WorldWideScience

Sample records for decolorized olive oil

  1. Olive oil's extra benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    Could a Mediterranean diet including extra virgin olive oil reduce the risk of breast cancer? Niki Mourouti and Demosthenes Panagiotakos' study in Evidence Based Nursing examined the effects on cancer risks of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil.

  2. Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R W; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, E; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the latter part of the twentieth century demonstrate fairly conclusively that the people of the Mediterranean basin enjoy a healthy lifestyle with decreased incidence of degenerative diseases. The data show that populations within Europe that consume the so-called 'Mediterranean diet' have lower incidences of major illnesses such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Studies have suggested that the health-conferring benefits of the Mediterranean diet are due mainly to a high consumption of fibre, fish, fruits and vegetables. More recent research has focused on other important factors such as olives and olive oil. Obviously fibre (especially wholegrain-derived products), fruits and vegetables supply an important source of dietary antioxidants. What is the contribution from olives and olive oil? Apparently the potential is extremely high but epidemiologic studies rarely investigate consumption of these very important products in-depth, perhaps due to a lack of exact information on the types and amounts of antioxidants present. Recent studies have shown that olives and olive oil contain antioxidants in abundance. Olives (especially those that have not been subjected to the Spanish brining process) contain up to 16 g/kg typified by acteosides, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and phenyl propionic acids. Olive oil, especially extra virgin, contains smaller amounts of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, but also contains secoiridoids and lignans in abundance. Both olives and olive oil contain substantial amounts of other compounds deemed to be anticancer agents (e.g. squalene and terpenoids) as well as the peroxidation-resistant lipid oleic acid. It seems probable that olive and olive oil consumption in southern Europe represents an important contribution to the beneficial effects on health of the Mediterranean diet.

  3. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  4. Olive oil and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María-Isabel; Konstantinidou, Valentini; Fitó, Montserrat

    2009-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet, in which olive oil is the primary source of fat, is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. Data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points for the disease. Besides the classical benefits on the lipid profile provided by olive oil consumption compared with that of saturated fat, a broad spectrum of benefits on cardiovascular risk factors is now emerging associated with olive oil consumption. We review the state of the art concerning the knowledge of the most important biological and clinical effects related to olive oil and its minor components. The recent advances in human nutrigenomics associated with olive oil consumption will also be assessed. The wide range of benefits associated with olive oil consumption could contribute to explaining the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in southern European-Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other westernized countries, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors.

  5. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  6. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P

  7. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  8. Exploring Japanese olive oil consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mtimet, Nadhem; Kashiwagi, Kenichi; Zaibet, Lokman; Masakazu, N.

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, olive oil consumption in Japan is showing an increasing trend due to dietary and health concerns. Traditional olive oil producer and exporter countries such as Italy, Spain and Tunisia have interest to reinforce and to increase their penetration in the Japanese market. This study examines Japanese olive oil consumer behaviour by the use of the conjoint analysis technique. Five attributes have been chosen to design the experiment: region of origin, price, olive oil...

  9. Sensitization to olive oil (olea europeae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joost, T.; Smitt, J. H.; van Ketel, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitization to olive oil is seldom reported in the literature. By use of epicutaneous tests a delayed type of hypersensitivity to pure freshly-prepared olive oil could be demonstrated in two patients. Patch tests with certain major constituents of olive oil; the methyl ester of linoleic acid, the

  10. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  11. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  12. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  13. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  14. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... attributes. Sediment often forms at the bottom of containers of virgin olive oil. This vegetable water can... olive-pomace oil are not necessary because this measurement determines the degree of refining. AMS... occurring alpha-tocopherol which is removed during the refining process of producing olive-pomace oil. AMS...

  16. Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Henri El Zakhem; Christina Romanos; Charlie Bakhos; Hassan Chahal; Jessica Koura

    2016-01-01

    Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. ...

  17. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  18. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  19. Olive oil: composition and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, D.M.; López Cortés, I.; Salazar García, Domingo C.

    2017-01-01

    The production of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in Spain is very high, it reached 1 million tonnes in the last olive oil campaign, with over two million hectares planted with olive trees. This crop is distributed in over six different bioclimatic zones and with more than 100 cultivars, many of them native from a pomological point of view. Among the olive areas of Spain, Andalusia, Extremadura, Catalonia and Valencia stand out, next to the Central Region (Castilla-La Mancha). Each one of them ...

  20. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kalogeropoulos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  1. Production of pomace olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Méndez, Mª Victoria

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pomace oil is the principal by-product in olive oil processing and is currently developing considerably due to the technological advances which the mills have undergone in recent years. This investigation aims at presenting an overview of the complexity of this sector which, with around 100 years of existence, is searching for a role in the new integral strategy of the olive oil industry after the crisis suffered in 2001. Physical extraction, drying and solvent extraction are discussed, along with the influence of the technological treatments on the chemical composition of pomace oil.El aceite de orujo es el principal subproducto en el procesado de aceite de oliva y su obtención se ha transformado considerablemente en los últimos tiempos debido a los avances tecnológicos que han experimentado las almazaras. Este trabajo tiene la finalidad de presentar una panorámica de la complejidad de este sector, de casi 100 años de existencia, que se afana en encontrar su función dentro de la nueva estrategia integral de la industria oleícola después de la crisis sufrida en el año 2001. En el mismo se comentan la extracción física, el secado, así como la extracción con disolvente, y la influencia que tienen los tratamientos tecnológicos sobre la composición química del aceite de orujo.

  2. The activity of healthy olive microbiota during virgin olive oil extraction influences oil chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Stefania; Romero, Agustí; Tous, Joan; Caixach, Josep

    2011-05-11

    The activity of olive microbiota during the oil extraction process could be a critical point for virgin olive oil quality. With the aim to evaluate the role of microbiological activity during the virgin olive oil extraction process, just before oil extraction freshly collected healthy olive fruits were immersed in contaminated water from an olive mill washing tank. The oils extracted were then compared with control samples from the same batch of hand-picked olives. The presence of lactic and enteric bacteria, fungi and Pseudomonas on the surface of olives was proved to be much higher in washed than in control olives, with increments in cfu/g between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude. The biogenesis of volatile compounds and the extraction of olive polyphenols and pigments were significantly influenced by the microbiological profile of olives even without any previous storage. In most cases the effect of olive microbiota on oil characteristics was greater than the effect exerted by malaxation time and temperature. Oils from microbiologically contaminated olives showed lower amounts of C5 volatiles and higher levels of C6 volatiles from the lipoxygenase pathway and some fermentation products. On the other hand, a decrease of chlorophylls, pheophytins, xanthophylls and the ratio chlorophyll/pheophytin was observed in these oils. Likewise, the microbiological activity during oil extraction led to significantly lower amounts of polyphenols, in particular of oleuropein derivatives. These differences in olive oil chemical composition were reflected in oil sensory characteristics by the decrease of the green and bitter attributes and by the modification of the oil color chromatic ordinates.

  3. Olive oil and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María-Isabel

    2007-03-01

    Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet which is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. In spite of this, data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points for cardiovascular disease. The benefits of olive oil consumption are beyond a mere reduction of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Here, we review the state of the art concerning the knowledge of the most important biological and clinical effects related to the intake of olive oil rich diets on lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative damage, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, blood pressure, thrombosis, and carbohydrate metabolism. The extent to which we possess evidence of the health benefits of olive oil minor components is also assessed. The wide range of anti-atherogenic effects associated with olive oil consumption could contribute to explain the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in Southern European Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other western countries, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors.

  4. DNA markers for Portuguese olive oil fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Lopes, Paula; Gomes, Sónia; Santos, Elisabete; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2008-12-24

    The certification of olive oil has led to the definition of Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) producing regions in European countries. PDO products should be protected, and a solution could be by using DNA fingerprinting. In this work we evaluate the efficiency of RAPD, ISSR, and SSR molecular markers for olive oil varietal identification and their possible use in certification purposes. Twenty-three Portuguese olive oil samples (11 obtained monovarietal and 12 purchased commercial oils) were screened by means of two RAPD, four ISSR, and four SSR markers. The quality of amplified products was used to evaluate the reproducibility and the level of polymorphism. Principal component analysis was performed with DCENTER using unweighted pair group mathematical average (UPGMA) that allowed group formation according to olive oil varietal geographic origin.

  5. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  6. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ozonated olive oil) is promoted for everything from bee stings and insect bites to bacterial and fungal ... care seems to improve eczema. Cancer. People who eat more olive oil seem to have a lower ...

  7. Influence of microwaves on olive oil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R.S.; El-Baroty, G.; Abd El-Aziz, N.; Basuny, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fruits of Picual and Shemlalli olive cultivars were exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at low and moderate power settings for 3, 6, 9 and 12 min. The physicochemical constants and fatty acid composition of the olive oil samples extracted from nonmicrowaved and microwaved fruits were determined. The data demonstrated that microwaves did not alter the values of the above mentioned parameters compared with the oil extracted from nonmicrowaved fruits. Quality assurance tests (acid, peroxide and TBA values) elucidated that microwaves generally increased the olive oil stability of Picual and Shemlalli cultivars during storage. In addition, microwaves generated from oven ot moderate power setting for 12 min. exhibited an antioxidant power on olive oil equivalent to that possessed by BHT at 200 ppm [es

  8. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Cristina; Barbalace, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29068387

  9. Carbon/Attapulgite Composites as Recycled Palm Oil-Decoloring and Dye Adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangyan; Wang, Wenbo; Zhu, Yongfeng; Zong, Li; Kang, Yuru; Wang, Aiqin

    2018-01-06

    Activated clay minerals have been widely used in the edible oil refining industry for decolorization of crude oil by adsorption, and so far many methods have been used to improve their decolorization efficiency. Herein, we successfully prepared a series of carbon/attapulgite (C/APT) composite adsorbents by a one-step in-situ carbonization process with natural starch (St) as the carbon source. It has been revealed that the adsorbent had better decolorization efficiency for crude palm oil than acid-activated APT. However, more than a million tons of decolorized waste is produced every year in the oil-refining industry, which was often treated as solid waste and has not yet been reutilized effectively. In order to explore a viable method to recycle and reuse the decolorant, the waste decolorant was further prepared into new C/APT adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater, and then the dyes adsorbed on the adsorbent were used as the carbon sources to produce new C/APT adsorbents by a cyclic carbonization process. The results showed that the adsorbents prepared from the decolorized waste could remove more than 99.5% of the methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV), and malachite green (MG) dyes from the simulated wastewater with the dye concentration of 200 mg/L, and the C/APT-Re adsorbent consecutively regenerated five times using the adsorbed dyes as a carbon source still exhibit good adsorption efficiency for dyes. As a whole, this process opens a new avenue to develop efficient decolorants of palm oil and achieves recyclable utilization of decolored waste.

  10. Carbon/Attapulgite Composites as Recycled Palm Oil-Decoloring and Dye Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyan Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated clay minerals have been widely used in the edible oil refining industry for decolorization of crude oil by adsorption, and so far many methods have been used to improve their decolorization efficiency. Herein, we successfully prepared a series of carbon/attapulgite (C/APT composite adsorbents by a one-step in-situ carbonization process with natural starch (St as the carbon source. It has been revealed that the adsorbent had better decolorization efficiency for crude palm oil than acid-activated APT. However, more than a million tons of decolorized waste is produced every year in the oil-refining industry, which was often treated as solid waste and has not yet been reutilized effectively. In order to explore a viable method to recycle and reuse the decolorant, the waste decolorant was further prepared into new C/APT adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater, and then the dyes adsorbed on the adsorbent were used as the carbon sources to produce new C/APT adsorbents by a cyclic carbonization process. The results showed that the adsorbents prepared from the decolorized waste could remove more than 99.5% of the methylene blue (MB, methyl violet (MV, and malachite green (MG dyes from the simulated wastewater with the dye concentration of 200 mg/L, and the C/APT–Re adsorbent consecutively regenerated five times using the adsorbed dyes as a carbon source still exhibit good adsorption efficiency for dyes. As a whole, this process opens a new avenue to develop efficient decolorants of palm oil and achieves recyclable utilization of decolored waste.

  11. [Determination of olive oil content in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Fengyan; Yang, Zhao

    2017-07-08

    A method for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC/MS) was established. The amount of the sample, the heating temperature, the heating time, the amount of injection, the injection mode and the chromatographic column were optimized. The characteristic compounds of olive oil were found by chemometric method. A sample of 1.0 g was placed in a 20 mL headspace flask, and heated at 180℃ for 2700 s. Then, 1.0 mL headspace gas was taken into the instrument. An HP-88 chromatographic column was used for the separation and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The results showed that the linear range was 0-100%(olive oil content). The linear correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) was more than 0.995, and the limits of detection were 1.26%-2.13%. The deviations of olive oil contents in the olive blend oil were from -0.65% to 1.02%, with the relative deviations from -1.3% to 6.8% and the relative standard deviations from 1.18% to 4.26% ( n =6). The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil.

  12. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  13. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  15. Potential Contributions of Olives and Olive Oil in the Developing Tourism in Mudanya (Bursa)

    OpenAIRE

    UYLAŞER, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is the 3rd country in olive production and 4th country in olive oil production in the world. Olive oil and olive farming has significant economic value both in the national and international arena for Turkey. Olive and olive oil, which are irreplaceable ingredients in our breakfasts, many meals and salads in Turkish kitchen, are the primary source of income for the families in Mudanya. Mudanya has a historical past and it has a significant potential in terms ...

  16. Partitioning of olive oil antioxidants between oil and water phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Panayotis S; Karathanos, Vaios T; Mantzavinou, Antonia

    2002-01-30

    The partition coefficient (K(p)) of the natural phenolic antioxidant compounds in the olive fruit between aqueous and olive oil phases was determined. The antioxidants of olive oil are either present in the olive fruit or formed during the olive oil extraction process. The antioxidants impart stability to and determine properties of the oil and are valuable from the nutritional point of view. The olive oil antioxidants are amphiphilic in nature and are more soluble in the water than in the oil phase. Consequently, a large amount of the antioxidants is lost with the wastewater during processing. The determination of antioxidants was performed using HPLC, and the K(p) was estimated to be from as low as 0.0006 for oleuropein to a maximum of 1.5 for 3,4-DHPEA-EA (di-hydroxy-phenyl-ethanol-elenolic acid, oleuropein aglycon). Henry's law fitted very well to the experimental data. The partition coefficients were also estimated by applying the activity coefficients of the antioxidants in the two phases using a predictive group contribution method, the UNIFAC equation. The K(p) values estimated with UNIFAC method were of the same order of magnitude but varied from the experimental values. Nevertheless, this method may be a rough predictive tool for process optimization or design. Because the K(p) values were very low, some changes in the process are recommended in order to achieve a higher concentration of antioxidants in the oil. A temperature increase may lead to increasing the partition coefficient. Also, limiting the quantity of water during oil extraction could be a basis for designing alternative processes for increasing the antioxidant concentration in the olive oil.

  17. Efficacy of Olive oil, Groundnut oil, Soybean oil and Palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potentials of four different vegetable oils (olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil) for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus. Ife-brown seeds (a susceptible variety) used for the experiment were subjected to the different ...

  18. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  19. Olive Oil: What Are the Health Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition, some research shows that MUFA s may benefit insulin levels and blood sugar control, which can be helpful if you have or are at risk of type 2 diabetes. But even healthier fats like olive oil are high in calories, so use them in ...

  20. Olive oil and the haemostatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Jimenez-Gómez, Yolanda; Fuentes, Francisco; Ruano, Juan; Marin, Carmen

    2007-10-01

    Interest in the Mediterranean diet (MD) has grown worldwide due to its link with greater longevity and lower cardiovascular disease rate, cancer and age cognitive decline. Despite the high complexity of its nutrients composition, olive oil emerges as its principal food, since it provides the higher percent of energy and a lot of bioactive compounds. In this review we will discuss the benefits of diets enriched in virgin olive oil, whose effects are probably due not only to its oleic acid content but also to its other potentially health-promoting components. Traditionally, the benefits of MD were linked to its effect on lipoprotein metabolism but today we realise that there exists a whole sheaf of other benefits, including the components of haemostasis: platelet function, thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis. A diet enriched in virgin olive oil can reduce the sensitivity of platelets to aggregation, decreasing von Willebrand and tromboxane B2 plasma levels. Moreover a particular interest has arisen about its capacity to decrease fasting Factor VII plasma levels and to avoid or modulate its postprandial activation. Also Tissue Factor expression in mononuclear cells could be reduced with the chronic intake of virgin olive oil and finally, studies performed in different experimental situation have shown that it could also increase fibrinolytic activity, reducing plasma concentration of Plasma Activator Inhibitor type-1.

  1. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  2. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  3. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  4. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of § 102...

  5. Virgin olive oil: a key food for cardiovascular risk protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María-Isabel; de la Torre, Rafael; Fitó, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Olive oil is considered to be one of the most healthy dietary fats. However, several types of olive oils are present in the market. A key question for the consumer is: What of the olive oils is the best when concerning nutritional purposes? With the data available at present, the answer is: the Virgin Olive Oil (VOO), rich in phenolic compounds. On November 2011, the European Food Safety Authority released a claim concerning the benefits of daily ingestion of olive oil rich in phenolic compounds, such as VOO. In this review, we summarised the key work that has provided the evidence of the benefits of VOO consumption on other types of edible oils, even olive oils. We focused on data from randomised, controlled human studies, which are capable of providing the evidence of Level I that is required for performing nutritional recommendations at population level.

  6. Development of a bank for ultrasonic characterization of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra Gemayel, M.N.; Zaatar, Y.; Zaouk, D.; El Hajj, A.; Honein, E.; Assaad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil has long been renowned for its nutritional and healthy values. These values are being continuously verified by new scientific results. Not all olive oils found in the market are, however,authentic. One of the ways to cheat in olive oil is to mix it with other, cheaper oils. The aim of our study is to develop an ultrasonic measurement system that would quickly detect the fraud in the olive oil and thus protect and preserve this quality product. By using ultrasonic waves of frequency 1.7MHz in transmission through the oils, we have obtained promising results for detection of different mixtures of olive oil with pure sunflower oil. Our results have shown an increasing ultrasonic speed for an increasing percentage of sunflower oil in the mixture. (author)

  7. Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...

  8. Quantitative assessment of different phenolic compounds in Texas olive oils versus foreign oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Olive Ranch is the first one to produce olive oil and has the sole product in the Texas market place; several growers are now starting to cultivate olive at various sites in Texas. The quality of olive oil produced and pressed in Texas has never been explored. This study was conducted to inv...

  9. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  10. Assessing the Comparative Advantage of Albanian Olive Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mane-Kapaj, Ana; Kapaj, Ilir; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Totojani, Orkida

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the comparative advantage of olive oil production in Albania using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) method. The result indicates that olive oil production in Albania is profitable for the producers. Whereas the DRC ratio equals to 2.2, meaning that olive oil production in Albania does not have a comparative advantage for the given situation of production, prices and technology. This means that while it is profitable for private producers to manufact...

  11. Olive oil: maternal and pediatric health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Trapani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new base of the pyramid that represents the Mediterranean Diet (MD includes a balanced lifestyle, healthy cooking methods, traditional, local and eco-friendly products, conviviality, physical activity with an adequate amount of rest, as well as caloric restriction and food frugality. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the main source of MD fat is Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO. EVOO is considered a key feature of the healthy properties of the MD, due to its fatty acid, vitamin and polyphenol composition. However, these components need to be bioavailable to allow EVOO to exert its nutraceutical properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral and hypoglycemic properties, as well as protective effects on the heart and brain, and during pregnancy and breast feeding. The main phenolic components responsible for the nutraceutical properties of EVOO are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein. The adopted oil production and extraction technologies, such as extraction at low oxidative stress, determine the final polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.Limited information on the epigenetic effects of olive polyphenols is presently available, although the epigenetic effects of many other plant polyphenols have been well documented. In this context, it has been found that, if mothers consume an adequate amount of olive oil during pregnancy, their children will be exposed to a lower risk of wheezing in the first period of their lives. In addition, EVOO, because of its oleochantal content, a natural anti-inflammatory substance, may have an effect on many inflammatory diseases, even in the early period of life.

  12. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  13. Study of Volatile Compounds of Virgin Olive Oils with 'Frostbitten Olives' Sensory Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Morales, María T

    2017-05-31

    Freeze injuries in olives are responsible for the 'frostbitten olives' sensory defect that is sometimes detected in virgin olive oil. This defect is becoming one of the most common negative attributes today because climate change has modified weather patterns. The temperature changes can take place abruptly, with rapid freeze-thaw cycles, or gradually. These changes produce significant alterations in the quality of the oils. This study analyzed the volatile composition of virgin olive oils characterized with 'frostbitten olives' defect. The volatile information allowed grouping these oils into two types characterized with two different profiles. One of them is characterized by 'soapy' and 'strawberry-like' perceptions and the presence of two volatile compounds (ethyl 2-methyl butanoate and ethyl propanoate). The second profile is characterized by 'wood' and 'humidity' descriptors and a high concentration of two volatiles (pentanal and octanal). These results on volatiles explain the existence of two sensory profiles associated with the 'frostbitten olives' defect.

  14. A taste sensor device for unmasking admixing of rancid or winey-vinegary olive oil to extra virgin olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Harzalli, Ussama; Rodrigues, Nuno; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Dias, L.G.; Pereira, J.A.; Oueslati, Souheib; Peres, António M.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical sensor devices have gathered great attention in food analysis namely for olive oil evaluation. The adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil with lower-grade olive oil is a common worldwide fraudulent practice, which detection is a challenging task. The potentiometric fingerprints recorded by lipid polymeric sensor membranes of an electronic tongue, together with linear discriminant analysis and simulated annealing meta-heuristic algorithm, enabled the detection of extra-virgin o...

  15. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlorio, M.; Coisson, J. D.; Bordiga, M.; Travaglia, F.; Garino, C.; Zuidmeer, L.; van Ree, R.; Giuffrida, M. G.; Conti, A.; Martelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as oextra-virgino should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers

  16. Therapeutic Impacts of Almond Oil and Olive Oil on Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing to the +ve control group supplementations of the atherogenic diet with either almond or olive oils induced significant reductions (p<0.05) in plasma levels oftotal cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, VLDL-C, triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids(FFA) levels and TC/HDL ratio.The same was observed for the %oβ- apo ...

  17. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  19. Genetic and environmental features for oil composition in olive varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Bervillé André Jean; Breton Catherine Marie

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of olive oil helps both prevent and cure heart disease. Olive oils vary in their fatty acid profiles as well as those of other secondary metabolites (phenols, sterols, and terpene compounds). We seek to distinguish the genetic bases from the environmental factors that cause these variations. The genetic base is indeed wide: varieties originate in different domestication occurrences, from different oleaster trees and ...

  20. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The newly formulated cream of virgin olive oil proved to exhibit a number of promising properties and attributes that might open new opportunities for the construction of more efficient, safe, and cost-effective skin-care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. Key words: Virgin olive oil, o/w emulsion, stability, pH.

  1. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  2. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  3. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [es

  4. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Berasategi, I. (Izaskun); Barriuso, B. (Blanca); Ansorena, D. (Diana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0 h and after different times of heating process (180 °C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t = 0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t = 0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0 h (339.64; 228.27...

  5. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  7. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  8. Contribution of olive seed to the phenolic profile and related quality parameters of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luaces, Pilar; Romero, Carmen; Gutierrez, Francisca; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2007-11-01

    Conflicting results have been reported about the effect of fruit de-stoning on the virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of the present study was to determine whether olive seed plays any role in the synthesis of this oil phenolic fraction. Increases of around 25% of total phenolic compounds were observed in oils obtained from de-stoned olive fruits in three main Spanish cultivars. To investigate the involvement of olive seed in determining the phenolic profile of VOO, whole intact olive fruits were added with up to 400% olive stones. Excellent regression coefficients were found in general for the decrease of total phenolic compounds and, particularly, of o-diphenolics in the resulting oils. On the other hand, it was found that olive seed contains a high level of peroxidase (POX) activity (72.4 U g(-1) FW), accounting for more than 98% of total POX activity in the whole fruit. This activity is able to modify VOO phenolics in vitro, similar to the effect of adding stones during VOO extraction. Olive seed plays an important role in determining VOO phenolic profile during the process to obtain an oil that seems to be associated with a high level of POX activity. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a

  10. Active components and clinical applications of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Emily; Lockwood, Brian

    2007-12-01

    The olive tree, Olea europaea, is native to the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia Minor. The fruit and compression-extracted oil have a wide range of therapeutic and culinary applications. Olive oil also constitutes a major component of the "Mediterranean diet." The chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolics include hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest levels in virgin olive oil and have demonstrated antioxidant activity. Antioxidants are believed to be responsible for a number of olive oil's biological activities. Oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, has shown activity in cancer prevention, while squalene has also been identified as having anticancer effects. Olive oil consumption has benefit for colon and breast cancer prevention. The oil has been widely studied for its effects on coronary heart disease (CHD), specifically for its ability to reduce blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Antimicrobial activity of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein has been demonstrated against several strains of bacteria implicated in intestinal and respiratory infections. Although the majority of research has been conducted on the oil, consumption of whole olives might also confer health benefits.

  11. The origin of aliphatic hydrocarbons in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Manuel; Rojas, María; Gálvez-Valdivieso, Gregorio; Aguilar, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    There are many substances that can interfere with olive oil quality. Some of them are well characterized, but many others have an unknown origin. Saturated hydrocarbons make an extraordinary complex family of numerous molecules, some of them present naturally in vegetable oils. When major natural saturated hydrocarbons are analyzed by standard chromatographic methods, this complex mixture of saturated hydrocarbons appears as a hump in the chromatogram and is commonly named as unresolved complex mixture (UCM), whose origin remains unknown. In this work we studied the occurrence and the origin of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons in olive oil. Hydrocarbons were analyzed in olive oil and along the industrial process of oil extraction. We also analyzed n-alkanes and the UCM fraction of hydrocarbons in leaf, fruit and oil from different varieties and different locations, and we also analyzed the soils at these locations. We conclude that the hydrocarbons present in olive oil do not necessarily have their origin in a contamination during olive oil elaboration; they seem to have a natural origin, as a result of olive tree metabolism and/or as the result of an intake and accumulation by the olive tree directly from the environment during its entire life cycle. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  13. Antioxidant activity of olive pulp and olive oil phenolic compounds of the arbequina cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelló, José-Ramón; Vuorela, Satu; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José; Heinonen, Marina

    2005-03-23

    The aim of this study was to characterize antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds that appear in olive pulp and olive oils using both radical scavenging and antioxidant activity tests. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of olive pulp and olive oil phenolic compounds were due mainly to the presence of a 3,4-dihydroxy moiety linked to an aromatic ring, and the effect depended on the polarity of the phenolic compound. Glucosides and more complex phenolics exhibited higher antioxidant activities toward oxidation of liposomes, whereas in bulk lipids aglycons were more potent antioxidants with the exception of oleuropein. Lignans acted as antioxidants only in liposomes, which could partly be due to their chelating activity, because liposome oxidation was initiated by cupric acetate. The antioxidant activity of virgin olive oil is principally due to the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), a secoiridoid derivative (peak RT 36, structure unidentified), and luteolin.

  14. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  15. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (POzonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent.

  16. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  17. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules

  18. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ROLE OF OLIVE OIL IN CANCER PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAP Ratih Pradnyandari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. From this fact showshow ferociously the disease if not treated well. The emergence of this disease is causedby various factors, but often caused by damage to the structure of DNA and othermolecular structures by a reactive oxygen species (ROS. Early prevention that can beimplemented, is to improve the lifestyle and diet that contains a substance that canprotect our body cells from damage caused by ROS. These molecules calledantioxidants. Therefore, antioxidants are often called reducing agents (thiol orpolyphenols. Olive oil is the one of the exogenous antioxidants have many benefitsespecially polyphenols that have chemo preventive effects on several types of cancer,and can inhibit the process of carcinogenesis by several mechanisms such as inhibitionof DNA synthesis in the process, reducing the production of ROS, regulate cell cycle,regulate proliferation and survival mechanisms of cells.

  20. Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-02-02

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  1. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Keast

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  2. Characterization of Virgin Olive Oils with Two Kinds of 'Frostbitten Olives' Sensory Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Inmaculada; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

    2016-07-13

    The frost of olives on the tree due to drops of temperature can produce sensory defects in virgin olive oil (VOO). Temperature changes can be abrupt with freeze-thaw cycles or gradual, and they produce sensory and chemical variations in the oil. This study has analyzed the quality parameters (free fatty acids, peroxide value, UV absorption, and fatty acid ethyl esters) and phenols of VOOs described with the 'frostbitten olives' sensory defect. The phenol profiles allowed grouping these VOOs into two types. One of them, characterized with "soapy" and "strawberry-like" aroma descriptors, had higher values of 1-acetoxypinoresinol, pinoresinol, and aldehydic form of the ligstroside aglycon. The other one, characterized with "wood" and "humidity" descriptors, had higher concentrations of luteolin and apigenin. Most VOOs (75%) from the first group, associated with abrupt drops of temperature, have concentration of phenols higher than the value established by the health claim on olive oil polyphenols approved by the European Commission.

  3. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  4. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  5. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rajabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major,in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results:According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P

  7. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C 6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C 6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2012-05-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0h and after different times of heating process (180°C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t=0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t=0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0h (339.64; 228.27mg/100g) and at 9h (270.44; 210.30mg/100g) of heating. TBARs was higher in olive oil after 3h, reaching the maximum values in both oils at 6h of heating treatment. Vitamin E was higher in olive oil (35.52 vs. 24.5mg/100g) and it disappeared earlier in avocado oil (at 4 vs. 5h). The stability of avocado oil was similar to that of olive oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  10. Effect of olive stoning on the volatile and phenolic composition of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Selvaggini, Roberto; Montedoro, GianFrancesco

    2007-08-22

    Olive stoning during the virgin olive oil (VOO) mechanical extraction process was studied to show the effect on the phenolic and volatile composition of the oil. To study the impact of the constitutive parts of the fruit in the composition of olive pastes during processing, the phenolic compounds and several enzymatic activities such as polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and lipoxygenase (LPO) of the olive pulp, stone, and seed were also studied. The olive pulp showed large amounts of oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, and lignans, while the contribution of the stone and the seed in the overall phenolic composition of the fruit was very low. The occurrence of crushed stone in the pastes, during malaxation, increased the peroxidase activity in the pastes, reducing the phenolic concentration in VOO and, at the same time, modifying the composition of volatile compounds produced by the lipoxygenase pathway. The oil obtained from stoned olive pastes contained higher amounts of secoiridoid derivatives such as the dialdehydic forms of elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol and (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, respectively) and the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA) and, at the same time, did not show significant variations of lignans. The stoning process modified the volatile profile of VOO by increasing the C6 unsaturated aldehydes that are strictly related to the cut-grass sensory notes of the oil.

  11. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Qualitative evaluation of Tunisian olive oils using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Souihli; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, L.G.; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Pereira, J.A.; Oueslati, Souheib; Peres, António M.

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil commercialization has a great impact in the regional economy of several countries including Tunisia. It is a high-value food product, quite prone to frauds. So, it is important to establish analytical techniques that can ensure labelling correctness regarding olive oil quality as well as its origin, namely concerning the olive(s) cultivar(s) used in the production, which is of major importance for monovarietal olive oils. Traditional analytical techniques like those base...

  13. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutrigenomics of extra-virgin olive oil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Marta; Albini, Adriana; Fabiani, Roberto; Giovannelli, Lisa; Luceri, Cristina; Natella, Fausta; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Rossi, Teresa; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Galli, Francesco

    2017-01-02

    Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition. Gene regulation properties of the functional components of olive oil, such as oleic acid, biophenols and vitamin E, point to a role for these molecules as natural homeostatic and even hormetic factors with applications as prevention agents in conditions of premature and pathologic aging. Therapeutic applications can be foreseen in conditions of chronic inflammation, and particularly in cancer, which will be discussed in detail in this review paper as major clinical target of nutritional interventions with olive oil and its functional components. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):17-41, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fistonić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, andpremenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducingblood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal,and genital tract infections.

  16. Genetic and environmental features for oil composition in olive varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bervillé André Jean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of olive oil helps both prevent and cure heart disease. Olive oils vary in their fatty acid profiles as well as those of other secondary metabolites (phenols, sterols, and terpene compounds. We seek to distinguish the genetic bases from the environmental factors that cause these variations. The genetic base is indeed wide: varieties originate in different domestication occurrences, from different oleaster trees and in differing climatic regimes. With the aid of diagrams, we set out briefly the oil synthesis pathway for fruits in comparison with that of seeds, and the specific aspects of olive oil in particular. Varieties of olive have appeared that are adapted to regions with harsh conditions where the oleaster could not thrive. Environmental stresses have consequences on drupes and their oil profiles; these have been highlighted in European countries through the use of appellations. Whilst stresses tend to enhance the quality of the end product, they do however decrease final yields with potential negative impacts on olive growers’ incomes. Irrigation experiments are underway in order to determine the optimal amount of watering. In breeding new varieties, the result sought is that of accumulating pest tolerances and fruit-quality characteristics; selection programmes are however expensive as they necessitate observations over many years. Consumers have choice across a range of appellations with different organoleptic specificities at different prices, and whatever the appellation of the oil they can expect a positive effect on their health.

  17. An Oleuropein β-Glucosidase from Olive Fruit Is Involved in Determining the Phenolic Composition of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Velázquez-Palmero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic composition of virgin olive oil is determined by the enzymatic and/or chemical reactions that take place during olive fruit processing. Of these enzymes, β-glucosidase activity plays a relevant role in the transformation of the phenolic glycosides present in the olive fruit, generating different secoiridoid derivatives. The main goal of the present study was to characterize olive fruit β-glucosidase genes and enzymes responsible for the phenolic composition of virgin olive oil. To achieve that, we have isolated an olive β-glucosidase gene from cultivar Picual (OepGLU, expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and purified its corresponding recombinant enzyme. Western blot analysis showed that recombinant OepGLU protein is detected by an antibody raised against the purified native olive mesocarp β-glucosidase enzyme, and exhibits a deduced molecular mass of 65.0 kDa. The recombinant OepGLU enzyme showed activity on the major olive phenolic glycosides, with the highest levels with respect to oleuropein, followed by ligstroside and demethyloleuropein. In addition, expression analysis showed that olive GLU transcript level in olive fruit is spatially and temporally regulated in a cultivar-dependent manner. Furthermore, temperature, light and water regime regulate olive GLU gene expression in olive fruit mesocarp. All these data are consistent with the involvement of OepGLU enzyme in the formation of the major phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

  18. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  19. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  20. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct

  1. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  2. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabéu, R.; Díaz, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share). The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  3. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bernabéu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share. The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  4. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabéu, R.; Díaz, M.

    2016-07-01

    It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share). The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  5. Trace Element Content of Monovarietal and Commercial Portuguese Olive Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvinhas, Irene; Machado, Nelson; Cunha, Maria; Pereira, Marisa; Matos, Carlos; Gomes, Sónia; Lopes, João; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Barros, Ana I R N A

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) represents one of the most important and ancient crops in the Mediterranean countries, being widely known due to the optimal organoleptic characteristics of its oil, besides the important health benefits assigned to this product in the last few years. Since olive oil composition, respecting specific trace elements, has a direct impact on the quality and safety of this product, eleven monovarietal and twelve commercial olive oils were analysed spectrometrically concerning their metal composition. Regarding quality parameters, the monovarietal olive oils display larger quantities of Mg, Fe, Mn, while the commercial samples are characterized by greater amounts of Na, Ca, Cu and Zn. In which respects to safety parameters, the commercial samples present higher values for Al and Pb, and lower quantities of Cd, respecting the monovarietal ones. The assessment of the values observed for the trace elements, resorting to multivariate statistical methods, allowed to clearly distinguish the type of olive oil production-monovarietal or commercial blend. For this purpose, besides Cluster analysis, the data have been subjected to Principal Component Analysis-undertaken for either all the evaluated parameters simultaneously, or the quality/safety parameters separately, both data sets allowing the discrimination of the samples.

