When is the deconfinement phase transition universal?
Holland, K; Wiese, U J
2003-01-01
Pure Yang-Mills theory has a finite-temperature phase transition, separating the confined and deconfined bulk phases. Svetitsky and Yaffe conjectured that if this phase transition is of second order, it belongs to the universality class of transitions for particular scalar field theories in one lower dimension. We examine Yang-Mills theory with the symplectic gauge groups Sp(N). We find new evidence supporting the Svetitsky-Yaffe conjecture and make our own conjecture as to which gauge theories have a universal second order deconfinement phase transition.
The Deconfinement Phase Transition in the Interior of Neutron Stars
Zhou, Xia
2010-01-01
The decon?nement phase transition which happens in the interior of neutron stars are investigated. Coupled with the spin evolution of the stars, the effect of entropy production and deconfinement heat generation during the deconfinement phase transition in the mixed phase of the neutron stars are discussed. The entropy production of deconfinement phase transition can be act as a signature of phase transition, but less important and does not significantly change the thermal evolution of neutron stars. The deconfinement heat can change the thermal evolution of neutron star distinctly.
Deconfinement Phase Transition Heating and Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars
Kang, Miao; Wang, Xiaodong
2007-01-01
The deconfinement phase transition will lead to the release of latent heat during spins down of neutron stars if the transition is the first-order one.We have investigated the thermal evolution of neutron stars undergoing such deconfinement phase transition. The results show that neutron stars may be heated to higher temperature.This feature could be particularly interesting for high temperature of low-magnetic field millisecond pulsar at late stage.
Quark Deconfinement Phase Transition in Neutron Stars
Alaverdyan, G B
2009-01-01
The hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of compact stars is investigated, when the transition proceeds through a mixed phase. The hadronic phase is described in the framework of relativistic mean-field theory, when also the scalar-isovector delta-meson mean-field is taken into account. The changes of the parameters of phase transition caused by the presence of delta-meson field are explored. The results of calculation of structure of the mixed phase (Glendenning construction) are compared with the results of usual first-order phase transition (Maxwell construction).
The deconfining phase transition in and out of equilibrium
Bazavov, Oleksiy
Recent experiments carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Laboratory provide strong evidence that a matter can be driven from a confined, low-temperature phase, observed in our every day world into a deconfined high-temperature phase of liberated quarks and gluons. The equilibrium and dynamical properties of the deconfining phase transition are thus of great theoretical interest, since they also provide an information about the first femtoseconds of the evolution of our Universe, when the hot primordial soup while cooling has undergone a chain of phase transitions. The aspects of the deconfining phase transition studied in this work include: the dynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory after the heating quench (which models rapid heating in the heavy-ion collisions), equilibrium properties of the phase transition in the SU(3) gauge theory with boundaries at low temperature (small volumes at RHIC suggest that boundary effects cannot be neglected and periodic boundary conditions normally used in lattice simulations do not correspond to the experimental situation), and a study of the order of the transition in U(1) gauge theory.
Fluctuations near the deconfinement phase transition boundary
Mishustin, I N
2005-01-01
In this talk I discuss how a first order phase transition may proceed in rapidly expanding partonic matter produced in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. The resulting picture is that a strong collective flow of matter will lead to the fragmentation of a metastable phase into droplets. If the transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadron gas is of the first order, it will manifest itself by strong nonstatistical fluctuations in observable hadron distributions. I discuss shortly existing experimental data on the multiplicity fluctuations.
Deconfinement phase transition in neutron star matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ang; PENG Guang-Xiong; Lombardo U
2009-01-01
The transition from hadron phase to strange quark phase in dense matter is investigated. Instead of using the conventional bag model in quark sect, we achieve the confinement by a density-dependent quark mass derived from in-medium chiral condensates, with a thermodynamic problem improved. In nuclear slot,we adopt the equation of state from Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone approach with three-body force. It is found that the mixed phase can occur, for reasonable confinement parameter, near the normal saturation density,and transit to pure quark matter at 4-5 times the saturation, which is quite different from the previous results from other quark models that pure quark phase can not appear at neutron-star densities.
A Model Study Of The Deconfining Phase Transition
Velytsky, A
2004-01-01
The study of the deconfining phase transition or crossover is important for the understanding of properties of nuclear matter and the quark gluon plasma. Heavy ion collisions experiments are capable of creating conditions necessary for deconfinement. The dynamics of this process and not only its equilibrium properties are of interest. In this dissertation non-equilibrium aspects of rapid heating and cooling of the QCD vacuum are studied in a model framework. The 3-D Potts model with an external magnetic field is an effective model of QCD (of pure SU(3) gauge theory, when the magnetic field is set to zero), which we study by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Other models are used to understand the influence of the strength of the phase transition. In our investigations these systems are temperature driven through a phase transition or a rapid crossover using updating procedures in the Glauber universality class. We study hysteresis cycles with different updating speeds and simulations of a quench. Qualitativel...
A perturbative approach to the confinement-deconfinement phase transition
Reinosa, Urko
2016-11-01
We summarize recent progress in describing the confinement-deconfinement transition from a novel perturbative approach. Based on various works in collaboration with Julien Serreau, Matthieu Tissier and Nicolás Wschebor.
Yang-Mills correlators across the deconfinement phase transition
Reinosa, U.; Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.; Tresmontant, A.
2017-02-01
We compute the finite temperature ghost and gluon propagators of Yang-Mills theory in the Landau-DeWitt gauge. The background field that enters the definition of the latter is intimately related with the (gauge-invariant) Polyakov loop and serves as an equivalent order parameter for the deconfinement transition. We use an effective gauge-fixed description where the nonperturbative infrared dynamics of the theory is parametrized by a gluon mass which, as argued elsewhere, may originate from the Gribov ambiguity. In this scheme, one can perform consistent perturbative calculations down to infrared momenta, which have been shown to correctly describe the phase diagram of Yang-Mills theories in four dimensions as well as the zero-temperature correlators computed in lattice simulations. In this article, we provide the one-loop expressions of the finite temperature Landau-DeWitt ghost and gluon propagators for a large class of gauge groups and present explicit results for the SU(2) case. These are substantially different from those previously obtained in the Landau gauge, which corresponds to a vanishing background field. The nonanalyticity of the order parameter across the transition is directly imprinted onto the propagators in the various color modes. In the SU(2) case, this leads, for instance, to a cusp in the electric and magnetic gluon susceptibilities as well as similar signatures in the ghost sector. We mention the possibility that such distinctive features of the transition could be measured in lattice simulations in the background field gauge studied here.
Recent progress in understanding deconfinement and chiral restoration phase transitions
Shuryak, Edward
2016-01-01
Paradigme shift in gauge topology, from instantons to their constituents -- instanton-dyons -- has recently lead to very significant advances. Like instantons, they have fermionic zero modes, and their collectivization at sufficiently high density explains the chiral symmetry breaking. Unlike instantons, these objects have electric and magnetic charges. Their back reaction on the mean value of the Polyakov line (holonomy) allows to explain the deconfinement transition. The talk summarizes recent works on the dyon ensemble, done in the mean field approximation (MFA), and also by direct numerical statistical simulation. Introduction of non-trivial quark periodicity conditions leads to drastic changes in both deconfinement and chiral transitions. In particulaly, in the so called Z(N_c)-QCD model the former gets much stronger, while the latter does not seem to occur at all.
Wei, Wei
2011-01-01
As a neutron star spins down, its core density increase, changing the relative equilibrium concentration, and causing deconfinement phase transition as well. hadron matter are converted into quark matter in the interior, which enhances the deviation of chemical equilibrium state. We study such deviations and its chemical energy release.Applying to the simulation of cooling neutron stars, we find the surface effective temperature of neutron stars is promoted obviously. This implies that the deconfinement phase transition is able to raise the chemical heating efficiency.
Yang-Mills correlators across the deconfinement phase transition
Reinosa, U; Tissier, M; Tresmontant, A
2016-01-01
We compute the finite temperature ghost and gluon propagators of Yang-Mills theory in the Landau-DeWitt gauge. The background field that enters the definition of the latter is intimately related with the (gauge-invariant) Polyakov loop and serves as an equivalent order parameter for the deconfinement transition. We use an effective gauge-fixed description where the nonperturbative infrared dynamics of the theory is parametrized by a gluon mass which, as argued elsewhere, may originate from the Gribov ambiguity. In this scheme, one can perform consistent perturbative calculations down to infrared momenta, which have been shown to correctly describe the phase diagram of Yang-Mills theories in four dimensions as well as the zero-temperature correlators computed in lattice simulations. In this article, we provide the one-loop expressions of the finite temperature Landau-DeWitt ghost and gluon propagators for a large class of gauge groups and present explicit results for the SU(2) case. These are substantially dif...
Deconfinement Phase Transition in an Expanding Quark system in Relaxation Time Approximation
Yang, Z; Yang, Zhenwei; Zhuang, Pengfei
2004-01-01
We investigated the effects of nonequilibrium and collision terms on the deconfinement phase transition of an expanding quark system in Friedberg-Lee model in relaxation time approximation. By calculating the effective quark potential, the critical temperature of the phase transition is dominated by the mean field, while the collisions among quarks and mesons change the time structure of the phase transition significantly.
Deconfinement phase transition in a finite volume in the presence of massive particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules et Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure - Kouba, B.P. 92, 16050, Vieux Kouba, Algiers (Algeria)
2012-06-27
We study the QCD deconfinement phase transition from a hadronic gas to a Quark-Gluon Plasma, in the presence of massive particles. Especially, the influence of some parameters as the finite volume, finite mass, flavors number N{sub f} on the transition point and on the order of the transition is investigated.
Phase transition to QGP matter : confined vs deconfined matter
Maire, Antonin
2015-01-01
Simplified phase diagram of the nuclear phase transition, from the regular hadronic matter to the QGP phase. The sketch is meant to describe the transition foreseen along the temperature axis, at low baryochemical potential, µB.
Deconfinement Phase Transition with External Magnetic Field in the Friedberg—Lee Model
Mao, Shi-Jun
2016-11-01
The deconfinement phase transition with external magnetic field is investigated in the Friedberg-Lee model. In the frame of functional renormalization group, we extend the often used potential expansion method for continuous phase transitions to the first-order phase transition in the model. By solving the flow equations we find that, the magnetic field displays a catalysis effect and it becomes more difficult to break through the confinement in hot and dense medium.
Deconfinement Phase Transition with External Magnetic Field in Friedberg-Lee Model
Mao, Shijun
2015-01-01
The deconfinement phase transition with external magnetic field is investigated in the Friedberg-Lee model. In the frame of functional renormalization group, we extend the often used potential expansion method for continuous phase transitions to the first-order phase transition in the model. By solving the flow equations we find that, the magnetic field displays a catalysis effect and it becomes more difficult to break through the confinement in hot and dense medium.
Dimension two condensates and the Polyakov loop above the deconfinement phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MegIas, Eugenio [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Arriola, Enrique Ruiz [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)
2006-01-15
We show that recent available lattice data for the renormalized Polyakov loop above the deconfinement phase transition exhibit unequivocal inverse power temperature corrections driven by a dimension 2 gluon condensate. This simple ansatz provides a good overall description of the data throughout the deconfinement phase until near the critical temperature with just two parameters. One of the parameters is consistent with perturbation theory while a second, non perturbative, parameter provides a numerical value of the condensate which is close to existing zero and finite temperature determinations.
The deconfinement phase transition in Yang-Mills theory with general Lie group G
Holland, K; Wiese, U J
2004-01-01
We present numerical results for the deconfinement phase transition in Sp(2) and Sp(3) Yang-Mills theories in (2+1)-D and (3+1)-D. We then make a conjecture on the order of this phase transition in Yang-Mills theories with general Lie groups G = SU(N), SO(N), Sp(N) and with exceptional groups G = G(2), F(4), E(6), E(7), E(8).
Effects of gauge boson mass on chiral and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$
Yin, Pei-Lin; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-01-01
Based on the experimental observation that there is a coexisting region between the antiferromagnetic (AF) and $\\textit{d}$-wave superconducting ($\\textit{d}$SC) phases, the influences of gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ on chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$ are investigated simultaneously within a unified framework, i.e., Dyson-Schwinger equations. The results show that the chiral symmetry restoration phase transition in the presence of the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ is a typical second-order phase transition; the chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions are coincident; the critical number of fermion flavors $N^{c}_{f}$ decreases as the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ increases and there exists a boundary that separates the $N^{c}_{f}$-$m_{a}$ plane into chiral symmetry breaking/confinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) below the boundary and chiral symmetry restoration/deconfinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) above it.
QCD deconfinement phase transitions and collapsing quark stars
Bednarek, I; Manka, R; Bednarek, Ilona; Biesiada, Marek; Manka, Ryszard
1996-01-01
In this paper we discuss the QCD phase-transitions in the nontopological soliton model of quark confinement and explore possible astrophysical consequences. Our key idea is to look at quark stars (which are believed to exist since the quark matter is energetically preferred over the ordinary matter) from the point of view of soliton model. We propose that the phase transition taking place during the core collapse of massive evolved star may provide a new physical effect not taken into account in modeling the supernova explosions. We also point out the possibility that merging quark stars may produce gamma-ray bursts energetic enough to be at cosmological distances. Our idea based on the finite-temperature nontopologiocal soliton model overcomes major difficulties present in neutron star merger scenario --- the baryon loading problem and nonthermal spectra of the bursts.
Deconfining transition in Full QCD
Carmona, J M; Del Debbio, L; Di Giacomo, Adriano; Lucini, B; Paffuti, G; Pica, C
2002-01-01
We present evidence that in full QCD with two dynamical quarks confinement is produced by dual superconductivity of the vacuum as in the quenched theory. Preliminary information is obtained on the nature of the deconfining transition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghenam, L.; Djoudi, A. Ait El [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules et Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure - Kouba, B.P. 92, 16050, Vieux Kouba, Algiers (Algeria)
2012-06-27
We study the finite size and finite mass effects for the thermal deconfinement phase transition in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), using a simple model of coexistence of hadronic (H) gas and quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phases in a finite volume. We consider the equations of state of the two phases with the QGP containing two massless u and d quarks and massive s quarks, and a hadronic gas of massive pions, and we probe the system near the transition. For this, we examine the behavior of the most important hydrodynamical quantities describing the system, at a vanishing chemical potential ({mu}= 0), with temperature and energy density.
Revisiting the deconfinement phase transition in SU(4) Yang-Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions
Holland, Kieran; Wiese, Uwe-Jens
2008-01-01
In order to deepen our understanding of the nature of the deconfinement phase transition for various gauge groups, we investigate SU(4) Yang-Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions. We find that the transition is weakly first order. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations on lattices with temporal extent N_t = 3, 4 and 5, and spatial sizes up to N_s = 20 N_t. We observe coexistence of confined and deconfined phases at the critical temperature, and finite-size scaling shows consistency with first order exponents. The continuum extrapolation of the latent heat yields L_h/T_c^3=0.187(9).
Deconfining Phase Transition to a Quark-Gluon Plasma in Different SU(3) Color Representations
Mezouar, K.; Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L.
2016-10-01
For a statistical description of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) considering its internal symmetry, we calculate its partition function using the group theoretical projection method. We project out the partition function of a QGP consisting of gluons, massless up and down quarks, and massive strange quarks onto the singlet representation of the SU(3) color group, as well as onto the color octet and the color 27-plet representations. A comparison of these color representations is done, by studying their effects on the behavior of some thermodynamical quantities characterizing the mixed hadronic gas-QGP system undergoing a thermal deconfining phase transition on one side, and on the free energy during the formation of a QGP droplet from the hot hadronic gas on another side.
Mizher, A J; Fraga, E S
2010-01-01
The structure of the phase diagram for strong interactions becomes richer in the presence of a magnetic background, which enters as a new control parameter for the thermodynamics. Motivated by the relevance of this physical setting for current and future high-energy heavy ion collision experiments and for the cosmological QCD transitions, we use the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to Polyakov loops as an effective theory to investigate how the chiral and the deconfining transitions are affected, and present a general picture for the temperature--magnetic field phase diagram. We compute and discuss each contribution to the effective potential for the approximate order parameters, and uncover new phenomena such as the paramagnetically-induced breaking of global $\\mathbb{Z}_3$ symmetry, and possible splitting of deconfinement and chiral transitions in a strong magnetic field.
SU(3) Deconfining Phase Transition in a Box with Cold Boundaries
Bazavov, A
2007-01-01
Deconfined regions created in heavy ion collisions are bordered by the confined phase. We discuss boundary conditions (BCs) to model a cold exterior. Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory with thus inspired BCs show scaling. Corrections to usual results survive in the finite volume continuum limit and we estimate them in a range from L=5-10 fermi as function of the volume size $L^3$. In magnitude these corrections are comparable to those obtained by including quarks.
Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A
2015-01-01
Experimental results of the rapidity distributions of negatively charged pions produced in proton-proton (p-p) and beryllium-beryllium (Be-Be) collisions at different beam momentums, measured by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration at the super proton synchrotron (SPS), are described by a revised (three-source) Landau hydrodynamic model. The squared speed-of-sound parameter c^2_s is then extracted from the width of rapidity distribution. There is a knee point appearing at about 40A GeV/c (or 8.8 GeV) in the dependence of c^2_s on incident beam momentum (or center-of-mass energy). This knee point can be possibly regarded as the onset of deconfinement of the quarks and gluons in proton-proton collisions, and the critical point of phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is possible that the quark deconfinement and QGP phase transition happen initially in collisions at 8.8 GeV.
Chiral transition and deconfinement in N_f = 2 QCD
D'Elia, M; Lucini, B; Paffuti, G; Pica, C
2004-01-01
The transition is studied by means of a disorder parameter detecting condensation of magnetic monopoles in the vacuum. The deconfining transition is found to coincide with the chiral transition and the susceptibility \\rho, related to the disorder parameter, is consistent with a first order phase transition.
Topological deconfinement transition in QCD at finite isospin density
Kashiwa, Kouji; Ohnishi, Akira
2017-09-01
The confinement-deconfinement transition is discussed from topological viewpoints. The topological change of the system is achieved by introducing the dimensionless imaginary chemical potential (θ). Then, the non-trivial free-energy degeneracy becomes the signal of the deconfinement transition and it can be visualized by using the map of the thermodynamic quantities to the circle S1 along θ. To understand this "topological" deconfinement transition at finite real quark chemical potential (μR), we consider the isospin chemical potential (μiso) in the effective model of QCD. The phase diagram at finite μiso is identical with that at finite μR outside of the pion-condensed phase at least in the large-Nc limit via the well-known orbifold equivalence. In the present effective model, the topological deconfinement transition does not show a significant dependence on μiso and then we can expect that this tendency also appears at small μR. Also, the chiral transition and the topological deconfinement transition seems to be weakly correlated. If we will access lattice QCD data for the temperature dependence of the quark number density at finite μiso with θ = π / 3, our surmise can be judged.
Bensalem, S.; Ait El Djoudi, A.
2016-10-01
This work deals with a statistical description of a thermally driven deconfining phase transition (DPT) from a hadronic gas consisting of massless pions to a color-singlet Quark- Gluon Plasma (QGP), in a finite volume. The thermodynamical approach, within a coexistence model is used to investigate the Quantum Chromo-Dynamics DPT occurring between the two phases, at vanishing chemical potential. Considering the color singletness condition for the QGP phase, with massless up and down quarks, the exact total partition function of the studied system is obtained and then employed to calculate mean values of physical quantities, well characterizing the system near the transition. The finite-size effects on the DPT have been investigated through the study of the thermal behavior of the order parameter, the susceptibility and the second cumulant of the probability density. The similarity between the susceptibility and the second cumulant representing the variance is probed for the studied DPT and a parameterization of the variance is proposed for the first time.
Possible splitting of deconfinement and chiral transitions in strong magnetic fields in QCD
Fraga, Eduardo S; Chernodub, M N
2010-01-01
We show that finite-temperature deconfinement and chiral transitions can split in a strong enough magnetic field. The splitting in critical temperatures of these transitions in a constant magnetic field of a typical LHC magnitude is of the order of 10 MeV. A new deconfined phase with broken chiral symmetry appears.
The deconfinement transition on coarse lattices
Bliss, D W; Lepage, G P
1996-01-01
We compute the critical temperature T_c for the deconfinement transition of pure QCD on coarse lattices, with N_t = 2, 3, 4, and lattice spacings from .33 fm to .15 fm. We employ a perturbatively improved gluon action designed to remove order a^2 and \\alpha_s a^2 errors. We find that T_c in units of the charmonium 1P--1S splitting and the torelon mass is independent of a to within approximately 5\\%.
Parity doubling of nucleons and Delta baryons across the deconfinement phase transition
Aarts, Gert; De Boni, Davide; Hands, Simon; Jaeger, Benjamin; Praki, Chrisanthi; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2016-01-01
At zero temperature the negative-parity ground states of the nucleon and delta baryons are non-degenerate with the positive-parity partners due to spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. However, chiral symmetry is expected to be restored at sufficiently high temperature, in particular when going from the hadronic to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase. This would imply that channels with opposite parity become degenerate. We study the nucleon (spin $1/2$) and $\\Delta$ (spin $3/2$) baryons in both parity sectors using lattice QCD. The range of temperatures spans both the hadronic and QGP phases. Using the FASTSUM anisotropic $N_f = 2 + 1$ ensembles, we analyze the correlation functions and the spectral functions using respectively exponential fits and the Maximum Entropy Method. We find clear evidence of in-medium effects in the hadronic phase, especially for the negative-parity ground state, and of parity doubling in the QGP phase.
The Deconfinement Phase Transition of Sp(2) and Sp(3) Yang-Mills Theories in 2+1 and 3+1 Dimensions
Holland, K; Wiese, U J
2003-01-01
Some time ago, Svetitsky and Yaffe have argued that -- if the deconfinement phase transition of a (d+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory with gauge group G is second order -- it should be in the universality class of a d-dimensional spin model symmetric under the center of G. For d=3 these arguments have been confirmed numerically only in the SU(2) case with center Z(2), simply because all SU(N) Yang-Mills theories with N>=3 seem to have non-universal first order phase transitions. The symplectic groups Sp(N) also have the center Z(2) and provide another extension of SU(2) = Sp(1) to general N. Using lattice simulations, we find that the deconfinement phase transition of Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory is first order in 3+1 dimensions, while in 2+1 dimensions stronger fluctuations induce a second order transition. In agreement with the Svetitsky-Yaffe conjecture, for (2+1)-d Sp(2) Yang-Mills theory we find the universal critical behavior of the 2-d Ising model. For Sp(3) Yang-Mills theory the transition is first order b...
Parity doubling of nucleons, Delta and Omega baryons across the deconfinement phase transition
Aarts, Gert; De Boni, Davide; Hands, Simon; Jaeger, Benjamin; Praki, Chrisanthi; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2016-01-01
In this work we analyse positive- and negative-parity channels for the nucleon (spin $1/2$ octet), $\\Delta$ and $\\Omega$ baryons (spin $3/2$ decuplet) using lattice QCD. In Nature, at zero temperature, chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, causing positive- and negative-parity ground states to have different masses. However, chiral symmetry is expected to be restored (for massless quarks) around the crossover temperature, implying that the two opposite parity channels should become degenerate. Here we study what happens in a temperature range which includes both the hadronic and the quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase. By analysing the correlation and spectral functions via exponential fits and the Maximum Entropy Method respectively, we have found parity doubling for the nucleon and $\\Delta$ baryon channels in the QGP phase. For the $\\Omega$ baryon we see a clear signal of parity doubling at the crossover temperature, which is however not complete, due to the nonzero strange quark mass. Moreover, in-medium eff...
Deconfinement, chiral transition and localisation in a QCD-like model
Giordano, Matteo; Katz, Sándor D.; Kovács, Tamás G.; Pittler, Ferenc
2017-02-01
We study the problems of deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low Dirac eigenmodes in a toy model of QCD, namely unimproved staggered fermions on lattices of temporal extension N T = 4. This model displays a genuine deconfining and chirally-restoring first-order phase transition at some critical value of the gauge coupling. Our results indicate that the onset of localisation of the lowest Dirac eigenmodes takes place at the same critical coupling where the system undergoes the first-order phase transition. This provides further evidence of the close relation between deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low modes of the Dirac operator on the lattice.
Critical Point on the QCD Deconfining Phase Boundary
Srivastava, P K
2012-01-01
Ambiguities regarding the physics and the existence of the critical point (CP) on the QCD phase boundary still exist and the mist regarding the conjectured QCD phase boundary has not yet cleared. In this paper we extend our earlier study where we constructed a deconfining phase boundary using Gibbs' equilibrium conditions after using a quasiparticle equation of state (EOS) for quark gluon plasma (QGP) and an excluded volume EOS for the hadron gas (HG) and find the presence of a critical point on this phase boundary where the first order phase transition terminates. In this paper, we plot the difference in the normalized entropy density ($s/T^{3}$) between HG and QGP phases along the deconfining phase boundary and find that it vanishes at CP. Further we have shown the variation of the square of speed of sound ($c_{s}^{2}$) for the HG and QGP separately and find that the difference ($\\Delta c_{s}^{2}$) between them along the deconfining phase boundary again vanishes at the CP of the boundary. We also plot the v...
The chiral and deconfinement aspects of the QCD transition
Bazavov, A; Cheng, M; DeTar, C; Ding, H -T; Gottlieb, Steven; Gupta, R; Hegde, P; Heller, U M; Karsch, F; Laermann, E; Levkova, L; Mukherjee, S; Petreczky, P; Schmidt, C; Soltz, R A; Soeldner, W; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Unger, W; Vranas, P
2011-01-01
We present results on the chiral and deconfinement properties of the QCD transition at finite temperature. Calculations are performed with 2+1 flavors of quarks using the p4, asqtad and HISQ/tree actions. Lattices with temporal extent N_tau=6, 8 and 12 are used to understand and control discretization errors and to reliably extrapolate estimates obtained at finite lattice spacings to the continuum limit. The chiral transition temperature is defined in terms of the phase transition in a theory with two massless flavors and analyzed using O(N) scaling fits to the chiral condensate and susceptibility. We find consistent estimates from the HISQ/tree and asqtad actions and our main result is T_c=154 +/- 9 MeV.
Confinement-deconfinement transition in the algebraic RVB states
Pei, Ji-Quan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong
2015-03-01
Deconfined algebraic spin liquids are usually expected when Gutzwiller projecting the non-interacting wave function of half-filled electrons on the square lattice with staggered flux ϕ. However, our large-scale variational Monte Carlo simulations show that there is the confinement-deconfinement transition at ϕ =ϕc where ϕc ~ 0 . 2 is the critical flux. When 0 Gutzwiller projected wave function might be due to the large anisotropy of Fermi velocity of Dirac fermions.
Deconfinement, chiral transition and localisation in a QCD-like model
Giordano, Matteo; Kovacs, Tamas G; Pittler, Ferenc
2016-01-01
We study the problems of deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low Dirac eigenmodes in a toy model of QCD, namely unimproved staggered fermions on lattices of temporal extension $N_T=4$. This model displays a genuine deconfining and chirally-restoring first-order phase transition at some critical value of the gauge coupling. Our results indicate that the onset of localisation of the lowest Dirac eigenmodes takes place at the same critical coupling where the system undergoes the first-order phase transition. This provides further evidence of the close relation between deconfinement, chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low modes of the Dirac operator on the lattice.
Using Wilson flow to study the SU(3) deconfinement transition
Datta, Saumen; Lytle, Andrew
2015-01-01
We explore the use of Wilson flow to study the deconfinement transition in SU(3) gauge theory. We use the flowed Polyakov loop as a renormalized order parameter for the transition, and use it to renormalize the Polyakov loop. We also study the flow properties of the electric and magnetic gluon condensates, and demonstrate that the difference of the flowed operators shows rapid change across the transition point.
Chiral transition and deconfinement in QCD
D'Elia, M; Pica, C
2006-01-01
The study of QCD with two light dynamical fermions is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of color confinement. We present results of a numerical investigation on the order of the chiral phase transition with $N_f = 2$ by use of a novel strategy in finite size scaling analysis. We compare the critical behaviour of the specific heat, of the chiral susceptibility and of the equation of state with the possible critical behaviours. A second order transition in the O(4) and O(2) universality classes are excluded by our data and substantial evidence emerges for a first order transition. Like in most of previous works we have used the standard staggered action with $L_t = 4$: possible scaling violations and the need for further studies are discussed.
Non-compact QED3 at finite temperature the confinement-deconfinement transition
Fiore, Roberto; Papa, Alessandro
2008-01-01
The confinement-deconfinement phase transition is explored by lattice numerical simulations in non-compact (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics with massive fermions at finite temperature. The existence of two phases, one with and the other without confinement of fractional charges, is related to the realization of the Z symmetry. The order parameter of this transition can be clearly identified. We show that it is possible to detect the critical temperature for a given value of the fermion mass, by exploiting suitable lattice operators as probes of the Z symmetry. Moreover, the large-distance behavior of the correlation of these operators permits to distinguish the phase with Coulomb-confinement from the Debye-screened phase. The resulting scenario is compatible with the existence of a Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Some investigations are presented on the possible relation between chiral and deconfinement transitions and on the role of ``monopoles''.
Deconfining transition in two-flavor QCD
Carmona, J M; Del Debbio, L; Di Giacomo, Adriano; Lucini, B; Paffuti, G; Pica, C
2003-01-01
The order and the nature of the finite-temperature phase transition of QCD with two flavors of dynamical quarks is investigated. An analysis of the critical exponent of the specific heat is performed through finite-size and finite-mass scaling of various susceptibilities. Dual superconductivity of QCD vacuum is investigated using a disorder parameter, namely the v.e.v. of a monopole creation operator. Hybrid R simulations were run at lattice spatial sizes of $12^3$, $16^3$, $20^3$ and $32^3$ and temporal size $N_t=4$, with quark masses in the range $am_q = 0.3 - 0.01$.
Confinement-Deconfinement transition in $SU(2)+$Higgs Theory
Biswal, Minati; Digal, Sanatan; Saumia, P S
2016-01-01
We study the confinement-deconfinement transition in $SU(2)$ gauge theory in the presence of massless bosons using lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The nature of this transition depends on the temporal extent ($N_\\tau$) of the Euclidean lattice. We find that the transition is a cross-over for $N_\\tau=2,4$ and second order with $3D$ Ising universality class for $N_\\tau=8$. Our results show that the second order transition is accompanied by realization of the $Z_2$ symmetry.
Langevin dynamics of the deconfinement transition for pure gauge theory
Fraga, E S; Krein, G; Fraga, Eduardo S.; Mizher, Ana J\\'ulia; Krein, Gast\\~ao
2007-01-01
We investigate the effects of dissipation in the deconfinement transition for pure SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories. Using an effective theory for the order parameter, we study its Langevin evolution numerically. Noise effects are included for the case of SU(2). We find that both dissipation and noise have dramatic effects on the spinodal decomposition of the order parameter and delay considerably its thermalization. For SU(3) the effects of dissipation are even larger than for SU(2).
Langevin dynamics of the deconfinement transition for pure gauge theory
Mizher, Ana Júlia; Fraga, Eduardo S.; Krein, Gastão Inácio [UNESP
2006-01-01
We investigate the effects of dissipation in the deconfinement transition for pure SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories. Using an effective theory for the order parameter, we study its Langevin evolution numerically. Noise effects are included for the case of SU(2). We find that both dissipation and noise have dramatic effects on the spinodal decomposition of the order parameter and delay considerably its thermalization. For SU(3) the effects of dissipation are even larger than for SU(2).
Langevin dynamics of the deconfinement transition for pure gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mizher, Ana Julia; Fraga, Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Krein, Gastao [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Teorica
2007-06-15
We investigate the effects of dissipation in the deconfinement transition for pure SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories. Using an effective theory for the order parameter, we study its Langevin evolution numerically. Noise effects are included for the case of SU(2). We find that both dissipation and noise have dramatic effects on the spinodal decomposition of the order parameter and delay considerably its thermalization. For SU(3) the effects of dissipation are even larger than for SU(2). (author)
Deconfinement transition in protoneutron star cores: Analysis within the MIT Bag model
Carmo, Taiza A S do
2013-01-01
We analyze the effect of color superconductivity in the transition from hot hadron matter to quark matter in the presence of a gas of trapped electron neutrinos. We adopt a two-phase picture in which the hadronic phase is described trough a nonlinear Walecka model and just deconfined matter through the MIT bag model including color superconductivity. We compare the present results with those obtained within the NJL model.
Hybrid model for QCD deconfining phase boundary
Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, C. P.
2012-06-01
Intensive search for a proper and realistic equations of state (EOS) is still continued for studying the phase diagram existing between quark gluon plasma (QGP) and hadron gas (HG) phases. Lattice calculations provide such EOS for the strongly interacting matter at finite temperature (T) and vanishing baryon chemical potential (μB). These calculations are of limited use at finite μB due to the appearance of notorious sign problem. In the recent past, we had constructed a hybrid model description for the QGP as well as HG phases where we make use of a new excluded-volume model for HG and a thermodynamically-consistent quasiparticle model for the QGP phase and used them further to get QCD phase boundary and a critical point. Since then many lattice calculations have appeared showing various thermal and transport properties of QCD matter at finite T and μB=0. We test our hybrid model by reproducing the entire data for strongly interacting matter and predict our results at finite μB so that they can be tested in future. Finally we demonstrate the utility of the model in fixing the precise location, the order of the phase transition and the nature of CP existing on the QCD phase diagram. We thus emphasize the suitability of the hybrid model as formulated here in providing a realistic EOS for the strongly interacting matter.
Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality
Čubrović, Mihailo
2016-10-01
We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete {Z}_2 symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous U(1) symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale — the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the breaking of the symmetry of the scalar ( {Z}_2 or U(1)) in turn restores the scaling symmetry in the system and neither phase has a higher overall symmetry than the other. When the scalar is charged the phase transition is continuous which goes against the Ginzburg-Landau theory where such transitions generically only occur discontinuously. This phenomenon has some commonalities with the scenario of deconfined criticality. The mechanism we have found has applications mainly in effective field theories such as quantum magnetic systems. We briefly discuss these applications and the relation to real-world systems.
Langevin dynamics of the pure SU(2) deconfining transition
Fraga, E S; Mizher, A J
2007-01-01
We investigate the dissipative real-time evolution of the order parameter for the deconfining transition in the pure SU(2) gauge theory. The approach to equilibrium after a quench to temperatures well above the critical one is described by a Langevin equation. To fix completely the markovian Langevin dynamics we choose the dissipation coefficient, that is a function of the temperature, guided by preliminary Monte Carlo simulations for various temperatures. Assuming a relationship between Monte Carlo time and real time, we estimate the delay in thermalization brought about by dissipation and noise.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHU Song; LI Jia-Rong
2012-01-01
Deconfinement phase transition is studied in the FL model at finite temperature and chemical potential.At MFT approximation,phase transition can only be first order in the whole μ-T phase plane.Using a Landau expansion,we further study the phase transition order and the possible phase diagram of deconfinement. We discuss the possibilities of second order phase transitions in the FL model. From our analysis,if the cubic term in the Landau expansion could be cancelled by the higher order fluctuations,second order phase transition may occur.By an ansatz of the Landau parameters,we obtain a possible phase diagram with both the first and second order phase transitions,including the tri-critical point which is similar to that of the chiral phase transition.
Thermal Chiral and Deconfining Transitions in the Presence of a Magnetic Background
Fraga, Eduardo S.
We review the influence of a magnetic background on the phase diagram of strong interactions and how the chiral and deconfining transitions can be affected. First we summarize results for both transitions obtained in the framework of the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop, and how they compare to other effective model approaches and to lattice QCD. Then we discuss the outcome of the magnetic MIT bag model that yields a behavior for the critical deconfining temperature which is compatible with recent lattice results and magnetic catalysis. The qualitative success of the magnetic MIT bag model hints to T c being a confinement-driven quantity, and leads us to the discussion of its behavior as predicted within the large-N c limit of QCD, which is also in line with the most recent lattice QCD results provided that quarks behave paramagnetically.
Thermal chiral and deconfining transitions in the presence of a magnetic background
Fraga, Eduardo S
2012-01-01
We review the influence of a magnetic background on the phase diagram of strong interactions and how the chiral and deconfining transitions can be affected. First we summarize results for both transitions obtained in the framework of the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop, and how they compare to other effective model approaches and to lattice QCD. Then we discuss the outcome of the magnetic MIT bag model that yields a behavior for the critical deconfining temperature which is compatible with recent lattice results and magnetic catalysis. The qualitative success of the magnetic MIT bag model hints to $T_{c}$ being a confinement-driven quantity, and leads us to the discussion of its behavior as predicted within the large-$N_{c}$ limit of QCD, which is also in line with the most recent lattice QCD results provided that quarks behave paramagnetically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andersen, Jens O.; Naylor, William R. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Tranberg, Anders [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)
2014-04-30
We use the Polyakov loop coupled quark-meson model to approximate low energy QCD and present results for the chiral and deconfinement transitions in the presence of a constant magnetic background B at finite temperature T and baryon chemical potential μ{sub B}. We investigate effects of various gluonic potentials on the deconfinement transition with and without a fermionic backreaction at finite B. Additionally we investigate the effect of the Polyakov loop on the chiral phase transition, finding that magnetic catalysis at low μ{sub B} is present, but weakened by the Polyakov loop.
Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality
Čubrović, Mihailo
2016-01-01
We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous $U(1)$ symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale -- the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the break...
Study of Confinement/Deconfinement Transition in AdS/QCD with Generalized Warp Factors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shobhit Sachan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study analytical solutions of charged black holes and thermally charged AdS with generalized warped factors in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton system. We calculate Euclidean action for charged AdS and thermally charged AdS. The actions in both backgrounds are regularized by the method of background subtraction. The study of phase transition between charged black hole and thermally charged AdS gives an insight into the confinement/deconfinement transition. The plots of grand potential versus temperature and chemical potential versus transition temperature are obtained.
Shu, Song
2011-01-01
The deconfinement phase transition is studied in the FL model at finite temperature and chemical potential. At MFT approximation, the phase transition can only be the first order in the whole $\\mu-T$ phase plane. By a Landau expansion we further study the phase transition order and the possible phase diagram of deconfinement. We discuss the possibilities of second order phase transitions in FL model. By our analysis the cubic term in the Landau expansion could be cancelled by the high order fluctuations. By an ansatz of the Landau parameters, we obtain the possible phase diagram with both first and second order phase transition including the tricritical point which is similar to that of the chiral phase transition.
