answer requires verification. For this purpose we introduce specific test states, one for each oracle. These test states can also be used to realize 'a classical search for the quantum needle' which is deterministic - it always gives a definite answer after a finite number of steps - and 3.41 times as fast as the purely classical search. Since the test-state search and Grover's algorithm look for the same quantum needle, the average number of oracle queries of the test-state search is the classical benchmark for Grover's algorithm.
Soubusta, Jan; Černoch, Antonín; Fiurášek, J.; Dušek, M.
2004-01-01
Roč. 69, č. 5 (2004), 052321/1-052321/7 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Grant - others:CHIC(XX) IST-2001-33578 Keywords : quantum measurement devices * unambiguous state discrimination * positive operator valued measure Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.902, year: 2004
Superconducting Analogue of the Parafermion Fractional Quantum Hall States
Abolhassan Vaezi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Read-Rezayi Z_{k} parafermion wave functions describe ν=2+(k/kM+2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH states. These states support non-Abelian excitations from which protected quantum gates can be designed. However, there is no experimental evidence for these non-Abelian anyons to date. In this paper, we study the ν=2/k FQH-superconductor heterostructure and find the superconducting analogue of the Z_{k} parafermion FQH state. Our main tool is the mapping of the FQH into coupled one-dimensional chains, each with a pair of counterpropagating modes. We show that by inducing intrachain pairing and charge preserving backscattering with identical couplings, the one-dimensional chains flow into gapless Z_{k} parafermions when k<4. By studying the effect of interchain coupling, we show that every parafermion mode becomes massive except for the two outermost ones. Thus, we achieve a fractional topological superconductor whose chiral edge state is described by a Z_{k} parafermion conformal field theory. For instance, we find that a ν=2/3 FQH in proximity to a superconductor produces a Z_{3} parafermion superconducting state. This state is topologically indistinguishable from the non-Abelian part of the ν=12/5 Read-Rezayi state. Both of these systems can host Fibonacci anyons capable of performing universal quantum computation through braiding operations.
Experimental detection of nonclassical correlations in mixed-state quantum computation
Passante, G.; Moussa, O.; Trottier, D. A.; Laflamme, R.
2011-01-01
We report on an experiment to detect nonclassical correlations in a highly mixed state. The correlations are characterized by the quantum discord and are observed using four qubits in a liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. The state analyzed is the output of a DQC1 computation, whose input is a single quantum bit accompanied by n maximally mixed qubits. This model of computation outperforms the best known classical algorithms and, although it contains vanishing entanglement, it is known to have quantum correlations characterized by the quantum discord. This experiment detects nonvanishing quantum discord, ensuring the existence of nonclassical correlations as measured by the quantum discord.
Quantum measurements without Schroedinger cat states
Spehner, D; Haake, F
2007-01-01
We report and give an alternative derivation of some results on a model for a quantum measurement studied in [1]. The measured microscopic system is coupled to the position of a macroscopic pointer, which itself interacts with its environment via its momentum. The entanglement between the system and the pointer produced by their mutual interaction is simultaneous with the decoherence of distinct pointer readings resulting from leakage of information to the environment. After a discussion on the various time scales in the model we calculate the matrix elements of the system-pointer density operator between eigenstates of the measured observable with distinct eigenvalues. In general, the decay with time of these coherences is neither exponential nor gaussian. We determine the decoherence (decay) time in terms of the strength of the system-pointer and pointer-environment couplings. This decoherence time does not depend upon the details of the pointer-bath coupling as soon as it is smaller than the bath correlation time (non-Markov regime). In contrast, in the Markov regime it depends strongly on whether this coupling is Ohmic or super-Ohmic
Quantum measurements without Schroedinger cat states
Spehner, D [Institut Fourier, 100 rue des Maths, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Haake, F [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2007-10-15
We report and give an alternative derivation of some results on a model for a quantum measurement studied in [1]. The measured microscopic system is coupled to the position of a macroscopic pointer, which itself interacts with its environment via its momentum. The entanglement between the system and the pointer produced by their mutual interaction is simultaneous with the decoherence of distinct pointer readings resulting from leakage of information to the environment. After a discussion on the various time scales in the model we calculate the matrix elements of the system-pointer density operator between eigenstates of the measured observable with distinct eigenvalues. In general, the decay with time of these coherences is neither exponential nor gaussian. We determine the decoherence (decay) time in terms of the strength of the system-pointer and pointer-environment couplings. This decoherence time does not depend upon the details of the pointer-bath coupling as soon as it is smaller than the bath correlation time (non-Markov regime). In contrast, in the Markov regime it depends strongly on whether this coupling is Ohmic or super-Ohmic.
Coherent states in quaternionic quantum mechanics
Adler, S.L.; Millard, A.C.
1997-01-01
We develop Perelomov close-quote s coherent states formalism to include the case of a quaternionic Hilbert space. We find that, because of the closure requirement, an attempted quaternionic generalization of the special nilpotent or Weyl group reduces to the normal complex case. For the case of the compact group SU(2), however, coherent states can be formulated using the quaternionic half-integer spin matrices of Finkelstein, Jauch, and Speiser, giving a nontrivial quaternionic analog of coherent states. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states
Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel
2008-01-01
channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...
Quantum thermodynamics of nanoscale steady states far from equilibrium
Taniguchi, Nobuhiko
2018-04-01
We develop an exact quantum thermodynamic description for a noninteracting nanoscale steady state that couples strongly with multiple reservoirs. We demonstrate that there exists a steady-state extension of the thermodynamic function that correctly accounts for the multiterminal Landauer-Büttiker formula of quantum transport of charge, energy, or heat via the nonequilibrium thermodynamic relations. Its explicit form is obtained for a single bosonic or fermionic level in the wide-band limit, and corresponding thermodynamic forces (affinities) are identified. Nonlinear generalization of the Onsager reciprocity relations are derived. We suggest that the steady-state thermodynamic function is also capable of characterizing the heat current fluctuations of the critical transport where the thermal fluctuations dominate. Also, the suggested nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamic relations seemingly persist for a spin-degenerate single level with local interaction.
Unconditional quantum cloning of coherent states with linear optics
Leuchs, G.; Andersen, U.L.; Josse, V.
2005-01-01
Intense light pulses with non-classical properties are used to implement protocols for quantum communication. Most of the elements in the tool box needed to assemble the experimental set-ups for these protocols are readily described by Bogoliubov transformations corresponding to Gaussian transformations that map Gaussian states onto Gaussian states. One particularly interesting application is quantum cloning of a coherent state. A scheme for optimal Gaussian cloning of optical coherent states is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Its optical realization is based entirely on simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. The optimality of the presented scheme is only limited by detection inefficiencies. Experimentally we achieved a cloning fidelity of about 65%, which almost touches the optimal value of 2/3. (author)
Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution Using Polarized Coherent States
Vidiella-Barranco, A.; Borelli, L. F. M.