  6. Benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martinez, Olga; Ruiz, Concepcion; Gutierrez-Ibanez, Alvaro; Illescas-Montes, Rebeca; Melguizo-Rodriguez, Lucia

    2018-02-12

    The preventive effects of olive oil against different diseases have been attributed to its high phenolic compound content. The objective of this study was to examine available scientific evidence on the beneficial effects against chronic diseases of olive oil phenolic compounds. This article examines recently published data on olive oil phenolic compounds and their potential benefits in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and osteoporosis. The antioxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities of olive oil phenolic compounds have preventive effects against heart disease and cancer. These compounds also exert neuroprotective and neuromodulator effects against neurodegenerative disease, inhibiting the development of amyloid plaques. Finally, they are known to protect against osteoporosis, favoring bone regeneration. Dietary intake of olive oil can be recommended by healthcare professionals as an important source of phenolic compounds that play a role in the prevention of chronic disease and the consequent improvement in quality of life. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Effective assay for olive vinegar production from olive oil mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonardis, Antonella; Macciola, Vincenzo; Iorizzo, Massimo; Lombardi, Silvia Jane; Lopez, Francesco; Marconi, Emanuele

    2018-02-01

    In this work, an effective and simple approach for vinegar production from olive oil press-mill wastewaters (OMW) is presented. Effects of sterilization and yeast presence on the acetic acid production were investigated. Sugar addition and inoculum of selected yeast starter have been crucial for a satisfactory acidification. In the obtained olive vinegar, the pH and total acidity were 2.92 and 5.6%, respectively. A considerable high level of ash (2%) and total phenols (3600mg/L as GAE) characterized olive vinegar, in comparison with samples of apple, wine and balsamic commercial vinegars. Moreover, a high presence of hydroxytyrosol (1019mg/L) was obtained. This abundant presence of antioxidants makes olive vinegar a promising nutraceutical and environmentally-friendly product, based upon a waste material such as OMW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical stability of extra-virgin olive oil added with oregano essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2011-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil is highly consumed and well known for its nutritional and health benefits. However, it is fatty food highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preserving effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp vulgare called "oregano compacto") essential oil on physical and chemical properties in extra virgin olive oil during storage. Oregano essential oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. This essential oil was added into extra virgin olive oil at 0.05%. The samples were stored in 3 different conditions: darkness, light exposure, and temperature (60 °C). Chemical indicators of lipid oxidation (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, conjugated dienes, free fatty acidity, and carotenoid and chlorophyll contents) were measured. High content in carvomenthol (22.52%), terpinolene (19.77%), thymol (13.51%), and γ-terpinene (10.30%) were detected in oregano essential oil. Olive oil samples without oregano essential oil stored at 60 °C and exposure at artificial light had the highest peroxide values during storage. Higher p-anisidine and K232 values after day 7 of storage were detected in temperature, darkness, and light exposure treatments. Light treatment was the main factor that degraded chlorophyll causing loss of color. The highest chlorophyll content (3.87 mg/kg) was observed in olive oil with essential oil at the end of storage. In general, olive oil samples added with oregano essential oil had lower peroxide, conjugated dienes, and p-anisidine values and higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents during storage. Oregano essential oil retards lipid oxidation process in olive oil prolonging its shelf life. Oregano essential oil was and is used with the purpose of flavoring and aromatizing food. This essential oil due to its composition has shown antioxidant activity. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are thought to be promoters of carcinogenesis

  9. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  10. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and ...

  11. Effects of the planting density on virgin olive oil quality of "Chemlali" olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-12-08

    Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.

  12. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/ PMID:26827236

  15. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  16. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m 3 ) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  17. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-03

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.

  18. Triterpenic content and chemometric analysis of virgin olive oils from forty olive cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, Yosra; Jiménez, Antonio; Uceda, Marino; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2009-05-13

    Forty olive cultivars (Olea europaea, L.) from the World Olive Germoplasm Bank Collection of Cordoba (Spain) were studied for their oil triterpenic dialcohol (uvaol and erythrodiol) and acid (oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic) composition. Dialcohol content ranged from 8.15 to 85.05 mg/kg, erythrodiol being the most predominant (from 5.89 to 73.78 mg/kg), whereas uvaol content was found at lower levels (from 1.50 to 19.35 mg/kg). Triterpenic acid concentration oscillated between 8.90 to 112.36 mg/kg. Among them, ursolic acid was found at trace levels, while the mean values of oleanolic and maslinic acids ranged from 3.39 to 78.83 mg/kg and 3.93 to 49.81 mg/kg, respectively. The variability observed for both triterpenic dialcohols and acid content was emphasized by principal component and cluster analyses. Both analyses were able to discriminate between oil samples, especially by erythrodiol, oleanolic acid, and maslinic acids. Regarding these results, we conclude that the virgin olive oil triterpenic fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize monovarietal virgin olive oil.

  19. Effect of three types of composts of olive oil by-products on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extraction of olive oil generates colossal by-products quantities; generally unexploited and causes serious environmental problems in Algeria. In tackling this problem, we performed three types of composts (C1: 50% cows manure, 50% olive husks and olive mill wastewaters; C2: 50% olive husks treated by the lime, ...

  20. Effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on yield, quality and fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée is a common pest in Mediterranean olive orchards which primarily causes damage on olive fruits. The quality of virgin olive oil is strongly related to the health status of the olive fruits from which is extracted. In this paper the effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on the oil yield, chemical and sensorial quality, as well as on the fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil were studied. Olive fruits (Olea europea L. from Bova cultivar (Istria, Croatia were collected and divided into different groups according to the presence or absence of infestation by the olive scale. Olive scale attack did not induce ripening process nor stimulate oil synthesis in the infested fruits. Healthy and infested fruit groups were processed separately to produce corresponding olive oils. As regards the oil acidity, the oil samples obtained from infested fruits had similar values as samples obtained from healthy fruits. However, olive scale attack led to slight oxidative deterioration of oil, but had no effect on sensory characteristics of obtained olive oils. Fatty acid profile was slightly affected by olive scale attack: an increase of linoleic (about 13 % and palmitoleic acid (about 8 %, but a decrease of oleic (about 3 % and stearic acid (about 4 % in oils obtained from infested fruits was detected. Oleic to linoleic ratio was lower in oils obtained from infested fruits indicating its lower oxidative stability.

  1. Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Turgay; Wu, Zhangyan; Sterck, Lieven; Turktas, Mine; Lohaus, Rolf; Li, Zhen; Yang, Ming; He, Lijuan; Deng, Tianquan; Escalante, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Carlos; Roig, Francisco J; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Dundar, Ekrem; Xie, Fuliang; Zhang, Baohong; Ipek, Arif; Uranbey, Serkan; Erayman, Mustafa; Ilhan, Emre; Badad, Oussama; Ghazal, Hassan; Lightfoot, David A; Kasarla, Pavan; Colantonio, Vincent; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Hernandez, Pilar; Mete, Nurengin; Cetin, Oznur; Van Montagu, Marc; Yang, Huanming; Gao, Qiang; Dorado, Gabriel; Van de Peer, Yves

    2017-10-31

    Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree ( Olea europaea var. sylvestris ), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at ∼28 and ∼59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neofunctionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2 , SACPD, EAR , and ACPTE , following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2 , 3 , 5 , and 7 , consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics.

  2. Assessment of Helicobacter pylori eradication by virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; de Castro, Antonio; Vargas, Julio; Medina, Eduardo; Millán, Raquel; Brenes, Manuel

    2012-08-01

     A recent study conducted by Medina et al. disclosed that virgin olive oil has a bactericidal effect in vitro against Helicobacter pylori because of its contents of certain phenolic compounds with dialdehydic structures. We carried out two clinical trials to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oil on H. pylori-infected individuals.  Two different pilot studies were performed with 60 H. pylori-infected adults. In the first study, thirty subjects who tested positive for H. pylori received 30 g of washed virgin olive oil for 14 days, and after 1 month, the patients took 30 g of unwashed virgin olive oil for another 14 days. In a second study, a group of 30 subjects received 30 g of a different virgin olive oil for 14 days. Helicobacter pylori-infection status was checked by the urea breath test.  Helicobacter pylori was eradicated in 8 of 30 individuals when microorganism status was checked after 4-6 weeks from the first clinical intervention although 12 of 30 individuals did not show H. pylori infection at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 27 and 40% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. Moreover, only 3 of 30 individuals were H. pylori negative after 4-6 weeks from the second clinical intervention but 5 of 30 were negative at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 10 and 11% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. It must also be noted that 13 subjects withdrew from the studies because of taste and nausea drawbacks.  The administration of virgin olive oil showed moderate effectiveness in eradicating H. pylori. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings, especially with longer periods, different administration conditions, and several types of olive oils. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayuela, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%. [es

  4. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  5. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of olive oil, vinegar, and various beverages against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    The survival of foodborne pathogens in aqueous extracts of olive oil, virgin olive oil, vinegar, and several beverages was evaluated. Vinegar and aqueous extracts of virgin olive oil showed the strongest bactericidal activity against all strains tested. Red and white wines also killed most strains after 5 min of contact, black and green tea extracts showed weak antimicrobial activity under these conditions, and no effect was observed for the remaining beverages (fruit juices, Coca-Cola, dairy products, coffee, and beer). The phenolic compound content of the aqueous olive oil and virgin olive oil extracts could explain their antibacterial activity, which was also confirmed in mayonnaises and salads used as food models. Virgin olive oil in mayonnaises and salads reduced the counts of inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes by approximately 3 log CFU/g. Therefore, olive oil could be a hurdle component in certain processed foods and exert a protective effect against foodborne pathogens when contaminated foods are ingested.

  7. Voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and its combination with chemometrics for the detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Konstantopoulos, Dimitris; Kakoulidou, Anna Tsantili

    2018-07-26

    In the present work, two approaches for the voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and their combination with chemometrics were investigated in order to detect the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with olive pomace oil as well as the most common seed oils, namely sunflower, soybean and corn oil. In particular, cyclic voltammograms of diluted extra virgin olive oils, regular (pure) olive oils (blends of refined olive oils with virgin olive oils), olive pomace oils and seed oils in presence of dichloromethane and 0.1 M of LiClO 4 in EtOH as electrolyte were recorded at a glassy carbon working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was also employed in methanolic extracts of olive and seed oils. Datapoints of cyclic voltammograms were exported and submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In diluted oils, PLS-DA provided a clear discrimination between olive oils (extra virgin and regular) and olive pomace/seed oils, while SIMCA showed a clear discrimination of extra virgin olive oil in regard to all other samples. Using methanolic extracts and considering datapoints recorded between 0.6 and 1.3 V, PLS-DA provided more information, resulting in three clusters-extra virgin olive oils, regular olive oils and seed/olive pomace oils-while SIMCA showed inferior performance. For the quantification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with olive pomace oil or seed oils, a model based on Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was developed. Detection limit of adulteration in olive oil was found to be 2% (v/v) and the linearity range up to 33% (v/v). Validation and applicability of all models was proved using a suitable test set. In the case of PLS, synthetic oil mixtures with 4 known adulteration levels in the range of 4-26% were also employed as a blind test set. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Warming of olive oil processed by high hydrostatic pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houška, M.; Kubásek, M.; Strohalm, J.; Landfeld, A.; Kamarád, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2004), s. 303-308 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe EP9026 Keywords : olive oil * food processing * high pressure * warming Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.504, year: 2004

  9. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Espartero Sánchez, José Luis; Madrona, Andrés; Pereira Cano, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández Bolaños, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  10. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  11. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  13. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  14. Olive oil phenolic compounds and high-density lipoprotein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáez, Alvaro; Farràs, Marta; Fitó, Montserrat

    2016-02-01

    The functional capacities of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) reflect the physiological role of the particle better than the quantity of HDL cholesterol. Owing to its phenolic compounds, the consumption of virgin olive oil has emerged as a promising therapy to promote these capacities. This review highlights the human studies that explain these benefits and explores some possible mechanisms. The consumption of olive oil phenolic compounds increased the ability of HDLs to pick up cholesterol excess in peripheral cells (the cholesterol efflux capacity). Olive oil phenolic compounds have also been shown to improve HDL antioxidant capacities and some anti-inflammatory traits. These changes respond to an improvement of HDL oxidative status and composition. Novel strategies to increase HDL functional capacities are in demand from clinicians. The attainment of a fully-functional HDL through dietary or lifestyle changes is a priority in cardiovascular research. Within this context, the consumption of virgin olive oil, because of its phenolic compounds, may be a relevant protective approach. Further studies in large-scale, randomized controlled trials are, however, required to confirm these effects in HDL functionality.

  15. Olive oil: an overview of the Japanese market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capogna Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of olive oil consumption in Japan, Asia’s largest per capita consumer and at present 14th in the world. Since the early 1990s, total purchases have increased from 4943 t in the 1992/93 campaign to 61 903 t in 2014/15, a more than 12-fold increase over the space of 22 years. Olive oil, in particular extra virgin olive oil, is appreciated by Japanese people primarily for its beneficial effects on health, as well as for its agreeable taste and for its cultural and historical associations. Other key factors to be considered are economic and cultural. Japan is one of the world’s largest economies; disposable incomes are high and these are reflected in household consumption behavior. Culturally, the country is increasingly open to the outside world, discovering and adopting practices from elsewhere, notably the West. This openness, allied to the country’s relative affluence, is demonstrated in the consumption of olive oil, a pillar of the Mediterranean Diet.

  16. Chemometric analysis for discrimination of extra virgin olive oils from whole and stoned olive pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Michele; Restuccia, Donatella; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Puoci, Francesco; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric discrimination of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from whole and stoned olive pastes was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS1-DA) approach. Four Italian commercial EVOO brands, all in both whole and stoned version, were considered in this study. The adopted chemometric methodologies were able to describe the different chemical features in phenolic and volatile compounds contained in the two types of oil by using unspecific IR spectral information. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in cluster analysis to capture data patterns and to highlight differences between technological processes and EVOO brands. The PLS1-DA algorithm was used as supervised discriminant analysis to identify the different oil extraction procedures. Discriminant analysis was extended to the evaluation of possible adulteration by addition of aliquots of oil from whole paste to the most valuable oil from stoned olives. The statistical parameters from external validation of all the PLS models were very satisfactory, with low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and relative error (RE%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Some nutritional benefits of extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testolin, G.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of olive oil could be related to its antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the "in vivo" antioxidant activity of different extra virgin olive oils (EVOO produced in the Mediterranean area. One hundred and twenty rats were fed diets containing oxidised and refined olive oil (400 mEq O2 kg for 11 weeks, a period of time sufficient to induce globular fragility and marginal plasma tocopherols deficiency.
    The animals were then fed 5 diets containing EVOO with content of tocopherols and phenols ranging from 165 to 335 and from 62 to 389 ppm respectively, in different tocopherols/phenols ratios, for 4 weeks. Results show that plasma tocopherols concentration after EVOO feeding was directly related to dietary intake.
    Moreover, globular resistance improved to a different extent with EVOO diets compared to the oxidised oil diet. The most favourable antioxidant response was obtained by feeding the oil high in both tocopherols and phenols; the action of phenols was considered synergetic to that of tocopherols in restoring normal conditions, impaired by the oxidised oil diet.

  18. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  19. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzari, Marco; Trostchansky, Andrés; Schopfer, Francisco J; Salvatore, Sonia R; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A; Rubbo, Homero

    2014-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2 (-))-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (-) under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  20. Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

    2013-11-27

    The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause.

  1. Blends of olive oil and seeds oils: characterisation and olive oil quantification using fatty acids composition and chemometric tools. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfreda, M; Gobbi, L; Grippa, A

    2014-02-15

    A method to verify the percentage of olive oil in a blend, in compliance with the Commission Regulation EU No. 29/2012, was developed by GC-FID analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids, followed by chemometric tools (PCA, TFA, SIMCA and PLS). First of all, binary blends of twelve olive oils and one sunflower oil were studied, in order to evaluate the variability associated to the fatty acids profile of olive oils (Monfreda, Gobbi, & Grippa, 2012). In this study, binary blends of twelve olive oils with four types of seeds oils (peanut, corn, rice and grape seed oils) were evaluated. These four groups of blends were analysed and processed separately, each group consisting of 36 samples with 40%, 50% and 60% of olive oil content. Chemometric tools were also applied to the global data set (180 samples, including those analysed in the previous paper). Outstanding results were achieved, showing that the proposed method would be capable to discriminate blends with a difference in concentration of olive oil lower than 5% (a standard error of prediction of 3.97% was obtained with PLS). Therefore blends containing 45% and 55% of olive oil were also analysed with the current method and added to the data sets for chemometric assessment with supervised tools. SIMCA still provided good models; however the best performance was achieved by processing each group of binary blends (consisting of 60 samples) separately, rather than applying SIMCA to the overall data set (300 samples). On the other hand PLS did not show significant improvements. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  3. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Virgin olive oil quality of hedgerow 'Arbequina' olive trees under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José M; Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez-Rubio, Ana G; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Montero, Antonio; Fernández, José E

    2017-02-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. The present 3-year study was conducted in an 'Arbequina' orchard (1667 trees ha -1 ) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year -1 of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replace 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the extracted virgin olive oil (VOO) were analyzed. In general, oils from the 30% RDI treatment had higher contents of pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, despite their lower tocopherol content. FI oils showed higher (E)-2-hexenal, 1-penten-3-one, ocimene, E-2-pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents of (E)-2-pentenol and volatile esters. The results of the present study suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield, nor the rest of the quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can over-ride these effects of 30% RDI treatment on oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Labelling of olive oil with radioactive iodine and radioactive technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dayel, O.A.F.

    1988-03-01

    Investigates labelling of olive oil with 125 iodine and with the radioactive 99mTC. A radio analytical study for 99Mo-99mTC generator is also presented. Iodine monochloride and chlormine-T methods are used for labelling olive oil and oleic acid with radioactive iodine. Diethyl ether, benzene and n-heptane have been used as solvents, with diethyl ether giving best results using iodine monochloride method. Infrared spectroscopic studies show that labelling took place at the double bond. Use of milked 99mTc gave very low yield only. A fairly higher labelling yield was achieved when 20 mg of tin chloride has been added in acetone medium than diethyl ether medium. Thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography technique were used as quality control systems. The labelled oil can be used for diagnostic and study purposes. 140 Ref

  6. Polarized absorption in determination of impurities in olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, A. N.; Zabidi, Z. M.; Yaacob, Y.; Amir, I. S.; Alshurdin, S. H. N.; Aini, N. A.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of impurities in olive oil blending with palm oil was characterized using polarized absorption method. Polarized absorption was based on the absorption of light which vibrating in a particular plane to pass through the sample. This polarized light allowed the molecule to absorb at the specific orientation. There were four samples have been prepared that were 100:0, 70:30, 50:50 and 0:100 with volume ratio of the olives to palm oil. Two linear polarizers were mounting between the samples in order to get linearly polarized. This specific orientation was affected the absorption spectra of the sample. The results have shown that the analyzing polarizer with angle 00 has bell shape spectra. All the orientation of analyzing polarizer had shown the maximum current output at 100% olive oil. Whereas 100% palm oil has shown the minimum current output. The changing in absorption spectra indicates that the anisotropic properties of each sample were different due to the present of impurities.

  7. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I

    2005-12-01

    To study whether olive oil and rapeseed oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Short-term experimental study, with controlled diets. Outpatients at a metabolic-ward kitchen. A total of nine volunteers with conventional ileostomies. Two 3-day diet periods; controlled diet including 75 g of rapeseed oil or olive oil. Cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol, and bile acids. Serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences between diets evaluated with Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test. Rapeseed oil diet contained 326 mg more plant sterols than the olive oil diet. Rapeseed oil tended to decrease cholesterol absorption by 11% (P = 0.050), and increased excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and their sum as sterols by 9% (P = 0.021), 32% (P = 0.038), and 51% (P = 0.011) compared to olive oil. A serum marker for bile acid synthesis (7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) increased by 28% (P = 0.038) within 10 h of consumption, and serum cholesterol levels decreased by 7% (P = 0.024), whereas a serum marker for cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) as well as serum levels of plant sterols remained unchanged. Rapeseed oil and olive oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Rapeseed oil, tends to decrease cholesterol absorption, increases excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, increases serum marker of bile acid synthesis, and decreases serum levels of cholesterol compared to olive oil. This could in part be explained by different concentrations of natural plant sterols. Supported by the Göteborg Medical Society, the Swedish Medical Society, the Swedish Board for Agricultural Research (SJFR) grant 50.0444/98 and by University of Göteborg.

  8. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsaftakis, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphenols content was noticed during their elaboration that reached to the half amount compared with that of classical type. During oven test the control sample of olive oil obtained from the separation phase of centrifugal system was oxidized easier than that of classic one. The variation of polyphenol content as well as of the main olive oil quality characteristics with the temperature and the mixing time was also studied for a period of time.En el presente estudio se ha investigado la distribución de la fracción fenólica de aceitunas a través de las fases de extracción del aceite de oliva mediante los sistemas clásico y por centrifugación. Se han utilizado dos variedades de aceitunas cuya procedencia es la isla de Creta. Por otra parte, se han estudiado los aceites obtenidos en las diferentes etapas con y sin sus polifenoles, conservadolos durante un mes a 64 ºC y evaluándoles durante este tiempo el índice de peróxidos. En los aceites de oliva extraídos mediante centrífuga se ha observado una gran reducción en el contenido de polifenoles, reducción que alcanzó el 50 % comparado con el sistema clásico. Durante las pruebas en horno los aceites obtenidos mediante el sistema de centrifugación se oxidaron mas fácilmente que los obtenidos mediante el sistema clásico. La variación en el contenido de polifenoles así como los principales parámetros de calidad han sido estudiados en función de la temperatura y del tiempo.

  9. Consumption of olive oil has opposite effects on plasma total cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, M J; Beynen, A C

    2000-05-01

    The hypothesis that olive-oil consumption alters plasma sphingomyelin concentrations and hepatic sphingomyelin metabolism was tested. Rats were fed on purified, high-cholesterol diets with either coconut fat or olive-oil (180 g/kg). In accordance with previous work, olive-oil v. coconut-fat consumption significantly elevated hepatic and total plasma cholesterol concentrations. During the course of the experiment, the concentration of plasma sphingomyelin rose in the coconut-fat group and remained constant in the olive-oil group. When compared with the coconut-fat-fed group, the plasma sphingomyelin levels were significantly lower in the olive-oil-fed group after 14 and 21 d of treatment. Dietary olive oil raised the amounts of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the VLDL density region, and this change was associated with a reduction in the cholesterol and sphingomyelin contents of the LDL and HDL density ranges. Olive-oil consumption reduced the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, while the activities of phosphatidylcholine:ceramide cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine:ceramide ethanolaminephosphotransferase were left unchanged. Dietary olive oil also enhanced the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase, but not that of neutral sphingomyelinase. The present data indicate that dietary olive oil v. coconut fat has opposite effects on total plasma cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations. The lower plasma sphingomyelin levels observed in olive-oil-fed, as compared with coconut-fat-fed rats, may be explained by a simultaneous elevation and reduction in sphingomyelin catabolism and synthesis respectively, as based on the measured enzyme activities.

  10. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil (Olea europeae L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Moghadam-kia, Sara; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Eidi, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Shamsali

    2012-03-01

    Olive [Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae)] is a long-lived evergreen tree that is widespread in different parts of the world. Olive oil has been reported to relieve pain; however, there is still insufficient data in the literature on the subject. Thus, it is considered worthwhile investigating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in adult male Balb/C mice. The antinociceptive effects were studied using formalin, hot plate and writhing tests. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in mice were studied using xylene ear edema test. Olive oil (1, 5 and 10 ml/kg body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally. Intact animals served as controls. Our results showed that the olive oil only decreased the second phase of formalin-induced pain. In the hot plate test, olive oil did not raise the pain threshold over the 60 min duration of the test. Olive oil exhibited antinociceptive activity against writhing-induced pain by acetic acid. In the xylene ear edema test, olive oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the mice. The present data indicated that olive oil has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice but further investigation of these effects is required to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Olea europaea oil.

  11. A Case Report of Possible Health Benefits of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the chemical analysis of cooking oils suggests that the cholesterol-reducing effect may well be due to the antioxidant agents rather than unsaturated fats. Furthermore, antioxidant agents are present in extra virgin olive oil and not in olive oil. There is some evidence, based on studies using patients, to support such a supposition. In this paper, we present a case report on the possible health effects of changing from olive oil to extra virgin olive oil. The case report is intended to raise some relevant issues to stimulate a debate and more research in this area.

  12. A Case Report of Possible Health Benefits of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Said Shahtahmasebi; Shahnaz Shahtahmasebi

    2003-01-01

    The literature on the chemical analysis of cooking oils suggests that the cholesterol-reducing effect may well be due to the antioxidant agents rather than unsaturated fats. Furthermore, antioxidant agents are present in extra virgin olive oil and not in olive oil. There is some evidence, based on studies using patients, to support such a supposition. In this paper, we present a case report on the possible health effects of changing from olive oil to extra virgin olive oil. The case report is...

  13. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Manzanares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB, extracted olive pomace (EOP and olive leaves (OL that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  14. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  15. Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. essential oil: Chemical composition and antimicrobial,insect-repellent and anticholinesterase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils from Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (Asteraceae) was investigated for its repellent, antimicrobial and acetyl- and butyrylcholine esterase inhibitory activities. The oil showed good repellent activity while oils demonstrated weak in antimicrobial and cholinesterase inhibitions. Terpenoids...

  16. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  17. Consumer preferences for extra virgin olive oil with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)

    OpenAIRE

    Ballco, Petjon; Gracia Royo, Azucena; Jurado, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the main components of the Mediterranean diet1, considered worldwide as one of the healthiest food diets. The consumption of olive oil provides important health benefits because it has been clinically proven that decreases the risk of heart attack and stroke (Kolata, 2013), reduces cholesterol, and prevents cancer mortality (Lopez-Miranda et al., 2010). As result, the consumption of olive oil has increased not only in producing countries (Mediterranean) but ...

  18. Olive Oil and Health: Bioactive Constituents, Antioxidant Properties and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Armutcu F et al.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean countries have lower rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer than other European countries. Olive oil is the major source of dietary fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its regular consumption is thought to have various beneficial effects on human health. The biological features ascribed to olive oil consumption are associated in part to its phenolics constituents, and mainly linked to the direct or indirect antioxidant activity of olive oil phenolics and other ...

  19. Photo- and thermal degradation of olive oil measured using an optical fibre smartphone spectrofluorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of olive oil under light and heat are analysed using an optical fibre based low-cost portable smartphone spectrofluorimeter. Visible fluorescence bands associated with phenolic acids, vitamins and chlorophyll centred at λ 452, 525 and 670 nm respectively are generated using near-UV excitation (LED λex 370 nm), of extra virgin olive oil are degraded more likely than refined olive oil under light and heat exposure. Packaging is shown to be critical when assessing the origin of degradation.

  20. Making Sense of Olive Oil: Simple Experiments to Connect Sensory Observations with the Underlying Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…

  1. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  2. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  3. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  4. Detection of sunflower oil in extra virgin olive oil by fast differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Boerrigter-Eenling, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an economically valuable product, due to its high quality and premium price. Therefore it is vulnerable for adulteration by means of the addition of cheaper vegetable oils. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been suggested as a fast technique for the

  5. Alkyl esters of fatty acids a useful tool to detect soft deodorized olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Camino, María del Carmen; Cert, Arturo; Romero-Segura, Ana; Cert-Trujillo, Rosa; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2008-08-13

    Fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) are a family of natural neutral lipids present in olive oils and formed by esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) with low molecular alcohols. Inappropriate practices during the olive oil extraction process and bad quality of the olive fruits promote their formation. Quantification can be done by isolation with a silica gel solid phase extraction cartridge followed by analysis on a gas chromatograph equipped with a programmed temperature vaporizer injector using a polar capillary column. The application of the method to more than 100 Spanish olive oils from different categories, varieties, and geographical origin allowed for establishing the average content of FAAEs and distinguishing the Spanish protected denomination of origin (PDO) and extra virgin olive oils from other categories of olive oils. Those other categories of oils can be subjected to a mild refining process, which leads to blending with extra virgin olive oils. Studies on low quality oils subjected to mild refining showed that FAAEs remain after that process. Thereby, blends of extra virgin olive and mildly refined low quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl ester concentrations.

  6. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  7. Comparison Between Different Flavored Olive Oil Production Techniques: Healthy Value and Process Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Durante, Viviana; Pesce, Vito; Maiellaro, Isabella; Lovece, Angelo; Mercurio, Annalisa; Laghezza, Antonio; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Three different flavoring methods of olive oil were tested employing two different herbs, thyme and oregano. The traditional method consist in the infusion of herbs into the oil. A second scarcely diffused method is based on the addition of herbs to the crushed olives before the malaxation step during the extraction process. The third innovative method is the implementation of the ultrasound before the olive paste malaxation. The objective of the study is to verify the effect of the treatments on the quality of the product, assessed by means of the chemical characteristics, the phenol composition and the radical scavenging activity of the resulting oils. The less favorable method was the addition of herbs directly to the oil. A positive effect was achieved by the addition of herbs to the olive paste and other advantages were attained by the employment of ultrasound. These last two methods allow to produce oils "ready to sell", instead the infused oils need to be filtered. Moreover, the flavoring methods applied during the extraction process determine a significant increment of phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of olive oils. The increments were higher when oregano is used instead of thyme. Ultrasound inhibited the olive polyphenoloxidase, the endogenous enzyme responsible for olive oil phenol oxidation. This treatment of olive paste mixed with herbs before malaxation was revealed as the most favorable method due to the best efficiency, reduced time consumption and minor labor, enhancing the product quality of flavored olive oil.

  8. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P oil phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  10. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  11. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2012-09-01

    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  12. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg -1 and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg -1 . It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  13. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils.

  14. Plasma lipids of golden Syrian hamsters fed dietary rose hip, sunflower, olive and coconut oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Escobar, M; Olivera, P

    1997-06-01

    Plasma lipids of male golden Syrian hamsters fed diets supplemented with 15% (w/w) rose hip, sunflower, olive, or coconut oils during four weeks were assessed. The results confirm the saturated fat hyperlipidemic effect on golden Syrian hamsters fed with the olive oil and coconut oil, reaching the highest triglyceride levels. The monounsaturated (olive oil) or polyunsaturated (rose hip and sunflower oils) fatty acid-rich-vegetable oils have a similar action on the HDL-cholesterol. No statistically significant difference was observed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels in the rose hip and sunflower groups, showing that the polyunsaturation degree of both oils does not affect those results. Compared with the plasma levels obtained in the olive and coconut oil groups, rose hip and sunflower oils present a marked hypolipidemic effect, which could be due to specific action of the series n-6 linoleic acid.

  15. Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banias, Georgios; Achillas, Charisios; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Stefanou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The production of olive oil is considered to be one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite such importance, the environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems, which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. We present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications with respect to the use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration the farming of olive trees, the manufacture of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded and, at the same time, the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees (with pesticide use and waste/by-product production being the 'hottest' topics) and the manufacturing of olive oil (concentrating mostly on waste/by-product production and management) are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly with respect to fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Chemical composition of olive oils of the cultivar Colombaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunin, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of monovarietal olive oils from the cultivar Colombaia was studied. Free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorbance attested to the good quality of the analyzed oils. Their fatty acid composition appeared to be quite different from the typical fatty acid profile of olive oils from Liguria but met the limits reported in the EC Regulations for olive oils. On the contrary, the amounts of Δ7-stigmastenol were often higher than the 0.5 % limit set by EC Regulations and total ß-sitosterol was below the minimum 93 % limit. The composition of polar compounds and of the volatile fraction was representative of the peculiar organoleptic character of these oils. Thus, the anomalous sterol composition of the monovarietal oils from the cultivar Colombaia calls for blending with other oils. Moreover, the use of these oils for the production of PDO oils “Riviera Ligure” must also be carefully controlled because it changes their nutritional and sensorial featuresEn este trabajo se ha estudiado la composición química de aceites de oliva mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia. La acidez libre, el índice de peróxidos y la absorción UV confirmaron la buena calidad de los aceites analizados. Su composición en ácidos grasos resultó bastante diferente del perfil típico de ácidos grasos de los aceites de oliva virgen de la región de Liguria, pero se mantuvo dentro de los límites establecidos por los Reglamentos EC para aceites de oliva. Por otro lado, las cantidades de Δ7-estigmastenol resultaron normalmente superiores al 0.5 % del límite fijado por los Reglamentos EC y el ß-sitosterol total fue inferior al 93 % del límite mínimo. La composición en compuestos polares y de la fracción volátil confirmó las características organolépticas peculiares de estos aceites. Por tanto, la composición esterólica anómala de los aceites mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia hace necesaria una mezcla con otros

  17. In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Vargas, Julio; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio

    2007-02-07

    Helicobacter pylori is linked to a majority of peptic ulcers and to some types of gastric cancer, and resistance of the microorganism to antibiotic treatment is now found worldwide. Virgin olive oil is an unrefined vegetable oil that contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds. Under simulated conditions, we have demonstrated that these substances can diffuse from the oil into the gastric juice and be stable for hours in this acidic environment. In vitro, they exerted a strong bactericidal activity against eight strains of H. pylori, three of them resistant to some antibiotics. Among the phenolic compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed the strongest bactericidal effect at a concentration as low as 1.3 microg/mL. Although the experimental conditions are different from other reported works, this bactericidal concentration is much lower than those found for phenolic compounds from tea, wine, and plant extracts. These results open the possibility of considering virgin olive oil a chemopreventive agent for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, but this bioactivity should be confirmed in vivo in the future.

  18. Design and evaluation of novel topical formulation with olive oil as natural functional active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana Henriques; Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Nicolai, Marisa; Baby, André; Palma, Lídia; Rijo, Patrícia; Ascensão, Lia; Reis, Catarina Pinto

    2017-07-03

    Currently, the innovative skin research is focused on the development of novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives. The health benefits of olive oil are unsurpassed and many others are revealed as research studies allow the understanding of its unlimited properties. Olive oil has a protective toning effect on skin, but it is not transported effectively into its layers. Aiming the development of a cosmetic formulation for skin photoprotection and hydration, we have prepared and characterized macro-sized particles, made of a hydrogel polymer, loaded with olive oil. Alginate beads were uniform in shape, with minimal oil leakage, offering interesting prospects for encapsulation of lipophilic and poorly stable molecules, like olive oil. In vitro photoprotection and in vivo tolerance tests were in favor of this application. Thus, this study suggests that the incorporation of the olive oil-loaded particles into a cream formulation provides strong moisturizing properties and a photoprotective potential, when applied to healthy subjects.

  19. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, incl...

  20. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-01-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is stron...

  1. Stigmastadiene and specific extitntion (270 nm to evaluate the presence of refined oils in virgin olive oil commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased marketing of olive oil in Brazil has intensified legal requirements to ensure regulation of this product. The measurement of the specific extinction at 270 nm (E 270 and content of stigmastadiene can be used to assess the presence of refined oils in virgin olive oil. During the vegetable oil refining process, compounds with conjugated double bonds are generated from unsaturated fatty acids that absorb at 270 nm and sterols, such as stigmasta-3,5-diene. To compare these parameters, seven samples of extra virgin olive oil and three samples of olive oil (blend of virgin and refined were analyzed. Among the samples analyzed, four extra virgin samples had levels of stigmastadiene and E 270 higher than expected, among which two were adulterated with seed oil (rich in linoleic acid and the other two with olive pomace oil. The results demonstrate the higher sensitivity of stigmastadiene to determine the presence of the refined oil in virgin olive oil and good agreement with determining E 270. The latter technique is a simple, quick, and low cost method of determination that can be easily implemented in laboratories to assist in the screening and regulation of olive oils sold in Brazil.

  2. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde m

  3. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effect of nutrient-based fertilisers of olive trees on olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekaya, Meriem; Mechri, Beligh; Bchir, Amani; Attia, Faouzi; Cheheb, Hechmi; Daassa, Mohamed; Hammami, Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    This work was conducted to determine the effects of two nutrient-based fertilisers on the general physicochemical characteristics (including free fatty acid content, peroxide value and UV spectrophotometric characteristics), fatty acid profile, total phenols, o-diphenols and phytosterol composition of olive oil. Foliar applications were carried out in two successive years and included four treatments: TC (control, without foliar nutrition), T1 (rich in nitrogen, applied at the start of vegetation, 10 days later and 20 days later), T2 (rich in boron, magnesium, sulfur and manganese, applied at the beginning of flowering and 10 days later) and T3 (T1+T2). At the end of the experiment (after 2 years), oils were extracted and analysed. No effect was found on either general physicochemical characteristics or fatty acid composition. Foliar fertilisation caused a significant decrease in both polyphenol and o-diphenol contents. Total sterol content was unaffected by foliar fertilisation. However, the phytosterol composition of the oil, particularly its β-sitosterol level, was markedly improved after foliar nutrient application. Principal component analysis of the phytosterol composition showed discrimination between the control oil and the oils from T1, T2 and T3 treatments. The results of this study extend the current knowledge of such cross-talk between plant nutrition and quality of oil. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  6. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil. Search strategy: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966 - 2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the

  7. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Casas, E; Covas, M-I; Fitó, M; Farré-Albadalejo, M; Marrugat, J; de la Torre, R

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the absorption of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil consumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether these phenolic compounds could be used as biomarkers of virgin olive oil intake. Ingestion of a single dose of virgin olive oil (50 ml). Thereafter, for a week, participants followed their usual diet which included 25 ml/day of the same virgin olive oil as the source of raw fat. Unitat de Recerca en Farmacologia. Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (IMIM). Seven healthy volunteers. An increase in 24 h urine of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, after both a single-dose ingestion (50 ml) and short-term consumption (one week, 25 ml/day) of virgin olive oil (P<0.05) was observed. Urinary recoveries for tyrosol were similar after a single dose and after sustained doses of virgin olive oil. Mean recovery values for hydroxytyrosol after sustained doses were 1.5-fold those obtained after a single 50 ml dose. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from realistic doses of virgin olive oil. With regard to the dose-effect relationship, 24 h urinary tyrosol seems to be a better biomarker of sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil consumption than hydroxytyrosol.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of olive pomace oil biodiesel production and consumption: A comparative lifecycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaeifar, M.A.; Akram, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Rafiee, S.; Heijungs, R.; Tabatabaei, M.