Simultaneous chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement - Consequences for the QCD phase diagram
Klahn, Thomas; Hempel, Matthias
2016-01-01
For studies of quark matter in astrophysical scenarios the thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) is commonly employed. Although successful, it does not account for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction which is crucial to explain recent observations of massive, two solar mass neutron stars. In Kl\\"ahn & Fischer (2015) we developed the novel vBag quark matter model which takes these effects into account. This article extends vBag to finite temperatures and isospin asymmetry. Another particular feature of vBag is the determination of the deconfinement bag constant $B_{\\rm dc}$ from a given hadronic equation of state (EoS) in order to ensure that chiral and deconfinement transitions coincide. We discuss consequences of this novel approach for the phase transition construction and the phase diagram.
Simultaneous Chiral Symmetry Restoration and Deconfinement Consequences for the QCD Phase Diagram
Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias
2017-02-01
For studies of quark matter in astrophysical scenarios, the thermodynamic bag model is commonly employed. Although successful, it does not account for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsions due to the vector interaction which is crucial to explain recent observations of massive, two solar mass neutron stars. In Klähn & Fischer we developed the novel vBag quark matter model which takes these effects into account. This article extends vBag to finite temperatures and isospin asymmetry. Another particular feature of vBag is the determination of the deconfinement bag constant {B}{dc} from a given hadronic equation of state in order to ensure that chiral and deconfinement transitions coincide. We discuss consequences of this novel approach for the phase transition construction, the phase diagram, and implications for protoneutron stars.
Duality between the Deconfined Quantum-Critical Point and the Bosonic Topological Transition
Qin, Yan Qi; He, Yuan-Yao; You, Yi-Zhuang; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Sen, Arnab; Sandvik, Anders W.; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang
2017-07-01
Recently, significant progress has been made in (2 +1 )-dimensional conformal field theories without supersymmetry. In particular, it was realized that different Lagrangians may be related by hidden dualities; i.e., seemingly different field theories may actually be identical in the infrared limit. Among all the proposed dualities, one has attracted particular interest in the field of strongly correlated quantum-matter systems: the one relating the easy-plane noncompact CP1 model (NCCP1 ) and noncompact quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two flavors (N =2 ) of massless two-component Dirac fermions. The easy-plane NCCP1 model is the field theory of the putative deconfined quantum-critical point separating a planar (X Y ) antiferromagnet and a dimerized (valence-bond solid) ground state, while N =2 noncompact QED is the theory for the transition between a bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase and a trivial Mott insulator. In this work, we present strong numerical support for the proposed duality. We realize the N =2 noncompact QED at a critical point of an interacting fermion model on the bilayer honeycomb lattice and study it using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. Using stochastic series expansion QMC simulations, we study a planar version of the S =1 /2 J -Q spin Hamiltonian (a quantum X Y model with additional multispin couplings) and show that it hosts a continuous transition between the X Y magnet and the valence-bond solid. The duality between the two systems, following from a mapping of their phase diagrams extending from their respective critical points, is supported by the good agreement between the critical exponents according to the proposed duality relationships. In the J -Q model, we find both continuous and first-order transitions, depending on the degree of planar anisotropy, with deconfined quantum criticality surviving only up to moderate strengths of the anisotropy. This explains previous claims of no deconfined quantum
Deconfinement and chiral transition in AdS/QCD wall models supplemented with a magnetic field
Dudal, David; Mertens, Thomas G
2016-01-01
We discuss the phenomenon of (inverse) magnetic catalysis for both the deconfinement and chiral transition. We discriminate between the hard and soft wall model, which we suitably generalize to include a magnetic field. Our findings show a critical deconfinement temperature going down, in contrast with the chiral restoration temperature growing with increasing magnetic field. This is at odds with contemporary lattice data, so the quest for a holographic QCD model capable of capturing inverse magnetic catalysis in the chiral sector remains open.
Large Nc Deconfinement Transition in the Presence of a Magnetic Field
Fraga, Eduardo S; Palhares, Leticia F
2013-01-01
We investigate the effect of a homogeneous magnetic field on the thermal deconfinement transition of QCD in the large $N_c$ limit. First we discuss how the critical temperature decreases due to the inclusion of $N_f \\ll N_c$ flavors of massless quarks. Then we study the equivalent correction in the presence of an external Abelian magnetic field. To leading order in $N_{f}/N_{c}$, the fact that the deconfinement critical temperature decreases with the magnetic field depends solely on quarks behaving paramagnetically. Finally, we discuss the effects from a finite quark mass and its competition with magnetic effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Tobias; Klaehn, Thomas [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Hempel, Matthias [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland)
2016-08-15
The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D χ SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Klaehn and Fischer (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D χ SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium. (orig.)
Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias
2016-01-01
The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Kl\\"ahn and Fischer (2015) (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D$\\chi$SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium.
Fischer, Tobias; Klähn, Thomas; Hempel, Matthias
2016-08-01
The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D χ SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Klähn and Fischer (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D χ SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium.
Signal of quark deconfinement and thermal evolution of hybrid stars
Kang, Miao
2010-01-01
It is well known that neutron stars spin down due to magnetic dipole radiation. The deconfinement phase transition of hadron matter to quark matter is expected to occur in the dense cores of the stars during spin-down. The phase transition continuously takes place inducing not only structural changes but also energy release in case of a first-order phase transition. The generation of energy increases the internal energy of the stars which is called deconfinement heating. The temperature of the stars arise when the deconfinement heating appears in the cores. We explore the deconfinement signature by studying the changes of surface temperature in the thermal evolution process of neutron stars.
Deconfinement and the Hagedorn transition in string theory.
Chaudhuri, S
2001-03-05
We introduce a new definition of the thermal partition function in string theory. With this new definition, the thermal partition functions of all of the string theories obey thermal duality relations with self-dual Hagedorn temperature beta(2)(H) = 4pi(2)alpha('). A beta-->beta(2)(H)/beta transformation maps the type I theory into a new string theory (type I) with thermal D p-branes, spatial hypersurfaces supporting a p-dimensional finite temperature non-Abelian Higgs-gauge theory for p< or =9. We demonstrate a continuous phase transition in the behavior of the static heavy quark-antiquark potential for small separations r(2)(*)
Large Nc deconfinement transition in the presence of a magnetic field
Fraga, Eduardo S.; Noronha, Jorge; Palhares, Letícia F.
2013-06-01
We investigate the effect of a homogeneous magnetic field on the thermal deconfinement transition of QCD in the large Nc limit. First we discuss how the critical temperature decreases due to the inclusion of Nf≪Nc flavors of massless quarks in comparison to the pure glue case. Then we study the equivalent correction in the presence of an external Abelian magnetic field. To leading order in Nf/Nc, the deconfinement critical temperature decreases with the magnetic field if the flavor contribution to the pressure behaves paramagnetically, with a sufficiently large magnetization as to overcome any possible magnetic effects in the string tension. Finally, we discuss the effects from a finite quark mass and its competition with magnetic effects.
Half-integer topological charges below and above the deconfinement transition?
Ilgenfritz, E M; Veselov, A I
2000-01-01
For pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory at finite T, by the help of the cooling method, we search for classical (approximate) solutions having non-trivial holonomy at the spatial boundary. We identify various typical objects and provide their relative frequency of occurence for the confinement and deconfinement phases. Among the configurations obtained we see also the dissociated BPS monopole pairs recently discussed by van Baal and collaborators.
Towards the N_f=2 deconfinement transition temperature with O(a) improved Wilson fermions
Brandt, Bastian B; Wittig, Hartmut; Zeidlewicz, Lars
2010-01-01
A lot of effort in lattice simulations over the last years has been devoted to studies of the QCD deconfinement transition. Most state-of-the-art simulations use rooted staggered fermions, while Wilson fermions are affected by large systematic uncertainties, such as coarse lattices or heavy sea quarks. Here we report on an ongoing study of the transition, using two degenerate flavours of nonperturbatively $\\Ord(a)$ improved Wilson fermions. We start with $N_{t}=12$ and 16 lattices and pion masses of 600 to 450 MeV, aiming at chiral and continuum limits with light quarks.
A two-loop study of the deconfinement transition in Yang-Mills theories: SU(3) and beyond
Reinosa, U; Tissier, M; Wschebor, N
2015-01-01
We study the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature within a simple massive extension of standard background field methods. We generalize our recent next-to-leading-order perturbative calculation of the Polyakov loop and the related background field effective potential for the SU(2) theory to any compact and connex Lie group with a simple Lie algebra. We discuss in detail the SU(3) theory, where the two-loop corrections yield improved values for the first order transition temperature as compared to the one-loop result. We show that certain one-loop artifacts of thermodynamical observables disappear at two-loop order, as was already the case for the SU(2) theory. In particular, the entropy and the pressure are positive for all temperatures. We also discuss the groups SU(4) and Sp(2) which shed interesting light, respectively, on the relation between the (de)confinement of static matter sources in the various representations of the gauge group and on the use...
Exceptional Deconfinement in G(2) Gauge Theory
Pepé, M
2006-01-01
The Z(N) center symmetry plays an important role in the deconfinement phase transition of SU(N) Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature. The exceptional group G(2) is the smallest simply connected gauge group with a trivial center. Hence, there is no symmetry reason why the low- and high-temperature regimes in G(2) Yang-Mills theory should be separated by a phase transition. Still, we present numerical evidence for the presence of a first order deconfinement phase transition at finite temperature. Via the Higgs mechanism, G(2) breaks to its SU(3) subgroup when a scalar field in the fundamental {7} representation acquires a vacuum expectation value v. Varying v we investigate how the G(2) deconfinement transition is related to the one in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. Interestingly, the two transitions seem to be disconnected. We also discuss a potential dynamical mechanism that may explain this behavior.
Alvarez-Castillo, D E
2016-01-01
In this work we study the case of deconfinement in compact star interiors in the presence of a strong first order phase transition associated to a critical end point in the QCD phase diagram. Neutron stars fulfilling these conditions show a third branch in the mass-radius diagram with the first and second branches being the white dwarfs and neutron stars configurations. The transition to the third branch can be reached by a pure hadronic neutron star through an induced collapse releasing energy that corresponds to a mass-energy difference between the second and third branch configurations. Physical outcomes of this phenomenon that can potentially explain the already detected astrophysical signals are discussed. In particular we present energy estimations for the case of a fast radio burst, seen as a double-peak structure in the object's light curve.
A Hybrid Model for QCD Deconfining Phase Boundary
Srivastava, P K
2012-01-01
Intensive search for a proper and realistic equations of state (EOS) is still continued for studying the phase diagram existing between quark gluon plasma (QGP) and hadron gas (HG) phases. Lattice calculations provide such EOS for the strongly interacting matter at finite temperature ($T$) and vanishing baryon chemical potential ($\\mu_{B}$). These calculations are of limited use at finite $\\mu_{B}$ due to the appearance of notorious sign problem. In the recent past, we had constructed a hybrid model description for the QGP as well as HG phases where we make use of a new excluded-volume model for HG and a thermodynamically-consistent quasiparticle model for the QGP phase and used them further to get QCD phase boundary and a critical point. Since then many lattice calculations have appeared showing various thermal and transport properties of QCD matter at finite $T$ and $\\mu_{B}=0$. We test our hybrid model by reproducing the entire data for strongly interacting matter and predict our results at finite $\\mu_{B}...
Spin-down of compact stars and energy release of a first-order phase transition
Miao, Kang; Na-Na, Pan
2007-01-01
The deconfinement phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter can continuously occur during spins down of neutron stars. It will lead to the release of latent heat if the transition is the first-order one. We have investigated the energy release of such deconfinement phase transition for rotating hybrid stars model which include mixed phase of hadronic matter and quark matter. The release of latent heat per baryon is calculated through studying a randomly process of infinitesimal compressing. Finally, we can self-consistently get the heating luminosity of deconfinement phase transition by imputing the EOS of mixed phase, and based on the equation of rotation structure of stars.
Deconfinement in QCD with dynamical quarks
Borisenko, O A; Zinovjev, G M
1996-01-01
We study the phase structure of full QCD within the canonical ensemble with respect to triality in a lattice formulation. The procedure for the calculation of the effective potentials in this case is given. As an example we consider the three dimensional SU(2) gauge model at finite temperatures in the strong coupling region. The potential exhibits a deconfinement phase transition unlike the similar potential obtained in the grand canonical ensemble which demonstrates explicit Z(N) symmetry breaking at any temperature. Furthermore, we investigate the effective potential with the chiral condensate included. In contradiction to other authors, we find chiral symmetry restoration in all triality sectors. In the scheme with massless staggered fermions we observe chiral symmetry restoration accompanying a deconfinement phase transition of first order. Above the critical point, besides two Z(2) symmetric "deconfining" vacua there exists a metastable "confining" vacuum in a wide region of parameters. Such a picture co...
Solé, Ricard V
2011-01-01
Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o
Probing deconfinement in a chiral effective model with Polyakov loop at imaginary chemical potential
Morita, Kenji; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof
2011-01-01
The phase structure of the two-flavor Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lashinio model is explored at finite temperature and imaginary chemical potential with a particular emphasis on the confinement-deconfinement transition. We point out that the confined phase is characterized by a $\\cos3\\mu_I/T$ dependence of the chiral condensate on the imaginary chemical potential while in the deconfined phase this dependence is given by $\\cos\\mu_I/T$ and accompanied by a cusp structure induced by the Z(3) transition. We demonstrate that the phase structure of the model strongly depends on the choice of the Polyakov loop potential $\\mathcal{U}$. Furthermore, we find that by changing the four fermion coupling constant $G_s$, the location of the critical endpoint of the deconfinement transition can be moved into the real chemical potential region. We propose a new parameter characterizing the confinement-deconfinement transition.
Bazavov, Alexei
2012-01-01
We present results on the chiral transition temperature Tc in 2+1 flavor QCD extrapolated to the continuum limit and the physical light quark mass. The extrapolations are based on the data from simulations on lattices with temporal extent Ntau=6, 8 and 12 with the HISQ/tree and Ntau=8 and 12 with the asqtad action. The chiral transition is analyzed in terms of universal O(N) scaling functions. After performing simultaneous asqtad and HISQ/tree continuum extrapolation the chiral transition temperature is Tc=154 +/- 9 MeV. We also discuss the deconfinement aspects of the transition in terms of the renormalized Polyakov loop, fluctuations and correlations of several conserved charges and the trace anomaly.
The vacuum tunnelling and the crossover of deconfinement in Friedberg-Lee model
Shu, Song; Li, Jia-Rong
2013-03-01
We have discussed the vacuum tunnelling in Friedberg-Lee model. The tunnelling coefficient is derived in the field configuration space by calculating the transition amplitude using the path integral under the stationary phase approximation and the dilute instanton gas approximation. By studying the tunnelling effect between the two degenerating vacuums at the critical temperature and chemical potential, we find that the system could be deconfined by tunnelling, which could possibly change the first order deconfinement phase transition to crossover.
The vacuum tunnelling and the crossover of deconfinement in Friedberg–Lee model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shu, Song, E-mail: shus@hubu.edu.cn [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Li, Jia-Rong [Institute of Particle Physics, Hua-Zhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics, Hua-Zhong Normal University, Ministry of Education (China)
2013-03-01
We have discussed the vacuum tunnelling in Friedberg–Lee model. The tunnelling coefficient is derived in the field configuration space by calculating the transition amplitude using the path integral under the stationary phase approximation and the dilute instanton gas approximation. By studying the tunnelling effect between the two degenerating vacuums at the critical temperature and chemical potential, we find that the system could be deconfined by tunnelling, which could possibly change the first order deconfinement phase transition to crossover.
On the order of the deconfining transition in N_f=2 QCD
D'Elia, M; Pica, C
2004-01-01
A careful study is made on the lattice of the phase diagram of QCD with two staggered flavors, to investigate the order of the chiral transition of N_f=2 QCD. The specific heat and the susceptibility of the chiral condensate are determined for different spatial sizes of the system, and a finite size scaling analysis provides a determination of the (pseudo)critical indices. The result is a strong indication that the chiral transition is first order.
Morita, Kenji; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof
2011-01-01
The phase structure of Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model is explored at imaginary chemical potential, with particular emphasis on the deconfinement transition. We point out that the statistical confinement nature of the model naturally leads to characteristic dependence of the chiral condensate $$ on $\\theta=\\mu_I/T$. We introduce a dual parameter for the deconfinement transition by making use of this dependence. By changing a four-fermion coupling constant, we tune the location of the critical endpoint of the deconfinement transition.
Deconfinement transition in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory: a two-loop study
Reinosa, U; Tissier, M; Wschebor, N
2014-01-01
In a recent work we have proposed a perturbative approach for the study of the phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature. This is based on a simple massive extension of background field methods in the Landau-DeWitt gauge, where the gluon mass term is related to the existence of Gribov ambiguities. We have shown that a one-loop calculation of the background field effective potential describes well the phase structure of the SU(2) and SU(3) theories. Here, we present the calculation of the next-to-leading order contribution in perturbation theory for the SU(2) case. In particular, we compute the background field effective potential at two-loop order and the corresponding Polyakov loop, a gauge invariant order parameter of the transition, at one-loop order. We show that the two-loop correction brings the critical temperature closer to its actual value as compared to the previous one-loop result. We also compute the thermodynamic pressure as a function of the temperature and show that two...
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-09-01
In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...
Turbulent meson condensation in quark deconfinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koji Hashimoto
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In a QCD-like strongly coupled gauge theory at large Nc, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we find that heavy quark deconfinement is accompanied by a coherent condensation of higher meson resonances. This is revealed in non-equilibrium deconfinement transitions triggered by static, as well as quenched electric fields even below the Schwinger limit. There, we observe a “turbulent” energy flow to higher meson modes, which finally results in the quark deconfinement. Our observation is consistent with seeing deconfinement as a condensation of long QCD strings.
Meson turbulence at quark deconfinement from AdS/CFT
Hashimoto, Koji; Murata, Keiju; Oka, Takashi
2014-01-01
Based on the QCD string picture at confining phase, we conjecture that the deconfinement transition always accompanies a condensation of higher meson resonances with a power-law behavior, "meson turbulence". We employ the AdS/CFT correspondence to calculate the meson turbulence for $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric QCD at large $N_c$ and at strong coupling limit, and find that the energy distribution to each meson level $n$ scales as $n^\\alpha$ with the universal scaling $\\alpha=-5$. The universality is checked for various ways to attain the quark deconfinement: a static electric field below/around the critical value, a time-dependent electric field quench, and a time-dependent quark mass quench, all result in the turbulent meson condensation with the universal power $\\alpha=-5$ around the deconfinement.
First-order phase transitions in rotating hybrid stars and pulsar glitches
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fei Xiao; Chun-Mei Pi; Shu-Hua Yang; Ai-Zhi Zhou; Xiao-Ping Zheng
2011-01-01
The first order deconfinement phase transitions in rotating hybrid stars are studied and it is found that if the surface tension is sufficiently large, the transition from metastable hadron matter to stable mixed hadron-quark matter during the spindown history of a hybrid star can cause a glitch.
Thermal mass and dispersion relations of quarks in the deconfined phase of quenched QCD
Kaczmarek, Olaf; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Soeldner, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
Temporal quark correlation functions are analyzed in quenched lattice QCD for two values of temperature above the critical temperature (Tc) for deconfinement, T=1.5Tc and 3Tc. A two-pole ansatz for the quark spectral function is used to determine the bare quark mass and the momentum dependence of excitation spectra on large lattices of size up to 128^3x16. The dependence of the quark correlator on these parameters as well as the finite volume dependence of the excitation energies are analyzed in detail in order to examine the reliability of our analysis. Our results suggest the existence of quasi-particle peaks in the quark spectrum. We furthermore find evidence that the dispersion relation of the plasmino mode has a minimum at non-zero momentum even in the non-perturbative region near Tc. We also elaborate on the enhancement of the quark correlator near the chiral limit which is observed at T=1.5Tc on about half of the gauge configurations. We attribute this to the presence of near zero-modes of the fermion ...
Gravitational waves generated from the cosmological QCD phase transition within AdS/QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ahmadvand
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We study the gravitational waves produced by the collision of the bubbles as a probe for the cosmological first order QCD phase transition, considering heavy static quarks. Using AdS/QCD and the correspondence between a first order Hawking–Page phase transition and confinement–deconfinement phase transition, we find the spectrum and the strain amplitude of the gravitational wave within the hard and soft wall models. We postulate the duration of the phase transition corresponds to the evaporation time of the black hole in the five dimensional dual gravity space, and thereby obtain a bound on the string length in the space and correspondingly on the duration of the QCD phase transition. We also show that IPTA and SKA detectors will be able to detect these gravitational waves, which can be an evidence for the first order deconfinement transition.
Diagnosing deconfinement and topological order
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregor, K [Courant Institute, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Huse, David A; Sondhi, S L [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Moessner, R, E-mail: moessner@pks.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, 01187 Dresden (Germany)
2011-02-15
Topological or deconfined phases are characterized by emergent, weakly fluctuating, gauge fields. In condensed matter settings, they inevitably come coupled to excitations that carry the corresponding gauge charges which invalidate the standard diagnostic of deconfinement-the Wilson loop. Inspired by a mapping between symmetric sponges and the deconfined phase of the Z{sub 2} gauge theory, we construct a diagnostic for deconfinement that has the interpretation of a line tension. One operator version of this diagnostic turns out to be the Fredenhagen-Marcu order parameter known to lattice gauge theorists and we show that a different version is best suited to condensed matter systems. We discuss generalizations of the diagnostic, use it to establish the existence of finite temperature topological phases in d{>=}3 dimensions and show that multiplets of the diagnostic are useful in settings with multiple phases, such as U(1) gauge theories with charge q matter. (Additionally, we present an exact reduction of the partition function of the toric code in general dimensions to a well-studied problem.)
Quark Deconfinement in Rotating Neutron Stars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard D. Mellinger
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we use a three flavor non-local Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL model, an improved effective model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD at low energies, to investigate the existence of deconfined quarks in the cores of neutron stars. Particular emphasis is put on the possible existence of quark matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars (pulsars. In contrast to non-rotating neutron stars, whose particle compositions do not change with time (are frozen in, the type and structure of the matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars depends on the spin frequencies of these stars, which opens up a possible new window on the nature of matter deep in the cores of neutron stars. Our study shows that, depending on mass and rotational frequency, up to around 8% of the mass of a massive neutron star may be in the mixed quark-hadron phase, if the phase transition is treated as a Gibbs transition. We also find that the gravitational mass at which quark deconfinement occurs in rotating neutron stars varies quadratically with spin frequency, which can be fitted by a simple formula.
Deconfinement and virtual quark loops
Çelik, T.; Engels, J.; Satz, H.
1983-12-01
We calculate paer Monte Carlo evaluation on an 83 × 3 lattice the energy density ɛG of the gluon sector of QCD, including virtual quark loops up to the fourth power in the hopping parameter expansion. For light quarks of one flavour, we observe at T/ΛL 95 +/- 10 a rapid variation of ɛG in T, accompanied by strong fluctuations from iteration to iteration. as clear signal of the deconfinement transition.
Czaban, Christopher
2016-01-01
QCD at zero baryon density in the limit of infinite quark mass undergoes a first order deconfinement phase transition at a critical temperature $T_c$ corresponding to the breaking of the global centre symmetry. In the presence of dynamical quarks this symmetry is explicitly broken. Lowering the quark mass the first order phase transition weakens and terminates in a second order Z(2) point. Beyond this line confined and deconfined regions are analytically connected by a crossover transition. As the continuum limit is approached (i.e. the lattice spacing is decreased) the region of first order transitions expands towards lower masses. We study the deconfinement critical point with standard Wilson fermions and $N_f=2$ flavours. To this end we simulate several kappa values on $N_\\tau=8$ and various aspect ratios in order to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit, applying finite size scaling. We estimate if and when a continuuum extrapolation is possible.
Why Do Deconfinement and Chiral Restoration Coincide at High Temperature?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨树; 郭华; 赵恩广; 吕晓夫
2004-01-01
The global colour model in free space is extended to finite temperature to study the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions at high temperature T and zero chemical potential in the mean field approximation. Both possibilities of coincidence and non-coincidence of the two distinct phase transitions are found when the model parameters are varied in a certain range. The underlying mechanisms of the coincidence and noncoincidence are analysed and discussed. The validity of the T-dependent model propagator as the input is also discussed.
Molecular dynamics simulation for the baryon-quark phase transition at finite baryon density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akimura, Y. [Saitama University, Department of physics, Sakura-Ku, Saitama City (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Science Research Center, Tokai (Japan); Maruyama, T.; Chiba, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Science Research Center, Tokai (Japan); Yoshinaga, N. [Saitama University, Department of physics, Sakura-Ku, Saitama City (Japan)
2005-09-01
We study the baryon-quark phase transition in the molecular dynamics (MD) of the quark degrees of freedom at finite baryon density. The baryon state at low baryon density, and the deconfined quark state at high baryon density are reproduced. We investigate the equations of state of matters with different u-d-s compositions. It is found that the baryon-quark transition is sensitive to the quark width. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)
1996-11-01
Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.
Hedgehogs in Wilson loops and phase transition in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
Belavin, V A; Kozlov, I E
2006-01-01
We suggest that the gauge-invariant hedgehogs-like structures in the Wilson loops are physically interesting degrees of freedom in the Yang-Mills theory. The trajectories of these hedgehogs are closed curves which correspond to center-valued (untraced) Wilson loops and are characterized by the center charge and by the winding number. We show numerically in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory that the density of the hedgehogs in the thermal Wilson-Polyakov line is very sensitive to the finite temperature phase transition. The (additively normalized) hedgehog density behaves as an order parameter: the density is almost independent of the temperature in the confinement phase and changes substantially as the system gets into the deconfinement phase. Our results suggest in particular that the (static) hedgehogs may be relevant degrees of freedom around the deconfinement transition, and thus affect evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in high-energy heavy ion collisions.
Hedgehogs in Wilson loops and phase transition in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belavin, V.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, RU-117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M.N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, RU-117259 Moscow (Russian Federation) and Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: maxim.chernodub@itep.ru; Kozlov, I.E. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, RU-117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, RU-119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-08-07
We suggest that the gauge-invariant hedgehog-like structures in the Wilson loops are physically interesting degrees of freedom in the Yang-Mills theory. The trajectories of these 'hedgehog loops' are closed curves corresponding to center-valued (untraced) Wilson loops and are characterized by the center charge and winding number. We show numerically in the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory that the density of hedgehog structures in the thermal Wilson-Polyakov line is very sensitive to the finite-temperature phase transition. The (additively normalized) hedgehog line density behaves like an order parameter: The density is almost independent of the temperature in the confinement phase and changes substantially as the system enters the deconfinement phase. In particular, our results suggest that the (static) hedgehog lines may be relevant degrees of freedom around the deconfinement transition and thus affect evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.
Phase transitions modern applications
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许可; 李未
1999-01-01
Phase transition is an important feature of SAT problem. For random k-SAT model, it is proved that as r（ratio of clauses to variables） increases, the structure of solutions will undergo a sudden change like satisfiability phase transition when r reaches a threshold point (r=rcr). This phenomenon shows that the satisfying truth assignments suddenly shift from being relatively different from each other to being very similar to each other.##属性不符
Deconfinement and quantum liquid crystalline states of dipolar fermions in optical lattices
2009-01-01
We describe a simple model of fermions in quasi-one dimension that features interaction induced deconfinement (a phase transition where the effective dimensionality of the system increases as interactions are turned on) and which can be realised using dipolar fermions in an optical lattice. The model provides a relisation of a "soft quantum matter" phase diagram of strongly-correlated fermions, featuring meta-nematic, smectic and crystalline states, in addition to the normal Fermi liquid. In ...
Quasiparticle model for deconfined matter and the nucleation of hadrons
Bessa, A
2006-01-01
Assuming a first-order chiral transition scenario, we study the process of phase conversion driven by homogeneous nucleation. We adopt a quasiparticle model whose parameters are fit to lattice QCD data to describe the pressure at high temperature in the deconfined sector, and a bag model equation of state for pions in the low-temperature sector. We compute the critical radius and nucleation rate in the thin-wall approximation, and compare the results to the ones obtained using the bag model and the linear $\\sigma$ model.
The $N_f=2 chiral phase transition from imaginary chemical potential with Wilson Fermions
Cuteri, Francesca; Philipsen, Owe; Pinke, Christopher
2015-01-01
The finite temperature chiral and deconfinement phase transitions at zero density for light and heavy quarks, respectively, have analytic continuations to imaginary chemical potential. At some critical imaginary chemical potential, they meet the Roberge-Weiss transition between adjacent $Z3$ sectors. For light and heavy quarks, where the chiral and deconfinement transitions are first order, the transition lines meet in a triple point. For intermediate masses chiral or deconfinement transitions are crossover and the Roberge-Weiss transition ends in a second order point. At the boundary between these regimes the junction is a tricritical point, as shown in studies with $N_f=2,3$ flavors of staggered and Wilson quarks on $N_\\tau=4$ lattices. Employing finite size scaling we investigate the nature of this point as a function of quark mass for $N_f=2$ flavors of Wilson fermions with a temporal lattice extent of $N_\\tau=6$. In particular we are interested in the change of the location of tricritical points compared...
Kopaev, YuV
1992-01-01
Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele
Phenomena at the QCD phase transition in nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics (NχFD)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nahrgang, Marlene [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Herold, Christoph [Suranaree University of Technology, School of Physics, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)
2016-08-15
Heavy-ion collisions performed in the beam energy range accessible by the NICA collider facility are expected to produce systems of extreme net-baryon densities and can thus reach yet unexplored regions of the QCD phase diagram. Here, one expects the phase transition between the plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons and the hadronic matter to be of first order. A discovery of the first-order phase transition would as well prove the existence of the QCD critical point, a landmark in the phase diagram. In order to understand possible signals of the first-order phase transition in heavy-ion collision experiments it is very important to develop dynamical models of the phase transition. Here, we discuss the opportunities of studying dynamical effects at the QCD first-order phase transition within our model of nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics. (orig.)
Photoinduced phase transitions
Nasu, K
2004-01-01
A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.
Finite density QCD phase transition in the heavy quark region
Saito, H; Kanaya, K; Ohno, H; Ejiri, S; Nakagawa, Y; Hatsuda, T; Umeda, T
2012-01-01
We extend our previous study of the QCD phase structure in the heavy quark region to non-zero chemical potentials. To identify the critical point where the first order deconfining transition terminates, we study an effective potential defined by the probability distribution function of the plaquette and the Polyakov loop. The reweighting technique is shown to be powerful in evaluating the effective potential in a wide range of the plaquette and Polyakov loop expectation values. We adopt the cumulant expansion to overcome the sign problem in the calculation of complex phase of the quark determinant. We find that the method provides us with an intuitive and powerful way to study the phase structure. We estimate the location of the critical point at finite chemical potential in the heavy quark region.
Emergence and Phase Transitions
Sikkema, Arnold
2006-05-01
Phase transitions are well defined in physics through concepts such as spontaneous symmetry breaking, order parameter, entropy, and critical exponents. But emergence --- also exhibiting whole-part relations (such as top-down influence), unpredictability, and insensitivity to microscopic detail --- is a loosely-defined concept being used in many disciplines, particularly in psychology, biology, philosophy, as well as in physics[1,2]. I will review the concepts of emergence as used in the various fields and consider the extent to which the methods of phase transitions can clarify the usefulness of the concept of emergence both within the discipline of physics and beyond.1. Robert B. Laughlin, A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down (New York: Basic Books, 2005). 2. George F.R. Ellis, ``Physics and the Real World'', Physics Today, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 49-54.
Understanding quantum phase transitions
Carr, Lincoln
2010-01-01
Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth
Phase transitions in geometrothermodynamics
Quevedo, H; Taj, S; Vazquez, A
2010-01-01
Using the formalism of geometrothermodynamics, we investigate the geometric properties of the equilibrium manifold for diverse thermodynamic systems. Starting from Legendre invariant metrics of the phase manifold, we derive thermodynamic metrics for the equilibrium manifold whose curvature becomes singular at those points where phase transitions of first and second order occur. We conclude that the thermodynamic curvature of the equilibrium manifold, as defined in geometrothermodynamics, can be used as a measure of thermodynamic interaction in diverse systems with two and three thermodynamic degrees of freedom.
Molecular dynamics simulation for baryon-quark phase transition at finite temperature and density
Akimura, Y; Yoshinaga, N; Chiba, S; Akimura, Yuka; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Chiba, Satoshi
2005-01-01
We study the baryon-quark phase transition in a molecular dynamics (MD) of quark degrees of freedom at finite temperature and density. The baryon state at low density and temperature, and the deconfined quark state at high density and temperature are reproduced. We investigate the equations of state of matters with different $u$-$d$-$s$ compositions. Then we draw phase diagrams in the temperature-density plane by this simulation. It is found that the baryon-quark transition is sensitive to the quark width.
Fodor, Z
2000-01-01
Recent developments on the four dimensional (4d) lattice studies of the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are summarized. The phase diagram is given in the continuum limit. The finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses m/sub H/<66.5+or-1.4 GeV. Above this endpoint only a rapid cross-over can be seen. The full 4d result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. The Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the standard model (SM) would be 72.1+or-1. 4 GeV. Taking into account the LEP Higgs-boson mass lower bound excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential in the SU(2)-Higgs model enables a precise comparison between lattice simulations and perturbative results. The most popular extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) is also studied on 4d lattices. (17 refs).
Arguing on entropic and enthalpic first-order phase transitions in strongly interacting matter
Wunderlich, Falk; Kampfer, Burkhard
2016-01-01
The pattern of isentropes in the vicinity of a first-order phase transition is proposed as a key for a sub-classification. While the confinement--deconfinement transition, conjectured to set in beyond a critical end point in the QCD phase diagram, is often related to an entropic transition and the apparently settled gas-liquid transition in nuclear matter is an enthalphic transition, the conceivable local isentropes w.r.t.\\ "incoming" or "outgoing" serve as another useful guide for discussing possible implications, both in the presumed hydrodynamical expansion stage of heavy-ion collisions and the core-collapse of supernova explosions. Examples, such as the quark-meson model and two-phase models, are shown to distinguish concisely the different transitions.
Mixed phases during the phase transitions
Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Maruyama, Toshiki
2011-01-01
Quest for a new form of matter inside compact stars compels us to examine the thermodynamical properties of the phase transitions. We closely consider the first-order phase transitions and the phase equilibrium on the basis of the Gibbs conditions, taking the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter as an example. Characteristic features of the mixed phase are figured out by solving the coupled equations for mean-fields and densities of constituent particles self-consistently within the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The mixed phase is inhomogeneous matter composed of two phases in equilibrium; it takes a crystalline structure with a unit of various geometrical shapes, inside of which one phase with a characteristic shape, called "pasta", is embedded in another phase by some volume fraction. This framework enables us to properly take into account the Coulomb interaction and the interface energy, and thereby sometimes we see the mechanical instability of the geometric structures of the mixed phase...
Comparison between the continuum threshold and the Polyakov loop as deconfinement order parameters
Carlomagno, J P
2016-01-01
We study the relation between the continuum threshold as function of the temperature $s_0(T)$ within finite energy sum rules and the trace of the Polyakov loop $\\Phi$ in the framework of a nonlocal SU(2) chiral quark model, establishing a contact between both deconfinement order parameters at finite temperature $T$ and chemical potential $\\mu$. In our analysis, we also include the order parameter for the chiral symmetry restoration, the chiral quark condensate. We found that $s_0$ and $\\Phi$ providing us the same information for the deconfinement transition, both for the zero and finite chemical potential cases. At zero density, the critical temperatures for both quantities coincide exactly and, at finite $\\mu$ both order parameters provide evidence for the appearance of a quarkyonic phase.
The confined-deconfined interface tension, wetting, and the spectrum of the transfer matrix
Grossmann, B; Trappenberg, T; Wiese, U J
1992-01-01
The reduced tension $\\sigma_{cd}$ of the interface between the confined and the deconfined phase of $SU(3)$ pure gauge theory is determined from numerical simulations of the first transfer matrix eigenvalues. At $T_c = 1/L_t$ we find $\\sigma_{cd} = 0.139(4) T_c^2$ for $L_t = 2$. The interfaces show universal behavior because the deconfined-deconfined interfaces are completely wet by the confined phase. The critical exponents of complete wetting follow from the analytic interface solutions of a $\\Z(3)$-symmetric $\\Phi^4$ model in three dimensions. We find numerical evidence that the confined-deconfined interface is rough.
Photon propagator, monopoles, and the thermal phase transition in three dimensional compact QED.
Chernodub, M N; Ilgenfritz, E-M; Schiller, A
2002-06-10
We investigate the gauge boson propagator in the three dimensional compact Abelian gauge model in the Landau gauge at finite temperature. The presence of the monopole plasma in the confinement phase leads to the appearance of an anomalous dimension in the momentum dependence of the propagator. The anomalous dimension as well as an appropriate ratio of photon wave function renormalization constants with and without monopoles is observed to be an order parameter for the deconfinement phase transition. We discuss the relation between our results and the confining properties of the gluon propagator in non-Abelian gauge theories.
Phase transitions in dense 2-colour QCD
Boz, Tamer; Fister, Leonard; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2013-01-01
We investigate 2-colour QCD with 2 flavours of Wilson fermion at nonzero temperature T and quark chemical potential mu, with a pion mass of 700 MeV (m_pi/m_rho=0.8). From temperature scans at fixed mu we find that the critical temperature for the superfluid to normal transition depends only very weakly on mu above the onset chemical potential, while the deconfinement crossover temperature is clearly decreasing with mu. We also present results for the Landau-gauge gluon propagator in the hot and dense medium.
Learning phase transitions by confusion
van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Huber, Sebastian D
2016-01-01
Classifying phases of matter is a central problem in physics. For quantum mechanical systems, this task can be daunting owing to the exponentially large Hilbert space. Thanks to the available computing power and access to ever larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine learning techniques. Here, we propose to use a neural network based approach to find phase transitions depending on the performance of the neural network after training it with deliberately incorrectly labelled data. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to a generic tool to identify unexplored phase transitions.