We discuss a continuous variables method of quantum key distribution employing strongly polarized coherent states of light. The key encoding is performed using the variables known as Stokes parameters, rather than the field quadratures. Their quantum counterpart, the Stokes operators Ŝi (i=1,2,3), constitute a set of non-commuting operators, being the precision of simultaneous measurements of a pair of them limited by an uncertainty-like relation. Alice transmits a conveniently modulated two-mode coherent state, and Bob randomly measures one of the Stokes parameters of the incoming beam. After performing reconciliation and privacy amplification procedures, it is possible to distill a secret common key. We also consider a non-ideal situation, in which coherent states with thermal noise, instead of pure coherent states, are used for encoding.
Ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system.
Zitko, Rok; Mravlje, Jernej; Haule, Kristjan
2012-02-10
We resolve the controversy regarding the ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system near half filling. The numerical renormalization group predicts an underscreened Kondo state with residual spin-1/2 magnetic moment, ln2 residual impurity entropy, and unitary conductance, while the Bethe ansatz solution predicts a fully screened impurity, regular Fermi-liquid ground state, and zero conductance. We calculate the impurity entropy of the system as a function of the temperature using the hybridization-expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo technique, which is a numerically exact stochastic method, and find excellent agreement with the numerical renormalization group results. We show that the origin of the unconventional behavior in this model is the odd-symmetry "dark state" on the dots.
Edge states in quantum Hall effect in graphene
Gusynin, V.P.; Miransky, V.A.; Sharapov, S.G.; Shovkovy, I.A.
2008-01-01
We review recent results concerning the spectrum of edge states in the quantum Hall effect in graphene. In particular, special attention is paid to the derivation of the conditions under which gapless edge states exist in the spectrum of graphene with 'zigzag' and 'armchair' edges. It is found that in the case of a half-plane or a ribbon with zigzag edges, there are gapless edge states only when a spin gap dominates over a Dirac mass gap. In the case of a half-plane with an armchair edge, the existence of the gapless edge states depends on the specific type of Dirac mass gaps. The implications of these results for the dynamics in the quantum Hall effect in graphene are discussed
Agarwal, G. S
2013-01-01
.... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...
Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source
Zhao, Yi; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2009-03-01
The security of a standard bi-directional ``plug & play'' quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been an open question for a long time. This is mainly because its source is equivalently controlled by an eavesdropper, which means the source is unknown and untrusted. Qualitative discussion on this subject has been made previously. In this paper, we present the first quantitative security analysis on a general class of QKD protocols whose sources are unknown and untrusted. The securities of standard BB84 protocol, weak+vacuum decoy state protocol, and one-decoy decoy state protocol, with unknown and untrusted sources are rigorously proved. We derive rigorous lower bounds to the secure key generation rates of the above three protocols. Our numerical simulation results show that QKD with an untrusted source gives a key generation rate that is close to that with a trusted source. Our work is published in [1]. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A, 77:052327 (2008).
Self-learning estimation of quantum states
Hannemann, Th.; Reiss, D.; Balzer, Ch.; Neuhauser, W.; Toschek, P.E.; Wunderlich, Ch.
2002-01-01
We report the experimental estimation of arbitrary qubit states using a succession of N measurements on individual qubits, where the measurement basis is changed during the estimation procedure conditioned on the outcome of previous measurements (self-learning estimation). Two hyperfine states of a single trapped 171 Yb + ion serve as a qubit. It is demonstrated that the difference in fidelity between this adaptive strategy and passive strategies increases in the presence of decoherence
Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure
Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.
2016-05-01
We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.
Solid state lasers: a major direction in quantum electronics
Shcherbakov, I.A.
2004-01-01
The aim of the report is to analyze development of solid-state lasers (SSL) as one of the most important avenues of the quantum electronics. The obtained intensity of a laser radiation at the focus equal to 5x10 1 0 W/cm 2 (the field intensity equal to about 5x10 1 0 V/cm 2 ) is noted to enable to observe nonlinear quantum- electrodynamic effects. Besides, one managed to increase the SSL efficiency conventionally equal to maximum 3% up to 48-50%. Paper describes new types of SSLs, namely, the crystalline fiber lasers with the lateral gradient of the index of refraction [ru
Electrically Tunable g Factors in Quantum Dot Molecular Spin States
Doty, M. F.; Scheibner, M.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Korenev, V. L.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.
2006-11-01
We present a magnetophotoluminescence study of individual vertically stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot pairs separated by thin tunnel barriers. As an applied electric field tunes the relative energies of the two dots, we observe a strong resonant increase or decrease in the g factors of different spin states that have molecular wave functions distributed over both quantum dots. We propose a phenomenological model for the change in g factor based on resonant changes in the amplitude of the wave function in the barrier due to the formation of bonding and antibonding orbitals.
Quantum theory of the solid state part B
Callaway, Joseph
1974-01-01
Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed
Dynamics and statistics of unstable quantum states
Sokolov, V.V.; Zelevinsky, V.G.
1989-01-01
The statistical theory of spectra formulated in terms of random matrices is extended to unstable states. The energies and widths of these states are treated as real and imaginary parts of complex eigenvalues for an effective non-hermitian hamiltonian. Eigenvalue statistics are investigated under simple assumptions. If the coupling through common decay channels is weak we obtain a Wigner distribution for the level spacings and a Porter-Thomas one for the widths, with the only exception for spacings less than widths where level repulsion fades out. Meanwhile in the complex energy plane the repulsion of eigenvalues is quadratic in accordance with the T-noninvariant character of decaying systems. In the opposite case of strong coupling with the continuum, k short-lived states are formed (k is the number of open decay channels). These states accumulate almost the whole total width, the rest of the states becoming long-lived. Such a perestroika corresponds to separation of direct processes (a nuclear analogue of Dicke coherent superradiance). At small channel number, Ericson fluctuations of the cross sections are found to be suppressed. The one-channel case is considered in detail. The joint distribution of energies and widths is obtained. The average cross sections and density of unstable states are calculated. (orig.)
Probabilistic programmable quantum processors with multiple copies of program states
Brazier, Adam; Buzek, Vladimir; Knight, Peter L.