    2016-01-01

    The well-to-wheel environmental impacts of olive pomace oil biodiesel (B20 and B100) and conventional petroleum diesel were compared using life cycle assessment. Moreover, energy and economic analyses of olive pomace oil biodiesel production was conducted throughout its life cycle. Human Health,

  9. Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dgomi

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... This reduction was more severe in Chemlali olive oils than those of Chétoui cultivar. ... been beneficial to human health and content of other ... piled into large heaps and could be stored at ambient temperature for up to several days prior to processing for oil extraction. Pressure within the olive pile during ...

  10. Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: Influence on LDL oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Vissers, M.N.; Schuurbiers, J.A.E.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Wiseman, S.A.; Put, van de F.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Phenols present in olive oil may contribute to the health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Olive oil antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation in vitro, but human intervention studies have failed to demonstrate similar consistent effects. To

  11. Impact of olive oil usage on physical properties of chocolate fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.M.; Almeida, M.; Adikevičius, D.; Andzevičius, P.; Alvarenga, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a new olive oil based chocolate filling was carried out. In this study three different types of virgin olive oil were tested, in three different concentrations in the production of chocolate fillings. An instrumental analysis was carried out for chemical analyses, such as moisture and pH. The color analysis included the CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space and RGB color space. The rheological analysis included the evaluation of flow curve, flow index (n), consistency (K) and dynamic moduli (G’ and G’’). No influence was detected on the moisture or pH of chocolate fillings, due to the concentration or type of olive oil. However, the use of olive oil decreased consistency from 1371 Pasn to 148 - 559 Pasn , even using olive oil concentrations of 20% w/w. Also, G’ registered a similar correlation, where a decrease was observed from 4.42 x 106 Pa to values around 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, for 20% w/w olive oil. The fillings presented a darker yellow-green color when using olive oil produced with Galega and Cordovil de Serpa varieties, but olive oil produced with the Arbequina variety did not affect color significantly, although further studies will be required to evaluate the impact of ripening stage. [es

  12. Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive oil is very appreciated for its characteristic flavor and its biological and nutritional value which are strongly related to the quality. The effect of packaging materials (stainless, jar, clear polyethylenene terephthalate (PET), clear glass and dark glass bottles) on quality attributes of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was studied ...

  13. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P olive.

  14. Effect of the technological and agronomical factors on pigment transfer during olive oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Maria N; Romero, Maria P; Motilva, Maria J

    2007-07-11

    The aim of this work was to determine the transfer of the chloroplast pigment fractions during the virgin olive oil extraction process, in relation to different factors: the ripening stage of the olive fruits, the irrigation water applied to the olive tree, and the addition of natural microtalc (NMT) during the oil extraction process. Results showed that the percentage of chloroplast pigments transferred from the olive paste to the oil increases with the ripening of the olive fruit (raw material). An excess of the water irrigation applied to the olive tree shows a reduction in the biosynthesis of chloroplast pigments in olive fruits, which is reflected in a low concentration in the virgin oils. Furthermore, the percentage of pigment transfer from the olive paste to the oil during the extraction process is reduced by irrigation, mainly of the chlorophyll fraction. The addition of NMT during the malaxation step produced an increase in the percentage of the total pigments transferred from the olive paste to the oil, in relation to nonaddition.

  15. The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María-Isabel; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Poulsen, Henrik E; Kaikkonen, Jari; Zunft, Hans-Joachim F; Kiesewetter, Holger; Gaddi, Antonio; de la Torre, Rafael; Mursu, Jaakko; Bäumler, Hans; Nascetti, Simona; Salonen, Jukka T; Fitó, Montserrat; Virtanen, Jyrki; Marrugat, Jaume

    2006-09-05

    Virgin olive oils are richer in phenolic content than refined olive oil. Small, randomized, crossover, controlled trials on the antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds from real-life daily doses of olive oil in humans have yielded conflicting results. Little information is available on the effect of the phenolic compounds of olive oil on plasma lipid levels. No international study with a large sample size has been done. To evaluate whether the phenolic content of olive oil further benefits plasma lipid levels and lipid oxidative damage compared with monounsaturated acid content. Randomized, crossover, controlled trial. 6 research centers from 5 European countries. 200 healthy male volunteers. Glucose levels, plasma lipid levels, oxidative damage to lipid levels, and endogenous and exogenous antioxidants at baseline and before and after each intervention. In a crossover study, participants were randomly assigned to 3 sequences of daily administration of 25 mL of 3 olive oils. Olive oils had low (2.7 mg/kg of olive oil), medium (164 mg/kg), or high (366 mg/kg) phenolic content but were otherwise similar. Intervention periods were 3 weeks preceded by 2-week washout periods. A linear increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels was observed for low-, medium-, and high-polyphenol olive oil: mean change, 0.025 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05 mmol/L), 0.032 mmol/L (CI, 0.005 to 0.05 mmol/L), and 0.045 mmol/L (CI, 0.02 to 0.06 mmol/L), respectively. Total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio decreased linearly with the phenolic content of the olive oil. Triglyceride levels decreased by an average of 0.05 mmol/L for all olive oils. Oxidative stress markers decreased linearly with increasing phenolic content. Mean changes for oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels were 1.21 U/L (CI, -0.8 to 3.6 U/L), -1.48 U/L (-3.6 to 0.6 U/L), and -3.21 U/L (-5.1 to -0.8 U/L) for the low-, medium-, and high-polyphenol olive oil, respectively. The olive oil may have interacted

  16. Olive oil qualitative parameters after orchard irrigation with saline water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoudaki, Evagelia; Williams, Mark; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Harwood, John

    2009-02-25

    The effect of irrigation with saline water on oil quality was studied in the two olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivars Koroneiki and Mastoidis, which are the main varieties grown extensively on the island of Crete. Plants (5 years old) were grown outdoors in containers, filled with freely drained light soil. Four treatments were applied, differing in the NaCl added to the irrigation water as follows: 0 (control) 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl. Drip irrigation was applied regularly, during the dry season (from April to October). Plants in all treatments were irrigated when the soil-water potential reached -40 kPa at a depth of 30 cm. Data showed that increased NaCl levels in irrigation water resulted in a decrease in oil content in the fruits and an increase in total phenols and their secoiridoid derivatives in olive oils from harvested fruits. Furthermore, changes also took place in the composition of fatty acids and triacylglycerol molecular species. The extent of alterations was different for the two varieties and greater in cv. Koroneiki. This fitted with agronomic evidence that cv. Koroneiki is less saline-tolerant than cv. Mastoidis.

  17. Neural networks applied to characterize blends containing refined and extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Pariente, Enrique S; Torrecilla, José S

    2016-12-01

    The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2.14%. These results turn visible spectroscopy and MLP models into a trustworthy, user-friendly, low-cost technique which can be implemented on-line to characterize olive oil mixtures containing refined olive oil and EVOOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Olive oil and health effects: from epidemiological studies to the molecular mechanisms of phenolic fraction

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    Amiot Marie Josèphe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the Mediterranean diet which is recognized to contribute to its health benefits. Recent prospective studies point towards a protective effect from an olive oil-rich diet in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and an improvement of cardiometabolic markers such as blood pressure, glycaemia and dyslipidemia, notably by reducing LDL cholesterol and LDL oxidation. The role of minor phenolic fraction was evidenced in intervention trials where lipid profiles showed greater improvement in participants receiving olive oil with higher phenolic content. The phenolic fraction of olive oil is composed of simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, phenolic secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, lignans (pinoresinol, flavonoids and hydroxyisochromans. All these compounds have diverse biological activities that are described in the present review, supporting the protective effects of olive oil against degenerative diseases found in large cohorts monitored in Southern European countries.

  19. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

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    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  20. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  1. Effect of growing location, malaxation duration and citric acid treatment on the quality of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, HuiJun; James, Anthony P; Jayasena, Vijay; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2013-04-01

    The total phenolic compounds of olive oil exert antiradical activity at cellular level and can prevent cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and cancer. Increased awareness of its health benefits has increased the consumption of olive oil around the world. An alternative processing technique effective in increasing the amount of oil extracted while maintaining the oil quality is needed to meet the rising global demand for olive oil. Addition of 0.3 g mL(-1) citric acid at 1:1000 (v/w) to olive paste followed by a 30 min malaxation period significantly increased the oil recovery, concentration of total phenolic compounds and antiradical activity by 46.23, 120.27 and 31.48% respectively. While there was no significant effect on the acidity, the peroxide value was significantly reduced by 63.85%. The organoleptic characteristics of the olive oil extracted with citric acid were also comparable to those of the control. Addition of 0.3 g mL(-1) citric acid (i.e. 30% w/v) at 1:1000 (v/w) to olive paste followed by a 30 min malaxation period in a Blixer(®) 4.0 blender is the most promising extraction technique to improve the oil recovery, concentration of total phenolic compounds and antiradical activity of the extracted olive oil without compromising other quality parameters. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. New by-products rich in bioactive substances from the olive oil mill processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Mateo, Maria Antonia; Brenes, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Olive oil extraction generates a large amount of residue consisting mainly of the pomace and leaves when using a two-phase centrifugation system. The aim of this study was to assess the content of phenolic and triterpene compounds in the by-products produced in Spanish olive oil mills. Olive pomace had concentrations of phenolic and triterpene substances lower than 2 and 3 g kg -1 , respectively. The leaves contained a high concentration of these substances, although those collected from ground-picked olives had lost most of their phenolic compounds. Moreover, the sediment from the bottom of the olive oil storage tanks did not have a significant amount of these substances. By contrast, a new by-product called olive pomace skin has been revealed as a very rich source of triterpenic acids, the content of which can reach up to 120 g kg -1 in this waste product, maslinic acid comprising around 70% of total triterpenics. Among the by-products generated during extraction of olive oil, olive pomace skin has been discovered to be a very rich source of triterpenic acids, which can reach up to 120 g kg -1 of the waste. These results will contribute to the valorization of olive oil by-products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

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    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  4. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Danielle; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if extra virgin olive oil and fish oil have a synergistic effect on lipid and oxidative stress parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This intervention study included 102 patients (81 women and 21 men) with MetS (mean age 51.45 ± 8.27 y) from the ambulatory center of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Patients in the control group (CG) were instructed to maintain their usual diet; the second group (fish oil group [FO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids (10 capsules); the third group (extra virgin olive oil group [OO]) received 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil at lunch and dinner; and the fourth group (fish oil and extra virgin olive oil group [FOO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids and 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil. MetS related markers and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 90 d. Differences across treatment groups showed a statistically significant decrease (P olive oil have beneficial synergistic effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood transport and genomic effects of olive oil components

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    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consuming diets rich in (extra virgin olive oil is associated with a low incidence of chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Recent evidence has emerged which implicates raised concentrations of plasma triglycerides in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD. It has been demonstrated that olive oil contributes to modulate metabolic processes related to secretion and transport of triglycerides. Intestinal triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from olive oil are very efficiently cleared during postprandial metabolism compared to other oils. Then, there is a massive interaction of nascent and remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as lipid metabolites and fat-soluble components, with hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. A diet-related response involves a multitude of gene products, including proteins implicated in lipid synthesis, oxidation and cell differentiation. Particularly, it has been reported a health beneficial effect of several components from (extra virgin olive oil (fatty acids and minor compounds, which are functioning as regulators of gene transcription . This review reaffirm that a diet rich in extra virgin olive oil is of vital importance in the prevention of cardiovascular and other diseases.Estudios epidemiológicos asocian el consumo de una dieta rica en aceite de oliva (virgen extra con una baja incidencia de enfermedades crónicas, como las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer. Una concentración elevada de triglicéridos en plasma, tanto en ayunas como durante el metabolismo postprandial, está implicada en la patogénesis cardiovascular. Se ha demostrado que el aceite de oliva contribuye a modular los procesos metabólicos relativos a la secreción y al transporte de triglicéridos. Con respecto a otros aceites comestibles, el aceite de oliva genera lipoproteínas intestinales ricas en triglicéridos que se metabolizan con rapidez. En este contexto, se

  7. State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties

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    Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices. The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.

  8. State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Figueiredo-González, María; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Salvador, María Desamparados; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2017-03-20

    Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food-as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)-due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices). The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases) and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.

  9. Flash thermal conditioning of olive pastes during the olive oil mechanical extraction process: impact on the structural modifications of pastes and oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, Sonia; Veneziani, Gianluca; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Minnocci, Antonio; Sebastiani, Luca; Servili, Maurizio

    2013-05-22

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is strictly related to the concentrations of phenolic and volatile compounds, which are strongly affected by the operative conditions of the VOO mechanical extraction process. The aim of this work is to study the impact of a new technology such as flash thermal conditioning (FTC) on olive paste structural modification and on VOO quality. The evaluation of olive paste structure modification by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) showed that the application of FTC after crushing produces significant differences in terms of the breaking of the parenchyma cells and aggregation of oil droplets in comparison to the crushed pastes. The virgin olive oil flash thermal conditioning (VOO-FTC) featured a higher concentration of volatile compounds compared to that in the control, particularly of all saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters, whereas the phenolic concentration was higher in VOO obtained from the traditional process (VOO-C).

  10. Global volatile profile of virgin olive oils flavoured by aromatic/medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, R; Silva, C; Silva, P; Câmara, J S

    2017-07-15

    The global volatile profile of commercial virgin olive oils and flavoured olive oils with aromatic/medicinal plants, was established using liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). More than 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs belonging to different groups were identified using both methods. Olive oils volatile profile was slightly influenced by maceration process, which occurred at room temperature (20±2°C) for 15days. The predominant differences were observed in terpenoids group, since some of them were only identified in the flavoured olive oils, while others showed an increase with the maceration process. VOCs mass transfer from plants to olive oils could explain the observed results. Principal components analysis (PCA) applied to LLME/GC-qMS data allowed to distinguish the olive oils. The flavoured oils would increase the use of olive oil among consumers as consequence of the improvement of its aromatic profile and healthy properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Varietal Tracing of Virgin Olive Oils Based on Plastid DNA Variation Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Marga; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices. PMID:23950947

  12. Effect of gamma-ray on olive fruits quality, enzyme activities and issued oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    The results described in the present work concern the study of changes in gamma ray irradiated olive fruit (Tunisian variety: C hemlali ) quality along the storage time processing and the quality of olive oil issued. The study focused on the changes related to the microbiological, physico-chemical properties, as well as pectinase activities in olive after irradiation. We also have been interested in the final product quality after oil extraction. The results of non irradiated olives were presented for comparative purposes. Mature olive fruits were treated with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy gamma ray radiation. Olive fruits were then stored for one month. Irradiation at 1.5 kGy allows the almost total destruction of the total aerobic germs, yeasts and moulds. Concerning physico-chemical parameters, the increase of the dose level generated an improvement in water retention capacity and decreased the rate of polysaccharides hydrolyzes olives. Moreover, the irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy induced the increase in pectinase activities thanks to the improvement of the protein extraction yield. The gamma ray irradiation of olive fruit seems to not decrease olive oil oxidative stability in the studied samples. Finally, gamma ray radiation was able to improve the yield of extraction of the oil and insaponifiable fraction as polyphenols and beta carotenes. (Author)

  13. Analysis of total contents of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

    2012-09-12

    The most abundant phenolic compounds in olive oils are the phenethyl alcohols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. An optimized method to quantify the total concentration of these substances in olive oils has been described. It consists of the acid hydrolysis of the aglycons and the extraction of phenethyl alcohols with a 2 M HCl solution. Recovery of the phenethyl alcohols from oils was very high (oils), and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.8 and 1.4 mg/kg for hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, respectively. Precision values, both intraday and interday, remained below 3% for both compounds. The final optimized method allowed for the analysis of several types of commercial olive oils to evaluate their hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents. The results show that this method is simple, robust, and reliable for a routine analysis of the total concentration of these substances in olive oils.

  14. Heating on the volatile composition and sensory aspects of extra-virgin olive oil

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    Cleiton Antônio Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main ways by which extra-virgin olive oil is consumed include direct application on salads or as an ingredient in sauces, but it is also been used by some for cooking, including frying and baking. However, it has been reported that under heat stress, some nonglyceridic components of olive oil are degraded. So, the effect of heating (at 50, 100, 150, and 200 °C for 2 h on the volatile composition and sensory aspects of extra-virgin olive oil were evaluated. Heating altered the volatile composition of extra-virgin olive oil, mainly at higher temperatures (above 150 °C. The main modifications were related to the formation of large amounts of oxidized compounds, particularly large chain aldehydes. Sensory aspects were also altered when the oil was heated to higher temperatures, which might have occurred because of color alterations and mainly changes in the volatile composition of the oil.

  15. Olive oil and immune system functions: potential involvement in immunonutrition

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    Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Gerardo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil plays a crucial role as a main component of the Mediterranean diet, which has shown important benefits for the human health. According to the current knowledge, the administration of diets containing olive oil exerts some beneficial effects on the immune system functions due likely to the action of oleic acid rather than other substances contained in this fat. In the last few years, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have evidenced the potential of certain dietary lipids (containing polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids as modulators of immune system functions due to their ability to suppress several functions of immune system in both humans and animals. As a result, these fats have been applied in the reduction of symptoms from diseases characterized by an overactivation of the immune system (autoimmune diseases or in the reduction of cancer risk. Here, we review several relevant experimental and clinical data associated with the beneficial effects of olive oil upon the health, the mechanisms of action and the immune function susceptible of being be altered by the administration of dietary lipids and particularly of olive oil. In addition, we will also discuss the detrimental effects on the immune system functions caused by the administration of certain dietary lipids attributed mainly to a reduction of host natural resistance against infectious microorganisms as well as the involvement of olive oil diets in the regulation of immune resistance.El aceite de oliva tiene un papel crucial como componente de la dieta Mediterránea, con importantes beneficios sobre la salud humana. Dietas conteniendo aceite de oliva actúan de manera favorable en las funciones del sistema inmune por la acción sobretodo del ácido oleico. Los estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales publicados en los últimos años demuestran que ciertos lípidos de la dieta [ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y poliinsaturados (PUFA

  16. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activities of lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  18. Effect of virgin olive oil versus piroxicam phonophoresis on exercise-induced anterior knee pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP. Materials and Methods: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31, piroxicam (n=31 or base gel phonophoresis (n=31 groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions. After 6 and 12 sessions of physiotherapy, subjects filled the questionnaire again. Main outcomes were significant improvement in pain, stiffness, physical function, and total WOMAC scores. Results: Although, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of AKP at the end of the therapy in all groups (p< 0.05, but in olive oil group, this improvement was seen after 6 sessions of treatment (p< 0.001. A significant difference between olive oil group and piroxicam and/or phonophoresis group was observed after 6 sessions of therapy (p< 0.05. Conclusion: It could be proposed that phonophoresis with virgin olive oil is as effective as piroxicam gel on lowering WOMAC scores of AKP in female athletes and also has several beneficial properties including faster effect and shorter duration of therapy. The exact mechanism of beneficial action of virgin olive oil on AKP is not clear and requires further studies.

  19. Olive oil polyphenols decrease blood pressure and improve endothelial function in young women with mild hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Miranda, Maria L; Costa, Alzenira F; Jimenez-Jimenez, Luis; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Muriana, Francisco J G; Villar, Jose; Stiefel, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Olive oil polyphenols have been associated with several cardiovascular health benefits. This study aims to examine the influence of a polyphenol-rich olive oil on blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function in 24 young women with high-normal BP or stage 1 essential hypertension. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover dietary-intervention study. After a run-in period of 4 months (baseline values), two diets were used, one with polyphenol-rich olive oil (∼30 mg/day), the other with polyphenol-free olive oil. Each dietary period lasted 2 months with a 4-week washout between diets. Systolic and diastolic BP, serum or plasma biomarkers of endothelial function, oxidative stress, and inflammation, and ischemia-induced hyperemia in the forearm were measured. When compared to baseline values, only the polyphenol-rich olive oil diet led to a significant (P olive oil diet also elicited an increase in plasma nitrites/nitrates (+4.7 ± 6.6 µmol/l, P olive oil can decrease BP and improve endothelial function in young women with high-normal BP or stage 1 essential hypertension.

  20. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  1. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  2. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  3. Quantification of pure refined olive oil adulterant in extra virgin olive oil using diamond cell atr-ftir spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhro, A.A.; Saleem, R.; Laghari, A.H.; Sultana, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study depicts spectroscopic method development to deliver a rapid, simple and reproducible quantification of pure refined olive oil (PROO) adulterant in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using partial least square (PLS) regression (statistical parameter). Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was choice in the developed method. Blended standards of PROO and EVOO were obtained by their weight by weight percentage and the values were used to construct calibration curves for quantification. The optimum regression values (i.e. >0.99) were achieved using the combined frequencies of 3105-2761, 1838-1687, and 1482-440 cm-1 with regression coefficients (R2) 0.99718 and achieved residual mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) 1.40% w/w. To determine the suitability of developed method principal component spectra (PCS) diagnostic was also used. The results of the present study prove that the developed methods reported in preceding studies can be good option for more rapid and accurate determination of PROO adulteration in EVOO. (author)

  4. An effective HPLC-based approach for the evaluation of the content of total phenolic compounds transferred from olives to virgin olive oil during the olive milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Lorenzo; Migliorini, Marzia; Zanoni, Bruno; Breschi, Carlotta; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2017-12-17

    Several studies demonstrate a strong interest in learning more about phenolic transfer during oil extraction, with the main goal of increasing the phenolic concentration in olive oils. We aimed to propose and apply a new methodological approach for evaluating phenolic transfer from olives into oil during milling, based on the quantification of phenolic content in whole lyophilized fruits and the corresponding oils and considering the oil extraction yields. We investigated the phenols transferred into the oil during olive milling in continuous extraction systems in Tuscany. In 2012, oils were extracted from cultivar Frantoio by a two-phase extraction system; in 2016, oils were extracted from cultivars Leccio del Corno and Arbequina by a three-phase extraction system. Results highlighted very low percentages of extracted phenols: up to 0.40% by the two-phase system and up to 0.19% by the three-phase system (0.08% for cultivar Arbequina and 0.19% for cultivar Leccio del Corno). The usefulness of a simple and effective methodological approach for evaluating the extracted phenols was highlighted. Values of extracted phenols were up to 25 times lower than previous literature data. The proposed approach is applicable in all types of milling processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olives by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; Robles-Molina, José; López-Blanco, Rafael; Vass, Andrea; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the development of two HPLC-MS methods for the determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olive samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation followed by mass spectrometry detection with tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode (HILIC-MS/MS) or electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOFMS). The selected polar pesticides included in the study were: amitrol, cyromazine, diquat, paraquat, mepiquat, trimethylsulfonium (trimesium, glyphosate counterion) and fosetyl aluminium. The simple sample treatment procedure was based on liquid partitioning with methanol. The performance of the sample extraction was evaluated in terms of recovery rates and matrix effects in both olive oil and olives matrices. The results obtained for olive oil were satisfactory while, due to the high complexity of olives, poor recovery rates were obtained for the extraction of diquat, paraquat and amitrol, although with a reasonable precision enabling its use in routine analysis. Similarly, matrix effects were minor in the case of olive oil (ca. 20% suppression average), while significantly higher suppression was observed for olives (30-50% suppression average). The studied approaches were found to be useful for the determination of the pesticides studied in olive oil and olives with limits of quantitation below 5µgkg(-1) in most cases when tandem mass spectrometry was used, thus being in compliance with MRLs set by current EU regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Padalino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. Objective: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Methods: Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% (w/w. In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Results: Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. Conclusions: The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products.

  7. Rapid authentication of adulteration of olive oil by near-infrared spectroscopy using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingzhu; Dong, Jingjing; Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cuiling

    2016-10-01

    A classification method of support vector machines with linear kernel was employed to authenticate genuine olive oil based on near-infrared spectroscopy. There were three types of adulteration of olive oil experimented in the study. The adulterated oil was respectively soybean oil, rapeseed oil and the mixture of soybean and rapeseed oil. The average recognition rate of second experiment was more than 90% and that of the third experiment was reach to 100%. The results showed the method had good performance in classifying genuine olive oil and the adulteration with small variation range of adulterated concentration and it was a promising and rapid technique for the detection of oil adulteration and fraud in the food industry.

  8. Extra virgin olive oil: from composition to "molecular gastronomy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Savarese, Maria; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the recent results of studies on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its interactions with other food ingredients during cooking, to highlight basic molecular aspects of the "magic" of EVOO and its role in Mediterranean gastronomy. The use of raw EVOO added to foods after cooking (or as a salad oil) is the best way to express the original flavour and to maximize the intake of natural antioxidants and compounds related to positive effects on human health (hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic, among others). EVOO, however, also exhibits its protective properties during/after cooking. Different chemical interactions between biophenolic compounds and other food ingredients (water, milk proteins, carotenoids of tomato, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-oil fish and meat or fish proteins) occur. Even during cooking, EVOO exhibits strong antioxidant properties and influences the overall flavour of cooked foods. The physical (partitioning, emulsion) and chemical (hydrolysis, covalent binding, antioxidant properties) phenomena occurring during cooking of EVOO are discussed with emphasis on the changes in the sensory (bitterness and fruity flavour) and nutritional qualities of some traditional Mediterranean foods. In particular, tomato-oil interactions during cooking, fish canning in EVOO, meat marinated in EVOO before cooking and roasting and frying in EVOO are examined. The interactions between EVOO antioxidants and flavours with milk proteins are also briefly discussed.

  9. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  10. The Compounds Responsible for the Sensory Profile in Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Campestre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOOs are very effective to study relationships among sensory attributes, the compounds responsible for flavour, and factors affecting them. The stimulation of the human sensory receptors by volatile and non-volatile compounds present in monovarietal virgin olive oils gives rise to the sensory attributes that describe their peculiar delicate and fragrant flavours. The formation of these compounds is briefly illustrated and the influence of the agronomic and technological factors that affect their concentrations in the oil is examined. The relationships between compounds responsible for the olive oil flavour and sensory attributes are discussed. Several approaches for the varietal differentiation of monovarietal virgin olive oils are also overviewed.

  11. Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón

    2010-12-22

    Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin.

  12. Modulating oxidoreductase activity modifies the phenolic content of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-03-15

    The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The hepatoprotective activity of olive oil and Nigella sativa oil against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N; El Rabey, Haddad A; Zamzami, Mazin A; Alnefayee, Abeer M

    2016-11-04

    Liver disease is the major cause of serious health problem leading to morbidity and mortality worldwide and the problem has increased in search for hepatotherapeutic agents from plants. The present study was designed to compare the probable hepatoprotective activity of olive oil and N. sativa oil on CCl 4 induced liver damage in male rats. Forty males of a new model of albino rats (Wistar strain) (175-205 g) were divided into four groups. The 1st Group (G1) was the negative control group, the remaining rats were injected with CCl 4 (1 ml/kg body weight) with equal amount of olive oil on the 1st and 4th day of every week for 4 weeks. The 2nd group (G2) was the positive control, the 3rd group (G3) and the fourth group (G4) were treated orally with N. sativa oil and olive oils using stomach tube. The positive control group showed an increase in hepatic enzymes, total bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, lipid peroxide total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoproteins, interleukin-6, and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, a decrease in total protein and albumin an when compared with negative control group. Histology of the CCl 4 treated group revealed inflammation and damage of liver cells. Treating the hepatotoxic rats with olive oil and N. sativa oil showed a significant improvement in all biochemical tests compared with the positive CCl 4 control group. In addition, the liver tissues of olive oil treated group showed mild improvement in inflammatory infiltration and in N. sativa oil treated group showed normal hepatocytes with no evidence of inflammation. This study revealed that olive oil and N. sativa oil have a protective effect against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Nigella sativa oil was more effective than olive oil.

  14. Novel qPCR systems for olive (Olea europaea L.) authentication in oils and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Albillos, Silvia M; Ortega, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    The traceability of olive oil is an unresolved issue that remains a challenge. In this field, DNA-based techniques are very powerful tools for discrimination that are less negatively influenced by environmental conditions than other techniques. More specifically, quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) achieves a high degree of sensitivity, although the DNA that it can directly isolate from these oils presents drawbacks. Our study reports the analysis of eight systems, in order to determine their suitability for olive detection in oil and oil-derived foodstuffs. The eight systems were analyzed on the basis of their sensitivity and specificity in the qPCR assay, their relative sensitivity to olive DNA detection and DNA mixtures, their sensitivity and specificity to olive in vegetable oils and the detection of olive in commercial products. The results show that the PetN-PsbM system, designed in this study, is a suitable and reliable technique in relation to olive oil and olive ingredients in both food authentication and food safety processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Olive Oil Consumption and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Alienor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Le Goff, Mélanie; Samieri, Cécilia; Dartigues, Jean-François; Delcourt, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Background Olive oil provides a mixture of lipids and antioxidant nutrients which may help preventing age-related diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, little is known about the associations between olive oil consumption and the risk of AMD. Objective To examine associations between olive oil use and AMD prevalence in elderly subjects. Methods Alienor (Antioxydants, Lipides Essentiels, Nutrition et maladies OculaiRes) is a population-based study on eye diseases performed in elderly residents of Bordeaux (France). In 1999–2000, frequencies of consumption of main categories of dietary fats used were collected. In 2006–2088, AMD was graded from non mydriatic retinal photographs into three exclusive stages: no AMD, early AMD, and late AMD. Two categories of preferred dietary fat used (olive oil, n-3 rich oils, n-6 rich oils, mixed oils, butter and margarine) were defined: “no use” and “regular use” (using fat for spreading and/or cooking and/or dressing). Associations of AMD with each fat use were estimated using Generalized Estimating Equation logistic regressions models. Results Our study included 654 subjects (1269 eyes) with complete data (n = 268 eyes with early AMD and n = 56 with late AMD). After adjustment for potential confounders, regular use of olive oil was significantly associated with a decreased risk of late AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21;0.91). In contrast, regular use of olive oil was not significantly associated with early AMD (OR = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.59;1.21). No associations were found between regular consumption of n-3 rich oils, n-6 rich oils, mixed oils, butter and margarine and AMD, whatever the stage. Conclusions This study suggests a protective effect of olive oil consumption for late AMD in this elderly community-dwelling population. Characterization of the mediating nutrients deserves further research. PMID:27467382

  16. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inconomou, D.; Arapoglou, D.; Israilides, C.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and {beta}-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L.) of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA) and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA) in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value) and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N{sub 2} flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall organoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield. (Author) 33 refs.

  17. Flash Thermal Conditioning of Olive Pastes during the Oil Mechanical Extraction Process: Cultivar Impact on the Phenolic and Volatile Composition of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives.

  18. Quality of virgin olive oil as influenced by origin area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the weight and the influence of the origin area on the analytical and compositional variables of olive oil, an investigation was carried out. Five Italian geographical zones were chosen. They were in the neighbour of the: (i Faculty of Agriculture of University of Perugia (UNI-PG; (ii the Olive Growing Institute-National Research Council of Perugia (NRC-PG; (iii the Experimental Olive Growing Institute of Spoleto (EOI-SPOL; (iv the Agricultural Technical Institute of Pescia (ATI-PES; and (v the Faculty of Agriculture of University of Florence (UNI-FL. From these areas, Frantoio, Leccino and Moraiolo olive variety samples were taken, which were processed by a mini oil-mill. The research results showed that the quality, typicality and shelf-life parameters and the flavour of the oils were largely influenced by the origin zone, i.e., by the climatic and pedologic factors of the production environment. The influence exerted on some oil constituent groups, as phenols, tocopherols, aromatic volatile compounds, and fatty acids, should be emphasized as these components are closely related to the quality and typicality of product. Some oil genuineness parameters were affected as well by the environmental variables.

    Se ha realizado una investigación para evidenciar la importancia y la Influencia que la zona de origen tiene sobre las variables analíticas del aceite de oliva virgen. Han sido seleccionadas cinco zonas geográficas de Italia: (i una cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Perusa (UNI-PG; (ii una cerca del Instituto para la Olivicultura - Consejo Nacional de las Investigaciones de Perusa (CNI-PG; (iii una zona próxima al Instituto Experimental para la Olivicultura de Espoleto (lEO-ESP; (iv una zona cerca Instituto Técnico Agrario de Pescia (ITA-PES; (v una zona cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Florencia (UNI-FL. De estas zonas han sido tomadas muestras de aceitunas de las

  19. Determination of geographical origin of olive oils using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. I - Classification of olive oils of the Puglia region with denomination of protected origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, Giovanna; Del Re, Paolo; Simone, Nicola

    2003-09-10

    13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to classify olive oils from the three production areas of the Puglia region labeled with the "denomination of protected origin" (DPO) Terra di Bari, Colline di Brindisi, and Dauno. High resolution (13)C spectra of 173 olive oil samples were measured, and the intensity data of triacylglycerol resonances were processed by using linear discriminant analysis, which was carried out stepwise for variable selection. The olive oil samples from the DPOs Colline di Brindisi and Terra di Bari were 90% correctly classified, whereas only 74% of "Dauno" DPO oils were classified in the true group. The performance of the discriminant model was verified by applying the cross-validation procedure based on the "leave one out" formalism. The discriminant model was evaluated against a blind test set of olive oils from the three DPO areas. All the oils used for the purpose were correctly assigned to their respective groups, with the exception of the Dauno oil samples based on the Coratina cv. They were misclassified as Terra di Bari oils because of a common monovarietal composition.

  20. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  1. Enumeration and rapid identification of yeasts during extraction processes of extra virgin olive oil in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Eleonora; Guerrini, Simona; Granchi, Lisa; Vincenzini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany (Italy), by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces. The results showed yeast concentrations ranging between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g or per mL. Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes. The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives, but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples. These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil.

  2. Chemical composition of virgin olive oils from the Chemlali cultivar with regard to the method of the olive tree propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerfel, M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time a discrimination study based on the antioxidant compounds, oxidative stability and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali using two methods of olive tree propagation (suckers and cuttings. There were significant differences between the oils from the two methods. Olive oil samples obtained from the fruits of trees from suckers had a higher content of oleic acid (63.8%, higher contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids (3.01 mg/ kg and 1.9 mg/kg respectively, a higher content of (E-2 hexenal (66.1% and a higher content in total phenols (890 mg/kg. Interestingly, more stable oil was obtained from the olives from suckers compared to the olives from cuttings. These results can be used to discriminate and to characterize the Chemlali olive oils from each origin of olive tree.

    En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un estudio de discriminación basado en compuestos antioxidantes, estabilidad oxidativa y compuestos volátiles de muestras de aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de frutos de la principal variedad de aceitunas tunecinas (Chemlali a partir de dos métodos de propagación del olivo (chupones y estaquillas herbáceas. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre los aceites obtenidos por los dos métodos. Las muestras de aceites de oliva obtenidas de frutos de árboles de chupones tenían una mayor proporción de ácido oleico (63,8%, un mayor contenido de clorofila y de carotenoides (3,01 mg/kg y 1,9 mg/kg, respectivamente, un mayor contenido de (E-2 hexenal (66,1% y un mayor contenido en fenoles totales (890 mg/kg. Curiosamente, el aceite más estable se ha obtenido de las aceitunas de árboles de chupones, en comparación con las aceitunas de árboles de estaquillas herbáceas. Estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para discriminar y caracterizar los aceites de oliva Chamlali según el origen del olivo.

  3. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  4. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lisa; Cicerale, Sara

    2016-12-16

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  5. Packaging design for the Greek olive oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveli, A.; Tzetzis, D.; Kyratsis, P.

    2016-11-01

    Packaging is one of the most important elements that characterize product design. It does not only refer to the appearance of the product, that creates the first impression to the user, but it is a whole communication code. This has been identified by the enterprises involved and their competition is high. Nowadays, the most successful of them pay a great deal of attention on every day's trends concerning packaging design and try to apply these trends upon their own designs. The present paper describes the packaging design in today's industries and the existing trends. It will therefore reveal what makes a package design successful, from the company's perspective and how the company studies such factors in order to achieve the best result. Those factors and the research results are applied on the olive oil packaging industry, producing a final packaging design solution.

  6. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, Sylvie, E-mail: lamy.sylvie@uqam.ca; Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-03-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for

  7. Olive oils from Algeria: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laincer, F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against six bacteria of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from eleven Algerian varieties were investigated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determining the scavenging effect on the DPPH and ABTS.+ radicals. The antimicrobial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on human harmful and foodborne pathogens. The results show that total phenols was significantly (p .+ radicals (r = 0.76. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and to a lesser extent B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg·mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg·mL-1, respectively. The results reveal that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.Se ha estudiado la composición fenólica y las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana, contra seis bacterias, de extractos de aceites de oliva de once variedades argelinas. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante la determinación del efecto captador de radicales de DPPH y ABTS.+. La actividad antimicrobiana se midió como zona de inhibición y como concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC sobre bacterias perjudiciales humanas y agentes patógenos transmitidos por los alimentos. Los resultados mostraron que los fenoles totales está significativamente (p .+ (r= 0,76. Entre las bacterias ensayadas, S. aureus y, en menor grado B. subtilis mostraron la mayor sensibilidad; el MIC varió de 0,6 a 1,6 mg·mL-1 y 1,2 a 1,8 mg·mL-1 respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que los aceites de oliva argelinos pueden constituir una buena fuente de antioxidantes y agentes antimicrobianos.