Deconfinement in the presence of a strong magnetic background: an exercise within the MIT bag model
Fraga, Eduardo S
2012-01-01
We study the effect of a very strong homogeneous magnetic field B on the thermal deconfinement transition within the simplest phenomenological approach: the MIT bag pressure for the quark-gluon plasma and a gas of pions for the hadronic sector. Even though the model is known to be crude in numerical precision and misses the correct nature of the (crossover) transition, it provides a simple setup for the discussion of some subtleties of vacuum and thermal contributions in each phase, and should provide a reasonable qualitative description of the critical temperature in the presence of B. We find that the critical temperature decreases.
Deconfinement in the presence of a strong magnetic background: An exercise within the MIT bag model
Fraga, Eduardo S.; Palhares, Letícia F.
2012-07-01
We study the effect of a very strong homogeneous magnetic field B on the thermal deconfinement transition within the simplest phenomenological approach: the MIT bag pressure for the quark-gluon plasma and a gas of pions for the hadronic sector. Even though the model is known to be crude in numerical precision and misses the correct nature of the (crossover) transition, it provides a simple setup for the discussion of some subtleties of vacuum and thermal contributions in each phase, and should provide a reasonable qualitative description of the critical temperature in the presence of B. We find that the critical temperature decreases, saturating for very large fields.
Deconfinement, Monopoles and New Phenomena in Heavy Ion Collisions
Shuryak, Edward
2009-01-01
We discuss various manifestations of the "magnetic scenario" for the quark-gluon plasma viewed as a mixture of two plasmas, of electrically (quark and gluons) as well as magnetically charged quasiparticles. Near the deconfinement phase transition, $T\\approx T_c$ very small density of free quarks should lead to negligible screening of electric field while magnetic screening remains strong. The consequence of this should be existence of a "corona" of the QGP, in a way similar to that of the Sun, in which electric fields influence propagation of perturbations and even form metastable flux tubes. The natural tool for its description is (dual) magnetohydrodynamics: among observable consequences is splitting of sound into two modes, with larger and smaller velocity. The latter can be zero, hinting for formation of pressure-stabilized flux tubes. Remarkably, recent experimental discoveries at RHIC show effects similar to expected for "corona structures". In dihadron correlation function with large-$p_t$ trigger ther...
Srivastava, Brijesh K
2011-01-01
Possible phase transition of strongly interacting matter from hadron to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state have in the p ast received considerable interest. It has been suggested that this problem might be treated by percolation theory. Th e Color String Percolation Model (CSPM) is used to determine the equation of state (EOS) of the QGP produced in central Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies. The bulk thermodynamic quantities- energy density, entropy density and t he sound velocity- are obtained in the framework of CSPM. It is shown that the results are in excellent agreement with the recent lattice QCD calculations(LQCD).
Srivastava, Brijesh K.
2011-07-01
Possible phase transition of strongly interacting matter from hadron to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state have in the past received considerable interest. It has been suggested that this problem might be treated by percolation theory. The Color String Percolation Model (CSPM) is used to determine the equation of state (EOS) of the QGP produced in central Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies. The bulk thermodynamic quantities - energy density, entropy density and the sound velocity - are obtained in the framework of CSPM. It is shown that the results are in excellent agreement with the recent lattice QCD calculations(LQCD).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Srivastava, Brijesh K. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (United States)
2011-07-15
Possible phase transition of strongly interacting matter from hadron to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state have in the past received considerable interest. It has been suggested that this problem might be treated by percolation theory. The Color String Percolation Model (CSPM) is used to determine the equation of state (EOS) of the QGP produced in central Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies. The bulk thermodynamic quantities - energy density, entropy density and the sound velocity - are obtained in the framework of CSPM. It is shown that the results are in excellent agreement with the recent lattice QCD calculations(LQCD).
Phase Transitions of Simple Systems
Berry, Stephen
2008-01-01
This monograph develops a unified microscopic basis for phases and phase changes of bulk matter and small systems in terms of classical physics. The origins of such phase changes are derived from simple but physically relevant models of how transitions between rigid crystalline, glassy and fluid states occur, how phase equilibria arise, and how bulk properties evolve from those of small systems.
Electroweak phase transition in technicolor
Jarvinen, Matti
2010-01-01
Several phenomenologically viable walking technicolor models have been proposed recently. I demonstrate that these models can have first order electroweak phase transitions, which are sufficiently strong for electroweak baryogenesis. Strong dynamics can also lead to several separate transitions at the electroweak scale, with the possibility of a temporary restoration and an extra breaking of the electroweak symmetry. First order phase transitions will produce gravitational waves, which may be detectable at future experiments.
Magnetic resonance of phase transitions
Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A
1979-01-01
Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also
Interface Effect in QCD Phase Transitions via Dyson-Schwinger Equation Approach
Gao, Fei
2016-01-01
With the chiral susceptibility criterion we obtain the phase diagram of strong-interaction matter in terms of temperature and chemical potential in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) of QCD.After calculating the pressure and some other thermodynamic properties of the matter in the DSE method, we get the phase diagram in terms of temperature and baryon number density. We also obtain the interface tension and the interface entropy density to describe the inhomogeneity of the two phases in the coexistence region of the first order phase transition. After including the interface effect, we find that the total entropy density of the system increases in both the deconfinement (dynamical chiral symmetry restoration) and the hadronization (dynamical chiral symmetry breaking) processes of the first order phase transitions and thus solve the entropy puzzle in the hadronization process.
Interface effect in QCD phase transitions via Dyson-Schwinger equation approach
Gao, Fei; Liu, Yu-xin
2016-11-01
With the chiral susceptibility criterion, we obtain the phase diagram of strong-interaction matter in terms of temperature and chemical potential in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations of QCD. After calculating the pressure and some other thermodynamic properties of the matter in the Dyson-Schwinger method, we get the phase diagram in terms of temperature and baryon number density. We also obtain the interface tension and the interface entropy density to describe the inhomogeneity of the two phases in the coexistence region of the first-order phase transition. After including the interface effect, we find that the total entropy density of the system increases in both the deconfinement (dynamical chiral symmetry restoration) and the hadronization (dynamical chiral symmetry breaking) processes of the first-order phase transitions and thus solve the entropy puzzle in the hadronization process.
Multiobjective Optimization and Phase Transitions
Seoane, Luís F
2015-01-01
Many complex systems obey to optimality conditions that are usually not simple. Conflicting traits often interact making a Multi Objective Optimization (MOO) approach necessary. Recent MOO research on complex systems report about the Pareto front (optimal designs implementing the best trade-off) in a qualitative manner. Meanwhile, research on traditional Simple Objective Optimization (SOO) often finds phase transitions and critical points. We summarize a robust framework that accounts for phase transitions located through SOO techniques and indicates what MOO features resolutely lead to phase transitions. These appear determined by the shape of the Pareto front, which at the same time is deeply related to the thermodynamic Gibbs surface. Indeed, thermodynamics can be written as an MOO from where its phase transitions can be parsimoniously derived; suggesting that the similarities between transitions in MOO-SOO and Statistical Mechanics go beyond mere coincidence.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven
2009-01-01
This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.
QCD phase transitions via a refined truncation of Dyson-Schwinger equations
Gao, Fei
2016-01-01
We investigate both the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions of QCD matter in a refined scheme of Dyson-Schwinger equations, which have been shown to be successful in giving the meson mass spectrum and matching the interaction with the results from ab initio computation. We verify the equivalence of the chiral susceptibility criterion with different definitions for the susceptibility and confirm that the chiral susceptibility criterion is efficient to fix not only the chiral phase boundary but also the critical end point (CEP), especially when one could not have the effective thermodynamical potential. We propose a generalized Schwinger function criterion for the confinement. We give the phase diagram of both phase transitions and show that in the refined scheme the position of the CEP shifts to lower chemical potential and higher temperature. Based on our calculation and previous results of the chemical freeze out conditions, we propose that the CEP locates in the states of the matter generated by the ...
Dissipation and memory effects in pure glue deconfinement
Fraga, E S; Krein, G; Mizher, A J; Palhares, L F
2007-01-01
We investigate the effects of dissipation in the deconfining transition for a pure SU(2) gauge theory. Using an effective model for the order parameter, we study its Langevin evolution numerically, and compare results from local additive noise dynamics to those obtained considering an exponential non-local kernel for early times.
Learning phase transitions by confusion
van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Liu, Ye-Hua; Huber, Sebastian D.
2017-02-01
Classifying phases of matter is key to our understanding of many problems in physics. For quantum-mechanical systems in particular, the task can be daunting due to the exponentially large Hilbert space. With modern computing power and access to ever-larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine-learning techniques. Here, we propose a neural-network approach to finding phase transitions, based on the performance of a neural network after it is trained with data that are deliberately labelled incorrectly. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to the development of a generic tool for identifying unexplored phase transitions.
Study of deconfinement in NA50
Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, C; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castagner, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Marco, N; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; MacCormick, M; Macciotta, P; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L
2003-01-01
The J/ psi production in 158 A GeV Pb-Pb interactions is studied, in the dimuon decay channel, as a function of centrality, as measured with the electromagnetic or, alternatively, with the very forward hadronic calorimeters. After a first sharp variation at mid- centrality, both patterns continue to fall down and-exhibit a curvature change at high centrality values. This trend excludes any conventional hadronic model and finds a natural explanation in a deconfined quark-gluon phase scenario. (21 refs).
Incommensurate phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Currat, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1996-11-01
We review the characteristic aspects of modulated crystals from the point of view of inelastic neutron scattering. We discuss the phenomenological Landau theory of the normal-to-incommensurate displacive instability and its predictions concerning the fluctuation spectrum of the modulated phase. General results on the form of the normal-mode eigenvectors and on the inelastic scattering channels through which they couple to the probe are established using the superspace approach. We illustrate these results on a simple discrete model symmetry and we review available inelastic neutron scattering data on several displacively modulated compounds. (author) 21 figs., 73 refs.
Phase transitions in operational risk.
Anand, Kartik; Kühn, Reimer
2007-01-01
In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. Consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find coexistence of operational and nonoperational phases, much as in liquid-gas systems. Such systems are susceptible to discontinuous phase transitions from the operational to nonoperational phase via catastrophic breakdown. We find this feature to be robust against variation of the microscopic modeling assumptions.
Symmetry structure and phase transitions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok Goyal; Meenu Dahiya; Deepak Chandra
2003-05-01
We study chiral symmetry structure at ﬁnite density and temperature in the presence of external magnetic ﬁeld and gravity, a situation relevant in the early Universe and in the core of compact stars. We then investigate the dynamical evolution of phase transition in the expanding early Universe and possible formation of quark nuggets and their survival.
Phase transitions in finite systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire
2002-07-01
In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2001-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in
Baryon stopping probes deconfinement
Wolschin, Georg
2016-08-01
Stopping and baryon transport in central relativistic Pb + Pb and Au + Au collisions are reconsidered with the aim to find indications for the transition from hadronic to partonic processes. At energies reached at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron ( √{s_{NN}} = 6.3-17.3 GeV) and at RHIC (62.4 GeV) the fragmentation-peak positions as obtained from the data depend linearly on the beam rapidity and are in agreement with earlier results from a QCD-based approach that accounts for gluon saturation. No discontinuities in the net-proton fragmentation peak positions occur in the expected transition region from partons to hadrons at 6-10GeV. In contrast, the mean rapidity loss is predicted to depend linearly on the beam rapidity only at high energies beyond the RHIC scale. The combination of both results offers a clue for the transition from hard partonic to soft hadronic processes in baryon stopping. NICA results could corroborate these findings.
Behavior of Charmonium Systems after Deconfinement
Datta, S; Petreczky, P; Wetzorke, I; Datta, Saumen; Karsch, Frithjof; Petreczky, Peter; Wetzorke, Ines
2003-01-01
We present a study of charmonia in hot gluonic plasma, for temperatures upto three times the deconfinement transition temperature Tc. q \\bar{q} systems with quark masses close to the charm mass and different spin-parity quantum numbers were studied on very fine isotropic lattices. The analysis of temporal correlators, and spectral functions constructed from them, shows that the J/psi and eta_c survive up to quite high temperatures, with little observable change up to 1.5 Tc, and then gradually weakening and disappearing by 3 Tc. For the scalar and axial vector channels, serious modifications are induced by the hot medium already close to Tc, possibly dissociating the mesons by 1.1 Tc.
Sliding Over a Phase Transition
Tosatti, Erio; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Santoro, Giuseppe E.
2011-03-01
The frictional response experienced by a stick-slip slider when a phase transition occurs in the underlying solid substrate is a potentially exciting, poorly explored problem. We show, based on 2-dimensional simulations modeling the sliding of a nanotip, that indeed friction may be heavily affected by a continuous structural transition. First, friction turns nonmonotonic as temperature crosses the transition, peaking at the critical temperature Tc where fluctuations are strongest. Second, below Tc friction depends upon order parameter directions, and is much larger for those where the frictional slip can cause a local flip. This may open a route towards control of atomic scale friction by switching the order parameter direction by an external field or strain, with possible application to e.g., displacive ferroelectrics such as BaTi O3 , as well as ferro- and antiferro-distortive materials. Supported by project ESF FANAS/AFRI sponsored by the Italian Research Council (CNR).
Electroweak phase transition recent results
Csikor, Ferenc
2000-01-01
Recent results of four-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations on the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are discussed. The phase transition is of first order in the SU(2)-Higgs model below the end point Higgs mass 66.5$\\pm$1.4 GeV. For larger masses a rapid cross-over appears. This result completely agrees with the results of the dimensional reduction approach. Including the full Standard Model (SM) perturbatively the end point is at 72.1$\\pm$1.4 GeV. Combined with recent LEP Higgs mass lower bounds, this excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential makes possible a precise comparison of the lattice and perturbative results. Recent 4d lattice studies of the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM) are also mentioned.
Influence of the nuclear equation of state on the hadron-quark phase transition in neutron stars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Fang; SHEN Hong
2008-01-01
We study the hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of neutron stars, and examine the influence of the nuclear equation of state on the phase transition and neutron star properties. The relativistic mean field theory with several parameter sets is used to construct the nuclear equation of state, while the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is used for the description of the deconfined quark phase. Our results show that a harder nuclear equation of state leads to an earlier onset of a mixed phase of hadronic and quark matter. We find that a massive neutron star possesses a mixed phase core, but it is not dense enough to possess a pure quark core.
Constraints for the QCD phase diagram from imaginary chemical potential
Philipsen, Owe
2010-01-01
We present unambiguous evidence from lattice simulations of N_f=3 QCD for two tricritical points in the (T,m) phase diagram at fixed imaginary \\mu/T=i\\pi/3 mod. 2\\pi/3, one in the light and one in the heavy quark regime. Together with similar results in the literature for N_f=2 this implies the existence of a chiral and of a deconfinement tricritical line at those values of imaginary chemical potentials. These tricritical lines represent the boundaries of the analytically continued chiral and deconfinement critical surfaces, respectively, which delimit the parameter space with first order phase transitions. It is demonstrated that the shape of the deconfinement critical surface is dictated by tricritical scaling and implies the weakening of the deconfinement transition with real chemical potential. A qualitatively similar effect holds for the chiral critical surface.
The chicken or the egg; or Who ordered the chiral phase transition?
Kogan, I I; Tekin, B; Kogan, Ian I.; Kovner, Alex; Tekin, Bayram
2001-01-01
We draw an analogy between the deconfining transition in the 2+1 dimensional Georgi-Glashow model and the chiral phase transition in 3+1 dimensional QCD. Based on the detailed analysis of the former (hep-th/0010201) we suggest that the chiral symmetry restoration in QCD at high temperature is driven by the thermal ensemble of baryons and antibaryons. The chiral symmetry is restored when roughly half of the volume is occupied by the baryons. Surprisingly enough, even though baryons are rather heavy, a crude estimate for the critical temperature gives $T_c=180$ Mev. In this scenario the binding of the instantons is not the cause but rather a consequence of the chiral symmetry restoration.
Phase transitions at finite density
Friman, Bengt
2012-01-01
I discuss the analytic structure of thermodynamic quantities for complex values of thermodynamic variables within Landau theory. In particular, the singularities connected with phase transitions of second order, first order and cross over types are examined. A conformal mapping is introduced, which may be used to explore the thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter at finite values of the baryon chemical potential $\\mu$ starting from lattice QCD results at $\\mu^{2}\\leq 0$. This method allows us to improve the convergence of a Taylor expansion about $\\mu=0$ and to enhance the sensitivity to physical singularities in the complex $\\mu$ plane. The technique is illustrated by an application to a second-order transition in a chiral effective model.
Interacting Weyl fermions: Phases, phase transitions, and global phase diagram
Roy, Bitan; Goswami, Pallab; Juričić, Vladimir
2017-05-01
We study the effects of short-range interactions on a generalized three-dimensional Weyl semimetal, where the band touching points act as the (anti)monopoles of Abelian Berry curvature of strength n . We show that any local interaction has a negative scaling dimension -2 /n . Consequently, all Weyl semimetals are stable against weak short-range interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, we demonstrate that the Weyl semimetal either undergoes a first-order transition into a band insulator or a continuous transition into a symmetry breaking phase. A translational symmetry breaking axion insulator and a rotational symmetry breaking semimetal are two prominent candidates for the broken symmetry phase. At the one-loop order, the correlation length exponent for continuous transitions is ν =n /2 , indicating their non-Gaussian nature for any n >1 . We also discuss the scaling of the thermodynamic and transport quantities in general Weyl semimetals as well as inside broken symmetry phases.
Phase Transition in Tensor Models
Delepouve, Thibault
2015-01-01
Generalizing matrix models, tensor models generate dynamical triangulations in any dimension and support a $1/N$ expansion. Using the intermediate field representation we explicitly rewrite a quartic tensor model as a field theory for a fluctuation field around a vacuum state corresponding to the resummation of the entire leading order in $1/N$ (a resummation of the melonic family). We then prove that the critical regime in which the continuum limit in the sense of dynamical triangulations is reached is precisely a phase transition in the field theory sense for the fluctuation field.
Gibbs measures and phase transitions
Georgii, Hans-Otto
2011-01-01
From a review of the first edition: ""This book […] covers in depth a broad range of topics in the mathematical theory of phase transition in statistical mechanics. […] It is in fact one of the author's stated aims that this comprehensive monograph should serve both as an introductory text and as a reference for the expert."" (F. Papangelou, Zentralblatt MATH) The second edition has been extended by a new section on large deviations and some comments on the more recent developments in the area.
Light scattering near phase transitions
Cummins, HZ
1983-01-01
Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2000-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m
Critical endpoint for deconfinement in matrix and other effective models
Kashiwa, Kouji; Skokov, Vladimir V
2012-01-01
We consider the position of the deconfining critical endpoint, where the first order transition for deconfinement is washed out by the presence of massive, dynamical quarks. We use an effective matrix model, employed previously to analyze the transition in the pure glue theory. If the param- eters of the pure glue theory are unaffected by the presence of dynamical quarks, and if the quarks only contribute perturbatively, then for three colors and three degenerate quark flavors this quark mass is very heavy, m_de \\sim 2.5 GeV, while the critical temperature, T_de, barely changes, \\sim 1% below that in the pure glue theory. The location of the deconfining critical endpoint is a sensitive test to differentiate between effective models. For example, models with a logarithmic potential for the Polyakov loop give much smaller values of the quark mass, m_de \\sim 1 GeV, and a large shift in T_de \\sim 10% lower than that in the pure glue theory.
Interacting Weyl fermions: Phases, phase transitions and global phase diagram
Roy, Bitan; Juricic, Vladimir
2016-01-01
We study the effects of short-range interactions on a generalized three-dimensional Weyl semimetal, where the band touching points act as the (anti)monopoles of Abelian Berry curvature of strength $n$. We show that any local interaction has a \\emph{negative} scaling dimension $-2/n$. Consequently all Weyl semimetals are stable against weak short-range interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, we demonstrate that the Weyl semimetal either undergoes a first order transition into a band insulator or a continuous transition into a symmetry breaking phase. A translational symmetry breaking axion insulator and a rotational symmetry breaking semimetal are two prominent candidates for the broken symmetry phase. At one loop level, the correlation length exponent for continuous transitions is $\
QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.
1999-03-20
The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.
The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1976-01-01
Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160 K is a first order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the transition was observed at very low energ...... energies and showed “softening” as the transition was approached from above.......Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160 K is a first order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the transition was observed at very low...
Brandt, Bastian B; Jaeger, Benjamin; Meyer, Harvey B
2015-01-01
We compute and analyze correlation functions in the isovector vector channel at vanishing spatial momentum across the deconfinement phase transition in lattice QCD. The simulations are carried out at temperatures $T/T_c=0.156, 0.8, 1.0, 1.25$ and $1.67$ with $T_c\\simeq203$MeV for two flavors of Wilson-Clover fermions with a zero-temperature pion mass of $\\simeq270$MeV. Exploiting exact sum rules and applying a phenomenologically motivated ansatz allows us to determine the spectral function $\\rho(\\omega,T)$ via a fit to the lattice correlation function data. From these results we estimate the electrical conductivity across the deconfinement phase transition via a Kubo formula and find evidence for the dissociation of the $\\rho$ meson by resolving its spectral weight at the available temperatures. We also apply the Backus-Gilbert method as a model-independent approach to this problem. At any given frequency, it yields a local weighted average of the true spectral function. We use this method to compare kinetic ...
QGP phase transition and multiplicity fluctuations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨纯斌; 王晓荣; 蔡勖
1997-01-01
The scaled factorial moments in QGP phase transitions are studied analytically by the extended Ginzburg-Landau model.The dependence of InFq on phase space interval is different for the first- and second-order QGP phase transitions.When lnFq are fitted to polynomials of X=δ1/3,the relative sign between the fitted coefficients of X and bq,l calculated theoretically can be used to judge the order of phase transitions.Two sets of experimental data are reanalysed and the phase transitions are the first order for one set of data but the second order for another.
Deconfined criticality flow in the Heisenberg model with ring-exchange interactions.
Chen, Kun; Huang, Yuan; Deng, Youjin; Kuklov, A B; Prokof'ev, N V; Svistunov, B V
2013-05-03
Quantum transition points in the J-Q model--the test bed of the deconfined critical point theory--and the SU(2)-symmetric discrete noncompact CP(1) representation of the deconfined critical action are directly compared by the flowgram method. We find that the flows of two systems coincide in a broad region of linear system sizes (10 < L < 50 for the J-Q model), implying that the deconfined critical point theory correctly captures the mesoscopic physics of competition between the antiferromagnetic and valence-bond orders in quantum spin systems. At larger sizes, however, we observe significant deviations between the two flows which both demonstrate strong violations of scale invariance. This reliably rules out the second-order transition scenario in at least one of the two models and suggests the most likely explanation for the nature of the transition in the J-Q model.
Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Sotani, Hajime; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka
2012-01-01
One of the most promising possibilities may be the appearance of quark matter in astrophysical phenomena in the light of recent progress in observations. The mechanism of deconfinement is not well understood, but the thermodynamical aspects of the hadron-quark (HQ) phase transition have been extensively studied in recent years. Then the mixed phase of hadron and quark matter becomes important; the proper treatment is needed to describe the HQ phase transition and derive the equation of state (EOS) for the HQ matter, based on the Gibbs conditions for phase equilibrium. We here adopt a EOS based on the baryon-baryon interactions including hyperons for the hadron phase, while we use rather simple EOS within the MIT bag model in the quark phase. For quark matter we further try to improve the previous EOS by considering other effective models of QCD. One of the interesting consequences may be the appearance of the inhomogeneous structures called "pasta", which are brought about by the surface and the Coulomb inter...
Current fluctuations at a phase transition
Gerschenfeld, A.; Derrida, B.
2011-10-01
The ABC model is a simple diffusive one-dimensional non-equilibrium system which exhibits a phase transition. Here we show that the cumulants of the currents of particles through the system become singular near the phase transition. At the transition, they exhibit an anomalous dependence on the system size (an anomalous Fourier's law). An effective theory for the dynamics of the single mode which becomes unstable at the transition allows one to predict this anomalous scaling.
Shao, Guo-yun; Di Toro, Massimo; Colonna, Maria; Gao, Xue-yan; Gao, Ning
2016-01-01
We construct a hadron-quark two-phase model based on the Walecka-quantum hadrodynamics and the improved Polyakov-Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with an explicit chemical potential dependence of Polyakov-loop potential ($\\mu$PNJL model). With respect to the original PNJL model, the confined-deconfined phase transition is largely affected at low temperature and large chemical potential. Using the two-phase model, we investigate the equilibrium transition between hadronic and quark matter at finite chemical potentials and temperatures. The numerical results show that the transition boundaries from nuclear to quark matter move towards smaller chemical potential (lower density) when the $\\mu$-dependent Polyakov loop potential is taken. In particular, for charge asymmetric matter, we compute the local asymmetry of $u, d$ quarks in the hadron-quark coexisting phase, and analyse the isospin-relevant observables possibly measurable in heavy-ion collision (HIC) experiments. In general new HIC data on the location and proper...
Deconfinement and continuity between thermal and (super) Yang-Mills theory for all gauge groups
Anber, Mohamed M; Teeple, Brett
2014-01-01
We study the phase structure of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on R^3XS^1, with massive gauginos, periodic around the S^1, with Sp(2N) (N>=2), Spin(N) (N>=5), G_2, F_4, E_6, E_7, E_8 gauge groups. As the gaugino mass m is increased, with S^1 size and strong coupling scale fixed, we find a first-order phase transition both for theories with and without a center. This semiclassically calculable transition is driven, as in SU(N) and G_2, arxiv.org/abs/1205.0290 and arxiv.org/abs/1212.1238, by a competition between monopole-instantons and exotic topological "molecules"---"neutral" or "magnetic" bions. We compute the trace of the Polyakov loop and its two-point correlator near the transition. We find a behavior similar to the one observed near the thermal deconfinement transition in the corresponding pure Yang-Mills (YM) theory in lattice studies (whenever available). Our results lend further support to the conjectured continuity, as a function of m, between the quantum phase transition studied here and the ...
Cosmological phase transitions from lattice field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2011-11-22
In this proceedings contribution we discuss the fate of the electroweak and the quantum chromodynamics phase transitions relevant for the early stage of the universe at non-zero temperature. These phase transitions are related to the Higgs mechanism and the breaking of chiral symmetry, respectively. We will review that non-perturbative lattice field theory simulations show that these phase transitions actually do not occur in nature and that physical observables show a completely smooth behaviour as a function of the temperature.
Holographic Phase Transition Probed by Nonlocal Observables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Xiong Zeng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is probed by the two-point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes that the black hole undergoes a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first-order phase transition, and a second-order phase transition successively before it reaches a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find that the equal area law for the first-order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second-order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.
Phase transitions of quadrupolar fluids
O'Shea, Seamus F.; Dubey, Girija S.; Rasaiah, Jayendran C.
1997-07-01
Gibbs ensemble simulations are reported for Lennard-Jones particles with embedded quadrupoles of strength Q*=Q/(ɛσ5)1/2=2.0 where ɛ and σ are the Lennard-Jones parameters. Calculations revealing the effect of the dispersive forces on the liquid-vapor coexistence were carried out by scaling the attractive r-6 term in the Lennard-Jones pair potential by a factor λ ranging from 0 to 1. Liquid-vapor coexistence is observed for all values of λ including λ=0 for Q*=2.0, unlike the corresponding dipolar fluid studied by van Leeuwen and Smit et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3991 (1993)] which showed no phase transition below λ=0.35 when the reduced dipole moment μ*=2.0. The simulation data are analyzed to estimate the critical properties of the quadrupolar fluid and their dependence on the strength λ of the dispersive force. The critical temperature and pressure show a clear quadratic dependence on λ, while the density is less confidently identified as being linear in λ. The compressibility is roughly linear in λ.
Phase transitions and gluodynamics in 2-colour matter at high density
Boz, Tamer; Fister, Leonard; Mehta, Dhagash; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2013-01-01
We investigate 2-colour QCD with 2 flavours of Wilson fermion at nonzero temperature T and quark chemical potential mu. From temperature scans at fixed mu we find that the critical temperature for the superfluid to normal transition depends only very weakly on mu above the onset chemical potential, while the deconfinement crossover temperature is clearly decreasing with mu. We find indications of a region of superfluid but deconfined matter at high mu and intermediate T. The static quark potential determined from the Wilson loop is found to exhibit a 'string tension' that increases at large mu in the 'deconfined' region. The electric (longitudinal) gluon propagator in Landau gauge becomes strongly screened with increasing temperature and chemical potential. The magnetic (transverse) gluon shows little sensitivity to temperature, and exhibits a mild enhancement at intermediate mu before becoming suppressed at large mu.
Phase transitions in the web of science
Phillips, J. C.
2015-06-01
The Internet age is changing the structure of science, and affecting interdisciplinary interactions. Publication profiles connecting mathematics with molecular biology and condensed matter physics over the last 40 years exhibit common phase transitions indicative of the critical role played by specific interdisciplinary interactions. The strengths of the phase transitions quantify the importance of interdisciplinary interactions.
Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System
Leviatan, A
2006-01-01
A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.
The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1975-01-01
Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase change from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160K is a first-order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the phase change, was observed at very low energies...... and showed 'softening' as the transition temperature was approached from above....
QCD phase transitions via a refined truncation of Dyson-Schwinger equations
Gao, Fei; Liu, Yu-xin
2016-10-01
We investigate both the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions of QCD matter in a refined scheme of Dyson-Schwinger equations, which have been shown to be successful in giving the meson mass spectrum and matching the interaction with the results from ab initio computation. We verify the equivalence of the chiral susceptibility criterion with different definitions for the susceptibility and confirm that the chiral susceptibility criterion is efficient to fix not only the chiral phase boundary but also the critical end point (CEP), especially when one could not have the effective thermodynamical potential. We propose a generalized Schwinger function criterion for the confinement. We give the phase diagram of both phase transitions and show that in the refined scheme the position of the CEP shifts to lower chemical potential and higher temperature. Based on our calculation and previous results of the chemical freeze-out conditions, we propose that the CEP is located in the states of the matter generated by the Au-Au collisions with √{sN N }=9 - 15 GeV .
SUSY and the Electroweak Phase Transition
Farrar, Glennys R S; Farrar, Glennys R.; Losada, Marta
1996-01-01
We analyze the effective 3 dimensional theory previously constructed for the MSSM and multi-Higgs models to determine the regions of parameter space in which the electroweak phase transition is sufficiently strong for a $B+L$ asymmetry to survive in the low temperature phase. We find that the inclusion of all supersymmetric scalars and all 1-loop corrections has the effect of enhancing the strength of the phase transition. Without a light stop or extension of the MSSM the phase transition is sufficiently first order only if the lightest Higgs mass $M_{h}\\lsi 70$ GeV and $tan\\beta\\lsi 1.75$.
Analytic model for low energy excitation states and phase transitions in spin-ice systems
López-Bara, F. I.; López-Aguilar, F.
2017-04-01
Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles. In recent studies of both specific heat and ac magnetic susceptibility, two (even possibly three) phases have been shown to vary the temperature. The first of these phases presents a sharp peak in the specific heat and another phase transition occurs for increasing temperature whose peak is broader than that of the former phase. The sharp peak occurs when there are no free individual magnetic charges and temperature of the second phase transition coincides with the maximum proliferation of free deconfined magnetic charges. In the present paper, we propose a model for analyzing the low energy excitation many-body states of these spin-ice systems. We give analytical formulas for the internal energy, specific heat, entropy and their temperature evolution. We study the description of the possible global states via the nature and structure of their one-body components by means of the thermodynamic functions. Below 0.37 K, the Coulomb-like magnetic charge interaction can generate a phase transition to a condensation of pole–antipole pairs, possibly having Bose–Einstein structure which is responsible for the sharp peak of the first phase transition. When there are sufficient free positive and negative charges, the system tends to behave as a magnetic plasma, which implies the broader peak in the specific heat appearing at higher temperature than the sharper experimental peak.
Deconfinement in dense 2-color QCD
Hands, S; Skullerud, J I; Hands, Simon; Kim, Seyong; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2006-01-01
We study SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of Wilson fermion at non-zero chemical potential mu and low temperature on a 8^3x16 system. We identify three regimes along the mu-axis. For mu<~m_pi/2 the system remains in the vacuum phase, and all physical observables considered remain essentially unchanged. The intermediate regime is characterised by a non-zero diquark condensate and an associated increase in the baryon density, consistent with what is expected for Bose-Einstein condensation of tightly bound diquarks. We also observe screening of the static quark potential here. In the high-density deconfined regime we find a non-zero Polyakov loop and a strong modification of the gluon propagator, including significant screening in the magnetic sector in the static limit, which must have a non-perturbative origin. The behaviour of thermodynamic observables and the superfluid order parameter are consistent with a Fermi surface disrupted by a BCS diquark condensate. The energy per baryon as a function...
Chirality effects on 2D phase transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scalas, E.; Brezesinski, G.; Möhwald, H.
1996-01-01
-nearest neighbours (NNN) and an NNN-distorted lattice is observed. At 5 degrees C, the transition pressure is 15 mN m(-1), whereas at 20 degrees C it is 18 mN m(-1). Chirality destroys this transition: the pure enantiomer always exhibits an oblique lattice with tilted molecules, and the azimuths of tilt...... and distortion continuously vary from a direction close to NN to a direction close to NNN. The nature of the phase transition and the influence of chirality on it are discussed within the framework of Landau's theory of phase transitions....
New aspects of the QCD phase transition in proto-neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae
Hempel, Matthias; Heinimann, Oliver; Yudin, Andrey; Iosilevskiy, Igor; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Friedrich-Karl, Thielemann
2017-06-01
The QCD phase transition from hadronic to deconfined quark matter is found to be a so-called “entropic” phase transition, characterized, e.g., by a negative slope of the phase transition line in the pressure-temperature phase diagram. In a first part of the present proceedings it is discussed that entropic phase transitions lead to unusual thermal properties of the equation of state (EoS). For example one finds a loss of pressure (a “softening”) of the proto-neutron star EoS with increasing entropy. This can lead to a novel, hot third family of compact stars, which exists only in the early proto-neutron star phase. Such a hot third family can trigger explosions of core-collapse supernovae. However, so far this special explosion mechanism was found to be working only for EoSs which are not compatible with the 2 M⊙ constraint for the neutron star maximum mass. In a second part of the proceeding it is discussed which quark matter parameters could be favorable for this explosion mechanism, and have sufficiently high maximum masses at the same time.
Equation of State and Phase Transitions in the Nuclear and Hadronic Systems
Bugaev, Kyrill A
2010-01-01
An investigation of strongly interacting matter equation of state remains one of the major tasks of modern high energy nuclear physics for almost a quarter of century. The present work is my doctor of science thesis which contains my contribution (42 works) to this field made between 1993 and 2008. Inhere I mainly discuss the common physical and mathematical features of several exactly solvable statistical models which describe the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition and the deconfinement phase transition. Luckily, in some cases it was possible to rigorously extend the solutions found in thermodynamic limit to finite volumes and to formulate the finite volume analogs of phases directly from the grand canonical partition. It turns out that finite volume (surface) of a system generates also the temporal constraints, i.e. the finite formation/decay time of possible states in this finite system. Among other results I would like to mention the calculation of upper and lower bounds for the surface entropy of physic...
Cosmological perturbations from an inhomogeneous phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)
2009-07-21
A mechanism for generating metric perturbations in inflationary models is considered. Long-wavelength inhomogeneities of light scalar fields in a decoupled sector may give rise to superhorizon fluctuations of couplings and masses in the low-energy effective action. Cosmological phase transitions may then occur that are not simultaneous in space, but occur with time lags in different Hubble patches that arise from the long-wavelength inhomogeneities. Here an interesting model in which cosmological perturbations may be created at the electroweak phase transition is considered. The results show that phase transitions may be a generic source of non-Gaussianity.
Phase transitions in dissipative Josephson chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bobbert, P.A.; Fazio, R.; Schoen, G. (Department of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands (NL)); Zimanyi, G.T. (Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (USA))
1990-03-01
We study the zero-temperature phase transitions of a chain of Josephson junctions, taking into account the quantum fluctuations due to the charging energy and the effects of an Ohmic dissipation. We map the problem onto a generalized Coulomb gas model, which then is transformed into a sine-Gordon field theory. Apart from the expected dipole unbinding transition, which describes a transition between globally superconducting and resistive behavior, we find a quadrupole unbinding transition at a critical strength of the dissipation. This transition separates two superconducting states characterized by different local properties.
Conductor-insulator quantum phase transitions
Trivedi, Nandini; Valles, James M
2012-01-01
When many particles come together how do they organise themselves? And what destroys this organisation? Combining experiments and theory, this book describes intriguing quantum phases - metals, superconductors and insulators - and transitions between them.
Interplay between Deconfinement and Chiral Properties
Suganuma, Hideo; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro
2016-01-01
We study interplay between confinement/deconfinement and chiral properties. We derive some analytical relations of the Dirac modes with the confinement quantities, such as the Polyakov loop, its susceptibility and the string tension. For the confinement quantities, the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes are found to give negligible contribution, while they are essential for chiral symmetry breaking. This indicates no direct, one-to-one correspondence between confinement/deconfinement and chiral properties in QCD. We also investigate the Polyakov loop in terms of the eigenmodes of the Wilson, the clover and the domain-wall fermion kernels, respectively.
Magnetic Fields from the Electroweak Phase Transition
Törnkvist, O
1998-01-01
I review some of the mechanisms through which primordial magnetic fields may be created in the electroweak phase transition. I show that no magnetic fields are produced initially from two-bubble collisions in a first-order transition. The initial field produced in a three-bubble collision is computed. The evolution of fields at later times is discussed.
The transition to chaotic phase synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosekilde, E.; Laugesen, J. L.; Zhusubaliyev, Zh. T.
2012-01-01
The transition to chaotic phase synchronization for a periodically driven spiral-type chaotic oscillator is known to involve a dense set of saddle-node bifurcations. By following the synchronization transition through the cascade of period-doubling bifurcations in a forced Ro¨ssler system, this p...