2005-01-01
We examine the execution of general U(1) transformations on programmable quantum processors. We show that, with only the minimal assumption of availability of copies of the 1-qubit program state, the apparent advantage of existing schemes proposed by G. Vidal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 047905 (2002)] and M. Hillery et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 022301 (2003)] to execute a general U(1) transformation with greater probability using complex program states appears not to hold
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Multiparty quantum secret sharing based on GHZ states
Hwang, Tzonelih; Hwang, Cheng-Chieh [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701 Taiwan (China); Li, Chuan-Ming, E-mail: hwangtl@ismail.csie.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Information Management, Shu-Zen College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung, 821 Taiwan (China)
2011-04-15
Gao (2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 52 421-4) has proposed an efficient multiparty quantum secret sharing (MQSS) with two-photon three-dimensional Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. This work shows that a similar idea can also be used to construct an MQSS using the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Compared to other MQSSs using GHZ-related states, the newly proposed protocol is more efficient in the aspect of qubit utilization.
Decoherence and thermalization of a pure quantum state in quantum field theory.
Giraud, Alexandre; Serreau, Julien
2010-06-11
We study the real-time evolution of a self-interacting O(N) scalar field initially prepared in a pure, coherent quantum state. We present a complete solution of the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics from a 1/N expansion of the two-particle-irreducible effective action at next-to-leading order, which includes scattering and memory effects. We demonstrate that, restricting one's attention (or ability to measure) to a subset of the infinite hierarchy of correlation functions, one observes an effective loss of purity or coherence and, on longer time scales, thermalization. We point out that the physics of decoherence is well described by classical statistical field theory.
Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator.
O'Connell, A D; Hofheinz, M; Ansmann, M; Bialczak, Radoslaw C; Lenander, M; Lucero, Erik; Neeley, M; Sank, D; Wang, H; Weides, M; Wenner, J; Martinis, John M; Cleland, A N
2010-04-01
Quantum mechanics provides a highly accurate description of a wide variety of physical systems. However, a demonstration that quantum mechanics applies equally to macroscopic mechanical systems has been a long-standing challenge, hindered by the difficulty of cooling a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state. The temperatures required are typically far below those attainable with standard cryogenic methods, so significant effort has been devoted to developing alternative cooling techniques. Once in the ground state, quantum-limited measurements must then be demonstrated. Here, using conventional cryogenic refrigeration, we show that we can cool a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state by using a microwave-frequency mechanical oscillator-a 'quantum drum'-coupled to a quantum bit, which is used to measure the quantum state of the resonator. We further show that we can controllably create single quantum excitations (phonons) in the resonator, thus taking the first steps to complete quantum control of a mechanical system.
Study on multipartite quantum states: preparation, simulation, and characterization
Kruszynska, C.
2009-01-01
In this thesis different problems are investigated related to the description as well as the manipulation of multipartite quantum states. Because of the superposition principle, the state of a composite quantum system can be entangled, i.e. exhibit quantum correlations between the sites. The entanglement of two-qubit systems is well understood. There is only one kind of entanglement which can be directly related to the value of the Schmidt coefficients. However this is not the case for multipartite entanglement of qubit systems. Unlike in the two-qubit case, a multipartite quantum state can be entangled in many different ways, which complicates the classification and characterization of such states. The storage and manipulation of a quantum state is a challenging task because of the decoherence resulting from the interaction of the state with its environment. One way to overcome this difficulty is to use entanglement purification which will be the subject of the first part of this thesis. Entanglement purification allows to extract a small number of nearly pure states out of a bigger set of mixed states. We review existing bipartite and multipartite entanglement purification protocols and introduce new protocols which are capable of purifying any graph state, enlarging by this the class of states which can be purified. The second part deals with the preparation and distribution of high-fidelity multi-party entangled states via noisy channels and operations. In the particular case of GHZ and cluster states, we study different strategies using bipartite or multipartite purification protocols. The most efficient strategy depends on the target fidelity one wishes to achieve and on the quality of transmission channel and local operations. We show the existence of a crossing point beyond which the strategy making use of the purification of the state as a whole is more efficient than a strategy in which pairs are purified before they are connected to the final state. We
Discrimination of mixed quantum states. Reversible maps and unambiguous strategies
Kleinmann, Matthias
2008-06-30
The discrimination of two mixed quantum states is a fundamental task in quantum state estimation and quantum information theory. In quantum state discrimination a quantum system is assumed to be in one of two possible - in general mixed - non-orthogonal quantum states. The discrimination then consists of a measurement strategy that allows to decide in which state the system was before the measurement. In unambiguous state discrimination the aim is to make this decision without errors, but it is allowed to give an inconclusive answer. Especially interesting are measurement strategies that minimize the probability of an inconclusive answer. A starting point for the analysis of this optimization problem was a result by Eldar et al. [Phys. Rev. A 69, 062318 (2004)], which provides non-operational necessary and sufficient conditions for a given measurement strategy to be optimal. These conditions are reconsidered and simplified in such a way that they become operational. The simplified conditions are the basis for further central results: It is shown that the optimal measurement strategy is unique, a statement that is e.g. of importance for the complexity analysis of optimal measurement devices. The optimal measurement strategy is derived for the case, where one of the possible input states has at most rank two, which was an open problem for many years. Furthermore, using the optimality criterion it is shown that there always exists a threshold probability for each state, such that below this probability it is optimal to exclude this state from the discrimination strategy. If the two states subject to discrimination can be brought to a diagonal structure with (2 x 2)-dimensional blocks, then the unambiguous discrimination of these states can be reduced to the unambiguous discrimination of pure states. A criterion is presented that allows to identify the presence of such a structure for two self-adjoint operators. This criterion consists of the evaluation of three
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and higher excited states of a non-polynomial potential
Drigo Filho, E.; Ricotta, R.M.
1989-03-01
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is used to evaluate new excited states of a non-polynomial potential. This illustrates a method of evaluating higher excited states of quantum mechanical potentials. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Leghtas, Z; Touzard, S; Pop, I M; Kou, A; Vlastakis, B; Petrenko, A; Sliwa, K M; Narla, A; Shankar, S; Hatridge, M J; Reagor, M; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H
2015-02-20
Physical systems usually exhibit quantum behavior, such as superpositions and entanglement, only when they are sufficiently decoupled from a lossy environment. Paradoxically, a specially engineered interaction with the environment can become a resource for the generation and protection of quantum states. This notion can be generalized to the confinement of a system into a manifold of quantum states, consisting of all coherent superpositions of multiple stable steady states. We have confined the state of a superconducting resonator to the quantum manifold spanned by two coherent states of opposite phases and have observed a Schrödinger cat state spontaneously squeeze out of vacuum before decaying into a classical mixture. This experiment points toward robustly encoding quantum information in multidimensional steady-state manifolds. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Unitarity and the time evolution of quantum mechanical states
Kabir, P.K.; Pilaftsis, A.