  8. Identification of 3-MCPD esters to verify the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wei-Ching; Peng, Guan-Jhih; Tsai, Wen-Ju; Chang, Mei-Hua; Liao, Chia-Ding; Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Kao, Ya-Min; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2017-09-01

    The adulteration of olive oil is an important issue around the world. This paper reports an indirect method by which to identify 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in olive oils. Following sample preparation, the samples were spiked with 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol standard for analysis using gas chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry. The total recovery ranged from 102.8% to 105.5%, the coefficient of variation ranged from 1.1% to 10.1%, and the limit of quantification was 0.125 mg/kg. The content of 3-MCPD esters in samples of refined olive oil (0.97-20.53 mg/kg) exceeded those of extra virgin olive oil (non-detected to 0.24 mg/kg). These results indicate that the oil refining process increased the content of 3-MCPD esters, which means that they could be used as a target compound for the differentiation of extra virgin olive oil from refined olive oil in order to prevent adulteration.

  9. Rosemary Aromatization of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Process Optimization Including Antioxidant Potential and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatization of olive oil especially by spices and herbs has been widely used technique throughout the ages in Mediterranean diets. The present study was focused on aromatization of olive oil by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Aromatization process was optimized by response surface methodology as a function of malaxation’s conditions (temperature and time. According to authors’ best knowledge it was first time for examination of oil yield performance with antioxidant potential and pigments under effect of aromatization parameters. For all oil samples, values of the free acidity, peroxide, K232 and K270 as quality parameters fell within the ranges established for the highest quality category “extra virgin oil”. Oil yield (mL oil/kg olive paste changed from 158 to 208 with respect to design parameters. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant potential of olive oil samples were varied in the range of 182.44 – 348.65 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg oil and 28.91 – 88.75 % inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH•, respectively. Total contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and pheophytin a as pigments in oil samples were found to be in between 0.09 – 0.48 mg carotenoid/kg oil, 0.11 – 0.96 mg chlorophyll/kg oil, 0.15 – 4.44 mg pheo α/kg oil, respectively. The proposed models for yield, pigments and antioxidant potential responses were found to be good enough for successful prediction of experimental results. Total phenolics, carotenoids and free radical scavenging activity of aromatized olive oil and oil yield were maximized to gather and optimal conditions were determined as 25°C, 84 min, and 2 % (Rosemary/olive paste; w/w.

  10. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  11. Situation of European SMEs in the olive oil and table olive area. Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador, Javier

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the situation of European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the olive oil and table olive sector is carried out in order to find their main needs in the following aspects: information, participation in Research, Development and Innovation (R+D+I programmes, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs implementation, quality control, environmental impacts, etc. The data used in this study were obtained through questionnaires sent to SMEs in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey. The results obtained show: a reasonable acceptance of ICTs, a high interest in training courses on the most recent and pertinent legislation, and in product quality improvement and marketing.En este trabajo, se realiza un estudio de la PYME europea en el sector olivarero para detectar las principales necesidades que tienen las empresas en información técnica, participación en proyectos de investigación, formación, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC, calidad, impacto ambiental, etc. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de encuestas enviadas a empresas de Alemania, Francia, España, Grecia, Italia, Portugal y Turquía. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las TIC tienen un nivel razonable de implantación en este sector industrial. Así mismo, las empresas encuestadas manifiestan tener gran interés en actividades de formación e información en la legislación relacionada con el sector, el control de calidad y el marketing.

  12. Virgin olive oil ameliorates deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice: A biochemical and immunohistochemical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza khalatbary

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Virgin olive oil exerted protective effects against deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity, which might be associated with its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  14. Raman detection of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with cheaper oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Mills, Jonathan; Kenney, Brianna; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2016-09-01

    Pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mixed with cheaper edible oils and samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785nm Raman system is used to take measurements as Raman probe is placed against glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy, and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements reported here are for integration times of 15s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 5% for all oils used in this study.

  15. The effect of topical olive oil on prevention of bedsore in intensive care units patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Abbas Ali Madadi; Reza Zeighami; Jalil Azimian; Amir Javadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bedsores are injuries to skin and underlying tissues caused by prolonged pressure. Although, some methods like frequently changing position and using particular tools are used for preventing and caring of pressure ulcers, their prevention would still be as a vital urgency. Olive oil is an herbal product with potential preventive effects to prevent bedsores because of its numerous medical properties. The major aim of this study was to determine whether topical olive oil can prevent...

  16. Discrimination of olive oil by cultivar, geographical origin and quality using potentiometric electronic tongue fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Souayah, Fatma; Rodrigues, Nuno; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Dias, Luís G.; Pereira, José A.; Oueslati, Souheib; Peres, António M.

    2017-01-01

    Legal regulations are set for protecting claims regarding olive oil geographical denomination. When meteorological or agroecological factors similarly affect different regions, the origin identification is a challenging task. This study demonstrated the use of a potentiometric electronic tongue coupled with linear discriminant analysis to discriminate the geographical origin of monovarietal Tunisian olive oil produced from local cv Chemlali (Kairouan, Sidi Bouzid or Sfax regions) and cv Sahli...

  17. New phytopharmaceutical anti-breast cancer formulations: immunoliposomes containing extra virgin olive oil polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolosi, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil has compounds that provide health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of diseases. Among olive oil compounds, the phenolic fraction has received considerable attention in recent years. Most common problems are poor absorption, low half-life, due to rapid clearance and inactivation by metabolic enzymes. The development of suitable drug delivery systems and, in particular, of liposomes and immunoliposomes, may be an appropriate strategy for the effective administratio...

  18. The NUTRAOLEOUM Study, a randomized controlled trial, for achieving nutritional added value for olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Sara; Mesa, Maria-Dolores; de la Torre, Rafael; Espejo, Juan-Antonio; Fernández-Navarro, Jose-Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Sánchez-Rodriguez, Estefanía; Rosa, Carmen; Marchal, Rosa; Alche, Juan de Dios; Expósito, Manuela; Brenes, Manuel; Gandul, Beatriz; Calleja, Miguel Angel; Covas, María-Isabel

    2016-10-22

    Virgin olive oil, a recognized healthy food, cannot be consumed in great quantities. We aim to assess in humans whether an optimized virgin olive oil with high phenolic content (OVOO, 429 mg/Kg) and a functional one (FOO), both rich in phenolic compounds (429 mg/Kg) and triterpenic acids (389 mg/kg), could provide health benefits additional to those supplied a by a standard virgin olive oil (VOO). A randomized, double-blind, crossover, controlled study will be conducted. Healthy volunteers (aged 20 to 50) will be randomized into one of three groups of daily raw olive oil consumption: VOO, OVOO, and FOO (30 mL/d). Olive oils will be administered over 3-week periods preceded by 2-week washout ones. The main outcomes will be markers of lipid and DNA oxidation, inflammation, and vascular damage. A bioavailability and dose-response study will be nested within this sustained- consumption one. It will be made up of 18 volunteers and be performed at two stages after a single dose of each olive oil. Endothelial function and nitric oxide will be assessed at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h after olive oil single dose ingestion. For the first time the NUTRAOLEUM Study will provide first level evidence on the health benefits in vivo in humans of olive oil triterpenes (oleanolic and maslinic acid) in addition to their bioavailability and disposition. The Trial has been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02520739 .

  19. Inhibitory effect of various Tunisian olive oils on chemical mediator release and cytokine production by basophilic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, P; Zarrouk, M; Kawasaki, K; Isoda, H

    2008-03-05

    Tunisian olive oils have been traditionally used as a medicinal food for chronic inflammation. To investigate the antiallergic effect of virgin olive oil samples from five principal olive varieties grown in various regions of Tunisia, we used the type I allergy reaction model using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells and different dilutions of olive oil samples to determine beta-hexosaminidase release inhibition at two different response stages. Results showed that the Sayali olive oil significantly inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release by the IgE antibody-sensitized, BSA antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells at the antibody-antigen binding stage. The result of our experiment shows that the anti-allergic effect of olive oil at this binding stage may be dependent on their flavone content. The Zarrazi olive oil significantly inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release at the antigen-receptor binding stage. Moreover, we investigated the effect of olive oil samples on histamine release and production of cytokines by activated human basophilic (KU812) cells. Different dilutions of Sayali olive oil dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), and different dilutions of Zarrazi olive oil dose-dependently inhibited histamine release and IL-4 production by calcium ionophore A23187 plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated KU812 cells.

  20. Physico-chemical change and heat stability of extra virgin olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M A; Grati-Kamoun, N; Attia, H

    2009-10-01

    Objectives of this work were studying physico-chemical change and heat stability of olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Flavoured olive oils were prepared by maceration of fresh plant materials (rosemary, lavender, sage, menthe, basil, lemon and thyme) with olive oil at a 5% w/w level for 15 days. A sensorial evaluation was applied to select more appreciate flavoured olive oils by consumers. An oxidative procedure was applied to test the stability of selected flavoured olive oils: oils samples were kept in glass bottles and heated at 60 and 130 degrees C during 55 days and 6h, respectively. The resistance to oxidation of these selected flavoured oils was compared to a control samples by measuring PV, K232 and K270 values and change in chlorophyll, carotenes and polyphénols contents. Obtained results show that addition of aromatic plants causes a slight increase in free acidity and viscosity of aromatised olive oils. L*, b* and a* values show that addition of thyme cause a great change in olive oil colours. Heat stability results shows that from selected aromatic plants, rosemary was effectiveness against oxidation followed by thyme and lemon. However, olive oil flavoured with basil exhibit a similar behaviour versus thermal oxidation then the natural olive oil.

  1. Synthesis of volatile compounds of virgin olive oil is limited by the lipoxygenase activity load during the oil extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2012-01-25

    The aim of this work was to determine whether the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity is a limiting factor for the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatile compounds during the oil extraction process. For this purpose, LOX activity load was modified during this process using exogenous LOX activity and specific LOX inhibitors on olive cultivars producing oils with different volatile profiles (Arbequina and Picual). Experimental data suggest that LOX activity is a limiting factor for the synthesis of the oil volatile fraction, this limitation being significantly higher in Picual cultivar than in Arbequina, in line with the lowest content of volatile compounds in the oils obtained from the former. Moreover, there is evidence that this limitation of LOX activity takes place mostly during the milling step in the process of olive oil extraction.

  2. Influence of olive ripening degree and crusher typology on chemical and sensory characteristics of Correggiolo virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Lucia; Pupillo, Sabrina; Neri, Luisa; Bertazza, Giampaolo; Magli, Massimiliano; Rotondi, Annalisa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with a scanning electron microscope. The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. Knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow olive oil producers to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumer. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols, do not have a great sensory appeal for most consumers; however, there is a niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customise the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  4. Frying performance of two virgin oils from Cornicabra olives with different ripeness indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero-David, R.; Mena, C.; Sánchez-Muniz, F.J.; Pérez-Jiménez, M.A.; Holgado, F.; Bastida, S.; Velasco, J.

    2017-01-01

    The frying performance of two virgin olive oils (VOO) from Cornicabra olives of different ripeness indices, 2.08 for VOO1 and 4.13 for VOO2, was evaluated. Thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic alterations were determined throughout 40 frying operations with potatoes. The initial oils showed similar fatty acid compositions and oxidative stability indices as determined by Rancimat, but VOO1 presented higher amounts of total polyphenols and tocopherols. The oils showed high and similar frying performance. No significant differences in the levels of polar compounds (PC) were found between the two oils during frying. Therefore, the frying stability of Cornicabra VOOs appears to be unconnected with olive fruit ripeness. The limit of degradation at 25% PC as established in different countries was calculated to occur at 55 frying operations in the two oils. As oil toxicity is related to the levels of compounds formed, the use of Cornicabra VOOs for frying is highly recommended. [es

  5. Health effects of olive oil polyphenols: recent advances and possibilities for the use of health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Covas, María Isabel; Fitó, Montserrat; Kušar, Anita; Pravst, Igor

    2013-05-01

    The Mediterranean diet and consumption of olive oil have been connected in several studies with longevity and a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle, such as regular physical activity, a healthy diet, and the existing social cohesion in Southern European countries have been recognised as candidate protective factors that may explain the Mediterranean Paradox. Along with some other characteristics of the Mediterranean diet, the use of olive oil as the main source of fat is common in Southern European countries. The benefits of consuming olive oil have been known since antiquity and were traditionally attributed to its high content in oleic acid. However, it is now well established that these effects must also be attributed to the phenolic fraction of olive oil with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. The mechanisms of these activities are varied and probably interconnected. For some activities of olive oil phenolic compounds, the evidence is already strong enough to enable the legal use of health claims on foods. This review discusses the health effects of olive oil phenols along with the possibilities of communicating these effects on food labels. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of unsaponifiable matter extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil on the oxidative stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Estakhr, Parviz; Jelyani, Aniseh Zarei

    2017-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the improvement of oxidative stability of refined olive oil using various concentrations of unsaponifiable matters extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil (UFO). For further elucidation of UFO antioxidative power, tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was used in an olive oil sample, too. Oxidative stability of olive oil samples without and with different levels of UFO (50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) and TBHQ (100 ppm) were studied via evaluation of conjugated diene value, carbonyl value, oil/oxidative stability index, acid value and total tocopherol (TT) contents through 8 h thermal process at 170 °C. Results obtained by oxidative stability assays revealed that the highest antioxidative activity of olive oil was obtained by 100 ppm of UFO, followed using 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 ppm of UFO and 100 ppm TBHQ, respectively. Evaluation of the relationship between oxidative stability indexes and TT changes indicated a strong correlation (R 2  = 0.9718) between mean relative resistance to oxidation and relative resistance to TT reduction during thermal process. By promotion of relative resistance to TT reduction, olive oil samples' relative resistance to oxidation was enhanced exponentially; implying importance of TT in promotion of oxidative stability of edible oils. The results obtained in this study showed that UFO has higher antioxidative activity compared to TBHQ; thus UFO can be considered as a natural antioxidant with ideal antioxidative activity.

  7. Predicting extra virgin olive oil freshness during storage by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aparicio-Ruiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil quality relates to flavor and unique health benefits. Some of these properties are at the most desirable level when the oil is just extracted, since it is not a product that improves with age. On the contrary, the concentrations of many compounds change during its shelf-life. These changes reveal the aging of the oil but do not necessarily mean decay in sensory properties, so in some cases an aged oil from healthy olives may be better qualified than a fresh one from olives affected by fermentation. The aim of this work is to analyze different methodologies proposed for assessing the quality of virgin olive oil with implications in freshness and aging of the oil, and to highlight the possibilities of rapid spectrofluorimetric techniques for assessing oil freshness by checking the evolution of pigments during storage. The observed change in the selected spectral features and mathematical modelling over time was compared with the accepted model for predicting the amount of pyropheophytin a, which is based on isokinetic studies. The best regression was obtained for 655 nm (adjusted-R2 = 0.91 wavelength, which matches the distinctive band of pigments. The two mathematical models described in this study highlight the usefulness of pigments in the prediction of the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil.

  8. Predicting extra virgin olive oil freshness during storage by fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, R.; Tena, N.; Romero, I.; Aparicio, R.; García-González, D.L.; Morales, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Virgin olive oil quality relates to flavor and unique health benefits. Some of these properties are at the most desirable level when the oil is just extracted, since it is not a product that improves with age. On the contrary, the concentrations of many compounds change during its shelf-life. These changes reveal the aging of the oil but do not necessarily mean decay in sensory properties, so in some cases an aged oil from healthy olives may be better qualified than a fresh one from olives affected by fermentation. The aim of this work is to analyze different methodologies proposed for assessing the quality of virgin olive oil with implications in freshness and aging of the oil, and to highlight the possibilities of rapid spectrofluorimetric techniques for assessing oil freshness by checking the evolution of pigments during storage. The observed change in the selected spectral features and mathematical modelling over time was compared with the accepted model for predicting the amount of pyropheophytin a, which is based on isokinetic studies. The best regression was obtained for 655 nm (adjusted-R2 = 0.91) wavelength, which matches the distinctive band of pigments. The two mathematical models described in this study highlight the usefulness of pigments in the prediction of the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil. [es

  9. Influence of harvest time on the composition and quality of Rosinjola cultivar virgin olive oils

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    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of Rosinjola cultivar fruits harvest time on oil content in olive pastes and on composition and quality of obtained oils. In the late harvest time the higher value of oil in the dry matter of olive paste was determined than in the early harvest time, but the late harvest negatively affected oil quality parameters. The proportion of oleic acid decreased slightly in the late harvest time and linoleic acid increased. The ratio of oleic/linoleic acid, total phenols and ortho-diphenols, as well as bitterness index and antioxidant capacity decreased in the oil obtained from black fruit. Late harvest time influenced the decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid content and color parameter values (a*, b* and C in obtained oils, but lightness (L* increased. The concentration of volatiles responsible for positive odour of Rosinjola oils decreased, except for aldehydes which increased slightly. Sensory score of oil obtained from the late harvest time decreased, as well as intensities of sensory characteristics olive fruity, apple, green grass, bitter and pungent, while the intensities of characteristics sweet and ripe fruits increased. Oils obtained in the early harvest time were described as harmonious and astringent with pronounced green odour notes, and oils obtained in the late harvest time as overripe and without freshness. The obtained results are important for optimal harvest time determination and understanding the potential of Rosinjola cultivar for production of high quality virgin olive oil with targeted and specific characteristics.

  10. Kinetic study of oil extraction from olive foot cake

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    Lamrous, O.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oil extraction from olive foot cake can be explained by a model based on two stages. The first step corresponds to a simple washing of the oil from the particle surface. In the second step, the extraction is controlled by two mechanisms: slow diffusion from broken cells and very slow diffusion from intact cells.The kinetic coefficients of this mathematical model are calculated using the experimental results obtained from hexane and commercial ethyl alcohol for different particle sizes.La cinética de extracción de aceite de orujo puede ser explicada por un modelo basado en dos etapas. La primera etapa corresponde a un simple lavado del aceite de la superficie de las partículas. En la segunda etapa, la extracción esta controlada por dos mecanismos: difusión lenta desde las células rotas y difusión muy lenta desde las células intactas.Los coeficientes cinéticas de este modelo matemático se calculan usando los resultados experimentales obtenidos con hexano y alcohol etílico comercial para diferentes tamaños de partícula.

  11. Characterization of european virgin olive oils using fatty acids

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    Alonso García, María V.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of discriminating between extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Spain, Italy and Portugal, by means of their fatty acid content, has been investigated. A dendrogram allowed discrimination between the oils starting from their initial grouping and progressing to differentiation on the basis of regions. Multivariant statistical analyses were applied to determine the actual discriminatory capacity of this group of compounds. The confidence associated with the final discrimination was ascertained using the theory of evidence.

    Se ha estudiado la posibilidad de discriminación entre aceites de oliva virgen procedentes de diferentes regiones de España, Italia y Portugal, mediante sus ácidos grasos. Para llevar a cabo la discriminación entre los aceites, desde su agrupación inicial hasta la diferenciación por regiones, se empleó una estructura arborescente. Fueron aplicados procedimientos estadísticos multivariantes para determinar la capacidad discriminante actual de este grupo de compuestos. La certeza asociada a la discriminación final fue calculada mediante la teoría de la evidencia.

  12. Composition, quality and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils from some selected wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daoud, Douja; Krichene, Douha; Nouairi, Issam; Guerfel, Mokhtar; Baccouri, Olfa; Zarrouk, Wissem; Baccouri, Bechir

    2008-01-01

    A study on the characterization of virgin olive oils from wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster) was conducted in order to define new cultivars which are welladapted to the Tunisian environment and yield high quality oils. The study was done during the crop years 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06. The main analytical parameters of the oils were evaluated: fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds as well as their relationship with oxidative stab...

  13. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

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    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  14. Traceability of PDO Olive Oil “Terra di Bari” Using High Resolution Melting

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    Cinzia Montemurro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to verify the applicability of microsatellite (SSR markers in High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis for the identification of the olive cultivars used in the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil. A panel of nine cultivars, widespread in Apulia region, was tested with seventeen SSR primer pairs and the PCR products were at first analysed with a Genetic Analyzer automatic sequencer. An identification key was obtained for the nine cultivars, which showed an unambiguous discrimination among the varieties constituting the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil: Cima di Bitonto, Coratina, and Ogliarola. Subsequently, an SSR based method was set up with the DCA18 marker, coupled with HRM analysis for the distinction of the Terra di Bari olive oil from non-Terra di Bari olive oil using different mixtures. Thus, this analysis enabled the distinction and identification of the PDO mixtures. Hence, this assay provided a flexible, cost-effective, and closed-tube microsatellite genotyping method, well suited to varietal identification and authentication analysis in olive oil.

  15. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of simulated deep frying on the antioxidant fraction of vegetable oils after enrichment with extracts from olive oil pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Solano, M I; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2011-09-28

    The stability of the antioxidant fraction in edible vegetable oils has been evaluated during a simulated deep frying process at 180 °C. Four edible oils (i.e., extra-virgin olive oil with a 400 μg/mL overall content in naturally existing phenols; high-oleic sunflower oil without natural content of these compounds but enriched either with hydrophilic antioxidants isolated from olive pomace or with an oxidation inhibitor, dimethylsiloxane; and sunflower oil without enrichment) were subjected to deep heating consisting of 20 cycles at 180 °C for 5 min each. An oil aliquot was sampled after each heating cycle to study the influence of heating on the antioxidant fraction composed of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants such as phenols and tocopherols, respectively. The decomposition curves for each group of compounds caused by the influence of deep heating were studied to compare their resistance to oxidation. Thus, the suitability of olive pomace as raw material to obtain these compounds offers an excellent alternative to the use of olive-tree materials different from leaves. The enrichment of refined edible oils with natural antioxidants from olive pomace is a sustainable strategy to take benefits from this residue.

  17. Antimicrobial potential of leaf and fruit extracts and oils of wild and cultivated edible olive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Qurshi, I.A.; Liaqat, R.; Akhtar, S.; Aziz, I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive tree is the first botanical noted in the Bible. Leaves and fruits of olive are rich sources of Phenols, triterpenes, and flavanoids. Oleuropein obtained from the leaves extract is believed to be important therapeutic compound. Olive leaf and oils are used for the treatment of different diseases as folklore medicines by different ethnic groups in different countries of the world. The present study aims to investigate the potential antimicrobial activities of wild (Olea ferruginea) and edible (Olea europaea) olive leaf crude extracts, crude oils from ripe and unripe fruits and extra virgin oils against the selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. The results show that olive leaf and oil have potential antibacterial activities against some of the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. However, certain strains were resistant to the extracts. It was also found that the activities were higher for the gram negative strains as compared to gram positive strains. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts were found to be more efficient in extraction than the other solvents used. Leaf extracts were more effective than the oil extracted from ripe and unripe fruits. There was no significant difference in the activities of extra virgin oils and crude leaf extracts. From the results it is concluded that the leaf extract is a cheap and effective antibacterial agent that can be used as alternative to purified oil. (author)

  18. Long-term field evaluation of the changes in fruit and olive oil chemical compositions after agronomic application of olive mill wastewater with rock phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekaya, Meriem; El-Gharbi, Sinda; Chehab, Hechmi; Attia, Faouzi; Hammami, Mohamed; Mechri, Beligh

    2018-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with rock phosphate (RP) in a field of olive trees, on olive fruits and oil quality. The results revealed that olive fruits of OMW-RP amended plants had higher contents of polyphenols and mannitol indicating that agronomic application of OMW with RP generated an oxidative stress. Land spreading of OMW with RP altered the relative proportions of individual sugars in leaves and fruits. Consequently, the oil content decreased significantly, and a marked decrease in the contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls was also observed. Changes also took place in the composition of fatty acids, particularly by the increase of linoleic acid and the decrease of oleic acid. Our results suggested that the use of OMW in combination with RP is expected to have a major negative impact on olive fruit and oil quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of harvesting system and fruit cold storage on virgin olive oil chemical composition and quality of superintensive cultivated 'Arbequina' olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Khaled; Weiland, Carlos M; García, José M

    2012-05-09

    Storage at 3 and 18 °C of 'Arbequina' olives (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in hedgerows and harvested manually or mechanically (wine grape harvester) was tested. Fruit characteristics and oil quality were monitored. Mechanical harvesting caused internal fruit damage that induced its rapid softening and decay, but also facilitated obtaining higher amounts of oil, which suffered a rapid deterioration during fruit storage. This oil presented lower tocopherol and phenol contents and lower oxidative stability than the oil extracted from manually harvested olives, but showed similar fatty acid composition. Cold storage (3 °C) delayed all of these deterioration processes. It allowed maintaining the best commercial level of quality ("extra") in the oil from mechanically harvested olives for 10 days. This cold storage could be considered as an alternative to the increase in machinery for processing the growing olive production, due to both hedgerow cultivation and mechanized harvesting.

  20. Can rapeseed oil replace olive oil as part of a Mediterranean-style diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2014-12-14

    The present narrative review compares evidence from experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies of the health benefits of rapeseed oil (RO) (known as canola oil) and olive oil (OO) in order to assess whether rapeseed oil is suitable as a sustainable alternative to OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet in countries where olive trees do not grow. From epidemiological studies, the evidence for cardiovascular protection afforded by extra-virgin OO is 'convincing', and for cancers 'limited-suggestive', especially oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, but more studies are required in relation to cognitive impairment. Evidence for RO is limited to short-term studies on the biomarkers of risk factors for CVD. Any benefits of RO are likely to be due to α-linolenic acid; however, it is prone to oxidation during frying. We conclude that due to a lack of evidence from observational or intervention studies indicating that RO has comparable health benefits to extra-virgin OO, RO cannot currently be recommended as a suitable substitute for extra-virgin OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet.

  1. Influence of thermal treatments simulating cooking processes on the polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Manuel; García, Aranzazu; Dobarganes, M Carmen; Velasco, Joaquín; Romero, Concepción

    2002-10-09

    Virgin olive oils were subjected to simulated common domestic processing, including frying, microwave heating, and boiling with water in a pressure cooker. The impact of these processes on polyphenol content and physicochemical characteristics of oils was assessed. Thermal oxidation of oils at 180 degrees C caused a significant decrease in hydroxytyrosol- and tyrosol-like substances. In contrast, oils heated for 25 h still retained a high proportion of the lignans 1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol. Thermal oxidation also resulted in a rapid degradation of alpha-tocopherol and the glyceridic fraction of oils. Microwave heating of oils for 10 min caused only minor losses in polyphenols, and the oil degradation was lower than that in thermoxidation assays. Again, lignans were the least affected polyphenols and did not change during microwave heating. Boiling a mixture of virgin olive oil and water in a pressure cooker for 30 min provoked the hydrolysis of the secoiridoid aglycons and the diffusion of the free phenolics hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol from the oil to the water phase. Losses of polyphenols were detected only at pH lower than 6. Moreover, alpha-tocopherol and the glyceridic fraction of oils were not modified during this process. It is worth noting that all the heating methods assayed resulted in more severe polyphenols losses and oil degradation for Arbequina than for Picual oil, which could be related to the lower content in polyunsaturated fatty acids of the latter olive cultivar. These findings may be relevant to the choice of cooking method and olive oil cultivar to increase the intake of olive polyphenols.

  2. Effects of olive oil and its minor phenolic constituents on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes

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    Rocha Katiucha KHR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive oil and its minor constituents have been recommended as important dietary therapeutic interventions in preventive medicine. However, a question remains to be addressed: what are the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes? Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 24/group: (C receiving standard-chow; (Ob receiving hypercaloric-chow. After 21 days C and Ob groups were divided into four subgroups (n = 6/group:(C standard-chow and saline; (C-Olivestandard-chow and olive-oil (3.0 g/kg.day; (C-Oleuropeinstandard-chow and oleuropein (0.023 mg/kg/day; (C-Cafeic standard-chow and cafeic-acid (2.66 mg/kg/day; (Obreceiving hypercaloric-chow and saline;(Ob-Olive hypercaloric-chow and olive-oil;(Ob-Oleuropein hypercaloric-chow and oleuropein;(Ob-Cafeic hypercaloric-chow and cafeic-acid. Treatments were given twice a week during 21 days. Results After 42 days, obesity was evidenced in Ob rats from enhanced body-weight, surface-area, and body-mass-index. Energy-expenditure, oxygen consumption(VO2 and fat-oxidation were lower in Ob-group than in C. Despite no morphometric changes, Ob-Olive, Ob-Oleuropein and Ob-Cafeic groups had higher VO2, fat-oxidation, myocardial beta-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and lower respiratory-quotient than Ob. Citrate-synthase was highest in Ob-Olive group. Myocardial lipid-hydroperoxide(LH and antioxidant enzymes were unaffected by olive-oil and its compounds in obesity condition, whereas LH was lower and total-antioxidant-substances were higher in C-Olive and C-Oleuropein than in C. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that olive-oil, oleuropein and cafeic-acid enhanced fat-oxidation and optimized cardiac energy metabolism in obesity conditions. Olive oil and its phenolic compounds improved myocardial oxidative stress in standard-fed conditions.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of olive oil in the hippocampus CA1 neurons following ischemia: Reperfusion in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transient global ischemia induces selective, delayed neuronal death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1. Oxidative Stress is considered to be involved in a number of human diseases including ischemia. Preliminary studies confirmed reduction of cell death in brain following treatment with antioxidants. Aim: According to this finding, we study the relationship between consumption of olive oil on cell death and memory disorder in brain ischemia. We studied the protective effect of olive oil against ischemia-reperfusion. Material and Methods: Experimental design includes three groups: Intact (n = 8, ischemic control (n = 8 and treatment groups with olive oil (n = 8. The mice treated with olive oil as pre-treatment for a week. Then, ischemia induced by common carotid artery ligation and following the reduction of inflammation [a week after ischemia], the mice post-treated with olive oil. Nissl staining applied for counting necrotic cells in hippocampus CA1. Tunnel kit was used to quantify apoptotic cell death while to short term memory scale, we apply y-maze and shuttle box tests and for detection the rate of apoptotic and treated cell, we used western blotting test for bax and bcl2 proteins. Results: High rate of apoptosis was seen in ischemic group that significantly associated with short-term memory loss. Cell death was significantly lower when mice treated with olive oil. The memory test results were adjusted with cell death results and bax and bcl2 expression in all groups′ comparison. Ischemia for 15 min induced cell death in hippocampus with more potent effect on CA1. Conclusion: Olive oil intake significantly reduced cell death and decreased memory loss.

  4. Olive oil and health: summary of the II international conference on olive oil and health consensus report, Jaén and Córdoba (Spain) 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Miranda, J; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Ros, E

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil (OO) is the most representative food of the traditional Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet). Increasing evidence suggests that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as a nutrient, OO as a food, and the MedDiet as a food pattern are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity...

  5. Energy-economic life cycle assessment (LCA) and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of olive oil production in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaeifar, Mohammad Ali; Akram, Asadolah; Ghobadian, Barat; Rafiee, Shahin; Heidari, Mohammad Davoud

    2014-01-01

    In this study the energy and economic flows and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of olive oil production in Iran were investigated in terms of a life cycle assessment with considering four main stages of agricultural olive production, olive transportation, olive oil extraction and its oil transportation to the customer centers. Data was collected from 150 olive growers in Guilan province of Iran. Results revealed that the total energy consumption through the olive oil life cycle was 20 344 MJ ha −1 while the mass-based allocation method results indicated that the total energy consumption was 8035 MJ ha −1 . The total energy output was estimated as 23 568 MJ ha −1 . The total GHG emissions was estimated to 1333 kg ha −1 (CO 2 eq) while the mass-based allocation method results indicated that the total GHG emissions was 525 kg ha −1 (CO 2 eq). The agricultural production stage ranked the first in GHG emissions among the four stages with the share of 93.81% of total GHG emissions. Results of econometric model estimation revealed that the impact of human labor, farmyard manure and electricity on olive oil yield and the impact of electricity and chemical fertilizers on GHG emissions were significantly positive. - Highlights: • Energy and economic flows and GHG emissions of olive oil production in Iran were investigated. • The total energy consumption of olive oil production was calculated as 20 344 MJ ha −1 . • The mass-based allocation showed the energy consumption of olive oil production was 8035 MJ ha −1 . • The total GHG emissions of olive oil production was 1333 kg ha −1 (CO 2 eq). • The mass-based allocation showed the total GHG emissions of olive oil production was 525 kg ha −1 (CO 2 eq)

  6. Volatile compounds characterizing Tunisian Chemlali and Chétoui virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Noelia; Lazzez, Aida; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

    2007-09-19

    A total of 33 virgin olive oil samples of the two main Tunisian cultivars, Chemlali and Chétoui, were characterized by their volatile compounds. The olive oil samples were obtained from olives harvested at four stages of ripeness in costal and inland farms of different geographical places. Major volatiles, mostly C6 and C5 compounds produced from linolenic and linoleic acids through the lipoxygenase cascade, were quantified by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Mathematical procedures allowed for the determination of the volatiles that not only are able to discriminate the olive oils by their olive cultivar (hexanal, E-2-hexenal, and total ketones) and ripeness (pentanal and 1-penten-3-one) but also contribute to their distinctive aroma. Finally, an electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors was checked for a rapid and at-line implementation of Tunisian olive oil varietal traceability. The classification of the samples by the sensors was explained by their sensitivity to volatiles E-2-hexanal, hexanal, 1-penten-3-one, ethanol, and Z-3-hexenol. Multivariate procedures of discriminant analysis and principal component analysis were used in the study.

  7. Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rigacci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed.

  8. Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigacci, Stefania; Stefani, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed. PMID:27258251

  9. The influence of olive oil on human health: not a question of fat alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Ruano, Juan; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2007-10-01

    Olive oil is the most representative food in the traditional Mediterranean diet and its most important source of MUFA. The healthy benefits of MUFA-rich diets on plasma cholesterol levels, were the first to generate interest in this dietary model. In addition to the benefits conferred by its lipids, olive oil has other biological effects, some of them also related to MUFA. However, most recent studies have shown that there are a number of properties that depend on, or are potentiated by, the consumption of olive oil, such as virgin olive oil, that is rich in microcomponents. This foodstuff, thanks to its double set of benefits, thus tends to produce a better lipid profile and a less prothrombotic environment, promoting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, with a greater endothelial protective capacity. In view of these effects, it would appear that when olive oil is the basic source of dietary alimentary fat it has a major antiatherogenic capacity, which is not shared to the same extent by other oils that are rich in oleic acid but lack its characteristic micronutrients.

  10. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  11. Los intangibles del aceite de oliva como ventaja competitiva Olive Oil intangibility for competitive advantage Olive Oil intangibility for competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Martín López

    2012-04-01

    ía implantados en el medio rural, lo que le infiere un impacto social importante por la gran pérdida de rentas que están sufriendo en los últimos años.Originalidad / Valor añadido: El Aceite de Oliva es un producto característico de la cultura mediterránea, y el trabajo conceptualiza todos aquellos aspectos que lo conforman desde que se comenzó a producir hace varios milenios y, cuyos significados, han ido perdiendo impacto en el conocimiento del consumidor actual. El reposicionamiento de un producto característico de nuestra forma de vida a partir de los valores intrínsecos de nuestra cotidianeidad añade una característica más a este trabajo y a los valores que caracterizan a nuestra cultura y nuestra sociedad.Purpose: New strategies and its uses to commercial reposition of the olive oil through the intangibles assets.Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework application of the olive oil intangibility and to concept the intangible assets and statistical research quantitative development to valorize the concepts.Findings: It proposes a conceptualization of the intangibles assets to create the olive oil concept, beyond to alimentary set. Conceptualization of the development of the intangibility of the olive oil responds to a repositioning strategy of the product in front of the competition in a globalization markets place.Research limitations/implications: The research begins from the use limitation in a statistical method demanding reliability margin, but really diffuse, given that the improvement of olive oil consumption is only 5% in the vegetables oils markets.Practical implications: The research proposes the intangibilities and characteristics of the olive oil. This isn´t new, it simply is a conceptualization of diary aspects but without importance, above all with the differentiation elements to competition actually. The commercial positioning of the product needs new strategies of differentiation and the olive oil can use the intangibles to

  12. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  13. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  14. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  15. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gorzynik-Debicka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate, as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  16. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  17. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzynik-Debicka, Monika; Przychodzen, Paulina; Cappello, Francesco; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Knap, Narcyz; Wozniak, Michal; Gorska-Ponikowska, Magdalena

    2018-02-28

    Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate), as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  18. Analytical approaches for the characterization and identification of olive (Olea europaea) oil proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-10-30

    Proteins in olive oil have been scarcely investigated probably due to the difficulty of working with such a lipidic matrix and the dramatically low abundance of proteins in this biological material. Additionally, this scarce information has generated contradictory results, thus requiring further investigations. This work treats this subject from a comprehensive point of view and proposes the use of different analytical approaches to delve into the characterization and identification of proteins in olive oil. Different extraction methodologies, including capture via combinational hexapeptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), were tried. A sequence of methodologies, starting with off-gel isoelectric focusing (IEF) followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) column, was applied to profile proteins from olive seed, pulp, and oil. Besides this, and for the first time, a tentative identification of oil proteins by mass spectrometry has been attempted.