Deconfinement in Yang-Mills Theory through Toroidal Compactification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simic, Dusan; Unsal, Mithat; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2011-08-12
We introduce field theory techniques through which the deconfinement transition of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory can be moved to a semi-classical domain where it becomes calculable using two-dimensional field theory. We achieve this through a double-trace deformation of toroidally compactified Yang-Mills theory on R{sup 2} x S{sub L}{sup 1} x S{sub {beta}}{sup 1}. At large N, fixed-L, and arbitrary {beta}, the thermodynamics of the deformed theory is equivalent to that of ordinary Yang-Mills theory at leading order in the large N expansion. At fixed-N, small L and a range of {beta}, the deformed theory maps to a two-dimensional theory with electric and magnetic (order and disorder) perturbations, analogs of which appear in planar spin-systems and statistical physics. We show that in this regime the deconfinement transition is driven by the competition between electric and magnetic perturbations in this two-dimensional theory. This appears to support the scenario proposed by Liao and Shuryak regarding the magnetic component of the quark-gluon plasma at RHIC.
Transit time MESFET phase shifter
Walters, Peter C.; Roger D. Pollard; Richardson, John R.
1992-01-01
The phase shift of a signal through a common-source MESFET can be changed with little effect on the amplitude by altering the gate-drain spacing. The feasibility of employing this principle to realize a highly compact, monolithic phase shifter has been investigated. The behaviour of the devices with differing gate-drain spacing has been measured and modelled and a design for a monolithic implementation is presented.
Molecular markers of phase transition in locusts
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ARNOLD DE LOOF; ILSE CLAEYS; GERT SIMONET; PETER VERLEYEN; TIM VANDERSMISSEN; FILIP SAS; JURGEN HUYBRECHTS
2006-01-01
The changes accompanying the transition from the gregarious to the solitary phase state in locusts are so drastic that for a long time these phases were considered as distinct species. It was Boris Uvarov who introduced the concept of polyphenism. Decades of research revealed that phase transition implies changes in morphometry, the color of the cuticle, behavior and several aspects of physiology. In particular, in the recent decade, quite a number of molecular studies have been undertaken to uncover phase-related differences.They resulted in novel insights into the role of corazonin, neuroparsins, some protease inhibitors, phenylacetonitrile and so on. The advent of EST-databases of locusts (e.g. Kang et al., 2004) is a most encouraging novel development in physiological and behavioral locust research. Yet, the answer to the most intriguing question, namely whether or not there is a primordial molecular inducer of phase transition, is probably not within reach in the very near future.
Polymorphic phase transition in Superhydrous Phase B
Koch-Müller, M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Orman, J. Van; Wirth, R.
2005-09-01
We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200°C (LT) and 1400°C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180°C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group ( Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group ( Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.
Polymorphic Phase Transition in Superhydrous Phase B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch-Muller,M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Van Orman, J.; Wirth, R.
2005-01-01
We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200 C (LT) and 1400 C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180 C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group (Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group (Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.
Geometrical Clusterization in SU(2) gluodynamics and Liquid-gas Phase Transition
Ivanytskyi, A I; Sagun, V V; Oliinychenko, D R
2016-01-01
The liquid droplet formula is applied to an analysis of the properties of geometrical (anti)clusters formed in SU(2) gluodynamics by the Polyakov loops of the same sign. Using this approach, we explain the phase transition in SU(2) gluodynamics as a transition between two liquids during which one of the liquid droplets (the largest cluster of a certain Polyakov loop sign) experiences a condensation, while another droplet (the next to the largest cluster of the opposite sign of Polyakov loop) evaporates. The clusters of smaller sizes form two accompanying gases, which behave oppositely to their liquids. The liquid droplet formula is used to analyze the size distributions of the gas (anti)clusters. The fit of these distributions allows us to extract the temperature dependence of surface tension and the value of Fisher topological exponent $\\tau$ for both kinds of gaseous clusters. It is shown that the surface tension coeficient of gaseous (anti)clusters can serve as an order parameter of the deconfinement phase...
The dual quark condensate in local and nonlocal NJL models: An order parameter for deconfinement?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Federico Marquez
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We study the behavior of the dual quark condensate Σ1 in the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL model and its nonlocal variant. In quantum chromodynamics Σ1 can be related to the breaking of the center symmetry and is therefore an (approximate order parameter of confinement. The deconfinement transition is then signaled by a strong rise of Σ1 as a function of temperature. However, a similar behavior is also seen in the NJL model, which is known to have no confinement. Indeed, it was shown that in this model the rise of Σ1 is triggered by the chiral phase transition. In order to shed more light on this issue, we calculate Σ1 for several variants of the NJL model, some of which have been suggested to be confining. Switching between “confining” and “non-confining” models and parametrizations we find no qualitative difference in the behavior of Σ1, namely, it always rises in the region of the chiral phase transition. We conclude that without having established a relation to the center symmetry in a given model, Σ1 should not blindly be regarded as an order parameter of confinement.
Contemporary research of dynamically induced phase transitions
Hull, L. M.
2017-01-01
Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions.
Aggarwal, M M; Alakhverdyants, A V; Alekseev, I; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barnby, L S; Baumgart, S; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bonner, B E; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bridgeman, A; Bruna, E; Bueltmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; CalderóndelaBarcaSánchez, M; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, P; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; DavilaLeyva, A; DeSilva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Derevschikov, A A; DerradideSouza, R; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Dunlop, J C; DuttaMazumdar, M R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; Garcia, E J; Solis,; Geromitsos, A; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, LX; Harris, J W; HaysWehle, J P; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Huo, L; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jena, C; Jin, F; Jones, C L; Jones, P G; Joseph, J; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kajimoto, K; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Koroleva, L; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Krus, M; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; C,; Lee, H; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, L; Li, N; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mall, O I; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Milner, R; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M K; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Ploskon, M A; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Powell, C B; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Redwine, R; Reed, R; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Sahoo, R; Sakai, S; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seele, J; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; SzantodeToledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; VanBuren, G; vanLeeuwen, M; vanNieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Jr.,; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Videbaek, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; WhittenJr., C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xie, W; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yip, K; Yoo, IK; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zhou, W; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y
2010-01-01
The QCD phase diagram lies at the heart of what the RHIC Physics Program is all about. While RHIC has been operating very successfully at or close to its maximum energy for almost a decade, it has become clear that this collider can also be operated at lower energies down to 5 GeV without extensive upgrades. An exploration of the full region of beam energies available at the RHIC facility is imperative. The STAR detector, due to its large uniform acceptance and excellent particle identification capabilities, is uniquely positioned to carry out this program in depth and detail. The first exploratory beam energy scan (BES) run at RHIC took place in 2010 (Run 10), since several STAR upgrades, most importantly a full barrel Time of Flight detector, are now completed which add new capabilities important for the interesting physics at BES energies. In this document we discuss current proposed measurements, with estimations of the accuracy of the measurements given an assumed event count at each beam energy.
An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2007-02-14
In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.
Magnetic phase transitions in layered intermetallic compounds
Mushnikov, N. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Terent'ev, P. B.; Gaviko, V. S.
2012-10-01
Magnetic, magnetoelastic, and magnetotransport properties have been studied for the RMn2Si2 and RMn6Sn6 (R is a rare earth metal) intermetallic compounds with natural layered structure. The compounds exhibit wide variety of magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions. Substitution of different R atoms allows us to modify the interatomic distances and interlayer exchange interactions thus providing the transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state. Near the boundary of this transition the magnetic structures are very sensitive to the external field, temperature and pressure. The field-induced transitions are accompanied by considerable change in the sample size and resistivity. It has been shown that various magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions observed in the layered compounds arise as a result of competition of the Mn-Mn and Mn-R exchange interactions.
Numerical Study of Phase Transition in Thermoviscoelasticity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ShaoqingTANG
1997-01-01
We study the spatially periodic problem of thermoviscoelasticity with nonmonotone structure relations.By pseudo-spectral method.we demosnstrate numerically phase transitions for certain symmetric initial data.Without symmetry,the simulations show that a translation occurs for the phase boundary.
Phase Transition in the Simplest Plasma Model
Iosilevskiy, Igor
2009-01-01
We have investigated the phase transition of the gas-liquid type, with an upper critical point, in a variant of the One Component Plasma model (OCP) that has a uniform but compressible compensating background. We have calculated the parameters of the critical and triple points, spinodals, and two-phase coexistence curves (binodals). We have analyzed the connection of this simplest plasma phase transition with anomalies in the spatial charge profiles of equilibrium non-uniform plasma in the local-density approximations of Thomas-Fermi or Poisson-Boltzmann-type.
Theory of phase transitions rigorous results
Sinai, Ya G
1982-01-01
Theory of Phase Transitions: Rigorous Results is inspired by lectures on mathematical problems of statistical physics presented in the Mathematical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. The aim of the book is to expound a series of rigorous results about the theory of phase transitions. The book consists of four chapters, wherein the first chapter discusses the Hamiltonian, its symmetry group, and the limit Gibbs distributions corresponding to a given Hamiltonian. The second chapter studies the phase diagrams of lattice models that are considered at low temperatures. The no
End point of the electroweak phase transition
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J; Aoki, Y; Ukawa, A
1999-01-01
We study the hot electroweak phase transition (EWPT) by 4-dimensional lattice simulations on lattices with symmetric and asymmetric lattice spacings and give the phase diagram. A continuum extrapolation is done. We find first order phase transition for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. Above this end point a rapid cross-over occurs. Our result agrees with that of the dimensional reduction approach. It also indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model (SM) may be included perturbatively. We get for the SM end point $72.4 the SM.
Phase Transition Induced Fission in Lipid Vesicles
Leirer, C; Myles, V M; Schneider, M F
2010-01-01
In this work we demonstrate how the first order phase transition in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can function as a trigger for membrane fission. When driven through their gel-fluid phase transition GUVs exhibit budding or pearl formation. These buds remain connected to the mother vesicle presumably by a small neck. Cooling these vesicles from the fluid phase (T>Tm) through the phase transition into the gel state (T
Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition
Parang, M.; Chao, D.
1999-01-01
Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.
PT phase transition in multidimensional quantum systems
Bender, Carl M
2012-01-01
Non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians generally exhibit a phase transition that separates two parametric regions, (i) a region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the eigenvalues are all real, and (ii) a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. This transition has recently been observed experimentally in a variety of physical systems. Until now, theoretical studies of the PT phase transition have generally been limited to one-dimensional models. Here, four nontrivial coupled PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+r^2/2+z^2/2+igxyz$, and $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+r^2/2+3z^2/2+igxyz$ are examined. Based on extensive numerical studies, this paper conjectures that all four models exhibit a phase transition. The transitions are found to occur at $g\\approx 0.1$, $g\\approx 0.04$, $g\\approx 0.1$, and $g\\approx 0.05$. These results suggest that the PT phase transition is a robust phen...
The diamagnetic phase transition in Magnetars
Wang, Zhaojun; Zhu, Chunhua; Wu, Baoshan
2016-01-01
Neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect and diamagnetic phase transition which is associated with magnetic domain formation. The "magnetic interaction" between delocalized magnetic moments of electrons (the Shoenberg effect), can result in an effect of the diamagnetic phase transition into domains of alternating magnetization (Condon's domains). Associated with the domain formation are prominent magnetic field oscillation and anisotropic magnetic stress which may be large enough to fracture the crust of magnetar with a super-strong field. Even if the fracture is impossible as in "low-field" magnetar, the depinning phase transition of domain wall motion driven by low field rate (mainly due to the Hall effect) in the randomly perturbed crust can result in a catastrophically variation of magnetic field. This intermittent motion, similar to the avalanche process, makes the Hall effect be dissipative. These qualitative consequences about magne...
Thermogeometric phase transition in a unified framework
Banerjee, Rabin; Samanta, Saurav
2016-01-01
Using geomterothermodynamics (GTD), we investigate the phase transition of black hole in a metric independent way. We show that for any black hole, curvature scalar (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular at the point where specific heat diverges. Previously such a result could only be shown by taking specific examples on a case by case basis. A different type of phase transition, where inverse specific heat diverges, is also studied within this framework. We show that in the latter case, metric (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular instead of curvature scalar. Since a metric singularity may be a coordinate artifact, we propose that GTD indicates that it is the singularity of specific heat and not inverse specific heat which indicates a phase transition of black holes.
Quantum phase transitions with dynamical flavors
Bea, Yago; Ramallo, Alfonso V
2016-01-01
We study the properties of a D6-brane probe in the ABJM background with smeared massless dynamical quarks in the Veneziano limit. Working at zero temperature and non-vanishing charge density, we show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition in which the topology of the brane embedding changes from a black hole to a Minkowski embedding. In the unflavored background the phase transition is of second order and takes place when the charge density vanishes. We determine the corresponding critical exponents and show that the scaling behavior near the quantum critical point has multiplicative logarithmic corrections. In the background with dynamical quarks the phase transition is of first order and occurs at non-zero charge density. In this case we compute the discontinuity of several physical quantities as functions of the number $N_f$ of unquenched quarks of the background.
Quantum phase transitions with dynamical flavors
Bea, Yago; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.
2016-07-01
We study the properties of a D6-brane probe in the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) background with smeared massless dynamical quarks in the Veneziano limit. Working at zero temperature and nonvanishing charge density, we show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition in which the topology of the brane embedding changes from a black hole to a Minkowski embedding. In the unflavored background the phase transition is of second order and takes place when the charge density vanishes. We determine the corresponding critical exponents and show that the scaling behavior near the quantum critical point has multiplicative logarithmic corrections. In the background with dynamical quarks the phase transition is of first order and occurs at nonzero charge density. In this case we compute the discontinuity of several physical quantities as functions of the number Nf of unquenched quarks of the background.
Late-time cosmological phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))
1990-11-01
It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.
Queueing phase transition: theory of translation.
Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Stansfield, Ian; Grebogi, Celso
2009-05-15
We study the current of particles on a lattice, where to each site a different hopping probability has been associated and the particles can move only in one direction. We show that the queueing of the particles behind a slow site can lead to a first-order phase transition, and derive analytical expressions for the configuration of slow sites for this to happen. We apply this stochastic model to describe the translation of mRNAs. We show that the first-order phase transition, uncovered in this work, is the process responsible for the classification of the proteins having different biological functions.
Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Rotter
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.
Phase Transition in Loop Quantum Gravity
Mäkelä, Jarmo
2016-01-01
We point out that with a specific counting of states loop quantum gravity implies that black holes perform a phase transition at a certain characteristic temperature $T_C$. In this phase transition the punctures of the spin network on the stretched horizon of the black hole jump, in effect, from the vacuum to the excited states. The characteristic temperature $T_C$ may be regarded as the lowest possible temperature of the hole. From the point of view of a distant observer at rest with respect to the hole the characteristic temperature $T_C$ corresponds to the Hawking temperature of the hole.
Scaling Concepts in Describing Continuous Phase Transitions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-10-01
Phase transitions, like the boiling of water upon increasingtemperature, are a part of everyday experience and are yet,upon closer inspection, unusual phenomena, and reveal a hostof fascinating features. Comprehending key aspects of phasetransitions has lead to the uncovering of new ways of describingmatter composed of large numbers of interacting elements,which form a dominant way of analysis in contemporarystatistical mechanics and much else. An introductorydiscussion is presented here of the concepts of scaling, universalityand renormalization, which forms the foundation ofthe study of continuous phase transitions, such as the spontaneousmagnetization of ferromagnetic substances.
Endpoint of the hot electroweak phase transition
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J
1999-01-01
We give the nonperturbative phase diagram of the four-dimensional hot electroweak phase transition. The Monte-Carlo analysis is done on lattices with different lattice spacings ($a$). A systematic extrapolation $a \\to 0$ is done. Our results show that the finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. At this endpoint the phase transition is of second order, whereas above it only a rapid cross-over can be seen. The full four-dimensional result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. This fact is of particular importance, because it indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model can be included perturbatively. We obtain that the Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the Standard Model is $72.4 \\pm 1.7$ GeV. Taking into account the LEP Higgs-boson mass lower bound excludes any electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model.
Transition to turbulence in pipe flow as a phase transition
Vasudevan, Mukund; Hof, Björn
2015-11-01
In pipe flow, turbulence first arises in the form of localized turbulent patches called puffs. The flow undergoes a transition to sustained turbulence via spatio-temporal intermittency, with puffs splitting, decaying and merging in the background laminar flow. However, the due to mean advection of the puffs and the long timescales involved (~107 advective time units), it is not possible to study the transition in typical laboratory set-ups. So far, it has only been possible to indirectly estimate the critical point for the transition. Here, we exploit the stochastic memoryless nature of the puff decay and splitting processes to construct a pipe flow set-up, that is periodic in a statistical sense. It then becomes possible to study the flow for sufficiently long times and characterize the transition in detail. We present measurements of the turbulent fraction as a function of Reynolds number which in turn allows a direct estimate of the critical point. We present evidence that the transition has features of a phase transition of second order.
Liquid gas phase transition in hypernuclei
Mallik, S
2016-01-01
The fragmentation of excited hypernuclear system formed in heavy ion collisions has been described by the canonical thermodynamical model extended to three component systems. The multiplicity distribution of the fragments has been analyzed in detail and it has been observed that the hyperons have the tendency to get attached to the heavier fragments. Another important observation is the phase coexistence of the hyperons, a phenomenon which is linked to liquid gas phase transition in strange matter.
Deconfinement of Quarks with TeV Attosecond Photon Beams
Stefan, V. Alexander
2010-02-01
Recently, I have proposed a novel heuristic method for the deconfinement of quarks.footnotetextM. Gell-Mann. The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex (New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1994) [cf. M. Gell-Mann, The Garden of Live Flowers in: V. Stefan (Editor), Physics and Society. Essays Honoring Victor Frederick Weisskopf (Springer, 1998), pp. 109-121]. It proceeds in two phases.footnotetextV. Alexander Stefan, On a Heuristic Point of View About Inertial Deconfinement of Quarks, American Physical Society, 2009 APS April Meeting, May 2-5, 2009, abstract #E1.038. Firstly, a frozen hydrogen pellet is inertially confined by the ultra-intense lasers up to a solid state density. Secondly, a solid state nano-pellet is ``punched'' by the photon beam created in the beat wave driven free electron laser (BW-FEL), leading to the ``rapture'' (in a ``karate chop'' model) of the ``MIT Bag''footnotetextJ. I. Friedman and H. Kendall, Viki, in: V. Stefan (Editor), Physics and Society. (Springer, 1998), pp. 103-108]. before the asymptotically free quarks move apart. Hereby, I propose TeV, a few 100s attosecond, photon beams in interaction with the nano-pellet. The threshold ``rapture force'' of the TeV attosecond photon is 10^7 N. )
Sandvik, Anders W
2007-06-01
Using ground-state projector quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the valence-bond basis, it is demonstrated that nonfrustrating four-spin interactions can destroy the Néel order of the two-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet and drive it into a valence-bond solid (VBS) phase. Results for spin and dimer correlations are consistent with a single continuous transition, and all data exhibit finite-size scaling with a single set of exponents, z=1, nu=0.78+/-0.03, and eta=0.26+/-0.03. The unusually large eta and an emergent U(1) symmetry, detected using VBS order parameter histograms, provide strong evidence for a deconfined quantum critical point.
Passive Supporters of Terrorism and Phase Transitions
August, Friedrich; Delitzscher, Sascha; Hiller, Gerald; Krueger, Tyll
2010-01-01
We discuss some social contagion processes to describe the formation and spread of radical opinions. The dynamics of opinion spread involves local threshold processes as well as mean field effects. We calculate and observe phase transitions in the dynamical variables resulting in a rapidly increasing number of passive supporters. This strongly indicates that military solutions are inappropriate.
Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate
Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua
2016-01-01
We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.
Caloric materials near ferroic phase transitions
Moya, X.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Mathur, N. D.
2014-05-01
A magnetically, electrically or mechanically responsive material can undergo significant thermal changes near a ferroic phase transition when its order parameter is modified by the conjugate applied field. The resulting magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects are compared here in terms of history, experimental method, performance and prospective cooling applications.
Neutrino Oscillation Induced by Chiral Phase Transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MU Cheng-Fu; SUN Gao-Feng; ZHUANG Peng-Fei
2009-01-01
Electric charge neutrality provides a relationship between chiral dynamics and neutrino propagation in compact stars.Due to the sudden drop of the electron density at the first-order chiral phase transition,the oscillation for low energy neutrinos is significant and can be regarded as a signature of chiral symmetry restoration in the core of compact stars.
Higgs Couplings and Electroweak Phase Transition
Katz, Andrey
2014-01-01
We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition generically predict significant deviations of the Higgs couplings to gluons, photons, and Z bosons from their SM values. Precise experimental measurements of the Higgs couplings at the LHC and at the proposed next-generation facilities will allow for a robust test of the phase transition dynamics. To illustrate this point, in this paper we focus on the scenario in which loops of a new scalar field are responsible for the first-order phase transition, and study a selection of benchmark models with various SM gauge quantum numbers of the new scalar. We find that the current LHC measurement of the Higgs coupling to gluons already excludes the possibility of a first-order phase transition induced by a scalar in a sextet, or larger, representation of the SU(3)_c. Future LHC experiments (including HL-LHC) will be able to definitively probe the case when the new scalar is a color triplet. If the new scalar is...
Chaos: Butterflies also Generate Phase Transitions
Leplaideur, Renaud
2015-10-01
We exhibit examples of mixing subshifts of finite type and of continuous potentials such that there are phase transitions but the pressure is always strictly convex. More surprisingly, we show that the pressure can be analytic on some interval although there exist several equilibrium states.
Phase Transitions, Diffraction Studies and Marginal Dimensionality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage
1985-01-01
Continuous phase transitions and the associated critical phenomena have been one of the most active areas of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. This short review is only one cut through this huge subject and the author has chosen to emphasize diffraction studies as a basic...
Problem of phase transitions in nuclear structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scharff-Goldhaber, G
1980-01-01
Phase transitions between rotational and vibrational nuclei are discussed from the point of view of the variable moment of inertia model. A three-dimensional plot of the ground-state moments of inertia of even-even nuclei vs N and Z is shown. 3 figures. (RWR)
The Structural Phase Transition in Octaflournaphtalene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Arthur, J. W.; Pawley, G. S.
1977-01-01
The phase transition in octafluoronaphthalene has been investigated by Raman scattering and neutron powder diffraction. The weight of the experimental evidence points to a unit cell doubling in the a direction, but with no change in space group symmetry. Lattice dynamics calculations support...
Dimensional phase transitions in small Yukawa clusters
Sheridan, T E
2009-01-01
We investigate the one- to two-dimensional zigzag transition in clusters consisting of a small number of particles interacting through a Yukawa (Debye) potential and confined in a two-dimensional biharmonic potential well. Dusty (complex) plasma clusters with $n \\le 19$ monodisperse particles are characterized experimentally for two different confining wells. The well anisotropy is accurately measured, and the Debye shielding parameter is determined from the longitudinal breathing frequency. Debye shielding is shown to be important. A model for this system is used to predict equilibrium particle configurations. The experiment and model exhibit excellent agreement. The critical value of $n$ for the zigzag transition is found to be less than that predicted for an unshielded Coulomb interaction. The zigzag transition is shown to behave as a continuous phase transition from a one-dimensional to a two-dimensional state, where the state variables are the number of particles, the well anisotropy and the Debye shield...
Phase transition – Break down the walls
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wandahl, Søren
2012-01-01
-phase issues of the construction process. This research first identifies the problems theoretically, and looks into which framework to be used in understanding of the phase transition problem. This combined with data from interviews reveal 8 major issues in phase transition, which decrease the value....... In a popular term this problem is often called “over the wall syndrome”. The manufacturing industry has worked with this for many years, in e.g. integrated product development, concurrent engineering, supply chain management, etc. Now the construction industry needs to focus more on these crucial inter...... tender often is limited due to regulations. Therefore, contractors miss a large amount of non-operational information, and the client and his consulting engineers never mange to share their tacit knowledge of project preconditions....
Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks
Seoane, Luís F
2015-01-01
The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated to different arrangements of the connections; but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence, nor the nature of the phase transit...
Phase diagrams and kinetics of phase transitions in protein solutions.
Vekilov, Peter G
2012-05-16
The phase behavior of proteins is of interest for fundamental and practical reasons. The nucleation of new phases is one of the last major unresolved problems of nature. The formation of protein condensed phases (crystals, polymers, and other solid aggregates, as well as dense liquids and gels) underlies pathological conditions, plays a crucial role in the biological function of the respective protein, or is an essential part of laboratory and industrial processes. In this review, we focus on phase transitions of proteins in their properly folded state. We first summarize the recently acquired understanding of physical processes underlying the phase diagrams of the protein solutions and the thermodynamics of protein phase transitions. Then we review recent findings on the kinetics of nucleation of dense liquid droplets and crystals. We explore the transition from nucleation to spinodal decomposition for liquid-liquid separation and introduce the new concept of solution-to-crystal spinodal. We review the two-step mechanism of protein crystal nucleation, in which mesoscopic metastable protein clusters serve as precursors to the ordered crystal nuclei. The concepts and mechanisms reviewed here provide powerful tools for control of the nucleation process by varying the solution thermodynamic parameters.
The comfortable driving model revisited: Traffic phases and phase transitions
Knorr, Florian
2013-01-01
We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast it with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides `hard' rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow (F) to a wide moving jam (J) often involves an intermediate transition; first from free flow F to synchronized flow S and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so called F->S transition (from free flow to synchronized t...
Chiral symmetry restoration versus deconfinement in heavy-ion collisions at high baryon density
Cassing, W; Moreau, P; Bratkovskaya, E L
2015-01-01
We study the production of strange hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions from 4 to 160 A GeV within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach that is extended to incorporate essentials aspects of chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) in the hadronic sector (via the Schwinger mechanism) on top of the deconfinement phase transition as implemented in PHSD. Especially the $K^+/\\pi^+$ and the $(\\Lambda+\\Sigma^0)/\\pi^-$ ratios in central Au+Au collisions are found to provide information on the relative importance of both transitions. The modelling of chiral symmetry restoration is driven by the pion-nucleon $\\Sigma$-term in the computation of the quark scalar condensate $$ that serves as an order parameter for CSR and also scales approximately with the effective quark masses $m_s$ and $m_q$. Furthermore, the nucleon scalar density $\\rho_s$, which also enters the computation of $$, is evaluated within the nonlinear $\\sigma-\\omega$ model which is constraint by Dirac-Brueckner calculations and low energy...
Universal Aspects of Deconfinement: Interfaces, Flux Tubes and Self-Duality in 2+1 Dimensions
von Smekal, Lorenz; Strodthoff, Nils
2010-01-01
We study center vortex free energies and 't Hooft's electric fluxes on the lattice in 2+1 dimensions, where SU(2) for example, is in the universality class of the 2d Ising model. This places a wealth of exact results at our fingertips. In particular, spacelike center vortices in SU(2) near criticality correspond to spin interfaces in the 2d Ising model, whose universal scaling functions are known exactly. We exploit this to locate the deconfinement transition with unprecedented precision and subsequently for a finite size scaling analysis, where the self-duality of the $2d$ spin model is reflected in a duality between the spacelike vortices and confining electric fluxes. The corresponding relation between the string tension and its dual in the high temperature phase is arguably the simplest example of a universal amplitude ratio. Around the transition, both can be efficiently extracted from the exact results with a global one-parameter fit which allows straightforward continuum extrapolation.
Dynamics of the chiral phase transition
van Hees, H; Meistrenko, A; Greiner, C
2013-01-01
The intention of this study is the search for signatures of the chiral phase transition in heavy-ion collisions. To investigate the impact of fluctuations, e.g., of the baryon number, at the transition or at a critical point, the linear sigma model is treated in a dynamical (3+1)-dimensional numerical simulation. Chiral fields are approximated as classical mean fields, and quarks are described as quasi particles in a Vlasov equation. Additional dynamics is implemented by quark-quark and quark-sigma-field interactions. For a consistent description of field-particle interactions, a new Monte-Carlo-Langevin-like formalism has been developed and is discussed.
Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks.
Seoane, Luís F; Solé, Ricard
2015-09-01
The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem, finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated with different arrangements of the connections, but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence or the nature of the phase transitions encountered. Instead, the functions under optimization do play a determinant role. This reinforces the view that phase transitions do not arise from intrinsic properties of a system alone, but from the interplay of that system with its external constraints.
The Next Generation Transit Survey - Prototyping Phase
McCormac, James; Wheatley, Peter; West, Richard; Walker, Simon; Bento, Joao; Skillen, Ian; Faedi, Francesca; Burleigh, Matt; Casewell, Sarah; Chazelas, Bruno; Genolet, Ludovic; Gibson, Neale; Goad, Mike; Lawrie, Katherine; Ryans, Robert; Todd, Ian; Udry, Stephan; Watson, Christopher
2016-01-01
We present the prototype telescope for the Next Generation Transit Survey, which was built in the UK in 2008/09 and tested on La Palma in the Canary Islands in 2010. The goals for the prototype system were severalfold: to determine the level of systematic noise in an NGTS-like system; demonstrate that we can perform photometry at the (sub) millimagnitude level on transit timescales across a wide field; show that it is possible to detect transiting super-Earth and Neptune-sized exoplanets and prove the technical feasibility of the proposed planet survey. We tested the system for around 100 nights and met each of the goals above. Several key areas for improvement were highlighted during the prototyping phase. They have been subsequently addressed in the final NGTS facility which was recently commissioned at ESO Cerro Paranal, Chile.
Holographic phase transitions at finite chemical potential
Mateos, David; Matsuura, Shunji; Myers, Robert C.; Thomson, Rowan M.
2007-11-01
Recently, holographic techniques have been used to study the thermal properties of Script N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theory, with gauge group SU(Nc) and coupled to Nf coupling. Here we consider the phase diagram as a function of temperature and baryon chemical potential μb. For fixed μb transitions separating a region with vanishing baryon density and one with nonzero density. For fixed μb>Nc Mq there is no phase transition as a function of the temperature and the baryon density is always nonzero. We also compare the present results for the grand canonical ensemble with those for canonical ensemble in which the baryon density is held fixed [1].
Nonequilibrium phase transitions in biomolecular signal transduction
Smith, Eric; Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Fontana, Walter; Krakauer, David
2011-11-01
We study a mechanism for reliable switching in biomolecular signal-transduction cascades. Steady bistable states are created by system-size cooperative effects in populations of proteins, in spite of the fact that the phosphorylation-state transitions of any molecule, by means of which the switch is implemented, are highly stochastic. The emergence of switching is a nonequilibrium phase transition in an energetically driven, dissipative system described by a master equation. We use operator and functional integral methods from reaction-diffusion theory to solve for the phase structure, noise spectrum, and escape trajectories and first-passage times of a class of minimal models of switches, showing how all critical properties for switch behavior can be computed within a unified framework.
A nonequilibrium phase transition in immune response
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Wei; Qi An-Shen
2004-01-01
The dynamics of immune response correlated to signal transduction in immune thymic cells (T cells) is studied.In particular, the problem of the phosphorylation of the immune-receptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) is explored. A nonlinear model is established on the basis of experimental observations. The behaviours of the model can be well analysed using the concepts of nonequilibrium phase transitions. In addition, the Riemann-Hugoniot cusp catastrophe is demonstrated by the model. Due to the application of the theory of nonequilibrium phase transitions,the biological phenomena can be clarified more precisely. The results can also be used to further explain the signal transduction and signal discrimination of an important type of immune T cell.
Phase transition in the countdown problem
Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo
2012-07-01
We present a combinatorial decision problem, inspired by the celebrated quiz show called Countdown, that involves the computation of a given target number T from a set of k randomly chosen integers along with a set of arithmetic operations. We find that the probability of winning the game evidences a threshold phenomenon that can be understood in the terms of an algorithmic phase transition as a function of the set size k. Numerical simulations show that such probability sharply transitions from zero to one at some critical value of the control parameter, hence separating the algorithm's parameter space in different phases. We also find that the system is maximally efficient close to the critical point. We derive analytical expressions that match the numerical results for finite size and permit us to extrapolate the behavior in the thermodynamic limit.
Structural phase transitions in monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides
Choe, Duk-Hyun; Sung, Ha June; Chang, Kee Joo
2015-03-01
The recent discovery of two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has provided opportunities to develop ultimate thin channel devices. In contrast to graphene, the existence of moderate band gap and strong spin-orbit coupling gives rise to exotic electronic properties which vary with layer thickness, lattice structure, and symmetry. TMDs commonly appear in two structures with distinct symmetries, trigonal prismatic 2H and octahedral 1T phases which are semiconducting and metallic, respectively. In this work, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of monolayer molybdenum dichalcogenides (MoX2, where X = S, Se, Te) through first-principles density functional calculations. We find a tendency that the semiconducting 2H phase is more stable than the metallic 1T phase. We show that a spontaneous symmetry breaking of 1T phase leads to various distorted octahedral (1T') phases, thus inducing a metal-to-semiconductor transition. We discuss the effects of carrier doping on the structural stability and the modification of the electronic structure. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under Grant No. NRF-2005-0093845 and Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Grant No. SSTFBA1401-08.
Dimension Changing Phase Transitions in Instanton Crystals
Kaplunovsky, Vadim
2013-01-01
We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3d->4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in [1]) we focus on lower dimensions -- the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V M_2^2x_2^2+M_3^2x_2^2+M_4^2x_4^2 and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D->2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons' orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M_2/M_3/M_4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements ...
Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.
Hawes, T C
2014-01-01
At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent.
Holographic phase transitions at finite chemical potential
Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M
2007-01-01
Recently holographic techniques have been used to study the thermal properties of N=2 SYM theory, with gauge group SU(Nc) and coupled to Nf Nc Mq there is no phase transition as a function of the temperature and the baryon density is always nonzero. We also compare the present results for the grand canonical ensemble with those for canonical ensemble in which the baryon density is held fixed [1].
Quantum phase transitions in constrained Bose systems
Bonnes, Lars
2011-01-01
This doctoral thesis studies low dimensional quantum systems that can be realized in recent cold atom experiments. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the main emphasis is on the detailed study of the different quantum and thermal phases and their transitions using numerical methods, such as quantum Monte Carlo and the Tensor Network Renormalization Group. The first part of this work deals with a lattice Boson model subject to strong three-body losses. In a quantum-Zeno li...
Stoecker, Horst; Schramm, Stefan; Senzel, Florian; Greiner, Carsten; Beitel, Maxim; Gallmeister, Kai; Gorenstein, Mark; Mishustin, Igor; Vasak, David; Steinheimer, Jan; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Satarov, Leonid; Xu, Zhe; Zhuang, Pengfei; Csernai, Laszlo P; Sinha, Bikash; Raha, Sibaji; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Panero, Marco
2016-01-01
The early stage of high multiplicity pp, pA and AA collider is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. According to pure Yang-Mills Lattice Gauge Theory, this hot pure glue matter undergoes, at a high temperature, $T_c = 270$ MeV, a first order phase transition into a confined Hagedorn-GlueBall fluid. These new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high $p_T$ photons and dileptons, baryon suppression and enhanced strange meson production. We propose to observe this newly predicted class of events at LHC and RHIC.
Recent theoretical advances on superradiant phase transitions
Baksic, Alexandre; Nataf, Pierre; Ciuti, Cristiano
2013-03-01
The Dicke model describing a single-mode boson field coupled to two-level systems is an important paradigm in quantum optics. In particular, the physics of ``superradiant phase transitions'' in the ultrastrong coupling regime is the subject of a vigorous research activity in both cavity and circuit QED. Recently, we explored the rich physics of two interesting generalizations of the Dicke model: (i) A model describing the coupling of a boson mode to two independent chains A and B of two-level systems, where chain A is coupled to one quadrature of the boson field and chain B to the orthogonal quadrature. This original model leads to a quantum phase transition with a double symmetry breaking and a fourfold ground state degeneracy. (ii) A generalized Dicke model with three-level systems including the diamagnetic term. In contrast to the case of two-level atoms for which no-go theorems exist, in the case of three-level system we prove that the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn sum rule does not always prevent a superradiant phase transition.
Dynamical quantum phase transitions (Review Article)
Zvyagin, A. A.
2016-11-01
During recent years the interest to dynamics of quantum systems has grown considerably. Quantum many body systems out of equilibrium often manifest behavior, different from the one predicted by standard statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in equilibrium. Since the dynamics of a many-body quantum system typically involve many excited eigenstates, with a non-thermal distribution, the time evolution of such a system provides an unique way for investigation of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. Last decade such new subjects like quantum quenches, thermalization, pre-thermalization, equilibration, generalized Gibbs ensemble, etc. are among the most attractive topics of investigation in modern quantum physics. One of the most interesting themes in the study of dynamics of quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium is connected with the recently proposed important concept of dynamical quantum phase transitions. During the last few years a great progress has been achieved in studying of those singularities in the time dependence of characteristics of quantum mechanical systems, in particular, in understanding how the quantum critical points of equilibrium thermodynamics affect their dynamical properties. Dynamical quantum phase transitions reveal universality, scaling, connection to the topology, and many other interesting features. Here we review the recent achievements of this quickly developing part of low-temperature quantum physics. The study of dynamical quantum phase transitions is especially important in context of their connection to the problem of the modern theory of quantum information, where namely non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum system plays the major role.
Superconducting phase transition in STM tips
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-07-01
The superconducting properties of systems with dimensions comparable to the London penetration depth considerably differ from macroscopic systems. We have studied the superconducting phase transition of vanadium STM tips in external magnetic fields. Employing Maki's theory we extract the superconducting parameters such as the gap or the Zeeman splitting from differential conductance spectra. While the Zeeman splitting follows the theoretical description of a system with s=1/2 and g=2, the superconducting gaps as well as the critical fields depend on the specific tip. For a better understanding of the experimental results, we solve a one dimensional Usadel equation modeling the superconducting tip as a cone with the opening angle α in an external magnetic field. We find that only a small region at the apex of the tip is superconducting in high magnetic fields and that the order of the phase transition is directly determined by α. Further, the spectral broadening increases with α indicating an intrinsic broadening mechanism due to the conical shape of the tip. Comparing these calculations to our experimental results reveals the order of the superconducting phase transition of the STM tips.
Indications for the onset of deconfinement in nucleus nucleus collisions
Flierl, D; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Białkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gładysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Markert, C; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J.G; Renfordt, R; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitar, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Trainor, T A; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Włodarczyk, Z; Yoo,I K; Zaranek, J; Zimanyi, J
2005-01-01
The hadronic final state of central Pb+Pb collisions at 20, 30, 40, 80, and 158 AGeV has been measured by the CERN NA49 collaboration. The mean transverse mass of pions and kaons at midrapidity stays nearly constant in this energy range, whereas at lower energies, at the AGS, a steep increase with beam energy was measured. Compared to p+p collisions as well as to model calculations, anomalies in the energy dependence of pion and kaon production at lower SPS energies are observed. These findings can be explained, assuming that the energy density reached in central A+A collisions at lower SPS energies is sufficient to force the hot and dense nuclear matter into a deconfined phase.