1996-01-01
The basic requirement that, in quantum theory, the time evolution of any state is determined by the action of a unitary operator, is shown to be the underlying cause for certain open-quote open-quote exact close-quote close-quote results that have recently been reported about the time dependence of transition rates in quantum theory. Departures from exponential decay, including the open-quote open-quote quantum Zeno effect,close-quote close-quote as well as a theorem by Khalfin about the ratio of reciprocal transition rates, are shown to follow directly from such considerations. At sufficiently short times, unitarity requires that reciprocity must hold, independent of whether T invariance is valid. If T invariance does not hold, unitarity restricts the form of possible time dependence of reciprocity ratios. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Gaussian-state entanglement in a quantum beat laser
Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2011-01-01
Recently quantum beat lasers have been considered as a source of entangled radiation [S. Qamar, F. Ghafoor, M. Hillery, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 77, 062308 (2008)]. We investigate and quantify the entanglement of this system when the initial cavity modes are prepared in a Gaussian two-mode state, one being a nonclassical state and the other a thermal state. It is investigated how the output entanglement varies with the nonclassicality of the input Gaussian state, thermal noise, and the strength of the driving field.
Quantum-enhanced spectroscopy with entangled multiphoton states
Dinani, Hossein T.; Gupta, Manish K.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Berry, Dominic W.
2016-06-01
Traditionally, spectroscopy is performed by examining the position of absorption lines. However, at frequencies near the transition frequency, additional information can be obtained from the phase shift. In this work we consider the information about the transition frequency obtained from both the absorption and the phase shift, as quantified by the Fisher information in an interferometric measurement. We examine the use of multiple single-photon states, NOON states, and numerically optimized states that are entangled and have multiple photons. We find the optimized states that improve over the standard quantum limit set by independent single photons for some atom number densities.
Experimental determination of the degree of polarization of quantum states
Kothe-Termén, Christian; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
We demonstrate experimental excitation-manifold-resolved polarization characterization of quantum states of light ranging from the few-photon to the many-photon level. In contrast to the traditional characterization of polarization that is based on the Stokes parameters, we experimentally determine...... the Stokes vector of each excitation manifold separately. Only for states with a given photon number do the methods coincide. For states with an indeterminate photon number, for example Gaussian states, the employed method gives a richer and more accurate description. We apply the method both in theory...
Quantum secret sharing based on Smolin states alone
He Guangping; Wang, Z D; Bai, Yankui
2008-01-01
It was indicated (Yu 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 066301) that a previously proposed quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol based on Smolin states (Augusiak 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 012318) is insecure against an internal cheater. Here we build a different QSS protocol with Smolin states alone, and prove it to be secure against known cheating strategies. Thus we open a promising venue for building secure QSS using merely Smolin states, which is a typical kind of bound entangled states. We also propose a feasible scheme to implement the protocol experimentally
Quantum decay of metastable current states in rf squids
Dmitrenko, I.M.; Khlus, V.A.; Tsoj, C.M.; Shnyrkov, V.I.
1985-01-01
Quantum decay of metastable current states in a rf SQUID superconducting ring of a hysteresis mode are considered. Point contacts are used as a Josephson weak link. The first derivative of rf IVC, dVsub(T)/dIsub(RF), is measured which gives the dependence of the density of decay probability on the amplitude of magnetic flux oscillations in the ring. The temperature dependence of probability distribution width between 4.2 and 0.5 K suggests that for most of high-ohmic contacts Nb-Nb, Nb-Ag-Nb the quantum mechanisms of decay become dominant beginning with the temperature of about 2 K. The experimental parameters of distribution of decay probability in the quantum limit are compared to those calculated by the theory of macroscopic quantum tunneling in the limit of high and low dissipation. The experimental values of probability density distribution width and characteristic quantum temperature are higher than the theoretical ones, the fact can be attributed to the deviation of current-phase relation of contact from a sinusoidal one. Besides, some contacts seem to correspond to the case of an intermediate value of dissipation. As the frequency of rf oscillations varies from 30 to 6 MHz, the distribution width remains unchanged in accordance with the theory of quantum tunneling decay of metastable current state in the ring in the limit of high damping. At low temperatures (T approximately 0.5 K), and rather small damping coefficient, the density of probability displays anomalous peaks when the amplitude of rf oscillations is lower considerably than the critical vaiue of magnetic flux in the ring
Novel Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with G-Like States and Bell States
Min, Shi-Qi; Chen, Hua-Ying; Gong, Li-Hua
2018-03-01
A significant aspect of quantum cryptography is quantum key agreement (QKA), which ensures the security of key agreement protocols by quantum information theory. The fairness of an absolute security multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol demands that all participants can affect the protocol result equally so as to establish a shared key and that nobody can determine the shared key by himself/herself. We found that it is difficult for the existing multi-party quantum key agreement protocol to withstand the collusion attacks. Put differently, it is possible for several cooperated and untruthful participants to determine the final key without being detected. To address this issue, based on the entanglement swapping between G-like state and Bell states, a new multi-party quantum key agreement protocol is put forward. The proposed protocol makes full use of EPR pairs as quantum resources, and adopts Bell measurement and unitary operation to share a secret key. Besides, the proposed protocol is fair, secure and efficient without involving a third party quantum center. It demonstrates that the protocol is capable of protecting users' privacy and meeting the requirement of fairness. Moreover, it is feasible to carry out the protocol with existing technologies.
Novel Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with G-Like States and Bell States
Min, Shi-Qi; Chen, Hua-Ying; Gong, Li-Hua
2018-06-01
A significant aspect of quantum cryptography is quantum key agreement (QKA), which ensures the security of key agreement protocols by quantum information theory. The fairness of an absolute security multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol demands that all participants can affect the protocol result equally so as to establish a shared key and that nobody can determine the shared key by himself/herself. We found that it is difficult for the existing multi-party quantum key agreement protocol to withstand the collusion attacks. Put differently, it is possible for several cooperated and untruthful participants to determine the final key without being detected. To address this issue, based on the entanglement swapping between G-like state and Bell states, a new multi-party quantum key agreement protocol is put forward. The proposed protocol makes full use of EPR pairs as quantum resources, and adopts Bell measurement and unitary operation to share a secret key. Besides, the proposed protocol is fair, secure and efficient without involving a third party quantum center. It demonstrates that the protocol is capable of protecting users' privacy and meeting the requirement of fairness. Moreover, it is feasible to carry out the protocol with existing technologies.