  19. Authentication of virgin olive oil by a novel curve resolution approach combined with visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F; Álvarez, José A; Ruiz, Antonio; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Adulteration of olive oil is not only a major economic fraud but can also have major health implications for consumers. In this study, a combination of visible spectroscopy with a novel multivariate curve resolution method (CR), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is proposed for the authentication of virgin olive oil (VOO) samples. VOOs are well-known products with the typical properties of a two-component system due to the two main groups of compounds that contribute to the visible spectra (chlorophylls and carotenoids). Application of the proposed CR method to VOO samples provided the two pure-component spectra for the aforementioned families of compounds. A correlation study of the real spectra and the resolved component spectra was carried out for different types of oil samples (n=118). LDA using the correlation coefficients as variables to discriminate samples allowed the authentication of 95% of virgin olive oil samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olive paste and spices on quality of naturally flavoured virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Durante, Viviana; Varva, Gabriella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Previtali, Maria Assunta; Viggiani, Ilaria; Squeo, Giacomo; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso; Baiano, Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Olive oil flavouring with aromatic plants and spices is a traditional practice in Mediterranean gastronomy. The aim of this work was to compare the influence of two different flavouring techniques (infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olives paste and spices) on chemical and sensory quality of flavoured olive oil. In particular, oxidative and hydrolytic degradation (by routine and non-conventional analyses), phenolic profiles (by HPLC), volatile compounds (by SPME-GC/MS), antioxidant activity, and sensory properties (by a trained panel and by consumers) of the oils were evaluated. The obtained results evidenced that the malaxation method was more effective in extracting the phenolic compounds, with a significantly lower level of hydrolysis of secoiridoids. As a consequence, antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the oils obtained by infusion, which were characterized by a higher extent of the oxidative degradation. The volatile compounds were not significantly influenced by changing the flavouring method, apart for sulfur compounds that were more abundant in the oils obtained by the combined malaxation method. From a sensory point of view, more intense bitter and pungent tastes were perceived when the infusion method was adopted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Different Irrigation Treatments on Olive Oil Quality and Composition: A Comparative Study between Treated and Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW.

  2. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  3. Effect of enzyme treatment during mechanical extraction of olive oil on phenolic compounds and polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhuis, E.; Maurizio, S.; Baldioli, M.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Montedoro, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the use of cell-wall-degrading-enzyme preparations during the mechanical extraction process of virgin olive oil on the phenolic compounds and polysaccharides was investigated. The use of the enzyme preparations increased the concentration of phenolic compounds in the paste, oil, and

  4. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  5. Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambient and 5°C) for different periods before oil extraction at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days to investigate the effect of postharvest fruit storage on olive oil quality. Conventional analyses (acidity, peroxide value, specific extinction coefficient at 232 and 270 ...

  6. A rapid screening for adulterants in olive oil using DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distinctive methodology is developed to trace out the mixing into olive oil, which is marketed every year with 20% or more fraudulent oils. Such adulteration has been difficult to differentiate using fatty acid analysis and other available current techniques, as chemically fatty acids are the same...

  7. Physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of bleached pomace-olive oil on Tunisian activated clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahouach, Wafa

    2002-01-01

    This work is a contribution to studying bleaching process, which is an important stage in refining of vegetable oils. This process permitted to reduce or convert undesired constituents to harmless ones from oils and fats. Virgin olive oil, considered as reference, and pomace-olive oil were bleached in optimal conditions using Tunisian activated clays ( collected from the South of Tunisia) which were prepared in our laboratory and compared with commercial bleaching earths. It was shown that activated Tunisian clays are characterized by a very important adsorptive capacity, which is similar to that of commercial ones. In addition, the study of physicochemical properties of bleached oils was considered. The fatty acid composition (GC), the triacylglycerol composition (HPLC), and oxidative stability (UV spectrometry) allowed to conclude that treated oils do not undergo considerable physicochemical alterations and their caracteristics remain in concordance with international standards relative to edible refined oils. (Author)

  8. Experimental and theoretical determination of pesticide processing factors to model their behavior during virgin olive oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Moreno-González, David; Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of the present work was the experimental evaluation of pesticides transfer to virgin olive oil during the production step and prediction of their processing factors, which could be eventually used for the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in olive oil from the MRLs set in olives. A laboratory-scale Abencor system was used for the production of olive oil from olives spiked with the 104 pesticides studied, three different chromatographic methods being used for the analysis of raw olives and the obtained olive oil: (i) gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for GC-amenable pesticides; (ii) hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) for polar pesticides, and; (iii) reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for low to medium polarity pesticides. Processing factors experimentally calculated were correlated to their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (logK ow ), enabling the calculation of the equivalent MRLs in olive oil from the MRLs in olives, considering the percentage of oil extracted (oil yield) and the log K ow of each pesticide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    the use of chemical pesticide in the protection of both field and stored crops is becoming more expensive to the ... Oil induced reduction or complete inhibition of oviposition of female bruchids and mortality of the ... 0.2 ml of each oil treatment was applied to 50 g of seed which were placed in a plastic container measuring 7.5 ...

  10. Hydroxytyrosol extracts, olive oil and walnuts as functional components in chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema; Martínez, Lorena; Castillo, Julian; Ros, Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Olive oil, hydroxytyrosol and walnut can be considered ideal Mediterranean ingredients for their high polyphenolic content and healthy properties. Three extracts of hydroxytyrosol obtained using different extraction processes (HXT 1, 2, 3) (50 ppm) were evaluated for use as antioxidants in eight different chicken sausage formulas enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.5 g 100 g -1 walnut) or using extra virgin olive oil (20 g 100 g -1 ) as fat replacer. Lipid and protein oxidation, colour, emulsion stability, and the microstructure of the resulting chicken sausages were investigated and a sensory analysis was carried out. The sausages with HXT extracts were found to decrease lipid oxidation and to lead to the loss of thiol groups compared with control sausages. Emulsion stability (capacity to hold water and fat) was greater in the sausages containing olive oil and walnut than in control sausages. In contrast, the HXT extracts produced high emulsion instability (increasing cooking losses). Sensory analysis suggested that two of the HXT extracts studied (HXT 2 and HXT 3 ) were unacceptable, while the acceptability of the other was similar to that of the control products. Sausages incorporating HXT showed different structures than control samples or sausages with olive oil, related to the composition of the emulsion. These results suggest the possibility of replacing animal fat by olive oil and walnut in order to produce healthy meat products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by olive oil and its phenols in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priore, Paola; Cavallo, Alessandro; Gnoni, Antonio; Damiano, Fabrizio; Gnoni, Gabriele V; Siculella, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in western countries, being considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Cumulative lines of evidence suggest that olive oil, used as primary source of fat by Mediterranean populations, may play a key role in the observed health benefits on NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the state of the art of the knowledge on the protective role of both major and minor components of olive oil on lipid metabolism during NAFLD. In particular, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed, taking into account that several studies have often provided different and/or conflicting results in animal models fed on olive oil-enriched diet. In addition, new findings that highlight the hypolipidemic and the antisteatotic actions of olive oil phenols are presented. As mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the targeting of these organelles with olive oil phenols as a powerful therapeutic approach is also discussed. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. The biodegradation of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters by Sawdust and by a Phanerochaetae chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD abatement in olive mill wastewaters (OMW by Phanerochaetae chrysosporium grown in static, stirred and immobilized cultures. When P. Chrysosporium is used in cultures, no decolorization of crude OMW is observed. Decolorization occurs only after the removal of polyphenols by adsorption in sawdust, which allows a 39% polyphenol removal. The use of a High lignin peroxides (Lip producing medium, yields the highest OMW decolorization and COD removal efficiencies. The use of P. Chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam leads to significant abatements of OMW polluting characteristics. And COD abatement reached 70%. The reduction of polyphenols reached its highest level at 62%. A significant effluent decolorization is apparent.Este trabajo describe la decoloración y la disminución de la demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín (OMW por Phanerochaetae chrysosporium, crecido en cultivos estáticos, agitados e inmovilizados. Cuando P. chrysosporium fue cultivado en agitación, no se observa ninguna decoloración de OMW crudo, la decoloración ocurre solamente después de eliminar los polifenoles mediante adsorción en el serrín (Disminución del 39% del contenido en polifenoles. La utilización de la lignina peroxidasa generada en el medio da lugar a la mayor decoloración de alpechín y a las eficiencias de eliminación de DQO más altas. Las pruebas de la decoloración realizadas en las muestras de OMW que fueron pretratadas por la adsorción de madera del serrín, y usaron cultivos inmovilizadas demostraron resultados mejores. Por tanto, la eficiencia de eliminación de DQO alcanzó un 70%. La reducción de los polifenoles alcanzó los niveles más altos siempre, i.e. 62%. Se observó una decoloración significativa del efluente.

  13. Modulation of the regression of atherosclerosis in the hamster by dietary lipids: comparison of coconut oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiapane, E H; McAteer, M A; Benson, G M; White, D A; Salter, A M

    1999-11-01

    The Golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) has been shown to be a useful model of both human lipoprotein metabolism and the development of atherosclerosis. We report the effects of dietary lipids on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis in this model. In the first study, hamsters fed on coconut oil (150 g/kg diet) and cholesterol (30 g/kg diet) developed lipid-rich lesions in the ascending aorta (0.28 (SD 0.14) mm2) and aortic arch (0.01 (SD 0.01) mm2) after 4 weeks that continued to progress over the next 8 weeks (0.75 (SD 0.41) mm2 and 0.12 (SD 0.11) mm2 for the ascending aorta and aortic arch respectively). Removal of cholesterol from the diet halted this progression. Furthermore, in animals fed on olive oil in the absence of added cholesterol, plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations were lower (P coconut oil (with no added cholesterol). In a second study, animals were fed on the atherogenic diet for 10 weeks, transferred to diets containing either coconut oil (150 g/kg diet) or olive oil (150 g/kg diet) without added cholesterol and monitored for up to 16 weeks. In the ascending aorta, lesion size doubled in animals fed on coconut oil but stabilized in those fed on olive oil. In the aortic arch, lesion size decreased linearly (P coconut oil and olive oil respectively) with the greatest reduction being seen in the olive-oil-fed animals (P cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in the plasma. We conclude that the male Golden Syrian hamster represents a useful model of dietary induced regression as well as progression of atherosclerosis.

  14. Oil quality parameters and quantitative measurement of major secoiridoid derivatives in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins using qNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mansour, Amir; Gargouri, Boutheina; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Olive oil contains compounds with interesting biological activities which are influenced by the cultivar, the geographic origin and other factors. The aims of this work were to (1) investigate these factors in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins; (2) determine the influence of geographic conditions on phenolic composition of Neb Jmel olive oil and consequently on the antioxidant compounds; and (3) verify whether oils could be discriminated based on geographical origin. The characterisation of extra-virgin Neb Jmel olive oil produced in its original location has been conducted. Owing to the effect of the genotype and environmental, agronomic and technological factors on the chemical composition of olive oil and its quality, all studied olives were collected at the same season, and their oil obtained under the same processing technique. Many analyses were carried out to characterise the different olive oils: free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, Rancimat assay, pigments content and phenolic compounds by (1) H NMR. A recently developed method for the direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative (1) H NMR was applied. The method was applied to the study of four Neb Jmel olive oils samples, and a broad variation of concentrations of all four secoiridoids was recorded. The concentration of each ranged from 55 to 529 mg kg(-1) and the sum of the four major secoiridoids (known as D3) ranged from 436 to 1063 mg kg(-1) . The quantification of major phenolic compounds of olive oil by NMR indicated that environmental conditions influence the production of qualitative phenolic fractions. All these compounds can be used as base 'markers' to characterise and differentiate these olive oil on geographic origin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Variability of 4-Monomethylsterols and 4,4'-Dimethylsterols in Olive Oil and Their Use as Indicators of Olive Variety, Ripening Degree, and Oil Storage Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Marina; Lukić, Igor; Sladonja, Barbara; Piližota, Vlasta

    2015-06-10

    To investigate the variability of 4-monomethylsterols and 4,4'-dimethylsterols in olive oil as a result of variety, ripening, and storage temperature, 36 samples were subjected to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS), and results were processed by univariate and multivariate statistics. Relative amounts (percent) of β-amyrin, cycloartenol, and 24-methylenecycloartanol accounted for the most variation due to variety, while citrostadienol (percent) and 24-methylenecycloartanol (milligrams per 100 g) were strongly affected by ripening. Multivariate statistics differentiated olive oils regardless of storage conditions, which implied the possibility to use 4-monomethyl- and 4,4'-dimethylsterols as indicators of variety and ripening degree for fresh and stored oils. Absolute changes in 4-monomethyl- and 4,4'-dimethylsterols after storage were of a much smaller magnitude, meaning the investigated olive oils essentially retained health-beneficial features that derive from these compounds. Relative changes caused by storage were specific for each storage temperature and were useful in discriminating oils by linear discriminant analysis.

  16. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  17. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  18. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University

  19. Characterisation of extra virgin olive oils from Galician autochthonous varieties and their co-crushings with Arbequina and Picual cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-06-01

    The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Olive oil production and soil and water conservation in southern Spain, in relation to EU subsidy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.; Eppink, L.A.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The European Union spent about two billion ECU per year on subsidies for the olive oil sector, of which Spain received about 35%. For the rainfed areas in southern Spain the olive oil sector is crucial, and so are these subsidies. The European Commission has formulated two options to change the

  1. Influence of the nocturnal harvesting of olives from Salento (Italy on the quality of the extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Serio, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy, some olive cultivars such as ‘Ogliarola Salentina’ ripen when the day temperature is still high, at up to 28 to 30 °C. This can affect both the oil quality and the expression of its valuable characteristics. In addition, it increases the risk of undesirable fermentation that can generate off-flavors. In the present study, nocturnal olive harvesting was carried out to determine the influence that temperature can have on the characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil, and particularly on the volatile and oxidative compounds. The data obtained are encouraging: the lower temperatures that occur during the night appear to have a particular and positive impact on the organoleptic characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil produced, with enhanced formation of the volatile compounds that contribute to the ‘green’ notes of the flavor. In areas where daytime temperatures are very high, the nocturnal harvesting of olives at the correct stage of maturity therefore represents a good agronomic practice for the production of oils with high organoleptic and nutritional merit.En el sur de Italia, algunas variedades de olivo maduran cuando la temperatura del día sigue siendo alta, hasta 28 °C a 30 °C. Esto puede perjudicar la calidad del aceite y a la expresión de sus valiosas características, y aumenta el riesgo de fermentación indeseable que puede generar malos sabores. En el presente estudio, la cosecha nocturna de aceitunas se llevó a cabo para determinar la influencia que la temperatura puede tener sobre las características del aceite de oliva virgen extra, y en particular sobre los compuestos volátiles y los compuestos relacionados con la oxidación. Los datos obtenidos son alentadores: las temperaturas más bajas que se producen durante la noche parecen tener un impacto positivo en las características organolépticas del aceite de oliva virgen extra producido, con una mejora de la formación de los compuestos vol

  2. Volatile constituents and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils: influence of the kneading of olive-paste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lercker, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crushing, olive-paste kneading and separation of the oil the most important technological steps in olive oil production since they directly influence the future quality of the product. The contact between the oil and the olive-paste increases lipolysis and lipid oxidation, which are mainly due to the highly-active lipases present in the paste and the lipoxygenase action, respectively. The choice of the technological parameters is directly related to the oil future stability and its organoleptic characteristics. This study confirms and emphasizes the fact that the oxidative degradation, simultaneously with the well-known formation of the flavor compounds, is related to the time required for the separation of the oil-water emulsion. Loss of the natural antioxidants (minor polar components by an oxidative effect was demonstrated to be also influenced by the time required for oil separation.

    La molienda de aceitunas, el batido de la pasta y la separación del aceite de oliva producen una serie de transformaciones en las características del aceite que posteriormente será extraído. Es sabido que la formación de distintos componentes del aroma del aceite derivan de reacciones oxidativas enzimáticas. El contacto entre el aceite y la pasta de aceitunas incrementa la lipolisis y la oxidación lipídica, debido a un incremento de la actividad de las lipasas presentes en la pasta y a una acción lipoxigenásica respectivamente. La elección de los parámetros tecnológicos está en relación directa con la futura estabilidad y las características organolépticas del aceite. En este trabajo se confirma la formación de tales compuestos evidenciándose la degradación oxidativa del aceite en relación al tiempo de batido empleado. Se demuestra también una pérdida de antioxidantes (componentes polares menores por efectos oxidativos en modo proporcional al tiempo de batido.

  3. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  4. Oxygen concentration affects volatile compound biosynthesis during virgin olive oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero, Carmen; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2008-06-25

    The effect of O 2 concentration on oil volatile compounds synthesized during the process to obtain virgin olive oil (VOO) was established. The study was carried out either on the whole process or within the main steps (milling and malaxation) of this process with two olive cultivars, Picual and Arbequina, at two ripening stages. Data show that O 2 control during milling has a negative impact on VOO volatile synthesis. This effect seems to depend on cultivar and on the ripening stage in cultivar Picual. Because most VOO volatiles are synthesized during olive fruit crushing at the milling step, O 2 control during malaxation seems to affect just slightly the volatile synthesis. The highest effect was observed when control of O 2 concentration was performed over the whole process. In this case, the content of volatile compounds of oils obtained from both cultivars and ripening stages showed quite similar trends.

  5. Comparative study on volatile compounds from Tunisian and Sicilian monovarietal virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouri, Olfa; Bendini, Alessandra; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Guerfel, Mokhtar; Baccouri, Béchir; Lercker, Giovanni; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daoud Ben Miled, Douja

    2008-11-15

    The effects of ripening degree of olives on volatile profile of monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOO) from Tunisian and Sicilian cultivars were investigated. Fruits obtained from Tunisia (Chétoui and Chemlali) and Italy (Nocellara del Belice, Biancolilla and Cerasuola) were picked at three different stages of ripeness and then immediately processed. Moreover, the changes in volatile composition were evaluated in Chétoui variety as a function of the irrigation regime versus the rain-fed control. Using headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique coupled to GC-MS and GC-FID, the volatile compounds of the monovarietal virgin olive oils were identified and quantitatively analyzed. The proportions of different classes of volatiles of oils showed significant differences throughout the maturity process. The results suggest that adding to the genetic factor; agronomic conditions affect the volatile formation and therefore the organoleptic properties of VOO. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carrión

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes.

  7. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic activities in extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, S; Lucas, L J; Keast, R S J

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of chronic degenerative diseases and higher life expectancy. These health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) by Mediterranean populations, and more specifically the phenolic compounds naturally present in EVOO. Studies involving humans and animals (in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have potentially beneficial biological effects resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the biological activities of specific olive oil phenolic compounds together with information on their concentration in EVOO, bioavailability and stability over time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, S.; Torres, L.; Castañer, O.

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes. [es

  9. Evaluation of a-tocopherol in virgin olive oil by a luminescent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escuderos, M. E.; Sayago, A.; Morales, M. T.; Aparicio, R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural fluorophores such as tocopherols are of great importance for the characterization and authentication of virgin olive oil. The band of the luminescent spectrum which is most accurately associated with the presence of a- tocopherol (380-420 nm) at {lambda}{sub e}xc = 350 nm was detected and its precision was evaluated once the analytical process was optimized. A virgin olive oil, cv. Cornicabra, was spiked with several quantities of a-tocopherol, from 25 mg/Kg to 1200mg/Kg, to build a ridge regression model (adjusted-R{sup 2} = 0.99) based on five wavelengths (370, 371, 378, 414 and 417 nm) which are attributed to the fluorescence of this compound. The tentative model was validated (adjusted-R2 = 0.87) with 8 samples of a virgin olive oil, cv. Picual, spiked with amounts of {alpha}-tocopherols ranging from 25 mg/kg to 250mg/kg. Finally, the model was successfully validated with 7 mono varietal virgin olive oils from various olive producing countries (adjusted - R{sup 2} = 0.92). (Author) 23 refs.

  10. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to olive oil and wine authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonor; Gomes, Sónia; Barrias, Sara; Fernandes, José Ramiro; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Olive oil and wine production have a worldwide economic impact. Their market reliability is under great concern because of the increasing number of fraud and adulteration attempts. The need for a traceability system in all its extension is crucial particularly for the cases of olive oils and wines with certified labels, in which only a limited number of olives and grapevine varieties, respectively, are allowed in a restricted well-defined geographical area. Molecular markers have been vastly applied to the food sector, and in particular High-Resolution DNA Melting technology has been successfully applied for olive oil and wine authentication, as part of the traceability system. In this review, the applications of HRM and their usefulness for this sector considering, Safety, Security and Authenticity will be reviewed. A broad overview of the HRM technique will be presented, focusing on the aspects that are crucial for its success, in particular the new generation of fluorescent dsDNA dyes used for amplicon detection and quantification, and the data analysis. A brief outlook on the olive oil and wine authenticity procedures, based on new DNA technology advances, and in which way this may influence the future establishment of a traceability system will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellag, Hocine

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influences of the factors, which can have effect on oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane, are studied. From the experimental results, a mathematical model for calculation of the extraction yield is proposed. The statistical tests used to obtain this model show that the yield does not depend on the granulometry and the stirring rate, but depends on the temperature, the contact time and the liquid-solid ratio (L/S. Also, it depends on interactions between time and temperature and interactions between time and L/S. The comparison of the results given by the experiment and the model allows us to say that the model is satisfactory.En este artículo se estudia la influencia de los factores que pueden tener efecto en la extracción del aceite de orujo usando hexano. Se propone a partir de los resultados experimentales, un modelo matemático para el cálculo del rendimiento de la extracción. Los tests estadísticos utilizados para obtener este modelo mostraron que el rendimiento no depende de la granulometría ni de la velocidad de agitación, pero si depende de la temperatura, del tiempo de contacto y de la relación líquido-sólido (L/S. También depende de las interacciones entre el tiempo y la temperatura y entre el tiempo y la relación L/S. La comparación entre los resultados experimentales y el modelo nos permite decir que dicho modelo es satisfactorio.

  12. The use of IRMS, (1)H NMR and chemical analysis to characterise Italian and imported Tunisian olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camin, Federica; Pavone, Anita; Bontempo, Luana; Wehrens, Ron; Paolini, Mauro; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Capitani, Donatella; Vista, Silvia; Mannina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR), conventional chemical analysis and chemometric elaboration were used to assess quality and to define and confirm the geographical origin of 177 Italian PDO (Protected Denomination of Origin) olive oils and 86 samples imported from Tunisia. Italian olive oils were richer in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids, whereas Tunisian olive oils showed higher δ(18)O, δ(2)H, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids β-sitosterol, sn-1 and 3 diglyceride values. Furthermore, all the Tunisian samples imported were of poor quality, with a K232 and/or acidity values above the limits established for extra virgin olive oils. By combining isotopic composition with (1)H NMR data using a multivariate statistical approach, a statistical model able to discriminate olive oil from Italy and those imported from Tunisia was obtained, with an optimal differentiation ability arriving at around 98%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of olive oil phenolic compounds in rat tissues after administration of a phenolic extract from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Rubió, Laura; Borràs, Xenia; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2012-03-01

    The distribution and accumulation of olive oil phenolic compounds in the body are topics lacked of information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability, metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds from olive cake. The metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds were examined by UPLC-MS/MS after an acute intake of a phenolic extract from olive cake, analyzing plasma and tissues (heart, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, testicle and thymus) 1, 2 and 4 h after ingestion using Wistar rats as the in vivo model. The results showed a wide distribution of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in the tissues, with a main detoxification route through the kidneys. Highlighting the quantification of the free forms of some phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein derivative in plasma (Cmax 4 h: 24 nmol/L) and brain (Cmax 2 h: 2.8 nmol/g), luteolin in kidney (Cmax 1 h: 0.04 nmol/g), testicle (Cmax 2 h: 0.07 nmol/g) and heart (Cmax 1 h: 0.47 nmol/g); and hydroxytyrosol in plasma (Cmax 2 h: 5.2 nmol/L), kidney (Cmax 4 h: 3.8 nmol/g) and testicle (Cmax 2 h: 2.7 nmol/g). After a single ingestion of olive oil phenolic compounds, these were absorbed, metabolized and distributed through the blood stream to practically all parts of the body, even across the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Evaluation of the overall quality of olive oil using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2015-04-15

    The fluorescence spectra of some olive oils were examined in their natural and oxidised state, with wavelength range emissions of 300-800 nm and 300-400 nm used as excitation radiation. The fluorescence emissions were measured and an assessment was made of the relationship between them and the main quality parameters of olive oils, such as peroxide value, K232, K270 and acidity. These quality parameters (peroxide value, K232, K270 and acidity) are determined by laboratory methods, which though not too sophisticated, they are required solvents and materials as well as time consuming and sample preparation; there is a need for rapid analytical techniques and a low-cost technology for olive oil quality control. The oxidised oils studied had a strong fluorescence band at 430-450 nm. Extra virgin olive oil gave a different but interesting fluorescence spectrum, composed of three bands: one low intensity doublet at 440 and 455 nm; one strong band at 525 nm; and one of medium intensity at 681 nm. The band at 681 nm was identified as the chlorophyll band. The band at 525 nm was derived, at least partially, from vitamin E. The results presented demonstrate the ability of the fluorescence technique, combined with multivariate analysis, to characterise olive oils on the basis of all the quality parameters studied. Prediction models were obtained using various methods, such as partial least squares (PLS), N-way PLS (N-PLS) and external validation, in order to obtain an overall evaluation of oil quality. The best results were obtained for predicting K270 with a root mean square (RMS) prediction error of 0.08 and a correlation coefficient obtained with the external validation of 0.924. Fluorescence spectroscopy facilitates the detection of virgin olive oils obtained from defective or poorly maintained fruits (high acidity), fruits that are highly degraded in the early stages (with a high peroxide value) and oils in advanced stages of oxidation, with secondary oxidation compounds

  15. Analysis of free hydroxytyrosol in human plasma following the administration of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Antoni; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Olesti, Eulàlia; Pujadas, Mitona; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Khymenets, Olha; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, María-Isabel; Solá, Rosa; Motilva, María-José; Farré, Magí; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-03-11

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) from olive oil, a potent bioactive molecule with health benefits, has a poor bioavailability, its free form (free HT) being undetectable so far. This fact leads to the controversy whether attained HT concentrations after olive oil polyphenol ingestion are too low to explain the observed biological activities. Due to this, an analytical methodology to determine free HT in plasma is crucial for understanding HT biological activity. Plasma HT instability and low concentrations have been major limitations for its quantification in clinical studies. Here, we describe a method to detect and quantify free HT in human plasma by using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The method encompasses different steps of sample preparation including plasma stabilization, protein precipitation, selective derivatization with benzylamine, and purification by solid-phase extraction. A high sensitivity (LOD, 0.3ng/mL), specificity and stability of HT is achieved following these procedures. The method was validated and its applicability was demonstrated by analyzing human plasma samples after olive oil intake. A pharmacokinetic comparison was performed measuring free HT plasma concentrations following the intake of 25mL of ordinary olive oil (nearly undetectable concentrations) versus an extra-virgin olive oil (Cmax=4.40ng/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first time that an analytical procedure for quantifying free HT in plasma after olive oil dietary doses has been reported. The present methodology opens the door to a better understanding of the relationship between HT plasma concentrations and its beneficial health effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of volatile compounds by GC-IMS to assign the quality of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, María del Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-11-15

    The characterisation of different olive oil categories (extra virgin, virgin and lampante) using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) was improved by replacing the multicapillary column (MCC) with a capillary column (CC). The data obtained with MCC-IMS and CC-IMS were evaluated, studying both the global and the specific information obtained after the analysis of the volatile fraction of olive oils. A better differentiation of the oil categories was obtained employing CC vs MCC, since the classification percentage obtained with the CC-IMS was 92% as opposed to 87% obtained with MCC-IMS; although in productivity analytical terms, MCC offer a faster analysis than GC. The specific information obtained was also used to build a database, with a view to facilitating the characterization of specific attributes of olive oils. A total of 26 volatile metabolites (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and esters) were identified. Finally, as revealed by an ANOVA test, some volatiles differed markedly in content among the different categories of oil. The data obtained confirms the potential of IMS as a reliable analytical screening technique, which can be used to assign the correct category to an olive oil sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the effects of heating of virgin olive oil blended with mildly deodorized olive oil: focus on the hydrolytic and oxidative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Valli, Enrico; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Chiavaro, Emma; Lercker, Giovanni

    2009-11-11

    In this study, mildly deodorized olive oil (DEO) and its admixtures with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been analyzed after heating treatments by microwave and conventional oven. Different patterns in oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of lipids in genuine and sophisticated olive oils have been evaluated by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods and related to heating treatments. The experimental plan focused on the assessment of the (a) hydrolytic degree of the samples by the free acidity and the 1,2- and 1,3-diacylglycerols (DAG) determinations; (b) oxidative status of the samples by the assessment of the peroxide value (POV) and oxidized fatty acid (OFA), the specific absorption at 270 nm (k(270)), the accelerated aging test (OSI) and volatile compounds. In general, the thermal treatment by conventional oven led to a higher content of 1,3-DAG and secondary oxidation products than microwave heating. A duo-trio sensory test was also performed: tasters were not able to discriminate between EVOO and DEO heated by conventional oven whereas they were when oils were microwaved.

  18. The Impact of Olive Oil Exports on Economic Growth: Empirical Analysis from Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Bakari, Sayef

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is investigating the influence of olive oil exports on Tunisian economic growth since it's never been treated before. With a view to fulfill this aim, annual data were compiled from the reports of Tunisian Central Bank for the periods between 1970 and 2016, was put to the proof by using Co integration analysis of Error Correction Model. According to the outcome of the analysis, olive oil exports have a positive incidence of economic growth in the long term and i...

  19. Preparation of a new gamma irradiated PVC-Olive oil cake plastic composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaud, F.A.; Almsmary, Y.A.; Elwerfalli, S.M.; Benayad, S.M.; Haraga, S.O.; Benfaid, N.A.; Kabar, Y.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper dealt with the investigation on preparing new plastic composite material, utilizing polyvinyl chloride polymer (a commercial product in abu-kammash chemical complex) and olive oil cake (a waste of many olive oil production factories), followed by gamma irradiation (26.3 Kg ry) o induce crosslinking of the polymer. The new material possess good, electrical and mechanical properties as compared to plastic products of (PVC plastic pipe factory), and which could be used as new construction anti corrosive material, such as special roofing and partitioning or household goods

  20. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    OpenAIRE

    Bender,J. P.; Junges,A.; Franceschi,E.; Corazza,F. C.; Dariva,C.; Oliveira,J. Vladimir; Corazza,M. L.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (L...

  1. Quantification of Squalene in Olive Oil Using 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Nam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the course of our ongoing work on the chemical characterization of Corsican olive oil, we have developed and validated a method for direct quantification of squalene using 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy without saponification, extraction, or fractionation of the investigated samples. Good accuracy, linearity, and precision of the measurements have been observed. The experimental procedure was applied to the quantification of squalene in 24 olive oil samples from Corsica. Squalene accounted for 0.35–0.83% of the whole composition.

  2. Determination of water content in olive oil by 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzakis, Emmanuel; Dais, Photis

    2008-03-26

    A method for moisture determination in olive oil using 31P NMR spectroscopy is developed. This method is based on the replacement of the hydrogen atoms of water molecules with the tagging agents 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane and diphenylphosphinic chloride. Both reagents were successful in determining moisture in olive oil. However, only the second reagent provided a clean and instantaneous reaction under mild condition with no side reactions as observed with the first reagent. A study comparison was made to assess the agreement between the present analytical NMR method and the well-established methods of Karl Fischer titration.

  3. Modulation of Nrf2 by Olive Oil and Wine Polyphenols and Neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Boronat, Anna; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-09-26

    Strong adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with improved cognitive function and a lower prevalence of mild cognitive impairment. Olive oil and red wine are rich sources of polyphenols which are responsible in part for the beneficial effects on cognitive functioning. Polyphenols induce endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms by modulating transcription factors such as the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). This review discusses the scientific data supporting the modulating effect of olive oil and red wine polyphenols on Nrf2 expression, and the potential health benefits associated with cognitive functioning.

  4. Modulation of Nrf2 by Olive Oil and Wine Polyphenols and Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Martínez-Huélamo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with improved cognitive function and a lower prevalence of mild cognitive impairment. Olive oil and red wine are rich sources of polyphenols which are responsible in part for the beneficial effects on cognitive functioning. Polyphenols induce endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms by modulating transcription factors such as the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. This review discusses the scientific data supporting the modulating effect of olive oil and red wine polyphenols on Nrf2 expression, and the potential health benefits associated with cognitive functioning.

  5. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance study of olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coco, Laura; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2012-05-01

    Multivariate analysis of (1)H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy's leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions.

  6. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Del Coco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain, Kalamata (Greece and Sfax (Tunisia. The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples and the second group (2 samples showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils tested were closer to Greek (in particular and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions.

  7. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry To Control the Aroma Fingerprint of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Three Tunisian Cultivars at Three Harvest Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Amanpour, Asghar; Chtourou, Fatma; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-03-21

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry was used for the analysis of volatile compounds and key odorants of three less studied Tunisian olive oil cultivars for the first time. A total of 42 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in extra virgin olive oils. The present study revealed that the most dominant volatiles in olive oil samples qualitatively and quantitatively were aldehydes and alcohols, followed by terpenes and esters. Indeed, chemometric analysis has shown a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. The determination of aroma-active compounds of olive oil samples was carried out using aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 15 aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract of extra virgin olive oil, of which 14 were identified. On the basis of the flavor dilution (FD) factor, the most potent aromatic active compound was hexanal (FD = 512) in Fakhari olive oil, (FD = 256) in Touffehi oils, and (FD = 128) in Jemri olive oil.

  8. Composition, quality and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils from some selected wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the characterization of virgin olive oils from wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster was conducted in order to define new cultivars which are welladapted to the Tunisian environment and yield high quality oils. The study was done during the crop years 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06. The main analytical parameters of the oils were evaluated: fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds as well as their relationship with oxidative stability. The fatty acid composition of all the wild olive trees tested produced virgin olive oil which complies with commercial standards, as well as for their appreciable amounts of tocopherols and phenolic compounds. Tocopherol analysis by HPLC revealed the presence of α, β, γ and δ tocopherols in all the studied olive oils. Total tocopherol content was significantly influenced by the varietal factor. It ranged from 310 (SB12 to 780 mg/kg (H3. As for total tocopherols, the amount of each tocopherol varied according to genotype. α tocopherol is the most prominent, whereas β, γ and δ tocopherols are less represented. Results showed a clear influence of total phenols and o-diphenols on virgin olive oil stability (R = 0.905, 0.963 P En este trabajo se han caracterizado los aceites obtenidos a partir de siete acebuches previamente seleccionados entre varias poblaciones de Olea europea L. Subsp. oleaster. El estudio se llevó a cabo durante las campañas de producción 2003/04, 2004/05 y 2005/06.Varios parámetros analíticos fueron evaluados: composiciones en ácidos grasos, pigmentos, tocoferoles, fenoles; así mismo, se investigó la relación de estos parámetros con la estabilidad de los aceites. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que todas las muestras de frutos de acebuche produjeron aceites cuya composición de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y compuestos fenólicos cumplió las normas comerciales para aceite de oliva virgen del Comit

  9. Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Cichelli, Angelo; Lagazio, Corrado; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-01-15

    The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterised by low molecular weight compounds that vaporise at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, the composition of the volatile compounds was determined by applying dynamic headspace gas chromatography, performed at room temperature, with a cryogenic trap directly connected to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. Samples were also evaluated according to European Union and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analysed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Forty-two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analysed samples, classified as extra virgin by the panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odour properties ('green-fruity' and 'sweet') and olfactory perception. Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and the panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups: sweet types or green types. Sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odour properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas the green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms proves to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation. © 2015

  10. Effect of agricultural sites on differentiation between Chemlali and Neb Jmel olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Amir Ben; Gargouri, Boutheina; Flamini, Guido; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition, oxidative stability, aroma and sensory profiles of virgin olive oils from two Tunisian cultivars, Chemlali and Neb Jmel, grown in two different locations, the center and south of Tunisia, have been evaluated. There were significant differences between the oils from both cultivars when grown in the two different environments. At higher altitude, the oils showed a greater amount of oleic acid, phenols and a higher oxidative stability, while at lower altitude, the oils had higher saturated and linoleic acid contents. The aroma profiles in Chemlali and Neb Jmel cultivars were also influenced by the pedoclimatic conditions, as shown by the difference in volatiles as a function of the geographical area. The volatile compounds of the monovarietal virgin olive oils were identified and compared using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique coupled with GC-MS and GC-FID. The proportions of different classes of volatiles of the oils have shown significant differences throughout the obtained oils. These results suggest that besides the genetic factor, the agronomic conditions affect the volatile formation and, therefore, the organoleptic properties of VOO, and can be used to discriminate and characterize the Chemlali and Neb Jmel olive oils from each region.