QCD Green's Functions and Phases of Strongly-Interacting Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schaefer B.J.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available After presenting a brief summary of functional approaches to QCD at vanishing temperatures and densities the application of QCD Green's functions at non-vanishing temperature and vanishing density is discussed. It is pointed out in which way the infrared behavior of the gluon propagator reflects the (de-confinement transition. Numerical results for the quark propagator are given thereby verifying the relation between (de--confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (restoration. Last but not least some results of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the color-superconducting phase at large densities are shown.
Phase transitions of ε-HNIW in compound systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing-yuan Zhang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The heat-induced phase transitions of ε-HNIW, both neat and coated with various additives used in plastic bonded explosives, were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that ε-HNIW, after being held at 70°C for 60h, remained in the ε-phase. Applying other conditions, various phase transition parameters were determined, including Tc (the critical phase transition temperature, T50 (the temperature at which 50% of the phase transition is complete and T180 (the percentage of γ-HNIW present in samples heated to 180°C. According to the above three parameters, additives were divided into three categories: those that delay phase transition, those that raise the critical temperature and the transition rate, and those that promote the phase transition. Based on the above data, a phase transition mechanism is proposed.
Stability and Existence of Multidimensional Subsonic Phase Transitions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ya-Guang Wang; Zhouping Xin
2003-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to prove the uniform stability of multidimensional subsonic phase transitions satisfying the viscosity-capillarity criterion in a van der Waals fluid, and further to establish the local existence of phase transition solutions.
Holography and the Electroweak Phase Transition
Creminelli, P; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Creminelli, Paolo; Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo
2002-01-01
We study through holography the compact Randall-Sundrum (RS) model at finite temperature. In the presence of radius stabilization, the system is described at low enough temperature by the RS solution. At high temperature it is described by the AdS-Schwarzshild solution with an event horizon replacing the TeV brane. We calculate the transition temperature T_c between the two phases and we find it to be somewhat smaller than the TeV scale. Assuming that the Universe starts out at T >> T_c and cools down by expansion, we study the rate of the transition to the RS phase. We find that the transition is too slow and the Universe ends up in an old inflation scenario unless tight bounds are satisfied by the model parameters. In particular we find that the AdS curvature must be comparable to the 5D Planck mass and that the radius stabilization mechanism must lead to a sizeable distortion of the basic RS metric.
Second-order phase transitions of pure substances
Schaftenaar, H.P.C.
2009-01-01
In this report we are dealing with the thermodynamic theory of second-order phase transitions or continuous transitions of unary systems. The first classification of these phase transitions is due to Ehrenfest (1933), based on chemical potentials. First-order transitions are changes in which the der
Landau Theory in the Region of First Order Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.G. Medvedovskaya
2014-04-01
Full Text Available For the case when the line of the first order phase transitions does not transform into the line of the second order phase transitions, i.e. not as ends with the tricritical point but not with a critical one: critical lines, limiting the region of metastable states, by using the Landau theory of phase transitions were determined.
Scale invariance from phase transitions to turbulence
Lesne, Annick
2012-01-01
During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos ...
Locating phase transitions in computationally hard problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Ashok; T K Patra
2010-09-01
We discuss how phase-transitions may be detected in computationally hard problems in the context of anytime algorithms. Treating the computational time, value and utility functions involved in the search results in analogy with quantities in statistical physics, we indicate how the onset of a computationally hard regime can be detected and the transit to higher quality solutions be quantified by an appropriate response function. The existence of a dynamical critical exponent is shown, enabling one to predict the onset of critical slowing down, rather than finding it after the event, in the specific case of a travelling salesman problem (TSP). This can be used as a means of improving efficiency and speed in searches, and avoiding needless computations.
Phase transition in SONFIS&SORST
Owladeghaffari, Hamed
2008-01-01
In this study, we introduce general frame of MAny Connected Intelligent Particles Systems (MACIPS). Connections and interconnections between particles get a complex behavior of such merely simple system (system in system).Contribution of natural computing, under information granulation theory, are the main topics of this spacious skeleton. Upon this clue, we organize two algorithms involved a few prominent intelligent computing and approximate reasoning methods: self organizing feature map (SOM), Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System and Rough Set Theory (RST). Over this, we show how our algorithms can be taken as a linkage of government-society interaction, where government catches various fashions of behavior: solid (absolute) or flexible. So, transition of such society, by changing of connectivity parameters (noise) from order to disorder is inferred. Add to this, one may find an indirect mapping among finical systems and eventual market fluctuations with MACIPS. Keywords: phase transition, SONFIS, SORST, many con...
Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rotter Ingrid
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The nucleus is described as an open many-body quantum system with a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which are complex, in general. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane (exceptional points, the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By varying only one parameter, the eigenvalue trajectories usually avoid crossing and width bifurcation occurs at the critical value of avoided crossing. An analog spectroscopic redistribution takes place for discrete states below the particle decay threshold. By this means, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system starting at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of the low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr on the collective features of compound nucleus states at high level density is therefore not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different quantum mechanical systems by varying one or two parameters.
Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgieva A. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott’s SU(3 basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3 basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.
Chiral phase transition from string theory.
Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A
2006-09-15
The low energy dynamics of a certain D-brane configuration in string theory is described at weak t'Hooft coupling by a nonlocal version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We study this system at finite temperature and strong t'Hooft coupling, using the string theory dual. We show that for sufficiently low temperatures chiral symmetry is broken, while for temperatures larger then the critical value, it gets restored. We compute the latent heat and observe that the phase transition is of the first order.
Melonic phase transition in group field theory
Baratin, Aristide; Oriti, Daniele; Ryan, James P; Smerlak, Matteo
2013-01-01
Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Simple bounds on these amplitudes show the existence of a phase transition driven by melonic interaction processes. We restrict our study to the Boulatov-Ooguri models, which describe topological BF theories and are the basis for the construction of four dimensional models of quantum gravity.
Detonations and deflagrations in cosmological phase transitions
Megevand, Ariel
2009-01-01
We study the steady state motion of bubble walls in cosmological phase transitions. Taking into account the boundary and continuity conditions for the fluid variables, we calculate numerically the wall velocity as a function of the nucleation temperature, the latent heat, and a friction parameter. We determine regions in the space of these parameters in which detonations and/or deflagrations are allowed. In order to apply the results to a physical case, we calculate these quantities in a specific model, which consists of an extension of the Standard Model with singlet scalar fields. We also obtain analytic approximations for deflagrations and detonations.
Observables of non-equilibrium phase transition
Tomasik, Boris; Melo, Ivan; Kopecna, Renata
2015-01-01
Rapidly expanding fireball which undergoes first-order phase transition will supercool and proceed via spinodal decomposition. Hadrons are produced from the individual fragments as well as leftover matter filling the space between them. Emission from fragments should be visible in rapidity correlations, particularly of protons. Also, even within narrow centrality classes, rapidity distributions will be fluctuating from one event to another in case of fragmentation. This can be identified with the help of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Finally, a method is presented which allows to sort events with varying rapidity distributions in such a way, that events with similar rapidity histograms are grouped together.
Early Work on Defect Driven Phase Transitions
Kosterlitz, J. Michael; Thouless, David J.
2016-12-01
This article summarizes the early history of the theory of phase transitions driven by topological defects, such as vortices in superfluid helium films or dislocations and disclinations in two-dimensional solids. We start with a review of our two earliest papers, pointing out their errors and omissions as well as their insights. We then describe the work, partly done by Kosterlitz but mostly done by other people, which corrected these oversights, and applied these ideas to experimental systems, and to numerical and experimental simulations.
Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene
Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.
2016-09-01
The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.
Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum phase transitions
Latorre, J I; Latorre, Jose Ignacio; Orus, Roman
2003-01-01
We analyze the ground state entanglement in a quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm designed to solve the NP-complete Exact Cover problem. The entropy of entanglement seems to obey linear and universal scaling at the point where the mass gap becomes small, suggesting that the system passes near a quantum phase transition. Such a large scaling of entanglement suggests that the effective connectivity of the system diverges as the number of qubits goes to infinity and that this algorithm cannot be efficiently simulated by classical means. On the other hand, entanglement in Grover's algorithm is bounded by a constant.
Phase transition equilibrium of terthiophene isomers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Jose C.S.; Lima, Carlos F.R.A.C.; Rocha, Marisa A.A. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Gomes, Ligia R. [CIAGEB, Faculdade de Ciencias de Saude Escola Superior de Saude da UFP, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, P-4200-150 Porto (Portugal); REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Santos, Luis M.N.B.F., E-mail: lbsantos@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)
2011-02-15
The thermodynamic study of the phase transition (fusion and sublimation) of 2,2':5',2''-terthiophene and 3,2':5',3''-terthiophene is presented. The obtained data is used to evaluate the (solid + liquid) and (solid + gas) phase equilibrium, and draw the phase diagrams of the pure compounds near the triple point coordinates. For each compound the vapour pressures at different temperatures were measured by a combined Knudsen effusion method with a vacuum quartz crystal microbalance. Based on the previous results, the standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation were derived at T = 298.15 K. For the two terthiophenes and for 3,3'-bithiophene, the temperature, and the molar enthalpies of fusion were measured in a power compensated differential scanning calorimetry. The relationship between structure and energetics is discussed based on the experimental results, ab initio calculations and previous literature data for 2,2'-bithiophene and 3,3'-bithiophene. The 3,2':5',3''-terthiophene shows a higher solid phase stability than the 2,2':5',2''-terthiophene isomer arising from the higher cohesive energy due to positioning of the sulphur atom in the thiophene ring. The higher phase stability of 3,3'-bithiophene relative to 2,2'-bithiophene isomer is also related to its higher absolute entropy in the solid phase associated with the ring positional degeneracy observed in the crystal structure of this isomer. A significant differentiation in the crystal phase stability between isomers was found.
Topological phase transitions in superradiance lattices
Wang, Da-Wei; Yuan, Luqi; Liu, Ren-Bao; Zhu, Shi-Yao
2015-01-01
The discovery of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) reveals a new class of matter phases, topological insulators (TI's), which have been extensively studied in solid-state materials and recently in photonic structures, time-periodic systems and optical lattices of cold atoms. All these topological systems are lattices in real space. Our recent study shows that Scully's timed Dicke states (TDS) can form a superradiance lattice (SL) in momentum space. Here we report the discovery of topological phase transitions in a two-dimensional SL in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). By periodically modulating the three EIT coupling fields, we can create a Haldane model with in-situ tunable topological properties. The Chern numbers of the energy bands and hence the topological properties of the SL manifest themselves in the contrast between diffraction signals emitted by superradiant TDS. The topological superradiance lattices (TSL) provide a controllable platform for simulating exotic phenomena in condensed matte...
Transitional Phenomena on Phase Change Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wójcik Tadeusz M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most significant problem with technology development is transferring of large heat fluxes, which requires constant heat transfer temperature (in the specified temperature range. This problem concern mainly the nuclear energetics, space technologies, military technologies and most of all electronics containing integrated circuits with very large scale of integrations. Intensive heat transfer and thermal energy storage are possible by the use of phase change materials (PCMs. In the paper there are presented preliminary results of research on the use of liquid-gas (L-G PCMs and solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs. For L-G PCMs the boiling characteristics were determined by increasing and decreasing the heat flux, which for certain sets of structural parameters of the heating surface and the physical properties of the liquid induce a variety of forms of transitional phenomena. Thermal energy storage is much more effective when using PCMs than sensible heat.
Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems
Sipos, Maksim
metric to 16S rRNA metagenomic studies of 6 vertebrate gastrointestinal microbiomes and find that they assembled through a highly non-neutral process. I then consider a phase transition that may occur in nutrient-poor environments such as ocean surface waters. In these systems, I find that the experimentally observed genome streamlining, specialization and opportunism may well be generic statistical phenomena.
On Phase Transition of Compressed Sensing in the Complex Domain
Yang, Zai; Xie, Lihua
2011-01-01
The phase transition is a performance measure of the sparsity-undersampling tradeoff in compressed sensing (CS). This letter reports, for the first time, the existence of an exact phase transition for the $\\ell_1$ minimization approach to the complex valued CS problem. This discovery is not only a complementary result to the known phase transition of the real valued CS but also shows considerable superiority of the phase transition of complex valued CS over that of the real valued CS. The results are obtained by extending the recently developed ONE-L1 algorithms to complex valued CS and applying their optimal and iterative solutions to empirically evaluate the phase transition.
The pressure of deconfined QCD for all temperatures and quark chemical potentials
Ipp, A
2007-01-01
A new method for the evaluation of the perturbative expansion of the QCD pressure is presented which is valid for all temperatures and quark chemical potentials in the deconfined phase, and worked out up to and including order g^4. This new approach unifies several distinct perturbative approaches to the equation of state, and agrees with dimensional reduction, HDL and HTL resummation schemes, and the zero-temperature result in their respective ranges of validity.
Nuclear Binding Near a Quantum Phase Transition
Elhatisari, Serdar; Li, Ning; Rokash, Alexander; Alarcón, Jose Manuel; Du, Dechuan; Klein, Nico; Lu, Bing-nan; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam
2016-09-01
How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. This insight should be useful in improving calculations of nuclear structure and important astrophysical reactions involving alpha capture on nuclei. Our findings also provide a tool to probe the structure of alpha cluster states such as the Hoyle state responsible for the production of carbon in red giant stars and point to a connection between nuclear states and the universal physics of bosons at large scattering length.
Nuclear binding near a quantum phase transition
Elhatisari, Serdar; Rokash, Alexander; Alarcón, Jose Manuel; Du, Dechuan; Klein, Nico; Lu, Bing-nan; Meißner, Ulf-G; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam
2016-01-01
How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. The existence of the nearby first-order ...
Phase transition in the ABC model
Clincy, M.; Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.
2003-06-01
Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-β/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero βc. The value of βc=2π(3) and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions.
Phase transitions in Thirring’s model
Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Ruffo, Stefano
2016-07-01
In his pioneering work on negative specific heat, Walter Thirring introduced a model that is solvable in the microcanonical ensemble. Here, we give a complete description of the phase-diagram of this model in both the microcanonical and the canonical ensemble, highlighting the main features of ensemble inequivalence. In both ensembles, we find a line of first-order phase transitions which ends in a critical point. However, neither the line nor the point have the same location in the phase-diagram of the two ensembles. We also show that the microcanonical and canonical critical points can be analytically related to each other using a Landau expansion of entropy and free energy, respectively, in analogy with what has been done in (Cohen and Mukamel 2012 J. Stat. Mech. P12017). Examples of systems with certain symmetries restricting the Landau expansion have been considered in this reference, while no such restrictions are present in Thirring’s model. This leads to a phase diagram that can be seen as a prototype for what happens in systems of particles with kinematic degrees of freedom dominated by long-range interactions.
Multifractality and Network Analysis of Phase Transition
Li, Wei; Yang, Chunbin; Han, Jihui; Su, Zhu; Zou, Yijiang
2017-01-01
Many models and real complex systems possess critical thresholds at which the systems shift dramatically from one sate to another. The discovery of early-warnings in the vicinity of critical points are of great importance to estimate how far the systems are away from the critical states. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and visibility graph method have been employed to investigate the multifractal and geometrical properties of the magnetization time series of the two-dimensional Ising model. Multifractality of the time series near the critical point has been uncovered from the generalized Hurst exponents and singularity spectrum. Both long-term correlation and broad probability density function are identified to be the sources of multifractality. Heterogeneous nature of the networks constructed from magnetization time series have validated the fractal properties. Evolution of the topological quantities of the visibility graph, along with the variation of multifractality, serve as new early-warnings of phase transition. Those methods and results may provide new insights about the analysis of phase transition problems and can be used as early-warnings for a variety of complex systems. PMID:28107414
Preon model and cosmological quantum-hyperchromodynamic phase transition
Nishimura, H.; Hayashi, Y.
1987-05-01
From the cosmological viewpoint, we investigate whether or not recent preon models are compatible with the picture of the first-order phase transition from the preon phase to the composite quark-lepton phase. It is shown that the current models accepting the 't Hooft anomaly-matching condition together with quantum hyperchromodynamics are consistent with the cosmological first-order phase transition.
Stress induced phase transitions in silicon
Budnitzki, M.; Kuna, M.
2016-10-01
Silicon has a tremendous importance as an electronic, structural and optical material. Modeling the interaction of a silicon surface with a pointed asperity at room temperature is a major step towards the understanding of various phenomena related to brittle as well as ductile regime machining of this semiconductor. If subjected to pressure or contact loading, silicon undergoes a series of stress-driven phase transitions accompanied by large volume changes. In order to understand the material's response for complex non-hydrostatic loading situations, dedicated constitutive models are required. While a significant body of literature exists for the dislocation dominated high-temperature deformation regime, the constitutive laws used for the technologically relevant rapid low-temperature loading have severe limitations, as they do not account for the relevant phase transitions. We developed a novel finite deformation constitutive model set within the framework of thermodynamics with internal variables that captures the stress induced semiconductor-to-metal (cd-Si → β-Si), metal-to-amorphous (β-Si → a-Si) as well as amorphous-to-amorphous (a-Si → hda-Si, hda-Si → a-Si) transitions. The model parameters were identified in part directly from diamond anvil cell data and in part from instrumented indentation by the solution of an inverse problem. The constitutive model was verified by successfully predicting the transformation stress under uniaxial compression and load-displacement curves for different indenters for single loading-unloading cycles as well as repeated indentation. To the authors' knowledge this is the first constitutive model that is able to adequately describe cyclic indentation in silicon.
Quark-hadron phase transition in massive gravity
Atazadeh, K.
2016-11-01
We study the quark-hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark-hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.
Quark–hadron phase transition in massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atazadeh, K., E-mail: atazadeh@azaruniv.ac.ir
2016-11-15
We study the quark–hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark–hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.
Uniaxial Phase Transition in Si : Ab initio Calculations
Cheng, C.
2002-01-01
Based on a previously proposed thermodynamic analysis, we study the relative stabilities of five Si phases under uniaxial compression using ab initio methods. The five phases are diamond, beta-tin, sh, sc, and hcp structures. The possible phase-transition patterns were investigated by considering the phase transitions between any two chosen phases of the five phases. By analyzing the different conributions to the relative pahse stability, we identified the most important factors in reducing t...
Exotic quantum phase transitions of strongly interacting topological insulators
Slagle, Kevin; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke
2015-03-01
Using determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that an extended Hubbard model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice has two novel quantum phase transitions. The first is a quantum phase transition between the weakly interacting gapless Dirac fermion phase and a strongly interacting fully gapped and symmetric trivial phase, which cannot be described by the standard Gross-Neveu model. The second is a quantum critical point between a quantum spin Hall insulator with spin Sz conservation and the previously mentioned strongly interacting fully gapped phase. At the latter quantum critical point the single-particle excitations remain gapped, while spin and charge gaps both close. We argue that the first quantum phase transition is related to the Z16 classification of the topological superconductor 3He-B phase with interactions, while the second quantum phase transition is a topological phase transition described by a bosonic O (4 ) nonlinear sigma model field theory with a Θ term.
Dynamical phase transitions in the two-dimensional ANNNI model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barber, M.N.; Derrida, B.
1988-06-01
We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model by comparing the time evolution of two distinct spin configurations submitted to the same thermal noise. We clearly se several dynamical transitions between ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, antiphase, and floating phases. These dynamical transitions seem to occur rather close to the transition lines determined previously in the literature.
Onset of Deconfinement in Pb+Pb Collisions at the CERN SPS
Seyboth, P; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Biakowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Gazdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; Gadysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kikola, D; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Laszlo, A; Lacey, R; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Nicolic, V; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Peryt, W; Pikna, M; Pluta, J; Prindle, D; Pühlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Szuba, M; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K; Zimányi, J; Seyboth, Peter
2006-01-01
The NA49 fixed-target experiment studied high energy-density matter produced in nucleus-nucleus reactions at the CERN SPS. In central Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV the energy density at the early stage substantially exceeds the threshold for quark deconfinement predicted by lattice QCD. The produced matter shows strong transverse and longitudinal flow. Ratios of yields of produced particles are approximately consistent with statistical equilibration. An energy scan through the SPS range revealed structure in the energy dependence of pion and kaon yields as well as of the inverse slopes of transverse mass distributions. These features suggest that a deconfined phase starts to be produced at around 30A GeV in central Pb+Pb collisions. The analysis of fluctuations and correlations has not yet provided evidence for the predicted critical point of QCD.
Magnetocaloric materials and first order phase transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neves Bez, Henrique
of the properties of such materials.The experimental characterization of these materials is done through various different methods, such as X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, calorimetry, direct measurements of entropy change, capacitance dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy,energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry......This thesis studies the first order phase transitions of the magnetocaloric materials La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 and La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz trying to overcome challenges that these materials face when applied in active magnetic regenerators. The study is done through experimental characterization and modelling...... and magnetocaloric regenerative tests. The magnetic, thermal and structural properties obtained from such measurements are then evaluated through different models, i.e. the Curie-Weiss law, the Bean-Rodbell model, the free electron model and the Debye model.The measured magnetocaloric properties of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3...
Information Dynamics at a Phase Transition
Sowinski, Damian
2016-01-01
We propose a new way of investigating phase transitions in the context of information theory. We use an information-entropic measure of spatial complexity known as configurational entropy (CE) to quantify both the storage and exchange of information in a lattice simulation of a Ginzburg-Landau model with a scalar order parameter coupled to a heat bath. The CE is built from the Fourier spectrum of fluctuations around the mean-field and reaches a minimum at criticality. In particular, we investigate the behavior of CE near and at criticality, exploring the relation between information and the emergence of ordered domains. We show that as the temperature is increased from below, the CE displays three essential scaling regimes at different spatial scales: scale free, turbulent, and critical. Together, they offer an information-entropic characterization of critical behavior where the storage and processing of information is maximized at criticality.
The phase transition of Axelrod's model revisited
Reia, Sandro M
2016-01-01
Axelrod's model with $F=2$ cultural features, where each feature can assume $k$ states drawn from a Poisson distribution of parameter $q$, exhibits a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition in the square lattice. Here we use extensive Monte Carlo simulations and finite size scaling to study the critical behavior of the order parameter $\\rho$, which is the fraction of sites that belong to the largest domain of an absorbing configuration averaged over many runs. We find that it vanishes as $\\rho \\sim \\left (q_c^0 - q \\right)^\\beta$ with $\\beta \\approx 0.25$ at the critical point $q_c^0 \\approx 3.10$ and that the exponent that measures the width of the critical region is $\
Switchable Metal-Insulator Phase Transition Metamaterials.
Hajisalem, Ghazal; Nezami, Mohammadreza S; Gordon, Reuven
2017-05-10
We investigate the switching of a gap plasmon tunnel junction between conducting and insulating states. Hysteresis is observed in the second and the third harmonic generation power dependence, which arises by thermally induced disorder ("melting") of a two-carbon self-assembled monolayer between an ultraflat gold surface and metal nanoparticles. The hysteresis is observed for a variety of nanoparticle sizes, but not for larger tunnel junctions where there is no appreciable tunneling. By combining quantum corrected finite-difference time-domain simulations with nonlinear scattering theory, we calculate the changes in the harmonic generation between the tunneling and the insulating states, and good agreement is found with the experiments. This paves the way to a new class of metal-insulator phase transition switchable metamaterials, which may provide next-generation information processing technologies.
Phase transitions in open quantum systems
Jung, C; Rotter, I
1999-01-01
We consider the behaviour of open quantum systems in dependence on the coupling to one decay channel by introducing the coupling parameter $\\alpha$ being proportional to the average degree of overlapping. Under critical conditions, a reorganization of the spectrum takes place which creates a bifurcation of the time scales with respect to the lifetimes of the resonance states. We derive analytically the conditions under which the reorganization process can be understood as a second-order phase transition and illustrate our results by numerical investigations. The conditions are fulfilled e.g. for a picket fence with equal coupling of the states to the continuum. Energy dependencies within the system are included. We consider also the generic case of an unfolded Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. In all these cases, the reorganization of the spectrum occurs at the critical value $\\alpha_{crit}$ of the control parameter globally over the whole energy range of the spectrum. All states act cooperatively.
Observables of non-equilibrium phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, FJFI, Prague (Czech Republic); Schulc, Martin; Kopecna, Renata [Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, FJFI, Prague (Czech Republic); Melo, Ivan [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Zilinska univerzita, Elektrotechnicka fakulta, Zilina (Slovakia)
2016-08-15
A rapidly expanding fireball which undergoes first-order phase transition will supercool and proceed via spinodal decomposition. Hadrons are produced from the individual fragments as well as the left-over matter filling the space between them. Emission from fragments should be visible in rapidity correlations, particularly of protons. In addition to that, even within narrow centrality classes, rapidity distributions will be fluctuating from one event to another in case of fragmentation. This can be identified with the help of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Finally, we present a method which allows to sort events with varying rapidity distributions, in such a way that events with similar rapidity histograms are grouped together. (orig.)
Scaling theory of topological phase transitions
Chen, Wei
2016-02-01
Topologically ordered systems are characterized by topological invariants that are often calculated from the momentum space integration of a certain function that represents the curvature of the many-body state. The curvature function may be Berry curvature, Berry connection, or other quantities depending on the system. Akin to stretching a messy string to reveal the number of knots it contains, a scaling procedure is proposed for the curvature function in inversion symmetric systems, from which the topological phase transition can be identified from the flow of the driving energy parameters that control the topology (hopping, chemical potential, etc) under scaling. At an infinitesimal operation, one obtains the renormalization group (RG) equations for the driving energy parameters. A length scale defined from the curvature function near the gap-closing momentum is suggested to characterize the scale invariance at critical points and fixed points, and displays a universal critical behavior in a variety of systems examined.
Information Dynamics at a Phase Transition
Sowinski, Damian; Gleiser, Marcelo
2017-03-01
We propose a new way of investigating phase transitions in the context of information theory. We use an information-entropic measure of spatial complexity known as configurational entropy (CE) to quantify both the storage and exchange of information in a lattice simulation of a Ginzburg-Landau model with a scalar order parameter coupled to a heat bath. The CE is built from the Fourier spectrum of fluctuations around the mean-field and reaches a minimum at criticality. In particular, we investigate the behavior of CE near and at criticality, exploring the relation between information and the emergence of ordered domains. We show that as the temperature is increased from below, the CE displays three essential scaling regimes at different spatial scales: scale free, turbulent, and critical. Together, they offer an information-entropic characterization of critical behavior where the storage and fidelity of information processing is maximized at criticality.
Valleytronics and phase transition in silicene
Aftab, Tayyaba
2017-03-01
Magnetic and transport properties of silicene in the presence of perpendicular electromagnetic fields and a ferromagnetic material are studied. It is shown that for small exchange field, the magnetic moment associated with each valley is opposite for the other and it gives a shift in band energy, by a Zeeman-like coupling term. Thus opening a new horizon for valley-orbit coupling. Magnetic proximity effect is seen to adjust the spintronics of each valley. Valley polarization is calculated using the semi classical formulation of electron dynamics. It can be modified and measured due to its contribution in Hall conductivity. Quantum phase transitions are observed in silicene, providing a tool to control the topological state experimentally. The strong dependence of the physical properties on valley degree of freedom is an important step towards valleytronics.
Phase transitions in undoped BaCeO3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuzmin, A.V.; Gorelov, V.P.; Melekh, B.T.
2003-01-01
of the structural phase transitions in BaCeO3. Five second-order transitions at 480 +/- 10, 530 +/- 10, 900 +/- 10, 1030 +/- 20 and 1170 +/- 20 K, and also one first-order transition at 665 +/- 10 K, were found. The transitions at 900 and 1030 K have not been reported before. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights...
Modeling the competing phase transition pathways in nanoscale olivine electrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang Ming, E-mail: tang25@llnl.go [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Carter, W. Craig [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Belak, James F. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Chiang, Yet-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2010-12-30
Recent experimental developments reveal that nanoscale lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) olivine particles exhibit very different phase transition behavior from the bulk olivine phase. A crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been observed in nanosized particles in competition with the equilibrium phase transition between the lithium-rich and lithium-poor olivine phases. Here we apply a diffuse-interface (phase-field) model to study the kinetics of the different phase transition pathways in nanosized LiFePO{sub 4} particles upon delithiation. We find that the nucleation and growth kinetics of the crystalline-to-crystalline and crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformations are sensitive to the applied electrical overpotential and particle size, which collectively determine the preferred phase transition pathway. While the crystalline-to-crystalline phase transition is favored by either faster nucleation or growth kinetics at low or high overpotentials, particle amorphization dominates at intermediate overpotentials. Decreasing particle size expands the overpotential region in which amorphization is preferred. The asymmetry in the nucleation energy barriers for amorphization and recrystallization results in a phase transition hysteresis that should promote the accumulation of the amorphous phase in electrodes after repeated electrochemical cycling. The predicted overpotential- and size-dependent phase transition behavior of nanoscale LiFePO{sub 4} particles is consistent with experimental observations.
Thermotropic and barotropic phase transitions on diacylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayer membranes.
Matsuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Shigeru; Sueyoshi, Ryosuke; Goto, Masaki; Tamai, Nobutake; Kaneshina, Shoji
2017-07-01
The bilayer phase transitions of four diacylphosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) with matched saturated acyl chains (Cn=12, 14, 16 and 18) and two PEs with matched unsaturated acyl chains containing a different kind of double bonds were observed by differential scanning calorimetry under atmospheric pressure and light-transmittance measurements under high pressure. The temperature-pressure phase diagrams for these PE bilayer membranes were constructed from the obtained phase-transition data. The saturated PE bilayer membranes underwent two different phase transitions related to the liquid crystalline (Lα) phase, the transition from the hydrated crystalline (Lc) phase and the chain melting (gel (Lβ) to Lα) transition, depending on the thermal history. Pressure altered the gel-phase stability of the bilayer membranes of PEs with longer chains at a low pressure. Comparing the thermodynamic quantities of the saturated PE bilayer membranes with those of diacylphosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer membranes, the PE bilayer membranes showed higher phase-transition temperatures and formed more stable Lc phase, which originates from the strong interaction between polar head groups of PE molecules. On the other hand, the unsaturated PE bilayer membranes underwent the transition from the Lα phase to the inverted hexagonal (HII) phase at a high temperature and this transition showed a small transition enthalpy but high pressure-responsivity. It turned out that the kind of double bonds markedly affects both bilayer-bilayer and bilayer-nonbilayer transitions and the Lα/HII transition is a volume driven transition for the reconstruction of molecular packing. Further, the phase-transition behavior was explained by chemical potential curves of bilayer phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Phase Transitions in Living Neural Networks
Williams-Garcia, Rashid Vladimir
Our nervous systems are composed of intricate webs of interconnected neurons interacting in complex ways. These complex interactions result in a wide range of collective behaviors with implications for features of brain function, e.g., information processing. Under certain conditions, such interactions can drive neural network dynamics towards critical phase transitions, where power-law scaling is conjectured to allow optimal behavior. Recent experimental evidence is consistent with this idea and it seems plausible that healthy neural networks would tend towards optimality. This hypothesis, however, is based on two problematic assumptions, which I describe and for which I present alternatives in this thesis. First, critical transitions may vanish due to the influence of an environment, e.g., a sensory stimulus, and so living neural networks may be incapable of achieving "critical" optimality. I develop a framework known as quasicriticality, in which a relative optimality can be achieved depending on the strength of the environmental influence. Second, the power-law scaling supporting this hypothesis is based on statistical analysis of cascades of activity known as neuronal avalanches, which conflate causal and non-causal activity, thus confounding important dynamical information. In this thesis, I present a new method to unveil causal links, known as causal webs, between neuronal activations, thus allowing for experimental tests of the quasicriticality hypothesis and other practical applications.
Phase Transitions in Networks of Memristive Elements
Sheldon, Forrest; di Ventra, Massimiliano
The memory features of memristive elements (resistors with memory), analogous to those found in biological synapses, have spurred the development of neuromorphic systems based on them (see, e.g.,). In turn, this requires a fundamental understanding of the collective dynamics of networks of memristive systems. Here, we study an experimentally-inspired model of disordered memristive networks in the limit of a slowly ramped voltage and show through simulations that these networks undergo a first-order phase transition in the conductivity for sufficiently high values of memory, as quantified by the memristive ON/OFF ratio. We provide also a mean-field theory that reproduces many features of the transition and particularly examine the role of boundary conditions and current- vs. voltage-controlled networks. The dynamics of the mean-field theory suggest a distribution of conductance jumps which may be accessible experimentally. We finally discuss the ability of these networks to support massively-parallel computation. Work supported in part by the Center for Memory and Recording Research at UCSD.
Topological and geometrical aspects of phase transitions
Santos, F. A. N.; Rehn, J. A.; Coutinho-Filho, M. D.
2014-03-01
In the first part of this review, we use a topological approach to describe the frustration- and field-induced phase transitions exhibited by the infinite-range XY model on the AB2 chain, including noncollinear spin structures. For this purpose, we have computed the Euler characteristic, χ, as well as other topological invariants, which are found to behave similarly as a function of the energy level in the context of Morse theory. Our findings and those available in the literature suggest that the cusp-like singularity exhibited by χ at the critical energy, Ec, put together with the divergence of the density of Jacobian's critical points emerge as necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of finite-temperature topology-induced phase transitions. In the second part, we present an alternative solution of the Ising chain in a field under free and periodic boundary conditions, in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles, from a unified combinatorial and topological perspective. In particular, the computation of the per-site entropy as a function of the energy unveils a residual value for critical values of the magnetic field, a phenomenon for which we provide a topological interpretation and a connection with the Fibonacci sequence. We also show that, in the thermodynamic limit, the per-site microcanonical entropy is equal to the logarithm of the per-site Euler characteristic. Finally, we emphasize that our combinatorial approach to the canonical ensemble allows exact computation of the thermally averaged value (T) of the Euler characteristic; our results show that the conjecture (Tc)= 0, where Tc is the critical temperature, is valid for the Ising chain.
Phase Transition Properties of 3D Potts Models
Bazavov, Alexei; Dubey, Santosh
2008-01-01
Using multicanonical Metropolis simulations we estimate phase transition properties of 3D Potts models for q=4 to 10: The transition temperatures, latent heats, entropy gaps, normalized entropies at the disordered and ordered endpoints, interfacial tensions, and spinodal endpoints.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma
Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Rath, C.; Ivlev, A. V.; Thomas, H. M.; Khrapak, S.; Zhdanov, S.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.
2010-01-01
Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separatio
Phase transitions in a gas of anyons
MacKenzie, R; Paranjape, M B; Richer, J
2010-01-01
We continue our numerical Monte Carlo simulation of a gas of closed loops on a 3 dimensional lattice, however now in the presence of a topological term added to the action corresponding to the total linking number between the loops. We compute the linking number using certain notions from knot theory. Adding the topological term converts the particles into anyons. Using the correspondence that the model is an effective theory that describes the 2+1-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the asymptotic strong coupling regime, the topological linking number simply corresponds to the addition to the action of the Chern-Simons term. We find the following new results. The system continues to exhibit a phase transition as a function of the anyon mass as it becomes small \\cite{mnp}, although the phases do not change the manifestation of the symmetry. The Chern-Simons term has no effect on the Wilson loop, but it does affect the {\\rm '}t Hooft loop. For a given configuration it adds the linking number of the 't Hooft loo...
Pressure-induced phase transition in CrO2.
Alptekin, Sebahaddin
2015-12-01
The ab initio constant pressure molecular dynamics technique and density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was used to study the pressure-induced phase transition of CrO2. The phase transition of the rutile (P42/mnm) to the orthorhombic CaCl2 (Pnnm) structure at 30 GPa was determined successfully in a constant pressure simulation. This phase transition was analyzed from total energy calculations and, from the enthalpy calculation, occurred at around 17 GPa. Structural properties such as bulk modules, lattice parameters and phase transition were compared with experimental results. The phase transition at 12 ± 3 GPa was in good agreement with experimental results, as was the phase transition from the orthorhombic CaCl2 (Pnnm) to the monoclinic (P21/c) structure also found at 35 GPa.
Bubble nucleation and growth in very strong cosmological phase transitions
Megevand, Ariel
2016-01-01
Strongly first-order phase transitions, i.e., those with a large order parameter, are characterized by a considerable supercooling and high velocities of phase transition fronts. A very strong phase transition may have important cosmological consequences due to the departures from equilibrium caused in the plasma. In general, there is a limit to the strength, since the metastability of the old phase may prevent the transition to complete. Near this limit, the bubble nucleation rate achieves a maximum and thus departs from the widely assumed behavior in which it grows exponentially with time. We study the dynamics of this kind of phase transitions. We show that in some cases a gaussian approximation for the nucleation rate is more suitable, and in such a case we solve analytically the evolution of the phase transition. We compare the gaussian and exponential approximations with realistic cases and we determine their ranges of validity. We also discuss the implications for cosmic remnants such as gravitational ...
Quantum phase transition and entanglement in Li atom system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
By use of the exact diagonalization method, the quantum phase transition and en- tanglement in a 6-Li atom system are studied. It is found that entanglement appears before the quantum phase transition and disappears after it in this exactly solvable quantum system. The present results show that the von Neumann entropy, as a measure of entanglement, may reveal the quantum phase transition in this model.
Discord under the influence of a quantum phase transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Lin-cheng; Shen Jian; Yi Xue-Xi
2011-01-01
This paper studies the discord of a bipartite two-level system coupling to an XY spin-chain environment in a transverse field and investigates the relationship between the discord property and the environment's quantum phase transition. The results show that the quantum discord is also able to characterize the quantum phase transitions. We also discuss the difference between discord and entanglement, and show that quantum discord may reveal more general information than quantum entanglement for characterizing the environment's quantum phase transition.
Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jr, John T. Giblin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu, E-mail: siemens@gravity.phys.uwm.edu, E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
2012-11-01
Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.
Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong, E-mail: xxzeng@itp.ac.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Hongbao, E-mail: hzhang@vub.ac.be [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Li, Li-Fang, E-mail: lilf@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2016-05-10
The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculating the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy–temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy–temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.