Heat-machine control by quantum-state preparation: from quantum engines to refrigerators.
Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Kurizki, G
2014-08-01
We explore the dependence of the performance bounds of heat engines and refrigerators on the initial quantum state and the subsequent evolution of their piston, modeled by a quantized harmonic oscillator. Our goal is to provide a fully quantized treatment of self-contained (autonomous) heat machines, as opposed to their prevailing semiclassical description that consists of a quantum system alternately coupled to a hot or a cold heat bath and parametrically driven by a classical time-dependent piston or field. Here, by contrast, there is no external time-dependent driving. Instead, the evolution is caused by the stationary simultaneous interaction of two heat baths (having distinct spectra and temperatures) with a single two-level system that is in turn coupled to the quantum piston. The fully quantized treatment we put forward allows us to investigate work extraction and refrigeration by the tools of quantum-optical amplifier and dissipation theory, particularly, by the analysis of amplified or dissipated phase-plane quasiprobability distributions. Our main insight is that quantum states may be thermodynamic resources and can provide a powerful handle, or control, on the efficiency of the heat machine. In particular, a piston initialized in a coherent state can cause the engine to produce work at an efficiency above the Carnot bound in the linear amplification regime. In the refrigeration regime, the coefficient of performance can transgress the Carnot bound if the piston is initialized in a Fock state. The piston may be realized by a vibrational mode, as in nanomechanical setups, or an electromagnetic field mode, as in cavity-based scenarios.
Experimental test of state-independent quantum contextuality of an indivisible quantum system
Li, Meng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Cao, Dong-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2014-05-01
Since the quantum mechanics was born, quantum mechanics was argued among scientists because the differences between quantum mechanics and the classical physics. Because of this, some people give hidden variable theory. One of the hidden variable theory is non-contextual hidden variable theory, and KS inequalities are famous in non-contextual hidden variable theory. But the original KS inequalities have 117 directions to measure, so it is almost impossible to test the KS inequalities in experiment. However bout two years ago, Sixia Yu and C.H. Oh point out that for a single qutrit, we only need to measure 13 directions, then we can test the KS inequalities. This makes it possible to test the KS inequalities in experiment. We use the polarization and the path of single photon to construct a qutrit, and we use the half-wave plates, the beam displacers and polar beam splitters to prepare the quantum state and finish the measurement. And the result prove that quantum mechanics is right and non-contextual hidden variable theory is wrong.
Kwon, Younghun, E-mail: yyhkwon@hanyang.ac.kr
2015-09-02
In this article, we investigate the nonlocal behavior of the quantum state of fermionic system having the alpha vacuum. We evaluate the maximum violation of CHSH inequality in the quantum state. Even when the maximally entangled quantum state is initially shared it cannot violate the CHSH inequality, regardless of any alpha vacuum, when the infinite acceleration is applied. It means that the nonlocality of the quantum state in fermionic system with the alpha vacuum cannot survive in the infinite acceleration limit.
Horodecki, Pawel
2003-01-01
Possibility of some nonlinear-like operations in quantum mechanics are studied. Some general formula for real linear maps are derived. With the results we show how to perform physically separability tests based on any linear contraction (on product states) that either is real or Hermitian. We also show how to estimate either product or linear combinations of quantum states without knowledge about the states themselves. This can be viewed as a sort of quantum computing on quantum states algebra
Multipartite entangled quantum states: Transformation, Entanglement monotones and Application
Cui, Wei
Entanglement is one of the fundamental features of quantum information science. Though bipartite entanglement has been analyzed thoroughly in theory and shown to be an important resource in quantum computation and communication protocols, the theory of entanglement shared between more than two parties, which is called multipartite entanglement, is still not complete. Specifically, the classification of multipartite entanglement and the transformation property between different multipartite states by local operators and classical communications (LOCC) are two fundamental questions in the theory of multipartite entanglement. In this thesis, we present results related to the LOCC transformation between multipartite entangled states. Firstly, we investigate the bounds on the LOCC transformation probability between multipartite states, especially the GHZ class states. By analyzing the involvement of 3-tangle and other entanglement measures under weak two-outcome measurement, we derive explicit upper and lower bound on the transformation probability between GHZ class states. After that, we also analyze the transformation between N-party W type states, which is a special class of multipartite entangled states that has an explicit unique expression and a set of analytical entanglement monotones. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for a known upper bound of transformation probability between two N-party W type states to be achieved. We also further investigate a novel entanglement transformation protocol, the random distillation, which transforms multipartite entanglement into bipartite entanglement ii shared by a non-deterministic pair of parties. We find upper bounds for the random distillation protocol for general N-party W type states and find the condition for the upper bounds to be achieved. What is surprising is that the upper bounds correspond to entanglement monotones that can be increased by Separable Operators (SEP), which gives the first set of
Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states
Kleine, Adrian
2010-01-01
In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Product-States provide a polynomial-sized representation of one-dimensional quantum systems, thus allowing an efficient simulation of one-dimensional quantum system on classical computers. Matrix-Product-States form the conceptual framework of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). After a general introduction in the first chapter of this thesis, the second chapter deals with Matrix-Product-States, focusing on the development of fast and stable algorithms. To obtain algorithms to efficiently calculate ground states, the density-matrix renormalization group is reformulated using the Matrix-Product-States framework. Further, time-dependent problems are considered. Two different algorithms are presented, one based on a Trotter decomposition of the time-evolution operator, the other one on Krylov subspaces. Finally, the evaluation of dynamical spectral functions is discussed, and a correction vector-based method is presented. In the following chapters, the methods presented in the second chapter, are applied to a number of different physical problems. The third chapter deals with the existence of chiral phases in isotropic one-dimensional quantum spin systems. A preceding analytical study based on a mean-field approach indicated the possible existence of those phases in an isotropic Heisenberg model with a frustrating zig-zag interaction and a magnetic field. In this thesis, the existence of the chiral phases is shown numerically by using Matrix-Product-States-based algorithms. In the fourth chapter, we propose an experiment using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices, which allows a well controlled observation of the spin-charge separation (of
New methods for the measurement and alteration of quantum states
Steuernagel, O.