  11. Sensory analysis and consumer acceptance of 140 high-quality extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Popp, Martin; Bongartz, Annette

    2014-08-01

    Sensory analysis is a crucial tool for evaluating the quality of extra virgin olive oils. One aim of such an investigation is to verify if the sensory attributes themselves - which are strictly related to volatile and phenolic compounds - may permit the discrimination of high-quality products obtained by olives of different cultivars and/or grown in various regions. Moreover, a crucial topic is to investigate the interdependency between relevant parameters determining consumer acceptance and objective sensory characteristics evaluated by the panel test. By statistically analysing the sensory results, a grouping - but not discriminatory - effect was shown for some cultivars and some producing areas. The preference map shows that the most appreciated samples by consumers were situated in the direction of the 'ripe fruity' and 'sweet' axis and opposite to the 'bitter' and 'other attributes' (pungent, green fruity, freshly cut grass, green tomato, harmony, persistency) axis. Extra virgin olive oils produced from olives of the same cultivars and grown in the same areas shared similar sensorial attributes. Some differences in terms of expectation and interpretation of sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oils might be present for consumers and panellists: most of the consumers appear unfamiliar with positive sensorial attributes, such as bitterness and pungency. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils with regard to fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouri, Olfa; Guerfel, Mokhtar; Baccouri, Bechir; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Lercker, Giovanni; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daoud Ben Miled, Douja

    2008-08-15

    The chemical composition of virgin olive oil may be influenced by genotype and different agronomic (i.e. fruit ripeness degree, water supply) and technological factors. This article reports the evaluation of the influence of the olive ripening stage on the quality indices, the major and the minor components and the oxidative stability of the two main monovarietal Tunisian cultivars (cvv. Chétoui and Chemlali) virgin olive oils. Moreover, the olives cv. Chétoui were tested in a rain-fed control and an irrigation regime. The oils sampled at five different ripeness stages were submitted to liquid chromatographic determination (HPLC-DAD/MSD) of their quali-quantitative phenolic and tocopherolic profiles. Moreover, the triacylglycerol and fatty acid compositions, and minor components such as squalene, pigments and their relation with the oil oxidative stability were evaluated. The tested oils showed very good correlation between the oxidative stability and the concentrations of total phenols, practically secoiridoids and α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. OLIVE PASTE CONSISTENCY AS A CONTROL PARAMETER FOR OIL EXTRACTION: A PRELIMINARY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piernicola Masella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaxation is a critical step of olive oil extraction process as it can largely affect the extraction yield along with product quality. At present, malaxation control is based upon accumulated empirical results and the experience of the operators. There are evidences that this method rarely point out the olive-paste state suitable for oil extraction. The paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation aimed to verify the feasibility of using the olive paste consistency variation during malaxation as a parameter representing the right state for oil extraction. Olive pastes consistency evaluation was performed with a rotational rheometer. Oil extraction yield was evaluated by means of an extractability index (EI determined by laboratory centrifugation of the paste. The effect of different malaxation time and pastes humidity was investigated. Both malaxation time and humidity increments involve significant decrements of paste consistency and a simultaneous increase of EI. A good linear correlation among paste consistency and EI has been found, i.e. a large proportion of EI variance, about 90%, can be explained in terms of paste consistency variation during malaxation. The availability of a measurable parameter representing the paste state suitable for oil extraction could allow to implement a “closed-loop” control system for extraction yield maximization.

  14. Working towards the development of innovative ultrasound equipment for the extraction of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Durante, Viviana; La Notte, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Malaxation has been recognized as one of the most critical points in the mechanical extraction process for virgin olive oil (VOO). It is a low and continuous kneading of olive paste at a carefully monitored temperature. Through this essential technological operation the small droplets of the oil formed during the milling merge into large drops that can be easily separated with a decanter centrifuge. During this technological phase, a complex and necessary bioprocess takes place in order to determine the quality and composition of the final product. The malaxer is a heat exchanger characterized by a low overall heat transfer coefficient because the ratio of surface area to volume is disadvantageous, so it is important to find an innovative technology to improve heat-exchange. As matter of fact, the malaxing step is the only discontinuous phase in a continuous extraction process. In the next future, the essential challenge of VOO industrial plant manufacturing sector is to design and build advanced machines in order to transform the discontinuous malaxing step in a continuous phase and improve the working capacity of the industrial plants. In order to reduce the malaxing time enhancing the quality of the product, two ultrasound-assisted virgin olive oil extraction processes were tested against the traditional method. The sonication treatment was applied on olives submerged in a water bath (before the crushing) and on olive paste (after the crushing). The ultrasound technology provides a reduction of the malaxing duration improving VOO yields and its minor compounds content. Better extractibility and higher minor compounds contents were obtained by sonicating the olives submerged in a water bath than olive paste. After experimental trials the results were employed to suggest innovative scaling up solutions of the process and new applications of ultrasounds in the VOO industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of ultrasound on olive oil extraction and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of extra virgin olive oil by response surface methodology (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydar, A.Y.; Bağdatlıoğlu, N.; Köseoğlu, O.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different extraction parameters including ultrasound time, temperature and malaxation time on olive oil quality were investigated. The extraction variables ultrasound initial temperature (20–50 °C), ultrasound time (2–10 min) and malaxation time (30–50 min) were studied to obtain ideal conditions of ultrasonic treatment on the olive paste for obtaining of a greater yield in the extraction of oil, while maintaining a maximum level of commercial quality. To evaluate the level of commercial quality, absorbance in the UV region, peroxide (PV) and free acidity values (AV), the total chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenol contents, total antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of EVOOs extracted from Edremit cultivar were determined. The optimum conditions were found to be 50 °C, 2 min and 43.23 min for ultrasound initial temperature, sonication time and malaxation time, respectively. This optimal condition gave an extraction yield of 8.25 % and the acidity value of 0.24 mg oleic acid/100 g olive oil. The experimental values obtained under optimal conditions were in agreement with the theoretical values [es

  16. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  17. Olive oil DNA fingerprinting by multiplex SNP genotyping on fluorescent microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogianni, Despina P; Bazakos, Christos; Boutsika, Lemonia M; Targem, Mehdi Ben; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis; Ioannou, Penelope C

    2015-04-01

    Olive oil cultivar verification is of primary importance for the competitiveness of the product and the protection of consumers and producers from fraudulence. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have emerged as excellent DNA markers for authenticity testing. This paper reports the first multiplex SNP genotyping assay for olive oil cultivar identification that is performed on a suspension of fluorescence-encoded microspheres. Up to 100 sets of microspheres, with unique "fluorescence signatures", are available. Allele discrimination was accomplished by primer extension reaction. The reaction products were captured via hybridization on the microspheres and analyzed, within seconds, by a flow cytometer. The "fluorescence signature" of each microsphere is assigned to a specific allele, whereas the signal from a reporter fluorophore denotes the presence of the allele. As a model, a panel of three SNPs was chosen that enabled identification of five common Greek olive cultivars (Adramytini, Chondrolia Chalkidikis, Kalamon, Koroneiki, and Valanolia).

  18. In situ net N mineralisation and nitrification under organic and conventionally managed olive oil orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Hinojosa, M. B.; García-Ruiz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil orchard occupies a great percentage of the cropland in southern Spain. Thus, changes in nitrogen (N) fertilization might have a great effect on N dynamics at least at regional scale, which should be investigated for a sustainable N fertilization program. In situ net N mineralization (NM......) and nitrification (NN) were investigated during a year in comparable organic (OR) and conventional (CV) olive oil orchards of two locations differing their N input. Soil samples were collected in two soil positions (under and between trees canopy) and both buried-bags and soil core techniques were used to quantify...... soil TN. Soil TN and PMN explained together a 50 % of the variability in soil N availability, which suggests that these two variables are good predictors of the potential of a soil to provide available N. The highest rates of soil N availability were found in spring, when olive tree demand for N...

  19. Lipid components of olive oil from Tunisian Cv. Sayali: characterization and authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakouhi, Faouzi; Absalon, Christelle; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2010-09-01

    The analysis of the total lipid fraction from the Sayali variety of olive oil was accomplished in the present investigation. Glyceridic, unsaponifiable and flavour fractions of the oil were isolated and identified using several analytical methods. Chromatographic techniques have proven to be suitable for these determinations, especially capillary gas chromatography. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was successfully used to identify sterols, triterpenes alcohols, 4-monomethylsterols, aliphatic alcohols and aroma compounds in our samples. Furthermore, solid phase microextraction was used to isolate volatiles from the total lipid fraction. Results from the quantitative characterization of Sayali olive oil showed that oleic acid (77.4%) and triolein (47.4%) were the dominant glyceridic components. However, the main compounds of the unsaponifiable fraction were beta-sitosterol (147.5mg/100g oil), 24-methylene cycloartenol (146.4mg/100g oil) and hexacosanol (49.3mg/100g oil). Moreover, results showed that the aldehydic compounds were the major flavours present in Sayali olive oil.

  20. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrancosa) from different irrigation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.; Falco, V.; Correia, C. M.; Villalobos, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil VOO) from the cv. cobrancosa- integrated into a protected denomination of origin of Azeite de Tras-os-Montes in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2)-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET{sub c}), (T1)-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc) and (T0)- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006). Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts. (Author) 34 refs.

  1. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Bova Olive Cultivar and Aroma Fingerprint of Its Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study aims to contribute to the characterization of Istrian (Croatia olive cultivars and oil, giving for the first time the morphological and genetic profile of Bova cultivar, and chemical and sensorial characteristics of its oil. Morphological features of Bova cv. were determined according to the International Olive Council methodology, while molecular characterization was performed using eleven microsatellite markers. Bova cultivar was morphologically and genetically different from other described Istrian olive cultivars. The microsatellite profile of Bova was also unique when compared to more than 200 different Italian genotypes using the same set of markers. In order to characterize the oil from Bova cv., fruits from three trees at the same ripening stage were harvested and processed separately under the same conditions. Volatile composition of the obtained oil samples was determined using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. About 50 volatiles were detected, mostly hydrocarbons (34.69 % of total peak area, followed by aldehydes (25.80 %, alcohols (22.24 %, ketones (8.76 %, organic acids (4.08 %, terpenes (2.10 %, esters (2.18 % and furans (0.26 %. Bova oil was rich in total C6 (39.87 % and C5 volatiles (13.85 %, biogenerated through the lipoxygenase pathway. The most prevalent volatile compound was C6 aldehyde E-2-hexenal. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of the investigated olive oil samples was carried out by a sensory panel. The sensory profile was characterized by medium intensities of olive fruity, green leaves and grass, light tomato and aromatic herbs flavours with mild apple and other ripe fruit notes. The taste was characterized by medium to strong bitterness, followed by medium pungency and mild sweetness.

  2. Effect Of Dried Olive Oil By-Product Supplementation To Ration On The Performance Of Local Ewes And Their Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dried olive oil by-products (0, 15 and 30% replacement) on the performance of lactating local ewes and their lambs are the main object of this study. Biochemical, physiological and toxicological aspects, and the safety environmental clearance and fed supplementation of olive oil by-products in ewes feeding are also studied. Moreover, the economic value of olive oil by-products replacement in addition may participate partially in ruminant feeding in Egypt. In the present study, twenty four local dairy ewes at the end of pregnancy (1 weeks before parturition) were used in the 3 experimental diets with 0, 15 and 30% olive oil by-products supplementation and prolonged after weaning and during suckling period (8 weeks after lambing). The 1st lactating lambs of ewes was supplemented with 15% olive oil by-products, the 2nd lactating lambs of ewes supplemented with 30% olive oil by-products and the 3rd lactating lambs of ewes served as control. The results showed that the performance of both ewes and their lambs during the experimental period was improved. It can be concluded that olive oil by-products can partially replace sugar beet pulp in diets of growing and lactating ruminants

  3. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschandreas, J; Vissers, M N; Wiseman, S; van Putte, K P; Kafatos, A

    2002-10-01

    To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. The Medical School and University Hospital of the University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Twenty-five healthy males and females completed the study. Each intervention was of three weeks duration and intervention periods were separated by a two week washout. Seventy grams of extra virgin olive oil was supplied to each subject per day in the intervention periods. The olive oils supplied differed in their phenol content by 18.6 mg/day. Two fasting venous blood samples were taken at the end of each intervention period. The markers of antioxidant capacity measured in fasting plasma samples (total plasma resistance to oxidation, concentrations of protein carbonyl as a marker of protein oxidation, malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides as markers of lipid oxidation and the ferric reducing ability of plasma) did not differ significantly between the low and high phenol olive oil diets. No effect of olive oil phenols on markers of oxidation in smokers was detected. It may be that the natural concentrations of phenols in olive oil are too low to produce an effect in the post-absorptive phase. Possible reasons for period effects and interactions between diet and administration period need attention to aid further cross-over trials of this kind. Unilever Research Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.

  4. Sterolic composition of Chétoui virgin olive oil: Influence of geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temime, Sonia Ben; Manai, Hedia; Methenni, Kaouther; Baccouri, Bechir; Abaza, Leila; Daoud, Douja; Casas, Jacinto Sánchez; Bueno, Emilio Osorio; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2008-09-15

    The sterol profile of Tunisian virgin olive oils produced from Chétoui cultivar, the second main variety cultivated in the north of the country, grown under different environmental conditions, was established by gas chromatography using a flame ionisation detector. More than ten compounds were identified and characterised. As expected for virgin olive oil, the main sterols found in all Chétoui olive oils were β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. Cholesterol, 24-methylenecholesterol, clerosterol, campestanol, sitostanol, Δ7-stigmastenol, Δ5,24-stigmastadienol, and Δ7-avenasterol were also found in all samples, but in lower amounts. Most of these compounds are significantly affected by the geographical origin. The majority of the Chétoui virgin olive oils analysed respected EC Regulation No. 2568, and in all cases total sterol amounts were higher than the minimum limit set by legislation, ranging from 1017 to 1522mg/kg. Two triterpenic dialcohols (erythrodiol and uvaol), were also detected besides the sterolic components. Their content was below the upper legal limit of 4% in all analysed samples, with a range from 1.2% to 3.2%. These results suggest that, besides the genetic factor, environmental conditions influence the sterolic fraction. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of different concentrations of olive oil and oleic acid on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of olive oil and oleic acid addition to albumin (egg white) through emulsification to produce films on mechanical properties. Plasticizer was necessary to maintain film and coating integrity and to avoid pores cracks. Edible composite films were prepared from ...

  6. SNP marker analysis for validating the authenticity of Tunisian olive oil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, P.B. '1177', 3018 Sfax, Tunisia. 2Laboratory of Physics-Mathematics and Applications, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, BP 1177, 3000 Sfax, Tunisia. [Ben Ayed R., Kallel I., Ben Hassen H. and Rebai A. 2014 SNP marker analysis for validating the authenticity of Tunisian olive oil. J. Genet.

  7. Effect of phenol-rich extra virgin olive oil on markers of oxidation in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Wiseman, S.A.; Meyboom, S.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We studied whether consumption of phenol-rich extra virgin olive oil affects the susceptibility of low density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidation and other markers of oxidation in humans. Design: Randomized cross-over intervention trial, stratified according to sex, age and energy intake.

  8. Influence of olive oil mill waste amendment on fate of oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...

  9. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CORN AND OLIVE OIL VERSUS COCONUT FAT ON BILIARY CHOLESTEROL SECRETION IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; WOLTERS, H; TEMMERMAN, AM; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the effects of dietary corn and olive oil versus coconut fat on bile formation and fluidity of hepatic plasma membranes in rats. After 4 weeks of feeding the purified diets containing 9% (w/w) of the test fats, there was no difference in plasma cholesterol concentration between the

  10. The effect of olive oil polyphenols on antibodies against oxidized LDL. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castañer, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIM: Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is a highly immunogenic particle that plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Some data suggest a protective role of OxLDL autoantibodies (OLAB) in atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the effect of olive oil polyphenols on the immunogenicity...

  11. Heterogeneity and nonlinearity in consumers’ preferences: An application to the olive oil shopping behavior in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Muñoz, Rodrigo Alejandro; Cabas-Monje, Juan Hernán; Garrido-Henrríquez, Héctor Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In relatively unknown products, consumers use prices as a quality reference. Under such circumstances, the utility function can be non-negative for a specific price range and generate an inverted U-shaped function. The extra virgin olive oil market in Chile is a good example. Although domestic production and consumption have increased significantly in the last few years, consumer knowledge of this product is still limited. The objective of this study was to analyze Chilean consumer preferences and willingness to pay for extra virgin olive oil attributes. Consumers were segmented taking into account purchasing frequency. A Random Parameter Logit model was estimated for preference heterogeneity. Results indicate that the utility function is nonlinear allowing us to differentiate between two regimes. In the first regime, olive oil behaves as a conspicuous good, that is, higher utility is assigned to higher prices and consumers prefer foreign products in smaller containers. Under the second regime, Chilean olive oil in larger containers is preferred. PMID:28892516

  12. Optimization of Malaxation Process using Major Aroma Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Cevik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Optimization of major aroma compounds in olive oils produced from fruits at three maturity stages wasstudied. A central composite design was used for the optimization of malaxation conditions of temperature and times, each at five levels with 13 runs including five central points. The responses of interest were trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, which were investigated and their contents were optimized. A full quadratic second order regression model including the linear, quadratic, and two factor interaction effects was proposed to explain the variation in the contents of target compounds depending on the malaxation conditions. Adequacies of models were evaluated by checking regression coefficients for each model. Models were found to work with high success for trans-2-hexenal prediction for oils from fruits at both purple and black stages, whereas the model for hexanalwas only in black stage oil. Their regression coefficients were higher than 0.86. Influences of time and temperature for the malaxation process were found to be significant for the transition of major aroma compounds from the fruit matrix to olive oil. The optimum conditions of temperature and time pairs to maximize trans-2-hexenal and hexanal was found to be 23°C/31 minutes for black olive and to maximize only trans-2-hexenal was also 29°C/41 minutes for purple olive.

  13. SNP marker analysis for validating the authenticity of Tunisian olive oil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The other. SNP, called SOD, is an insertion/deletion polymorphism type localized in Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase gene which is involved in the oxidative stress, one of .... Authenticity of olive oil by SNP markers. Table 1. Characteristics of SNP markers used for DNA amplification. Size of. SNP amplicon. Gene name. SNPs.

  14. Thermal diffusivity estimation of the olive oil during its high-pressure treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubásek, M.; Houška, M.; Landfeld, A.; Strohalm, J.; Kamarád, Jiří; Žitný, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 74, - (2006), s. 286-291 ISSN 0260-8774 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : olive oil * food processing * high pressure * thermal diffusivity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.696, year: 2006

  15. Virgin olive oil blended polyurethane micro/nanofibers ornamented with copper oxide nanocrystals for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Yang, Jieun; Khil, Myung-Seob; Song, Ki-Duk; Oh, Jae-Don; Hwang, Inho

    2014-01-01

    Recently, substantial interest has been generated in using electrospun biomimetic nanofibers of hybrids, particularly organic/inorganic, to engineer different tissues. The present work, for the first time, introduced a unique natural and synthetic hybrid micronanofiber wound dressing, composed of virgin olive oil/copper oxide nanocrystals and polyurethane (PU), developed via facile electrospinning. The as-spun organic/inorganic hybrid micronanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The interaction of cells with scaffold was studied by culturing NIH 3T3 fibroblasts on an as-spun hybrid micronanofibrous mat, and viability, proliferation, and growth were assessed. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results and SEM observation showed that the hybrid micronanofibrous scaffold was noncytotoxic to fibroblast cell culture and was found to benefit cell attachment and proliferation. Hence our results suggest the potential utilization of as-spun micronanoscaffolds for tissue engineering. Copper oxide-olive oil/PU wound dressing may exert its positive beneficial effects at every stage during wound-healing progression, and these micronanofibers may serve diverse biomedical applications, such as tissue regeneration, damaged skin treatment, wound healing applications, etc. Conclusively, the fabricated olive oil-copper oxide/PU micronanofibers combine the benefits of virgin olive oil and copper oxide, and therefore hold great promise for biomedical applications in the near future.

  16. Membrane composition and dynamics: a target of bioactive virgin olive oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2014-06-01

    The endogenous synthesis of lipids, which requires suitable dietary raw materials, is critical for the formation of membrane bilayers. In eukaryotic cells, phospholipids are the predominant membrane lipids and consist of hydrophobic acyl chains attached to a hydrophilic head group. The relative balance between saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated acyl chains is required for the organization and normal function of membranes. Virgin olive oil is the richest natural dietary source of the monounsaturated lipid oleic acid and is one of the key components of the healthy Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil also contains a unique constellation of many other lipophilic and amphipathic constituents whose health benefits are still being discovered. The focus of this review is the latest evidence regarding the impact of oleic acid and the minor constituents of virgin olive oil on the arrangement and behavior of lipid bilayers. We highlight the relevance of these interactions to the potential use of virgin olive oil in preserving the functional properties of membranes to maintain health and in modulating membrane functions that can be altered in several pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutraceutical properties of extra-virgin olive oil: a natural remedy for age-related disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virruso, Claudia; Accardi, Giulia; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Candore, Giuseppina; Vasto, Sonya; Caruso, Calogero

    2014-04-01

    The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet can be largely ascribed to the nutraceutical properties of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Mono-unsaturated fatty acids and various phenolic compounds, such as oleocanthal, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol, are the main nutraceutical substances of EVOO. These substances have been suggested to have the ability to modulate aging-associated processes. In experimental models, it has been shown that EVOO with high concentrations of polyphenols has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Indeed, it was observed that hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal inhibit the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2) responsible for prostaglandin production; oleuropein is a radical scavenger that blocks the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins. Due to the relevance of olive oil in the economy of Sicily, our group has been funded to assess the nutraceutical properties of different kinds of olive oil. Indeed, the aim of the study is to evaluate effects of EVOOs, with low and high polyphenols content, on immuno-inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in young and old people. A further objective of our group is to evaluate effects of EVOO, with low and high polyphenol content, on the expression of genes encoding proteins that take part in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway involved in longevity. The results of the study will be useful for producing olive oil enriched in nutraceutical properties that may be likely helpful in the prevention of age-related diseases.

  18. Investigation of natural lipid-phenolic interactions on biological properties of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Gammoh, Sana; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Mhaidat, Nizar; Kubow, Stan; Johargy, Ayman; Alnaiemi, Ola J

    2014-12-10

    There is limited knowledge regarding the impact of naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions on the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil. Free and bound phenolics were isolated via sequential methanolic extraction at 30 and 60 °C, and were identified and quantified using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and gas chromatography. Decreased oleic acid concentrations and increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid, stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were observed in virgin olive oil after removal of free and bound lipid phenolic compounds. The presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and tyrosol bound to glycerides was determined via LC-MS/MS, which indicates natural lipid-phenolic interactions in virgin olive oil. Both free and lipid bound phenolic extracts exerted antiproliferative activities against the CRC1 and CRC5 colorectal cancer cell lines. The present work indicates that naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions can affect the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil.

  19. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Polyphenols Promote Cholesterol Efflux and Improve HDL Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Berrougui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the present work give evidence from the beneficial role of extra virgin olive of oil (EVOO consumption towards oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. Polyphenols contained in EVOO are responsible for inhibiting lipoproteins oxidative damages and promoting reverse cholesterol transport process via ABCA1 pathway.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  1. Effect of Temperature on Ultrasonic Signal Propagation for Extra Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, N. A.; Hamid, S. B. Abdul; Sophian, A.

    2017-11-01

    Fraud cases involving adulteration of extra virgin olive oil has become significant nowadays due to increasing in cost of supply and highlight given the benefit of extra virgin olive oil for human consumption. This paper presents the effects of temperature variation on spectral formed utilising pulse-echo technique of ultrasound signal. Several methods had been introduced to characterize the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with other fluid sample such as mass chromatography, standard method by ASTM (density test, distillation test and evaporation test) and mass spectrometer. Pulse-echo method of ultrasound being a non-destructive method to be used to analyse the sound wave signal captured by oscilloscope. In this paper, a non-destructive technique utilizing ultrasound to characterize extra virgin olive oil adulteration level will be presented. It can be observed that frequency spectrum of sample with different ratio and variation temperature shows significant percentages different from 30% up to 70% according to temperature variation thus possible to be used for sample characterization.

  2. Quality parameters of olive oil from stoned and nonstoned Koroneiki and Megaritiki Greek olive varieties at different maturity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsoyannos, E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is a natural functional food and its beneficial role in health as an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet is universally recognized. The effects of olive pitting, degree of ripeness and variety (Greek varieties Koroneiki and Megaritiki were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant constituent contents and capacity and on the fatty acid profile of olive oil. Ripeness resulted in a decrease (P P El aceite de oliva virgen es un alimento funcional natural cuyo papel como ingrediente esencial de la dieta mediterránea, con propiedades beneficiosas para la salud, ha sido reconocido universalmente. Se ha estudiado el efecto del deshuesado de las aceitunas, grado de maduración y variedad (variedades griegas Koroneiki y Megaritiki sobre las características físico-químicas, perfil de ácidos grasos y capacidad de los componentes antioxidantes de los aceites de oliva. La maduración ocasionó una disminución (P < 0,05 del contenido de fenoles y tocoferoles y de la relación de ácidos insaturados/ saturados así como de la relación de los ácidos C18:1ω-9/C18:2ω6. El deshuesado incrementa significativamente el contenido fenólico y de tocoferoles, sin afectar significativamente, en la mayoría de los casos, al perfil y cantidad de ácidos grasos. Los aceites de oliva de la variedad Koroneiki mostraron relaciones de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados/poliinsaturados significativamente mayores (p < 0,05 que son particularmente importantes para la estabilidad del aceite frente a la oxidación. En conclusión, el aceite de oliva deshuesado mantiene un alto contenido de compuestos bioactivos y un alto nivel de actividad antioxidante.

  3. Specification of a new de-stoner machine: evaluation of machining effects on olive paste's rheology and olive oil yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, Roberto; Leone, Alessandro; Tamborrino, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    An industrial prototype of a partial de-stoner machine was specified, built and implemented in an industrial olive oil extraction plant. The partial de-stoner machine was compared to the traditional mechanical crusher to assess its quantitative and qualitative performance. The extraction efficiency of the olive oil extraction plant, olive oil quality, sensory evaluation and rheological aspects were investigated. The results indicate that by using the partial de-stoner machine the extraction plant did not show statistical differences with respect to the traditional mechanical crushing. Moreover, the partial de-stoner machine allowed recovery of 60% of olive pits and the oils obtained were characterised by more marked green fruitiness, flavour and aroma than the oils produced using the traditional processing systems. The partial de-stoner machine removes the limitations of the traditional total de-stoner machine, opening new frontiers for the recovery of pits to be used as biomass. Moreover, the partial de-stoner machine permitted a significant reduction in the viscosity of the olive paste. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. LC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS characterization of phenolic constituents in Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils: Effect of olive leaves addition on chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Sonda; Kelebek, Hasim; Zribi, Akram; Abichou, Mounir; Selli, Serkan; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present research is to evaluate the chemical characterization of main compounds from Tunisian monocultivar extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) ('Chemlali', 'Chétoui', 'Zalmati' and 'crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati') extracted after the addition of different amounts (0% and 3%) of olive leaves. As expected for extra virgin olive oil, the main sterols found in all analyzed samples were β-sitosterol, ∆-5-avenasterol, campesterol and clerosterol. Stigmasterol, 24-methylene-cholesterol, cholesterol, campestanol, sitostanol, ∆-7-stigmastenol, ∆-5,24-stigmastadienol, and ∆-7-avenasterol were also found in all samples, but in lower amounts. Most of these compounds were significantly affected by the cultivars but not to be affected by added leaves at 3% to olives prior to the extraction process. The obtained results revealed that 14 phenolic compounds belonging to different phenolic types were characterized and quantified by an effective HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method. In all the studied olive oil samples, dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and ligstroside aglycon (p-HPEA-EA) were the most abundant compounds. In addition, EVOO from 'Chétoui' cultivar extracted with 3% of olive leaves presented the highest amount of individual phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thin layer drying kinetics of by-products from olive oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20-50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10(-11) to 1.406 × 10(-9) m(2)/s in forced convection (m(a) = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10(-11) to 6.277 × 10(-10) m(2)/s in natural convection (m(a) = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick's diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order.

  6. Extraction of olive oil assisted by high-frequency ultrasound standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Pablo; Bainczyk, Fabian; Swiergon, Piotr; Supriyatna, Made Ian Maheswara; Guillaume, Claudia; Ravetti, Leandro; Canamasas, Pablo; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Xu, Xin-Qing

    2017-09-01

    High-frequency ultrasound standing waves (megasonics) have been demonstrated to enhance oil separation in the palm oil process at an industrial level. This work investigated the application of megasonics in the olive oil process on laboratory and pilot scale levels. Sound pressure level and cavitational yield distribution were characterised with hydrophones and luminol to determine associated physical and sonochemical effects inside the reactor. The effect of water addition (0%, 15%, and 30%), megasonic power levels (0%, 50%, and 100%), and malaxation time (10min, 30min, and 50min) was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) in a 700g batch extraction process. The RSM showed that the effect of the megasonic treatment (585kHz) in the presence of a reflector is more prominent at longer malaxation time (50min) and at higher water addition (30%) levels post-malaxation. Longer megasonic treatment of the malaxed paste (up to 15min; 220kJ/kg) increased oil extractability by up to 3.2%. When treating the malaxed paste with the same specific energy, higher oil extractability was obtained with longer treatments and low megasonic power levels in comparison to higher power levels and shorter times. Megasonic treatment of the paste before malaxation (585kHz, 10min, 146kJ/kg) and no water addition provided an increase in oil extractability of up to 3.8% with respect to the non-sonicated control. A double sonication intervention, before and after malaxation, using low (40kHz) and high (585kHz) frequency, respectively, provided up to 2.4% increase in oil extractability. A megasonic intervention post-malaxation (400 and 600kHz, 57-67min, 18-21kJ/kg) on a pilot scale using early-harvest olive fruits resulted in up to 1.7% extra oil extractability. Oil extracted under a high sonication frequency (free radical production regime) did not impact on olive oil quality parameters at reactor characterisation levels. Megasonic standing wave forces can enhance olive oil separation

  7. Differential scanning calorimetry thermal properties and oxidative stability indices of microwave heated extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaro, Emma; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Bendini, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Cerretani, Lorenzo

    2011-01-30

    The use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for assessing the deterioration effect of microwave heating on vegetable oils, and on olive oils in particular, has been partially explored in literature. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of DSC to discriminate among microwaved extra virgin olive oils (EvOo from different olive cultivar and origin), according to changes on thermal properties (upon cooling and heating) and traditional oxidative stability indices (peroxide, p-anisidine and TOTOX values). An elevated value of lipid oxidation was reached by the most unsaturated EvOo sample (9.5% of linoleic acid) at 6 min of microwave treatment. Free acidity significantly increased (0.42%) only for the oil sample with the highest water content (874 mg kg(-1) oil) at the longest time of treatment. Crystallisation enthalpies significantly decreased and the major exothermic peak shifted towards lower temperature, leading to enlargement of the transition range in all samples due to the formation of weak and mixed crystals among triacylglycerols and lipid degradation products. On the contrary, thermal properties upon heating appeared to similarly vary among samples. The analysis of DSC thermal properties upon cooling seemed to clearly discriminate among different EvOo samples after microwaving. The relation between changes of thermal properties and oxidation parameters should be further studied using additional oxidative stability indices on a larger set of oil samples, due to the complexity of EvOo composition. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of dietary inclusion of lampante olive oil on milk and cheese fatty acid profiles of ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplementation of lampant olive oil on the fatty aid profiles of the milk and cheese of ewes. Nine lactating ewes were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were supplemented with 0 (control; T0), 36 (T1...... as the concentration of lampante olive oil was increased in dietary rations. Overall, the supplementation of lampante olive oil in the diets of lactating ewes increased monounsaturated FA and decreased saturated FA concentrations in milk and cheese, thus improving their quality from the human health standpoint....

  9. Shelf-Life Prediction of Extra Virgin Olive Oils Using an Empirical Model Based on Standard Quality Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, Claudia; Ravetti, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil shelf-life could be defined as the length of time under normal storage conditions within which no off-flavours or defects are developed and quality parameters such as peroxide value and specific absorbance are retained within accepted limits for this commercial category. Prediction of shelf-life is a desirable goal in the food industry. Even when extra virgin olive oil shelf-life should be one of the most important quality markers for extra virgin olive oil, it is not r...

  10. Antiurolithic effect of olive oil in a mouse model of ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alenzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At present, commercially available antiurolithic drugs have more adverse effects than potential therapeutic or preventive effects with chronic use. With this in mind, the present study was designed to assess the antiurolithic effect of olive oil in a mouse model of ethylene glycol (EG-induced urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: Adult albino mice were divided into 6 groups. Group I was fed the vehicle only. Group II was supplemented with 0.75% EG alone in drinking water during the experimental period to initiate deposition of calcium oxalate in kidneys, which leads to urolithiasis in animals. Groups III (olive oil control group through V were fed olive oil orally at various doses during the experimental period. Group VI received cystone (750 mg/kg. Groups IV–VI additionally received 0.75% EG in drinking water ad libitum. SPSS ver.17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The study results showed significantly higher levels of serum urea, uric acid, and creatinine (p<0.05 in group II than in groups III–VI and I. Administration of olive oil at different doses restored the elevated serum parameters in groups IV and V compared with group II. Urine and kidney calcium, oxalate, and phosphate levels in groups IV–VI were significantly lower (p<0.05 than in animals with EG-induced urolithiasis (group II. Group V mice showed a significant restoration effect on serum as well as urine and kidney parameters compared with group II. Conclusions: Supplementation with olive oil (1.7 mL/kg body weight reduced and prevented the growth of urinary stones, possibly by inhibiting renal tubular membrane damage due to peroxidative stress induced by hyperoxaluria.

  11. NIR prediction of fruit moisture, free acidity and oil content in intact olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the prediction of olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality parameters through the direct measuring of the fruit using near infrared spectrometry (NIRS has been investigated and the effectiveness of a portable spectrometer has been assessed. Models and calibration tests were developed using both the hexane-isopropanol extraction of individual olive fruits, and the Soxhlet extraction of olive paste. The parameters analyzed were the free acidity in olive oil, oil yield from physical extraction, oil content referring to fresh weight, oil content referring to dry matter and fruit moisture. The results indicate a good predictive potential with both methodologies and serve to encourage improvement in the obtained models through the enlargement of the calibrations. Fruit moisture prediction models showed high accuracy.

    En este trabajo se ha investigado la predicción de parámetros de calidad de aceitunas y de aceite de oliva virgen mediante medidas directas en el fruto de espectrometría de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS, evaluándose la utilidad de un espectrómetro portátil. Se han desarrollado respectivamente modelos predictivos y calibraciones utilizando como análisis de referencia tanto la extracción de aceitunas individualmente con hexano-isopropanol, como la extracción de pasta de aceituna mediante Soxhlet. Los parámetros analizados fueron: acidez libre del aceite, rendimiento de la extracción física de aceite, contenido de aceite referido a peso fresco, contenido de aceite referido a materia seca y humedad del fruto. Los resultados indican un buen potencial de predicción mediante ambos métodos y alientan al perfeccionamiento de los modelos obtenidos mediante la ampliación de las calibraciones. Los modelos predictivos de la humedad del fruto mostraron una alta precisión.

  12. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species ( Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  13. Effect of extra virgin olive oil components on the arachidonic acid cascade, colorectal cancer and colon cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Storniolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mediterranean diet (MD reduced the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and olive oil, the primary source of fat in the MD, has also been found to have a protective effect. However, animals fed with oleic acid present a high number of intestinal tumours, suggesting that oleic acid and olive oil consumption can exert different effects on CRC. Considering that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is a complex mix of fatty acids and minor compounds such as polyphenols, hydrocarbons, phytosterols and triterpenes; and that these compounds have antioxidant activity and consequently they can modulate the arachidonic acid (AA cascade and eicosanoid synthesis. This review analyzes the state of the art of olive oil components on the AA cascade and cellular mechanism involved in CRC such as intestinal epithelial cell growth/apoptosis, to understand the fact that the consumption of seed oils with high oleic content or EVOO will probably have different effects on CRC development.