Holographic phase transition probed by non-local observables
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong
2016-01-01
From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed by the two point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes, the black hole undergos a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition successively before it reaches to a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find the equal area law for the first order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.
Kinetics of shock-induced polymorphic phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayes, D.B.
1976-01-01
Shock-loading induces polymorphic phase transitions in some solids if the pressure exceeds that at which phase transition occurs under quasi-static compression. Volume changes in shock-induced transitions must occur very rapidly to produce the structured shock waves observed, so transition rates are large under these dynamic conditions. By contrast, the same transition might require minutes or hours under quasi-static loading. If shock-induced transition is so rapid that kinetic effects can be ignored, a steady two-wave structure is propagated. The first wave, of amplitude equal to the transition pressure, shocks the material to the phase boundary but produces no transition; the second, slower wave produces the transformed phase. When kinetic effects are important, this two-wave structure does not form immediately but by an evolutionary process which produces transients in the amplitudes and rise times of the stress waves. By measuring these transient effects, some facts about the kinetics of phase transitions have been inferred. Comprehensive studies on phase-transition kinetics in antimony, iron, and potassium chloride are described, with emphasis on a thermodynamic description of the intermediate states during transition. Complicating effects such as shear strength and wave perturbations due to free surfaces are discussed.
Elastic phase transitions in metals at high pressures.
Krasilnikov, O M; Vekilov, Yu Kh; Mosyagin, I Yu; Isaev, E I; Bondarenko, N G
2012-04-19
The elastic phase transitions of cubic metals at high pressures are investigated within the framework of Landau theory. It is shown that at pressures comparable with the magnitude of the bulk modulus the phase transition is connected with the loss of stability relative to uniform deformation of the crystalline lattice. Discontinuity of the order parameter at the transition point and its equilibrium value are expressed through the second- to fourth-order elastic constants. The second-,third- and fourth-order elastic constants and phonon dispersion curves of vanadium under hydrostatic pressure are obtained by first-principles calculations. Structural transformation in vanadium under pressure is studied using the obtained results. It is shown that the experimentally observed at P ≈ 69 GPa phase transition in vanadium is the first-order phase transition close to a second-order phase transition.
Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.
1988-12-01
Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.
Gauge/gravity duality. From quantum phase transitions towards out-of-equilibrium physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngo Thanh, Hai
2011-05-02
In this dissertation we use gauge/gravity duality to investigate various phenomena of strongly coupled field theories. Of special interest are quantum phase transitions, quantum critical points, transport phenomena of charges and the thermalization process of strongly coupled medium. The systems studied in this thesis might be used as models for describing condensed matter physics in a superfluid phase near the quantum critical point and the physics of quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a deconfinement phase of QCD, which has been recently created at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Moreover, we follow the line of considering different gravity setups whose dual field descriptions show interesting phenomena of systems in thermal equilibrium, slightly out-of-equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium. We first focus on systems in equilibrium and construct holographic superfluids at finite baryon and isospin charge densities. For that we use two different approaches, the bottom-up with an U(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with back-reaction and the top-down approach with a D3/D7 brane setup with two coincident D7-brane probes. In both cases we observe phase transitions from a normal to a superfluid phase at finite and also at zero temperature. In our setup, the gravity duals of superfluids are Anti-de Sitter black holes which develop vector-hair. Studying the order of phase transitions at zero temperature, in the D3/D7 brane setup we always find a second order phase transition, while in the Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, depending on the strength of the back-reaction, we obtain a continuous or first order transition. We then move to systems which are slightly out-of-equilibrium. Using the D3/D7 brane setup with N{sub c} coincident D3-branes and N{sub f} coincident D7-brane probes, we compute transport coefficients associated with massive N=2 supersymmetric hypermultiplet fields propagating through an N=4 SU(N{sub c}) super Yang-Mills plasma in the limit of N{sub f}<
Highly birefringent crystal for Raman transitions with phase modulators
Arias, Nieves; Abediyeh, Vahide; Hamzeloui, Saeed; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Gomez, Eduardo
2016-05-01
We present a system to excite Raman transitions with minimum phase noise. The system uses a phase modulator to generate the phase locked beams required for the transition. We use a long calcite crystal to filter out one of the sidebands, avoiding the cancellation that appears at high detunings for phase modulation. The measured phase noise is limited by the quality of the microwave synthesizer. We use the calcite crystal a second time to produce a co-propagating Raman pair with perpendicular polarizations to drive velocity insensitive Raman transitions. Support from CONACYT and Fundacion Marcos Moshinsky.
Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong
2015-01-01
Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed with the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the similar Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce the conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.
Consistent lattice Boltzmann equations for phase transitions.
Siebert, D N; Philippi, P C; Mattila, K K
2014-11-01
Unlike conventional computational fluid dynamics methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) describes the dynamic behavior of fluids in a mesoscopic scale based on discrete forms of kinetic equations. In this scale, complex macroscopic phenomena like the formation and collapse of interfaces can be naturally described as related to source terms incorporated into the kinetic equations. In this context, a novel athermal lattice Boltzmann scheme for the simulation of phase transition is proposed. The continuous kinetic model obtained from the Liouville equation using the mean-field interaction force approach is shown to be consistent with diffuse interface model using the Helmholtz free energy. Density profiles, interface thickness, and surface tension are analytically derived for a plane liquid-vapor interface. A discrete form of the kinetic equation is then obtained by applying the quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas together with a third-order scheme for the discretization of the streaming or advection term in the Boltzmann equation. Spatial derivatives in the source terms are approximated with high-order schemes. The numerical validation of the method is performed by measuring the speed of sound as well as by retrieving the coexistence curve and the interface density profiles. The appearance of spurious currents near the interface is investigated. The simulations are performed with the equations of state of Van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, Peng-Robinson, and Carnahan-Starling.
ATLAS Transition Region Upgrade at Phase-1
Song, H; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
This report presents the L1 Muon trigger transition region (1.0<|ƞ|<1.3) upgrade of ATLAS Detector at phase-1. The high fake trigger rate in the Endcap region 1.0<|ƞ|<2.4 would become a serious problem for the ATLAS L1 Muon trigger system at high luminosity. For the region 1.3<|ƞ|<2.4, covered by the Small Wheel, ATLAS is enhancing the present muon trigger by adding local fake rejection and track angle measurement capabilities. To reduce the rate in the remaining ƞ interval it has been proposed a similar enhancement by adding at the edge of the inner barrel a structure of 3-layers RPCs of a new generation. These RPCs will be based on a thinner gas gap and electrodes with respect to the ATLAS standards, a new high performance Front End, integrating fast TDC capabilities, and a new low profile and light mechanical structure allowing the installation in the tiny space available.This design effectively suppresses fake triggers by making the coincidence with both end-cap and interaction point...
Phase transitions in models of human cooperation
Perc, Matjaž
2016-08-01
If only the fittest survive, why should one cooperate? Why should one sacrifice personal benefits for the common good? Recent research indicates that a comprehensive answer to such questions requires that we look beyond the individual and focus on the collective behavior that emerges as a result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and societies. Although undoubtedly driven also by culture and cognition, human cooperation is just as well an emergent, collective phenomenon in a complex system. Nonequilibrium statistical physics, in particular the collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transitions, has already been recognized as very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. Here we briefly review research done in the realm of the public goods game, and we outline future research directions with an emphasis on merging the most recent advances in the social sciences with methods of nonequilibrium statistical physics. By having a firm theoretical grip on human cooperation, we can hope to engineer better social systems and develop more efficient policies for a sustainable and better future.
Swarms, Phase Transitions, and Collective Intelligence
Millonas, M M
1993-01-01
A spacially extended model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed in which organisms move probabilistically between local cells in space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenetic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. Such models have various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. It is hoped that the present model might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular swarm models c...
Entanglement, quantum phase transitions and quantum algorithms
Orus, R
2006-01-01
The work that we present in this thesis tries to be at the crossover of quantum information science, quantum many-body physics, and quantum field theory. We use tools from these three fields to analyze problems that arise in the interdisciplinary intersection. More concretely, in Chapter 1 we consider the irreversibility of renormalization group flows from a quantum information perspective by using majorization theory and conformal field theory. In Chapter 2 we compute the entanglement of a single copy of a bipartite quantum system for a variety of models by using techniques from conformal field theory and Toeplitz matrices. The entanglement entropy of the so-called Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model is computed in Chapter 3, showing analogies with that of (1+1)-dimensional quantum systems. In Chapter 4 we apply the ideas of scaling of quantum correlations in quantum phase transitions to the study of quantum algorithms, focusing on Shor's factorization algorithm and quantum algorithms by adiabatic evolution solving a...
Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models
Cuesta, J A; Molera, J M; Cuesta, José A; Martinez, Froilán C; Molera, Juan M
1993-01-01
Abstract: We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.
Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models
Cuesta, José A; Molera, Juan M; Escuela, Angel Sánchez; 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.R4175
2009-01-01
We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.
Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells
Wang, W. J.; Shi, L. P.; Zhao, R.; Lim, K. G.; Lee, H. K.; Chong, T. C.; Wu, Y. H.
2008-07-01
The reversible and fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses are observed in the nanostructured GeSbTe materials, which provide opportunities in the application of high speed nonvolatile random access memory devices. The mechanisms for fast phase transition are discussed based on the investigation of the correlation between phase transition speed and material size. With the shrinkage of material dimensions, the size effects play increasingly important roles in enabling the ultrafast phase transition under electrical activation. The understanding of how the size effects contribute to the phase transition speed is of great importance for ultrafast phenomena and applications.
Cosmological Consequences of QCD Phase Transition(s) in Early Universe
Tawfik, A
2008-01-01
We discuss the cosmological consequences of QCD phase transition(s) on the early universe. We argue that our recent knowledge about the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) should throw additional lights on the actual time evolution of our universe. Understanding the nature of QCD phase transition(s), which can be studied in lattice gauge theory and verified in heavy ion experiments, provides an explanation for cosmological phenomenon stem from early universe.
Trace Anomaly and Dimension Two Gluon Condensate Above the Phase Transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Megias,E.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Salcedo, L.L.
2008-02-04
The dimension two gluon condensate has been used previously within a simple phenomenological model to describe power corrections from available lattice data for the renormalized Polyakov loop and the heavy quark-antiquark free energy in the deconfined phase of QCD. The QCD trace anomaly of gluodynamics also shows unequivocal inverse temperature power corrections which may be encoded as dimension two gluon condensate. We analyze lattice data of the trace anomaly and compare with other determinations of the condensate from previous references, yielding roughly similar numerical values.
Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions of n-Tridecane
Yamashita, Motoi
Pressure-induced phase transition behavior of n-tridecane from the ordered phase through the rotator phase into the liquid phase has been investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at 25 °C. The transition between the ordered and rotator phases has been observed in the pressure range of 270-220 MPa and the transition between the rotator and liquid phases has been observed in the pressure range of 171-112 MPa, within the experimental error of ±50 MPa. The populations of the -gtg- + -gtg'-, -gg- and gt- defects determined from the methylene wagging mode are smaller in the rotator phase than in the liquid phase and are smaller under higher pressure in both of the rotator and liquid phases. A relationship has been found between the conformation and the intensity of the 890 cm-1 band, which has been assigned as the methyl rocking mode and has been considered as insensitive to conformation.
Quantum phase transitions in Bose-Fermi systems
Petrellis, D; Iachello, F
2011-01-01
Quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons with angular momentum L=0,2 (s,d) and a single fermion with angular momentum j are investigated both classically and quantum mechanically. It is shown that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially the critical value of the control parameter at which the phase transition occurs. Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) (spherical to axially-deformed) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented.
Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Equation of State
Lee, S J
1997-01-01
A canonical ensemble model is used to describe a caloric curve of nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Allowing a discontinuity in the freeze out density from one spinodal density to another for a given initial temperature, the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition can be described as first order. Averaging over various freeze out densities of all the possible initial temperatures for a given total reaction energy, the first order characteristics of liquid-gas phase transition is smeared out to a smooth transition. Two experiments, one at low beam energy and one at high beam energy show different caloric behaviors and are discussed.
On the theory of phase transitions in polypeptides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter
2008-01-01
We suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix random coil transition in polypeptides. This process is considered as a first-order-like phase transition. The developed theory is free of model parameters and is based solely on fundamental physical...... principles. We apply the developed formalism for the description of thermodynamical properties of alanine polypeptides of different length. We analyze the essential thermodynamical properties of the system such as heat capacity, phase transition temperature and latent heat of the phase transition...
Liquid-liquid phase transition in Stillinger-Weber silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand [Departement de Physique and Regroupement Quebecois sur les Materiaux de Pointe, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2005-04-20
It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase.
On the Phase Transition of N-Isopropylcarbazole.
1986-05-01
vacinity of the phase transition (ca. T 137 + 40 K). We propose a semiquantitative interpretation of the phase transition in NIPC based on this assumption...the order parameter fluctuations in the vacinity of TO . V. Conclusions. The elastic properties of NIPC in the temperature range 90 K - 295 K have
Local discontinuous Galerkin methods for phase transition problems
Tian, Lulu
2015-01-01
In this thesis we develop a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) finite element method to solve mathematical models for phase transitions in solids and fluids. The first model we study is called a viscosity-capillarity (VC) system associated with phase transitions in elastic bars and Van der Waals
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions
Yamamoto, Arata; Kimura, Taro
2016-12-01
We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.
Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors
Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Gordon, A.
2014-11-01
A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET)2X with X=Cu(NCS)2, KHg(SCN)4, I3, AuBr2, IBr2, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals.
Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition: Experimental Signals
D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Cannata, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Moroni, A.; Vannini, G.
2005-03-01
The connection between the thermodynamics of charged finite nuclear systems and the asymptotically measured partitions in heavy ion collisions is discussed. Different independent signals compatible with a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition are reported. In particular abnormally large fluctuations in the measured observables are presented as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity.
Nuclear liquid-gas phase transition: Experimental signals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Agostino, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Gulminelli, F. [LPC Caen (IN2P3-CNRS/ISMRA et Universite), F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Cannata, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Chomaz, Ph. [GANIL, DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS (France); Casini, G. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Geraci, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Gramegna, F. [INFN Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro (Italy); Moroni, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Milano (Italy); Vannini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy)
2005-03-07
The connection between the thermodynamics of charged finite nuclear systems and the asymptotically measured partitions in heavy ion collisions is discussed. Different independent signals compatible with a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition are reported. In particular abnormally large fluctuations in the measured observables are presented as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity.
Experimental and theoretical investigations on shock wave induced phase transitions
Gupta, Satish C.; Sikka, S. K.
2001-06-01
Shock wave loading of a material can cause variety of phase transitions, like polymorphism, amorphization, metallization and molecular dissociations. As the shocked state lasts only for a very short duration (about a few microseconds or less), in-situ microscopic measurements are very difficult. Although such studies are beginning to be possible, most of the shock-induced phase transitions are detected using macroscopic measurements. The microscopic nature of the transition is then inferred from comparison with static pressure data or interpreted by theoretical methods. For irreversible phase transitions, microscopic measurements on recovered samples, together with orientation relations determined from selected area electron diffraction and examination of the morphology of growth of the new phase can provide insight into mechanism of phase transitions. On theoretical side, the current ab initio band structure techniques based on density functional formalism provide capability for accurate computation of the small energy differences (a few mRy or smaller) between different plausible structures. Total energy calculation along the path of a phase transition can furnish estimates of activation barrier, which has implications for understanding kinetics of phase transitions. Molecular dynamics calculations, where the new structure evolves naturally, are becoming increasingly popular especially for understanding crystal to amorphous phase transitions. Illustrations from work at our laboratory will be presented.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions
Yamamoto, Arata
2016-01-01
We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab-initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.
Two kinds of Phase transitions in a Voting model
Hisakado, Masato
2012-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C_1 and C_2. We consider two types of voters--herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase transitions coexist together. We compared our results to the conclusions of experiments and identified the phase transitions in the upper t limit using analysis of human behavior obtained from experiments.
Sequential deconfinement of quark flavors in neutron stars
Blaschke, D; Klahn, T; Berdermann, J
2008-01-01
We suggest a scenario where the three light quark flavors are sequentially deconfined under increasing pressure in cold asymmetric nuclear matter as found, e.g., in neutron stars. The basis for our analysis is a chiral quark matter model of Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type with diquark pairing in the spin-1 single flavor (CSL), spin-0 two flavor (2SC) and three flavor (CFL) channels. We find that nucleon dissociation sets in at about the saturation density, n_0, when the down-quark Fermi sea is populated (d-quark dripline) due to the flavor asymmetry induced by beta-equilibrium and charge neutrality. At about 3n_0 u-quarks appear and a two-flavor color superconducting (2SC) phase is formed. The s-quark Fermi sea is populated only at still higher baryon density, when the quark chemical potential is of the order of the dynamically generated strange quark mass. We construct two different hybrid equations of state (EoS) using the Dirac-Brueckner Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach and the EoS by Shen et al. in the nuclear...
High pressure phase transitions for CdSe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bo Kong; Ti-Xian Zeng; Zhu-Wen Zhou; De-Liang Chen; Xiao-Wei Sun
2014-05-01
The structure and pressure-induced phase transitions for CdSe are investigated using first-principles calculations. The pressure-induced phase transition sequence WZ/ZB $\\to$ Rs $\\to$ $\\to$ CsCl for CdSe is drawn reasonably for the fist time, the corresponding transition pressures are 3.8, 29 and 107 GPa, respectively and the intermediate states between the structure and the CsCl structure should exist.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Odd-Mass Nuclei
Leviatan, A; Iachello, F
2011-01-01
Quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-even nuclei are investigated in the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. Classical and quantum analysis show that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially near the critical point. Experimental evidence for the occurrence of spherical to axially-deformed transitions in odd-proton nuclei Pm, Eu and Tb (Z=61, 63, 65) is presented.
Chiral phase transition in QED3 at finite temperature
Yin, Pei-Lin; Xiao, Hai-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-12-01
In the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations, we employ two kinds of criteria (one kind is the chiral condensate, the other kind is thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, the entropy, and the specific heat) to investigate the nature of chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors. It is found that the chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors are all typical second-order phase transitions; the critical temperature and order of the chiral phase transition obtained from the chiral condensate and susceptibility are the same with that obtained by the thermodynamic quantities, which means that they are equivalent in describing the chiral phase transition; the critical temperature decreases as the number of fermion flavors increases and there is a boundary that separates the Tc-Nf plane into chiral symmetry breaking and restoration regions.
Thermodynamics of Phase Transitions of a Kerr Nonlinear Blackbody
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Ze
2008-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of phase transitions of a blackbody whose interior is filled by a Kerr nonlinear crystal. There is a transition temperature To, above which the Kerr nonlinear blackbody is in the normal thermal radiation state, and below which it is in the squeezed thermal radiation state. At To, the Gibbs free energy of the two phases is continuous but the entropy density of the two phases is discontinuous. Hence, there is a jump in the entropy density and this leads to a latent heat density. The photon system undergoes a first-order phase transition from the normal to the squeezed thermal radiation state.
Large N Phase Transitions, Finite Volume, and Entanglement Entropy
Johnson, Clifford V
2014-01-01
Holographic studies of the entanglement entropy of field theories dual to charged and neutral black holes in asymptotically global AdS4 spacetimes are presented. The goal is to elucidate various properties of the quantity that are peculiar to working in finite volume, and to gain access to the behaviour of the entanglement entropy in the rich thermodynamic phase structure that is present at finite volume and large N. The entropy is followed through various first order phase transitions, and also a novel second order phase transition. Behaviour is found that contrasts interestingly with an earlier holographic study of a second order phase transition dual to an holographic superconductor.
Reentrant Phase Transitions in Rotating AdS Black Holes
Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B
2013-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional singly spinning asymptotically AdS black holes in the canonical (fixed J) ensemble of extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Along with the usual small/large black hole phase transition, we find a new phenomenon of reentrant phase transitions for all d>5 dimensions, in which a monotonic variation of the temperature yields two phase transitions from large to small and back to large black holes. This situation is similar to that seen in multicomponent liquids.
Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)
2014-11-15
A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.
Phase transition and PTCR effect in erbium doped BT ceramics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leyet, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFAM), Av. 7 de Setembro 1975, Centro, Manaus 69020-120, AM (Brazil); Pena, R.; Zulueta, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Guerrero, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); CESI, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Ave Mario Andreaza, Amazonas (Brazil); Anglada-Rivera, J. [CESI, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Ave Mario Andreaza, Amazonas (Brazil); Romaguera, Y. [INESC TEC, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Perez de la Cruz, J., E-mail: jcruz@inescporto.pt [INESC TEC, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)
2012-06-25
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erbium influence the dielectric response BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features of the phase transition are not explained by phenomenological models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relaxation parameters do not show influence on ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric anomaly on BET phase transition is associated with the PTCR effect. - Abstract: In this work the dielectric behaviour and main features of the phase transition of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were carefully investigated. The temperature and frequency dependences of the dielectric properties of erbium doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics were measured in the 25-225 Degree-Sign C and 100 Hz to 10 MHz ranges, respectively. From this study, a dielectric anomaly in the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition of the Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramic was observed. The features of the samples phase transition were analysed by using Curie-Weiss, Santos-Eiras' and order parameter local phenomenological models. In the BaTiO{sub 3} system, all models showed a normal phase transition, while was not possible to establish the character of the phase transition in the Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} system. The relaxation parameters of conductive processes for the study ferroelectric materials, analysed in the time domain, did not show any influence on the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Finally, it was demonstrated that the anomaly observed on the phase transition of the erbium doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics is associated with the processes that results in the PTCR effect.
Insight into Structural Phase Transitions from Density Functional Theory
Ruzsinszky, Adrienn
2014-03-01
Structural phase transitions caused by high pressure or temperature are very relevant in materials science. The high pressure transitions are essential to understand the interior of planets. Pressure or temperature induced phase transitions can be relevant to understand other phase transitions in strongly correlated systems or molecular crystals.Phase transitions are important also from the aspect of method development. Lower level density functionals, LSDA and GGAs all fail to predict the lattice parameters of different polymorphs and the phase transition parameters at the same time. At this time only nonlocal density functionals like HSE and RPA have been proved to resolve the geometry-energy dilemma to some extent in structural phase transitions. In this talk I will report new results from the MGGA_MS family of meta-GGAs and give an insight why this type of meta-GGAs can give a systematic improvement of the geometry and phase transition parameters together. I will also present results from the RPA and show a possible way to improve beyond RPA.
CO2 Capture from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang Hu
2009-06-30
A novel absorption process called Phase Transitional Absorption was invented. What is the Phase Transitional Absorption? Phase Transitional Absorption is a two or multi phase absorption system, CO{sub 2} rich phase and CO{sub 2} lean phase. During Absorption, CO{sub 2} is accumulated in CO{sub 2} rich phase. After separating the two phases, CO{sub 2} rich phase is forward to regeneration. After regeneration, the regenerated CO{sub 2} rich phase combines CO{sub 2} lean phase to form absorbent again to complete the cycle. The advantage for Phase Transitional Absorption is obvious, significantly saving on regeneration energy. Because CO{sub 2} lean phase was separated before regeneration, only CO{sub 2} rich phase was forward to regeneration. The absorption system we developed has the features of high absorption rate, high loading and working capacity, low corrosion, low regeneration heat, no toxic to environment, etc. The process evaluation shows that our process is able to save 80% energy cost by comparing with MEA process.
High pressure structural phase transitions of PbPo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bencherif, Y.; Boukra, A. [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Mostaganem (Algeria); Departement de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d' Oran, USTO, Oran (Algeria); Zaoui, A., E-mail: azaoui@polytech-lille.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France, LGCgE (EA 4515) Lille1, Polytech' Lille, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Paul Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve D' Ascq Cedex (France); Ferhat, M. [Departement de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d' Oran, USTO, Oran (Algeria)
2012-09-01
First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the high pressure phase transitions and dynamical properties of the less known lead polonium compound. The calculated ground state parameters for the NaCl phase show good agreement with the experimental data. The obtained results show that the intermediate phase transition for this compound is the orthorhombic Pnma phase. The PbPo undergoes from the rocksalt to Pnma phase at 4.20 GPa. Further structural phase transition from intermediate to CsCl phase has been found at 8.5 GPa. In addition, phonon dispersion spectra were derived from linear-response to density functional theory. In particular, we show that the dynamical properties of PbPo exhibit some peculiar features compared to other III-V compounds. Finally, thermodynamics properties have been also addressed from quasiharmonic approximation.
Magnetized Domain Walls in the Deconfined Sakai-Sugimoto Model at Finite Baryon Density
Burikham, Piyabut
2011-01-01
The magnetized pure pion gradient ($\\mathcal{5}\\phi$) phase in the deconfined Sakai-Sugimoto model is explored at zero and finite temperature. We found that the temperature has very small effects on the phase. The thermodynamical properties of the phase shows that the excitations behave like a scalar solitonic free particles. By comparing the free energy of the pion gradient phase to the competing multiquark-pion gradient (MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$) phase, it becomes apparent that the pure pion gradient is less thermodynamically preferred than the MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$ phase. However, in the parameter space where the baryonic chemical potential is smaller than the onset value of the multiquark, the dominating magnetized nuclear matter is the pion gradient phase.
Phase Transition Induced by Small Molecules in Confined Copolymer Films
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Ling
2007-01-01
We investigate the phase transition induced by small molecules in confined copolymer films by using density functional theory.It is found that the addition of small molecules can effectively promote the phase separation of copolymers.In a symmetric diblock copolymer film,the affinity and concentration of small molecules play an important role in the structure transjtions.The disordered-lamellar transitions lamellar-lamellar transitions and the re-entrant transitions of the same structures are observed.Our results have potential applications in the fabrication of new functional materials.
Phase-separation transitions in asymmetric lipid bilayers
Shimobayashi, Shunsuke F; Taniguchi, Takashi
2015-01-01
Morphological transitions of phase separation associated with the asymmetry of lipid composition were investigated using micrometer-sized vesicles of lipid bilayers made from a lipid mixture. The complete macro-phase-separated morphology undergoes a transition to a micro-phase-separation-like morphology via a lorate morphology as a metastable state. The transition leads to the emergence of monodisperse nanosized domains through repeated domain scission events. Moreover, we have numerically confirmed the transitions using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model describing phase separation and the bending elastic membrane, which is quantitatively consistent with experimental results by fixing one free parameter. Our findings suggest that the local spontaneous curvature due to the asymmetric composition plays an essential role in the thermodynamic stabilization of micro-phase separation in lipid bilayers.
Phase transitions in pure and dilute thin ferromagnetic films
Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.
1983-10-01
The mean-field model of a thin ferromagnetic film where the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling in surface layers can be different from that inside the film is considered. The phase diagram, equations for the second-order phase-transition lines, and the spontaneous magnetization profiles near the phase transitions are given. It is shown that there is no extra-ordinary transition in a thin film. If the thickness of the film tends to infinity the well-known results for the mean-field model of a semi-infinite ferromagnet are obtained. The generalization for disordered dilute thin ferromagnetic films and semi-infinite ferromagnets is also given.
Superradiant phase transitions with three-level systems
Baksic, Alexandre; Nataf, Pierre; Ciuti, Cristiano
2013-02-01
We determine the phase diagram of N identical three-level systems interacting with a single photonic mode in the thermodynamical limit (N→∞) by accounting for the so-called diamagnetic term and the inequalities imposed by the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn (TRK) oscillator strength sum rule. The key role of transitions between excited levels and the occurrence of first-order phase transitions is discussed. We show that, in contrast to two-level systems, in the three-level case the TRK inequalities do not always prevent a superradiant phase transition in the presence of a diamagnetic term.
Superradiant phase transitions with three-level systems
Baksic, Alexandre; Ciuti, Cristiano
2013-01-01
We determine the phase diagram of $N$ identical three-level systems interacting with a single photonic mode in the thermodynamical limit ($N \\to \\infty$) by accounting for the so-called diamagnetic term and the inequalities imposed by the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn (TRK) oscillator strength sum rule. The key role of transitions between excited levels and the occurrence of first-order phase transitions is discussed. We show that, in contrast to two-level systems, in the three-level case the TRK inequalities do not always prevent a superradiant phase transition in presence of a diamagnetic term.
Topology-driven magnetic quantum phase transition in topological insulators.
Zhang, Jinsong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Tang, Peizhe; Zhang, Zuocheng; Feng, Xiao; Li, Kang; Wang, Li-Li; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chaoxing; Duan, Wenhui; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun; Ma, Xucun; Wang, Yayu
2013-03-29
The breaking of time reversal symmetry in topological insulators may create previously unknown quantum effects. We observed a magnetic quantum phase transition in Cr-doped Bi2(SexTe1-x)3 topological insulator films grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Across the critical point, a topological quantum phase transition is revealed through both angle-resolved photoemission measurements and density functional theory calculations. We present strong evidence that the bulk band topology is the fundamental driving force for the magnetic quantum phase transition. The tunable topological and magnetic properties in this system are well suited for realizing the exotic topological quantum phenomena in magnetic topological insulators.
Geometrical phase transitions on hierarchical lattices and universality
Hauser, P. R.; Saxena, V. K.
1986-12-01
In order to examine the validity of the principle of universality for phase transitions on hierarchical lattices, we have studied percolation on a variety of hierarchical lattices, within exact position-space renormalization-group schemes. It is observed that the percolation critical exponent νp strongly depends on the topology of the lattices, even for lattices with the same intrinsic dimensions and connectivities. These results support some recent similar results on thermal phase transitions on hierarchical lattices and point out the possible violation of universality in phase transitions on hierarchical lattices.
On the Chiral Phase Transition in the Linear Sigma Model
Phat, T H; Hoa, L V; Phat, Tran Huu; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Hoa, Le Viet
2004-01-01
The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action for composite operators at finite temperature is used to investigate the chiral phase transition within the framework of the linear sigma model as the low-energy effective model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new renormalization prescription for the CJT effective action in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation is proposed. A numerical study, which incorporates both thermal and quantum effect, shows that in this approximation the phase transition is of first order. However, taking into account the higher-loop diagrams contribution the order of phase transition is unchanged.
Sim, Taeyong; Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, Soeun; Mun, Joung Hwan
2017-10-01
The transition phase of a golf swing is considered to be a decisive instant required for a powerful swing. However, at the same time, the low back torsional loads during this phase can have a considerable effect on golf-related low back pain (LBP). Previous efforts to quantify the transition phase were hampered by problems with accuracy due to methodological limitations. In this study, vector-coding technique (VCT) method was proposed as a comprehensive methodology to quantify the precise transition phase and examine low back torsional load. Towards this end, transition phases were assessed using three different methods (VCT, lead hand speed and X-factor stretch) and compared; then, low back torsional load during the transition phase was examined. As a result, the importance of accurate transition phase quantification has been documented. The largest torsional loads were observed in healthy professional golfers (10.23 ± 1.69 N · kg(-1)), followed by professional golfers with a history of LBP (7.93 ± 1.79 N · kg(-1)), healthy amateur golfers (1.79 ± 1.05 N · kg(-1)) and amateur golfers with a history of LBP (0.99 ± 0.87 N · kg(-1)), which order was equal to that of the transition phase magnitudes of each group. These results indicate the relationship between the transition phase and LBP history and the dependency of the torsional load magnitude on the transition phase.
Phase sensitive quantum interference on forbidden transition in ladder scheme
Koganov, Gennady A
2014-01-01
A three level ladder system is analyzed and the coherence of initially electric-dipole forbidden transition is calculated. Due to the presence of two laser fields the initially dipole forbidden transition becomes dynamically permitted due to ac Stark effect. It is shown that such transitions exhibit quantum-interference-related phenomena, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, gain without inversion and enhanced refractive index. Gain and dispersion characteristics of such transitions strongly depend upon the relative phase between the driving and the probe fields. Unlike allowed transitions, gain/absorption behavior of ac-Stark allowed transitions exhibit antisymmetric feature on the Rabi sidebands. It is found that absorption/gain spectra possess extremely narrow sub-natural resonances on these ac Stark allowed forbidden transitions. An interesting finding is simultaneous existence of gain and negative dispersion at Autler-Townes transition which may lead to both reduction of the group velocity a...
Safety performance of traffic phases and phase transitions in three phase traffic theory.
Xu, Chengcheng; Liu, Pan; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhibin
2015-12-01
Crash risk prediction models were developed to link safety to various phases and phase transitions defined by the three phase traffic theory. Results of the Bayesian conditional logit analysis showed that different traffic states differed distinctly with respect to safety performance. The random-parameter logit approach was utilized to account for the heterogeneity caused by unobserved factors. The Bayesian inference approach based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was used for the estimation of the random-parameter logit model. The proposed approach increased the prediction performance of the crash risk models as compared with the conventional logit model. The three phase traffic theory can help us better understand the mechanism of crash occurrences in various traffic states. The contributing factors to crash likelihood can be well explained by the mechanism of phase transitions. We further discovered that the free flow state can be divided into two sub-phases on the basis of safety performance, including a true free flow state in which the interactions between vehicles are minor, and a platooned traffic state in which bunched vehicles travel in successions. The results of this study suggest that a safety perspective can be added to the three phase traffic theory. The results also suggest that the heterogeneity between different traffic states should be considered when estimating the risks of crash occurrences on freeways.
Phase transitions in ferroelectric silicon doped hafnium oxide
Böscke, T. S.; Teichert, St.; Bräuhaus, D.; Müller, J.; Schröder, U.; Böttger, U.; Mikolajick, T.
2011-09-01
We investigated phase transitions in ferroelectric silicon doped hafnium oxide (FE-Si:HfO2) by temperature dependent polarization and x-ray diffraction measurements. If heated under mechanical confinement, the orthorhombic ferroelectric phase reversibly transforms into a phase with antiferroelectric behavior. Without confinement, a transformation into a monoclinic/tetragonal phase mixture is observed during cooling. These results suggest the existence of a common higher symmetry parent phase to the orthorhombic and monoclinic phases, while transformation between these phases appears to be inhibited by an energy barrier.
Phase transitions in simplified models with long-range interactions
Rocha Filho, T. M.; Amato, M. A.; Mello, B. A.; Figueiredo, A.
2011-10-01
We study the origin of phase transitions in several simplified models with long-range interactions. For the self-gravitating ring model, we are unable to observe a possible phase transition predicted by Nardini and Casetti [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.80.060103 80, 060103R (2009).] from an energy landscape analysis. Instead we observe a sharp, although without any nonanalyticity, change from a core-halo to a core-only configuration in the spatial distribution functions for low energies. By introducing a different class of solvable simplified models without any critical points in the potential energy we show that a behavior similar to the thermodynamics of the ring model is obtained, with a first-order phase transition from an almost homogeneous high-energy phase to a clustered phase and the same core-halo to core configuration transition at lower energies. We discuss the origin of these features for the simplified models and show that the first-order phase transition comes from the maximization of the entropy of the system as a function of energy and an order parameter, as previously discussed by Hahn and Kastner [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.72.056134 72, 056134 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. BEPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2006-00100-7 50, 311 (2006)], which seems to be the main mechanism causing phase transitions in long-range interacting systems.
2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.
2012-08-16
We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.
Deconfinement in Yang-Mills theory through toroidal compactification with deformation
Simic, Dusan
2010-01-01
We introduce field theory techniques through which the deconfinement transition of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory can be moved to a semi-classical domain where it becomes calculable using two-dimensional field theory. We achieve this through a double- trace deformation of toroidally compactified Yang-Mills theory on R2 \\times S1_L \\times S1_{\\beta}. At large N, fixed-L, and arbitrary {\\beta}, the thermodynamics of the deformed theory is equivalent to that of ordinary Yang-Mills theory at leading order in the large N expansion. At fixed-N, small L and a range of {\\beta}, the deformed theory maps to a two-dimensional theory with electric and magnetic (order and disorder) perturbations, analogs of which appear in planar spin-systems and statistical physics. We show that in this regime the deconfinement transition is driven by the competition between electric and magnetic perturbations in this two-dimensional theory. This appears to support the scenario proposed by Liao and Shuryak regarding the magnetic comp...
Behavior of the Lyapunov Exponent and Phase Transition in Nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Nan; WU Xi-Zhen; LI Zhu-Xia; WANG Ning; ZHUO Yi-Zhong; SUN Xiu-Quan
2000-01-01
Based on the quantum molecular dynamics model, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of the excited nuclear system to simulate the latter stage of heavy ion reactions, which associate with a liquid-gas phase transition. We try to search a microscopic way to describe the phase transition in realnuclei. The Lyapunov exponent is employed and examined for our purpose. We find out that the Lyapunov exponent is one of good microscopic quantities to describe the phase transition in hot nuclei. Coulomb potential and the finite size effect may give a strong influence on the critical temperature. However, the collision term plays a minor role in the process of the liquid-gas phase transition in finite systems.
Phase transitions in the coal-water-methane system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexeev, A.D.; Ulyanova, E.V.; Kalugina, N.A.; Degtyar, S.E. [Institute of Physical & Mining Processes, Donetsk (Ukraine)
2006-07-01
Low temperature phase transitions in water and methane occurring in fossil coals were studied experimentally using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. Contributions of constituent fluids into narrow line of {sup 1}H NMR wide line spectrum were analyzed.
Integrability and Quantum Phase Transitions in Interacting Boson Models
Dukelsky, J; García-Ramos, J E; Pittel, S
2003-01-01
The exact solution of the boson pairing hamiltonian given by Richardson in the sixties is used to study the phenomena of level crossings and quantum phase transitions in the integrable regions of the sd and sdg interacting boson models.
Lifshitz Transitions in Magnetic Phases of the Periodic Anderson Model
Kubo, Katsunori
2015-09-01
We investigate the reconstruction of a Fermi surface, which is called a Lifshitz transition, in magnetically ordered phases of the periodic Anderson model on a square lattice with a finite Coulomb interaction between f electrons. We apply the variational Monte Carlo method to the model by using the Gutzwiller wavefunctions for the paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, and charge-density-wave states. We find that an antiferromagnetic phase is realized around half-filling and a ferromagnetic phase is realized when the system is far away from half-filling. In both magnetic phases, Lifshitz transitions take place. By analyzing the electronic states, we conclude that the Lifshitz transitions to large ordered-moment states can be regarded as itinerant-localized transitions of the f electrons.
Instabilities of uniform filtration flows with phase transition
Il'Ichev, A. T.; Tsypkin, G. G.