1996-01-01
Themes of this thesis are the mathematical representation, measurement-technical reconstruction, and preparation of quantum states as well as their alteration by measurement. The main topics of the considerations are quantum-mechanical system states, the complet description of which pursues by means of density operators. The first chapter presents a general mathematical scheme for the representaion of density operators by means of projection operators. The second chapter explains a scheme for the syntehsis of Fock states by means of a linear mixer. The third chapter answers the question, whether spontaneous emitted light, which is emitted by an atom with large spatial extension, can show self-interferences and lets conclude on thee coherent structure of the c.m. wave function of the emitting atom. The last chapter reconstructs measurement results on the coherence loss of atoms in an atomic-beam experiment by spontaneous emission in the language of the density-operator formalism
From rotating atomic rings to quantum Hall states.
Roncaglia, M; Rizzi, M; Dalibard, J
2011-01-01
Considerable efforts are currently devoted to the preparation of ultracold neutral atoms in the strongly correlated quantum Hall regime. However, the necessary angular momentum is very large and in experiments with rotating traps this means spinning frequencies extremely near to the deconfinement limit; consequently, the required control on parameters turns out to be too stringent. Here we propose instead to follow a dynamic path starting from the gas initially confined in a rotating ring. The large moment of inertia of the ring-shaped fluid facilitates the access to large angular momenta, corresponding to giant vortex states. The trapping potential is then adiabatically transformed into a harmonic confinement, which brings the interacting atomic gas in the desired quantum-Hall regime. We provide numerical evidence that for a broad range of initial angular frequencies, the giant-vortex state is adiabatically connected to the bosonic ν = 1/2 Laughlin state.
Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states
Kleine, Adrian
2010-11-08
In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Product-States provide a polynomial-sized representation of one-dimensional quantum systems, thus allowing an efficient simulation of one-dimensional quantum system on classical computers. Matrix-Product-States form the conceptual framework of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). After a general introduction in the first chapter of this thesis, the second chapter deals with Matrix-Product-States, focusing on the development of fast and stable algorithms. To obtain algorithms to efficiently calculate ground states, the density-matrix renormalization group is reformulated using the Matrix-Product-States framework. Further, time-dependent problems are considered. Two different algorithms are presented, one based on a Trotter decomposition of the time-evolution operator, the other one on Krylov subspaces. Finally, the evaluation of dynamical spectral functions is discussed, and a correction vector-based method is presented. In the following chapters, the methods presented in the second chapter, are applied to a number of different physical problems. The third chapter deals with the existence of chiral phases in isotropic one-dimensional quantum spin systems. A preceding analytical study based on a mean-field approach indicated the possible existence of those phases in an isotropic Heisenberg model with a frustrating zig-zag interaction and a magnetic field. In this thesis, the existence of the chiral phases is shown numerically by using Matrix-Product-States-based algorithms. In the fourth chapter, we propose an experiment using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices, which allows a well controlled observation of the spin-charge separation (of
Efficient steady-state solver for hierarchical quantum master equations
Zhang, Hou-Dao; Qiao, Qin; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing
2017-07-01
Steady states play pivotal roles in many equilibrium and non-equilibrium open system studies. Their accurate evaluations call for exact theories with rigorous treatment of system-bath interactions. Therein, the hierarchical equations-of-motion (HEOM) formalism is a nonperturbative and non-Markovian quantum dissipation theory, which can faithfully describe the dissipative dynamics and nonlinear response of open systems. Nevertheless, solving the steady states of open quantum systems via HEOM is often a challenging task, due to the vast number of dynamical quantities involved. In this work, we propose a self-consistent iteration approach that quickly solves the HEOM steady states. We demonstrate its high efficiency with accurate and fast evaluations of low-temperature thermal equilibrium of a model Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex. Numerically exact evaluation of thermal equilibrium Rényi entropies and stationary emission line shapes is presented with detailed discussion.
Excited states configurations of the quantum Toda lattice
Matsuyama, A.
2001-01-01
Excited states configurations of the quantum Toda lattice are studied by the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The most probable configurations of one-hole and one-particle excitations are shown to be similar to the profiles of classical phonon and soliton excitations, respectively. One-hole excitation states, which are always ground states of definite E m -symmetry of the dihedral group D N , change those structures abruptly with the potential range varied. One-particle excitations, which are buried in complicated excitation spectra, have well-defined configurations similar to the conoidal profile of the classical periodic Toda lattice. The relationship that the hole (particle) excitations in quantum mechanics correspond to the phonon (soliton) excitations in classical mechanics, which has been suggested based on the similarity of dispersion relations, is confirmed in a geometrically understandable way. Based on the study of one-soliton and two-soliton states, the structure of multi-soliton states in quantum mechanics can be conjectured
Behavior of the maximum likelihood in quantum state tomography
Scholten, Travis L.; Blume-Kohout, Robin
2018-02-01
Quantum state tomography on a d-dimensional system demands resources that grow rapidly with d. They may be reduced by using model selection to tailor the number of parameters in the model (i.e., the size of the density matrix). Most model selection methods typically rely on a test statistic and a null theory that describes its behavior when two models are equally good. Here, we consider the loglikelihood ratio. Because of the positivity constraint ρ ≥ 0, quantum state space does not generally satisfy local asymptotic normality (LAN), meaning the classical null theory for the loglikelihood ratio (the Wilks theorem) should not be used. Thus, understanding and quantifying how positivity affects the null behavior of this test statistic is necessary for its use in model selection for state tomography. We define a new generalization of LAN, metric-projected LAN, show that quantum state space satisfies it, and derive a replacement for the Wilks theorem. In addition to enabling reliable model selection, our results shed more light on the qualitative effects of the positivity constraint on state tomography.
Quasi-superradiant soliton state of matter in quantum metamaterials
Asai, Hidehiro; Kawabata, Shiro; Savel'ev, Sergey E.; Zagoskin, Alexandre M.
2018-02-01
Strong interaction of a system of quantum emitters (e.g., two-level atoms) with electromagnetic field induces specific correlations in the system accompanied by a drastic increase of emitted radiation (superradiation or superfluorescence). Despite the fact that since its prediction this phenomenon was subject to a vigorous experimental and theoretical research, there remain open question, in particular, concerning the possibility of a first order phase transition to the superradiant state from the vacuum state. In systems of natural and charge-based artificial atom this transition is prohibited by "no-go" theorems. Here we demonstrate numerically and confirm analytically a similar transition in a one-dimensional quantum metamaterial - a chain of artificial atoms (qubits) strongly interacting with classical electromagnetic fields in a transmission line. The system switches from vacuum state to the quasi-superradiant (QS) phase with one or several magnetic solitons and finite average occupation of qubit excited states along the transmission line. A quantum metamaterial in the QS phase circumvents the "no-go" restrictions by considerably decreasing its total energy relative to the vacuum state by exciting nonlinear electromagnetic solitons.