  14. Effect of extra virgin olive oil components on the arachidonic acid cascade, colorectal cancer and colon cancer cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storniolo, C.E.; Moreno, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The mediterranean diet (MD) reduced the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and olive oil, the primary source of fat in the MD, has also been found to have a protective effect. However, animals fed with oleic acid present a high number of intestinal tumours, suggesting that oleic acid and olive oil consumption can exert different effects on CRC. Considering that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a complex mix of fatty acids and minor compounds such as polyphenols, hydrocarbons, phytosterols and triterpenes; and that these compounds have antioxidant activity and consequently they can modulate the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade and eicosanoid synthesis. This review analyzes the state of the art of olive oil components on the AA cascade and cellular mechanism involved in CRC such as intestinal epithelial cell growth/apoptosis, to understand the fact that the consumption of seed oils with high oleic content or EVOO will probably have different effects on CRC development. [es

  15. Fatty acids evolution and composition of olive oils extracted from different olive cultivars grown in Calabrian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincione, Antonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This work showed some peculiarities of fatty acids profile of nine olive cultivars cultivated in a typical olive growing Calabrian area. The cultivars studied were: Cassanese, Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nociara, Ottobratica, Pendolino, Picholine and Sinopolese. Oils were extracted by pressure from olives collected for a period of time comprised from October to January. The samplings were repeated for three years. The evolution of the oleic acid content showed an increasing trend in Cassanese, Itrana, Coratina, Sinopolese, Pendolino, and Leccino. Palmitic and linolenic acid showed a decrease in all the observed cultivar. Some cultivars in early ripe stage showed a higher linolenic acid content than the limit established legally. From a hierarchical cluster analyses two main groups were distinguished based on all fatty acid. The same statistical results were obtained considering the oleic/linoleic ratio only, that is a constant parameter throughout the olive ripening.Este trabajo muestra algunas peculiaridades de las composiciones en ácidos grasos de aceites extraídos de nueve plantaciones de olivo cultivados en Calabria. La zona de cultivo es típicamente olivícola. Las plantaciones estudiadas fueron: Cassanese, Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nociara, Ottobratica, Pendolino, Picholine y Sinopolese. Los aceites fueron extraídos por presión a partir de aceitunas recogidas en un período comprendido entre Octubre y Enero. Las observaciones fueron repetidas durante tres años consecutivos. La evolución del contenido en ácido oleico mostró una tendencia creciente en aceites de Cassanese, Itrana, Coratina, Sinopolese, Pendolino y Leccino. Los ácidos palmítico y linoleico mostraron una tendencia a disminuir durante la maduración en todos los aceites. En los muestreos de inicio de estación algunos aceites superaron los límites establecidos por la ley para el ácido linolénico. Mediante un análisis jerárquico de "cluster" se pueden localizar

  16. The effect of environmental factors on stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes in Mediterranean olive oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Mihailova, Alina; Abbado, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Traceability of the geographic origin of olive oils is an important issue from both commercial and health perspectives. This study evaluates the impact of environmental factors on stable C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes in extra virgin olive oils from Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain. The data are used to investigate the applicability of stable isotope methodology for olive oil regional classification in the Mediterranean region. Analysis of stable C isotope composition of n-C29 alkane showed that extra virgin olive oils from Portugal and Spain have the most positive n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Conversely, olive oils from Slovenia, northern and central Italy are characterized by the most negative values. Overall, the n-C29 alkane delta13C values show a positive correlation with the mean air temperature during August-December and a negative correlation with the mean relative humidity during these months. Analysis of stable H isotope composition of n-C29 alkane revealed that the deltaD values are the most positive in olive oils from Greece and Morocco and the most negative in oils from northern Italy. The deltaD values of oils show significant correlation with all the analyses geographical parameters: the mean air temperature and relative humidity during August-December, the total amount of rainfall (the same months) and the annual deltaD values of precipitation. As predictor variables in the Categorical Data Analysis, the n-C29 alkane deltaD values show the most significant discriminative power, followed by the n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Overall, 93.4% of olive oil samples have been classified correctly into one of the production regions. Our findings suggest that an integrated analysis of C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes extracted from extra virgin olive oil could become a useful tool for geographical provenancing of this highly popular food commodity.

  17. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry volatile organic compound fingerprinting for monovarietal extra virgin olive oil identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Samblas, C.; Tres, A.; Koot, A.H.; Ruth, van S.M.; Gonzalez-Casado, A.; Cuadros-Rodriguez, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new technique that allows the fast and accurate qualification of the volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint. This paper describes the analysis of thirty samples of extra virgin olive oil, of five different varieties of olive

  18. Comparison of Formulas Based on Lipid Emulsions of Olive Oil, Soybean Oil, or Several Oils for Parenteral Nutrition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Sun, Li-Li; Li, Meng-Ying; Ding, Cui-Ling; Su, Yu-Cheng; Sun, Li-Juan; Xue, Sen-Hai; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Chang-Hai; Wang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have reported that olive oil-based lipid emulsion (LE) formulas of soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil (SMOF) may be a viable alternative for parenteral nutrition. However, some randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have raised concerns regarding the nutritional benefits and safety of SMOFs. We searched principally the MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from inception to March 2014 for the relevant literature and conducted a meta-analysis of 15 selected RCTs that 1) compared either olive oil- or SMOF-based LEs with soybean oil-based LEs and 2) reported plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and ω-6 (n-6) and ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and liver concentrations of total bilirubin and the enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase. The meta-analysis suggested that SMOF-based LEs were associated with higher plasma concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and the ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs correlated with lower plasma concentrations of long-chain ω-6 PUFAs and were similar to soybean oil-based LEs with regard to their effects on liver function indicators. In summary, olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs have nutritional advantages over soybean oil-based LEs and are similarly safe. However, their performance in clinical settings requires further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Quality and trace element profile of Tunisian olive oils obtained from plants irrigated with treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Cinzia; Gharsallaoui, Mariem; Perri, Enzo; Briccoli Bati, Caterina; Ayadi, Mohamed; Khlif, Moncen; Gabsi, Slimane

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the use of treated wastewater (TWW) to irrigate olive plants was monitored. This type of water is characterized by high salinity and retains a substantial amount of trace elements, organic and metallic compounds that can be transferred into the soil and into the plants and fruits. In order to evaluate the impact of TWW on the overall quality of the oils, the time of contact of the olives with the soil has been taken into account. Multi-element data were obtained using ICP-MS. Nineteen elements (Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba and La) were submitted for statistical analysis. Using analysis of variance, linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis it was possible to differentiate between oils produced from different batches of olives whose plants received different types of water. Also, the results showed that there was correlation between the elemental and mineral composition of the water used to irrigate the olive plots and the elemental and mineral composition of the oils.

  20. Solid carbon dioxide to promote the extraction of extra-virgin olive oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinnai, A.; Venturi, F.; Quartacci, V.F.; Sanmartin, C.; Favati, F.; Andrich, G.

    2016-07-01

    The use of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) as a cryogen is widespread in the food industry to produce high quality wines, rich in color and perfumes. The direct addition of carbon dioxide to olives in the solid state before milling represents a fundamental step which characterizes this innovative extraction system. At room temperature conditions solid carbon dioxide evolves directly into the air phase (sublimation), and the direct contact between the cryogen and the olives induces a partial solidification of the cellular water inside the fruits. Since the volume occupied by water in the solid state is higher than that in the liquid state, the ice crystals formed are incompatible with the cellular structure and induce the collapse of the cells, besides promoting the diffusion of the cellular substances in the extracted oil, which is thus enriched with cellular metabolites characterized by a high nutraceutical value. Furthermore, a layer of CO2 remains over the olive paste to preserve it from oxidative degradation. The addition of solid carbon dioxide to processed olives induced a statistically significant increase in oil yield and promoted the accumulation of tocopherols in the lipid phase, whereas a not significant increase in the phenolic fraction of the oil occurred. (Author)

  1. Influence of harvest method and period on olive oil composition: an NMR and statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Marco; Gobbino, Marco; Picanza, Antonio; Costanzo, Simona; Della Corte, Anna; Mannina, Luisa

    2010-10-27

    The influence of harvest period and harvest method on olive oil composition was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by some quality parameters such as free acidity, peroxide value, and UV spectrophotometric indices. This work focuses on two secondary factors (harvest period and harvest method) and investigated their interactions with primary (genetic and pedoclimatic) and secondary (agronomic practices and technological procedures) factors. To avoid misinterpretation, the general linear model analysis (GLM) was used to adjust the result obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). In this way, the effect of the factor of interest was corrected for the effects of the other factors that might influence the variable under investigation. The weight of each factor was evaluated by the variance component analysis (VCA). Finally, multivariate statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were applied. Samples were grouped according to the harvest period and harvest method. Volatile compounds, that is, hexanal and trans-2-hexenal, as well as the sn-1,3-diglycerides and squalene, significantly decreased during the ripening. The relative value of the ΔK parameter and the hexanal amount were higher in the olive oils obtained from olives harvested by one type of hand-held machine (shaker), whereas the unsaturated fatty chains in the olive oils were higher when another type (comb) was used.

  2. Quality and Trace Element Profile of Tunisian Olive Oils Obtained from Plants Irrigated with Treated Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benincasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the use of treated wastewater (TWW to irrigate olive plants was monitored. This type of water is characterized by high salinity and retains a substantial amount of trace elements, organic and metallic compounds that can be transferred into the soil and into the plants and fruits. In order to evaluate the impact of TWW on the overall quality of the oils, the time of contact of the olives with the soil has been taken into account. Multi-element data were obtained using ICP-MS. Nineteen elements (Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba and La were submitted for statistical analysis. Using analysis of variance, linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis it was possible to differentiate between oils produced from different batches of olives whose plants received different types of water. Also, the results showed that there was correlation between the elemental and mineral composition of the water used to irrigate the olive plots and the elemental and mineral composition of the oils.

  3. Olive oil, dietary fat and ageing, a mitochondrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles, José L.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the high number of people included in this group (indeed, a further increase in the rate of old people it is expected in the near future. Another important aspect concerning ageing is the number of pathologies related with this phenomenon like Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. According to the free radical theory of ageing and its further mitochondrial extension, ageing is the result of the oxidative insult to the organism throughout the life. Some of the damages are not entirely repaired and are accumulated, leading to organism malfunction. Such oxidative-stress related events are particularly important in mitochondria and specially at the mitochondrial DNA level (less protected and more prone to oxidation than nuclear DNA and with a not well established repairing system. Such mitochondrial damage directly affects to the cell energy delivery system, being that, at least in part, the explanation for the structural and functional impairments related to age. Oxidative stress is related with the fatty acid composition of membranes. The intake of a type of fat affects in a direct way the fatty acids and antioxidants composition of subcellular membranes (including mitochondrial membranes and in an indirect way the susceptibility of the membrane to oxidation. Thus, if we build specific biological membranes according to particular types of fats, we would be able to positively affect the way and intensity in which different organs would age. This work hypothesis represents a new point of view in the investigation of ageing and might have important consequences. According to the above-mentioned premises, this work reviews the convenience to use virgin olive oil as dietary fat from the point of view of mitochondrial ageing.El envejecimiento preocupa enormemente en los países desarrollados por el alto número de personas incluidas en este grupo de poblaci

  4. Multivariate models to classify Tuscan virgin olive oils by zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandri, Stefano

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study and classify Tuscan virgin olive oils, 179 samples were collected. They were obtained from drupes harvested during the first half of November, from three different zones of the Region. The sampling was repeated for 5 years. Fatty acids, phytol, aliphatic and triterpenic alcohols, triterpenic dialcohols, sterols, squalene and tocopherols were analyzed. A subset of variables was considered. They were selected in a preceding work as the most effective and reliable, from the univariate point of view. The analytical data were transformed (except for the cycloartenol to compensate annual variations, the mean related to the East zone was subtracted from each value, within each year. Univariate three-class models were calculated and further variables discarded. Then multivariate three-zone models were evaluated, including phytol (that was always selected and all the combinations of palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acid, tetracosanol, cycloartenol and squalene. Models including from two to seven variables were studied. The best model shows by-zone classification errors less than 40%, by-zone within-year classification errors that are less than 45% and a global classification error equal to 30%. This model includes phytol, palmitic acid, tetracosanol and cycloartenol.

    Para estudiar y clasificar aceites de oliva vírgenes Toscanos, se utilizaron 179 muestras, que fueron obtenidas de frutos recolectados durante la primera mitad de Noviembre, de tres zonas diferentes de la Región. El muestreo fue repetido durante 5 años. Se analizaron ácidos grasos, fitol, alcoholes alifáticos y triterpénicos, dialcoholes triterpénicos, esteroles, escualeno y tocoferoles. Se consideró un subconjunto de variables que fueron seleccionadas en un trabajo anterior como el más efectivo y fiable, desde el punto de vista univariado. Los datos analíticos se transformaron (excepto para el cicloartenol para compensar las variaciones anuales, rest

  5. Characterization of volatiles in virgin olive oil produced in the Tunisian area of Tataouine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Imen; Haddada, Faouzia M; Manaï, Hédia; Zarrouk, Wissem; Taamalli, Wael; Fernandez, Xavier; Lizzani-Cuvelier, Louisette; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2008-09-10

    The Tataouine province in southern Tunisia is well known for its severe pedoclimatic conditions. Using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC), coupled to flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors, we characterized virgin olive oils from Chemlali Tataouine, Fakhari Douirat, Zarrazi Douirat, and Dhokar Douirat varieties, which grow in the harsh arid region of Tataouine. Significant differences in the proportions of volatile constituents from oils of different varieties were detected. The results showed that lipoxygenase products were generally the major metabolites of the volatile fraction, and (E)-Hex-2-enal was the principal compound characterizing the olive oil headspace for most samples, though the absolute levels varied greatly, never exceeding 76.45 and 32.16%, respectively. The C5 compounds were unusually abundant, comprising 42.97% of the total lipoxygenase products and a remarkably high level of penten dimers. Each autochthonous variety could thus be differentiated according to the percentage of each metabolite.

  6. Determination of Alkyl Esters Content in PDO Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality parameter of alkyl esters of fatty acids was checked in a variety of Italian olive oil samples. In particular, 34 samples of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs from South Italy (Sicilian orchards, produced in the years 2014-2015, have been subjected to the analytical protocol dictated by the European Union for the determination of alkyl esters, as an indicator of oil’s quality. All the samples analyzed resulted to be well below the limit set by EU Directive. Besides recently produced EVOOs, a set of very aged oils, produced in the years 1996–2000, were analyzed as well. The main finding was that alkyl esters increased in correspondence with deterioration processes.

  7. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Bender

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE, liquid-liquid (LLE and vapor-liquid-liquid (VLLE equilibrium were recorded. It was experimentally observed that, at a given temperature and surfactant content, an increase in the concentration of glycerol/oil ratio led to a pronounced increase in the slope of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve. A comparison with results reported for the same system but using propane as solvent showed that much lower pressure transition values are obtained when using n-butane.

  8. Characterization of Olive Oil by Ultrasonic and Physico-chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, B.; Khechena, F. K.; Lecheb, F.; Boutkedjirt, T.

    Olive oil excels by its nutritional and medicinal benefits. It can be consumed without any treatment. However, its quality can be altered by inadequate storage conditions or if it is mixed with other kinds of oils. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the ability of ultrasonic methods to characterize and control olive oil quality. By using of a transducer of 2.25 MHz nominal frequency, in pulse echo mode, ultrasonic parameters, such as propagation velocity and attenuation,have been measured for pure olive oil and for its mixtures with sunflower oil at different proportions. Mechanical properties, such as density and viscosity, have also been determined. The results of ultrasonic measurements are consistent with those obtained by physico-chemical methods, such as rancidity degree, acid index, UV specific extinction coefficient and viscosity. They show that the ultrasonic method allows to distinguish between mixtures at different proportions. The study allows concluding that ultrasound techniques can be considered as a useful complement to existing physico-chemical analysis techniques.

  9. The effect of water stress on super-high- density 'Koroneiki' olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Arnon; Naor, Amos; Ben-Gal, Alon; Harlev, Guy; Zipori, Isaac; Schneider, Doron; Birger, Reuven; Peres, Moti; Gal, Yoni; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-08-15

    Over the last two decades, the area of cultivated super-high-density olive orchards has increased rapidly. Water stress is an important tool in super-high-density orchards to reduce tree growth and promote suitability for overhead mechanical harvesters. Little is known regarding the effect of water stress in super-high-density orchards on oil quality parameters. In this study the effect of irrigation rate on oil quality parameters was evaluated in a six-year-old super-high-density 'Koreneiki' olive orchard for five consecutive seasons. Five water status levels, determined by irrigating in order to maintain various midday stem water potential threshold values (-1.5, -2, -2.5, -3 and -4 MPa), were applied during the oil accumulation stage. The MUFA/PUFA ratio and free fatty acid content generally decreased as a function of increasing tree water stress. In most seasons a reduction in polyphenols was found with decreasing irrigation level. Peroxide value was not affected by the water stress level. The present study demonstrates that limiting irrigation and exposure of olive trees to water stress in a super-high-density orchard lowers free fatty acid content and therefore benefits oil quality. However, the decreased MUFA/PUFA ratio and the reduction in polyphenol content that were also found under increased water stress negatively influence oil quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Virgin olive oil blended polyurethane micro/nanofibers ornamented with copper oxide nanocrystals for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Touseef Amna,1 M Shamshi Hassan,2 Jieun Yang,1 Myung-Seob Khil,2 Ki-Duk Song,3 Jae-Don Oh,3 Inho Hwang1 1Department of Animal Sciences and Biotechnology, 2Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea; 3Genomic Informatics Center, Hankyong National University, Anseong, South Korea Abstract: Recently, substantial interest has been generated in using electrospun biomimetic nanofibers of hybrids, particularly organic/inorganic, to engineer different tissues. The present work, for the first time, introduced a unique natural and synthetic hybrid micronanofiber wound dressing, composed of virgin olive oil/copper oxide nanocrystals and polyurethane (PU, developed via facile electrospinning. The as-spun organic/inorganic hybrid micronanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The interaction of cells with scaffold was studied by culturing NIH 3T3 fibroblasts on an as-spun hybrid micronanofibrous mat, and viability, proliferation, and growth were assessed. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results and SEM observation showed that the hybrid micronanofibrous scaffold was noncytotoxic to fibroblast cell culture and was found to benefit cell attachment and proliferation. Hence our results suggest the potential utilization of as-spun micronanoscaffolds for tissue engineering. Copper oxide–olive oil/PU wound dressing may exert its positive beneficial effects at every stage during wound-healing progression, and these micronanofibers may serve diverse biomedical applications, such as tissue regeneration, damaged skin treatment, wound healing applications, etc. Conclusively, the fabricated olive oil–copper oxide/PU micronanofibers combine the benefits of virgin olive oil and copper oxide, and therefore hold great promise for

  11. Effects of olive maturation and stoning on quality indices and antioxidant content of extra virgin oils (cv. Coratina) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacorta, G; Faccia, M; Previtali, M A; Pati, S; La Notte, E; Baiano, A

    2010-04-01

    Quality indices, antioxidant compounds, and antioxidant activities of extra-virgin oils from Coratina olives were evaluated during a 12-mo storage. Whole and stoned olives, picked at 2 different maturation index (MI), were submitted to malaxation for 45 min and extracted by a 3-phase continuous system. A 90-min malaxation trial was also performed for the stoned olives. The following parameters were monitored: free acidity, peroxide value, K(232) and K(270) indices, sensory profile, total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic profiles, tocopherol compounds, and antioxidant activity (AA). The highest TPC, AA, and sensory score were found for the oils obtained by olives picked at low MI and by stoned olives. After 12 mo, all the oils were still included into the "extra-virgin" category, and those deriving from whole olives picked at the lowest MI showed the best sensory characteristics due to high fruity and well-balanced pungent and bitter tastes. This study could represent a helpful tool for oil-makers to improve the marketing of extra-virgin olive oils produced from cultivars with very high phenolic contents, such as Coratina, generally not adequately appreciated by consumers because of their excessive bitterness and pungent taste. These oils, when extracted from whole olives, are generally consumed after a certain period of time (at least 6 mo) during which a decrease in the phenolic content occurs. The results of the present work demonstrate that oils extracted from olives picked at low maturation index can be marketed immediately after production if subjected to stoning and malaxed for a short time. This procedure allows to adjust the phenolic content and to obtain a high flavor and a well-balanced taste.

  12. Analysis of the influence of multiple parameters on the commercial categories of Extremadura virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaño, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Extremadura is an important producing region of Spanish virgin olive oils, it has not been always known for the high quality of its oils. However, implementation of continuous extraction systems in most of its olive mills has shown a general improvement in the quality of most virgin olive oils, but not in all of them. The aim of the present study was to examine how different variables, such as fruit quality discrimination or payment system, affected the overall quality of virgin olive oils from Extremadura. To do so, a screening experimental design and the corresponding statistical analysis of the collected data were performed. Sixty Extremadura oil mills were evaluated (50.4% of the total by taking bottled virgin olive oil samples from each of them. Statistical relationships between physicochemical parameters and production process variables were evaluated, showing that only three of them (separation of ground- and tree-harvested fruits, differential payment according to acidity, and extraction process were significantly correlated with the quality index and acidity of virgin olive oils.Extremadura es una importante región productora de aceites de oliva vírgenes de España, aunque no siempre ha sido conocida por la producción de aceites de oliva de alta calidad. Sin embargo, desde la implantación de los sistemas continuos de extracción de aceite en la mayoría de sus almazaras, ha tenido lugar un aumento de la calidad en muchas de éstas. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar cómo algunas variables, como la clasificación de las aceitunas por la calidad, o su sistema de remuneración, influye en la calidad global de los aceites de oliva vírgenes extremeños. Para ello, se ha hecho uso de un diseño experimental de barrido y el análisis estadístico del mismo. Sesenta almazaras fueron evaluadas en Extremadura (50,4% del total y se tomó una muestra de aceite de oliva virgen envasado de cada una de las almazaras. Los

  13. Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Francesca; Sanmartin, Chiara; Taglieri, Isabella; Nari, Anita; Andrich, Gianpaolo; Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Nicolella, Cristiano; Zinnai, Angela

    2017-08-22

    While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods enriched with natural antioxidants, no data has been available on the production of a phenol-enriched refined olive oil with its own phenolic compounds extracted from wastewater produced during physical refining. In this study; we aimed to: (i) verify the effectiveness of a multi-step extraction process to recover the high-added-value phenolic compounds contained in wastewater derived from the preliminary washing degumming step of the physical refining of vegetal oils; (ii) evaluate their potential application for the stabilization of olive oil obtained with refined olive oils; and (iii) evaluate their antioxidant activity in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of using the refining wastewater as a source of bioactive compounds to improve the nutraceutical value as well as the antioxidant capacity of commercial olive oils. In the conditions adopted, the phenolic content significantly increased in the prototypes of phenol-enriched olive oils when compared with the control oil.

  14. Parenteral lipid emulsions based on olive oil compared with soybean oil in preterm (<28 weeks' gestation) neonates: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Girish C; Simmer, Karen; Mori, Trevor; Croft, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    : New olive oil-based (OL) lipid emulsions (olive:soy oil = 4:1) have lower polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (20% vs 60%) and higher vitamin E content (an antioxidant) compared with traditional soybean oil (SO) emulsions. : Compare efficacy and safety of OL with SO emulsions in preterm neonates (olive oil-based group had significantly higher levels of C18:4n-3, suggesting Delta6-desaturase enzyme inhibition in the SO group. : Olive oil-based emulsion was safe and well tolerated by preterm neonates. Similar long-chain PUFA levels were achieved in the OL group despite significantly lower amount of PUFA content; however, there was no difference in lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostane levels). Large trials are needed to confirm these benefits.

  15. Fish oil and olive oil can modify insulin resistance and plasma desacyl-ghrelin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Saidpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence exists for reciprocal effects of insulin and desacyl-ghrelin (DAG concentration, but the association between different fatty acid saturation in high fat diet (HFD and these hormones remain to be established. To evaluate the impact of different sources of dietary fat and the level of fatty acid saturation on plasma insulin and DAG levels and also the association of DAG with insulin action this study was carried out. Methods: Male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of HFDs, high fat butter (HF-B, high fat soy (HF-S, high fat olive (HF-O, high fat fish (HF-F, and a group of standard diet (SD. Blood samples were collected after 8 weeks and after they were fasted for 24 h. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, insulin, DAG and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were measured. Results: Plasma insulin levels at fed and fasted status, were significantly higher in rats on HF-B compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (P<0.05. Insulin concentration in rats on HF-S was also higher than those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (P<0.05, in the feeding status. Insulin resistance was significantly higher in rats on HF-B, compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O (P<0.05. Rats that were fed with HF-B diet had lower fasting plasma DAG levels than the SD, HF-F and HF-O groups (P<0.05; furthermore, the HF-F group had significantly higher DAG level than the HF-S groups (P<0.05. Conclusions: Fish and olive oils may hence contribute to lower insulin level and HOMA-IR by increasing DAG concentration and may have more health benefits than other fat sources in diets.

  16. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  17. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of addition of olive leaves before fruits extraction process to some monovarietal Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Ammar; Akram, Zribi; Boutheina, Gargouri; Guido, Flamini; Mohamed, Bouaziz

    2014-01-08

    The analysis of the effect of cultivar and olive leaves addition before the extraction on the different analytical values revealed significant differences (p olive leaves. Twenty-three compounds were characterized, representing 86.1-99.2% of the total volatiles. Chétoui cultivar has the highest amount of (E)-2-hexenal, followed by Chemlali cultivar, whereas (E)-2-hexen-1-ol was the major constituent of Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati cultivars. Sensory analysis showed that Chemlali and Chétoui Zarzis possessed a high fruity, bitter, and pungent taste, whereas the Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati had a 'green' taste among its attributes. Indeed, the taste panel found an improvement of the oil quality when an amount of olive leaves (3%) added to the olives fruits.

  19. Authentication of Tunisian virgin olive oils by chemometric analysis of fatty acid compositions and NIR spectra. Comparison with Maghrebian and French virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi-Mezghani, S; Vanloot, P; Molinet, J; Dupuy, N; Hammami, M; Grati-Kamoun, N; Artaud, J

    2015-04-15

    Six Tunisian virgin olive oil (VOO) varieties, Chemlali Sfax, Chetoui, Chemchali, Oueslati, Zarrazi and Zalmati, were characterised by two analytical methods. The gas chromatography allowed the determination of 14 fatty acids and squalene amounts. With fatty acids of each variety, a characteristic "morphotypes" for each oil variety was established. Chemlali Sfax and Zalmati showed strong similarities. Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and near infrared (NIR) spectra of oils, associated to chemometric treatment, allowed the study of the inter-varietal variability and the verification of the variety origins of some Tunisian commercial VOOs. The specificity of Tunisian VOOs was evaluated by comparing the samples to Algerian, Moroccan and French Protected Designation of Origin VOOs. Classification in varietal origins by SIMCA used the FAME compositions and NIR spectra of the most represented varieties (Chemlali Sfax, Chetoui and Oueslati) showed a high potential to authenticate the varietal origin of Tunisian VOOs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Analysis of Eco-efficiency and GHG Emission of Olive Oil Production in Northeast of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Feliciano; F. Maia; A. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil production sector plays an important role in Portuguese economy. It had a major growth over the last decade, increasing its weight in the overall national exports. International market penetration for Mediterranean traditional products is increasingly more demanding, especially in the Northern European markets, where consumers are looking for more sustainable products. Trying to support this growing demand this study addresses olive oil production under the environmental and eco-eff...

  2. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a

  3. Exposure to mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during panfrying of beefsteak with margarine, rapeseed oil, olive oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Svendsen, Kristin

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to see if a cook could be exposed to mutagenic aldehydes in fumes from frying of beefsteak using margarine, rapeseed oil, soybean oil or virgin olive oil as frying fat. In addition, levels of particle exposure were measured to make the results comparable to other studies. The levels of higher aldehydes and total particles were measured in the breathing zone of the cook during the panfrying of beefsteak with the four different frying fats. In addition, the number of particles in the size intervals 0.3-0.5, 0.5-0.7 and 0.7-1.0 microm in the kitchen was registered. Measured levels of mutagenic aldehydes were between non-detectable and 25.33 microg m(-3) air. The exposure level of total aerosol was between 1.0 and 11.6 mg m(-3). Higher aldehydes were detected in all samples from this study, and mutagenic aldehydes were detected in most of the samples. Frying with margarine gave statistically significantly higher levels of mutagenic aldehydes and particles in all three size fractions than frying with the three different kinds of oil.

  4. Study of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with peanut oil using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodology based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis, was developed to monitor adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO with peanut oil (PEO. Principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA allowed quantification of percentage of adulteration based on spectral data of 192 samples. Wavenumbers associated with the biochemical differences among several types of edible oils were investigated by principal component analysis. Two sets of frequencies were selected in order to establish a robust regression model. Set A consisted on the frequency regions from 600 to 1,800 cm−1 and from 2,750 to 3,050 cm−1. Set B comprised 17 discrete peak absorbance frequencies for which the communality value was higher than 0.6. Analysis of an external set of 25 samples allowed the validation and evaluation of the predictability of the models. When using a specific set of discrete peak absorbance frequencies, the R2 coefficients for the prediction were 0.960 and 0.977, and the root mean square error (RMSE were 1.49 and 1.05% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively. LDA was successful in the binary classification presence/absence of PEO in adulterated EVOO (with 5% V/V of less of PEO. LDA provided 92.3% correct classification for the calibration set and 88.3% correct classification when cross-validated. The lowest detectable concentration of PEO in EVOO was the lowest adulteration level studied, 0.5% V/V.

  5. NMR analysis of aldehydes in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by DPFGSE techniques

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    Enrico Rotondo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The DPFGSE NMR sequences open new perspectives in the volatile compounds analysis of food matrices. Many fresh extra-virgin Sicilian olive oils, analyzed by this technique, show two main resonances in the aldehydic spectral region (9–10 ppm, at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm. The former was never reported so far, the latter was sometime highlighted as a minor aldehydic component signal of spectra showing stronger resonances at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm. Thermal treatment at 220°C of extra virgin olive oil samples lead to the complete transformation of the resonances at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm into those at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm in 50 minutes. Analogous transformation takes place place in CDCl3 at rt in several weeks. These results suggest the transformation of relatively unstable compounds into thermodynamically more stable products whose resonances are commonly reported in the literature. Even though these chemical changes involve minimal amount of product, they are of crucial importance to define: i organoleptic extra virgin olive oil properties; ii fraudulent chemical or thermal treatment detection; iii extra virgin oil ageing.

  6. Thermal and chemical evaluation of naturally auto-oxidised virgin olive oils: a correlation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaro, Emma; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Summo, Carmine; Paciulli, Maria; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Caponio, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    The nature of the relationship between differential scanning calorimetry thermal properties and the oxidation and hydrolysis compounds formed during a real auto-oxidation process in virgin olive oils has not been evaluated so far, as these samples are difficult to find. In this work, 21 samples of virgin olive oil, stored under ideal conditions since their years of production (production range 1991-2005) to develop the natural auto-oxidation process, were analysed in order to evaluate this relationship. Oils stored the longest time showed the highest hydrolytic degradation while the others exhibited higher contents of oxidised fatty acids and triacylglycerols, instead. Thermal properties of transitions were differently influenced by degradation compounds with the onset of both the cooling and heating profiles particularly influenced by diacylglycerols and oxidised lipids. Chemical data and thermal properties were correlated by using principal component analysis. Twenty-three variables were selected for the analysis with the first component fully segregating samples into two groups according to the year of storage and the level of hydrolysis and/or oxidation, on the basis of selected thermal properties obtained by cooling and heating transitions. These preliminary findings showed that differential scanning calorimetry could be considered an useful tool to evaluate lipid degradation in virgin olive oils, indicating its value as a support to chemical techniques. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems with olive vegetable oil for cutaneous application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Arandas Monteiro e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Liquid-Crystalline Systems represent active compounds delivery systems that may be able to overcome the physical barrier of the skin, especially represented by the stratum corneum. To obtain these systems, aqueous and oily components are used with surfactants. Of the different association structures in such systems, the liquid-crystalline offer numerous advantages to a topical product. This manuscript presents the development of liquid-crystalline systems consisting, in which the oil component is olive oil, its rheological characterizations, and the location of liquid crystals in its phase map. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated using J-774 mouse macrophages as the cellular model. A phase diagram to mix three components with different proportions was constructed. Two liquid crystalline areas were found with olive oil in different regions in the ternary diagram with two nonionic surfactants, called SLC1 (S1 and SLC2 (S2. These systems showed lamellar liquid crystals that remained stable during the entire analysis time. The systems were also characterized rheologically with pseudoplastic behavior without thixotropy. The texture and bioadhesion assays showed that formulations were similar statistically (p < 0.05, indicating that the increased amount of water in S2 did not interfere with the bioadhesive properties of the systems. In vitro cytotoxic assays showed that formulations did not present cytotoxicity. Olive oil-based systems may be a promising platform for skin delivery of drugs.

  8. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of a functionalized olive oil extract on the uterus and the bone in a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Zierau, Oliver; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Scharnweber, Dieter; Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Termetzi, Aikaterini; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Vollmer, Günter; Halabalaki, Maria

    2014-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet rich in fruits, vegetables and olive oil has been related to a lower osteoporosis incidence and accordingly to a reduced fracture risk. These observations might be mediated by the active constituents of extra virgin olive oil, and especially polyphenols. In the context of exploring the features of olive oil active constituents on postmenopausal osteoporosis, an extra virgin olive oil total polyphenolic fraction (TPF) was isolated and its effect on the bone loss attenuation was investigated. Female Lewis rats were ovariectomized and fed a diet enriched with a total phenolic extract of extra virgin olive oil in a concentration of 800 mg/kg diet. Oleocanthal, one compound of the polyphenolic fraction, showed a higher relative estrogen receptor binding affinity to the ERα compared to the ERβ. While the TPF only slightly induced the uterine wet weight (490.7 ± 53.7 vs. 432.7 ± 23, p = 0.058), TPF regulated estrogen response genes in the uterus (progesterone receptor, antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki67, complement C3). Comparing the quantified bone parameters, the oral TPF substitution did not attenuate the ovariectomy-induced bone loss. The administration of extra virgin olive oil polyphenols regulated uterine estrogen response marker genes in an E2-agonistic manner. The bone loss induced by estrogen ablation was not mitigated by treatment with the polyphenolic extract.