2008-10-01
New mechanisms of instability are described for vertical flows with phase transition through horizontally extended two-dimensional regions of a porous medium. A plane surface of phase transition becomes unstable at an infinitely large wavenumber and at zero wavenumber. In the latter case, the unstable flow undergoes reversible subcritical bifurcations leading to the development of secondary flows (which may not be horizontally uniform). The evolution of subcritical modes near the instability threshold is governed by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation. Two examples of flow through a porous medium are considered. One is the unstable flow across a water-bearing layer above a layer that carries a vapor-air mixture under isothermal conditions in the presence of capillary forces at the phase transition interface. The other is the vertical flow with phase transition in a high-temperature geothermal reservoir consisting of two high-permeability regions separated by a low-permeability stratum.
Wet Process Induced Phase Transited Drug Delivery System as a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Nx 6110
effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied. ... results of in vivo toxicity studies may support the use of phase transited ... ocular inflammatory conditions [16]. ... Flurbiprofen was obtained from Sun.
Dynamical symmetries and causality in non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte
2015-01-01
Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant $n$-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malte Henkel
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Entropy, Macroscopic Information, and Phase Transitions
Parrondo, Juan M. R.
1999-01-01
The relationship between entropy and information is reviewed, taking into account that information is stored in macroscopic degrees of freedom, such as the order parameter in a system exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that most problems of the relationship between entropy and information, embodied in a variety of Maxwell demons, are also present in any symmetry breaking transition.
The QCD phase transitions: From mechanism to observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuryak, E.V.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on quantum chromodynamic phase transformations during heavy ion collisions. Some topics briefly described are: finite T transitions of I molecule pairs; finite density transitions of diquarks polymers; and the softtest point of the equation of state as a source of discontinuous behavior as a function of collision energy or centrality.
Quantum Shape-Phase Transitions in Finite Nuclei
Leviatan, A
2007-01-01
Quantum shape-phase transitions in finite nuclei are considered in the framework of the interacting boson model. Critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions are identified by resolving them into intrinsic and collective parts. Suitable wave functions and finite-N estimates for observables at the critical-points are derived.
Quantum Shape-Phase Transitions in Finite Nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2007-05-15
Quantum shape-phase transitions in finite nuclei are considered in the framework of the interacting boson model. Critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions are identified by resolving them into intrinsic and collective parts. Suitable wave functions and finite-N estimates for observables at the critical-points are derived.
Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie
2014-01-01
A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formation...
Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate by photoacoustics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Sivabarathy; S Natarajan; S K Ramakrishnan; K Ramachandran
2004-10-01
Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate is studied by using TG, DTA and photoacoustic spectroscopy. A sharp transition at 378 K by photoacoustics is observed whereas at the same temperature the endothermic energy change observed by TG and DTA is not very sharp. This is discussed in detail with reference to the other known data for the organic crystals.
Towards the heavy dense QCD phase diagram using Complex Langevin simulations
Aarts, Gert; Jäger, Benjamin; Seiler, Erhard; Sexty, Dénes; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo methods cannot probe far into the QCD phase diagram with a real chemical potential, due to the famous sign problem. Complex Langevin simulations, using adaptive step-size scaling and gauge cooling, are suited for sampling path integrals with complex weights. We report here on tests of the deconfinement transition in pure Yang-Mills SU(3) simulations and present an update on the QCD phase diagram in the limit of heavy and dense quarks.
Baryogenesis via leptonic CP-violating phase transition
Pascoli, Silvia; Zhou, Ye-Ling
2016-01-01
We propose a new mechanism to generate a lepton asymmetry based on the vacuum CP-violating phase transition (CPPT). This approach differs from classical thermal leptogenesis as a specific seesaw model, and its UV completion, need not be specified. The lepton asymmetry is generated via the dynamically realised coupling of the Weinberg operator during the phase transition. This mechanism provides strong connections with low-energy neutrino experiments.
Partial dynamical symmetry at critical points of quantum phase transitions.
Leviatan, A
2007-06-15
We show that partial dynamical symmetries can occur at critical points of quantum phase transitions, in which case underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of partial dynamical symmetries are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape phases in nuclei.
Raman study of magnetic phase transitions of hexagonal manganites
Nam, Ji-Yeon; Hien, Nguyen T. M.; Huyen, Nguyen T.; Han, Kiok; Chen, Xiang-Bai; Cheong, S. W.; Lee, D.; Noh, T. W.; Sung, N. H.; Cho, B. K.; Yang, In-Sang
2014-03-01
Results of Raman studies of magnetic phase transitions of hexagonal LuMnO3 single crystal and HoMnO3 thin films are compared directly with the results of magnetic measurements. Our results show that the temperature dependent Raman study of magnon scattering provides a simple and accurate method for investigating magnetic phase transitions, especially in HoMnO3 thin films. In single crystal, our optical method provides results as good as magnetization measurements.
Quark-gluon plasma phase transition using cluster expansion method
Syam Kumar, A. M.; Prasanth, J. P.; Bannur, Vishnu M.
2015-08-01
This study investigates the phase transitions in QCD using Mayer's cluster expansion method. The inter quark potential is modified Cornell potential. The equation of state (EoS) is evaluated for a homogeneous system. The behaviour is studied by varying the temperature as well as the number of Charm Quarks. The results clearly show signs of phase transition from Hadrons to Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).
Ab initio theory of helix <-> coil phase transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2008-01-01
on fundamental physical principles. It describes essential thermodynamical properties of the system such as heat capacity, the phase transition temperature and others from the analysis of the polypeptide potential energy surface calculated as a function of two dihedral angles, responsible for the polypeptide...... twisting. The suggested theory is general and with some modification can be applied for the description of phase transitions in other complex molecular systems (e.g. proteins, DNA, nanotubes, atomic clusters, fullerenes)....
Effect of point defects and disorder on structural phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toulouse, J.
1997-06-01
Since the beginning in 1986, the object of this project has been Structural Phase Transitions (SPT) in real as opposed to ideal materials. The first stage of the study has been centered around the role of Point Defects in SPT`s. Our intent was to use the previous knowledge we had acquired in the study of point defects in non-transforming insulators and apply it to the study of point defects in insulators undergoing phase transitions. In non-transforming insulators, point defects, in low concentrations, marginally affect the bulk properties of the host. It is nevertheless possible by resonance or relaxation methods to study the point defects themselves via their local motion. In transforming solids, however, close to a phase transition, atomic motions become correlated over very large distances; there, even point defects far removed from one another can undergo correlated motions which may strongly affect the transition behavior of the host. Near a structural transition, the elastic properties win be most strongly affected so as to either raise or decrease the transition temperature, prevent the transition from taking place altogether, or simply modify its nature and the microstructure or domain structure of the resulting phase. One of the well known practical examples is calcium-stabilized zirconia in which the high temperature cubic phase is stabilized at room temperature with greatly improved mechanical properties.
Quark-Hadron Phase Transitions in Viscous Early Universe
Tawfik, A
2011-01-01
Based on hot big bang theory, the cosmological matter is conjectured to undergo QCD phase transition(s) to hadrons, when the universe was about $1-10 \\mu$s old. In the present work, we study the quark-hadron phase transition, by taking into account the effect of the bulk viscosity. We analyze the evolution of the quantities relevant for the physical description of the early universe, namely, the energy density $\\rho$, temperature $T$, Hubble parameter $H$ and scale factor $a$ before, during and after the phase transition. To study the cosmological dynamics and the time evolution we use both analytical and numerical methods. By assuming that the phase transition may be described by an effective nucleation theory (prompt {\\it first-order} phase transition), we also consider the case where the universe evolved through a mixed phase with a small initial supercooling and monotonically growing hadronic bubbles. The numerical estimation of the cosmological parameters, $a$ and $H$ for instance, makes it clear that th...
Quantum Phase Transitions and Dimerized Phases in Frustrated Spin Ladder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN Rui; LIU Guang-Hua; TIAN Guang-Shan
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study the phase diagram of a frustrated spin ladder model by applying the bosonization technique and the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) algorithm. Effect of the intra-chain next-nearestneighbor (NNN) super-exchange interaction is investigated in detail and the order parameters are calculated to detect the emergence of the dimerized phases. We find that the intra-chain NNN interaction plays a key role in inducing dimerized phases.
Phase transition in extended thermodynamic phase space and charged Horava-Lifshitz black holes
Poshteh, Mohammad Bagher Jahani
2016-01-01
For charged black holes in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, it is shown that a second order phase transition takes place in extended phase space. We study the behavior of specific heat and free energy at the point of transition in canonical and grand canonical ensembles and show that the black hole falls into a state which is locally and globally stable. We relate the second order nature of phase transition to the fact that the phase transition occurs at a sharp temperature and not over a temperature interval. By taking cosmological constant as thermodynamic pressure for charged black holes, we extend Ehrenfest's equations. We obtain nine equations and show that, all of them are satisfied at the point in which the specific heat diverges. We also apply geometrothermodynamics to extended phase space and show that the scalar curvature of Quevedo metric diverges at the point at which the second order phase transition takes place.
A Quantum Phase Transition in the Cosmic Ray Energy Distribution
Widom, A; Srivastava, Y
2015-01-01
We here argue that the "knee" of the cosmic ray energy distribution at $E_c \\sim 1$ PeV represents a second order phase transition of cosmic proportions. The discontinuity of the heat capacity per cosmic ray particle is given by $\\Delta c=0.450196\\ k_B$. However the idea of a deeper critical point singularity cannot be ruled out by present accuracy in neither theory nor experiment. The quantum phase transition consists of cosmic rays dominated by bosons for the low temperature phase E E_c$. The low temperature phase arises from those nuclei described by the usual and conventional collective boson models of nuclear physics. The high temperature phase is dominated by protons. The transition energy $E_c$ may be estimated in terms of the photo-disintegration of nuclei.
Signals of the QCD Phase Transition in the Heavens
Schaffner-Bielich, J
2007-01-01
The modern phase diagram of strongly interacting matter reveals a rich structure at high-densities due to phase transitions related to the chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the phenomenon of color superconductivity. These exotic phases have significant impacts on high-density astrophysics as the properties of neutron stars and the evolution of astrophysical systems as proto-neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers. Most recent pulsar mass measurements and constraints on neutron star radii are critically discussed. Astrophysical signals for exotic matter and phase transitions in high-density matter proposed recently in the literature are outlined. A strong first order phase transition leads to the emergence of a third family of compact stars besides white dwarfs and neutron stars. The different microphysics of quark matter results in an enhanced r-mode stability window for rotating compact stars compared to normal neutron stars. Future telescope and satellite data will...
Problem-solving phase transitions during team collaboration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Fiore, Stephen M.
2017-01-01
) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem...... phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams’ CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions......-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit...
D'Emidio, Jonathan; Kaul, Ribhu K.
2016-02-01
We consider the easy-plane limit of bipartite SU (N ) Heisenberg Hamiltonians, which have a fundamental representation on one sublattice and the conjugate to fundamental on the other sublattice. For N =2 the easy plane limit of the SU(2) Heisenberg model is the well-known quantum X Y model of a lattice superfluid. We introduce a logical method to generalize the quantum X Y model to arbitrary N , which keeps the Hamiltonian sign-free. We show that these quantum Hamiltonians have a world-line representation as the statistical mechanics of certain tightly packed loop models of N colors in which neighboring loops are disallowed from having the same color. In this loop representation we design an efficient Monte Carlo cluster algorithm for our model. We present extensive numerical results for these models on the two dimensional square lattice, where we find the nearest neighbor model has superfluid order for N ≤5 and valence-bond order for N >5 . By introducing SU (N ) easy-plane symmetric four-spin couplings we are able to tune across the superfluid-VBS phase boundary for all N ≤5 . We present clear evidence that this quantum phase transition is first order for N =2 and N =5 , suggesting that easy-plane deconfined criticality runs away generically to a first-order transition for small N .
Density Functional Theory for Phase-Ordering Transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Jianzhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)
2016-03-30
Colloids display astonishing structural and dynamic properties that can be dramatically altered by modest changes in the solution condition or an external field. This complex behavior stems from a subtle balance of colloidal forces and intriguing mesoscopic and macroscopic phase transitions that are sensitive to the processing conditions and the dispersing environment. Whereas the knowledge on the microscopic structure and phase behavior of colloidal systems at equilibrium is now well-advanced, quantitative predictions of the dynamic properties and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions in colloids are not always realized. Many important mesoscopic and off-equilibrium colloidal states remain poorly understood. The proposed research aims to develop a new, unifying approach to describe colloidal dynamics and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions based on accomplishments from previous work for the equilibrium properties of both uniform and inhomogeneous systems and on novel concepts from the state-of-the-art dynamic density functional theory. In addition to theoretical developments, computational research is designed to address a number of fundamental questions on phase-ordering transitions in colloids, in particular those pertinent to a competition of the dynamic pathways leading to various mesoscopic structures, off-equilibrium states, and crystalline phases. By providing a generic theoretical framework to describe equilibrium, metastable as well as non-ergodic phase transitions concurrent with the colloidal self-assembly processes, accomplishments from this work will have major impacts on both fundamental research and technological applications.
Antiferromagnetic phase transition and spin correlations in NiO
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chatterji, Tapan; McIntyre, G.J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker
2009-01-01
We have investigated the antiferromagnetic (AF) phase transition and spin correlations in NiO by high-temperature neutron diffraction below and above TN. We show that AF phase transition is a continuous second-order transition within our experimental resolution. The spin correlations manifested...... by this process. We determined the critical exponents =0.328±0.002 and =0.64±0.03 and the Néel temperature TN=530±1 K. These critical exponents suggest that NiO should be regarded as a 3dXY system...
Gravitational waves from cosmological first order phase transitions
Hindmarsh, Mark; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David
2015-01-01
First order phase transitions in the early Universe generate gravitational waves, which may be observable in future space-based gravitational wave observatiories, e.g. the European eLISA satellite constellation. The gravitational waves provide an unprecedented direct view of the Universe at the time of their creation. We study the generation of the gravitational waves during a first order phase transition using large-scale simulations of a model consisting of relativistic fluid and an order parameter field. We observe that the dominant source of gravitational waves is the sound generated by the transition, resulting in considerably stronger radiation than earlier calculations have indicated.
Collectivity, Phase Transitions and Exceptional Points in Open Quantum Systems
Heiss, W D; Rotter, I
1998-01-01
Phase transitions in open quantum systems, which are associated with the formation of collective states of a large width and of trapped states with rather small widths, are related to exceptional points of the Hamiltonian. Exceptional points are the singularities of the spectrum and eigenfunctions, when they are considered as functions of a coupling parameter. In the present paper this parameter is the coupling strength to the continuum. It is shown that the positions of the exceptional points (their accumulation point in the thermodynamical limit) depend on the particular type and energy dependence of the coupling to the continuum in the same way as the transition point of the corresponding phase transition.
Solid-solid phase transitions via melting in metals
Pogatscher, S.; Leutenegger, D.; Schawe, J. E. K.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.
2016-04-01
Observing solid-solid phase transitions in-situ with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is a great challenge, and is often only possible via computer simulations or in model systems. Recently, a study of polymeric colloidal particles, where the particles mimic atoms, revealed an intermediate liquid state in the transition from one solid to another. While not yet observed there, this finding suggests that such phenomena may also occur in metals and alloys. Here we present experimental evidence for a solid-solid transition via the formation of a metastable liquid in a `real' atomic system. We observe this transition in a bulk glass-forming metallic system in-situ using fast differential scanning calorimetry. We investigate the corresponding transformation kinetics and discuss the underlying thermodynamics. The mechanism is likely to be a feature of many metallic glasses and metals in general, and may provide further insight into phase transition theory.
Spin-current probe for phase transition in an insulator
Qiu, Zhiyong; Li, Jia; Hou, Dazhi; Arenholz, Elke; N'diaye, Alpha T.; Tan, Ali; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Koji; Okamoto, Satoshi; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Qiu, Z. Q.; Saitoh, Eiji
2016-08-01
Spin fluctuation and transition have always been one of the central topics of magnetism and condensed matter science. Experimentally, the spin fluctuation is found transcribed onto scattering intensity in the neutron-scattering process, which is represented by dynamical magnetic susceptibility and maximized at phase transitions. Importantly, a neutron carries spin without electric charge, and therefore it can bring spin into a sample without being disturbed by electric energy. However, large facilities such as a nuclear reactor are necessary. Here we show that spin pumping, frequently used in nanoscale spintronic devices, provides a desktop microprobe for spin transition; spin current is a flux of spin without an electric charge and its transport reflects spin excitation. We demonstrate detection of antiferromagnetic transition in ultra-thin CoO films via frequency-dependent spin-current transmission measurements, which provides a versatile probe for phase transition in an electric manner in minute devices.
Phase Transitions and Backbones of the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem
Zhang, W
2011-01-01
In recent years, there has been much interest in phase transitions of combinatorial problems. Phase transitions have been successfully used to analyze combinatorial optimization problems, characterize their typical-case features and locate the hardest problem instances. In this paper, we study phase transitions of the asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (ATSP), an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that has many real-world applications. Using random instances of up to 1,500 cities in which intercity distances are uniformly distributed, we empirically show that many properties of the problem, including the optimal tour cost and backbone size, experience sharp transitions as the precision of intercity distances increases across a critical value. Our experimental results on the costs of the ATSP tours and assignment problem agree with the theoretical result that the asymptotic cost of assignment problem is pi ^2 /6 the number of cities goes to infinity. In addition, we show that the average computation...
Dissipation-driven quantum phase transitions in collective spin systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrison, S [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Parkins, A S [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)], E-mail: smor161@aucklanduni.ac.nz
2008-10-14
We consider two different collective spin systems subjected to strong dissipation-on the same scale as interaction strengths and external fields-and show that either continuous or discontinuous dissipative quantum phase transitions can occur as the dissipation strength is varied. First, we consider a well-known model of cooperative resonance fluorescence that can exhibit a second-order quantum phase transition, and analyse the entanglement properties near the critical point. Next, we examine a dissipative version of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick interacting collective spin model, where we find that either first- or second-order quantum phase transitions can occur, depending only on the ratio of the interaction and external field parameters. We give detailed results and interpretation for the steady-state entanglement in the vicinity of the critical point, where it reaches a maximum. For the first-order transition we find that the semiclassical steady states exhibit a region of bistability. (fast track communication)
The Physics of Phase Transitions Concepts and Applications
Papon, Pierre; Meijer, Paul H.E
2006-01-01
The physics of phase transitions is an important area at the crossroads of several fields that play central roles in materials sciences. In this second edition, new developments had been included which came up in the states of matter physics, in particular in the domain of nanomaterials and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates where progress is accelerating. The presentation of several chapters had been improved by bringing better information on some phase transition mechanisms and by illustrating them with new application examples. This work deals with all classes of phase transitions in fluids and solids. It contains chapters on evaporation, melting, solidification, magnetic transitions, critical phenomena, superconductivity, etc., and is intended for graduate students in physics and engineering; for scientists it will serve both as an introduction and an overview. End-of-chapter problems and complete answers are included.
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Albert-Einstein Allee-11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias; Keller, Jonas; Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech H. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Campo, Adolfo del [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 (United States); Mehlstäubler, Tanja E., E-mail: tanja.mehlstaeubler@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)
2015-03-01
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed nonadiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble–Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Ulm Univ., Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Keller, Jonas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm Univ., Ulm, (Germany):Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ulm Univ.,Ulm, (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech Hubert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); del Campo, Adolfo [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mehlstaubler, Tanja E. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
2014-11-19
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed non-adiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Folding of a single polymer chain and phase transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING YanWei; ZHANG GuangZhao
2009-01-01
Using an ultra-sensitive differential scanning calorimetry (US-DSC), we have investigated the folding and aggregation behaviors of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chains in dilute and semidilute solutions. In the heating process, the intrachain folding and interchain aggregation simultaneously occur in the dilute solutions, and the ratio of intrachain folding increases with decreasing concentra-tion. In the semidilute solutions, PNIPAM chains show limited interchain aggregation with elevated temperature, because most of the PNIPAM chains have been collapsed at lower temperature. In an ex-tremely dilute solution, PNIPAM chains undergo a single folding transition in the heating process. By extrapolating heating rate and concentration to zero, we have obtained the phase transition tempera-ture (Ts) and enthalpy change (AHs) of the single chain folding. AHs is higher than that for a phase transition involving intrachain collapse and interchain aggregation, indicating that a single chain fold-ing can not be taken to be a macroscopic phase transition.
Origin of time before inflation from a topological phase transition
Bellini, Mauricio
2017-09-01
We study the origin of the universe (or pre-inflation) by suggesting that the primordial space-time in the universe suffered a global topological phase transition, from a 4D Euclidean manifold to an asymptotic 4D hyperbolic one. We introduce a complex time, τ, such that its real part becomes dominant after started the topological phase transition. Before the big bang, τ is a space-like coordinate, so that can be considered as a reversal variable. After the phase transition is converted in a causal variable. The formalism solves in a natural manner the quantum to classical transition of the geometrical relativistic quantum fluctuations: σ, which has a geometric origin.
Cascading dynamics on random networks: Crossover in phase transition
Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Bing-Hong
2012-02-01
In a complex network, random initial attacks or failures can trigger subsequent failures in a cascading manner, which is effectively a phase transition. Recent works have demonstrated that in networks with interdependent links so that the failure of one node causes the immediate failures of all nodes connected to it by such links, both first- and second-order phase transitions can arise. Moreover, there is a crossover between the two types of transitions at a critical system-parameter value. We demonstrate that these phenomena can occur in the more general setting where no interdependent links are present. A heuristic theory is derived to estimate the crossover and phase-transition points, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained.
Horava-Lifshitz early universe phase transition beyond detailed balance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kheyri, F.; Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-01-15
The early universe is believed to have undergone a QCD phase transition to hadrons at about 10 {mu}s after the big bang. We study such a transition in the context of the non-detailed balance Horava-Lifshitz theory by investigating the effects of the dynamical coupling constant {lambda} in a flat universe. The evolution of the relevant physical quantities, namely the energy density {rho}, temperature T, scale factor a and the Hubble parameter H is investigated before, during and after the phase transition, assumed to be of first order. Also, in view of the recent lattice QCD simulations data, we study a cross-over phase transition of the early universe whose results are based on two different sets of lattice data. (orig.)
Pairing Phase Transitions of Matter under Rotation
Jiang, Yin
2016-01-01
The phases and properties of matter under global rotation have attracted much interest recently. In this paper we investigate the pairing phenomena in a system of fermions under the presence of rotation. We find that there is a generic suppression effect on pairing states with zero angular momentum. We demonstrate this effect with the chiral condensation and the color superconductivity in hot dense QCD matter as explicit examples. In the case of chiral condensation, a new phase diagram in the temperature-rotation parameter space is found, with a nontrivial critical point.
Sample-dependent phase transitions in disordered exclusion models
Enaud, C.; Derrida, B.
2004-04-01
We give numerical evidence that the location of the first-order phase transition between the low- and the high-density phases of the one-dimensional asymmetric simple exclusion process with open boundaries becomes sample dependent when quenched disorder is introduced for the hopping rates.
Dynamics and phase transitions in A 1C 60 compounds
Schober, H.; Renker, B.; Heid, R.; Tölle, A.
1997-02-01
We present an overview of extensive inelastic neutron scattering experiments carried out on powders of A 1C 60. The various phases leave strong fingerprints in the microscopic dynamics confirming the solid-state chemical reactions. The strong kinetic phase transitions can be followed in real time and turn out to be highly complex.
Instabilities near the QCD phase transition in the holographic models
Gürsoy, U.; Lin, S.; Shuryak, E.
2013-01-01
This paper discusses phenomena close to the critical QCD temperature, using the holographic model. One issue studied is the overcooled high-T phase, in which we calculate quasinormal sound modes. We do not find instabilities associated with other first-order phase transitions, but nevertheless obser
Kinetics of silica-phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duffy, C.J.
1993-07-01
In addition to the stable silica polymorph quartz, several metastable silica phases are present in Yucca Mountain. The conversion of these phases to quartz is accompanied by volume reduction and a decrease in the aqueous silica activity, which may destabilize clinoptilolite and mordenite. The primary reaction sequence for the silica phases is from opal or glass to disordered opal-CT, followed by ordering of the opal-CT and finally by the crystallization of quartz. The ordering of opal-CT takes place in the solid state, whereas the conversion of opal-CT takes place through dissolution-reprecipitation involving the aqueous phase. It is proposed that the rate of conversion of opal-CT to quartz is controlled by diffusion of defects out of a disordered surface layer formed on the crystallizing quartz. The reaction rates are observed to be dependent on temperature, pressure, degree of supersaturation, and pH. Rate equations selected from the literature appear to be consistent with observations at Yucca Mountain.
Kinetics of silica-phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duffy, C.J.
1993-07-01
In addition to the stable silica polymorph quartz, several metastable silica phases are present in Yucca Mountain. The conversion of these phases to quartz is accompanied by volume reduction and a decrease in the aqueous silica activity, which may destabilize clinoptilolite and mordenite. The primary reaction sequence for the silica phases is from opal or glass to disordered opal-CT, followed by ordering of the opal-CT and finally by the crystallization of quartz. The ordering of opal-CT takes place in the solid state, whereas the conversion of opal-CT takes place through dissolution-reprecipitation involving the aqueous phase. It is proposed that the rate of conversion of opal-CT to quartz is controlled by diffusion of defects out of a disordered surface layer formed on the crystallizing quartz. The reaction rates are observed to be dependent on temperature, pressure, degree of supersaturation, and pH. Rate equations selected from the literature appear to be consistent with observations at Yucca Mountain.
Non-equilibrium quantum phase transition via entanglement decoherence dynamics
Lin, Yu-Chen; Yang, Pei-Yun; Zhang, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
We investigate the decoherence dynamics of continuous variable entanglement as the system-environment coupling strength varies from the weak-coupling to the strong-coupling regimes. Due to the existence of localized modes in the strong-coupling regime, the system cannot approach equilibrium with its environment, which induces a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition. We analytically solve the entanglement decoherence dynamics for an arbitrary spectral density. The nonequilibrium quantum phase transition is demonstrated as the system-environment coupling strength varies for all the Ohmic-type spectral densities. The 3-D entanglement quantum phase diagram is obtained. PMID:27713556
Ferrofluid nucleus phase transitions in an external uniform magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. M. Tanygin; S. I. Shulyma; V. F. Kovalenko; M. V. Petrychuk
2015-01-01
The phase transition between a massive dense phase and a diluted superparamagnetic phase has been studied by means of a direct molecular dynamics simulation. The equilibrium structures of the ferrofluid aggregate nucleus are obtained for different values of a temperature and an external magnetic field magnitude. An approximate match of experiment and simulation has been shown for the ferrofluid phase diagram coordinates “field–temperature”. The provided phase coexistence curve has an opposite trend comparing to some of known theoretical results. This contradiction has been discussed. For given experimental parameters, it has been concluded that the present results describe more precisely the transition from linear chains to a dense globes phase. The theoretical concepts which provide the opposite binodal curve dependency trend match other experimental conditions:a diluted ferrofluid, a high particle coating rate, a high temperature, and/or a less particles coupling constant value.
A third-order phase transition in random tilings
Colomo, F
2013-01-01
We consider the domino tilings of an Aztec diamond with a cut-off corner of macroscopic square shape and given size, and address the bulk properties of tilings as the size is varied. We observe that the free energy exhibits a third-order phase transition when the cut-off square, increasing in size, reaches the arctic ellipse---the phase separation curve of the original (unmodified) Aztec diamond. We obtain this result by studying the thermodynamic limit of certain nonlocal correlation function of the underlying six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions, the so-called emptiness formation probability (EFP). We consider EFP in two different representations: as a tau-function for Toda chains and as a random matrix model integral. The latter has a discrete measure and a linear potential with hard walls; the observed phase transition shares properties with both Gross-Witten-Wadia and Douglas-Kazakov phase transitions.
Theory of interfacial phase transitions in surfactant systems
Shukla, K. P.; Payandeh, B.; Robert, M.
1991-06-01
The spin-1 Ising model, which is equivalent to the three-component lattice gas model, is used to study wetting transitions in three-component surfactant systems consisting of an oil, water, and a nonionic surfactant. Phase equilibria, interfacial profiles, and interfacial tensions for three-phase equilibrium are determined in mean field approximation, for a wide range of temperature and interaction parameters. Surfactant interaction parameters are found to strongly influence interfacial tensions, reducing them in some cases to ultralow values. Interfacial tensions are used to determine whether the middle phase, rich in surfactant, wets or does not wet the interface between the oil-rich and water-rich phases. By varying temperature and interaction parameters, a wetting transition is located and found to be of the first order. Comparison is made with recent experimental results on wetting transitions in ternary surfactant systems.
Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats
Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.
2003-03-01
The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.
Quantum phase transitions in the noncommutative Dirac Oscillator
Panella, O
2014-01-01
We study the (2+1) dimensional Dirac oscillator in a homogeneous magnetic field in the non-commutative plane. It is shown that the effect of non-commutativity is twofold: $i$) momentum non commuting coordinates simply shift the critical value ($B_{\\text{cr}}$) of the magnetic field at which the well known left-right chiral quantum phase transition takes place (in the commuting phase); $ii$) non-commutativity in the space coordinates induces a new critical value of the magnetic field, $B_{\\text{cr}}^*$, where there is a second quantum phase transition (right-left), --this critical point disappears in the commutative limit--. The change in chirality associated with the magnitude of the magnetic field is examined in detail for both critical points. The phase transitions are described in terms of the magnetisation of the system. Possible applications to the physics of silicene and graphene are briefly discussed.
Where does the hot electroweak phase transition end?
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J
1999-01-01
We give the nonperturbative phase diagram of the four-dimensional hot electroweak phase transition. A systematic extrapolation $a \\to 0$ is done. Our results show that the finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. The full four-dimensional result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. This fact is of particular importance, because it indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model (SM) can be included perturbatively. We obtain that the Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the SM is $72.4 any electroweak phase transition in the SM.
Phase transition properties of a cylindrical ferroelectric nanowire
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wang Ying; Yang Xiong
2013-11-01
Based on the transverse Ising model (TIM) and using the mean-field theory, we investigate the phase transition properties of a cylindrical ferroelectric nanowire. Two different kinds of phase diagrams are constructed. We discuss systematically the effects of exchange interactions and the transverse field parameters on the phase diagrams. Moreover, the cross-over features of the parameters from the ferroelectric dominant phase diagram to the paraelectric dominant phase diagram are determined for the ferroelectric nanowire. In addition, the polarizations of the surface shell and the core are illustrated in detail by modifying the TIM parameters.
Quark-hadron phase transition and strangeness conservation constraints
Saeed-Uddin
1999-01-01
The implications of the strangeness conservation in a hadronic resonance gas (HRG) on the expected phase transition to the quark gluon plasma (QGP) are investigated. It is assumed that under favourable conditions a first order hadron-quark matter phase transition may occur in the hot hadronic matter such as those produced in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at CERN and BNL. It is however shown that the criteria of strict strangeness conservation in the HRG may not permit the occurrence of a strict first order equilibrium quark-hadron phase transition unlike a previous study. This emerges as a consequence of the application of a realistic equation of state (EOS) for the HRG and QGP phases, which account for the finite-size effect arising from the short range hard-core hadronic repulsion in the HRG phase and the perturbative QCD interactions in the QGP phase. For a first order hadron-quark matter phase transition to occur one will therefore require large fluctuations in the critical thermal parameters, which might arise due to superheating, supercooling or other nonequlibrium effects. We also discuss a scenario proposed earlier, leading to a possible strangeness separation process during hadronization.
Ab initio theory of helix <-> coil phase transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix <-> random coil transition in alanine polypeptides. We consider this process as a first-order phase transition and develop a theory which is free of model parameters and is based solely ...... twisting. The suggested theory is general and with some modification can be applied for the description of phase transitions in other complex molecular systems (e.g. proteins, DNA, nanotubes, atomic clusters, fullerenes).......In this paper, we suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix random coil transition in alanine polypeptides. We consider this process as a first-order phase transition and develop a theory which is free of model parameters and is based solely...... on fundamental physical principles. It describes essential thermodynamical properties of the system such as heat capacity, the phase transition temperature and others from the analysis of the polypeptide potential energy surface calculated as a function of two dihedral angles, responsible for the polypeptide...
Pressure-induced phase transitions of indium selenide
Rasmussen, Anya Marie
In2Se3 has potential as a phase-change material for memory applications. Understanding its phase diagram is important to achieve controlled switching between phases. Pressure-dependent phase transitions of In2Se3 bulk powders and nanowire samples were studied at room temperature and at elevated temperatures using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and diamond-anvil cells (DACs). alpha-In2Se3 transforms into the beta phase at 0.7 GPa, an order of magnitude lower than phase-transition critical pressures in typical semiconductors. The bulk moduli are reported and the c/a ratio for the beta phase is shown to have a highly nonlinear dependence on pressure. gamma-In2Se3, metastable under ambient conditions, transforms into to the high-pressure beta phase between 2.8 GPa and 3.2 GPa in bulk powder samples and at slightly higher pressures, between 3.2 GPa and 3.7 GPa in nanowire samples. While the gamma phase bulk modulus is similar to that of the beta phase, the decrease due to pressure in the unit cell parameter ratio, c/a, is less than half the decrease seen in the beta phase. Using high-temperature DACs, we investigated how elevated temperatures and pressures affect the crystal structure of In 2Se3. From these measurements, the high-pressure beta phase was found to be metastable. The high-pressure beta phase transitions into the high-temperature beta phase at temperatures above 380 °C.
Extended ensemble theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and phase transitions
Xiao, Ming-wen
2006-09-01
In this paper, as a personal review, we suppose a possible extension of Gibbs ensemble theory so that it can provide a reasonable description of phase transitions and spontaneous symmetry breaking. The extension is founded on three hypotheses, and can be regarded as a microscopic edition of the Landau phenomenological theory of phase transitions. Within its framework, the stable state of a system is determined by the evolution of order parameter with temperature according to such a principle that the entropy of the system will reach its minimum in this state. The evolution of order parameter can cause a change in representation of the system Hamiltonian; different phases will realize different representations, respectively; a phase transition amounts to a representation transformation. Physically, it turns out that phase transitions originate from the automatic interference among matter waves as the temperature is cooled down. Typical quantum many-body systems are studied with this extended ensemble theory. We regain the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer solution for the weak-coupling superconductivity, and prove that it is stable. We find that negative-temperature and laser phases arise from the same mechanism as phase transitions, and that they are unstable. For the ideal Bose gas, we demonstrate that it will produce Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) in the thermodynamic limit, which confirms exactly Einstein's deep physical insight. In contrast, there is no BEC either within the phonon gas in a black body or within the ideal photon gas in a solid body. We prove that it is not admissible to quantize the Dirac field by using Bose Einstein statistics. We show that a structural phase transition belongs physically to the BEC happening in configuration space, and that a double-well anharmonic system will undergo a structural phase transition at a finite temperature. For the O(N)-symmetric vector model, we demonstrate that it will yield spontaneous symmetry breaking and produce
Inhomogeneous field configurations and the electroweak phase transition
Jungnickel, D U; Jungnickel, Dirk-Uwe; Walliser, Dirk
1994-01-01
We investigate the effects of inhomogeneous scalar field configurations on the electroweak phase transition. For this purpose we calculate the leading perturbative correction to the wave function correction term $Z(\\vph,T)$, i.e., the kinetic term in the effective action, for the electroweak Standard Model at finite temperature and the top quark self--mass. Our finding for the fermionic contribution to $Z(\\vph,T)$ is infra--red finite and disagrees with other recent results. In general, neither the order of the phase transition nor the temperature at which it occurs change, once $Z(\\vph,T)$ is included. But a non--vanishing, positive (negative) $Z(\\vph,T)$ enhances (decreases) the critical droplet surface tension and the strength of the phase transition. We find that in the range of parameter space, which allows for a first--order phase transition, the wave function correction term is negative --- indicating a weaker phase transition --- and especially for small field values so large that perturbation theory ...
New insight into the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition
Gerber, Urs; Rejón-Barrera, Fernando G
2014-01-01
We investigate the 2d XY model by using the constraint angle action, which belongs to the class of topological lattice actions. These actions violate important features usually demanded for a lattice action, such as the correct classical continuum limit and the applicability of perturbation theory. Nevertheless, they still lead to the same universal quantum continuum limit and show excellent scaling behavior. By using the constraint angle action we gain new insight into the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition of the 2d XY model. This phase transition is of special interest since it is one of the few examples of a phase transition beyond second order. It is of infinite order and therefore an essential phase transition. In particular, we observe an excellent scaling behavior of the helicity modulus, which characterizes this phase transition. We also observe that the mechanism of (un)binding vortex--anti-vortex pairs follows the usual pattern, although free vortices do not require any energy in the ...
A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.
Beam Combining by Phase Transition Nonlinear Media
1990-02-01
use the Redlich Kwong equation of state for the media we consider. This equation of state can be written RT a p - -b -FT(p.-’ + b)p ; 2-I M (2-1) where...as ac 3 dg-A7 C VA/\\CIIJT (6) The Redlich - Kwong equation of state; i.e., _ RT T-1/2 v-P v(v+P) (7) can be used to compute aP/lT, where the relevant...practical the application of nonlinear phase conjugate techniques to the beam combining of multiple lasers with a coherence characteristic of a
THE NEXT GENERATION TRANSIT SURVEY PROTOTYPING PHASE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. McCormac
2014-01-01
Full Text Available El Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS es un nuevo sondeo d e exoplanetas transitantes de campo amplio que tiene como objetivo descubrir exoplanetas del tama ̃no d e Neptuno y super-Tierras entorno a estrellas brillantes ( V < 13 cercanas. NGTS consiste de un arreglo de 12 telescopios o perados rob ́oticamente observando en la banda de 600 − 900 nm. NGTS sondear ́a m ́as de cinco veces el n ́umero de estre llas, con V < 13, que Kepler y por lo tanto proveer ́a los objetivos m ́as brillantes para s er caracterizados con instrumentaci ́on existente y futura (VLT, E-ELT y JWST. En 2009/10 un prototipo del NGTS f ue probado en La Palma, comprobando que un sistema as ́ı puede alcanzar nuestros objetivos de fot ometr ́ıa estelar esencialmente limitada s ́olo por el ruido blanco. Los resultados son resumidos aqu ́ı. NGTS se al imenta de la experiencia del proyecto SuperWASP, que, por muchos a ̃nos, ha liderado la detecci ́on terrestre d e exoplanetas transitantes.