Behavior of the maximum likelihood in quantum state tomography
Blume-Kohout, Robin J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scholten, Travis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2018-02-22
Quantum state tomography on a d-dimensional system demands resources that grow rapidly with d. They may be reduced by using model selection to tailor the number of parameters in the model (i.e., the size of the density matrix). Most model selection methods typically rely on a test statistic and a null theory that describes its behavior when two models are equally good. Here, we consider the loglikelihood ratio. Because of the positivity constraint ρ ≥ 0, quantum state space does not generally satisfy local asymptotic normality (LAN), meaning the classical null theory for the loglikelihood ratio (the Wilks theorem) should not be used. Thus, understanding and quantifying how positivity affects the null behavior of this test statistic is necessary for its use in model selection for state tomography. We define a new generalization of LAN, metric-projected LAN, show that quantum state space satisfies it, and derive a replacement for the Wilks theorem. In addition to enabling reliable model selection, our results shed more light on the qualitative effects of the positivity constraint on state tomography.
Deterministic quantum state transfer between remote qubits in cavities
Vogell, B.; Vermersch, B.; Northup, T. E.; Lanyon, B. P.; Muschik, C. A.
2017-12-01
Performing a faithful transfer of an unknown quantum state is a key challenge for enabling quantum networks. The realization of networks with a small number of quantum links is now actively pursued, which calls for an assessment of different state transfer methods to guide future design decisions. Here, we theoretically investigate quantum state transfer between two distant qubits, each in a cavity, connected by a waveguide, e.g., an optical fiber. We evaluate the achievable success probabilities of state transfer for two different protocols: standard wave packet shaping and adiabatic passage. The main loss sources are transmission losses in the waveguide and absorption losses in the cavities. While special cases studied in the literature indicate that adiabatic passages may be beneficial in this context, it remained an open question under which conditions this is the case and whether their use will be advantageous in practice. We answer these questions by providing a full analysis, showing that state transfer by adiabatic passage—in contrast to wave packet shaping—can mitigate the effects of undesired cavity losses, far beyond the regime of coupling to a single waveguide mode and the regime of lossless waveguides, as was proposed so far. Furthermore, we show that the photon arrival probability is in fact bounded in a trade-off between losses due to non-adiabaticity and due to coupling to off-resonant waveguide modes. We clarify that neither protocol can avoid transmission losses and discuss how the cavity parameters should be chosen to achieve an optimal state transfer.
Bound states in quantum field theory and coherent states: A fresh look
Misra, S.P.
1986-09-01
We consider here bound state equations in quantum field theory where the state explicitly includes radiation quanta as constituents with the number of such quanta not fixed. The fully interacting system is dealt with through equal time commutators/anticommutators of field operators. The multiparticle channel for the radiation field is approximated through coherent state representations. (author)
Quantum walks and orbital states of a Weyl particle
Katori, Makoto; Fujino, Soichi; Konno, Norio
2005-01-01
The time-evolution equation of a one-dimensional quantum walker is exactly mapped to the three-dimensional Weyl equation for a zero-mass particle with spin 1/2, in which each wave number k of the walker's wave function is mapped to a point q(k) in the three-dimensional momentum space and q(k) makes a planar orbit as k changes its value in [-π,π). The integration over k providing the real-space wave function for a quantum walker corresponds to considering an orbital state of a Weyl particle, which is defined as a superposition (curvilinear integration) of the energy-momentum eigenstates of a free Weyl equation along the orbit. Konno's novel distribution function of a quantum walker's pseudovelocities in the long-time limit is fully controlled by the shape of the orbit and how the orbit is embedded in the three-dimensional momentum space. The family of orbital states can be regarded as a geometrical representation of the unitary group U(2) and the present study will propose a new group-theoretical point of view for quantum-walk problems
Quantum picturalism for topological cluster-state computing
Horsman, Clare
2011-01-01
Topological quantum computing (QC) is a way of allowing precise quantum computations to run on noisy and imperfect hardware. One implementation uses surface codes created by forming defects in a highly-entangled cluster state. Such a method of computing is a leading candidate for large-scale QC. However, there has been a lack of sufficiently powerful high-level languages to describe computing in this form without resorting to single-qubit operations, which quickly become prohibitively complex as the system size increases. In this paper, we apply the category-theoretic work of Abramsky and Coecke to the topological cluster-state model of QC to give a high-level graphical language that enables direct translation between quantum processes and physical patterns of measurement in a computer-a 'compiler language'. We give the equivalence between the graphical and topological information flows, and show the applicable rewrite algebra for this computing model. We show that this gives us a native graphical language for the design and analysis of topological quantum algorithms, and finish by discussing the possibilities for automating this process on a large scale.
Projective limits of state spaces II. Quantum formalism
Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas
2017-06-01
In this series of papers, we investigate the projective framework initiated by Kijowski (1977) and Okołów (2009, 2014, 2013), which describes the states of a quantum theory as projective families of density matrices. A short reading guide to the series can be found in Lanéry (2016). After discussing the formalism at the classical level in a first paper (Lanéry, 2017), the present second paper is devoted to the quantum theory. In particular, we inspect in detail how such quantum projective state spaces relate to inductive limit Hilbert spaces and to infinite tensor product constructions (Lanéry, 2016, subsection 3.1) [1]. Regarding the quantization of classical projective structures into quantum ones, we extend the results by Okołów (2013), that were set up in the context of linear configuration spaces, to configuration spaces given by simply-connected Lie groups, and to holomorphic quantization of complex phase spaces (Lanéry, 2016, subsection 2.2) [1].
Quantum computing with four-particle decoherence-free states in ion trap
Feng, Mang; Wang, Xiaoguang
2001-01-01
Quantum computing gates are proposed to apply on trapped ions in decoherence-free states. As phase changes due to time evolution of components with different eigenenergies of quantum superposition are completely frozen, quantum computing based on this model would be perfect. Possible application of our scheme in future ion-trap quantum computer is discussed.