  10. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyphenol rich olive oils improve lipoprotein particle atherogenic ratios and subclasses profile: A randomized, crossover, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Valls, Rosa-Maria; Castañer, Olga; Rubió, Laura; Catalán, Úrsula; Pedret, Anna; Macià, Alba; Sampson, Maureen L; Covas, María-Isabel; Fitó, Montserrat; Motilva, Maria-José; Remaley, Alan T; Solà, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Lipoprotein particle measures performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and associated ratios, may be better markers for atherosclerosis risk than conventional lipid measures. The effect of two functional olive oils, one enriched with its polyphenols (FVOO, 500 ppm), and the other (FVOOT) with them (250 ppm) and those of thyme (250 ppm), versus a standard virgin olive oil (VOO), on lipoprotein particle atherogenic ratios and subclasses profiles was assessed. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, controlled trial, 33 hypercholesterolemic individuals received 25 mL/day of VOO, FVOO, and FVOOT. Intervention periods were of 3 weeks separated by 2-week washout periods. Lipoprotein particle counts and subclasses were measured by NMR. Polyphenols from olive oil and thyme modified the lipoprotein subclasses profile and decreased the total LDL particle/total HDL particle (HDL-P), small HDL/large HDL, and HDL-cholesterol/HDL-P ratios, and decreased the lipoprotein insulin resistance index (LP-IR) (p Olive oil polyphenols, and those from thyme provided benefits on lipoprotein particle atherogenic ratios and subclasses profile distribution. Polyphenol-enriched olive oil is a way of increasing the olive oil healthy properties while consuming the same amount of fat, as well as a useful and complementary tool for the management of cardiovascular risk individuals. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Content of fatty acids and phenolics in Coratina olive oil from Tunisia: influence of irrigation and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Dabbou, Sihem; Chehab, Hechmi; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Hammami, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    The quality indices and chemical composition of Coratina olive oil produced in the northern region of Tunisia were evaluated, to determine the effect of three different irrigation regimes of the trees on the olive oils. The olives were sampled at two different stages of maturity, the oils were extracted, and standard methods were used to analyze the composition and quality of the oils. The fatty-acid contents and quality parameters were only slightly affected by the irrigation regime. The contents of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids were above 12, 72, and 8%, respectively, for the second harvest, regardless of the irrigation level of the olive trees. Parameters such as the α-tocopherol content and the phenolic profile were found to be significantly affected by the harvesting time; however, inconsistent changes were observed for the irrigation regimes, especially for the oil of the second harvest. It was shown that the irrigation conditions of the olive trees as well as the harvesting time of the fruits gave rise to a diverse range of olive oils in Tunisia. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Improvement of stability and carotenoids fraction of virgin olive oils by addition of microalgae Scenedesmus almeriensis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limón, Piedad; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Acién-Fernández, F Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Cruz, Rebeca; Bermejo, Ruperto; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-05-15

    Humans are not capable of synthesizing carotenoids de novo and thus, their presence in human tissues is entirely of dietary origin. Consumption of essential carotenoids is reduced due to the lower intake of fruits and vegetables. Microalgae are a good source of carotenoids that can be exploited. In the present work, carotenoids rich extracts from Scenedesmus almeriensis were added to extra-virgin olive oils at different concentrations (0.1 and 0.21 mg/mL) in order to enhance the consumption of these bioactives. Extracts brought changes in olive oils color, turning them orange-reddish. Quality of olive oils was improved, since peroxidation was inhibited. Olive oils fatty acids and tocopherols were not affected. β-carotene and lutein contents increase considerably, as well as oxidative stability, improving olive oils shelf-life and nutritional value. Inclusion of S. almeriensis extracts is a good strategy to improve and enhance the consumption of carotenoids, since olive oil consumption is increasing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of malaxation time of olive paste on oil extraction yields and chemical and organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serraiocco, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to ascertain the influence of malaxation time of olive paste on extraction yields and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving. Results show that malaxation time has to be no less than 45 minutes to have a satisfactory oil extraction yield. Furthermore, it was ascertained that the malaxation time, protracted up to 90 minutes, does not have influence upon qualitative and organoleptic characteristics of oils. Only the total phenols content of oils changed significantly when the malaxation time of olive paste increased from 15 to 90 minutes. However, in this research has been demonstrated that in some cases the total phenols content of oils increased during the first 30-45 minutes of malaxation and after it diminished. This is due to the variation of total phenols content of vegetable water that in the first time increased and after diminished very quickly. Because of the partition equilibrium law, the total phenols content of oil changed in the same way. Finally, results show that the composition of volatile substances of head-space of oils did not change increasing the malaxation time of olive paste obtained from good quality olive fruits.Se realizaron pruebas experimentales para verificar la influencia del tiempo de batido sobre los rendimientos en aceite y sobre las características de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos con un decanter centrifugo con ahorro de agua. Los resultados conseguidos indicaron que el tiempo de batido no debe ser inferior a 45 minutos para poder obtener rendimientos en aceite satisfactorios. Además, se pudo verificar que la operación de batido, aun siendo prolongada a 90 minutos, no influencia significativamente en las características cualitativas y organolépticas de los aceites. Solo el contenido de fenoles totales en los aceites disminuyó cuando el tiempo de batido fue incrementado de 15 a 90 minutos. Sin embargo, se

  15. Fast screening of turkish olive oil by NMR spectroscopy for geographical determination and discrimination purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok, S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to rapidly screen olive oil contents by acquiring one dimensional (1D 1H NMR spectra of 38 samples from Turkey, The Middle East, and Libya. The quantitative analysis of the 1H NMR helped in distinguishing the geographical origin of the olive oil samples. The intensity of 1H NMR variables was submitted to the statistical method, analysis of variance (ANOVA. As a result of combining the NMR data and ANOVA, olive oils were discriminated based on regional origin rather than province. This less time consuming discriminative screening by 1H NMR does not require any further analysis of the olive oil, including oxidative stability measurements or gas chromatography. The possibility of determining authenticity, even in an olive growing area of a small village was also shown. The two-dimensional (2D non-invasive 1H DOSY NMR experiment, known as “NMR chromatography”, was used to determine the olive oil sub-fraction.El objetivo es conocer de manera rápida el contenido de aceite de oliva mediante la adquisición de espectros de 1H RMN de una dimensión (1D. El estudio se ha realizado con 38 muestras procedentes de Turquía, Oriente Medio y Libia. El análisis cuantitativo de 1H RMN ayudó a distinguir el origen geográfico de las muestras de aceites de oliva. La intensidad de las señales de 1H RMN se sometió a estudio estadístico mediante análisis de varianza (ANOVA. Como resultado de la combinación de los datos de RMN y ANOVA, los aceites de oliva fueron discriminados por origen regional antes que por provincia. Esta técnica de discriminación rápida por 1H RMN no requiere ningún análisis adicional de los aceites de oliva mediante estudios de estabilidad a la oxidación o cromatografía de gases. También se demostró la posibilidad de determinar la autenticidad, incluso en el área de cultivo del olivo de una pequeña aldea. Los experimentos de RMN bi-dimensionales (2D no invasiva 1H DOSY, conocido como

  16. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Olive oil and leaf extract prevent fluoxetine-induced hepatotoxicity by attenuating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgebaly, Hassan A; Mosa, Nermeen M; Allach, Mariam; El-Massry, Khaled F; El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; Al Hroob, Amir M; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2018-02-01

    Olive oil and leaf extract have several health benefits; however, their beneficial effect against fluoxetine-induced liver injury has not been investigated. The present study aimed to scrutinize the impact of fluoxetine on the liver of rats and to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil and leaf extract. Rats received fluoxetine orally at dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days. The fluoxetine-induced rats were concurrently treated with olive oil or leaf extract. At the end of the experiment, blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. Fluoxetine administration significantly increased circulating ALT, AST, ALP and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β levels in rats. Histological analysis showed several alterations, such as inflammatory cells infiltration, hepatocyte vacuolation and dilated sinusoids in the liver of fluoxetine-induced rats. Concurrent supplementation of olive oil and olive leaf extract significantly reduced circulating liver function marker enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and prevented fluoxetine-induced histological alterations. Both olive oil and leaf extract significantly decreased liver lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide, and ameliorated liver glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, olive oil and leaf extract prevented fluoxetine-induced apoptosis in the liver of rats as evidenced by decreased expression of Bax and caspase-3, and up-regulated expression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, olive oil and leaf extract protect against fluoxetine-induced liver injury in rats through attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of airborne zinc pollution on the antimicrobial activity of olive oil and the microbial metabolic profiles of Zn-contaminated soils in an Italian olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofo, Adriano; Elshafie, Hazem S; Scopa, Antonio; Mang, Stefania M; Camele, Ippolito

    2018-02-19

    The growing of microbial resistance leads to a great interest about some natural alternatives to synthetic compounds. This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Coratina) South Italy (Basilicata region), one located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory releasing Zn and the other in a control unpolluted site, both managed with similar cultivation techniques. Olive oil samples were studied from both areas during 2014 and 2015. The soil microbiological status of the polluted and unpolluted orchards has been characterized and the antimicrobial effects of olive oils extracted from polluted plants (PP) and control plants (CP) against some phytopathogens have been explored. Results showed that the antibacterial activity of PP oil was significantly higher than CP and this could be due to the high content of some phenolic compounds elicited by air and soil Zn pollution (especially in the layer 0-20 cm). There is no detectable antifungal activity of the studied oils. The metabolic activity (both total and for each carbon substrate group), diversity and evenness of PP soil bacterial communities were significantly different from CP soil, while the effects of soil depth was negligible. The same parameters measured on soil fungal communities are lower in PP soil at 0-20 cm soil depth. The current research clarified the impact of atmospheric Zn pollution on the antimicrobial activity of olive oil and the soil microbial metabolic profiles. The bioactive substances extracted from olive oils growing in Zn-polluted area might be used as antibiotics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of temperature on thermoacoustic properties of olive oil in alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriwas, R S; Chimankar, O P; Tabhane, P V; Dange, S P; Tembhurkar, Y D

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonic studies in liquids are great use in understanding the nature and strength of molecular interactions. Recently ultrasonic is the rapidly growing field research, which has been used in the food industry for both analysis and modification of food products. This paper presents ultrasonic velocity, density, adiabatic compressibility in olive oil with alcohol at different concentration that has been measured in the temperature range from 283.15K to 298.15K. The Moelwyn-Hughes parameter has been utilised to establish some simple relations between the available volumes, Bayer's non- linearity parameter, internal pressure, van der Waal's constant, Debye temperature etc. a relationship among the isobaric, isothermal and isochoric thermo-acoustical parameter have been studied and analyzed in the case olive oil with alcohol mixture. The present treatments had the distinct advantages of the thermo-acoustic parameters in the particular mixture.

  20. Interaction of Olive Oil Phenol Antioxidant Components with Low-density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA M LAMUELA-RAVENTÓS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds have shown to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and ex vivo; however, they are hydrosoluble compounds while LDL is a lipoprotein. Analysis of phenolic compounds in LDLs by HPLC is necessary to demonstrate their binding capacity to lipoproteins. We developed and validated a solid phase extraction method (SPE that allowed us the purification of LDL samples and their analysis by HPLC. This methodology allowed us to demonstrate the in vitro binding capacity of tyrosol, one of the main phenolic compounds in olive oil, to LDL. In the intervention dietary study with volunteers, food rich in phenolic compounds affected LDL composition. Changes in LDL phenolics composition are not observed after the short-term ingestion of food rich in phenolic compounds. However, after one week of olive oil consumption and Mediterranean diet there was an increase in phenolics (p=0.021. An accumulative effect seems necessary to observe significative differences in LDL phenolic composition.

  1. Optimization of oil extraction from olive pomace using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane, S

    2013-08-01

    A statistical methodology, combining Plackett-Burman design with Box-Behnken design, was applied to optimize the oil extraction process from olive pomace using hexane as solvent. Plackett-Burman design was used in the first step to evaluate the effects of five independent variables on the oil extraction yield. Temperature of extraction, time of contact, solvent-to-solids ratio and moisture content of the olive pomace were identified as significant independent variables and were further optimized by using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design. The optimized conditions to maximize the yield were as follows: extraction temperature at 33 , contact time at 10 min, solvent-to-solids ratio at 3.5 mL/g and moisture content at 13%. The experimental value of the yield (5.98%) at these optimum conditions was found in perfect agreement with the value predicted by model (5.80%).

  2. Determining Factors for Economic Efficiency in the Organic Olive Oil Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bernal Jurado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spain looms large worldwide in organic olive oil production. However, this productive potential contrasts with the low internal consumption of the product. This situation makes Spain a world leader in its export. Companies in this sector have clear deficiencies, which must be corrected to ensure their survival over time. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyse the level of efficiency, in economic terms, of organic olive oil producers and to identify the factors explaining the best organizational practices. To do so, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA have been used. The results reveal low levels of economic efficiency and the variables determining said efficiency.

  3. Direct esterification of olive-pomace oil using mesoporous silica supported sulfonic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alrouh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 containing propyl sulfonic acid groups were synthesized according to the literature and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and the H+ exchange capacities of the sulfonic acid groups were titrated. The esterification reaction of glycerol with olive-pomace oil has been carried out by using prepared functionalized mesoporous silica (MCM-41 and SBA-15 as catalysts. It has been monitored by GC two fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acids as reactants in olive-pomace oil and their related monoacylglycerols (Glycerol monopalmitate GMP and monooleate GMO as reaction product. The catalytic activities of the functionalized mesoporous silica were compared with commercial catalysts, these included homogeneous catalysts (p-toluenesulfonic acid and heterogeneous catalysts (Amberlyst-15. The total yield of monoacylglycerols (GMO + GMP was nearly 40%. Remarkably, we found that MCM-41-SO3H was recycled at least 3 times without any loss of activity.

  4. Impact of olive oil usage on physical properties of chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new olive oil based chocolate filling was carried out. In this study three different types of virgin olive oil were tested, in three different concentrations in the production of chocolate fillings. An instrumental analysis was carried out for chemical analyses, such as moisture and pH. The color analysis included the CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space and RGB color space. The rheological analysis included the evaluation of flow curve, flow index (n, consistency (K and dynamic moduli (G’ and G’’. No influence was detected on the moisture or pH of chocolate fillings, due to the concentration or type of olive oil. However, the use of olive oil decreased consistency from 1371 Pasn to 148 - 559 Pasn, even using olive oil concentrations of 20% w/w. Also, G’ registered a similar correlation, where a decrease was observed from 4.42 x 106 Pa to values around 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, for 20% w/w olive oil. The fillings presented a darker yellow-green color when using olive oil produced with Galega and Cordovil de Serpa varieties, but olive oil produced with the Arbequina variety did not affect color significantly, although further studies will be required to evaluate the impact of ripening stage.Ha sido desarrollado un nuevo relleno basado en aceite de oliva. En este estudio se testaron tres tipos diferentes de aceite de oliva, en tres concentraciones diferentes en la producción de rellenos de chocolate. El análisis instrumental incluyó análisis químico, como humedad y pH. El análisis del color incluyó el espacio CIE 1976 L*a*b* y el espacio RGB. El análisis reológico incluyó la evaluación del índice de flujo (n, consistencia (K y módulos dinámicos (G’ y G’’. Ni se detectó influencia en la humedad ni el pH de rellenos debido a la concentración o el tipo de aceite. Sin embargo, el uso de aceite de oliva disminuyó la consistencia desde 1371 Pasn a 148 - 559 Pasn, incluso usando concentraciones bajas de aceite como 20

  5. Coupling laser desorption with gas chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry for improved olive oil characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Sascha; Seifert, Luzia; Ahlmann, Norman; Hariharan, Chandrasekhara; Franzke, Joachim; Vautz, Wolfgang

    2018-07-30

    The investigation of volatile compounds in the headspace of liquid samples can often be used for detailed and non-destructive characterisation of the sample. This has great potential for process control or the characterisation of food samples, such as olive oil. We investigated, for the first time, the plume of substances released from olive oil droplets by laser desorption in a feasibility study and applied ion mobility spectrometry coupled to rapid GC pre-separation to enhance selectivity. Our investigation demonstrated that significantly more substances can be detected and quantified via laser desorption than in the usual headspace, enabling a rapid (5-10 min), sensitive (low ng/g range) and comprehensive analysis of the sample, with the potential for quality control and fraud identification. Therefore, laser desorption provides a useful sampling tool for characterising liquids in many applications, requiring only a few µL of sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of olive oil polyphenols on antibodies against oxidized LDL. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castañer, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIM: Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is a highly immunogenic particle that plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Some data suggest a protective role of OxLDL autoantibodies (OLAB) in atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the effect of olive oil polyphenols on the immunogenicity...... of oxLDL to autoantibody generation. METHODS: In a crossover, controlled trial, 200 healthy men were randomly assigned to 3-week sequences of 25 mL/day of 3 olive oils with high (366 mg/kg), medium (164 mg/kg), and low (2.7 mg/kg) phenolic content. RESULTS: Plasma OLAB concentration was inversely...

  7. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW: an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipori, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW, provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g.g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill.En los modernos olivares, las tecnologías de recogida mecánica han acelerado significativamente la recogida

  8. Optimization of Malaxation Process using Major Aroma Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cevik,Serife; Ozkan,Gulcan; Kıralan,Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimization of major aroma compounds in olive oils produced from fruits at three maturity stages wasstudied. A central composite design was used for the optimization of malaxation conditions of temperature and times, each at five levels with 13 runs including five central points. The responses of interest were trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, which were investigated and their contents were optimized. A full quadratic second order regression model including the linear, quadratic, and two...

  9. A likelihood ratio model for the determination of the geographical origin of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Własiuk, Patryk; Martyna, Agnieszka; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Food fraud or food adulteration may be of forensic interest for instance in the case of suspected deliberate mislabeling. On account of its potential health benefits and nutritional qualities, geographical origin determination of olive oil might be of special interest. The use of a likelihood ratio (LR) model has certain advantages in contrast to typical chemometric methods because the LR model takes into account the information about the sample rarity in a relevant population. Such properties are of particular interest to forensic scientists and therefore it has been the aim of this study to examine the issue of olive oil classification with the use of different LR models and their pertinence under selected data pre-processing methods (logarithm based data transformations) and feature selection technique. This was carried out on data describing 572 Italian olive oil samples characterised by the content of 8 fatty acids in the lipid fraction. Three classification problems related to three regions of Italy (South, North and Sardinia) have been considered with the use of LR models. The correct classification rate and empirical cross entropy were taken into account as a measure of performance of each model. The application of LR models in determining the geographical origin of olive oil has proven to be satisfactorily useful for the considered issues analysed in terms of many variants of data pre-processing since the rates of correct classifications were close to 100% and considerable reduction of information loss was observed. The work also presents a comparative study of the performance of the linear discriminant analysis in considered classification problems. An approach to the choice of the value of the smoothing parameter is highlighted for the kernel density estimation based LR models as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of olive fruits (Olea Europaea L. ), and its oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bashir, M.

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on accelerating the debittering steps of olive fruits, oil extractability and the quality of extracted oil. Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 669 Gy/hr., a part of these fruits was debittered in distilled water, the second was processed with NaOH (3.6% concentration) for 3 or 6 hr. Both treated fruits with a control part were kept in brine (5.6% sodium chloride) and stored for 12 months at room temperature. Portions of all these treated fruits were subjected to oil extraction by mechanical means immediately after treatment. During the debittering period (8 days) the total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and ph values were determined in wastewater (daily), whereas the peroxide value, iodine number and the total acidity were measured in the extracted oil. The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, a and K in wastewater. The most significant effect was noticed when irradiated fruits were processed with NaOH for 3 hrs. as indicated by the values of total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K concentration in wastewater. All used doses of gamma radiation, increased the extractability of the oil from the treated fruits, the total acidity and the peroxide value of that oil. (Author)

  11. Fish oil and olive oil can modify insulin resistance and plasma desacyl-ghrelin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidpour, Atoosa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Kimiagar, Masoud; Vafa, Mohamadreza; Ghasemi, Asghar; Abadi, Alireza; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Zarkesh, Maryam

    2011-07-01

    Evidence exists for reciprocal effects of insulin and desacyl-ghrelin (DAG) concentration, but the association between different fatty acid saturation in high fat diet (HFD) and these hormones remain to be established. To evaluate the impact of different sources of dietary fat and the level of fatty acid saturation on plasma insulin and DAG levels and also the association of DAG with insulin action this study was carried out. Male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of HFDs, high fat butter (HF-B), high fat soy (HF-S), high fat olive (HF-O), high fat fish (HF-F), and a group of standard diet (SD). Blood samples were collected after 8 weeks and after they were fasted for 24 h. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, insulin, DAG and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured. Plasma insulin levels at fed and fasted status, were significantly higher in rats on HF-B compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (Polive oils may hence contribute to lower insulin level and HOMA-IR by increasing DAG concentration and may have more health benefits than other fat sources in diets.

  12. Use of Tunisian flavored olive oil as anisakicidal agent in industrial anchovy marinating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Najla; Marotta, Stefania M; Giarratana, Filippo; Taamali, Amani; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro

    2017-12-28

    Natural compounds are more frequently used against Anisakis, responsible for the important fish-borne disease anisakidosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enriched Tunisian olive oil with different spices (cumin, turmeric, clove, thyme, and lemon) against Anisakis larvae type 1. In vitro experiment: larvae were submerged separately in the aforementioned oils and then examined to check viability. For each oil, LT50 and LT100 were calculated. Turmeric and cumin oils are the most effective against the parasites; followed by lemon, thyme and clove oils. For the in vivo experiment, turmeric and cumin oils were tested in anchovy fillets previously artificially parasitized with L3 larvae. Cumin was the most effective against parasites (dead after 5 days) compared with turmeric (8 days). For the two oils, the resulting odor was pleasant, as was the taste, while changes in color were much more evident in turmeric fillets. All the flavored oils demonstrated a good nematodical action against Anisakis. Cumin oil was the most effective against encysted larvae. Turmeric oil showed the best activity in the in vitro experiment. The use of flavored oils in the marinating process could represent an efficient strategy to devitalize Anisakis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was designed to examine the cardiovascular effects of ozone and the efficacy of FO and OO-rich diets in attenuating these effects of ozone exposure in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet (ND), or a diet enriched with 6% FO or OO starting at 4 weeks of age. Eight weeks following the start of the diet, animals were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 0.8 ppm ozone, 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Immediately after exposure, cardiac responses were assessed ex vivo using a Langendorff heart preparation with a protocol consisting of 20 min of global ischemia followed by 2 hr reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured as the index of left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin) before ischemia. Upon reperfusion after ischemia, the recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and infarct size were examined. Results: The pre-ischemic LVDP, dP/dtmax, and dP/dtmin were lower after ozone exposure when compared to the FA control in the rats fed ND but not FO and OO. OO diet shortened the time to ischemic contracture of the hearts after FA exposure compared to ND. Ozone exposure increased pre-ischemic heart rate and the time to ischemic contractur

  14. Geographical classification of wine and olive oil by means of classification and influence matrix analysis (CAIMAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Davide; Mauri, Andrea; Todeschini, Roberto; Buratti, Susanna

    2006-06-16

    Classification and influence matrix analysis (CAIMAN) is a new classification method, recently proposed and based on the influence matrix (also called leverage matrix). Depending on the purposes of the classification analysis, CAIMAN can be used in three outlines: (1) D-CAIMAN is a discriminant classification method, (2) M-CAIMAN is a class modelling method allowing a sample to be classified, not classified at all, or assigned to more than one class (confused) and (3) A-CAIMAN deals with the asymmetric case, where only a reference class needs to be modelled. In this work, the geographic classification of samples of wine and olive oil has been carried out by means of CAIMAN and its results compared with discriminant analysis, by focusing great attention on the model predictive capabilities. The geographic characterization has been carried out on three different datasets: extra virgin olive oils produced in a small area, with a "protected denomination of origin" label, wines with different denominations of origin, but produced in enclosed geographical areas, and olive oils belonging to different production areas. Final results seem to indicate that the application of CAIMAN to the geographical origin identification offers several advantages: first, it shows--on an average basis--good performances; second, it is able to deal in a simple way classification problems related to tipicity, authenticity, and uniqueness characterization, which are of increasing interest in food quality issues.

  15. Impact of olive oil phenolic concentration on human plasmatic phenolic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Valls, Rosa-M; Macià, Alba; Pedret, Anna; Giralt, Montse; Romero, Maria-Paz; de la Torre, Rafael; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2012-12-15

    Three different functional phenol-enriched virgin olive oils (FVOO) were prepared with a phenolic content of 250 (L-FVOO), 500 (M-FVOO), and 750 mg (H-FVOO) total phenols/kg. In a randomised, cross-over study with 12 healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of phenolic biological metabolites was assessed. An increasing linear trend was observed for hydroxytyrosol sulfate, the main phenolic metabolite quantified in plasma, with C(max) values of 1.35, 3.32, and 4.09 μmol/l, and AUC mean values of 263.7, 581.4, and 724.4 μmol/min for L-FVOO, M-FVOO, and H-FVOO, respectively. From our data an acute intake of phenol-enriched olive oils promotes a dose-dependent response of phenol conjugate metabolites in human plasma. Also, we point out for the first time hydroxytyrosol acetate sulfate as a main biological metabolite of hydroxytyrosol from olive oil ingestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of controlled crossing on the triglyceride and fatty acid composition of virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Rjiba, Imed; Echbili, Adel; Gazzah, Noureddine; Mechri, Beligh; Hammami, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    Our study reports the triglyceride (triacylglycerol, TAG) composition of five new Tunisian virgin olive oil cultivars obtained through controlled crossings of the cultivar (cv.) Chemlali Sfax. These cultivars have been selected among a progeny of 500 olive descendants, based on an evaluation of the fatty-acid (FA) composition of their oils. Among these samples, two were derived from the crossing with the cv. Sigoise as pollinator (SM634) or pollen acceptor (SM1110) and the others from the crossing with the cv. Meski as pollen acceptor (SM513, SM514, and SM517). The five descendants were characterized by a good fat value, a balanced FA composition, and a high content of triolein, varying between 26.9 (SM514) and 45.46% (SM1110). They had an improved FA composition as compared to that of the cv. Chemlali Sfax and their fruits were slightly bigger. The principal component analysis suggested that the TAG variables were more suitable than the total FAs for an optimum classification of the cultivar samples analyzed. The cultivars obtained through the crossing with the cv. Sigoise (as pollen acceptor or pollinator) had a more favorable composition of FAs and TAG than those obtained through the crossing with the cv. Meski, which indicated that genetic factors had the most important influence on the quality of the virgin olive oils.

  17. Effect of Polymer Concentration and Acidification Time on Olive Oil Microcapsules Obtained by Complex Coacervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation of olive oil is an effective method to protect it against environmental deteriorative factors. In this research, olive oil microcapsules were produced by complex coacervation method. The objective was to examine the effect of gelatin and Arabic gum as shell materials, lactose as cryprotectant, and different acidification times on microencapsulation efficiency of olive oil. Arabic gum 2-5% (w/w, gelatin 2-5% (w/w, lactose 1-5% (w/w, and different acidification times (0-60 min( were given to Design-Expert software using the Response Surface Method. The surface appearance and morphology of the microcapsules were characterized by an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Microencapsulation efficiency ranged from 43.9 ± 0.98% to 90.5 ± 2%. The highest efficiency was obtained in gelatin 2% (w/w, Arabic gum 2% (w/w, lactose 3% (w/w and acidification time of 60 min. The best model for describing the microencapsulation efficiency was quadratic model. The highest effect in microencapsulation efficiency was related to interaction of gelatin-Arabic gum and lactose-acidification time because they had higher coefficient estimate.

  18. Optimization of olive oil hydrolysis process using immobilized Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia sp. in Polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Ligianara Dewes Nyari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to achieve the best conditions for the  olive oil hydrolysis process at optimal pH and temperature using Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized in situ in rigid polyurethane support. The influences of the temperature (13.85 to 56.5ºC and pH (4.18 to 9.82 were evaluated by a central composite rotational experimental design 22. The operational stability and storage conditions were also studied. The olive oil hydrolysis process was optimized in pH 7.0, at 40°C and 15 min of reaction, with 66 and 93 U g-1 of hydrolysis activity in free and immobilized lipase, respectively, with > 700% yield. The immobilized remained stable for up to 40 days of storage at temperatures of 60oC, and for 100 days from 4 to 25°C. The operational stability of the immobilized was 6 continuous cycles. In this way, immobilization showed to be a promising alternative for its application in olive oil hydrolysis, having storage stability and reuse capability.

  19. Continuous glycerolysis of olive oil by Chromobacterium viscosum lipase immobilized in liposome in reversed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P S; Rhee, J S; Kim, J J

    1991-12-05

    Chromobacterium viscosum lipase which has adsorbed on liposome and solubilized in microemulsion droplets of glycerol containing a little amount of water could catalyze the glycerolysis of olive oil. Studies on the continuous glycerolysis of olive oil by the immobilized enzyme was done at 37 degrees C in continuous stirred vessel bioreactor with polysulfone membrane. The effect of the flow rate of substrate (olive oil) in isooctane on the conversion and composition of the outlet was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conversion increased with decrease in the flow rate. And we studied the effect of water content in the glycerol-water-lipase solution on the glycerolysis reaction. The conversion to desirable products, mono- and di-olein, was improved without a substantial production of oleic acid at lower water concentrations, i.e., below 8.0% (w/v) which corresponds to a w(o) value of 0.97. At water concentration higher than 8.0% (w/v), the amount of free fatty acid was dramatically increased. Higher operational stability of the enzyme reactor, and the half-line of the enzyme continuous reaction was about 7 weeks.

  20. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vivancos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which allows a better interpretation of results particularly when data are studied across different subjects. Most of the activations, which were located in the frontal lobe, are related to the olfactory task regardless of the hedonic component of perception (e.g. Brodmann areas 10, 11. Comparing the samples with pleasant and unpleasant aromas, differences were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32, at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38, and inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 47, while intense aromas activated Brodmann area 6. The actual perceptions described by the subjects and the concentration of the odorant compounds in the samples were considered in the interpretation of the results.

  1. The effect of olive-pomace oil on different blood parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, M.J.; Naveed, A.K.; Khan, S.; Shah, S.Z.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of olive-pomace oil on glycemic status and lipid profile in diabetes. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad from March 2010 to June 2011. Material and Methods: Seventy male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were randomly divided into two groups of 35 rats each. Rats were rendered diabetic by injecting streptozotocin. Group 1 and group 2 were given normal rodent diet and olive pomace oil supplemented diet respectively for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured for comparison. Results: There was significant increase in high density lipoprotein and significant decrease of blood glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of group II rats when compared with group I (control). Conclusion: Olive pomace oil can significantly improve fasting blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. (author)

  2. Products based on olive oil, betaine, and xylitol in the post-radiotherapy xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Margarita; Marín, Alicia; López, Mario; Liñán, Olga; Alvarenga, Felipe; Büchser, David; Cerezo, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was determining if the use of products based in olive oil, betaine and xylitol are efficacious to decrease the impact of the dry mouth in the quality of life of the patients with xerostomia due to radiotherapy treatment. Following therapeutic irradiation of the head and neck, patients with profound xerostomia have complaints associated with oral dryness, speech, and taste. There is no strong evidence that any topical therapy is effective for relieving the symptom of dry mouth. 40 patients who had been treated with radiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma and reported symptoms of dry mouth were included in the study. A xerostomia-related quality of life questionnaire, visual analogue scale questionnaire for subjective assessment of salivary dysfunction and salivary flow were reported before and 15 days after the use of topical products based on olive oil, betaina and xylitol. The four primary quality of life areas demonstrated significantly greater improvement after the use of topical products and all eight VAS items had favourable changes. The reduction of symptoms was statistically significant in 7 of the 8 items. After the use of the products, there were improvements in salivary flow in 45%. The use of products based on olive oil, betaine and xylitol, shaped like collutory, toothpaste, gel and spray significantly improved most symptoms and the quality of life limitations produced by dry mouth in patients treated with radiotherapy.

  3. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivancos, J.; Tena, N.; Morales, M.T.; Aparicio, R.; Garcia-Gonzalez, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary) were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which allows a better interpretation of results particularly when data are studied across different subjects. Most of the activations, which were located in the frontal lobe, are related to the olfactory task regardless of the hedonic component of perception (e.g. Brodmann areas 10, 11). Comparing the samples with pleasant and unpleasant aromas, differences were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32), at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38), and inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 47), while intense aromas activated Brodmann area 6. The actual perceptions described by the subjects and the concentration of the odorant compounds in the samples were considered in the interpretation of the results. [es

  4. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly.

  5. Olive oil polyphenols enhance the expression of cholesterol efflux related genes in vivo in humans. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farràs, Marta; Valls, Rosa M; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Giralt, Montserrat; Solà, Rosa; Subirana, Isaac; Motilva, María-José; Konstantinidou, Valentini; Covas, María-Isabel; Fitó, Montserrat

    2013-07-01

    Both oleic acid and polyphenols have been shown to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to protect HDL from oxidation, a phenomenon associated with a low cholesterol efflux from cells. Our goal was to determine whether polyphenols from olive oil could exert an in vivo nutrigenomic effect on genes related to cholesterol efflux in humans. In a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial, 13 pre/hypertensive patients were assigned 30 ml of two similar olive oils with high (961 mg/kg) and moderate (289 mg/kg) polyphenol content. We found an increase in ATP binding cassette transporter-A1, scavenger receptor class B type 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)BP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ and CD36 gene expression in white blood cells at postprandial after high polyphenol olive oil when compared with moderate polyphenol olive oil intervention (Polive oil polyphenols (Polive oil polyphenols in the up-regulation of genes involved in the cholesterol efflux from cells to HDL in vivo in humans. These results are in agreement with previous ones concerning the fact that benefits associated with polyphenol-rich olive oil consumption on cardiovascular risk could be mediated through an in vivo nutrigenomic effect in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of the intake of phenol compounds from virgin olive oil of a population from southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Robles, Amelia; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, Maria Luisa; Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the mean polyphenol composition of different varieties of virgin olive oil (VOO) habitually consumed in the region of southern Spain and to estimate the dietary exposure to olive oil polyphenols in that population. There were statistically significant differences in total polyphenols among varieties, with the Picual variety containing the largest amount with a mean value of 591.8 mg kg(-1). The main phenolic compounds found in the VOOs under study were tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. The highest amounts of both substances were found in Picual olive oils with concentrations of 2.3-6.6 mg kg(-1). The total intake of polyphenols from VOO ranged between 8.2 mg day(-1) (SD = 4.14) for the under 19 year olds and 21.3 mg day(-1) (SD = 3) for the over 50 year olds. Some polyphenols, including tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, were consumed principally as olive oil. The intake of these compounds in the studied population was in the range of 88.5-237.4 μg day(-1). This has particular importance as recent studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol helps to improve plasma lipids levels and repair oxidative damage related to cardiovascular disease. There was a greater dietary consumption of polyphenols in olive oil among the participants who more closely followed the Mediterranean diet pattern. A higher consumption of olive oil and therefore a greater exposure to polyphenols was observed in females versus males and in participants of normal weight versus those who were overweight. The total intake of polyphenols from VOO significantly increased with higher age, reflecting the greater intake of this oil by older people, who also show a closer adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The over 50-year-old age group showed the greatest consumption of this olive oil and therefore of phenolic compounds, which are healthy protectors in the human diet that contribute to the acknowledged benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

  7. The effects of olive oil, hydrogenated palm oil, and omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diets on megakaryocytes and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, P K; Wojenski, C M; Walker, J

    1993-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids are thought to prevent thrombotic and arteriosclerotic disease, whereas saturated fatty acids are thought to increase the incidence of these disorders. However, the effects of these diets on megakaryocytes and platelets are not well understood. We compared the effects of diets enriched with 8.4% olive oil, 8.4% hydrogenated palm oil, or 10.2% omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on guinea pig megakaryocytes and platelets. In plasma, changes in fatty acid composition reflected the composition of each diet. However, in platelets and megakaryocytes, hydrogenated palm oil induced a decrease in 16:0 and an increase in 18:2 while the olive oil diet caused a marked increase in 18:1 and a decrease in most other fatty acids. The differences in the effects of the diets on cellular versus plasma fatty acids suggest that megakaryocytes and platelets have an extensive capacity to regulate their fatty acid composition. Thrombocytosis occurred with the omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet: 12.9 +/- 1.78 x 10(5) compared with 7.45 +/- 1.08 x 10(5) platelets per microliter of platelet-rich plasma in control animals. There was an increase in megakaryocyte size, ploidy, and morphological stage (cytoplasmic maturation) with the omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet but not with the other diets. The omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet decreased platelet thromboxane production while the other diets had no effect. Platelet hypersensitivity was suggested in collagen aggregation studies with olive oil but not with the hydrogenated palm oil diet. Although saturated fatty acid diets are thought to be atherogenic, this diet had no affect on platelet function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Olive oil and health: summary of the II international conference on olive oil and health consensus report, Jaén and Córdoba (Spain) 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Miranda, J; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Ros, E

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil (OO) is the most representative food of the traditional Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet). Increasing evidence suggests that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as a nutrient, OO as a food, and the MedDiet as a food pattern are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesi...... protective effect of OO on cancer. Furthermore, results of case-control and cohort studies suggest that MUFA intake including OO is associated with a reduction in cancer risk (mainly breast, colorectal and prostate cancers).......Olive oil (OO) is the most representative food of the traditional Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet). Increasing evidence suggests that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as a nutrient, OO as a food, and the MedDiet as a food pattern are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity......, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Observational studies from Mediterranean cohorts have suggested that dietary MUFA may be protective against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies consistently support the concept that the OO-rich MedDiet is compatible with healthier aging...

  9. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-07-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  10. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-01-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  11. Use of coagulants in treatment of olive oil wastewater model solutions by induced air flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyssami, B; Kasaeian, A B

    2005-02-01

    Natural polyelectrolytes are suitable coagulants for the treatment of industrial and minicipal wastewaters because they are safe and have environmental benefits. Chitosan, a natural cationic polyelectrolyte, and other similar coagulants were used in the treatment of an olive oil water suspension as a model for the processing wastewater. The effect of chitosan, starch, alum and ferric chloride on the coagulation of oil droplets were determined by the jar test apparatus and turbidometric measurements. Olive oil emulsion samples were prepared by the use of surface active agents and other agents that could form stable oil water emulsions. The effect of parameters such as pH, ionic strength and optimum dosage of the coagulants were determined in the jar test experiments. Following the jar experiments, with the optimum concentration of the suitable coagulant, the emulsions were placed in an induced air flotation (IAF) cell to separate the coagulated oil droplets from solution. In the air flotation experiments, the effect of temperature, surfactant concentration and air flowrate were determined on the decrease of turbidity and COD of the emulsion samples. In the jar experiments, chitosan and alum used together at concentrations of 15 and 25 ppm, respectively, at pH 6 produced the lowest turbidity values. In the air flotation experiments, a concentration of 100 ppm of chitosan, an air flowrate of 3 l/min, aeration time of 45 s, temperature of 20 degrees C and pH 6 produced optimum levels. At optimum conditions of coagulation and flotation stages, the COD of the olive oil emulsion could be reduced by 95%.

  12. Irrigation and fruit canopy position modify oil quality of olive trees (cv. Frantoio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Sifola, Maria Isabella; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Fruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In the present study, the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting approximately 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. Fruits receiving 61-67% of above canopy radiation showed the highest fruit weight, mesocarp oil content and maturation index, whereas those intercepting only 27-33% showed the lowest values. Palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased in oils obtained from fruits exposed to high light levels, whereas oleic acid and the oleic-linoleic acid ratio decreased. Neither canopy position, nor irrigation affected K 232 , K 270 , ΔK and the concentration of lignan in virgin olive oils (VOOs). Total phenols, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA [2-(3,4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl (3S,4E)-4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)hex-4-enoate] and p-HPEA-EDA (decarboxymethyl ligstroside-aglycone) increased in VOOs produced from fruits harvested from the top of the canopy, whereas full irrigation decreased total phenols and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA concentrations with respect to the complementary irrigation treatment. Light and water availability are crucial not only for tree productivity, but also they clearly affect olive oil quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Olive oil polyphenols extracts inhibit inflammatory markers in J774A.1 murine macrophages and scavenge free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Marwa; Marzocco, Stefania; Adesso, Simona; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2018-01-01

    Here we evaluate the olive oil antiradical and anti-inflammatory potential through its polyphenols extracts and examine the influence of olive maturity on olive oil quality properties, polyphenols composition and biological potentials. Samples have been obtained from minor Tunisian olive cultivars (Chemchali, Fouji and Zarrazi) at different maturity indices. Principal quality properties were evaluated and polyphenols analysis was carried out by Folin Ciocalteu reagent and HPLC-UV-MS. Antiradical activity was examined by DPPH and FRAP scavenging assays while J774A.1 murine macrophages were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory potential by analyzing NO production with Griess reagent method and iNOS and COX-2 expression by cytofluorimetric analysis. Our results revealed that quality characteristics, total phenol content, as well as phenolic compound concentrations were significantly affected by the olive maturity levels. On the other hand, the polyphenols extracts showed an interesting radical scavenging capacity and a potential ability to inhibit inflammatory markers at 90% for NO release and 75% for iNOS expression. Thus, our study establishes that olive oil through its polyphenols extracts has a substantial antiradical and anti-inflammatory potential. Likewise a lot of attention should be attributed to olive ripening level in order to decide the optimum harvesting time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of the oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and hydrosol in green olive fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Musa Özcan; Derya Arslan; Ali Osman Aydar

    2008-01-01

    The effect of oregano the (Origanum vulgare L.) oil at the levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3% and oregano hydrosol on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the green olive (Edremit variety) fermentation was investigated. The initial pH of the oregano oil added samples were higher than the other treatments, which were above 5.8. The highest final acidity was observed in the hydrosol+brine combination (0.53%). The initial LAB population on the first day of the fermen