Quantum phase transition in a common metal.
Yeh, A; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Brooke, J; Aeppli, G; Rosenbaum, T F; Hayden, S M
2002-10-03
The classical theory of solids, based on the quantum mechanics of single electrons moving in periodic potentials, provides an excellent description of substances ranging from semiconducting silicon to superconducting aluminium. Over the last fifteen years, it has become increasingly clear that there are substances for which the conventional approach fails. Among these are certain rare earth compounds and transition metal oxides, including high-temperature superconductors. A common feature of these materials is complexity, in the sense that they have relatively large unit cells containing heterogeneous mixtures of atoms. Although many explanations have been put forward for their anomalous properties, it is still possible that the classical theory might suffice. Here we show that a very common chromium alloy has some of the same peculiarities as the more exotic materials, including a quantum critical point, a strongly temperature-dependent Hall resistance and evidence for a 'pseudogap'. This implies that complexity is not a prerequisite for unconventional behaviour. Moreover, it should simplify the general task of explaining anomalous properties because chromium is a relatively simple system in which to work out in quantitative detail the consequences of the conventional theory of solids.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal
Dan, K.; Roy, M.; Datta, A.
2015-09-01
The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ΔCp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (β) > 5 K min-1, consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for β ≤ 5 K min-1 and the rapid reduction in the ΔCp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln β vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (ΔH) on the initial temperature (at fixed β-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal.
Dan, K; Roy, M; Datta, A
2015-09-07
The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ΔCp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (β) > 5 K min(-1), consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for β ≤ 5 K min(-1) and the rapid reduction in the ΔCp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln β vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (ΔH) on the initial temperature (at fixed β-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the
How tetraquarks can generate a second chiral phase transition
Pisarski, Robert D
2016-01-01
We consider how tetraquarks can affect the chiral phase transition in theories like QCD, with light quarks coupled to three colors. For two flavors the tetraquark field is an isosinglet, and its effect is minimal. For three flavors, however, the tetraquark field transforms in the same representation of the chiral symmetry group as the usual chiral order parameter, and so for very light quarks there may be two chiral phase transitions, which are both of first order. In QCD, results from the lattice indicate that any transition from the tetraquark condensate is a smooth crossover. In the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential, though, a crossover line for the tetraquark condensate is naturally related to the transition line for color superconductivity. For four flavors we suggest that a triquark field, antisymmetric in both flavor and color, combine to form hexaquarks.
Disorienting the Chiral Condensate at the QCD Phase Transition
Rajagopal, K
1997-01-01
I sketch how long wavelength modes of the pion field can be amplified during the QCD phase transition. If nature had been kinder, and had made the pion mass significantly less than the critical temperature for the transition, then this phenomenon would have characterized the transition in thermal equilibrium. Instead, these long wavelength oscillations of the orientation of the chiral condensate can only arise out of equilibrium. There is a simple non-equilibrium mechanism, plausibly operational during heavy ion collisions, which naturally amplifies these oscillations. The characteristic signature of this phenomenon is large fluctuations in the ratio of the number of neutral pions to the total number of pions in regions of momentum space, that is in phase space in a detector. Detection in a heavy ion collision would imply an out of equilbrium chiral transition.
Phase transitions in the distribution of inelastically colliding inertial particles
Belan, Sergey; Falkovich, Gregory
2015-01-01
It was recently suggested that the sign of particle drift in inhomogeneous temperature or turbulence depends on the particle inertia: weakly inertial particles localize near minima of temperature or turbulence intensity (effects known as thermophoresis and turbophoresis), while strongly inertial particles fly away from minima in an unbounded space. The problem of a particle near minima of turbulence intensity is related to that of two particles in a random flow, so that the localization-delocalization transition in the former corresponds to the path-coalescence transition in the latter. The transition is signaled by the sign change of the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the mean rate of particle approach to the minimum (which could be wall or another particle). Here we solve analytically this problem for inelastic collisions and derive the phase diagram for the transition in the inertia-inelasticity plane. An important feature of the phase diagram is the region of inelastic collapse: if the restitution c...
Characteristics of the chiral phase transition in nonlocal quark models
Dumm, D G
2004-01-01
The characteristics of the chiral phase transition are analyzed within the framework of chiral quark models with nonlocal interactions in the mean field approximation (MFA). In the chiral limit, we show that there is a region of low values of the chemical potential in which the transition is a second order one. In that region, it is possible to perform a Landau expansion and determine the critical exponents which, as expected, turn out to be the MFA ones. Our analysis also allows to obtain semi-analytical expressions for the transition curve and the location of the tricritical point. For the case of finite current quark masses, we study the behavior of various thermodynamical and chiral response functions across the phase transition.
Second- and First-Order Phase Transitions in CDT
Ambjorn, J; Jurkiewicz, J; Loll, R
2012-01-01
Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) is a proposal for a theory of quantum gravity, which implements a path-integral quantization of gravity as the continuum limit of a sum over piecewise flat spacetime geometries. We use Monte Carlo simulations to analyse the phase transition lines bordering the physically interesting de Sitter phase of the four-dimensional CDT model. Using a range of numerical criteria, we present strong evidence that the so-called A-C transition is first order, while the B-C transition is second order. The presence of a second-order transition may be related to an ultraviolet fixed point of quantum gravity and thus provide the key to probing physics at and possibly beyond the Planck scale.
Nonequilibrium phase transition in a driven Potts model with friction.
Iglói, Ferenc; Pleimling, Michel; Turban, Loïc
2011-04-01
We consider magnetic friction between two systems of q-state Potts spins which are moving along their boundaries with a relative constant velocity ν. Due to the interaction between the surface spins there is a permanent energy flow and the system is in a steady state, which is far from equilibrium. The problem is treated analytically in the limit ν=∞ (in one dimension, as well as in two dimensions for large-q values) and for v and q finite by Monte Carlo simulations in two dimensions. Exotic nonequilibrium phase transitions take place, the properties of which depend on the type of phase transition in equilibrium. When this latter transition is of first order, a sequence of second- and first-order nonequilibrium transitions can be observed when the interaction is varied. ©2011 American Physical Society
Yao, Weiping
2014-01-01
We investigate the holographic entanglement entropy in insulator/superconductor phase transition for the Born-Infeld electrodynamics with full backreaction in five-dimensional AdS soliton spacetime. We find that both in the half space and the belt one, the non-monotonic behavior of the entanglement entropy versus the chemical potential is a general property, and the entanglement entropy increases with the increase of the Born-Infeld factor in the superconductor phase. Particularly, there exist confinement/deconfinement phase transition in the strip geometry and the critical width is dependent on the Born-Infeld parameter.
Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads.
Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L
2009-11-01
Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases-free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams-occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.
Crystallite size and phase transition demeanor of ceramic steel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gusain, Deepak; Srivastava, Varsha [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Singh, Vinay K. [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Chandra Sharma, Yogesh, E-mail: ysharma.apc@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, Varanasi 221 005 (India)
2014-06-01
Zirconia is an important oxide of zirconium used in variety of field ranging from dentistry, fuel cells, and thermal barrier coatings. Phase transition of zirconia is an important phenomenon controlling its fracture strength, low temperature degradability and ion conductivity. In the present study, effect of molar concentration of precursor and calcination temperature on phase transition and crystallite size of zirconia was investigated. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTA/TGA), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In sample having lowest precursor concentration crystallite size of monoclinic zirconia was found to be lower than that of tetragonal zirconia, simultaneously with the higher proportion of tetragonal zirconia (67.62%) as compared to all other samples (42.75%–58.04%). In all cases, monoclinic to tetragonal phase transition occurs with raise of temperature but in the sample with lowest precursor concentration, tetragonal to monoclinic phase transition occurred on raising the temperature. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Highest proportion of tetragonal phase at lowest precursor concentration. • Tetragonal phase's crystallite size decreased with rise of temperature. • Average particle size of all samples lies in the range of 13 nm–20 nm.
Universality of Holographic Phase Transitions and Holographic Quantum Liquids
Benincasa, Paolo
2009-01-01
We explore the phase structure for defect theories in full generality using the gauge/gravity correspondence. On the gravity side, the systems are constructed by introducing M (probe) D(p+4-2k)-branes in a background generated by N Dp-branes to obtain a codimension-k intersection. The dual gauge theory is a U(N) Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a (1+p-k)-dimensional defect with both adjoint and fundamental degrees of freedom. We focus on the phase structure in the chemical potential versus temperature plane. We observe the existence of two universality classes for holographic gauge theories, which are identified by the order of the phase transition in the interior of the chemical potential/temperature plane. Specifically, all the sensible systems with no defect show a third order phase transition. Gauge theories on a defect with (p-1)-spatial directions are instead characterised by a second order phase transition. One can therefore state that the order of this phase transition is intimately related to the ...
Structural transitions in condensed colloidal virus phases
Schmidt, Nathan; Barr, Steve; Udit, Andrew; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Nguyen, Thanh; Finn, M. G.; Luijten, Erik; Wong, Gerard
2010-03-01
Analogous to monatomic systems colloidal phase behavior is entirely determined by the interaction potential between particles. This potential can be tuned using solutes such as multivalent salts and polymers with varying affinity for the colloids to create a hierarchy of attractions. Bacteriophage viruses are a naturally occurring type of colloidal particle with characteristics difficult to achieve by laboratory synthesis. They are monodisperse, nanometers in size, and have heterogeneous surface charge distributions. We use the MS2 and Qbeta bacteriophages (diameters 27-28nm) to understand the interplay between different attraction mechanisms on nanometer-sized colloids. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is used to characterize the inter-particle interaction between colloidal viruses using several polymer species and different salt types.
Error-correcting codes and phase transitions
Manin, Yuri I
2009-01-01
The theory of error-correcting codes is concerned with constructing codes that optimize simultaneously transmission rate and relative minimum distance. These conflicting requirements determine an asymptotic bound, which is a continuous curve in the space of parameters. The main goal of this paper is to relate the asymptotic bound to phase diagrams of quantum statistical mechanical systems. We first identify the code parameters with Hausdorff and von Neumann dimensions, by considering fractals consisting of infinite sequences of code words. We then construct operator algebras associated to individual codes. These are Toeplitz algebras with a time evolution for which the KMS state at critical temperature gives the Hausdorff measure on the corresponding fractal. We extend this construction to algebras associated to limit points of codes, with non-uniform multi-fractal measures, and to tensor products over varying parameters.
Quantum decoherence of subcritical bubble in electroweak phase transition
Shiromizu, T
1995-01-01
In a weakly first order phase transition the typical scale of a subcritical bubble calculated in our previous papers turned out to be too small. At this scale quantum fluctuations may dominate and our previous classical result may be altered. So we examine the critical size of a subcritical bubble where quantum-to-classical transition occurs through quantum decoherence. We show that this critical size is almost equal to the typical scale which we previously obtained.
Lifshitz scaling effects on holographic paramagnetism/ferromagneism phase transition
Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Jin, Yong-Yi; Chai, Yun-Tian; Hu, Mu-Hong; Zhang, Zhuo
2016-01-01
In the probe limit, we investigate holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional(5D) Lifshitz black holes by means of numerical and semi-analytical methods, which is realized by introducing a massive 2-form field coupled to the Maxwell field. We find that the Lifshitz dynamical exponent $z$ contributes evidently to magnetic moment and hysteresis loop of single magnetic domain quantitatively not qualitatively. Concretely, in the case without external magnetic field, the spontaneous magnetization and ferromagnetic phase transition happen when the temperature gets low enough, and the critical exponent for the magnetic moment is always $1/2$, which is in agreement with the result from mean field theory. And the increasing $z$ enhances the phase transition and increases the DC resistivity which behaves as the colossal magnetic resistance effect in some materials. Furthermore, in the presence of the external magnetic field, the magnetic susceptibility sa...
Canonical Entropy and Phase Transition of Rotating Black Hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Ren; WU Yue-Qin; ZHANG Li-Chun
2008-01-01
Recently, the Hawking radiation of a black hole has been studied using the tunnel effect method. The radiation spectrum of a black hole is derived. By discussing the correction to spectrum of the rotating black hole, we obtain the canonical entropy. The derived canonical entropy is equal to the sum of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and correction term. The correction term near the critical point is different from the one near others. This difference plays an important role in studying the phase transition of the black hole. The black hole thermal capacity diverges at the critical point. However, the canonical entropy is not a complex number at this point. Thus we think that the phase transition created by this critical point is the second order phase transition. The discussed black hole is a five-dimensional Kerr-AdS black hole. We provide a basis for discussing thermodynamic properties of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole.
Phase transition with an isospin dependent lattice gas model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)
1998-10-01
The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is studied within an isospin dependent Lattice Gas Model in the canonical ensemble. Finite size effects on thermodynamical variables are analyzed by a direct calculation of the partition function, and it is shown that phase coexistence and phase transition are relevant concepts even for systems of a few tens of particles. Critical exponents are extracted from the behaviour of the fragment production yield as a function of temperature by means of a finite size scaling. The result is that in a finite system well defined critical signals can be found at supercritical (Kertesz line) as well as subcritical densities. For isospin asymmetric systems it is shown that, besides the modification of the critical temperature, isotopic distributions can provide an extra observable to identify and characterize the transition. (author) 21 refs.
Thermodynamics and Phase Transition in Rotational Kiselev Black Hole
Xu, Zhaoyi
2016-01-01
We calculate the thermodynamical features of rotational Kiselev black holes, specifically we use one order approximate of horizon to calculate thermodynamical features for all $\\omega$. The thermodynamics features include areas, entropies, horizon radii, surface gravities, surface temperatures, Komar energies and irreducible masses at the Cauchy horizon and Event horizon. At the same time the products of these features have been discussed. We find that the products are independent with mass of black hole and determined by $\\omega$ and $\\alpha$. The features in the situations of $\\omega=-2/3,1/3$ and $0$ (quintessence matter, radiation and dust) have been discussed in detail. We also generalize the Smarr mass formula and Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula to these black holes. Finally we study the phase transition for black holes with different $\\omega$ and obtain the state equation. We analyze the phase transition for $\\omega=1/3$, and find that $\\alpha$ shifts the critical point of phase transition.
Optical Sensor for Characterizing the Phase Transition in Salted Solutions
Claverie, Rémy; Fontana, Marc D.; Duričković, Ivana; Bourson, Patrice; Marchetti, Mario; Chassot, Jean-Marie
2010-01-01
We propose a new optical sensor to characterize the solid-liquid phase transition in salted solutions. The probe mainly consists of a Raman spectrometer that extracts the vibrational properties from the light scattered by the salty medium. The spectrum of the O – H stretching band was shown to be strongly affected by the introduction of NaCl and the temperature change as well. A parameter SD defined as the ratio of the integrated intensities of two parts of this band allows to study the temperature and concentration dependences of the phase transition. Then, an easy and efficient signal processing and the exploitation of a modified Boltzmann equation give information on the phase transition. Validations were done on solutions with varying concentration of NaCl. PMID:22319327
A MATLAB GUI to study Ising model phase transition
Thornton, Curtislee; Datta, Trinanjan
We have created a MATLAB based graphical user interface (GUI) that simulates the single spin flip Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. The GUI has the capability to study temperature and external magnetic field dependence of magnetization, susceptibility, and equilibration behavior of the nearest-neighbor square lattice Ising model. Since the Ising model is a canonical system to study phase transition, the GUI can be used both for teaching and research purposes. The presence of a Monte Carlo code in a GUI format allows easy visualization of the simulation in real time and provides an attractive way to teach the concept of thermal phase transition and critical phenomena. We will also discuss the GUI implementation to study phase transition in a classical spin ice model on the pyrochlore lattice.
Phase transitions of black holes in massive gravity
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2016-01-01
In this paper we have studied thermodynamics of a black hole in massive gravity in the canonical ensemble. The massive gravity theory in consideration here has a massive graviton due to Lorentz symmetry breaking. The black hole studied here has a scalar charge due to the massive graviton and is asymptotically anti-de Sitter. We have computed various thermodynamical quantities such as temperature, specific heat and free energy. Both the local and global stability of the black hole are studied by observing the behavior of the specific heat and the free energy. We have observed that there is a first order phase transition between small and large black hole for a certain range of the scalar charge. This phase transition is similar to the liquid/gas phase transition at constant temperature for a Van der Waals fluid. The coexistence curves for the small and large black hole branches are also discussed in detail.
Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr., E-mail: childh@kenyon.edu, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Road, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States)
2012-10-01
It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.
Gravitational Radiation from First-Order Phase Transitions
Child, Hillary L
2012-01-01
It is believed that first order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase that greatly enhances this radiation even in the absence of turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.
Phase transition in aluminous silica in the lowermost mantle
Tronnes, R. G.; Andrault, D.; Konopkova, Z.; Morgenroth, W.; Liermann, H.
2012-12-01
Lower mantle basaltic lithologies contain 35-40% Mg-perovskite, 20-30% Ca-perovskite, 15-25% Al-rich phases (NAL and Ca-ferrite phases) and 15-20% silica-dominated phases. The Fe-rich Mg-perovskite makes basaltic material denser than peridotite throughout the lower mantle below 720 km depth, with important implications for mantle dynamics. Partial separation of subducted basaltic crust from depleted lithosphere might occur within the strongly heterogeneous D" zone. Further details on phase transitions and equation of states for the various minerals, however, are needed for more complete insights. The silica-dominated phases have considerable solubility of alumina [1]. We investigated silica with 4 and 6 wt% alumina to 120 GPa, using LH-DAC at the Extreme Conditions Beamline (P02.2) at PETRA-III, DESY. Powdered glass mixed with 10-15 wt% Pt-powder was compressed and heated in NaCl pressure media in Re-gaskets. The transition from the CaCl2-structured phase to seifertite (alpha-PbO2-structure) occurs at about 116 GPa at 2500 K. This is intermediate between the transition pressures of about 122 GPa and 100-113 GPa reported for similar temperatures for pure SiO2 [2] and a basalt composition [1], respectively. The CaCl2-structured silica phase crystallized along with seifertite, consistent with a binary phase loop trending towards lower pressure with increasing Al-content. The presence of an Al-rich Ca-ferrite phase (near the MgAl2O4-NaAlSiO4-join) in basaltic material indicates that the Al-solubility limits for the silica-dominated phases in basaltic compositions may be similar to those in the binary system SiO2-AlO1.5. Based on the X-ray pattern refinement, our samples show no significant volume change across the transition. Even so, the transition could be associated with a significant density change if the Al substitution mechanisms are different in CaCl2-structured phase and seifertite. The most likely situation is that Al-substitution occurs via O-vacancies in the
Guan, Shu-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Pan
2016-02-14
Structural inhomogeneity is ubiquitous in solid crystals and plays critical roles in phase nucleation and propagation. Here, we develop a heterogeneous solid-solid phase transition theory for predicting the prevailing heterophase junctions, the metastable states governing microstructure evolution in solids. Using this theory and first-principles pathway sampling simulation, we determine two types of heterophase junctions pertaining to metal α-ω phase transition at different pressures and predict the reversibility of transformation only at low pressures, i.e. below 7 GPa. The low-pressure transformation is dominated by displacive Martensitic mechanism, while the high-pressure one is controlled by the reconstructive mechanism. The mechanism of α-ω phase transition is thus highly pressure-sensitive, for which the traditional homogeneous model fails to explain the experimental observations. The results provide the first atomic-level evidence on the coexistence of two different solid phase transition mechanisms in one system.
Phase transition of lipid-like monolayer characterized by second harmonic generation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于安池; 常青; 赵新生; 周晴中; 李东; 黄岩谊; 程天蓉; 黄春辉
1999-01-01
Phase transition of a lipid-like hemicyanine compound characterized by second harmonic generation is studied carefully. The phase transition is assigned as the first order transition between solid state and liquid state. The transition temperature increases with an increase in the surface molecular concentration. A monolayer structure parameter a which is very sensitive to the phase transition is introduced.
Studies of phase transitions in the aripiprazole solid dosage form.
Łaszcz, Marta; Witkowska, Anna
2016-01-05
Studies of the phase transitions in an active substance contained in a solid dosage form are very complicated but essential, especially if an active substance is classified as a BCS Class IV drug. The purpose of this work was the development of sensitive methods for the detection of the phase transitions in the aripiprazole tablets containing initially its form III. Aripiprazole exhibits polymorphism and pseudopolymorphism. Powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry methods were developed for the detection of the polymorphic transition between forms III and I as well as the phase transition of form III into aripiprazole monohydrate in tablets. The study involved the initial 10 mg and 30 mg tablets, as well as those stored in Al/Al blisters, a triplex blister pack and HDPE bottles (with and without desiccant) under accelerated and long term conditions. The polymorphic transition was not observed in the initial and stored tablets but it was visible on the DSC curve of the Abilify(®) 10 mg reference tablets. The formation of the monohydrate was observed in the diffractograms and Raman spectra in the tablets stored under accelerated conditions. The monohydrate phase was not detected in the tablets stored in the Al/Al blisters under long term conditions. The results showed that the Al/Al blisters can be recommended as the packaging of the aripiprazole tablets containing form III.
Cosmological phase transitions and their properties in the NMSSM
Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Haskins, Laurel Stephenson; Wainwright, Carroll L.
2015-01-01
We study cosmological phase transitions in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) in light of the Higgs discovery. We use an effective field theory approach to calculate the finite temperature effective potential, focusing on regions with significant tree-level contributions to the Higgs mass, a viable neutralino dark matter candidate, 1-2 TeV stops, and with the remaining particle spectrum compatible with current LHC searches and results. The phase transition structure in viable regions of parameter space exhibits a rich phenomenology, potentially giving rise to one- or two-step first-order phase transitions in the singlet and/or SU(2) directions. We compute several parameters pertaining to the bubble wall profile, including the bubble wall width and Δ β (the variation of the ratio in Higgs vacuum expectation values across the wall). These quantities can vary significantly across small regions of parameter space and can be promising for successful electroweak baryogenesis. We estimate the wall velocity microphysically, taking into account the various sources of friction acting on the expanding bubble wall. Ultra-relativistic solutions to the bubble wall equations of motion typically exist when the electroweak phase transition features substantial supercooling. For somewhat weaker transitions, the bubble wall instead tends to be sub-luminal and, in fact, likely sub-sonic, suggesting that successful electroweak baryogenesis may indeed occur in regions of the NMSSM compatible with the Higgs discovery.
Chern-Simons diffusion rate across different phase transitions
Rougemont, Romulo
2016-01-01
We investigate how the dimensionless ratio given by the Chern-Simons diffusion rate $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}$ divided by the product of the entropy density $s$ and temperature $T$ behaves across different kinds of phase transitions in the class of bottom-up non-conformal Einstein-dilaton holographic models originally proposed by Gubser and Nellore. By tuning the dilaton potential, one is able to holographically mimic a first order, a second order, or a crossover transition. In a first order phase transition, $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}/sT$ jumps at the critical temperature (as previously found in the holographic literature), while in a second order phase transition it develops an infinite slope. On the other hand, in a crossover, $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}/sT$ behaves smoothly, although displaying a fast variation around the pseudo-critical temperature. Furthermore, we also find that $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}/sT$ increases by orders of magnitude below the critical temperature in a second order phase transition and in a crossov...
The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis
Hogan, Craig J.
1987-01-01
After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.
The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis
Hogan, Craig J.
1987-01-01
After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.
The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis
Hogan, Craig J.
After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.
Exploring first-order phase transitions with population annealing
Barash, Lev Yu.; Weigel, Martin; Shchur, Lev N.; Janke, Wolfhard
2017-03-01
Population annealing is a hybrid of sequential and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods geared towards the efficient parallel simulation of systems with complex free-energy landscapes. Systems with first-order phase transitions are among the problems in computational physics that are difficult to tackle with standard methods such as local-update simulations in the canonical ensemble, for example with the Metropolis algorithm. It is hence interesting to see whether such transitions can be more easily studied using population annealing. We report here our preliminary observations from population annealing runs for the two-dimensional Potts model with q > 4, where it undergoes a first-order transition.
Crystal-liquid-gas phase transitions and thermodynamic similarity
Skripov, Vladimir P; Schmelzer, Jurn W P
2006-01-01
Professor Skripov obtained worldwide recognition with his monograph ""Metastable liquids"", published in English by Wiley & Sons. Based upon this work and another monograph published only in Russia, this book investigates the behavior of melting line and the properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phase of simple substances across a wide range of pressures, including metastable states of the coexisting phases. The authors derive new relations for the thermodynamic similarity for liquid-vapour phase transition, as well as describing solid-liquid, liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid phase tra
Beyond nuclear "pasta" : Phase transitions and neutrino opacity of new "pasta" phases
Alcain, P. N.; Giménez Molinelli, P. A.; Dorso, C. O.
2014-12-01
In this work, we focus on different length scales within the dynamics of nucleons in conditions according to the neutron star crust, with a semiclassical molecular dynamics model, studying isospin symmetric matter at subsaturation densities. While varying the temperature, we find that a solid-liquid phase transition exists, which can be also characterized with a morphology transition. For higher temperatures, above this phase transition, we study the neutrino opacity, and find that in the liquid phase, the scattering of low momenta neutrinos remain high, even though the morphology of the structures differ significatively from those of the traditional nuclear pasta.
Chiral phase transition in QED$_3$ at finite temperature
Wei, Wei; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-01-01
Chiral phase transition in (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED$_3$) at finite temperature is investigated in the framework of truncated Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs). We go beyond the widely used instantaneous approximation and adopt a method that retains the full frequency dependence of the fermion self-energy. We also take further step to include the effects of wave-function renormalizations and introduce a minimal dressing of the bare vertex. Finally, with the more complete solutions of the truncated DSEs, we revisit the study of chiral phase transition in finite-temperature QED$_3$.
Computational diagnostics for detecting phase transitions during nanoindentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.M.; Hoover, C.G.; Kallman, J.S.; De Groot, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Hoover, W.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Div. of Applied Science); Wooten, F. (California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Div. of Applied Science)
1992-12-01
We study nanoindenmtion of silicon using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. with up to a million particles. Both crystalline and amorphous silicon samples are considered. We use compumtional diffraction pattems as a diagnostic tool for detecting phase transitions resulting from structural changes. Simulations of crystalline samples show a transition to the amorphous phase in a region a few atomic layers thick surrounding the lateral faces of the indenter, as has been suggested by experimental results. Our simulation results provide estimates for the yield strength (nanohardness) of silicon for a range of temperatures.
Distribution of current in nonequilibrium diffusive systems and phase transitions
Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.
2005-12-01
We consider diffusive lattice gases on a ring and analyze the stability of their density profiles conditionally to a current deviation. Depending on the current, one observes a phase transition between a regime where the density remains constant and another regime where the density becomes time dependent. Numerical data confirm this phase transition. This time dependent profile persists in the large drift limit and allows one to understand on physical grounds the results obtained earlier for the totally asymmetric exclusion process on a ring.
Hadronic multiplicity distribution and dynamical fluctuations under QGP phase transitions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨纯斌; 鄢文标; 蔡勖
1999-01-01
Hadronic multiplicity distributions in small bins are studied within the Ginzburg-Landau description for quark-hadron phase transitions. Direct comparison of the distributions with Poisson ones （with the same averages） is made in the light of dynamical factors dq for the distributions and ratios Dq≡dq/d1. Scaling behavior between Dq’ s is found, which can be used to detect the formation of quark-gluon plasma. The same method can be used in the analysis of other processes without phase transition.
The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.
2001-05-08
For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.
Hadron-quark phase transition in dense stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grassi, F.
1987-10-01
An equation of state is computed for a plasma of one flavor quarks interacting through some phenomenological potential, at zero temperature. Assuming that the confining potential is scalar and color-independent, it is shown that the quarks undergo a first-order mass phase transition. In addition, due to the way screening is introduced, all the thermodynamic quantities computed are independent of the actual shape of the interquark potential. This equation of state is then generalized to a several quark flavor plasma and applied to the study of the hadron-quark phase transition inside a neutron star. 45 refs., 4 figs.
Antiferrodistortive phase transition in EuTiO3
Goian, V.; Kamba, S.; Pacherova, O.; Drahokoupil, J.; Palatinus, L; Dusek, M.; Rohlicek, J.; Savinov, M.; Laufek, F.; Schranz, W.; Fuith, A; Kachlik, M.; Maca, K.; Shkabko, A.; Sagarna, L.
2012-01-01
X-ray diffraction, dynamical mechanical analysis and infrared reflectivity studies revealed an antiferrodistortive phase transition in EuTiO3 ceramics. Near 300K the perovskite structure changes from cubic Pm-3m to tetragonal I4/mcm due to antiphase tilting of oxygen octahedra along the c axis (a0a0c- in Glazer notation). The phase transition is analogous to SrTiO3. However, some ceramics as well as single crystals of EuTiO3 show different infrared reflectivity spectra bringing evidence of a ...
Thermodynamics, Phase Transition and Quasinormal modes with Weyl corrections
Mahapatra, Subhash
2016-01-01
We study charged black holes in D dimensional AdS space, in the presence of four derivative Weyl correction. We obtain the black hole solution perturbatively up to first as well as second order in the Weyl coupling, and show that first law of black hole thermodynamics is satisfied in all dimensions. We study its thermodynamic phase transition and then calculate the quasinormal frequencies of the massless scalar field perturbation. We find that, here too, the quasinormal frequencies capture the essence of black hole phase transition. Few subtleties near the second order critical point are discussed.
The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei
Elliott, J B; Phair, L; Wozniak, G J; Lefort, T; Beaulieu, L; Kwiatkowski, K K; Hsi, W C; Pienkowski, L; Breuer, H; Korteling, R G; Laforest, R; Martin, E; Ramakrishnan, E; Rowland, D; Ruangma, A; Viola, V E; Winchester, E M; Yennello, S J
2002-01-01
For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid- vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.
Detection of phase transition via convolutional neural network
Tanaka, Akinori
2016-01-01
We design a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) which studies correlation between discretized inverse temperature and spin configuration of 2D Ising model and show that it can find a feature of the phase transition without teaching any a priori information for it. We also define a new order parameter via the CNN and show that it provides well approximated critical inverse temperature. In addition, we compare the activation functions for convolution layer and find that the Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) is important to detect the phase transition of 2D Ising model.
Quantum phase transition between cluster and antiferromagnetic states
Son, Wonmin; Fazio, Rosario; Hamma, Alioscia; Pascazio, Saverio; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-01-01
We study a Hamiltonian system describing a three spin-1/2 cluster-like interaction competing with an Ising-like exchange. We show that the ground state in the cluster phase possesses symmetry protected topological order. A continuous quantum phase transition occurs as result of the competition between the cluster and Ising terms. At the critical point the Hamiltonian is self-dual. The geometric entanglement is also studied. Our findings in one dimension corroborate the analysis of the two dimensional generalization of the system, indicating, at a mean field level, the presence of a direct transition between an antiferromagnetic and a valence bond solid ground state.
Background field functional renormalization group for absorbing state phase transitions.
Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian
2016-07-01
We present a functional renormalization group approach for the active to inactive phase transition in directed percolation-type systems, in which the transition is approached from the active, finite density phase. By expanding the effective potential for the density field around its minimum, we obtain a background field action functional, which serves as a starting point for the functional renormalization group approach. Due to the presence of the background field, the corresponding nonperturbative flow equations yield remarkably good estimates for the critical exponents of the directed percolation universality class, even in low dimensions.
Phase transitions in antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kassan-Ogly, F.A. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S.Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620219 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: felix.kassan-ogly@imp.uran.ru; Filippov, B.N. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S.Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620219 (Russian Federation)
2006-05-15
A revised derivation scheme of possible magnetic structures in an FCC lattice with the nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions taken into account is proposed. A model of simultaneous magnetic and structural phase transitions of the first order is developed for antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure and with a strong cubic magnetic anisotropy on the base of synthesis of magnetic modified 6-state Potts model and theoretical models of structural phase transitions in cubic crystals. It is shown that the high-temperature diffuse magnetic scattering of neutrons transforms into magnetic Bragg reflections below Neel point.
Phase transitions in antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure
Kassan-Ogly, F. A.; Filippov, B. N.
2006-05-01
A revised derivation scheme of possible magnetic structures in an FCC lattice with the nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions taken into account is proposed. A model of simultaneous magnetic and structural phase transitions of the first order is developed for antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure and with a strong cubic magnetic anisotropy on the base of synthesis of magnetic modified 6-state Potts model and theoretical models of structural phase transitions in cubic crystals. It is shown that the high-temperature diffuse magnetic scattering of neutrons transforms into magnetic Bragg reflections below Néel point.
Gravitational waves from first-order cosmological phase transitions
Kosowsky, Arthur; Turner, Michael S.; Watkins, Richard
1992-01-01
A first-order cosmological phase transition that proceeds through the nucleation and collision of true-vacuum bubbles is a potent source of gravitational radiation. Possibilities for such include first-order inflation, grand-unified-theory-symmetry breaking, and electroweak-symmetry breaking. We have calculated gravity-wave production from the collision of two scalar-field vacuum bubbles, and, using an approximation based upon these results, from the collision of 20 to 30 vacuum bubbles. We present estimates of the relic background of gravitational waves produced by a first-order phase transition.
Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions
Hackl, Klaus
2014-01-01
The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.
Topological conditions for discrete symmetry breaking and phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baroni, Fabrizio; Casetti, Lapo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy)
2006-01-20
In the framework of a recently proposed topological approach to phase transitions, some sufficient conditions ensuring the presence of the spontaneous breaking of a Z{sub 2} symmetry and of a symmetry-breaking phase transition are introduced and discussed. A very simple model, which we refer to as the hypercubic model, is introduced and solved. The main purpose of this model is that of illustrating the content of the sufficient conditions, but it is interesting also in itself due to its simplicity. Then some mean-field models already known in the literature are discussed in the light of the sufficient conditions introduced here.
Pressure Induced Phase Transition in TiB
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李凤英; 陈良辰; 王莉君; 顾惠成; 王汝菊; 车荣钲; 沈中毅
2001-01-01
In situ high pressure x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance experiments on TiB have been carried out by using a diamond anvil cell device. The results revealed that the sample undergoes a first-order phase transition at pressures of 3.5 - 5.0 Gpa and 4.0 - 5.5 Gpa for the x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance experiments, respectively. The parameters of the state equation are calculated before and after the phase transition and compared with the values calculated by Mohn et al. [J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 21(1988)2829] using the augmented spherical wave method.
Self-aggregation of vapor-liquid phase transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The concept of the molecular free path is introduced to derive a criterion distinguishing active molecules from inactive molecules in liquid phase. Based on molecular self-aggregation theory a concept of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of active molecules is proposed to describe the physical configuration before the formation of the nuclei in the process of vapor-liquid phase transition. All active molecules exist in the form of the monomer when the concentration of active molecules is lower than CAC, while the active molecules will generate aggregation once the concentration of the active molecules reaches CAC. However, these aggregates with the aggregation number N smaller than 5 can steadily exist in bulk phase. The other excess active molecules can only produce infinite aggregation and form a critical nucleus of vapor-liquid phase transition. Without outer perturbation the state point of CAC corresponds to the critical superheated or supercooled state in the process of vapor-liquid phase transition. With the aggregate property, the interfacial tension between the bulk phase and the tiny new phase is predicted and a correction is made for the classical nucleation rate in a quite good agreement with experimental results.
Domain structure and phase transition in Sc-doped zirconia
Brunauer, G.; Boysen, H.; Frey, F.; Ehrenberg, H.
2002-01-01
The temperature dependence of the domain structure associated with the ferroelastic phase transition (Fm↔R bar 3 m) in ZrO2 doped with 11% Sc2O3 has been determined from a peak shape analysis of high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data. In the temperature region of coexisting phases the observed characteristic anisotropic broadening and asymmetry of the lines is modelled by three different phases: a main rhombohedral phase, a distorted rhombohedral phase with a smaller c/a ratio, and a cubic phase. The latter two are assigned to the internal structure of the domain walls between two adjacent twin domains. The size and amount of the cubic phase show an initially slow increase with temperature followed by a very steep increase and a slow one after that. The size of the (main) rhombohedral domains remains nearly constant, while (micro-) strain in the distorted regions gradually decreases.
Effect of extrinsic curvature on quark--hadron phase transition
Heydari-Fard, Malihe
2009-01-01
The last phase transition predicted by the standard model of particle physics took place at the QCD scale $T\\sim200$ MeV when the universe was about $t\\sim10^{-5}$ seconds old and the Hubble radius was around 10 Km. In this paper, we consider the quark--hadron phase transition in the context of brane-world cosmology where our universe is a 3-brane embedded in a $m$-dimensional bulk and localization of matter on the brane is achieved by means of a confining potential. We study the behavior of the physical quantities relevant to the description of the early universe like the energy density, temperature and scale factor, before, during, and after the phase transition and investigate the effects of extrinsic curvature on the cosmological phase transition. We show that the brane-world effects reduce the effective temperature of the quark--gluon plasma and of the hadronic fluid. Finally, we discuss the case where the universe evolved through a mixed phase with a small initial supercooling and monotonically growing ...
The electroweak phase transition in models with gauge singlets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahriche, A.
2007-04-18
A strong first order phase transition is needed for generating the baryon asymmetry; and also to save it during the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). However this condition is not fulfilled within the Standard Model (SM), but in its extensions. It is widely believed that the existence of singlet scalars in some Standard Model extensions can easily make the EWPT strongly first order. In this work, we will examine the strength of the EWPT in the simplest extension of the SM with a real gauge singlet using the sphaleron energy at the critical temperature. We find that the phase transition is stronger by adding a singlet; and also that the criterion for a strong phase transition {omega}(T{sub c})/T{sub c} >or similar 1, where {omega} = (v{sup 2} + (x - x{sub 0}){sup 2}){sup (}1)/(2) and x(x{sub 0}) is the singlet vacuum expectation value in the broken (symmetric) phase, is not valid for models containing singlets, even though often used in the literature. The usual condition v{sub c}/T{sub c} >or similar 1 is more meaningful, and it is satisfied for the major part of the parameter space for physically allowed Higgs masses. Then it is convenient to study the EWPT in models with singlets that couple only to the Higgs doublets, by replacing the singlets by their vevs. (orig.)