Matrix product state calculations for one-dimensional quantum chains and quantum impurity models
Muender, Wolfgang
2011-01-01
This thesis contributes to the field of strongly correlated electron systems with studies in two distinct fields thereof: the specific nature of correlations between electrons in one dimension and quantum quenches in quantum impurity problems. In general, strongly correlated systems are characterized in that their physical behaviour needs to be described in terms of a many-body description, i.e. interactions correlate all particles in a complex way. The challenge is that the Hilbert space in a many-body theory is exponentially large in the number of particles. Thus, when no analytic solution is available - which is typically the case - it is necessary to find a way to somehow circumvent the problem of such huge Hilbert spaces. Therefore, the connection between the two studies comes from our numerical treatment: they are tackled by the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and the numerical renormalization group (NRG), respectively, both based on matrix product states. The first project presented in this thesis addresses the problem of numerically finding the dominant correlations in quantum lattice models in an unbiased way, i.e. without using prior knowledge of the model at hand. A useful concept for this task is the correlation density matrix (CDM) which contains all correlations between two clusters of lattice sites. We show how to extract from the CDM, a survey of the relative strengths of the system's correlations in different symmetry sectors as well as detailed information on the operators carrying long-range correlations and the spatial dependence of their correlation functions. We demonstrate this by a DMRG study of a one-dimensional spinless extended Hubbard model, while emphasizing that the proposed analysis of the CDM is not restricted to one dimension. The second project presented in this thesis is motivated by two phenomena under ongoing experimental and theoretical investigation in the context of quantum impurity models: optical absorption
Matrix product state calculations for one-dimensional quantum chains and quantum impurity models
Muender, Wolfgang
2011-09-28
This thesis contributes to the field of strongly correlated electron systems with studies in two distinct fields thereof: the specific nature of correlations between electrons in one dimension and quantum quenches in quantum impurity problems. In general, strongly correlated systems are characterized in that their physical behaviour needs to be described in terms of a many-body description, i.e. interactions correlate all particles in a complex way. The challenge is that the Hilbert space in a many-body theory is exponentially large in the number of particles. Thus, when no analytic solution is available - which is typically the case - it is necessary to find a way to somehow circumvent the problem of such huge Hilbert spaces. Therefore, the connection between the two studies comes from our numerical treatment: they are tackled by the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and the numerical renormalization group (NRG), respectively, both based on matrix product states. The first project presented in this thesis addresses the problem of numerically finding the dominant correlations in quantum lattice models in an unbiased way, i.e. without using prior knowledge of the model at hand. A useful concept for this task is the correlation density matrix (CDM) which contains all correlations between two clusters of lattice sites. We show how to extract from the CDM, a survey of the relative strengths of the system's correlations in different symmetry sectors as well as detailed information on the operators carrying long-range correlations and the spatial dependence of their correlation functions. We demonstrate this by a DMRG study of a one-dimensional spinless extended Hubbard model, while emphasizing that the proposed analysis of the CDM is not restricted to one dimension. The second project presented in this thesis is motivated by two phenomena under ongoing experimental and theoretical investigation in the context of quantum impurity models: optical absorption
Twin Screw Extruder Production of MTTP Decoy Flares SERDP WP-1240
Campbell, Carol
2005-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop an environmentally acceptable decoy flare formulation and process to produce aircraft decoy flares without the use of HAP or Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC...
Securing quantum key distribution systems using fewer states
Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J.
2018-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two remote users to establish a secret key in the presence of an eavesdropper. The users share quantum states prepared in two mutually unbiased bases: one to generate the key while the other monitors the presence of the eavesdropper. Here, we show that a general d -dimension QKD system can be secured by transmitting only a subset of the monitoring states. In particular, we find that there is no loss in the secure key rate when dropping one of the monitoring states. Furthermore, it is possible to use only a single monitoring state if the quantum bit error rates are low enough. We apply our formalism to an experimental d =4 time-phase QKD system, where only one monitoring state is transmitted, and obtain a secret key rate of 17.4 ±2.8 Mbits/s at a 4 dB channel loss and with a quantum bit error rate of 0.045 ±0.001 and 0.037 ±0.001 in time and phase bases, respectively, which is 58.4% of the secret key rate that can be achieved with the full setup. This ratio can be increased, potentially up to 100%, if the error rates in time and phase basis are reduced. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to substantially simplify the design of high-dimensional QKD systems, including those that use the spatial or temporal degrees of freedom of the photon, and still outperform qubit-based (d =2 ) protocols.
Influence of atmospheric turbulence on the quantum polarization state
Yang, Ru; Xue, Yang; Li, Yunxia; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Yu; Zhu, Qiuli
2018-03-01
In order to study the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the polarization state of the free space quantum communication, the relationship between the refractive index and altitude, the refractive index structure constant and the turbulence dimension is deduced based on two different atmospheric refractive index structural constants models. The turbulence intensity factor κ is introduced and the equation of the variation of the quantum polarization degree with turbulence intensity is established. Through the simulation of the turbulent refractive index and the performance of four different polarization states in the low altitude turbulence environment, the results show that the atmospheric turbulence in the near ground will affect the fluctuation of the degree of polarization, and the degree of polarization varies linearly with the change of turbulence intensity. In the case of polarization |H>, the range of polarization |H> varies from 0 to 0.14 with the change of turbulence intensity. The influence of atmospheric turbulence on four different polarization states is different, and the degree of |H> and |V> depolarization is greater in the daytime and back. The depolarization degree of |-> at night is greater. The relationship between the degree of polarization and the change of turbulence intensity is analyzed by mathematical modeling, which is helpful to select the reasonable experimental scheme and compensate the change of polarization state in the aviation quantum Secure communication channel.
Entanglement measure for general pure multipartite quantum states
Heydari, Hoshang; Bjoerk, Gunnar
2004-01-01
We propose an explicit formula for a measure of entanglement of pure multipartite quantum states. We discuss the mathematical structure of the measure and give a brief explanation of its physical motivation. We apply the measure on some pure, tripartite, qubit states and demonstrate that, in general, the entanglement can depend on what actions are performed on the various subsystems, and specifically if the parties in possession of the subsystems cooperate or not. We also give some simple but illustrative examples of the entanglement of four-qubit and m-qubit states
Three state quantum key distribution for small keys
Batuwantudawe, J.; Boileau, J.-C.
2005-01-01
Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols allow two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish secure keys. The most well-known protocol is BB84, using four distinct states. Recently, Phoenix et al. proposed a three state protocol. We explain the protocol and discuss its security proof. The three state protocol also has an interesting structure that allows for errors estimation from the inconclusive results (i.e.. where Alice and Bob choose different bases). This eliminates the need for sampling, potentially useful when qubits are limited. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach compared to BB84 for the case where a good error estimate is required. (author)
Intermediate states in quantum cryptography and Bell inequalities
Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.
2003-01-01
Intermediate states are known from intercept/resend eavesdropping in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum cryptographic protocol. But they also play fundamental roles in the optimal eavesdropping strategy on the BB84 protocol and in the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) inequality. We generalize the intermediate states to an arbitrary dimension and consider intercept/resend eavesdropping, optimal eavesdropping on the generalized BB84 protocol and present a generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two entangled qudits based on these states
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic