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Sample records for decolorationis s12 grown

  1. Multiple approaches towards decolorization and reuse of a textile dye (VB-B) by a marine bacterium Shewanella decolorationis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SatheeshBabu, S.; Mohandass, C.; VijayRaj, A.S.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Dhale, M.A.

    Textile dye Victoria Blue-B (VB-B) was approached in two different ways: one to get rid of the color for its easy disposal to the environment, and the other is to reuse the decolorized water for coloring the same dye. Shewanella decolorationis (MBTD...

  2. TrgI, toluene repressed gene I, a novel gene involved in toluene-tolerance in Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, R.J.M.; Ballerstedt, H.; Ruijssenaars, H.; Bont, J.A.M. de; Winde, J.H. de; Wery, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida S12 is well known for its remarkable solvent tolerance. Transcriptomics analysis of this bacterium grown in toluene-containing chemostats revealed the differential expression of 253 genes. As expected, the genes encoding one of the major solvent tolerance mechanisms, the solvent

  3. Biological production of monoethanolamine by engineered Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foti, M.J.; Médici, R.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered for the production of monoethanolamine (MEA) from glucose via the decarboxylation of the central metabolite l-serine, which is catalyzed by the enzyme l-serine decarboxylase (SDC).The host was first evaluated for its tolerance towards MEA as well as its

  4. Multivariate analysis of microarray data by principal component discriminant analysis: Prioritizing relevant transcripts linked to the degradation of different carbohydrates in Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Pieterse, B.; Luijk, N. van; Schuren, F.; Werff van der - Vat, B. van der; Overkamp, K.; Jellema, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The value of the multivariate data analysis tools principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA) for prioritizing leads generated by microarrays was evaluated. To this end, Pseudomonas putida S12 was grown in independent triplicate fermentations on four

  5. Bioproduction of p-hydroxybenzoate from renewable feedstock by solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, S.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Bont, J.A.M.de; Wery, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain S12palB1 was constructed that produces p-hydroxybenzoate from renewable carbon sources via the central metabolite l-tyrosine. P. putida S12palB1 was based on the platform strain P. putida S12TPL3, which has an optimised carbon flux towards l-tyrosine. Phenylalanine ammonia

  6. Error-prone and error-restrictive mutations affecting ribosomal protein S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Deepali; Gregory, Steven T; O'Connor, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Ribosomal protein S12 plays a pivotal role in decoding functions on the ribosome. X-ray crystallographic analyses of ribosomal complexes have revealed that S12 is involved in the inspection of codon-anticodon pairings in the ribosomal A site, as well as in the succeeding domain rearrangements of the 30S subunit that are essential for accommodation of aminoacyl-tRNA. A role for S12 in tRNA selection is also well supported by classical genetic analyses; mutations affecting S12 are readily isolated in bacteria and organelles, since specific alterations in S12 confer resistance to the error-inducing antibiotic streptomycin, and the ribosomes from many such streptomycin-resistant S12 mutants display decreased levels of miscoding. However, substitutions that confer resistance to streptomycin likely represent a very distinct class of all possible S12 mutants. Until recently, the technical difficulties in generating random, unselectable mutations in essential genes in complex operons have generally precluded the analysis of other classes of S12 alterations. Using a recombineering approach, we have targeted the Escherichia coli rpsL gene, encoding S12, for random mutagenesis and screened the resulting mutants for effects on decoding fidelity. We have recovered over 40 different substitutions located throughout the S12 protein that alter the accuracy of translation without substantially affecting the sensitivity to streptomycin. Moreover, this collection includes mutants that promote miscoding, as well as those that restrict decoding errors. These results affirm the importance of S12 in decoding processes and indicate that alterations in this essential protein can have diverse effects on the accuracy of decoding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemostat-based proteomic analysis of toluene-affected Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, R.J.M.; Jong, A.L. de; Hulst, A.G.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Bont, J.A.M. de; Wery, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cellular response of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 to toluene as the single effector. Proteomic analysis (two-dimensional difference-in-gel-electrophoresis) was used to assess the response of P. putida S12 cultured in chemostats. This approach

  8. Ribosomal Protein S12e Has a Distinct Function in Cell Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Abhijit; Ji, Zhejun; Kiparaki, Marianthi; Blanco, Jorge; Rimesso, Gerard; Flibotte, Stephane; Baker, Nicholas E

    2018-01-08

    Wild-type Drosophila cells can remove cells heterozygous for ribosomal protein mutations (known as "Minute" mutant cells) from genetic mosaics, a process termed cell competition. The ribosomal protein S12 was unusual because cells heterozygous for rpS12 mutations were not competed by wild-type, and a viable missense mutation in rpS12 protected Minute cells from cell competition with wild-type cells. Furthermore, cells with Minute mutations were induced to compete with one another by altering the gene dose of rpS12, eliminating cells with more rpS12 than their neighbors. Thus RpS12 has a special function in cell competition that defines the competitiveness of cells. We propose that cell competition between wild-type and Minute cells is initiated by a signal of ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency mediated by RpS12. Since competition between cells expressing different levels of Myc did not require RpS12, other kinds of cell competition may be initiated differently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The solvent efflux system of Pseudomonas putida S12 is not involved in antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, S; De Bont, J A

    2000-11-01

    The active efflux system contributing to the solvent tolerance of Pseudomonas putida S12 was characterized physiologically. The mutant P. putida JK1, which lacks the active efflux system, was compared with the wild-type organism. None of 20 known substrates of common multi-drug-resistant pumps had a stronger growth-inhibiting effect on the mutant than on the wild type. The amount of [14C]toluene accumulating in P. putida S12 increased in the presence of the solvent xylene and in the presence of uncouplers. The effect of uncouplers confirms the proton dependency of the efflux system in P. putida S12. Other compounds, potential substrates for the solvent pump, did not affect the accumulation of [14C]toluene. These results show that the efflux system in P. putida S12 is specific for organic solvents and does not export antibiotics or other known substrates of multi-drug-resistant pumps.

  10. Modulation of 16S rRNA function by ribosomal protein S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Sanjurjo, Anton; Lu, Ying; Aragonez, Jamie L; Starkweather, Rebekah E; Sasikumar, Manoj; O'Connor, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S12 is a critical component of the decoding center of the 30S ribosomal subunit and is involved in both tRNA selection and the response to streptomycin. We have investigated the interplay between S12 and some of the surrounding 16S rRNA residues by examining the phenotypes of double-mutant ribosomes in strains of Escherichia coli carrying deletions in all chromosomal rrn operons and expressing total rRNA from a single plasmid-borne rrn operon. We show that the combination of S12 and otherwise benign mutations at positions C1409-G1491 in 16S rRNA severely compromises cell growth while the level and range of aminoglycoside resistances conferred by the G1491U/C substitutions is markedly increased by a mutant S12 protein. The G1491U/C mutations in addition confer resistance to the unrelated antibiotic, capreomycin. S12 also interacts with the 912 region of 16S rRNA. Genetic selection of suppressors of streptomycin dependence caused by mutations at proline 90 in S12 yielded a C912U substitution in 16S rRNA. The C912U mutation on its own confers resistance to streptomycin and restricts miscoding, properties that distinguish it from a majority of the previously described error-promoting ram mutants that also reverse streptomycin dependence.

  11. Solvent resistance pumps of Pseudomonas putida S12: Applications in 1-naphthol production and biocatalyst engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhan Garikipati, S V B; Peeples, Tonya L

    2015-09-20

    The solvent resistance capacity of Pseudomonas putida S12 was applied by using the organism as a host for biocatalysis and through cloning and expressing solvent resistant pump genes into Escherichia coli. P. putida S12 expressing toluene ortho mononooxygenase (TOM-Green) was used for 1-naphthol production in a water-organic solvent biphasic system. Application of P. putida S12 improved 1-naphthol production per gram cell dry weight by approximately 42% compared to E. coli. Moreover, P. putida S12 enabled the use of a less expensive solvent, decanol, for 1-naphthol production. The solvent resistant pump (srpABC) genes of P. putida S12 were cloned into a solvent sensitive E. coli strain to transfer solvent tolerance. Recombinant strains bearing srpABC genes in either a low-copy number or a high-copy number plasmid grew in the presence of saturated concentration of toluene. Both of the recombinant strains were more tolerant to 1% v/v of toxic solvents, decanol and hexane, reaching similar cell density as the no-solvent control. Reverse-transcriptase analysis revealed that the srpABC genes were transcribed in engineered strains. The results demonstrate successful transfer of the proton-dependent solvent resistance mechanism and suggest that the engineered strain could serve as more robust biocatalysts in media with organic solvents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. C1 compounds as auxiliary substrate for engineered Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.W.; De Winde, J.H.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered to efficiently utilize the C1 compounds methanol and formaldehyde as auxiliary substrate. The hps and phi genes of Bacillus brevis, encoding two key steps of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway, were introduced to construct a

  13. Redundancy in putrescine catabolism in solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandounas, L.; Ballerstedt, H.; Winde, J.H. de; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida S12 is a promising platform organism for the biological production of substituted aromatic compounds due to its extreme tolerance towards toxic chemicals. Solvent or aromatic stress tolerance may be due to membrane modifications and efflux pumps; however in general, polyamines

  14. Redundancy in putrescine catabolism in solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandounas, Luaine; Ballerstedt, Hendrik; de Winde, Johannes H; Ruijssenaars, Harald J

    2011-06-10

    Pseudomonas putida S12 is a promising platform organism for the biological production of substituted aromatic compounds due to its extreme tolerance towards toxic chemicals. Solvent or aromatic stress tolerance may be due to membrane modifications and efflux pumps; however in general, polyamines have also been implicated in stressed cells. Previous transcriptomics results of P. putida strains producing an aromatic compound, or being exposed to the solvent toluene, indicated differentially expressed genes involved in polyamine transport and metabolism. Therefore, the metabolism of the polyamine, putrescine was investigated in P. putida S12, as no putrescine degradation pathways have been described for this strain. Via transcriptome analysis various, often redundant, putrescine-induced genes were identified as being potentially involved in putrescine catabolism via oxidative deamination and transamination. A series of knockout mutants were constructed in which up to six of these genes were sequentially deleted, and although putrescine degradation was affected in some of these mutants, complete elimination of putrescine degradation in P. putida S12 was not achieved. Evidence was found for the presence of an alternative pathway for putrescine degradation involving γ-glutamylation. The occurrence of multiple putrescine degradation routes in the solvent-tolerant P. putida S12 is indicative of the importance of controlling polyamine homeostasis, as well as of the high metabolic flexibility exhibited by this microorganism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. THERMAL SENSITIVITY OF THE MURINE CFU-S-12 - ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERENGA, PK; KONINGS, AWT

    1991-01-01

    The hyperthermic sensitivity of the CFU-S-12 in bone marrow from normal and anaemic mice was determined. The terminal slope of the survival curves, demonstrated by the T0 values, does not significantly differ in the resting and active cycling stem cells. In the active cycling stem cells the initial

  16. Mutational analysis of S12 protein and implications for the accuracy of decoding by the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Cukras, Anthony R; Rogers, Elizabeth J; Southworth, Daniel R; Green, Rachel

    2007-12-07

    The fidelity of aminoacyl-tRNA selection by the ribosome depends on a conformational switch in the decoding center of the small ribosomal subunit induced by cognate but not by near-cognate aminoacyl-tRNA. The aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin bind to the decoding center and induce related structural rearrangements that explain their observed effects on miscoding. Structural and biochemical studies have identified ribosomal protein S12 (as well as specific nucleotides in 16S ribosomal RNA) as a critical molecular contributor in distinguishing between cognate and near-cognate tRNA species as well as in promoting more global rearrangements in the small subunit, referred to as "closure." Here we use a mutational approach to define contributions made by two highly conserved loops in S12 to the process of tRNA selection. Most S12 variant ribosomes tested display increased levels of fidelity (a "restrictive" phenotype). Interestingly, several variants, K42A and R53A, were substantially resistant to the miscoding effects of paromomycin. Further characterization of the compromised paromomycin response identified a probable second, fidelity-modulating binding site for paromomycin in the 16S ribosomal RNA that facilitates closure of the small subunit and compensates for defects associated with the S12 mutations.

  17. Establishment of oxidative D-xylose metabolism in Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnen, J.P.; Winde, J.H. de; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative D-xylose catabolic pathway of Caulobacter crescentus, encoded by the xylXABCD operon, was expressed in the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12. This engineered transformant strain was able to grow on D-xylose as a sole carbon source with a biomass yield of 53% (based on g

  18. Active efflux systems in the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to study the molecular mechanisms of organic solvent tolerance in Pseudomonas putida S12. This bacterium is capable of growth at saturated solvent concentrations, which are lethal to normal bacteria. Organic

  19. Engineering Pseudomonas putida S12 for efficient utilization of D-Xylose and L-Arabinose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnen, J.P.; Winde, J.H. de; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered to utilize xylose as a substrate by expressing xylose isomerase (XylA) and xylulokinase (XylB) from Escherichia coli. The initial yield on xylose was low (9% [g CDW g substrate−1], where CDW is cell dry weight), and the growth rate

  20. Biological production of hydroxylated aromatics : Optimization strategies for Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, A.

    2010-01-01

    To replace environmentally unfriendly petrochemical production processes, the demand for bio-based production of organic chemicals is increasing. This thesis focuses on the biological production of hydroxylated aromatics from renewable substrates by engineered P. putida S12 including several cases

  1. ACTIVE EFFLUX OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS BY PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA S12 IS INDUCED BY SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of the membrane-associated organic solvent efflux system SrpABC of Pseudomonas putida S12 was examined by cloning a 312-bp DNA fragment, containing the srp promoter, in the broad-host-range reporter vector pKRZ-1. Compounds that are capable of inducing expression of the...

  2. Testosterone 15β-hydroxylation by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Sperling, E.M.G.M.; Wiegerinck, P.H.G.; Brands, F.T.L.; Wery, J.; Bont, J.A.M.de

    2007-01-01

    A steroid 15β-hydroxylating whole-cell solvent tolerant biocatalyst was constructed by expressing the Bacillus megaterium steroid hydroxylase CYP106A2 in the solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. Testosterone hydroxylation was improved by a factor 16 by co-expressing Fer, a putative Fe-S protein

  3. Physiological response of Pseudomonas putida S12 subjected to reduced water activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Heipieper, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of osmotic stress, given as decreased water activity (aw), on growth and the accumulation of potassium and the compatible solute betaine by Pseudomonas putida S12 was investigated. Reduced aw was imposed by addition of sodium chloride, sucrose, glycerol or polyethylene glycol to the

  4. Graphic Grown Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  5. LOFT CIS analysis: 24'' H and V Duct outside penetration S-12A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, A.T.

    1978-01-01

    The 24'' H and V Duct and related piping outside the LOFT containment and connected to containment penetration S-12A were analyzed to ASME Section III, Subsection NC (Class 2) criteria. The duct is part of the Containment Isolation System. The model considered the duct from the containment O.D. outward through the second isolation valve. Results of this analysis show that this section of the line will meet Class 2 requirements without modification

  6. LOFT CIS analysis: 24'' H and V Duct outside penetration S-12A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, A.T.

    1978-08-18

    The 24'' H and V Duct and related piping outside the LOFT containment and connected to containment penetration S-12A were analyzed to ASME Section III, Subsection NC (Class 2) criteria. The duct is part of the Containment Isolation System. The model considered the duct from the containment O.D. outward through the second isolation valve. Results of this analysis show that this section of the line will meet Class 2 requirements without modification.

  7. Compensatory evolution reveals functional interactions between ribosomal proteins S12, L14 and L19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisnier-Patin, Sophie; Paulander, Wilhelm; Pennhag, Alexandra; Andersson, Dan I

    2007-02-09

    Certain mutations in S12, a ribosomal protein involved in translation elongation rate and translation accuracy, confer resistance to the aminoglycoside streptomycin. Previously we showed in Salmonella typhimurium that the fitness cost, i.e. reduced growth rate, due to the amino acid substitution K42N in S12 could be compensated by at least 35 different mutations located in the ribosomal proteins S4, S5 and L19. Here, we have characterized in vivo the fitness, translation speed and translation accuracy of four different L19 mutants. When separated from the resistance mutation located in S12, the three different compensatory amino acid substitutions in L19 at position 40 (Q40H, Q40L and Q40R) caused a decrease in fitness while the G104A change had no effect on bacterial growth. The rate of protein synthesis was unaffected or increased by the mutations at position 40 and the level of read-through of a UGA nonsense codon was increased in vivo, indicating a loss of translational accuracy. The mutations in L19 increased sensitivity to aminoglycosides active at the A-site, further indicating a perturbation of the decoding step. These phenotypes are similar to those of the classical S4 and S5 ram (ribosomal ambiguity) mutants. By evolving low-fitness L19 mutants by serial passage, we showed that the fitness cost conferred by the L19 mutations could be compensated by additional mutations in the ribosomal protein L19 itself, in S12 and in L14, a protein located close to L19. Our results reveal a novel functional role for the 50 S ribosomal protein L19 during protein synthesis, supporting published structural data suggesting that the interaction of L14 and L19 with 16 S rRNA could influence function of the 30 S subunit. Moreover, our study demonstrates how compensatory fitness-evolution can be used to discover new molecular functions of ribosomal proteins.

  8. Establishment of oxidative D-xylose metabolism in Pseudomonas putida S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijnen, Jean-Paul; de Winde, Johannes H; Ruijssenaars, Harald J

    2009-05-01

    The oxidative D-xylose catabolic pathway of Caulobacter crescentus, encoded by the xylXABCD operon, was expressed in the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12. This engineered transformant strain was able to grow on D-xylose as a sole carbon source with a biomass yield of 53% (based on g [dry weight] g D-xylose(-1)) and a maximum growth rate of 0.21 h(-1). Remarkably, most of the genes of the xylXABCD operon appeared to be dispensable for growth on D-xylose. Only the xylD gene, encoding D-xylonate dehydratase, proved to be essential for establishing an oxidative D-xylose catabolic pathway in P. putida S12. The growth performance on D-xylose was, however, greatly improved by coexpression of xylXA, encoding 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-xylonate dehydratase and alpha-ketoglutaric semialdehyde dehydrogenase, respectively. The endogenous periplasmic glucose dehydrogenase (Gcd) of P. putida S12 was found to play a key role in efficient oxidative D-xylose utilization. Gcd activity not only contributes to D-xylose oxidation but also prevents the intracellular accumulation of toxic catabolic intermediates which delays or even eliminates growth on D-xylose.

  9. C(1) compounds as auxiliary substrate for engineered Pseudomonas putida S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Frank W; de Winde, Johannes H; Ruijssenaars, Harald J

    2009-06-01

    The solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered to efficiently utilize the C(1) compounds methanol and formaldehyde as auxiliary substrate. The hps and phi genes of Bacillus brevis, encoding two key steps of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway, were introduced to construct a pathway for the metabolism of the toxic methanol oxidation intermediate formaldehyde. This approach resulted in a remarkably increased biomass yield on the primary substrate glucose when cultured in C-limited chemostats fed with a mixture of glucose and formaldehyde. With increasing relative formaldehyde feed concentrations, the biomass yield increased from 35% (C-mol biomass/C-mol glucose) without formaldehyde to 91% at 60% relative formaldehyde concentration. The RuMP-pathway expressing strain was also capable of growing to higher relative formaldehyde concentrations than the control strain. The presence of an endogenous methanol oxidizing enzyme activity in P. putida S12 allowed the replacement of formaldehyde with the less toxic methanol, resulting in an 84% (C-mol/C-mol) biomass yield. Thus, by introducing two enzymes of the RuMP pathway, co-utilization of the cheap and renewable substrate methanol was achieved, making an important contribution to the efficient use of P. putida S12 as a bioconversion platform host.

  10. Probing the proteome response to toluene exposure in the solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijte, Dorien; van Baar, Ben L M; Heck, Albert J R; Altelaar, A F Maarten

    2011-02-04

    To enhance target production from biocatalysts, it is necessary to thoroughly understand the molecular mechanisms involved in production, degradation, and, importantly, adaptation to the required environment. One such bacterium with high potential for biocatalysis is the solvent-tolerant bacteria Pseudomonas putida S12, which, among others, is able to degrade organic solvents. For bioconversion of organic solvents to become a successful industrial process, the understanding of the molecular response upon solvent tolerance is essential. Here we performed a quantitative analysis of the P. putida S12 proteome at different stages of adaptation to toluene. Using a stable isotope dimethylation labeling approach we monitored the differential expression of 528 proteins, including often hard-to-detect membrane associate proteins, such as multiple RND-family transporters and ABC transporters of nutrients. Our quantitative proteomics approach revealed the remarkable ability of P. putida S12 to severely change its protein expression profile upon toluene exposure. This proteome response entails a significant increase in energy metabolism and expression of the solvent efflux pump SrpABC, confirming its role in solvent tolerance. Other proteins strongly up-regulated in the presence of toluene include the multidrug efflux membrane protein PP1272 and the cation/acetate symporter ActP and may form interesting alternative targets for improving solvent tolerance.

  11. Influence of Li10GeP2S12-type solid electrolyte on cell thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jishnu Bhattacharya; C. Wolverton

    2016-01-01

    We elucidate few critical facts about the lithium superionic conductor (Li10GeP2S12) and few other compounds of the same family as the electrolyte in Li-ion cells. The dimensionality of diffusion process and existence of ‘structural’ lithiums are not well understood in this material. From the ab-initio MD simulations, we find that the material transport Li-ions predominantly in the crystallographic c-direction. Nevertheless, the cross-channel diffusion is significant as well. We explored the ...

  12. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Sludge Palm Oil Using Pseudomonas putida S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Du-Kyeong; Lee, Cho-Ryong; Lee, Sun Hee; Bae, Jung-Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon; Rhee, Young Ha; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2017-05-28

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics produced by bacteria, but their use in diverse applications is prohibited by high production costs. To reduce these costs, the conversion by Pseudomonas strains of P HAs from crude s ludge p alm oil ( SPO) a s an inexpensive renewable raw material was tested. Pseudomonas putida S12 was found to produce the highest yield (~41%) of elastomeric medium-chain-length (MCL)-PHAs from SPO. The MCL-PHA characteristics were analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. These findings may contribute to more widespread use of PHAs by reducing PHA production costs.

  13. Identification and molecular characterization of an efflux system involved in Pseudomonas putida S12 multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieboom, J; de Bont, J

    2001-01-01

    The authors previously described srpABC, an operon involved in proton-dependent solvent efflux in the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. Recently, it was shown that organic solvents and not antibiotics induce this operon. In the present study, the authors characterize a new efflux pump, designated ArpABC, on the basis of two isolated chloramphenicol-sensitive transposon mutants. The arpABC operon is involved in the active efflux of multiple antibiotics, such as tetracycline, chloramphenicol, carbenicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin and novobiocin. The deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the three genes involved show a striking resemblance to proteins of the resistance/nodulation/cell division family, which are involved in both organic solvent and multiple drug efflux. These findings demonstrate that ArpABC is highly homologous to the MepABC and TtgABC efflux systems for organic solvents and multiple antibiotics. However, ArpABC does not contribute to organic solvent tolerance in P. putida S12 but is solely involved in multidrug resistance.

  14. Grown on Novel Microcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Falk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells have been tested as a cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease but will require additional study before further clinical trials can be planned. We now show that the long-term survival and neurotrophic potential of hRPE cells can be enhanced by the use of FDA-approved plastic-based microcarriers compared to a gelatin-based microcarrier as used in failed clinical trials. The hRPE cells grown on these plastic-based microcarriers display several important characteristics of hRPE found in vivo: (1 characteristic morphological features, (2 accumulation of melanin pigment, and (3 high levels of production of the neurotrophic factors pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Growth of hRPE cells on plastic-based microcarriers led to sustained levels (>1 ng/ml of PEDF and VEGF-A in conditioned media for two months. We also show that the expression of VEGF-A and PEDF is reciprocally regulated by activation of the GPR143 pathway. GPR143 is activated by L-DOPA (1 μM which decreased VEGF-A secretion as opposed to the previously reported increase in PEDF secretion. The hRPE microcarriers are therefore novel candidate delivery systems for achieving long-term delivery of the neuroprotective factors PEDF and VEGF-A, which could have a value in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

  15. The solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 as host for the production of cinnamic acid from glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, K.; Luijk, N. van; Bont, J.A.M. de; Wery, J.

    2005-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was constructed that efficiently produced thefine chemical cinnamic acid from glucose or glycerol via the central metabolite phenylalanine. The gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase from the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was introduced. Phenylalanine

  16. Diverse effects of residues 74-78 in ribosomal protein S12 on decoding and antibiotic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Deepali; O'Connor, Michael

    2014-03-07

    Ribosomal protein S12 plays key roles in the ribosome's response to the error-promoting antibiotic streptomycin and in modulating the accuracy of translation. The discovery that substitutions at His76 in S12, distant from the streptomycin binding site, conferred streptomycin resistance in the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus prompted us to make similar alterations in the S12 protein of Escherichia coli. While, none of the E. coli S12 mutations confers streptomycin resistance, they all have distinct effects on the accuracy of translation. In addition, a subset of the S12 alterations renders the cells hypersensitive to fusidic acid, an inhibitor of the translocation step of translation. These results indicate that the His 76 region of ribosomal protein S12 plays key roles in tRNA selection and translocation steps of protein synthesis, consistent with its interaction with elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G, as deduced from structural studies of ribosomal complexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Organic Solvents on the Yield of Solvent-Tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, Sonja; Derks, Antoine; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; de Bont, Jan A. M.

    1999-01-01

    Solvent-tolerant microorganisms are useful in biotransformations with whole cells in two-phase solvent-water systems. The results presented here describe the effects that organic solvents have on the growth of these organisms. The maximal growth rate of Pseudomonas putida S12, 0.8 h−1, was not affected by toluene in batch cultures, but in chemostat cultures the solvent decreased the maximal growth rate by nearly 50%. Toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, xylene, hexane, and cyclohexane reduced the biomass yield, and this effect depended on the concentration of the solvent in the bacterial membrane and not on its chemical structure. The dose response to solvents in terms of yield was linear up to an approximately 200 mM concentration of solvent in the bacterial membrane, both in the wild type and in a mutant lacking an active efflux system for toluene. Above this critical concentration the yield of the wild type remained constant at 0.2 g of protein/g of glucose with increasing concentrations of toluene. The reduction of the yield in the presence of solvents is due to a maintenance higher by a factor of three or four as well as to a decrease of the maximum growth yield by 33%. Therefore, energy-consuming adaptation processes as well as the uncoupling effect of the solvents reduce the yield of the tolerant cells. PMID:10347053

  18. Influence of Li10GeP2S12-type solid electrolyte on cell thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jishnu Bhattacharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We elucidate few critical facts about the lithium superionic conductor (Li10GeP2S12 and few other compounds of the same family as the electrolyte in Li-ion cells. The dimensionality of diffusion process and existence of ‘structural’ lithiums are not well understood in this material. From the ab-initio MD simulations, we find that the material transport Li-ions predominantly in the crystallographic c-direction. Nevertheless, the cross-channel diffusion is significant as well. We explored the mobility of individual Li-ions and do not find evidence that supports the proposition of structural Li-ions in LGPS. We find nominal effect of local Ge-P ordering and of Li-concentration change on diffusivity, which not only provides information about the invariance of diffusivity at different conditions of operation, but also ensures that identification of the ground state structure in LGPS having partially occupied Li and Ge/P sublattices should have minimal effect on the diffusion analysis. We computed the dilute Li insertion and extraction voltages for LGPS from ab-initio total energy calculation. The dilute voltages indicate that the material is prone to react by exchanging Li-ions with the electrodes at typical operating range of voltages indicating formation of some interphase at the electrode-electrolyte interface, which necessitates further experimental investigation

  19. Metabolic and Regulatory Rearrangements Underlying Efficient d-Xylose Utilization in Engineered Pseudomonas putida S12*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijnen, Jean-Paul; de Winde, Johannes H.; Ruijssenaars, Harald J.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, an efficient d-xylose utilizing Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was obtained by introducing the d-xylose isomerase pathway from Escherichia coli, followed by evolutionary selection. In the present study, systemic changes associated with the evolved phenotype were identified by transcriptomics, enzyme activity analysis, and inverse engineering. A key element in improving the initially poor d-xylose utilization was the redistribution of 6-phospho-d-gluconate (6-PG) between the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and the oxidative pentose phosphate (PP) pathway. This redistribution increased the availability of 6-PG for oxidative decarboxylation to d-ribose-5-phosphate, which is essential for the utilization of d-xylose via the nonoxidative PP pathway. The metabolic redistribution of 6-PG was procured by modified HexR regulation, which in addition appeared to control periplasmic sugar oxidation. Because the absence of periplasmic d-xylonate formation was previously demonstrated to be essential for achieving a high biomass yield on d-xylose, the aberrant HexR control appeared to underlie both the improved growth rate and biomass yield of the evolved d-xylose utilizing P. putida strain. The increased oxidative PP pathway activity furthermore resulted in an elevated NADH/NAD+ ratio that caused the metabolic flux to be redirected from the TCA cycle to the glyoxylate shunt, which was also activated transcriptionally. Clearly, these findings may serve as an important case in point to engineer and improve the utilization of non-natural carbon sources in a wide range of industrial microorganisms. PMID:22416130

  20. Genome sequence of Pseudomonas putida S12, a potential platform strain for industrial production of valuable chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fei; Shen, Yaling; Fan, Ziqi; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain S12, a well-studied solvent-tolerant bacterium, is considered a platform strain for the production of many chemicals. Here, we present a 6.28-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. We have annotated 32 coding sequences (CDSs) encoding efflux systems of organic compounds and 195 CDSs responsible for the metabolism of aromatic compounds.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of a phenol-producing Pseudomonas putida S12 construct: Genetic and physiological basis for improved production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierckx, N.J.P.; Ballerstedt, H.; Bont, J.A.M.de; Winde, J.H.de; Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Wery, J.

    2008-01-01

    The unknown genetic basis for improved phenol production by a recombinant Pseudomonas putida S12 derivative bearing the tpl (tyrosine-phenol lyase) gene was investigated via comparative transcriptomics, nucleotide sequence analysis, and targeted gene disruption. We show upregulation of tyrosine

  2. Improved p-hydroxybenzoate production by engineered Pseudomonas putida S12 by using a mixed-substrate feeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnen, J.P.; Verhoef, S.; Briedjlal, A.A.; De Winde, J.H.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The key precursors for p-hydroxybenzoate production by engineered Pseudomonas putida S12 are phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P), for which the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway is an important source. Since PP pathway fluxes are typically low in pseudomonads, E4P and PEP

  3. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    POSITRON SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROTHERMALLY GROWN ACTINIDE OXIDES THESIS Edward C. Schneider...United States Government. AFIT-ENP-14-M-33 POSITRON SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROTHERMALLY GROWN ACTINIDE OXIDES THESIS...33 POSITRON SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROTHERMALLY GROWN ACTINIDE OXIDES Edward C. Schneider, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  4. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  5. Results of the supplementary comparison SIM.M.FF-S12 for volume of liquids at 20 L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, M.; Castillo, E.; Rodríguez, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    A supplementary comparison was performed in order to compare national measurement systems to determine volume of liquids, particularly at fixed volume of 20 L. The participants were CENAM (Mexico), LACOMET (Costa Rica) and RECOPE (Costa Rica). The measurements were carried out from October 2016 to June 2017. The chosen value of volume (20 L) is representative of the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) declared by the three participants. The transfer standard (TS) was a stainless steel pipette for volume at 20 L. Prior to the beginning of the comparison, the TS was tested by CENAM. The results of the test phase showed excellent values for both repeatability and reproducibility. During the SIM.M.FF-S12, the results of the laboratories showed good agreement with the reference values. The best estimation of the measurands, as reported by the participants, showed a +/- 0.0022 % as the largest difference among the laboratories. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. The Detrimental Effects of Carbon Additives in Li10GeP2S12-Based Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Culver, Sean P; Koerver, Raimund; Das, Dyuman; Weber, Dominik A; Zeier, Wolfgang G; Janek, Jürgen

    2017-10-18

    All-solid-state batteries (SSBs) have recently attracted much attention due to their potential application in electric vehicles. One key issue that is central to improve the function of SSBs is to gain a better understanding of the interfaces between the material components toward enhancing the electrochemical performance. In this work, the interfacial properties of a carbon-containing cathode composite, employing Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 as the solid electrolyte, are investigated. A large interfacial charge-transfer resistance builds up upon the inclusion of carbon in the composite, which is detrimental to the resulting cycle life. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that carbon facilitates faster electrochemical decomposition of the thiophosphate solid electrolyte at the cathode/solid electrolyte interface-by transferring the low chemical potential of lithium in the charged state deeper into the solid electrolyte and extending the decomposition region. The occurring accumulation of highly oxidized sulfur species at the interface is likely responsible for the large interfacial resistances and aggravated capacity fading observed.

  7. Mapping contacts of the S12-S7 intercistronic region of str operon mRNA with ribosomal protein S7 of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Andrey; Spiridonova, Vera; Kopylov, Alexei

    2006-10-30

    In E. coli, S7 initiates 30S ribosome assembly by binding to 16S rRNA. It also regulates translation of the S12 and S7 cistrons of the 'streptomycin' operon transcript by binding to the S12-S7 intercistronic region. Here, we describe the contacts of N-terminally His(6)-tagged S7 with this region as mapped by UV-induced cross-linking. The cross-links are located at U(-34), U(-35), quite distant from the start codons of the two cistrons. In order to explain the mechanism of translational repression of S12-S7, we consider a possible conformational rearrangement of the intercistronic RNA structure induced by S7 binding.

  8. Metabolic flux analysis of a phenol producing mutant of Pseudomonas putida S12: Verification and complementation of hypotheses derived from transcriptomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierckx, N.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Winde, J.H.de; Schmid, A.; Blank, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    The physiological effects of genetic and transcriptional changes observed in a phenol producing mutant of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 were assessed with metabolic flux analysis. The upregulation of a malate/lactate dehydrogenase encoding gene could be connected to a flux increase

  9. Transposon mutations in the flagella biosynthetic pathway of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 result in a decreased expression of solvent efflux genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J; Bruinenberg, R; Keizer-Gunnink, [No Value; de Bont, JAM

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen solvent-sensitive transposon mutants were generated from the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida strain S12 by applying the TnMOD-KmO mutagenesis system. These mutants were unable to grow in the presence of octanol and toluene. By cloning the region flanking the transposon insertion point a

  10. Optimization of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 as host for the production of p-coumarate from glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, K.; Westerhof, R.G.M.; Ballerstedt, H.; Bont, J.A.M.de; Wery, J.

    2007-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was constructed that is able to convert glucose to p-coumarate via the central metabolite l-tyrosine. Efficient production was hampered by product degradation, limited cellular L-tyrosine availability, and formation of the by-product cinnamate via L-phenylalanine. The

  11. Nutrient management of soil grown crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The management of the fertilization of soil grown crops in greenhouses can be distinguished in the addition of fertilizers before cultivation, the base dressing and those added during the cultivations period of the crops, the top dressing. The growing period of the crops in greenhouse production

  12. Recrystallization phenomena of solution grown paraffin dendrites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.F.A.; Hollander, F.; Stasse, O.; van Suchtelen, J.; van Enckevort, W.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Paraffin crystals were grown from decane solutions using a micro-Bridgman set up for in-situ observation of the morphology at the growth front. It is shown that for large imposed velocities, dendrites are obtained. After dendritic growth, aging or recrystallization processes set in rather quickly,

  13. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  14. Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Hinchman, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

  15. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  16. Physical and mechanical properties of saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Gerhards

    1965-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for saligna eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna, Smith) grown in Hawaii. In comparison with wood of the same species grown in Australia, saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii was lower in density, shrinkage, and compressive strength parallel to grain; it was about equal in strength in bending and shear; and it was stiffer....

  17. A kirromycin-resistant EF-Tu species reverses streptomycin dependence of Escherichia coli strains mutated in ribosomal protein S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurmond, A M; Zeef, L A; Kraal, B

    1998-12-01

    Streptomycin dependence can be caused by mutations in ribosomal protein S12. Mutations suppressing such streptomycin dependence have been found in ribosomal proteins S4 and S5, and in 16S rRNA. Here a new suppressor mutation localized in elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is described, consistent with recent models of ribosome-EF-Tu-tRNA interaction at the decoding centre. The EF-Tu mutation was obtained by genetic selection for streptomycin independence; it was identified as Ala375 --> Thr, previously described as EF-TuA(R) and known to confer a kirromycin-resistant, error-prone phenotype. Also, other streptomycin-dependent (SmD) S12 mutations could be complemented by this mutation. The streptomycin-independent (Sm1) strain grows more slowly than the wild-type (wt), suggesting that not all the defects of the S12 mutation can be complemented by EF-Tu[A375T]. Moreover, this strain is more susceptible than wt to reduction in the cellular EF-Tu concentration, and disruption of tufB led to considerable growth-rate impairment. Expression of EF-Tu from tufB, not only of wt EF-Tu and EF-Tu[A375T] but, remarkably, also of EF-Tu[G222D], known as EF-TuB0 and defective in protein synthesis, equally contributed to cell growth. In vitro analysis revealed a decreased translational activity of wt EF-Tu with SmD ribosomes as compared to EF-Tu[A375T], while EF-Tu[G222D] showed no activity at all, just as with wt ribosomes. Possible mechanisms are discussed for the improved growth rate observed in such Sm1 strains when they include wt EF-Tu or EF-Tu[G222D].

  18. Recent results in characterization of melt-grown and quench-melt- grown YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B.; Gangopadhyay, A.K.

    1992-02-01

    From the standpoint of applications, melt-grown (MG) and quench-melt-grown (QMG) bulk YBCO superconductors are of considerable interest. In this paper, we studied the intragranular critical current density (J c ), the apparent pinning potential (U o ), and the irreversibility temperature (T irr ) of MG and QMG samples and compared the results to those for conventionally sintered YBCO. A systematic increase in U o and a slower drop in J c with temperature indicate a systematic improvement in flux-pinning properties in progressing from the sintered YBCO to QMG and MG samples. Weaker pinning is observed in the QMG YBCO than in the MG samples

  19. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  20. Metabolic flux analysis of a phenol producing mutant of Pseudomonas putida S12: verification and complementation of hypotheses derived from transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Nick; Ruijssenaars, Harald J; de Winde, Johannes H; Schmid, Andreas; Blank, Lars M

    2009-08-20

    The physiological effects of genetic and transcriptional changes observed in a phenol producing mutant of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 were assessed with metabolic flux analysis. The upregulation of a malate/lactate dehydrogenase encoding gene could be connected to a flux increase from malate to oxaloacetate. A mutation in the pykA gene decreased in vitro pyruvate kinase activity, which is consistent with a lower flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. Changes in the oprB-1, gntP and gnuK genes, encoding a glucose-selective porin, gluconokinase and a gluconate transporter respectively, altered the substrate uptake profile. Metabolic flux analysis furthermore revealed cellular events not predicted by the transcriptome analysis. Gluconeogenic formation of glucose-6-phosphate from triose-3-phosphate was abolished, in favour of increased phosphoenolpyruvate production. An increased pentose phosphate pathway flux resulted in higher erythrose-4-phosphate production. Thus, the availability of these two central phenol precursors was improved. Furthermore, metabolic fluxes were redistributed such that the overall TCA cycle flux was unaffected and energy production increased. Engineering P. putida S12 for phenol production has yielded a strain that channels carbon fluxes to previously unfavourable routes to reconcile the drain on metabolites required for phenol production, while maintaining basal flux levels through central carbon metabolism.

  1. The novel mutation K87E in ribosomal protein S12 enhances protein synthesis activity during the late growth phase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, T; Tamehiro, N; Chumpolkulwong, N; Hori-Takemoto, C; Shirouzu, M; Yokoyama, S; Ochi, K

    2004-04-01

    Resistance to streptomycin in bacterial cells often results from a mutation in the rpsL gene that encodes the ribosomal protein S12. We found that a particular rpsL mutation (K87E), newly identified in Escherichia coli, causes aberrant protein synthesis activity late in the growth phase. While protein synthesis decreased with age in cells in the wild-type strain, it was sustained at a high level in the mutant, as determined using living cells. This was confirmed using an in vitro protein synthesis system with poly(U) and natural mRNAs (GFP mRNA and CAT mRNA). Other classical rpsL mutations (K42N and K42T) tested did not show such an effect, indicating that this novel characteristic is typical of ribosomes bearing the K87E mutant form of S12, although the K87E mutation conferred the streptomycin resistance and error-restrictive phenotypes also seen with the K42N and K42T mutations. The K87E (but not K42N or K42T) mutant ribosomes exhibited increased stability of the 70S complex in the presence of low concentrations of magnesium. We propose that the aberrant activation of protein synthesis at the late growth phase is caused by the increased stability of the ribosome.

  2. The crystal structure of Cu1.6Pb1.6Bi6.4S12, a new 44.8 Å derivative of the bismuthinite-aikinite solid-solution series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Makovicky, Emil

    2000-01-01

    Cu1.6Pb1.6Bi6.4S12, aikinite-bismuthinite derivative, crystal structure, Felbertal, scheelite deposit, Austria......Cu1.6Pb1.6Bi6.4S12, aikinite-bismuthinite derivative, crystal structure, Felbertal, scheelite deposit, Austria...

  3. Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinxi; Dong, Xiaochen; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Peng

    2010-08-01

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors.Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of graphene film before and after functionalization, transfer curves of graphene after every step, SEM image of CNT-net, and detection results using CNT-net devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00142b

  4. Synthetic Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Copper Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    review the synthesis and properties of CVD -grown graphene , demonstrated using examples pimarily from our work in re- cent years. Particularly, we will...promise for many applica- tions.60 Compared to other large-scale graphene synthesis methods, CVD -grown graphene on copper foil substrates has been shown to...methods. Despite the fact that CVD - grown graphene films may be less perfect (the presence of domain boundaries, defects, wrinkles, impurities and

  5. [Characterization of bacterial diversity in the Shengli-S12 oil reservoir by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sangqing; Xue, Yanfen; Wang, Weidong; Li, Ximing; Ma, Yanhe

    2008-08-01

    Examining bacterial diversity in an oil reservoir of Shengli oil field by both culture-independent molecular technique and enrichment method. The heterotrophic bacteria, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria were enriched from S12-4 oil-well samples by the corresponding media. Then the genomic DNAs of the enrichments were extracted and the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of the 3 enrichments were dominated by clones of Thermotoga, Thermaerobacter and Thermotoga, respectively. Sequences of the other co-dominant clones observed only in the enrichments of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria were, respectively, associated with Marinobacter and Moorella. The uncultured 16S rRNA gene library was also generated directly from total DNA of S12-4 oil-well samples by bacterial primer set. Sequence analysis of this bacterial library indicated that a large percentage of clones were highly related to the genus Pseudomonas and the dominant species emerging in the enrichment samples had a very low content in the tested oil reservoir. The significant difference of the bacterial composition between the samples obtained from independent-culture method and enrichment method implies that the specialized nutrient may lead to a distinctive selection of dominant organisms. Through culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, we acquired important information on the bacterial diversity of ShengLi oil reservoir. These results may expand our understanding of the microbial diversity of oil reservoir and provide useful information for MEOR(microbial enhancement of oil recovery).

  6. Germanium nanowires grown using different catalyst metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, R.C., E-mail: riama@ifsp.edu.br [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Área de Ciências, Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Rua Américo Ambrósio, 269, Jd. Canaã, Sertãozinho, CEP 14169-263 (Brazil); Kamimura, H.; Munhoz, R.; Rodrigues, A.D. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Leite, E.R. [Departamento de Química – LIEC, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Germanium nanowires have been synthesized by the well known vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using gold, silver, cooper, indium and nickel as catalyst metals. The influence of metal seeds on nanowires structural and electronic transport properties was also investigated. Electron microscopy images demonstrated that, despite differences in diameters, all nanowires obtained presented single crystalline structures. X-ray patterns showed that all nanowires were composed by germanium with a small amount of germanium oxide, and the catalyst metal was restricted at the nanowires' tips. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the long range order in the crystalline structure of each sample. Electrical measurements indicated that variable range hopping was the dominant mechanism in carrier transport for all devices, with similar hopping distance, regardless the material used as catalyst. Then, in spite of the differences in synthesis temperatures and nanowires diameters, the catalyst metals have not affected the composition and crystalline quality of the germanium nanowires nor the carrier transport in the germanium nanowire network devices. - Highlights: • Ge nanowires were grown by VLS method using Au, Ag, Cu, In and Ni as catalysts. • All nanowires presented high single crystalline quality and long range order. • Devices showed semiconducting behavior having VRH as dominant transport mechanism. • The metal catalyst did not influence structural properties or the transport mechanism.

  7. Leaf anatomy of genotypes of banana plant grown under coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of spectral light quality on different anatomical features of banana tree plantlets grown under coloured shade nets. Banana plants of five genotypes obtained from micropropagation, were grown under white, blue, red and black nets, with shade of 50%, in a completely randomized ...

  8. Preliminary Investigation of Kaduna-Grown Cashew Nutshell Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Investigation of Kaduna-Grown Cashew Nutshell Liquid as a Natural Precursor for Dyestuffs, Pigments and Binders for Leather Finishing. ... The results show that CNSL from the Kaduna-grown cashew nuts is a semi-drying oil and suitable for the synthesis of resins and dyestuff intermediates. It, therefore, has a ...

  9. Influence of shading on container-grown flowering dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare root dogwoods can be successfully grown when transplanted into a container production system. Shade treatments regardless of color or density did have an effect on the plant growth of Cherokee Brave™ and Cherokee Princess dogwood. Plants grown under 50% black and 50% white shade had more heigh...

  10. Structural Reliability of the Nigerian Grown Abura Timber Bridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural performance as timber bridge beams. Samples of the Nigerian grown Abura timber were bought from timber market, seasoned naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a moisture content of ...

  11. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  12. Conformational changes of DNA in the presence of 12-s-12 gemini surfactants (s=2 and 10). Role of the spacer's length in the interaction surfactant-polynucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J P; Marrón, E; Martín, V I; Moyá, M L; Lopez-Cornejo, P

    2014-06-01

    A multifaceted study on the interaction of calf-thymus DNA with two different cationic gemini surfactants alkanediyl-α-ω-bis(dodecyldimethyl-amonium)bromide, 12-s-12,2Br(-) (with s=2, G2, and 10, G10) was carried out. The measurements were done at different molar ratios X=[surfactant]/[DNA]. Results show two different conformational changes in DNA: a first compaction of the polynucleotide corresponding to a partial conformational (not total) change of DNA from an extended coil state to a globular state that happens at the lower molar ratio X. A second change corresponds to a breaking of the partial condensation, that is, the transition from the compacted state to a new more extended conformation (for the higher X values) different to the initial extension. According to circular dichroism spectra and dynamic light scattering measurements, this new state of DNA seems to be similar to a ψ-phase. Measurements confirm that interactions involved in the compaction are different to those previously obtained for the analog surfactant CTAB. X values at which the conformational changes happen depend on the length of the spacer in the surfactant along with the charge of the polar heads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct observation of a non-isothermal crystallization process in precursor Li10GeP2S12 glass electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Mori, Shigeo; Shiotani, Shinya; Yamamura, Hideyuki; Iba, Hideki

    2017-11-01

    Crystallization of a precursor Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS) glass electrolyte by heat treatment significantly improves its ionic conductivity. The LGPS crystalline phase obtained by heat treatment above 450 °C shows an ionic conductivity on the order of 10-2 S/cm. To clarify the correlation between the crystallization behavior of precursor LGPS glasses and ionic conductivity, we developed an observation technique to visualize precipitated nanocrystallites and a new method to evaluate the crystallization degree via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ TEM observation revealed that LGPS nanocrystallites precipitated above 450 °C and their size remained fundamentally intact during heating. That is, the crystallization behavior could be characterized by only the formation of LGPS nanocrystallites in an amorphous matrix. In addition, the crystallization degree was quantitatively evaluated from electron diffraction patterns. The crystallization degree remarkably increased at around 450 °C and reached more than 60% above 450 °C. Based on these results, a high ionic conductivity of approximately 1.0 × 10-2 S/cm was confirmed to be directly associated with the appearance of the LGPS crystalline phase.

  14. Electronic states of germanium grown under micro-gravity condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, A. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)]. E-mail: sugahara@tsurugi.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ogawa, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fujii, K. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ohyama, T. [Liberal Arts, Fukui University of Technology, 3-6-1 Gakuen, Fukui, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Nakata, J. [Kyoto Semiconductor Corp. 418-9 Yodo Saime-cho, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 613-0915 (Japan)

    2006-04-01

    Magneto-optical absorption measurements of Sb-doped germaniums grown under micro-gravity condition were carried out to investigate the influence of the gravity on crystal growth, using far-infrared laser and microwave. For comparison, we prepared two germanium crystals grown in the same conditions except the gravity conditions. In spite of the quite short growth period, the germanium grown under micro-gravity has a quite good quality. The lineshape analysis of Zeeman absorption peaks due to donor electrons indicates the existence of residual thermal acceptors.

  15. Ribosomal Protein S12 and Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Modulate A-site mRNA Cleavage and Transfer-Messenger RNA Activity in Escherichia coli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holberger, Laura E.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)·SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pausing during termination. Streptomycin did not inhibit A-site cleavage in rpsL mutants, which express streptomycin-resistant variants of ribosomal protein S12. However, rpsL strains exhibited reduced A-site mRNA cleavage compared with rpsL+ cells. Additionally, tmRNA·SmpB-mediated SsrA peptide tagging was significantly reduced in several rpsL strains but could be fully restored in a subset of mutants when treated with streptomycin. The streptomycin-dependent rpsL(P90K) mutant also showed significantly lower levels of A-site cleavage and tmRNA·SmpB activity. Mutations in rpsD (encoding ribosomal protein S4), which suppressed streptomycin dependence, were able to partially restore A-site cleavage to rpsL(P90K) cells but failed to increase tmRNA·SmpB activity. Taken together, these results show that perturbations to A-site structure and function modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and tmRNA·SmpB activity. We propose that tmRNA·SmpB binds to streptomycin-resistant rpsL ribosomes less efficiently, leading to a partial loss of ribosome rescue function in these mutants. PMID:19776006

  16. Ribosomal protein S12 and aminoglycoside antibiotics modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and transfer-messenger RNA activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holberger, Laura E; Hayes, Christopher S

    2009-11-13

    Translational pausing in Escherichia coli can lead to mRNA cleavage within the ribosomal A-site. A-site mRNA cleavage is thought to facilitate transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA).SmpB- mediated recycling of stalled ribosome complexes. Here, we demonstrate that the aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin inhibit A-site cleavage of stop codons during inefficient translation termination. Aminoglycosides also induced stop codon read-through, suggesting that these antibiotics alleviate ribosome pausing during termination. Streptomycin did not inhibit A-site cleavage in rpsL mutants, which express streptomycin-resistant variants of ribosomal protein S12. However, rpsL strains exhibited reduced A-site mRNA cleavage compared with rpsL(+) cells. Additionally, tmRNA.SmpB-mediated SsrA peptide tagging was significantly reduced in several rpsL strains but could be fully restored in a subset of mutants when treated with streptomycin. The streptomycin-dependent rpsL(P90K) mutant also showed significantly lower levels of A-site cleavage and tmRNA.SmpB activity. Mutations in rpsD (encoding ribosomal protein S4), which suppressed streptomycin dependence, were able to partially restore A-site cleavage to rpsL(P90K) cells but failed to increase tmRNA.SmpB activity. Taken together, these results show that perturbations to A-site structure and function modulate A-site mRNA cleavage and tmRNA.SmpB activity. We propose that tmRNA.SmpB binds to streptomycin-resistant rpsL ribosomes less efficiently, leading to a partial loss of ribosome rescue function in these mutants.

  17. GaN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Kong; Meixin, Feng; Jin, Cai; Hui, Wang; Huaibing, Wang; Hui, Yang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) and investigated using XRD and SEM. It was found that the optimum thickness of the GaN buffer layer on the NPSS is 15 nm, which is thinner than that on micro-patterned sapphire substrates (MPSS). An interesting phenomenon was observed for GaN film grown on NPSS:GaN mainly grows on the trench regions and little grows on the sidewalls of the patterns at the initial growth stage, which is dramatically different from GaN grown on MPSS. In addition, the electrical and optical properties of LEDs grown on NPSS were characterized. Project supported by the Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd and the High-Tech Achievements Transformation of Jiangsu Province, China (No.BA2012010).

  18. At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. For up-to-date health information tailor-made just for ...

  19. Quality and Quantity Evaluations of Shade Grown Forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. P. Ladyman; M. S. Kerley; R. L. Kallenbach; H. E. Garrett; J. W. Van Sambeek; N. E. Navarrete-Tindall

    2003-01-01

    Seven legumes were grown during the summer-fall of 2000, at the Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center (39? 01 ' N, 92? 46' W) near New Franklin, MO. The forages were grown in 7.5L white pots placed on light-colored gravel either under full sunlight, 45% sunlight, or 20% sunlight created by a shade cloth over a rectangular frame. Drip irrigation was...

  20. Solution-Grown Silver Nanowire Ordered Arrays as Transparent Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacca, Beniamino; van de Groep, Jorik; Polman, Albert; Garnett, Erik C

    2016-02-03

    A transparent conducting film composed of regular networks of silver nanowires is obtained by combining a soft solution process (Tollens' reaction) and nanoimprint lithography. The solution-grown nanowire networks show a threefold higher conductivity than grids obtained by metal evaporation. This is due to the larger grain size in the solution-grown nanowires, which results in a strong reduction of electron scattering by grain boundaries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DO SUCO RUMINAL DE BOVINOS “A FRESCO” E APÓS 12 HORAS DE CONSERVAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lorena Guimarães

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se no presente estudo os parâmetros físicos (cor, odor, consistência e tempo de sedimentação e flotação, químicos (pH, e tempo de redução do azul de metileno e biológicos (avaliação dos protozoários in vitro, contagem de infusórios e percentagem de protozoários viáveis do suco ruminal de 50 fêmeas bovinas adultas clinicamente saudáveis, imediatamente após a colheita e ao final de 12 horas de armazenamento em garrafas térmicas comuns. Utilizaram-se animais em lactação, da raça Girolando, e alimentados a pasto de Brachiaria decumbens. As análises foram realizadas em uma amostra individual de, aproximadamente, 400 ml de suco ruminal, colhida com sonda oroesofágica do tipo Schambye e Sorensen. Os resultados foram avaliados por meio de estatística descritiva e teste “t” de student para amostras pareadas (P<0,05. Os aspectos físicos, a avaliação in vitro dos infusórios e o número de protozoários por mililitro encontravam-se dentro dos padrões de normalidade na primeira avaliação, porém, após 12 horas de conservação, foram observadas alterações sugestivas de modificações na microbiota do suco ruminal. Constataram-se, após conservação, reduções estatísticas significativas em relação ao pH, percentual de protozoários viáveis e aumento no tempo de redução do azul de metileno (PRAM. Conclui-se que a garrafa térmica comum pode ser usada como opção na conservação de suco ruminal de bovinos em situações de clínica de campo, porém a análise no momento da colheita apresenta resultados mais fidedignos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bovinos, fluido ruminal, métodos de conservação, pH, protozoários.

  2. Nitrogen isotope composition of organically and conventionally grown crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D; Woolfe, Mark

    2007-04-04

    Authentic samples of commercially produced organic and conventionally grown tomatoes, lettuces, and carrots were collected and analyzed for their delta15N composition in order to assemble datasets to establish if there are any systematic differences in nitrogen isotope composition due to the method of production. The tomato and lettuce datasets suggest that the different types of fertilizer commonly used in organic and conventional systems result in differences in the nitrogen isotope composition of these crops. A mean delta15N value of 8.1 per thousand was found for the organically grown tomatoes compared with a mean value of -0.1 per thousand for those grown conventionally. The organically grown lettuces had a mean value of 7.6 per thousand compared with a mean value of 2.9 per thousand for the conventionally grown lettuces. The mean value for organic carrots was not significantly different from the mean value for those grown conventionally. Overlap between the delta15N values of the organic and conventional datasets (for both tomatoes and lettuces) means that it is necessary to employ a statistical methodology to try and classify a randomly analyzed "off the shelf" sample as organic/conventional, and such an approach is demonstrated. Overall, the study suggests that nitrogen isotope analysis could be used to provide useful "intelligence" to help detect the substitution of certain organic crop types with their conventional counterparts. However, delta15N analysis of a "test sample" will not provide unequivocal evidence as to whether synthetic fertilizers have been used on the crop but could, for example, in a situation when there is suspicion that mislabeling of conventionally grown crops as "organic" is occurring, be used to provide supporting evidence.

  3. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, B C; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Krikorian, A D

    1996-03-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  4. Anisotropic Friction of Wrinkled Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fei; Yasaei, Poya; Yao, Wentao; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza

    2017-06-21

    Wrinkle structures are commonly seen on graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method due to the different thermal expansion coefficient between graphene and its substrate. Despite the intensive investigations focusing on the electrical properties, the nanotribological properties of wrinkles and the influence of wrinkle structures on the wrinkle-free graphene remain less understood. Here, we report the observation of anisotropic nanoscale frictional characteristics depending on the orientation of wrinkles in CVD-grown graphene. Using friction force microscopy, we found that the coefficient of friction perpendicular to the wrinkle direction was ∼194% compare to that of the parallel direction. Our systematic investigation shows that the ripples and "puckering" mechanism, which dominates the friction of exfoliated graphene, plays even a more significant role in the friction of wrinkled graphene grown by CVD. The anisotropic friction of wrinkled graphene suggests a new way to tune the graphene friction property by nano/microstructure engineering such as introducing wrinkles.

  5. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of “shade-grown...

  6. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cigarette and pipe tobacco. (b) Type 92. Foreign-grown flue-cured tobacco. (c) Type 93. Foreign-cured burley tobacco. (d) Type 95. Foreign-grown dark air-cured. (e) Type 96. Foreign-grown fire-cured. (f) Type 99. Other Foreign-grown cigarette and dark tobacco. [39 FR 5300, Feb. 12, 1979, as amended at 56 FR 25614...

  7. Tracking the implementation of NCCLS M100-S12 expanded-spectrum cephalosporin MIC breakpoints for nonmeningeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae by clinical laboratories in the United States during 2002 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornsberry Clyde

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Twelfth Informational Supplement, M100-S12, published by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS in January 2002 introduced distinct minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC interpretative breakpoints for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and cefepime for nonmeningeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Previously, a single set of interpretative breakpoints was used for both meningeal and nonmeningeal isolates. Methods To estimate the rate of adoption of the M100-S12 interpretive breakpoints by clinical laboratories, antimicrobial susceptibility test results for ceftriaxone and cefotaxime from nonmeningeal S. pneumoniae isolates were studied using data collected from January 2002 to June 2003 by The Surveillance Network® Database – USA (TSN®, an electronic surveillance database. Results Of the 262 laboratories that provided data that could be evaluated, 67.6% had adopted the M100-S12 breakpoints one and one-half years after they were published. Conclusions The NCCLS M100-S12 recommendation to interpret MICs to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins using two distinct sets of breakpoints for meningeal and nonmeningeal isolates of S. pneumoniae was steadily implemented by clinical microbiology laboratories in the United States following their initial publication in January 2002. The use of these new breakpoints more accurately reflects the clinical activities of expanded-spectrum cephalosporins than did the single set of interpretative breakpoints previously used for both meningeal and nonmeningeal isolates.

  8. Cuprous oxide thin films grown by hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, M.; Biswas, I.; Pujaru, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting cuprous oxide films were grown by a hydrothermal electro-deposition technique on metal (Cu) and glass (ITO) substrates between 60 °C and 100 °C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the formation of cubic cuprous oxide films in different preferred orientations depending upon the deposition technique used. Film growth, uniformity, grain size, optical band gap and photoelectrochemical response were found to improve in the hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique. - Highlights: • Cu 2 O thin films were grown on Cu and glass substrates. • Conventional and hydrothermal electrochemical deposition techniques were used. • Hydrothermal electrochemical growth showed improved morphology, thickness and optical band gap

  9. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  10. X-ray diffraction study of directionally grown perylene crystallites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiby, Dag W.; Lemke, H. T.; Hammershøj, P.

    2008-01-01

    Using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, perylene crystallites grown on thin highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films on silicon substrates have been investigated. All the perylene crystallites are found to orient with the ab plane of the monoclinic unit cell parallel to the subst......Using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, perylene crystallites grown on thin highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films on silicon substrates have been investigated. All the perylene crystallites are found to orient with the ab plane of the monoclinic unit cell parallel...

  11. Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formation...

  12. 76 FR 35957 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... L. Simmons, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  13. Nutritional Composition of Telfairia occidentalis leaf grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactive components of Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. leaf grown in both geoponic (GM) and non-circulating hydroponic (HM) media were assessed. The bioactive components assessed were vitamins, proximate composition and amino acids. Standard procedures were followed in the analyses. The percentage ...

  14. Growth and characterization of gel grown pure and mixed iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Several applications of iron tartrate and manganese tartrate compounds are reported in the literature. In the present investigation, we have grown pure and mixed iron (II)–manganese levo-tartrate crystals by single diffusion gel growth technique. Crystals with spherulitic morphology were harvested. The colouration ...

  15. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    TCA cycle intermediates when F. oxysporum cells were grown on mixtures of acetate and glucose compared to growth on only glucose. Our data support the hypothesis that it higher flux through TCA cycle during acetate consumption could significantly increase the pool of NADH, resulting in the activation...

  16. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are ...

  17. Copper and lead levels in two popular leafy vegetables grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the levels of two heavy metals, Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), in two popular leafy vegetables grown around Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. Vegetable samples of Pumpkin leaves ( Cucurbita moschata) and Chinese cabbage ( Brassica chinensis) were collected from three sites and ...

  18. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased....S.C. 601- 674), hereinafter referred to as the ``Act.'' The Department of Agriculture (USDA) is... familiar with the Committee's needs and with the costs of goods and services in their local area and are...

  19. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order 12866. This rule... the Committee are producers and handlers of California olives. They are familiar with the Committee's...

  20. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order 12866. This rule... members of the Committee are producers and handlers of California olives. They are familiar with the...

  1. Transgene expression of lilies grown in the greenhouse and outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants were transformed with either the bar-uidA fusion gene or the npt II and uidA genes and grown for two seasons in the greenhouse and outdoors in containers. All transgenes were under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. During the first year there was no differ...

  2. Growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis grown in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a stand-level growth and yield model for short-rotationEucalyptus grandis grown for pulp wood production at Piggs Peak in Swaziland. The data were derived from a Nelder 1a spacing trial established with E. grandis clonal cuttings in 1998 and terminated in 2005. Planting density ...

  3. Homogenization of zinc distribution in vertical Bridgman grown Cd0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    adopting suitable growth parameters and sufficient post growth annealing it has been possible to grow. Cd0⋅96Zn0⋅04Te crystals, which have nearly 75% of their fraction within 1% Zn concentration variation. Keywords. Bridgman growth; CdZnTe; Zn distribution; solid state diffusion. 1. Introduction. Bridgman grown single ...

  4. Antioxidant and Anticancer activities of yeast grown on commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant and Anticancer activities of yeast grown on commercial media. Amal S. Shahat. Abstract. The use of Synthetic antioxidants is being widely restricted because of their reported toxic and carcinogenic effects. Thus, now there is considerable interest being focused towards finding antioxidants from natural sources ...

  5. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Despite the availability of many species of amaranth in Kenya, there is inadequate information on their nutritional diversity and how they can be best used in mitigation of malnutrition. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the nutritional diversity of five leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya. Methodology ...

  6. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  7. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  8. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... referenda are an effective means for determining whether growers favor the continuation of marketing order... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a...

  9. Yield Of Edible Pleurotus Mushrooms Grown On Rice Straw With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of different species of edible Pleurotus mushrooms grown on rice straw substrate with and without chicken manure supplementation. The Pleurotus species /varieties tested were P. flabellatus of Tanzania, India and Thailand origin, and P. sajor caju from Tanzania ...

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Kaduna-Grown Cashew Nutshell Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myina O M

    C) and pH (3). The results show that CNSL from the Kaduna-grown cashew nuts is a semi-drying oil and suitable for the synthesis of resins and dyestuff intermediates. It, therefore, has a great potential as a natural precursor for dyestuff, pigments and binders for leather finishing. INTRODUCTION. The nutshell of the cashew ...

  11. Yield and water use efficiency of Amaranthus cruentus grown under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate water use efficiency and yield of Amaranthus cruentus grown under soil moisture sensor-based (SMS-based) irrigation system. SMS-based irrigation controller was designed to automate irrigation events based on 100 %, 75 % and 50 % field capacity (FC) for the growth of Amaranthus ...

  12. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  13. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    following pre-crop pea. Danish grains generally contained more soluble polymers of less interest for the baking process than the Austrian ones. The study emphasizes the challenges in improving the quality of organically grown wheat beyond what is predetermined by environmental growth conditions and cultivar....... However, baking quality appeared better than could be expected from the quality parameters determined....

  14. Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables grown along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables grown along the Msimbazi River in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... With exception to Ipomea batata, other vegetables contained at least two types of heavy metals with high concentrations beyond the permissible values ...

  15. Chemical composition of Brazilian chia seeds grown in different places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Matyelka, Jessika Camila da Silva; Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-04-15

    This study investigated and compared the occurrence and concentration of macronutrients, moisture, ash, dietary fiber, fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, vitamins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, phytate and tannin in Brazilian chia seeds grown in the states of Mato Grosso (MT) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). High concentrations of lipids (31.2g.100g -1 , on average), proteins (18.9g.100g -1 , on average), dietary fiber (35.3g.100g -1 , on average), vitamin E (8,203.6μg.100g -1 , on average) were observed. Similar values for total phenolic compounds and phytic acid in chia seeds from both regions were observed. Chia grown in RS showed higher antioxidant activity than chia grown in MT, and the tannin concentrations were higher in chia seeds grown in Mato Grosso (19.08±1.08eq.catequina/gsample). In conclusion, Brazilian chia seeds showed high concentrations of lipids, proteins, total dietary fiber, minerals and vitamin E. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... aimed at investigating the nutritional diversity of five leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya. Methodology and results: Amaranth vegetables were .... Crude fibre is important in reducing the risk of colon cancer, constipation, diabetes and reducing absorption of cholesterol (Ishida et al., 2000). Table 1: ...

  17. Electrical conductivity measurements on gel grown KDP crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    †Scott Christian College, Nagercoil 629 003, India. MS received 4 September 2000; revised 16 July 2001. Abstract. Pure and impurity added (with urea and thiourea) KDP single crystals were grown by the gel method using silica gels. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out along both the unique axis and.

  18. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  19. Commercially Grown Short Rotation Coppice Willow in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Sevel, Lisbeth; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate biomass production in commercially grown short rotation coppice willow in Denmark and to investigate effects of site and management factors on willow yield. Biomass production assessed by non-destructive sampling on 296 plots from 25 plantations was a...

  20. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  1. Potential of wastewater grown algae for biodiesel production and CO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential of wastewater grown algae for biodiesel production and CO 2 sequestration. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Mixed algae sample showed the highest CO2 fixation rate, followed by Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus incrassatulus, Scenedesmus dimorphus and Chroococcus cohaerens (2.807, 1.627, 1.501, 1.270 ...

  2. Electrical conductivity measurements on gel grown KDP crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2CO3 and (NH4)2SO4] KDP sin- gle crystals were grown by the gel method using silica gels. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out along both the unique axis and perpendicular directions at various temperatures ranging from 28 ...

  3. Electrical conductivity measurements on gel grown KDP crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure and impurity added (with urea and thiourea) KDP single crystals were grown by the gel method using silica gels. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out along both the unique axis and perpendicular directions at various temperatures ranging from 30 to 140°C by the conventional two-probe method.

  4. Structure and growth process of vapor-grown carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T.; Endo, M.

    1983-01-01

    The structure, effect of heat, and growth process of vapor-grown carbon fibers are investigated. The growth process of the carbon fibers could be divided into three stages; nucleation, elongation, and thickening processes. Also, a multi-layered structure can be produced as well as graphitization.

  5. pH-sensor properties of electrochemically grown iridium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Robben, M.A.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The open-circuit potential of an electrochemically grown iridium oxide film is measured and shows a pH sensitivity between −60 and −80 mV/pH. This sensitivity is found to depend on the state of oxidation of the iridium oxide film; for a higher state of oxidation (or more of the oxide in the high

  6. Growth and characterization of gel grown pure and mixed iron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several applications of iron tartrate and manganese tartrate compounds are reported in the literature. In the present investigation, we have grown pure and mixed iron (II)–manganese levo-tartrate crystals by single diffusion gel growth technique. Crystals with spherulitic morphology were harvested. The colouration of the ...

  7. Single layer porous gold films grown at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renyun; Hummelgard, Magnus; Olin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Large area porous gold films can be used in several areas including electrochemical electrodes, as an essential component in sensors, or as a conducting material in electronics. Here, we report on evaporation induced crystal growth of large area porous gold films at 20, 40 and 60 deg. C. The gold films were grown on liquid surface at 20 deg. C, while the films were grown on the wall of beakers when temperature increased to 40 and 60 deg. C. The porous gold films consisted of a dense network of gold nanowires as characterized by TEM and SEM. TEM diffraction results indicated that higher temperature formed larger crystallites of gold wires. An in situ TEM imaging of the coalescence of gold nanoparticles mimicked the process of the growth of these porous films, and a plotting of the coalescence time and the neck radius showed a diffusion process. The densities of these gold films were also characterized by transmittance, and the results showed film grown at 20 deg. C had the highest density, while the film grown at 60 deg. C had the lowest consistent with SEM and TEM characterization. Electrical measurements of these gold films showed that the most conductive films were the ones grown at 40 deg. C. The conductivities of the gold films were related to the amount of contamination, density and the diameter of the gold nanowires in the films. In addition, a gold film/gold nanoparticle hybrid was made, which showed a 10% decrease in transmittance during hybridization, pointing to applications as chemical and biological sensors.

  8. Shock initiation experiments on ratchet grown PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olinger, Barton W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deluca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierce, Timothy H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Nathaniel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the shock initiation behavior of PBX 9502 pressed to less than nominal density (nominal density is 1.890 {+-} 0.005 g/cm{sup 3}) with PBX 9502 pressed to nominal density and then ''ratchet grown'' to low density. PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic bonded explosive consisting of 95 weight % dry-aminated tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) and 5 weight % Kel-F 800 plastic binder. ''Ratchet growth'' - an irreversible increase in specific volume - occurs when an explosive based on TATB is temperature cycled. The design of our study is as follows: PBX 9502, all from the same lot, received the following four treatments. Samples in the first group were pressed to less than nominal density. These were not ratchet grown and used as a baseline. Samples in the second group were pressed to nominal density and then ratchet grown by temperature cycling 30 times between -54 C and +80 C. Samples in the final group were pressed to nominal density and cut into 100 mm by 25.4 mm diameter cylinders. During thermal cycling the cylinders were axially constrained by a 100 psi load. Samples for shock initiation experiments were cut perpendicular (disks) and parallel (slabs) to the axial load. The four sample groups can be summarized with the terms pressed low, ratchet grown/no load, axial load/disks, and axial load/slabs. All samples were shock initiated with nearly identical inputs in plate impact experiments carried out on a gas gun. Wave profiles were measured after propagation through 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm of explosive. Side by side comparison of wave profiles from different samples is used as a measure of relative sensitivity. All reduced density samples were more shock sensitive than nominal density PBX 9502. Differences in shock sensitivity between ratchet grown and pressed to low density PBX 9502 were small, but the low density pressings are slightly more sensitive than the ratchet grown samples.

  9. Present and future applications of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Teresa, J. M.; Fernández-Pacheco, A.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, magnetic nanostructures are routinely grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). In the present article, we review the milestones produced in the topic in the past as well as the future applications of this technology. Regarding past milestones, we highlight the achievement of high-purity cobalt and iron deposits, the high lateral resolution obtained, the growth of 3D magnetic deposits, the exploration of magnetic alloys and the application of magnetic deposits for Hall sensing and in domain-wall conduit and magnetologic devices. With respect to future perspectives of the topic, we emphasize the potential role of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID for applications related to highly integrated 2D arrays, 3D nanowires devices, fabrication of advanced scanning-probe systems, basic studies of magnetic structures and their dynamics, small sensors (including biosensors) and new applications brought by magnetic alloys and even exchange biased systems.

  10. Photoemission electronic states of epitaxially grown magnetite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalecki, R.; Kolodziejczyk, A.; Korecki, J.; Spiridis, N.; Zajac, M.; Kozlowski, A.; Kakol, Z.; Antolak, D.

    2007-01-01

    The valence band photoemission spectra of epitaxially grown 300 A single crystalline magnetite films were measured by the angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) at 300 K. The samples were grown either on MgO(0 0 1) (B termination) or on (0 0 1) Fe (iron-rich A termination), thus intentionally presenting different surface stoichiometry, i.e. also different surface electronic states. Four main features of the electron photoemission at about -1.0, -3.0, -5.5 and -10.0 eV below a chemical potential show systematic differences for two terminations; this difference depends on the electron outgoing angle. Our studies confirm sensitivity of angle resolved PES technique on subtleties of surface states

  11. Present and future applications of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa, J.M. de [CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA), Saragossa (Spain); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Saragossa (Spain); Fernandez-Pacheco, A. [University of Cambridge, TFM Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Currently, magnetic nanostructures are routinely grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). In the present article, we review the milestones produced in the topic in the past as well as the future applications of this technology. Regarding past milestones, we highlight the achievement of high-purity cobalt and iron deposits, the high lateral resolution obtained, the growth of 3D magnetic deposits, the exploration of magnetic alloys and the application of magnetic deposits for Hall sensing and in domain-wall conduit and magnetologic devices. With respect to future perspectives of the topic, we emphasize the potential role of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID for applications related to highly integrated 2D arrays, 3D nanowires devices, fabrication of advanced scanning-probe systems, basic studies of magnetic structures and their dynamics, small sensors (including biosensors) and new applications brought by magnetic alloys and even exchange biased systems. (orig.)

  12. Conductivity and scaling properties of chemically grown granular silver films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. S. M.; Deutsch, M.

    2009-09-01

    We address room-temperature conductivities of chemically grown silver films. Disordered, granular silver films are grown using a modified Tollens reaction. Thick, polycrystalline films are transparent at visible wavelengths, with crystallinity similar to that of silver powders. The measured conductivities are close to those measured by I. V. Antonets, L. N. Kotov, S. V. Nekipelov, and Ye. A. Golubev, Tech. Phys. 49, 306 (2004) in amorphous silver films, however the thickness where bulk conductivity is reached is anomalously high. While measured resistance values do not obey a scaling relation in thickness, accounting for the films' structural porosity through geometrical rescaling of the thickness leads to emergence of the well-known percolation power-law scaling, albeit that of two-dimensional percolating films.

  13. Summer planting of container-grown northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Graber

    1978-01-01

    Seedlings of paper birch and yellow birch were grown in Styrofoam blocks of two cavity sizes, 40 cc and 125 cc, in four different soil mixes. After 16 weeks, the seedlings were outplanted on a cleared forest site in mid July. Seedling survival for all treatments after two growing seasons was very good (98.8 percent). The effects of container size and soil mix were...

  14. Growth, characterization and dielectric property studies of gel grown ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystals of barium succinate (BaC4H4O4) were grown in silica gel medium using controlled chemical reaction method. Plate-like single crystals of size up to 3 × 2 × 0.2 mm3 was obtained. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed that structure of the title compound is tetragonal. Powder X-ray diffraction ...

  15. Lattice variation and thermal parameters of gel grown KDP crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure and impurity added (with NH4Cl, NH4NO3, NH4H2PO4, and (NH4)2SO4) KDP single crystals were grown by the gel method using silica gels. X-ray diffraction data were collected for powder samples and used for the estimation of lattice variation and thermal parameters like Debye–Waller factor, mean-square ...

  16. Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; McKnight, Timothy E [Greenback, TN; Guillorn, Michael A [Ithaca, NY; Ilic, Bojan [Ithaca, NY; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Knoxville, TX; Doktycz, Mitchel J [Knoxville, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN

    2012-03-27

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

  17. MeV ion beam polishing of anodically grown alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudin, B.; Martin, P.

    1988-01-01

    When bombarded with 1 MeV N + ions, the surface of anodically grown alumina films is smoothened. This polishing effect was studied as a function of the ion bombardment fluence and of the substrate temperature in the range 80 - 650 K. The techniques used to characterize the surface roughness were Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and small angle X-rays diffusion. It is suggested that atomic and/or electronic sputtering is responsible for the smoothing effect which was observed

  18. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, β-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture.

  19. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Field-Grown Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver

    1986-01-01

    The importance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and P fertilizer for P nutrition and dry matter production in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) was studied in moderately P-deficient soil. Half of the experimental plots were fumigated to reduce the level of VAM infection. Shoots and 0 to 30 cm...... procedure is being used. These results indicate that VAM is of major importance to P uptake by the field-grown pea....

  20. Some machining properties of 4 wood species grown in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sofuoğlu, Sait Dündar; Kurtoğlu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Determining wood machining properties and defining convenient usage areas for native wood species is important for evaluating surface quality. Wood machining is a performance criterion indicated after planing, shaping, turning, mortising, boring, and sanding. This study selected 2 softwood species (European black pine and cedar of Lebanon) as well as 2 hardwood species (sessile oak and black poplar), which are commonly used and grown in Turkey. Preparation of samples and machining were carrie...

  1. Spectral response of THM grown CdZnTe crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H.; Awadalla, S.A.; Harris, F.

    2008-01-01

    The spectral response of several crystals grown by the Traveling Heater Method (THM) were investigated. An energy resolution of 0.98% for a Pseudo Frisch-Grid of 4 × 4 × 9 mm3 and 2.1% FWHM for a coplanar-grid of size 11 × 11 × 5 mm3 were measured using 137Cs-662 keV. In addition a 4% FWHM at 122...

  2. Zinc Oxide Nanocolumns Periodically Grown on Silica Nanosphere Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, D.; Wright, N.; Ostoski, A.; Mukherjee, P.; Witanachchi, S.

    ZnO nanocolumns (NCs) are promising building blocks for many existing and emerging applications owing to their unique optical, electrical, and piezoelectric properties. Specifically, the ZnO NCs could be used as seed layer for the growth of other oxide materials. Nanocolumnar ZnO is generally grown in randomly distributed arrays, where the entire substrate is covered and only through lithographic methods is selectivity of growth location achieved. We propose a method to be able to grow ZnO NCs in hexagonally closed packed structure with location tunability. Langmuir-Blodgett was used to construct a self-assembled monolayer of SNSs (3.5 μm, 1.18 μm, 850nm, 500nm and 250nm in diameter) on silicon substrates. Z-axis oriented ZnO NCs were grown on top of the spheres using the glancing angle pulsed laser deposition (GAPLD) technique. Column arrays grown in smaller SNSs diameter were vertical and grew in an hcp structure on top of each sphere. ZnO NCs aspect ratios were found to be dependent on underlying sphere size.

  3. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinusspp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  4. Channel waveguides formed by ion implantation of PECVD grown silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, P.W.; Faith, M.F.; Johnson, C.M.; Ridgway, M.C.; Bazylenko, M.

    1997-01-01

    Low loss channel waveguides have been formed in silica-on-silicon by implantation with 5 MeV Si and Ge ions. In these experiments, the substrate was comprised of an undoped layer of silica (30 μm thick) which was grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The optical loss characteristics of the waveguides, as measured at both λ 1300 and 1550 nm, were independent of the implanted ion species. A minimum in the attenuation loss (α) of ∼0.10-0.20 dB/cm was obtained following both a pre-implant (1050 o C) and a post-implant (400-500 o C) anneal of the waveguides. The ability to produce a minimum in α by pre-implant annealing has been attributed to the thermally induced relaxation of the densified structure in the as-grown layer. Only a comparatively small degree of compaction was measured for Si-implanted samples which did not receive a pre-implant anneal. In contrast, the much larger degree of compaction in the pre-implant annealed samples was similar in magnitiude to that observed in fused silica. These are the first reported examples of ion-implanted waveguides using a substrate of silica grown by PECVD. (author)

  5. Assessing biodiesel quality parameters for wastewater grown Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Samadhan Yuvraj; K Bharti, Randhir; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2017-07-01

    Microalgae are reported as the efficient source of renewable biodiesel which should be able to meet the global demand of transport fuels. Present study is focused on assessment of wastewater grown indigenous microalga Chlorella sp. for fuel quality parameters. This was successfully grown in secondary treated waste water diluted with tap water (25% dilution) in glass house. The microalga showed a dry weight of 0.849 g L -1 with lipid content of 27.1% on dry weight basis on 21st day of incubation. After transesterification, the yield of fatty acid methyl ester was 80.64% with major fatty acids as palmitic, linoleic, oleic and linolenic. The physical parameters predicted from empirical equations in the biodiesel showed cetane number as 56.5, iodine value of 75.5 g I 2 100 g -1 , high heating value 40.1 MJ kg -1 , flash point 135 °C, kinematic viscosity 4.05 mm 2 s -1 with density of 0.86 g cm 3 and cold filter plugging point as 0.7 °C. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), 1 H, 13 C NMR spectrum confirmed the chemical nature of biodiesel. The results indicated that the quality of biodiesel was almost as per the criterion of ASTM standards; hence, wastewater grown Chlorella sp. can be used as a promising strain for biodiesel production.

  6. Alfalfa seedlings grown outdoors are more resistant to UV-induced DNA damage than plants grown in a UV-free environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Shinnosuke; Trunk, J.G.; Sutherland, J.C.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The relative UV sensitivities of alfalfa seedlings grown outdoors versus plants grown in a growth chamber under UV-filtered cool white fluorescent bulbs have been determined using three criteria: (1) level of endogenous DNA damage as sites for the UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus, (2) susceptibility to pyrimidine dimer induction by a UV challenge exposure and (3) ability to repair UV-induced damage. We find that outdoor-grown plants contain approximately equal frequencies of endogenous DNA damages, are less susceptible to dimer induction by a challenge exposure of broad-spectrum UV and photorepair dimers more rapidly than plants grown in an environmental chamber under cool white fluorescent lamps plus a filter removes most UV radiation. These data suggest that plants grown in a natural environment would be less sensitive to UVB-induced damage than would be predicted on the basis of studies on plants grown under minimum UV. (author)

  7. Limited evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of Nepal alder grown in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. C. Gerhards

    1964-01-01

    Nepal alder (Alnus nepalensis ) grown in Hawaii was evaluated for shrinkage, strength in bending, and hardness. This Hawaii-grown wood was comparable in bending strength to wood of the same species grown in Bengal, India, but was lower in modulus of elasticity and exhibited greater hardness and shrinkage. It was also harder than such Mainland species as aspen (Populus...

  8. Comparative analysis of hyoscine in wild-type and in vitro- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the hyoscine contents of Datura innoxia plant grown in the wild and that grown in vitro. Methods: For callus ... Substantial amount of hyoscine was detected in the extracts of in vitro grown plants through TLC and. HPLC. Wild root ... diseases and ailmentssuch as asthma, cough, convulsion, Parkinson ...

  9. Leaf chemical composition of twenty-one Populus hybrid clones grown under intensive culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Dickson; Philip R. Larson

    1976-01-01

    Leaf material from 21 nursery-grown Populus hybrid clones was analyzed for three nitrogen fractions (total N, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids) and three carbhydrate fractions (reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, and total nonstructural carbohydrates-TNC). In addition, nursery-grown green ash and silver maple, field-grown bigtooth and trembling aspen, and...

  10. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  11. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Unal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of ethanol extracts of some organically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables. Methods: The ethanol extracts of kailan (Brassica alboglabra, bayam (Amaranthus spp. and sawi (Brassica parachinensis were tested for total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and total anthocyanin content (TAC and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results: In TPC test, sawi extract showed the highest phenolic content while bayam contained the least phenolic content for both organically and conventionally grown types. In TFC test, organically grown sawi extract showed the highest flavonoid content, while organically grown kailan extract showed the least flavonoid content among all types of vegetables. The flavonoid content of the conventionally grown types of vegetable extracts was the highest in kalian and the least in sawi. For 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, the activity increased with the increasing concentration of each extract. All conventionally grown vegetable extracts showed higher antioxidant activity compared to their organically grown counterparts. Extracts of conventionally grown sawi showed the highest percentage inhibition followed by conventionally grown kailan and organically grown sawi. There were no correlation between TPC, TFC, TAC and IC25 of both organically and conventionally grown vegetables. However, there was a correlation between TAC and IC25 of conventionally grown vegetable extracts. The results showed relatively similar polyphenol content between organically and conventionally grown vegetable extracts. However, the conventionally grown vegetables extracts generally have higher antioxidant activity compared to the organically grown extracts. Conclusions: These results suggested that the different types of agricultural practice had a significant contribution to the

  12. Antioxidative properties of some phototropic microalgae grown in waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Peter

    selecting the species to be used for fish feed. The present study is part of a project which aims at developing new processing technologies, so that microalgae-biomass can be used as an alternative valuable resource in fish feed. Lipid and protein composition as well as antioxidative properties were used...... for the screening and selection of the species. In this study,the potential antioxidant activities of 12 micro algal sample from Chlorella., Spirulina., Euglena, Scenedesmus and Haematococcus species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facilities were evaluated using three antioxidant assays, including...

  13. Origin of residual particles on transferred graphene grown by CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunishi, Tomohiro; Takabayashi, Yuya; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Ohno, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Large-area single-layer graphene can be grown on Cu foil by CVD, but for device applications, the layer must to be transferred onto an insulating substrate. As residual particles are often observed on transferred graphene, we investigated their origin using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The results show that these residual particles are composed either of silicon or an alloy of a few metals, and hence, likely originate from the quartz tube of the CVD furnace and the impurities contained in the Cu foil.

  14. GaAs vapor-grown bipolar transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuese, C. J.; Gannon, J. J.; Dean, R. H.; Gossenberger, H. F.; Enstrom, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of an approach for the fabrication of high-temperature GaAs transistors which is centered on the preparation of n-p-n three-layered structures entirely by a vapor-phase growth technique, as described by Tietjen and Amick (1966). The low growth temperature of approximately 750 C is thought to reduce contamination during crystal growth and to contribute to the reasonably high minority-carrier lifetimes obtained for the vapor-grown p-n junctions. The fact that impurity concentrations and layer thicknesses can be precisely controlled for epitaxial layers as thin as 1 micrometer is an important feature of this growth technique.

  15. Nanomechanics of Individual Carbon Nanotubes from Pyrolytically Grown Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruiping; Wang, Zhong L.; Bai, Zhigang; de Heer, Walter A.; Dai, Liming; Gao, Mei

    2000-07-01

    The bending modulus of individual carbon nanotubes from aligned arrays grown by pyrolysis was measured by in situ electromechanical resonance in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bending modulus of nanotubes with point defects was ~30 GPa and that of nanotubes with volume defect was 2-3 GPa. The time-decay constant of nanotube resonance in a vacuum of 10-4 Torr was ~85 μs. A femtogram nanobalance was demonstrated based on nanotube resonance; it has the potential for measuring the mass of chain-structured large molecules. The in situ TEM provides a powerful approach towards nanomechanics of fiberlike nanomaterials with well-characterized defect structures.

  16. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of MOVPE Grown Narrow Gap Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Mithun; Merritt, Travis; Khodaparast, Giti A.; Feeser, Caitlin; Wessels, Bruce W.; McGill, Stephen; Saha, D.; Pan, X.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    We report on time resolved differential transmission experiments to provide insight into both the time scales and the nature of the microscopic interactions and carrier dynamics in MOVPE grown ferromagnetic InMnAs and InMnSb. Theoretical calculations of the electronic structure for InMnAs are performed using an 8 band kṡp model which includes non-parabolicity of the conduction bands; strong band-mixing of the valence bands; as well as coupling of Mn impurities to the electrons and holes. Our preliminary theoretical results explain the sign change in the differential transmission signal as a function of probe wavelength.

  17. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  18. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Chhabra

    Full Text Available The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans. Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  19. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  20. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21-47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Understanding the defect structure of solution grown zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, Laura-Lynn; Sankar, Gopinathan; Handoko, Albertus D.; Goh, Gregory K.L.; Kohara, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconducting oxide with many potential applications in various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Much effort has been made to understand the ZnO structure and its defects. However, one major issue in determining whether it is Zn or O deficiency that provides ZnO its unique properties remains. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an ideal, atom specific characterization technique that is able to probe defect structure in many materials, including ZnO. In this paper, comparative studies of bulk and aqueous solution grown (≤90 °C) ZnO powders using XAS and x-ray pair distribution function (XPDF) techniques are described. The XAS Zn–Zn correlation and XPDF results undoubtedly point out that the solution grown ZnO contains Zn deficiency, rather than the O deficiency that were commonly reported. This understanding of ZnO short range order and structure will be invaluable for further development of solid state lighting and other optoelectronic device applications. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: ► ZnO powders have been synthesized through an aqueous solution method. ► Defect structure studied using XAS and XPDF. ► Zn–Zn correlations are less in the ZnO powders synthesized in solution than bulk. ► Zn vacancies are present in the powders synthesized. ► EXAFS and XPDF, when used complementary, are useful characterization techniques.

  2. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  3. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83% and lipid (40.45%, with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%, antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  4. Surface characterisation of GaSb-films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemayer, Andreas; Hommes, Alexander; Wandelt, Klaus [Institute for Physical Cchemistry, University of Bonn (Germany); Huemann, Sascha; Vogel, Dirk [Max Planck Institut fuer Eisenforschung, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schulz, Stephan [Department of Chemistry, University of Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    III-V semiconductor films used for opto- and microelectronic devices have traditionally been grown by (MO)MBE and LPE processes. An alternative metal-organic CVD-process, which has been established in the last two decades for high-throughput and low-cost fabrication works for nitrides, phosphides and arsenides, but is problematic for antimonides. In particular, for GaSb films an alternative route is a CVD-process using the heterocyclic single source precursor [{sup t}Bu{sub 2}GaSbEt{sub 2}]{sub 2}. Subject of the present work is the gas phase behaviour of the used precursor under UHV conditions and the surface characterisation of thin GaSb-films, which were grown in a self-made HV-MOCVD reactor on Si(001), by AES, S-XPS and AFM. The results are discussed in terms of a correlation of the electronic properties with the composition and structure of the films.

  5. 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in field-grown onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of soil amendments on concentrations of two volatile organic compounds, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in onion bulbs. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots (n = 20) were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1 bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spetrometric (GC/MS) analyses of mature onion bulbs crude extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Soil amended with yard waste compost enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 31 and 59%, respectively. Soil amended with chicken manure enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 28 and 43%, respectively. Concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone were lowest in onion bulbs of plants grown in sewage sludge and unamended soil, respectively. The increased concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in onion bulbs may provide a protective character against insect and spider mite attack in field grown onions.

  6. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  7. Characterization of Cellulolytic Bacterial Cultures Grown in Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idris Alshelmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF of palm kernel cake (PKC. The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30∘C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.

  8. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of 210 Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg -1 fresh wt. obtained here is according to 210 Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg -1 . (author)

  9. Yield of lettuce grown in aquaponic system using different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Jordan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the aquaponic system, the characteristics of the materials used as substrate directly affect plant development, because besides acting as a support base, they must present a surface to fix microorganisms, responsible for the conversion of nutrients into forms more easily available to plants. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of four growing substrates on the yield of lettuce grown in aquaponic system. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments, which corresponded to the substrates, and six replicates. Plants were grown using the nutrient film technique (NFT system. The substrates used in the experiment were: coconut shell fiber with crushed stone #3, expanded vermiculite, zeolite and phenolic foam. The treatment with phenolic foam was considered as the least suitable for lettuce cultivation in aquaponic system, because it caused lower yield (20.8 t ha-1. The treatment using coconut shell fiber with crushed stone #3 was considered as the most adequate, since it led to higher yield (39.9 t ha-1 compared with the other substrates analyzed.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes Internalizes in Romaine Lettuce Grown in Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Archana G; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2017-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in a number of outbreaks involving fresh produce, including an outbreak in 2016 resulting from contaminated packaged salads. The persistence and internalization potential of L. monocytogenes in romaine lettuce was evaluated, and the persistence of two L. monocytogenes strains was assessed on three romaine lettuce cultivars. Seeds were germinated, and plants grown in three soil types (i.e., standard potting mix, autoclaved potting mix, and top soil) and sterile soft-top agar for up to 21 days. Average CFU per gram of L. monocytogenes on seeds and plants was calculated from five replicates per harvest day. Up to 8.2 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes persisted on romaine lettuce plants (Braveheart cultivar) grown in soft-top agar, while those grown in commercial potting mix (initial soil aerobic plate count of 4.0 × 10 4 CFU/g) had a final concentration of 5.4 log CFU/g, and autoclaved commercial potting mix had a final concentration of 3.8 ± 0.2 log CFU/g after a 21-day period. Pathogen levels dropped below the limit of detection (2 log CFU/g) by day 18 in 75% topsoil (initial soil aerobic plate count of 4.0 × 10 1 CFU/g); this did not occur in sterile media. Although L. monocytogenes strain differences and presence of a clay coating on seeds did not affect persistence, differences were observed in L. monocytogenes growth and survival among cultivars. To assess internalization, seeds were inoculated with L. monocytogenes expressing green fluorescent protein. Three plants were fixed, paraffin embedded, and sectioned; localization was studied by using standard immunohistochemistry techniques. A total of 539 internalized L. monocytogenes cells were visualized among three 20-day seedlings. L. monocytogenes cells were located in all major tissue types (pith followed by cortex, xylem, phloem, and epidermis). The presence of L. monocytogenes in the plant vasculature suggests potential for transport throughout the plant into edible

  11. The chloroplast gene encoding ribosomal protein S4 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii spans an inverted repeat--unique sequence junction and can be mutated to suppress a streptomycin dependence mutation in ribosomal protein S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph-Anderson, B L; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W; Huang, C; Liu, X Q

    1995-05-10

    The ribosomal protein gene rps4 was cloned and sequenced from the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The N-terminal 213 amino acid residues of the S4 protein are encoded in the single-copy region (SCR) of the genome, while the C-terminal 44 amino acid residues are encoded in the inverted repeat (IR). The deduced 257 amino acid sequence of C. reinhardtii S4 is considerably longer (by 51-59 residues) than S4 proteins of other photosynthetic species and Escherichia coli, due to the presence of two internal insertions and a C-terminal extension. A short conserved C-terminal motif found in all other S4 proteins examined is missing from the C. reinhardtii protein. In E. coli, mutations in the S4 protein suppress the streptomycin-dependent (sd) phenotype of mutations in the S12 protein. Because we have been unable to identify similar S4 mutations among suppressors of an sd mutation in C. reinhardtii S12 obtained using UV mutagenesis, we made site-directed mutations [Arg68 (CGT) to Leu (CTG and CTT)] in the wild-type rps4 gene equivalent to an E. coli Gln53 to Leu ribosomal ambiguity mutation (ram), which suppresses the sd phenotype and decreases translational accuracy. These mutants were tested for their ability to transform the sd S12 mutation of C. reinhardtii to streptomycin independence. The streptomycin-independent isolates obtained by biolistic transformation all possessed the original sd mutation in rps12, but none had the expected donor Leu68 mutations in rps4. Instead, six of 15 contained a Gln73 (CAA) to Pro (CCA) mutation five amino acids downstream from the predicted mutant codon, irrespective of rps4 donor DNA. Two others contained six- and ten-amino acid, in-frame insertions at S4 positions 90 and 92 that appear to have been induced by the biolistic process itself. Eight streptomycin-independent isolates analyzed had wild-type rps4 genes and may possess mutations identical to previously isolated suppressors of sd that define at least two

  12. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32 m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... root per cm3 soil) compared with root development in fully irrigated (FI) potatoes. Highest RLD existed in the top 30–40 cm of the ridge below which it decreased sharply. The RLD was distributed homogenously along the ridge and furrow but heterogeneously across the ridge and furrow with highest root...

  13. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 μg/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 μg/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 μg/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 μg/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents.

  14. GaN-based LEDs grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Robert; Graber, A.; Tews, H.; Bernklau, D.; Barnhoefer, Ulrich; Riechert, Henning

    1998-04-01

    We report on the growth of GaN, InGaN and GaN/InGaN/GaN pn- junctions grown on sapphire by RF-plasma assisted MBE. MBE allows us to grow high quality nitrides with growth rates around 1 micrometers /h at relatively low temperatures. Thereby p- type doping with Mg and the incorporation of In in InGaN are greatly facilitated. Device-typical n- and p-type doping levels yield room temperature mobilities of 220 cm2/Vs and 10 cm2/Vs, respectively. InGaN with In contents of more than 40 percent is readily achieved. LEDs fabricated from heterostructures with a 4 nm InGaN layer show bright blue or green electroluminescence depending on the In content. Various effects in the electroluminescence caused by fluctuations in the conduction and valence band will be discussed, the most striking one a reduction in linewidth with increasing temperature.

  15. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Yield and water productivity of potatoes grown in 4.32 m2 lysimeters were measured in coarse sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam and imposed to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. PRD and DI as water-saving irrigation treatments received 65% of FI after...... tuber bulking and lasted for 6 weeks until final harvest. Analysis across the soil textures showed that fresh yields were not significant between the irrigation treatments. However, the same analysis across the irrigation treatments revealed that the effect of soil texture was significant on the fresh...... yield and loamy sand produced significantly higher fresh yield than the other two soils, probably because of higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis rates, and "stay-green" effect late in the growing season. More analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between the irrigation...

  16. Individually grown cobalt nanowires as magnetic force microscopy probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Shuaa; Samba, Joshua; Pokharel, Sabin; Lan, Yucheng; Uradu, Kelechi; Afolabi, Ayodeji; Unlu, Ilyas; Basnet, Gobind; Aslan, Kadir; Flanders, Bret N; Lisfi, Abdellah; Ozturk, Birol

    2018-02-26

    AC electric fields were utilized in the growth of individual high-aspect ratio cobalt nanowires from simple salt solutions using the Directed Electrochemical Nanowire Assembly method. Nanowire diameters were tuned from the submicron scale to 40 nm by adjusting the AC voltage frequency and the growth solution concentration. The structural properties of the nanowires, including shape and crystallinity, were identified using electron microscopy. Hysteresis loops obtained along different directions of an individual nanowire using vibrating sample magnetometry showed that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy has the same order of magnitude as the shape anisotropy energy. Additionally, the saturation magnetization of an individual cobalt nanowire was estimated to be close to the bulk single crystal value. A small cobalt nanowire segment was grown from a conductive atomic force microscope cantilever tip that was utilized in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) imaging. The fabricated MFM tip provided moderate quality magnetic images of an iron-cobalt thin-film sample.

  17. Nanocomposite oxide thin films grown by pulsed energy beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, M.; Petitmangin, A.; Hebert, C.; Seiler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highly non-stoichiometric indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were grown by pulsed energy beam deposition (pulsed laser deposition-PLD and pulsed electron beam deposition-PED) under low oxygen pressure. The analysis of the structure and electrical transport properties showed that ITO films with a large oxygen deficiency (more than 20%) are nanocomposite films with metallic (In, Sn) clusters embedded in a stoichiometric and crystalline oxide matrix. The presence of the metallic clusters induces specific transport properties, i.e. a metallic conductivity via percolation with a superconducting transition at low temperature (about 6 K) and the melting and freezing of the In-Sn clusters in the room temperature to 450 K range evidenced by large changes in resistivity and a hysteresis cycle. By controlling the oxygen deficiency and temperature during the growth, the transport and optical properties of the nanocomposite oxide films could be tuned from metallic-like to insulating and from transparent to absorbing films.

  18. Photosensitivity of nanocrystalline ZnO films grown by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayouchi, R.; Bentes, L.; Casteleiro, C.; Conde, O.; Marques, C.P.; Alves, E.; Moutinho, A.M.C.; Marques, H.P.; Teodoro, O.; Schwarz, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the properties of ZnO thin films grown by laser ablation of ZnO targets on (0 0 0 1) sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ), under substrate temperatures around 400 deg. C. The films were characterized by different methods including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS analysis revealed that the films are oxygen deficient, and XRD analysis with θ-2θ scans and rocking curves indicate that the ZnO thin films are highly c-axis oriented. All the films are ultraviolet (UV) sensitive. Sensitivity is maximum for the films deposited at lower temperature. The films deposited at higher temperatures show crystallite sizes of typically 500 nm, a high dark current and minimum photoresponse. In all films we observe persistent photoconductivity decay. More densely packed crystallites and a faster decay in photocurrent is observed for films deposited at lower temperature

  19. Electrical characterization of plasma-grown oxides on gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hshieh, F. I.; Bhat, K. N.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma-grown GaAs oxides and their interfaces have been characterized by measuring the electrical properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and of Schottky junctions. The current transport mechanism in the oxide at high electrical field was found to be Frankel-Poole emission, with an electron trap center at 0.47 eV below the conduction band of the oxide. The interface-state density, evaluated from capacitance and conductance measurements, exhibits a U-shaped interface-state continuum extending over the entire band gap. Two discrete deep states with high concentration are superimposed on this continuum at 0.40 and 0.70 eV below the conduction band. The results obtained from measurements on Schottky junctions have excluded the possibility that these two deep states originate from plasma damage. Possible origins of these states are discussed in this paper.

  20. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  1. Alkaline-doped manganese perovskite thin films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibes, M.; Gorbenko, O.; Martinez, B.; Kaul, A.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of La 1-x Na x MnO 3 thin films grown by MOCVD on various single-crystalline substrates. Under appropriate conditions epitaxial thin films have been obtained. The Curie temperatures of the films, which are very similar to those of bulk samples of similar composition, reflect the residual strain caused by the substrate. The anisotropic magnetoresistance AMR of the films has been analyzed in some detail, and it has been found that it has a two-fold symmetry at any temperature. Its temperature dependence mimics that of the electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measured at similar fields, thus suggesting that the real structure of the material contributes to the measured AMR besides the intrinsic component

  2. Heavy metal absorption by vegetables grown in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, F.; Riolfatti, M.; Ravazzolo, E.; Da Ros, D.; Brigato, L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors study the bibliographic and experimental data on absorption by vegetables of several heavy metals present in the soil or brought to it via fertilizations, especially with the use of compost coming from waste treatment plants. The presence of heavy metals in the soil causes increased levels of these toxic substances in the edible parts of the vegetables grown in that soil. Not to be neglected is also the absorption by the leaf apparatus of airborne particulate containing heavy metals which deposit on the parts of the vegetable exposed to the air. The available data lack homogeneity of investigation as they have been draw from studies which followed different methodologies. Therefore further studies are required in order to: eliminate some of the variables that might affect the absorption of metals from the soil and supply comparable data. Moreover, a greater number of vegetable species and their different edible parts will have to be taken into consideration

  3. Sustainability and economic evaluation of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Teresa M; Mendes, Adélio M; Caetano, Nídia S; Martins, António A

    2014-09-01

    This article evaluates the sustainability and economic potential of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater for biodiesel and biomass production. Three sustainability and two economic indicators were considered in the evaluation within a life cycle perspective. For the production system the most efficient process units were selected. Results show that harvesting and oil separation are the main process bottlenecks. Microalgae with higher lipid content and productivity are desirable for biodiesel production, although comparable to other biofuel's feedstock concerning sustainability. However, improvements are still needed to reach the performance level of fossil diesel. Profitability reaches a limit for larger cultivation areas, being higher when extracted biomass is sold together with microalgae oil, in which case the influence of lipid content and areal productivity is smaller. The values of oil and/or biomass prices calculated to ensure that the process is economically sound are still very high compared with other fuel options, especially biodiesel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relaxor properties of barium titanate crystals grown by Remeika method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michel; Tiagunov, Jenia; Dul'kin, Evgeniy; Mojaev, Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) crystals have been grown by the Remeika method using both the regular KF and mixed KF-NaF (0.6-0.4) solvents. Typical acute angle "butterfly wing" BT crystals have been obtained, and they were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (including energy dispersive spectroscopy), conventional dielectric and acoustic emission methods. A typical wing has a triangular plate shape which is up to 0.5 mm thick with a 10-15 mm2 area. The plate has a (001) habit and an atomically smooth outer surface. Both K+ and F- solvent ions are incorporated as dopants into the crystal lattice during growth substituting for Ba2+ and O2- ions respectively. The dopants' distribution is found to be inhomogeneous, their content being almost an order of magnitude higher (up to 2 mol%) at out surface of the plate relatively to the bulk. A few μm thick surface layer is formed where a multidomain ferroelectric net is confined between two≤1 μm thick dopant-rich surfaces. The layer as a whole possess relaxor ferroelectric properties, which is apparent from the appearance of additional broad maxima, Tm, in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity around the ferroelectric phase transition. Intense acoustic emission responses detected at temperatures corresponding to the Tm values allow to observe the Tm shift to lower temperatures at higher frequencies, or dispersion, typical for relaxor ferroelectrics. The outer surface of the BT wing can thus serve as a relaxor thin film for various electronic application, such as capacitors, or as a substrate for BT-based multiferroic structure. Crystals grown from KF-NaF fluxes contain sodium atoms as an additional impurity, but the crystal yield is much smaller, and while the ferroelectric transition peak is diffuse it does not show any sign of dispersion typical for relaxor behavior.

  5. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Single crystal diamond detectors grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuve, C.; Angelone, M.; Bellini, V.; Balducci, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pillon, M.; Potenza, R.; Pucella, G.; Russo, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Sutera, C.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2007-01-01

    The detection properties of heteropitaxial (polycrystalline, pCVD) and homoepitaxial (single crystal, scCVD) diamond films grown by microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in the Laboratories of Roma 'Tor Vergata' University are reported. The pCVD diamond detectors were tested with α-particles from different sources and 12 C ions produced by 15MV Tandem accelerator at Southern National Laboratories (LNS) in Catania (Italy). pCVDs were also used to monitor 14MeV neutrons produced by the D-T plasma at Joint European Torus (JET), Culham, U.K. The limit of pCVDs is the poor energy resolution. To overcome this problem, we developed scCVD diamonds using the same reactor parameters that optimized pCVD diamonds. scCVD were grown on a low cost (100) HPHT single crystal substrate. A detector 110μm thick was tested under α-particles and under 14MeV neutron irradiation. The charge collection efficiency spectrum measured under irradiation with a triple α-particle source shows three clearly resolved peaks, with an energy resolution of about 1.1%. The measured spectra under neutron irradiation show a well separated C(n,α 0 ) 9 Be12 reaction peak with an energy spread of 0.5MeV for 14.8MeV neutrons and 0.3MeV for 14.1MeV neutrons, which are fully compatible with the energy spread of the incident neutron beams

  7. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  8. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption to...

  9. Confocal Raman studies in determining crystalline nature of PECVD grown Si nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nafis; Bhargav, P. Balaji; Ramasamy, P. [SSN Research Centre, Kalavakkam-603110, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603110, Tamilnadu (India); Sivadasan, A. K.; Tyagi, A. K.; Dhara, S., E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Amirthapandian, S.; Panigrahi, B. K. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [SSN Research Centre, Kalavakkam-603110, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Silicon nanowires of diameter ∼200 nm and length of 2-4 µm are grown in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique using nanoclustered Au catalyst assisted vapour-liquid-solid process. The crystallinity in the as-grown and annealed samples is studied using confocal Raman spectroscopic studies. Amorphous phase is formed in the as-grown samples. Structural studies using high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm the polycrystalline nature in the annealed sample.

  10. Crops for biodiesel to be grown on mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrichsen, H.

    2007-12-01

    Natural Resources Canada has launched a feasibility project along with several branches of the federal government, provincial government, Laurentian University and mining and forestry companies to determine if crops suitable for producing biodiesel fuel can be grown on mine tailings. The concept first came about when a biodiesel plant was proposed to be built in Sudbury. Although plans for the plant have been abandoned, the biodiesel crop project is still going ahead. Crops will be cultivated on 2 half-hectare plots on the CVRD Inco tailings in Sudbury, 1 half-hectare plot on the Xstrata Nickel tailings in Sudbury and 1 half-hectare plot on the Goldcorp tailings in Timmins. Paper sludge from St. Marys Paper Company in Sault Ste. Marie and Domtar in Espanola will be spread on the plots in January when the frozen ground is easier to work on with heavy equipment. In the spring, the plots will be seeded with corn, canola or soy, with the possibility of alder and willow in the future. Instruments to monitor groundwater on the sites will also be installed. Biodiesel produced with vegetable or meat oils has been touted as being an environmentally sound diesel fuel. Emissions from vehicles fueled by biodiesel are 40 to 100 per cent lower than those from conventional diesel engines. Proponents of the project emphasize the value of using marginal lands like mine tailings to grow crops for biodiesel fuel instead of prime agricultural land. There are 2,500 hectares of tailings in Sudbury that could be potentially used for this purpose, and about 2,000 hectares at one mine site in Timmins. A Sudbury-area farmer will provide advice about growing the crops and will also grow the same crops on a portion of his land for a comparative evaluation of crop yield. The paper sludge offers the benefit of allowing crops to be grown, but it also cuts off oxygen flow to the tailings underneath, thereby preventing sulphides in the tailings from rusting. The paper sludge may even help the

  11. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David Emory [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies VGa. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1μm. Gallium vacancies, VGa, was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 1019 cm-3 Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more AsGa in the layer. As AsGa increases, photoquenchable AsGa decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral AsGa content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed GaAs, as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which AsGa-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to VGa enhanced diffusion of AsGa to As precipitates. The supersaturated VGa and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for AsGa-related defects gives 2.0 ± 0.3 eV and 1.5 ± 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the AsGa and VGa. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable AsGa-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 ± 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of AsGa-BeGa pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  12. Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, D.E.

    1992-11-01

    High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V[sub Ga]. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1[mu]m. Gallium vacancies, V[sub Ga], was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As[sub Ga] in the layer. As As[sub Ga] increases, photoquenchable As[sub Ga] decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As[sub Ga] content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga[sub As], as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As[sub Ga]-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V[sub Ga] enhanced diffusion of As[sub Ga] to As precipitates. The supersaturated V[sub GA] and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As[sub Ga]-related defects gives 2.0 [plus minus] 0.3 eV and 1.5 [plus minus] 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As[sub Ga] and V[sub Ga]. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As[sub Ga]-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 [plus minus] 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As[sub Ga]-Be[sub Ga] pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

  13. A novel conformation of gel grown biologically active cadmium nicotinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Lekshmi P.; Bijini, B. R.; Divya, R.; Nair, Prabitha B.; Eapen, S. M.; Dileep Kumar, B. S.; Nishanth Kumar, S.; Nair, C. M. K.; Deepa, M.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2017-11-01

    The elimination of toxic heavy metals by the formation of stable co-ordination compounds with biologically active ligands is applicable in drug designing. A new crystalline complex of cadmium with nicotinic acid is grown at ambient temperature using the single gel diffusion method in which the crystal structure is different from those already reported. Single crystal x-ray diffraction reveals the identity of crystal structure belonging to monoclinic system, P21/c space group with cell dimensions a = 17.220 (2) Å, b = 10.2480 (2) Å, c = 7.229(9) Å, β = 91.829(4)°. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallinity of the sample. The unidentate mode of co-ordination between the metal atom and the carboxylate group is supported by the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectral data. Thermal analysis ensures the thermal stability of the complex. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are also calculated. The stoichiometry of the complex is confirmed by the elemental analysis. The UV-visible spectral analysis shows the wide transparency window of the complex in the visible region. The band gap of the complex is found to be 3.92 eV. The complex shows excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  14. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge.

  15. Characterization of traditional tomato varieties grown in organic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Cebrino, F.; Lozano, M.; Ayuso, M. C.; Bernalte, M. J.; Vidal-Aragon, M. C.; Gonzalez-Gomez, D.

    2011-07-01

    Organic horticulture is a sustainable agricultural model that can provide high quality products and allows conservation of genetic diversity. Traditional tomato varieties are well adapted to organic production and they have the organoleptic characteristics demanded by consumers. Seven traditional tomato varieties were studied: BGV-001020, BGV-000998, BGV-001000, BGV-004123, CIDA-44-A, CIDA-62, CIDA-59-A, and they were compared with a tomato Marmandetype commercial cv. Baghera, all them grown under organic production. Several quality variables were measured to establish whether any of the traditional varieties might be suitable for commercial production. CIDA-62 was shown to be the most promising variety. It produces tomatoes of very high quality under organic conditions. It excels in terms of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C (459.22 mg kg{sup -}1 fw) and lycopene (62.25 mg kg{sup -}1 fw) and in its total antioxidant activity (43.58 mg Trolox/100 g fw). It is also outstanding in terms of its sugar content (4.56% fructose and glucose combined) and of its total soluble solids content (6.22 degree centigrade Brix). All of these variables are associated with both sensory quality and health benefits. Other varieties that emerged with relatively high levels of total soluble solids content, lycopene, vitamin C and total antioxidant activity were BGV-004123 and BGV-001020. (Author) 41 refs.

  16. Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Musco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability. The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM] and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM, respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins. Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries.

  17. Methyl halide emissions from greenhouse-grown mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Steven L.; Wang, Nun-Yii; Walser, Maggie L.; Cicerone, Ralph J.

    2007-01-01

    Two mangrove species, Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle, were greenhouse grown for nearly 1.5 years from saplings. A single individual of each species was monitored for the emission of methyl halides from aerial tissue. During the first 240 days, salinity was incrementally increased with the addition of seawater, and was maintained between 18 and 28‰ for the duration of the study. Exponential growth occurred after 180 days. Methyl halide emissions normalized to leaf area were measured throughout the study and varied dramatically. Emission rates normalized to land area (mg m-2 y-1), assuming a LAI = 5, yielded 82 and 29 for CH3Cl, 10 and 1.6 for CH3Br, and 26 and 11 for CH3I, for A. germinans and R. mangle, respectively. From these preliminary determinations, only CH3I emissions emerge as being of possible global atmospheric significance. This study emphasizes the need for field studies of methyl halide emissions from mangrove forests.

  18. Exceptional gettering response of epitaxially grown kerfless silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D. M.; Markevich, V. P.; Hofstetter, J.; Jensen, M. A.; Morishige, A. E.; Castellanos, S.; Lai, B.; Peaker, A. R.; Buonassisi, T.

    2016-02-14

    The bulk minority-carrier lifetime in p- and n-type kerfless epitaxial (epi) crystalline silicon wafers is shown to increase >500× during phosphorus gettering. We employ kinetic defect simulations and microstructural characterization techniques to elucidate the root cause of this exceptional gettering response. Simulations and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) indicate that a high concentration of point defects (likely Pt) is “locked in” during fast (60 °C/min) cooling during epi wafer growth. The fine dispersion of moderately fast-diffusing recombination-active point defects limits as-grown lifetime, but can also be removed during gettering, confirmed by DLTS measurements. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy indicates metal agglomerates at structural defects, yet the structural defect density is sufficiently low to enable high lifetimes. Consequently, after phosphorus diffusion gettering, epi silicon exhibits a higher lifetime than materials with similar bulk impurity contents but higher densities of structural defects, including multicrystalline ingot and ribbon silicon materials. Device simulations suggest a solar-cell efficiency potential of this material >23%.

  19. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors from Aerial Parts of Grown in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadah B. Shehadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis L., grown in Jordan, two furanocoumarins (bergapten and chalepensin, one flavonoid glycoside (rutin as well as several minor compounds have been isolated. The structural elucidation of these compounds was established based on spectral data (UV, IR, MS, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR. In Jordan, R. chalepensis is recommended for the treatment of rheumatism, mental disorders and menstrual problems. Fresh and dried leaves are used as flavoring agent in food and beverages. Antiplatelet activities of the crude methanolic and ethylacetate extracts in addition to the three isolated major compounds were measured by the aggrometric method according to Beretz and Casenave. Optical aggregometer connected to dual channel recorder was used for measuring aggregation. Both, ethylacetate and methanol extracts inhibited ADP- induced platelet aggregation (ADP-IA of human blood. However, only ethylacetate extract was able to induce 50% inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation (Co-IA platelet rich plasma. Bergapten was more active against ADP-IA compared to chalepensin while the latter was more active against Co-IA compared to bergapten.

  20. Diurnal photosynthesis and stomatal resistance in field-grown soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Muller, R.N.; Seegers, P.

    1976-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis in green plants is the major determinant of crop yield. Although the effects of air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, on photosynthesis has been studied, many unsolved questions remain. This is especially true with regard to reduction of photosynthetic rate under conditions of chronic exposure causing little or no visible injury. It was the purpose of these studies to develop techniques suitable for measuring photosynthetic rates of field-grown plants without dramatically altering the microenvironment of the plants. Gross photosynthetic rates of soybeans (Glycine max. cv. Wayne) in the field were measured by exposing a small section of representative leaves for 30 seconds to 14 CO 2 in a normal atmospheric mixture by a technique similar to that of Incoll and Wright. A 1-cm 2 section of the area exposed to 14 CO 2 is punched from the leaf and processed for liquid scintillation counting. Since the treatment period is of such short duration, there is little photorespiratory loss of 14 CO 2 , and thus, the amount of 14 C fixed in the leaf can be related to the gross photosynthetic rate. Other parameters measured during the course of these experiments were stomatal resistance, light intensity, leaf water potential, and air temperature

  1. Antibacterial and antitumour activities of some plants grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Canan; Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2014-03-04

    Screening of antibacterial and antitumour activities of 33 different extracts prepared with three types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was conducted. The extracts were obtained from 11 different plant species grown in Turkey: Eryngium campestre L., Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Coronilla varia L., Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss., Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb., Asarum europaeum L., Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin, Doronicum orientale Hoffm., Campanula glomerata L. and Campanula olympica Boiss. Antibacterial activity against six bacteria was evaluated: Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyogenes , Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were most sensitive to the methanolic extract from A. europaeum . S. pyogenes was vulnerable to all used extracts of D. orientale . In addition, ethanolic or methanolic extracts of E. campestre , A. mollis , D. pentaphyllum , C. varia , R. angustifolius , C. glomerata and C. olympica displayed strong antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested gram-negative bacteria. The methanolic extract from R. angustifolius showed a broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antitumour activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium-tumefaciens -induced potato disc tumour assay. Best antitumour activity was obtained with the aqueous extract from A. europaeum and methanolic extract from E. campestre (100% and 86% tumour inhibition, respectively).

  2. Photocatalytic properties of porous titania grown by oblique angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, M. J.; Williams, B.; Condon, G. Y.; Borja, J.; Lu, T. M.; Gill, W. N.; Plawsky, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    High surface area nanorods of titanium dioxide were grown by oblique angle deposition on a transparent substrate to investigate their effectiveness as photocatalytic agents for the destruction of organic contaminants in air and water. Optical transmission measurements were made that allowed for an estimation of the porosity of the film (75%-78%). Comparing transmission measurements with those from a dense anatase film showed that the penetration depth for the light into the nanorod film was 2.5 times that in a dense, anatase film. The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine dye on the porous films was shown to depend on film thickness and annealing conditions. The effectiveness of the film was assessed by observing the change in absorbance of the dye at 610 nm over time and quantifying the film performance using a pseudo-first-order reaction rate model. Reaction rates increased as the film thickness increased from 600 nm to 1000 nm, but leveled out or decreased at thicknesses beyond 1500 nm. A transport/reaction model was used to show that there exists an optimal geometry that maximizes the overall reaction rate and that such a geometry can be simply produced using glancing angle deposition. The nanorod films were benchmarked against nanoparticle films and were shown to perform as well as 0.73 g/L of 25-nm-diameter anatase nanoparticles with surface area of 50 m2/g.

  3. Effects of oxygen on Propionibacterium shermanii grown in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, G G; Wimpenny, J W; Morris, H A; Lewis, M W; Hughes, D E

    1977-10-01

    Growth yields, enzyme activities, cytochrome concentrations and the rates of product formation were determined in Propionibacterium shermanii cultures grown in a chemostat with lactate as the energy source at various concentrations of oxygen. Oxygen was toxic when its partial pressure in the inflowing gas was just sufficient to give measurable dissolved oxygen concentration in the culture, when it inhibited lactate oxidation and NADH oxidase activity. Below this oxygen concentration, P. shermanii behaved as a facultative anaerobe. The adaptation from anaerobic metabolism to aerobic metabolism, however, was complex. Low partial pressures of oxygen led to decreased cytochrome and membrane-bound dehydrogenase activities and molar growth yield. Above an oxygen partial pressure of 42 mmHg in the inflowing gas stream, these changes were reversed, leading to an aerobic type of metabolism. At the highest subtoxic concentration of oxygen used (330 mmHg in the input gas), lactate was oxidized mainly to acetate and carbon dioxide and the rate of propionate formation was very low. The high molar growth yield obtained under these conditions suggested that lactate and NADH oxidation via the cytochrome electron transport system was coupled to ATP synthesis.

  4. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Uptake of perfluorinated compounds by plants grown in nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valcárcel, A I; Molero, E; Escorial, M C; Chueca, M C; Tadeo, J L

    2014-02-15

    The uptake rates of three perfluorinated carboxylates and three perfluorinated sufonates by a grass (B diandrus) grown in nutrient solution at two different perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) concentrations were assessed. Grass can be ingested by grazing animals causing the PFCs to enter the food chain, which is a pathway of human exposure to these compounds. A rapid and miniaturized method was developed to determine PFCs in plants, based on a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction procedure followed by quantitation by HPLC-MS/MS with an MQL in the range from 1 to 9 ng/g. An increase of PFCs levels in plant was observed along the exposure time. Differences in uptake for studied perfluorinated carboxylates were found, showing a decrease with carbon chain length (from 3027 to 1,167 ng/g at the end of assay), whereas no significant differences in absorption were obtained between perfluorinated sulfonates (about 1,700 ng/g). Initially, higher PFC transfer factors (ratio between concentration in plant and concentration in initial nutrient solution) were obtained for plants growing in the nutrient solution at the highest PFC concentration, but these factors became similar with time to plants exposed to the lowest concentration. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced root production in Haplopappus gracilis grown under spaceflight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    The production and growth of roots in two aseptically maintained clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis (family Compositae), each with a distinctive pattern of root production, were studied after they had been exposed to space for 5 days aboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Total root production of both populations was 67-95% greater when compared with their Earth-grown controls. Roots were generated: (1) laterally from pre-formed roots, the tips of which had been severed at the time of plantlet insertion into a "horticultural foam" substrate supplied with a nutrient solution; (2) adventitiously from the basal or cut-end portion of shoots; (3) de novo, i.e. from primordial which were non-existent at the outset of the experiment. Roots grew in all directions in space but were uniformly positively gravitropic in ground controls. In space and on Earth, both clonal populations maintained their clone-specific root formation and growth characteristics and produced an equivalent amount of tissue when compared to each other. As on Earth, and as expected, there were fewer and shorter roots on plantlets that formed floral buds. The significance of altered moisture distribution in the "horticultural foam" substrate in space for root growth and the significance of our findings for growing plants in altered gravity environments are discussed.

  7. Succinic Acid Synthesis by Ethanol-Grown Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of succinic acid in ethanol-containing media has been tested in 32 yeasts of different genera (Debaryomyces, Candida, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis. The capability of succinic acid synthesis was revealed in 29 strains, from which two most effective producers were selected. When grown in a fermentor under high aeration in mineral medium with pulsed addition of ethanol, the strain Candida catenulata VKM Y-5 produced succinic acid up to 5.2 g/L with mass yield of 32.6 % and energy yield of 14.8 %; the other strain, Candida zeylanoides VKM Y-2324, excreted 9.4 g/L of succinic acid with mass and energy yields of 39 and 17.8 %, respectively. It was indicated that succinic acid formation in the yeasts was accompanied by the synthesis of considerable amounts of malic acid, which was apparently due to a high activity of the glyoxylate cycle. Growth characteristics of both strains were studied in dependence on the concentrations of ethanol, zinc ions and nitrogen in the medium.

  8. Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musco, Nadia; Koura, Ivan B.; Tudisco, Raffaella; Awadjihè, Ghislain; Adjolohoun, Sebastien; Cutrignelli, Monica I.; Mollica, Maria Pina; Houinato, Marcel; Infascelli, Federico; Calabrò, Serena

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content) and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability). The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM]) and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM) and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM), respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins). Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries. PMID:26732328

  9. Heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, A.; Ahmad, A.; Randhawa, M.A.; Ahmad, R.; Khalid, N.

    2012-01-01

    Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) contents of various vegetables (bitter melon, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, cucumber and bell pepper) produced in Rawalpindi, Pakistan was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. All vegetables grown at sewage water by farmers showed the highest contamination of heavy metals, followed by local market, Progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. The concentration ranges in mg/kg were (1.45 -2.55) for Cd, (3.10 to 4.92) Cr, (12.15- 20.50) Cu, (25.00-51.00) for Fe, (7.80 to 15.60) for Mn, (10.16 to 15.42) for Ni, (2.12 to 5.41) Pb and (16.58 to 24.08) for zinc. The contamination was above the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs), set out by WHO. Irregular trends in concentration were also observed in vegetables obtained from local market, progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. (author)

  10. 75 FR 31663 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... FR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation... handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington and is administered locally by the... cherries and other lightly-colored sweet cherry varieties that are designated as ``premium'' when handled...

  11. 75 FR 10442 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 923 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0033; FV09-923-1 PR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated... the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington and is administered locally... requirements for Rainier cherries and other lightly colored sweet cherry varieties that are designated as...

  12. 78 FR 48283 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... 2013-2014 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which regulates the handling of sweet cherries grown in...

  13. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 923 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0059; FV11-923-1 CR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated... sweet cherry growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  14. 78 FR 21520 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...; FV12-923-1 FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in...

  15. 78 FR 76031 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. The Committee's...

  16. Effect Of Bird Manure On Cotton Plants Grown On Soils Sampled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton plant had a better development and growth when bird manure was only applied to soil or combined with mineral fertilizer and when cotton was grown on a soil where the previous crops were cereals (maize or sorghum). Planting cotton on a soil where the previous crop grown was maize or sorghum had no significant ...

  17. 76 FR 65360 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Southeastern Potato Committee (Committee). The Committee believes advances in farming technology and production...; FV11-953-1 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions... the interim rule that suspended the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Southeastern states...

  18. p-AgCoO2/n-ZnO heterojunction diode grown by rf magnetron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The AgCoO2 films grown by rf sputtering were highly -axis oriented showing only (001) reflections in the X-ray diffraction pattern unlike in the case of amorphous films grown by ... Transparent – heterojunction on glass substrate was fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering of -AgCoO2 and -type ZnO : Al thin films.

  19. Mid-Atlantic Consumer Purchasing Behavior and Knowledge of Locally Grown and Seasonal Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Amy J.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Hyde, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Atlantic urban consumers were surveyed on their fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors and their knowledge of produce grown in the region. Consumers were generally unaware of what produce is grown in the mid-Atlantic and during what months they are harvested. Additionally, differences pertaining to number of produce items purchased were…

  20. Managing cool-season weeds in sugarbeet grown for biofuel in the Southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbeet, grown for biofuel, is being considered as an alternate cool-season crop in the southeastern U. S. coastal plain. Typically, the crop would be seeded in the autumn, grow through the winter, and harvested the following spring. Labels for herbicides registered for use on sugarbeet grown in ...

  1. Prevention of Cold Damage to Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Tinus; Mary Anne Sword; James P. Barnett

    2002-01-01

    When longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings are container-grown in open fields, their roots may be exposed to damaging, cold temperatures. Major losses in some nurseries have occurred. Between November 1996 and February 1997, we measured the cold hardiness of container-grown longleaf pine roots by measuring electrolyte leakage (a) of...

  2. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section... and Groups of Grades § 30.43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are... utilization of the leaf in the manufacture of cigars with no reference to physical characteristics. For...

  3. Highly Luminescent Solution-Grown Thiophene-Phenylene Co-Oligomer Single Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, Lyudmila G.; Kazantsev, Maxim S.; Postnikov, Valery A.; Bruevich, Vladimir V.; Luponosov, Yuriy N.; Surin, Nikolay M.; Borshchev, Oleg V.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Thiophene-phenylene co-oligomers (TPCOs) are among the most promising materials for organic light emitting devices. Here we report on record high among TPCO single crystals photoluminescence quantum yield reaching 60%. The solution-grown crystals are stronger luminescent than the vapor-grown ones,

  4. Quantification of the growth response of light quantity of greenhouse grown crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Broekhuijsen, A.G.M.; Nijs, E.M.F.M.; Raaphorst, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Growers have often assumed that a 1% increment in light results in a 1% yield increase. In this study, this rule of thumb has been evaluated for a number of greenhouse grown crops: fruit vegetables (cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper), soil grown vegetables (lettuce, radish), cut flowers (rose,

  5. Surface studies on as-grown (111) faces of sodium bromate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Single crystals of sodium bromate are grown at various supersaturations ranging from 3% to 8%. Surface studies have been carried out on as-grown and etched (111) faces of these crystals. Typical and syste- matically oriented growth hillocks are observed almost on all the faces. Further dislocation studies are ...

  6. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheswari, J. Uma, E-mail: umak.anand@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The M.D.T.Hindu College, Tirunelveli 627010, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnan, C. [Department of Physics, Arignar Anna College, Aralvoymoli 629301, Tamilnadu (India); Kalyanaraman, S. [Physics Research Centre, Sri Paramakalyani College, Alwarkurichi 627412, Tamilnadu (India); Selvarajan, P. [Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-12-01

    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV–Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  7. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Miho; Ueda, Mayuko; Miyano, Takashi

    2016-08-25

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4-0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts.

  8. Cadmium distribution in field-grown fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korcak, R.F. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States))

    The effect of soil applied Cd on Cd distribution in and growth of five species of fruit trees was investigated. Cadmium was applied at three rates (0, 5, and 10 mg kg{sup {minus}1} soil) as CdSO{sub 4} to orchard plots established at two pH levels, low (5.5) and high (6.5). Five fruit tree types were planted: Gala apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) budded on M.26 (dwarfing) or MM.111 (semistandard) rootstocks, Redskin peach (Prunus persica L.) on Lovell rootstock, Stanley plum (Prunus domestica L.) on Myrobalon rootstock, and Seckel pear (Pyrus communis L.) on seedling rootstock. The trees were grown for 6 yr, 7 yr in the case of pear, and leaf, bark, wood, fruit, and root Cd concentrations were monitored. Gala apple on both rootstocks accumulated very small concentrations of Cd, usually 0.1 mg kg{sup {minus}1} dry wt. in all tissues tested. Peach and plum were intermediate in Cd accumulation, but both still relatively low. Seckel pear had high Cd concentrations in all tissues including fruit flesh and peel. Pear leaf Cd concentrations were 2.0 mg kg{sup {minus}1} from the 10 mg kg{sup {minus}1} soil Cd application after 5 yr. Pear fruit peel and flesh showed elevated, although nonsignificant, Cd concentrations with increased Cd applied. There was little difference between bark and wood tissue Cd concentrations independent of tree type. Root Cd concentrations were highest for pear followed by peach and plum, and lowest in apple.

  9. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalaura Carducci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  10. Heterogeneously grown tunable group-IV laser on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Mantu; Clavel, M.; Lester, L.; Saladukha, D.; Ochalski, T.; Murphy-Armando, F.

    2016-02-01

    Tunable tensile-strained germanium (epsilon-Ge) thin films on GaAs and heterogeneously integrated on silicon (Si) have been demonstrated using graded III-V buffer architectures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). epsilon-Ge epilayers with tunable strain from 0% to 1.95% on GaAs and 0% to 1.11% on Si were realized utilizing MBE. The detailed structural, morphological, band alignment and optical properties of these highly tensile-strained Ge materials were characterized to establish a pathway for wavelength-tunable laser emission from 1.55 μm to 2.1 μm. High-resolution X-ray analysis confirmed pseudomorphic epsilon-Ge epitaxy in which the amount of strain varied linearly as a function of indium alloy composition in the InxGa1-xAs buffer. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopic analysis demonstrated a sharp heterointerface between the epsilon-Ge and the InxGa1-xAs layer and confirmed the strain state of the epsilon-Ge epilayer. Lowtemperature micro-photoluminescence measurements confirmed both direct and indirect bandgap radiative recombination between the Γ and L valleys of Ge to the light-hole valence band, with L-lh bandgaps of 0.68 eV and 0.65 eV demonstrated for the 0.82% and 1.11% epsilon-Ge on Si, respectively. The highly epsilon-Ge exhibited a direct bandgap, and wavelength-tunable emission was observed for all samples on both GaAs and Si. Successful heterogeneous integration of tunable epsilon-Ge quantum wells on Si paves the way for the implementation of monolithic heterogeneous devices on Si.

  11. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  12. Challenges of congenital heart disease in grown-up patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerzmann, Markus; Schwitz, Fabienne; Thomet, Corina; Kadner, Alexander; Pfammatter, Jean-Pierre; Wustmann, Kerstin

    2017-10-04

    Nowadays, more than 90% of all children born with congenital heart disease (CHD) reach adult life. Although initially considered to be cured, the majority of them continue to need specialised follow-up because they require re-do interventions or are at increased risk of cardiovascular complications and premature death. Arrhythmias are the most common cause of unscheduled hospital visits for grown-up CHD (GUCH) patients, accounting for one third of emergency admissions in these patients. Some GUCH patients are also at increased risk for sudden cardiac death. The principles of arrhythmia management and the prevention of sudden cardiac death in GUCH patients are similar to those used in adults with acquired heart disease, but are not evidence based. Decompensated heart failure is the other leading cause of death. Conventional medical heart-failure therapy for left ventricular dysfunction is not effective in GUCH patients at highest risk of heart failure, i.e., those with right or single ventricular failure. Careful haemodynamic assessment and structural interventions are the first step to consider in GUCH patients presenting with heart failure symptoms. Adults with moderate or complex CHD and regular follow-up in specialised GUCH centres have a survival benefit compared with patients without such follow-up. Cardiac surgery in GUCH patients should be performed by surgeons trained in treatment of CHD, i.e., surgeons also operating on paediatric patients. A structured transition programme with a defined transfer of care from the paediatric to the adult care environment is important to avoid lapses of care in today's adolescents with CHD. For GUCH patients with an intervention performed decades ago and no specific cardiac follow-up in later life, referral to a specialised GUCH centre is recommended and may save lives.

  13. Textured YBCO films grown on wires: application to superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechoux, N; Jiménez, C; Chaudouët, P; Rapenne, L; Sarigiannidou, E; Robaut, F; Petit, S; Garaudée, S; Porcar, L; Soubeyroux, J L; Odier, P; Bruzek, C E; Decroux, M

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to fabricate superconducting wires made of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) on La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) buffered and biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W (NiW) are described. Wires were manually shaped from LZO buffered NiW tapes. Different diameters were produced: 1.5, 2 and 3 mm. The wires were further covered with YBCO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We developed an original device in which the round substrate undergoes an alternated rotation of 180° around its axis in addition to a reel-to-reel translation. This new approach allows covering the whole circumference of the wire with a YBCO layer. This was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For all wire diameters, the YBCO layer thickness varied from 300 to 450 nm, and the cationic composition was respected. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed directly on an as-deposited wire without surface preparation allowing the investigation of the crystalline quality of the film surface. Combining EBSD with XRD results we show that YBCO grows epitaxially on the LZO buffered NiW wires. For the first time, superconductive behaviors have been detected on round substrates in both the rolling and circular direction. J c reached 0.3 MA cm −2 as measured at 77 K by transport and third-harmonic detection. Those preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the MOCVD for complex geometries, especially for YBCO deposition on small diameter wires. This approach opens huge perspectives for the elaboration of a new generation of YBCO-based round conductors. (paper)

  14. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l -1 was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l -1 ) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l -1 . The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l -1 . The N level of 400 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high unused N nutrient

  15. As-grown deep-level defects in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shang; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Honda, Unhi; Shibata, Tatsunari; Matsumura, Toshiya; Tokuda, Yutaka; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Kachi, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Traps of energy levels E c -0.26 and E c -0.61 eV have been identified as as-grown traps in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition by using deep level transient spectroscopy of the Schottky contacts fabricated by resistive evaporation. The additional traps of E c -0.13 and E c -0.65 eV have been observed in samples whose contacts are deposited by electron-beam evaporation. An increase in concentration of the E c -0.13 and E c -0.65 eV traps when approaching the interface between the contact and the GaN film supports our argument that these traps are induced by electron-beam irradiation. Conversely, the depth profiles of as-grown traps show different profiles between several samples with increased or uniform distribution in the near surface below 50 nm. Similar profiles are observed in GaN grown on a sapphire substrate. We conclude that the growth process causes these large concentrations of as-grown traps in the near-surface region. It is speculated that the finishing step in the growth process should be an essential issue in the investigation of the surface state of GaN.

  16. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Control of average spacing of OMCVD grown gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Asad

    Metallic nanostructures and their applications is a rapidly expanding field. Nobel metals such as silver and gold have historically been used to demonstrate plasmon effects due to their strong resonances, which occur in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) produces an enhanced electromagnetic field at the interface between a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and the surrounding dielectric. This enhanced field can be used for metal-dielectric interfacesensitive optical interactions that form a powerful basis for optical sensing. In addition to the surrounding material, the LSPR spectral position and width depend on the size, shape, and average spacing between these particles. Au NP LSPR based sensors depict their highest sensitivity with optimized parameters and usually operate by investigating absorption peak: shifts. The absorption peak: of randomly deposited Au NPs on surfaces is mostly broad. As a result, the absorption peak: shifts, upon binding of a material onto Au NPs might not be very clear for further analysis. Therefore, novel methods based on three well-known techniques, self-assembly, ion irradiation, and organo-meta1lic chemical vapour deposition (OMCVD) are introduced to control the average-spacing between Au NPs. In addition to covalently binding and other advantages of OMCVD grown Au NPs, interesting optical features due to their non-spherical shapes are presented. The first step towards the average-spacing control is to uniformly form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) as resists for OMCVD Au NPs. The formation and optimization of the OTS SAMs are extensively studied. The optimized resist SAMs are ion-irradiated by a focused ion beam (Fill) and ions generated by a Tandem accelerator. The irradiated areas are refilled with 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) to provide nucleation sites for the OMCVD Au NP growth. Each step during sample preparation is monitored by

  18. An optoelectronic study of diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond Configured as a Detector of Ultraviolet light: This chapter is concerned with quite an extensive study of the photoconductive behaviour of CVD diamond. There are three main sections of results which include spectroscopic studies, time response studies, and area dependence studies. Many of the results are compared to those from a commercially available silicon detector. An interpretation of observed photoconductive gain is presented. Appendix: The group III nitrides have become increasingly important materials due to their many potential applications. This short chapter is a characterisation of gallium and aluminium nitride using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The material was grown using a new technique and the results form a 'proof of principle' for this growth method. (author)

  19. Surface characterization of low-temperature grown yttrium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Mirosław; Lisowski, Wojciech; Pisarek, Marcin; Nikiforow, Kostiantyn; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2018-04-01

    The step-by-step growth of yttrium oxide layer was controlled in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The O/Y atomic concentration (AC) ratio in the surface layer of finally oxidized Y substrate was found to be equal to 1.48. The as-grown yttrium oxide layers were then analyzed ex situ using combination of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), elastic-peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize their surface chemical composition, electron transport phenomena and surface morphology. Prior to EPES measurements, the Y oxide surface was pre-sputtered by 3 kV argon ions, and the resulting AES-derived composition was found to be Y0.383O0.465C0.152 (O/Y AC ratio of 1.21). The SEM images revealed different surface morphology of sample before and after Ar sputtering. The oxide precipitates were observed on the top of un-sputtered Y oxide layer, whereas the oxide growth at the Ar ion-sputtered surface proceeded along defects lines normal to the layer plane. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) characterizing electron transport was evaluated as a function of energy in the range of 0.5-2 keV from the EPES method. Two reference materials (Ni and Au) were used in these measurements. Experimental IMFPs determined for the Y0.383O0.465C0.152 and Y2O3 surface compositions, λ, were uncorrected for surface excitations and approximated by the simple function λ = kEp at electron energies E between 500 eV and 2000 eV, where k and p were fitted parameters. These values were also compared with IMFPs resulting from the TPP-2 M predictive equation for both oxide compositions. The fitted functions were found to be reasonably consistent with the measured and predicted IMFPs. In both cases, the average value of the mean percentage deviation from the fits varied between 5% and 37%. The IMFPs measured for Y0.383O0.465C0.152 surface composition were found to be similar to the IMFPs for Y2O3.

  20. Physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitika; Punia, Darshan; Khetarpaul, N

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the investigation was to analyse physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions. The seeds of five varieties of wheat (C-306, WH-283, WH-711, WH-896 and WH-912) grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions were ground in a Junior Mill to pass through 60-mesh sieves and were stored in air-tight containers until use. Standard methods were used to estimate the physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient composition. Consumer acceptability was studied by carrying out the organoleptic evaluation of wheat chapatis, a common item in diets of the Indian population. The results of study revealed that inorganically grown wheat varieties had significantly higher 1,000-grain weight and more grain hardness as compared with organically grown wheat varieties, and a non-significant difference was observed in their gluten content, water absorption capacity and hydration capacity. On average, wheat varieties grown under inorganic conditions contained significantly higher protein and crude fibre content as compared with varieties grown under organic conditions. WH-711 variety had maximum protein content. Protein fractions (i.e. albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) were significantly higher in varieties grown under inorganic conditions than those of varieties grown under organic conditions. The variety WH-711 had the highest total soluble sugars and variety WH-912 had the highest starch content. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents were significantly higher in inorganically grown wheat varieties as compared with organically grown wheat varieties. The wheat varieties grown under organic conditions had significantly higher protein and starch digestibility than the wheat grown under inorganic conditions. The data revealed that there were significant differences in total calcium and phosphorus contents of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic

  1. 75 FR 68681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin... rule that modified the aflatoxin sampling and testing regulations prescribed under the California, Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio marketing order (order). The interim rule streamlined the aflatoxin...

  2. Study of surface morphology and alignment of MWCNTs grown by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukrullah, S., E-mail: zshukrullah@gmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: zshukrullah@gmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, M. S., E-mail: zshukrullah@gmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Yasar, M., E-mail: Muhammad.yasar@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    In this research work, Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized successfully by using floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) method. Different ferrocene amounts (0.1, 0.125 and 0.15 g) were used as catalyst and ethylene was used as a carbon precursor at reaction temperature of 800°C. Characterization of the grown MWCNTs was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained data showed that the catalyst weight affects the nanotubes diameter, alignment, crystallinity and growth significantly, whereas negligible influence was noticed on CNTs forest length. The dense, uniform and meadow like patterns of grown CNTs were observed for 0.15 g ferrocene. The average diameter of the grown CNTs was found in the range of 32 to 75 nm. Close inspection of the TEM images also confirmed the defects in some of the grown CNTs, where few black spots were evident in CNTs structure.

  3. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho; Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs

  4. Uniformity of quantum well heterostructure GaAlAs lasers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scifres, D.R.; Burnham, R.D.; Bernstein, M.; Chung, H.; Endicott, F.; Mosby, W.; Tramontana, J.; Walker, J.; Yingling, R.D. Jr.

    1982-09-15

    The threshold current density, laser wavelength, grown layer thickness, reverse breakdown voltage, and far-field radiation pattern as a function of position on the grown wafer are reported for broad area multiple quantum well GaAlAs heterostructure lasers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the layer thickness varies across a 1.5-in. sample by as much as 20% at the outer edges of the water, leading to a lasing wavelength shift of as much as 150 A owing to the quantum size effect. It is shown that this thickness variation has only a small effect on the threshold current density across the water such that the uniformity of threshold current density is comparable to that reported previously for molecular beam epitaxy-grown conventional double heterostructure lasers.

  5. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho [Dept. of Nano-physics, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho [Nanotechnology and Advanced Material Engineering, HMC, and GRI, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs.

  6. 76 FR 4201 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY...

  7. Study of surface morphology and alignment of MWCNTs grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukrullah, S.; Mohamed, N. M.; Shaharun, M. S.; Yasar, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized successfully by using floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) method. Different ferrocene amounts (0.1, 0.125 and 0.15 g) were used as catalyst and ethylene was used as a carbon precursor at reaction temperature of 800°C. Characterization of the grown MWCNTs was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained data showed that the catalyst weight affects the nanotubes diameter, alignment, crystallinity and growth significantly, whereas negligible influence was noticed on CNTs forest length. The dense, uniform and meadow like patterns of grown CNTs were observed for 0.15 g ferrocene. The average diameter of the grown CNTs was found in the range of 32 to 75 nm. Close inspection of the TEM images also confirmed the defects in some of the grown CNTs, where few black spots were evident in CNTs structure

  8. Phyllosphere microbiota composition and microbial community transplantation on lettuce plants grown indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R; Marco, Maria L

    2014-08-12

    The aerial surfaces of plants, or phyllosphere, are microbial habitats important to plant and human health. In order to accurately investigate microbial interactions in the phyllosphere under laboratory conditions, the composition of the phyllosphere microbiota should be representative of the diversity of microorganisms residing on plants in nature. We found that Romaine lettuce grown in the laboratory contained 10- to 100-fold lower numbers of bacteria than age-matched, field-grown lettuce. The bacterial diversity on laboratory-grown plants was also significantly lower and contained relatively higher proportions of Betaproteobacteria as opposed to the Gammaproteobacteria-enriched communities on field lettuce. Incubation of field-grown Romaine lettuce plants in environmental growth chambers for 2 weeks resulted in bacterial cell densities and taxa similar to those on plants in the field but with less diverse bacterial populations overall. In comparison, the inoculation of laboratory-grown Romaine lettuce plants with either freshly collected or cryopreserved microorganisms recovered from field lettuce resulted in the development of a field-like microbiota on the lettuce within 2 days of application. The survival of an inoculated strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was unchanged by microbial community transfer; however, the inoculation of E. coli O157:H7 onto those plants resulted in significant shifts in the abundance of certain taxa. This finding was strictly dependent on the presence of a field-associated as opposed to a laboratory-associated microbiota on the plants. Phyllosphere microbiota transplantation in the laboratory will be useful for elucidating microbial interactions on plants that are important to agriculture and microbial food safety. The phyllosphere is a habitat for a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria with significant relevance to plant and human health. Some indigenous epiphytic bacteria might affect the persistence of human food

  9. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sears

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94% average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  10. Microbiological Quality and Food Safety of Plants Grown on ISS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to select and advance methods to enable real-time sampling, microbiological analysis, and sanitation of crops grown on the International Space Station (ISS). These methods would validate the microbiological quality of crops grown for consumption to ensure safe and palatable fresh foods. This would be achieved through the development / advancement of microbiological sample collection, rapid pathogen detection and effective sanitation methods that are compatible with a microgravity environment.

  11. Properties of GaN-based nanopillar-shaped crystals grown on a multicrystalline Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Atomu; Sato, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    The growth of gallium nitride-based nanopillar-shaped crystals on the multicrystalline silicon substrate that is widely employed in solar cells is presented here for the first time. The nanopillar-shaped crystals are successfully grown on the multicrystalline substrate in a manner similar to the structures grown on other substrates. Structural variations and a highly enhanced band edge emission in the photoluminescence spectrum have been observed using germanium doping.

  12. Stomatal conductance of lettuce grown under or exposed to different light qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this research was to examine the effects of differences in light spectrum on the stomatal conductance (Gs) and dry matter production of lettuce plants grown under a day/night cycle with different spectra, and also the effects on Gs of short-term exposure to different spectra. METHODS: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown with 6 h dark and 18 h light under four different spectra, red-blue (RB), red-blue-green (RBG), green (GF) and white (CWF), and Gs and plant growth were measured. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Conductance of plants grown for 23 d under CWF rose rapidly on illumination to a maximum in the middle of the light period, then decreased again before the dark period when it was minimal. However, the maximum was smaller in plants grown under RB, RGB and GF. This demonstrates that spectral quality during growth affects the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance. Although Gs was smaller in plants grown under RGB than CWF, dry mass accumulation was greater, suggesting that Gs did not limit carbon assimilation under these spectral conditions. Temporarily changing the spectral quality of the plants grown for 23 d under CWF, affected stomatal responses reversibly, confirming studies on epidermal strips. This study provides new information showing that Gs is responsive to spectral quality during growth and, in the short-term, is not directly coupled to dry matter accumulation.

  13. Yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruit harvested from plants grown in mulched soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Majkowska-Gadomska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study investigating the yield of field-grown tomatoes was conducted in 2007–2009 in the Garden of the Research and Experimental Station of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experimental materials comprised two tomato cultivars, 'Bawole Serce' and 'Złoty Ożarowski'. Tomato plants were grown in bare soil and in soil mulched with black non-woven PP 50 fabric. Cultivar selection had a significant effect only on average early yield of 'Bawole Serce'. The highest average early yield for three years of the study was recorded for 'Bawole Serce' grown in mulched soil, while the lowest one for 'Złoty Ożarowski' grown in mulched plots. Tomato marketable yield was significantly higher in both treatments where 'Bawole Serce' plants were grown. Fruits harvested from tomato plants 'Złoty Ożarowski' had a higher dry matter content. Soil mulching significantly increased the dry matter content of 'Złoty Ożarowski' tomato fruit. The experimental factors had no influence on the concentrations of L-ascorbic acid, total sugars, and organic acids. Nitrate levels in tomato fruit were within permissible limits, and they were significantly affected by the cultivation method and the method x cultivar interaction. Nitrate accumulation was reduced in tomato plants 'Złoty Ożarowski' grown in mulched soil.

  14. High-quality GaN nanowires grown on Si and porous silicon by thermal evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekari, L., E-mail: lsg09_phy089@student.usm.my [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Ramizy, A.; Omar, K.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new kind of substrate (porous silicon) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also this research introduces an easy and safe method to grow high quality GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a new growth process to decrease the cost, complexity of growth of GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a controllable method to synthesize GaN NWs by thermal evaporation. - Abstract: Nanowires (NWs) of GaN thin films were prepared on as-grown Si (1 1 1) and porous silicon (PS) substrates using thermal evaporation method. The film growth produced high-quality wurtzite GaN NWs. The size, morphology, and nanostructures of the crystals were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The NWs grown on porous silicon were thinner, longer and denser compared with those on as-grown Si. The energy band gap of the NWs grown on PS was larger than that of NWs on as-grown Si. This is due to the greater quantum confinement effects of the crystalline structure of the NWs grown on PS.

  15. Chemical composition, nutritional and toxicological evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa) grown in fly ash amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarachary, Kandlakunta; Ramulu, Punna; Udayasekhararao, Paruchuri; Bapurao, Sangras; Kamala, Krishnaswamy; Syed, Qadri; Udaykumar, Putcha; Sesikeran, Boindala

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate nutritional and toxicological aspects of rice grown in fly ash amended soils. Rice was grown on soils with fly ash (200 t ha(-1) ) and without fly ash at two different geographical locations of India. One kilogram each of 36 samples randomly collected from three replicates of rice grown with and without fly ash was subjected to various analytical techniques to determine the nutrient composition, mineral and heavy metal content. Moisture, protein and ash content of the rice samples showed no difference between fly ash treated and controls. Similar observations were also made on trace and heavy elements. Further, the rice grown on soils treated with fly ash was incorporated in the diet at 90% level and was fed to Wistar/NIN rats for 26 weeks for carrying out protein and toxicological evaluation. Results indicated that there is no difference between rice samples grown in soils with or without fly ash. Studies also clearly indicated that there were no adverse effects on hematological, biochemical or histopathological parameters when rice was fed to rats for 6 months. This indicates that rice grown on fly ash treated soils may be safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. VLS-grown diffusion doped ZnO nanowires and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Pushan Guha; Dutta, Amartya; Das, Arpita; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Sen, Sayantani; Pramanik, Pallabi

    2015-01-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowires were deposited by vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) method on to aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by sol-gel technique. For various device applications, current injection into such nanowires is critical. This is expected to be more efficient for ZnO nanowires deposited on to AZO compared to those deposited on to a foreign substrate such as silicon. In this work we compare the morphological and optical properties of nanowires grown on AZO with those grown under similar conditions on silicon (Si) wafers. For nanowires grown on silicon, diameters around 44 nm with heights around 2.2 μm were obtained. For the growth on to AZO, the diameters were around 90 nm while the heights were around 520 nm. Room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) measurements show improved near band-edge emission for nanowires grown on to AZO, indicating higher material quality. This is further established by low temperature photoluminescence (LT-PL) measurements where excitonic transitions with width as small as 14 meV have been obtained at 4 K for such structures. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies indicate the presence of Al in the nanowires, indicating a new technique for introduction of dopants into these structures. These results indicate that ZnO nanowires on sol-gel grown AZO thin films show promise in the development of various optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  17. Hydraulics and gas exchange recover more rapidly from severe drought stress in small pot-grown grapevines than in field-grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Pascual; Botía, Pablo; Keller, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Modifications of plant hydraulics and shoot resistances (R shoot ) induced by water withholding followed by rewatering, and their relationships with plant water status, leaf gas exchange and water use efficiency at the leaf level, were investigated in pot-grown and field-grown, own-rooted Syrah grapevines in an arid climate. Water stress induced anisohydric behavior, gradually reducing stomatal conductance (g s ) and leaf photosynthesis (A) in response to decreasing midday stem water potential (Ψ s ). Water stress also rapidly increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g s ); this effect persisted for many days after rewatering. Whole-plant (K plant ), canopy (K canopy ), shoot (K shoot ) and leaf (K leaf ) hydraulic conductances decreased during water stress, in tune with the gradual decrease in Ψ s , leaf gas exchange and whole plant water use. Water-stressed vines also had a lower Ψ gradient between stem and leaf (ΔΨ l ), which was correlated with lower leaf transpiration rate (E). E and ΔΨ l increased with increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in non-stressed control vines but not in stressed vines. Perfusion of xylem-mobile dye showed that water flow to petioles and leaves was substantially reduced or even stopped under moderate and severe drought stress. Leaf blade hydraulic resistance accounted for most of the total shoot resistance. However, hydraulic conductance of the whole root system (K root ) was not significantly reduced until water stress became very severe in pot-grown vines. Significant correlations between K plant , K canopy and Ψ s , K canopy and leaf gas exchange, K leaf and Ψ s , and K leaf and A support a link between water supply, leaf water status and gas exchange. Upon re-watering, Ψ s recovered faster than gas exchange and leaf-shoot hydraulics. A gradual recovery of hydraulic functionality of plant organs was also observed, the leaves being the last to recover after rewatering. In pot-grown vines, K canopy recovered rather

  18. Fast-grown CdS quantum dots: Single-source precursor approach vs microwave route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregnaux, Mathieu; Dalmasso, Stéphane; Durand, Pierrick; Zhang, Yudong; Gaumet, Jean-Jacques; Laurenti, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    A cross-disciplinary protocol of characterization by joint techniques enables one to closely compare chemical and physical properties of CdS quantum dots (QDs) grown by single source precursor methodology (SSPM) or by microwave synthetic route (MWSR). The results are discussed in relation with the synthesis protocols. The QD average sizes, reproducible as a function of the temperatures involved in the growth processes, range complementarily in 2.8–4.5 nm and 4.5–5.2 nm for SSPM and MWSR, respectively. Hexagonal and cubic structures after X-ray diffraction on SSPM and MWSR grown CdS QDs, respectively, are tentatively correlated to a better crystalline quality of the latter with respect to the further ones, suggested by (i) a remarkable stability of the MWSR grown QDs after exposure to air during several days and (ii) no evidence of their fragmentation during mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, after a fair agreement between size dispersities obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and MS, in contrast with the discrepancy found for the SSPM grown QDs. Correlatively, a better optical quality is suggested for the MWSR grown QDs by the resolution of n > 1 excitonic transitions in their absorption spectra. The QD average sizes obtained by TEM and deduced from MS are in overall agreement. This agreement is improved for the MWSR grown QDs, taking into account a prolate shape of the QDs also observed in the TEM images. For both series of samples, the excitonic responses vs the average sizes are consistent with the commonly admitted empirical energy-size correspondence. A low energy PL band is observed in the case of the SSPM grown QDs. Its decrease in intensity with QD size increase suggests a surface origin tentatively attributed to S vacancies. In the case of the MWSR grown QDs, the absence of this PL is tentatively correlated to an absence of S vacancies and therefore to the stable behavior observed when the QDs are exposed to air. - Highlights: • Single

  19. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria and iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.B.; Li, X.M.; Zhou, S.G.; Zhuang, L.; Cao, F.; Huang, D.Y.; Xu, W.; Liu, T.X.; Feng, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The transformation of DDT was studied in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (Shewanella decolorationis S12) and iron oxide (α-FeOOH). The results showed that S. decolorationis could reduce DDT into DDD, and DDT transformation rate was accelerated by the presence of α-FeOOH. DDD was observed as the primary transformation product, which was demonstrated to be transformed in the abiotic system of Fe 2+ + α-FeOOH and the system of DIRB + α-FeOOH. The intermediates of DDMS and DBP were detected after 9 months, likely suggesting that reductive dechlorination was the main dechlorination pathway of DDT in the iron-reducing system. The enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT was mainly due to biogenic Fe(II) sorbed on the surface of α-FeOOH, which can serve as a mediator for the transformation of DDT. This study demonstrated the important role of DIRB and iron oxide on DDT and DDD transformation under anaerobic iron-reducing environments. - This is the first case reporting the reductive dechlorination of DDT in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria and iron oxide.

  20. Flux-Grown Piezoelectric Materials: Application to α-Quartz Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Armand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the slow-cooling method in selected MoO3-based fluxes, single-crystals of GeO2 and GaPO4 materials with an α-quartz-like structure were grown at high temperatures (T ≥ 950 °C. These piezoelectric materials were obtained in millimeter-size as well-faceted, visually colorless and transparent crystals. Compared to crystals grown by hydrothermal methods, infrared and Raman measurements revealed flux-grown samples without significant hydroxyl group contamination and thermal analyses demonstrated a total reversibility of the α-quartz ↔ β-cristobalite phase transition for GaPO4 and an absence of phase transition before melting for α-GeO2. The elastic constants CIJ (with I, J indices from 1 to 6 of these flux-grown piezoelectric crystals were experimentally determined at room and high temperatures. The ambient results for as-grown α-GaPO4 were in good agreement with those obtained from hydrothermally-grown samples and the two longitudinal elastic constants measured versus temperature up to 850 °C showed a monotonous evolution. The extraction of the ambient piezoelectric stress contribution e11 from the CD11 to CE11 difference gave for the piezoelectric strain coefficient d11 of flux-grown α-GeO2 crystal a value of 5.7(2 pC/N, which is more than twice that of α-quartz. As the α-quartz structure of GeO2 remained stable up to melting, a piezoelectric activity was observed up to 1000 °C.

  1. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  2. Involvement of phytochrome A in suppression of photomorphogenesis in rice seedling grown in red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ansuman; Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2013-12-01

    Plants have evolved a remarkable capacity to track and respond to fluctuations of light quality and intensity that influence photomorphogenesis facilitated through several photoreceptors, which include a small family of phytochromes. Rice seedlings grown on germination paper in red light for 48 h having their shoot bottom exposed had suppressed photomorphogenesis and were deficient in chlorophyll. Seedlings grown under identical light regime having their shoot bottom covered were green and accumulated chlorophyll. Further, etiolated seedlings with their shoot bottom exposed, when grown in 4 min red/far-red cycles for 48 h, accumulated chlorophyll demonstrating the reversal of suppression of photomorphogenesis by far-red light. It implicates the involvement of phytochrome. Immunoblot analysis showed the persistence of photolabile phytochrome A protein for 48 h in seedlings grown in red light with their shoot bottom exposed, suggesting its involvement in suppression of photomorphogenesis. This was further corroborated in phyA seedlings that turned green when grown in red light having their shoot bottom exposed. Calmodulin (CaM) antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-napthalene sulphonamide or trifluoperazine substantially restored photomorphogenesis both in the wild type (WT) and phyA demonstrating the involvement of CaM-dependent kinases in the down-regulation of the greening process. Results demonstrate that red light-induced suppression of photomorphogenesis, perceived in the shoot bottom, is a red high irradiance response of PhyA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Differences in isoenzyme patterns of axenically and monoxenically grown Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekers, P H; De Jonckheere, J F

    1997-03-01

    Axenically and monoxenically grown Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga and different isolates of Hartmannella vermiformis strains were examined by polyacrylamide isoelectric focusing in the pH range 3-10. Isoenzyme patterns of acid phosphatase (AP), propionyl esterase (PE), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) were compared. Zymograms were used to reveal differences in typical isoenzyme patterns between axenically and monoxenically grown amoebae and to compare axenically grown A. castellanii, A. polyphaga and H. vermiformis. Comparison of zymograms for AP, PE and MDH between axenically grown Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella strains revealed different isoenzyme patterns. Acanthamoeba showed strong bands for ADH and extremely weak bands for GPI and PGM, while Hartmannella lacked ADH but possessed bands for GPI and PGM. Comparison of zymograms from axenically and monoxenically grown amoebae revealed a lower intensity and even lack of typical isoenzyme bands in lysates from monoxenic cultures. The observed changes in typical isoenzyme patterns induced by the bacterial substrate can influence the correct isoenzymatic typing of different strains in clinical and phylogenetic studies.

  4. Invulnerability of grown Peer-to-Peer networks under progressive targeted attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhao, Dandan; Han, Jianmin; Lu, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    Security issues of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks have attracted more and more research in recent years. In this paper, using complex features of P2P networks, we shift the focus to the study of invulnerability of grown P2P networks under progressive targeted attacks. Based on dynamic process and reverse percolation theory, we present several mechanisms that attacked P2P networks can adopt to minimize the disasters aftermath progressive targeted attacks. In this process, we proposed: (i) the dynamics of grown P2P networks under targeted attacks can make sure an attacked P2P network restore a power-law (PL) characteristic to a normal level; (ii) a global degree restoring process from the aftermath of progressive targeted attacks can restore the status of set of high degree peers to normal; (iii) a reverse percolation process glues the fragmented small connected component of a destroyed grown P2P network into a giant connected component (GCC). Experimental results show that an attacked grown P2P network can restore the key characteristics, such as power-law characteristic of original P2P network, the set of high degree peers and the giant connected component, to a regular status. In this way, we can illustrate the invulnerability of progressive targeted attacks on grown P2P networks which is particularly useful in designing complex P2P networks.

  5. Characteristics of zinc sulphide nanostructures grown onsilica modified-polyaniline with polymerization time-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potestas, M.; Alguno, A.; Vequizo, R.; Sambo, B. R.; Odarve, M. K.

    2015-06-01

    Growth of zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanostructures on silica modified-polyaniline (SM- PAni) with polymerization time-dependent was prepared using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The grown samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM images revealed that polyaniline rod-like nanostructures and ZnS nanospheres were successfully grown. The average diameter of the grown ZnS nanospheres did not significantly change by changing the growth time of the polyaniline. However, ZnS nanospheres grown with longer polymerization time of PAni is less dense and loosely bound as compared to shorter polymerization time of PAni. The less density of ZnS nanostructures with longer polymerization time of PAni may be due to the presence of PAni agglomerates that hinders the growth of ZnS nanospheres. Furthermore, FTIR spectra confirmed that the grown polyaniline is of emeraldine salt oxidation state which is the most conductive state of PAni.

  6. Growth and electrical properties of AlOx grown by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kawaharamura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide (AlOx thin films were grown using aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac3 as a source solute by mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD. The AlOx thin films grown at temperatures above 400°C exhibited a breakdown field (EBD over 6 MV/cm and a dielectric constant (κ over 6. It is suggested that residual OH bonding in the AlOx thin films grown at temperatures below 375°C caused degradation of the breakdown field (EBD. With FC type mist CVD, the reaction proceeded efficiently (Ea = 22–24 kJ/mol because the solvent, especially H2O, worked as a stronger oxygen source. The AlOx film could be grown at 450°C with a high deposition rate (23 nm/min and smooth surface (RMS = 1.5 nm. Moreover, the AlOx thin films grown by mist CVD had excellent practicality as insulators because the gate leakage current (IG of the oxide thin film transistor (TFT with an IGZO/AlOx stack was suppressed below 1 pA at a gate voltage (VG of 20 V.

  7. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  8. Deep ultraviolet emission in hexagonal boron nitride grown by high-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, T. Q. P.; Cassabois, G.; Valvin, P.; Rousseau, E.; Summerfield, A.; Mellor, C. J.; Cho, Y.; Cheng, T. S.; Albar, J. D.; Eaves, L.; Foxon, C. T.; Beton, P. H.; Novikov, S. V.; Gil, B.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the opto-electronic properties of hexagonal boron nitride grown by high temperature plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We combine atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and photoluminescence spectroscopy in the deep ultraviolet to compare the quality of hexagonal boron nitride grown either on sapphire or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. For both substrates, the emission spectra peak at 235 nm, indicating the high optical quality of hexagonal boron nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The epilayers on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite demonstrate superior performance in the deep ultraviolet (down to 210 nm) compared to those on sapphire. These results reveal the potential of molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of hexagonal boron nitride on graphene, and more generally, for fabricating van der Waals heterostructures and devices by means of a scalable technology.

  9. Surface characterization of ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbulanga, C.M., E-mail: crispin.mbulanga@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Urgessa, Z.N.; Tankio Djiokap, S.R.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Duvenhage, M.M.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O Box 77000, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    The surface composition of as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods (ZNs) grown by a two-step chemical bath deposition method is investigated by the following surface-sensitive techniques: Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The presence of H on the surface and throughout the entire thickness of ZNs is confirmed by TOF-SIMS. Based on TOF-SIMS results, the O2 XPS peak mostly observable at ~531.5 is assigned to O bound to H. Furthermore, it is found that the near surface region of as-grown ZNs is Zn-rich, and annealing at high temperature (~850 °C) removes H-related defects from the surface of ZNs and affect the balance of zinc and oxygen concentrations.

  10. Biaxially stressed excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells grown on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, C.; Zemon, S.; Norris, P.; Elman, B. S.

    1987-10-01

    Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies are utilized to study excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QW's) fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaAs buffer layer grown on a Si substrate. The buffer layer was grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The experimental results are understood in terms of a uniform biaxial tension of approximately 3 kbar present in the plane of growth for both the QW's and the GaAs buffer. An important consequence of the biaxial tension is that for QW's with well widths larger than about 15 nm the light-hole and heavy-hole subbands cross each other in energy, resulting in a light-hole exciton energy lower than that of the heavy-hole exciton, opposite to the case of QW's grown on GaAs substrates.

  11. Nitrogen and amino acids content in lake Drukshyaj plancton organisms biocenoses grown in model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsh, A.V.; Budrene, S.F.; Yankyavichyus, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Biocenoses growth in lake Drukshyaj (from 1984 water reservoir of the Ignalina NPP) collected in July 1985 and grown in 2 various in composition culture media: in medium close in composition of main minerals to water of high capacity reservoir (medium 1) and in medium Fitzjarld (medium 2), has shown that the medium affects the component composition of plancton, as well as dominating types of algae. Phytoplancton was dominating component in biomass in both media. In medium 1 dominate green and diatoms, in medium 2 - blue-green algae. Content of proteins and amino acids in biomass changed depending on duration of biocenoses growth when dominating green and diatoms in biocenoses mass grown in medium 1, it reached maximum on the 15th day, and when dominating blue-green algae in biocenoses biomass grown in medium 2 - on the 30th day

  12. Structural characterization of one-dimensional ZnO-based nanostructures grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallet, Vincent; Falyouni, Farid; Marzouki, Ali; Haneche, Nadia; Sartel, Corinne; Lusson, Alain; Galtier, Pierre [Groupe d' Etude de la Matiere Condensee (GEMAC), CNRS-Universite de Versailles St-Quentin, Meudon (France); Agouram, Said [SCSIE, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Enouz-Vedrenne, Shaima [Thales Research and Technology France, Palaiseau (France); Munoz-Sanjose, Vicente [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Various one-dimensional (1D) ZnO-based nanostructures, including ZnO nano-wires (NWs) grown using vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) process, ZnO/ZnSe core/shell, nitrogen-doped ZnO and ZnMgO NWs were grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis is presented. For all the samples, a high crystalline quality is observed. Some features are emphasized such as the gold contamination of ZnO wires grown under the metal droplets in the VLS process. It is concluded that MOCVD is a suitable technique for the realization of original ZnO nanodevices. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. The effect of metabolic inhibitors on the development of respiration in anaerobically grown yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, W.; Tustanoff, E. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Iodoacetate and fluoride did not prevent the development of respiration in aerobically grown yeast. 2. The effect of dinitrophenol suggested that phosphorylation developed simultaneously with respiration in anaerobically grown yeast, but the effect of oligomycin suggested that the phosphorylation and oxidation were not tightly coupled. 3. Inhibitors of electron transport showed that both the respiratory peak and the subsequent respiration were cyanide-sensitive, but the peak respiration was insensitive to antimycin. 4. Of the inhibitors of protein or RNA synthesis tested, only p-fluorophenylalanine inhibited the development of respiration. The results are not consistent with a new synthesis of mitochondria. 5. 2-Phenylethanol inhibited the development of respiration in anaerobically grown yeast and also yeast growth. Other inhibitors of DNA synthesis had no effect on the development of respiration. 6. The relevance of the results to mitochondrial morphogenesis is discussed. PMID:4290405

  14. Surface Recombination in ZnO Nanorods Grown by Aqueous Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q. X.; Yang, L. L.; Willander, M.; Pozina, G.; Holtz, P. O.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanorods on Si substrates were prepared by either a two-steps chemical bath deposition (CBD) method or thermal evaporation technique. It was found that the effective decay time of the near bandgap recombinations strongly depends on the method, which was used to grow the ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods grown by the CBD exhibit characteriristic two-exponential decay curves, while ZnO nanorods grown by thermal evaporation technique show single exponential decays. The experimental results show that the fast exponential decay from the CBD grown ZnO nanorods is related to the surface recombination, while the slow decay is related to the "bulk" decay. The results also show that an annealing treatment around 500° C to 700° C significantly reduces the surface recombination rate.

  15. Electrically active light-element complexes in silicon crystals grown by cast method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kuniyuki; Ogura, Atsushi; Ono, Haruhiko

    2016-09-01

    Electrically active light-element complexes called thermal donors and shallow thermal donors in silicon crystals grown by the cast method were studied by low-temperature far-infrared absorption spectroscopy. The relationship between these complexes and either crystal defects or light-element impurities was investigated by comparing different types of silicon crystals, that is, conventional cast-grown multicrystalline Si, seed-cast monolike-Si, and Czochralski-grown Si. The dependence of thermal and the shallow thermal donors on the light-element impurity concentration and their annealing behaviors were examined to compare the crystals. It was found that crystal defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries did not affect the formation of thermal or shallow thermal donors. The formation of these complexes was dominantly affected by the concentration of light-element impurities, O and C, independent of the existence of crystal defects.

  16. The performance studies of DKDP crystals grown by a rapid horizontal growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hu; Chen, Duanyang; Shao, Jianda

    2018-04-01

    A deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal with about 70% deuterium level was grown by a rapid horizontal growth method with independent design equipment, which includes a continuous filtration system. The cooling program during crystal growth was designed according to a self-developed software to catch the size of growing crystal in real time. The crystal structure, optical performance and laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of this DKDP crystal were investigated in this paper. The deuterium concentration of the crystal was confirmed by the neutron diffraction technique, which was effective and available in determining a complete range of deuteration level. The dielectric property was measured to evaluate the perfection of the lattice. The transmittance and LIDT were carried out further to evaluate the optical and functional properties of this DKDP crystal grown in the rapid horizontal growth technique. All of the detailed characterization for DKDP figured out that the 70% deuterated KDP crystal grown in this way had relatively good qualities.

  17. Fabrication of in-situ grown graphene reinforced Cu matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yakun; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; Shi, Chunsheng; Li, Jiajun; Nash, Philip; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Graphene/Cu composites were fabricated through a graphene in-situ grown approach, which involved ball-milling of Cu powders with PMMA as solid carbon source, in-situ growth of graphene on flaky Cu powders and vacuum hot-press sintering. SEM and TEM characterization results indicated that graphene in-situ grown on Cu powders guaranteed a homogeneous dispersion and a good combination between graphene and Cu matrix, as well as the intact structure of graphene, which was beneficial to its strengthening effect. The yield strength of 244 MPa and tensile strength of 274 MPa were achieved in the composite with 0.95 wt.% graphene, which were separately 177% and 27.4% enhancement over pure Cu. Strengthening effect of in-situ grown graphene in the matrix was contributed to load transfer and dislocation strengthening. PMID:26763313

  18. Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

    Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

  19. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater.

  20. Low Temperature Grown and Highly Non-Stoichiometric GaAs and Related Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-03

    State Dev. Re’s. Conl. Montreaux l101 Pub- Freeoul’, Appl. Ph vs. Lett. 57. 1531 (1990)1. lishing, NY. 1991 1. 14. Z. Liliental-Weber. Mater. Res...interlock shuttle allows UHV transfer of STM chamber for analysis. A test sample was grown, samples from a Varian Gen II molecularbeam epitaxy using the...preliminary results of the breakdown voltage a, oenic precipitates which appear after annealing at for test structures fabricated on n* GaAs grown epitaxi

  1. GaSb grown from Sn solvent at low temperatures by LPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compean, V H; Anda, F de; Mishurnyi, V A; Gorbatchev, A Yu, E-mail: fdeanda@cactus.iico.uaslp.m [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Av. Karakorum 1470, Col. Lomas 4a Sec., San Luis Potosi, SLP, CP 78210 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The LPE growth of GaSb using Sn as a solvent has been studied in the temperature range 250-370 C and using liquid solutions covering a wide range of compositions. In order to find the growth conditions the phase diagram has been determined experimentally around the same temperature region. It is shown the Sn incorporates into the grown layers and that it behaves as an acceptor. The photoluminescence spectra of the grown layers with different Sn contents show characteristic peaks that can be attributed to different recombination processes.

  2. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagni, O.; Somhlahlo, N.N.; Weichsel, C.; Leitch, A.W.R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies

  3. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagni, O. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Somhlahlo, N.N. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Weichsel, C. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)]. E-mail: andrew.leitch@nmmu.ac.za

    2006-04-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies.

  4. Vapor Phase Sensing Using Metal Nanorod Thin Films Grown by Cryogenic Oblique Angle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the chemical sensing capability of silver nanostructured films grown by cryogenic oblique angle deposition (OAD. For comparison, the films are grown side by side at cryogenic (~100 K and at room temperature (~300 K by e-beam evaporation. Based on the observed structural differences, it was hypothesized that the cryogenic OAD silver films should show an increased surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS sensitivity. COMSOL simulation results are presented to validate this hypothesis. Experimental SERS results of 4-aminobenzenethiol (4-ABT Raman test probe molecules in vapor phase show good agreement with the simulation and indicate promising SERS applications for these nanostructured thin films.

  5. Anisotropy of electrical resistivity in PVT grown WSe2-x crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, G. K.; Patel, Y. A.; Agarwal, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Single crystals of p-type WSe2 and WSe1.9 were grown by a physical vapour transport technique. The anisotropy in d.c. electrical resistivity was investigated in these grown crystals. The off-stoichiometric WSe1.9 exhibited a higher anisotropy ratio as compared to WSe2 crystals. The electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of a large number of stacking faults in these crystals. The resistivity enhancement along the c-axis and anisotropic effective mass ratio explained on the basis of structural disorder introduced due to off-stoichiometry.

  6. Oxide Ceramic Films Grown on 60 Nitinol for NASA and Department of Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Street, Kenneth W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Cytron, Sheldon J.

    2005-01-01

    Both the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) have worked to develop oxide ceramic films grown on 60 nitinol (60-wt% nickel and 40-wt% titanium) to decrease friction and increase wear resistance under unlubricated conditions. In general, oxide and nonoxide ceramic films have unique capabilities as mechanical-, chemical-, and thermal-barrier materials in diverse applications, including high-temperature bearings and gas bearings requiring low friction, wear resistance, and chemical stability. All oxide ceramic films grown on 60 nitinol were furnished by ARDEC, and materials and surface characterization and tribological experiments were conducted at Glenn.

  7. Fabrication of radiation detectors with HgI2 crystals grown from a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friant, Alain; Mellet, Jean; Saliou, Charles; Mohammed Brahim, Tayeb.

    1979-01-01

    Mercuric Iodide crystals grown from a solution of molecular complexes with dimethylsulfoxide have been evaluated as γ-ray and X-ray room temperature detectors. Compared with materials grown from the vapor phase these crystals are characterized by a larger size, a lower level of native defects, but a higher impurity level. Detector technology, X-ray and γ-ray (up to 662 keV) detection properties and characterization measurements (T.S.C., photoconductivity, photovoltaic effect) are described. The effect of light on crystal properties is briefly discussed [fr

  8. Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans grown diazotrophically on kerosene as sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esquivel, Gabriela; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Fernández-Linares, Luis Carlos; Vázquez, Refugio Rodríguez; Esparza-García, Fernando José

    2009-03-01

    Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans was induced by its diazotrophic cultivation on kerosene. Its growth and nitrogenase activity were affected by kerosene in comparison to cultures grown on sucrose. Electron microscopy of vegetative cells showed that when nitrogenase activity was higher and the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules were not present to a significant extent, peripheral bodies were abundant. After 8 days of culture on kerosene, the presence of cysts with intracellular bunches of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules was observed. Germination of cysts bears germinating multicelled yet unbroken capsule cysts with up to three cells inside. This is the first report of encystment induction of Azotobacter species grown on kerosene.

  9. Annihilation characteristics in as-grown and electron irradiated Zn II-VI semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.; La Cruz, R.M. de; Pareja, R.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the positron lifetime has been investigated in as-grown crystals of Zns, ZnSe and ZnTe over the temperature range 8-320 K. Also, isochronal annealing experiments up to 1175 K have been performed on these crystals. Zns and ZnSe crystals have been electron irradiated at room temperature and at 77 K. From the results in as-grown and annealed crystals, the values of (230±3), (240±5) and (266±3) ps are attributed to the positron lifetime in the bulk of Zns, ZnSe and ZnTe, respectively. 8 refs., 3 figs

  10. Annihilation characteristics in As-grown and electron irradiated Zn II-VI semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.M. de la; Pareja, R.; Moser, P.

    1992-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the positron lifetime has been investigated in as-grown crystals of ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe over the temperature range 8-320 K. Also, isochronal annealing experiments up to 1175 K have been performed on these crystals. ZnS and ZnSe crystals have been electron irradiated at room temperature and at 77 K. From the results in as-grown and annealed crystals, the values of (230±3), (240±5) and (266±3) ps are attributed to the positron lifetime in the bulk of ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe, respectively

  11. Use of photoluminescence spectroscopy to characterize the crystalline quality of CdTe films grown by a modified CSVT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Alvarez, J.G.; Sanchez-Sinencio, F.; Zelaya, O.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Y.J.; Cardenas, M.; Chao, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have employed photoluminescence measurements at 10-300 0 K to study the effects of deposition parameters, surface preparation and heat treatment on the properties of CdTe polycrystalline thin films. The films were grown using a modified hot wall close spaced vapor transport system. The authors found strong differences in the photoluminescence spectra of samples grown under different conditions. Heat treatments in the as-grown samples increase the average particle size and reduce the native defect density

  12. Regulation of glycolytic rate in Streptococcus sanguis grown under glucose-limited and glucose-excess conditions in a chemostat.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwami, Y; Yamada, T

    1985-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms of the acidogenic potential of Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556 grown in glucose-excess and glucose-limited continuous culture were studied. The rate of acid production during the glucose metabolism by the cells grown under glucose limitation (glucose-limited cells) was 2.1 to 2.6 times that by the cells grown in an excess of glucose (glucose-excess cells). When the glucose-limited cells were metabolizing glucose, intracellular concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate,...

  13. Comparative study for antibacterial potential of in vitro and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M.; Khan, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of in vitro grown callus extract and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant leaves extracts were studied and compared. Effect of extraction solvent was also assessed. These extracts were tested in vitro against eight bacterial strains following disc diffusion method. The results indicated that in vitro grown callus extracts of O. basilicum exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against tested Gram positive microorganisms as compared to in vivo grown plant material extract. These findings indicate towards potential use of biotechnology for natural therapeutic agent production. (author)

  14. Performance of cowpea grown as an intercrop with maize of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The negative effects of shade were more pronounced in the semi-determinate cowpea than in the indeterminate. Therefore, in high maize populations, indeterminate spreading cowpeas should be grown; while semi-determinate cowpeas should be planted in low to moderate maize populations because of their intolerance ...

  15. The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the Mpumalanga forest region: scientific paper. ... When present, the amounts of included resin, pieces of bark and other debris at the occluded pruning cuts, were small and of little practical significance. The wood machined without any difficulty in the wet and ...

  16. Antioxidant activity screening of extracts from Sideritis species (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Evstatieva, L.N.; Kortenska, V.; Handjieva, N.

    2003-01-01

    Plant samples from several species and populations of the genus Sideritis (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria (S scardica, S syriaca and S montana) were extracted with different solvents. Their antioxidant activities were determined by the -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

  17. CO2 and chamber effects on epidermal development in field grown peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut, (Arachis hypogaea L.) cvar. C76–16, was grown either in the field, or in open gas exchange chambers under elevated or ambient CO2 concentrations. Stomatal density and other selected epidermal parameters associated with leaf development and gas exchange were measured on recently fully expande...

  18. growth and development of wetland-grown taro under different plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] is a member of the Araceace family that is a staple food for many people in developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific Islands. It is widely grown in Uganda but the extent of its production and consumption is not known, partly because it has been ignored as legitimate crop for ...

  19. Bonding Form Analysis of Metals and Sulfur Fractionation in Methanol-Grown Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der A.; Gonzalez Fermoso, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the metal and sulfur bonding form distribution in mesophilic (30 °C, pH 7) methanol-grown anaerobic granular sludge from upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors operating at an organic loading rate of 3.8 g CH3OH-COD/L d. This was achieved by applying a modified Tessier

  20. Characterization of GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers grown by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the native substrate, GaN epitaxial layers are generally grown on sapphire or. SiC substrate with lattice and thermal mismatch. Growth of GaN epitaxial layers on such substrates, by using a low-temperature nucleation layer demonstrated a good crystal quality [4]. Remarkable improvement in epitaxial material quality is.

  1. 75 FR 18394 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Kenneth G. Johnson, Regional Manager, DC Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... New York; Revised Nomination and Balloting Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  2. 75 FR 5900 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ..., Marketing Specialist or Kenneth G. Johnson, Regional Manager, DC Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... New York; Revised Nomination and Balloting Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  3. 76 FR 48742 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathie M. Notoro, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  4. 76 FR 8917 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...: Teresa Hutchinson, Marketing Specialist, or Gary D. Olson, Regional Manager, Northwest Marketing Field...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This...

  5. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot tips of apricot (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akpobome

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose ...

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayers grown by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant, K. Mohan; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Pryds, Nini

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the structural and the magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayered thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition onto Si (001) substrates at room temperature. he Fe layer thickness is varied from 70 to 150 nm and its effect on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Gd/Fe ...

  7. Gallium contents dependent improved behavior of Sol-gel grown Al ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    9

    JOURNAL-KOREAN PHYSICAL. SOCIETY, 2007. 51(6): p. 1968. 5. Li, W., Y. Li, G. Du, N. Chen, S. Liu, S. Wang, H. Huang, C. Lu and X. Niu, Enhanced electrical and optical properties of boron-doped ZnO films grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition for amorphous silicon solar cells. Ceramics International,.

  8. Extraction and characterization of seed oil from naturally-grown Chinese tallow trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Qin Yang; Hui Pan; Tao Zeng; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2013-01-01

    Seeds were collected from locally and naturally grown Chinese tallow trees (CTT) and characterized for general physical and chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the lipids. The effects of four different solvents (petroleum ether, hexane, diethyl ether, and 95 % ethanol) and two extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and conventional...

  9. 77 FR 72683 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...; FV12-923-1 IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of sweet...

  10. Valorisation of discharge water from substrate-grown crops in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balendonck, J.; Os, E.A. van; Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Lans, C.J.M. van der; Beerling, E.A.M.; Feenstra, L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to mismatch of nutrients, high sodium concentration, growth inhibition or system failures, greenhouse growers with substrate-grown crops tend to discharge their drain water. To comply with Water Framework regulations, in future, they must re-use drain water streams as much as possible. With

  11. Commercial potential of rambutan cultivars grown at two locations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown on an Oxisol and Ultisol were evaluated for four years under intensive management at Isabela and Corozal, Puerto Rico, respectively. There were significant differences in number and weight of fruits per hectare between locations and years. Signif...

  12. Yield and Fruit Quality of Rambutan Cultivars Grown at Two Locations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown on an Oxisol and Ultisol were evaluated for three years under intensive management at Isabela and Corozal, Puerto Rico, respectively. There were significant differences in number and weight of fruits per hectare between locations and years. Signi...

  13. Crown profile equations for stand-grown western hemlock trees in northwestern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Marshall; Gregory P. Johnson; David W. Hann

    2003-01-01

    Crown profile equations were developed for stand-grown western hemlock(Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) in northwest Oregon. The profile model uses a segmented approach, dividing the crown into an upper and lower portion at the point of the largest crown width (LCW). The model explains about 86% of the variation in crown width when LCW is known but...

  14. Effects of zinc toxicity on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; López-Millán, A-F; Abadía, A; Abadía, J

    2009-05-01

    The effects of high Zn concentration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in a controlled environment in hydroponics. High concentrations of Zn sulphate in the nutrient solution (50, 100 and 300 microm) decreased root and shoot fresh and dry mass, and increased root/shoot ratios, when compared to control conditions (1.2 microm Zn). Plants grown with excess Zn had inward-rolled leaf edges and a damaged and brownish root system, with short lateral roots. High Zn decreased N, Mg, K and Mn concentrations in all plant parts, whereas P and Ca concentrations increased, but only in shoots. Leaves of plants treated with 50 and 100 microm Zn developed symptoms of Fe deficiency, including decreases in Fe, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, increases in carotenoid/chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b ratios and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin cycle pigments. Plants grown with 300 microm Zn had decreased photosystem II efficiency and further growth decreases but did not have leaf Fe deficiency symptoms. Leaf Zn concentrations of plants grown with excess Zn were high but fairly constant (230-260 microg.g(-1) dry weight), whereas total Zn uptake per plant decreased markedly with high Zn supply. These data indicate that sugar beet could be a good model to investigate Zn homeostasis mechanisms in plants, but is not an efficient species for Zn phytoremediation.

  15. EXAFS investigations on PbMoO4 single crystals grown under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on PbMoO4 (LMO) crystals have been performed at the recently-commissioned dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-8) of INDUS-2 Synchrotron facility at Indore, India. The LMO samples were prepared under three different conditions viz. (i) grown from ...

  16. Detection of human food-borne and zoonotic viruses on irrigated, field-grown strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Julie; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Généreux, Mylène; Côté, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human and zoonotic viruses on irrigated, field-grown strawberries. Norovirus genogroup I, rotavirus, and swine hepatitis E virus genogroup 3 were detected on strawberries, and irrigation water is suspected as the contamination origin.

  17. 78 FR 9331 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0008; FV12-920-1 PR] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule invites comments on five...

  18. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.d...

  19. Detection of Human Food-Borne and Zoonotic Viruses on Irrigated, Field-Grown Strawberries

    OpenAIRE

    Brassard, Julie; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Généreux, Mylène; Côté, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human and zoonotic viruses on irrigated, field-grown strawberries. Norovirus genogroup I, rotavirus, and swine hepatitis E virus genogroup 3 were detected on strawberries, and irrigation water is suspected as the contamination origin.

  20. FE, MN and ZN addition to nutrient solutions for tomato and cucumber grown in inert substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In experiments in a 2×2×3 factorial layout the addition of Fe, Mn and Zn to nutrient solutions for hydroponics was studied with crops grown under greenhouse conditions. Standard as well high concentrations of up to 25 or 50 µmol/L were included as targeted levels in the root environment of

  1. GaIn As Quantum Dots (QD) grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Vazquez, F E; Mishurnyi, V A; Gorbatchev, A Yu; De Anda, F [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigation en Comunicacion Optica, Av. Karakorum 1470, Col. Lomas 4a Sec., San Luis Potosi, SLP, CP 78210 (Mexico); Elyukhin, V A, E-mail: fcoe_ov@prodigy.net.m, E-mail: andre@cactus.iico.uaslp.m [CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico D.F., CP 07360 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The majority of the semiconductor structures with QD today are grown by MBE and MOCVD. It is known that the best material quality can be achieved by LPE because, in contrast to MBE and MOCVD, this method is realized at near-equilibrium conditions. To develop QD LPE technology first of all it is necessary to find out a growth technique allowing the crystallization of epitaxial materials with very small volume. This can be done by means of different techniques. In this work we apply a low temperature short-time growth method, which allows the production not only of single, but also of multilayer heterostructures. We have grown Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-z}As QD on GaAs (100) substrates at 450 C. The details of the QD formation, depending on composition of the Ga{sub x}In{sub -x} As solid solutions, have been studied by atom-force microscopy. The photoluminescence spectra of investigated samples show, in addition to a short-wave GaAs related peak, a longer wavelength line, which disappears after removal of the grown GaInAs material using an etching solution. This fact, together with atom-force microscopy results can be interpreted as a proof that QD heterostructures were grown successfully by LPE.

  2. Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ay, F.; Aydinli, A.

    Silicon oxide, silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride layers were grown by a PECVD technique. The resulting refractive indices of the layers varied between 1.47 and 1.93. The compositional properties of the layers were analyzed by FTIR and ATR infrared spectroscopy techniques. Comparative

  3. Effect of Plant Spacing on Microclimate and Rhizoctonia Web Blight Development in Container Grown Azalea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia web blight is a reoccurring problem in compact varieties of container-grown azalea (Rhododendron sp.) in the Gulf Coast States. During the summers of 2002 and 2003, disease severity was measured weekly in the inoculated center plant of plots consisting of 49 ‘Gumpo’ azalea plants. Plant ...

  4. Proximate composition of CELSS crops grown in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    Edible biomass from four crops of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), four crops of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), four crops of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), and three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown in NASA's CELSS Biomass Production Chamber were analyzed for proximate composition. All plants were grown using recirculating nutrient (hydroponic) film culture with pH and electrical conductivity automatically controlled. Temperature and humidity were controlled to near optimal levels for each species and atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained near 100 Pa during the light cycles. Soybean seed contained the highest percentage of protein and fat, potato tubers and wheat seed contained the highest levels of carbohydrate, and lettuce leaves contained the highest level of ash. Analyses showed values close to data published for field-grown plants with several exceptions: In comparison with field-grown plants, wheat seed had higher protein levels; soybean seed had higher ash and crude fiber levels; and potato tubers and lettuce leaves had higher protein and ash levels. The higher ash and protein levels may have been a result of the continuous supply of nutrients (e.g., potassium and nitrogen) to the plants by the recirculating hydroponic culture.

  5. Location of catalase in crystalline peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Ineke; Roggenkamp, Rainer; Harder, Willem; Veenhuis, Marten

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the intraperoxisomal location of catalase in peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha by (immuno)cytochemical means. In completely crystalline peroxisomes, in which the crystalline matrix is composed of octameric alcohol oxidase (AO) molecules, most of the catalase protein

  6. Cytochemical Localization of Catalase Activity in Methanol-Grown Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, J.P. van; Veenhuis, M.; Vermeulen, C.A.; Harder, W.

    1975-01-01

    The localization of peroxidase activity in methanol-grown cells of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has been studied by a method based on cytochemical staining with diaminobenzidine (DAB). The oxidation product of DAB occurred in microbodies, which characteristically develop during growth on methanol,

  7. Early field performance of Acacia koa seedlings grown under subirrigation and overhead irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray [Fabaceae]) seedlings were grown with subirrigation and overhead irrigation systems in an effort to characterize post-nursery field performance. One year following outplanting, we found no differences in seedling height or survival, but root-collar diameter was significantly larger for subirrigated seedlings. This indicates that koa seedlings,...

  8. Effects of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants on Spontaneous Activity in Neuronal Networks Grown on Microelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN NEURONAL NETWORKS GROWN ON MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS TJ Shafer1, K Wallace1, WR Mundy1, M Behl2,. 1Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA, 2National Toxicology Program, NIEHS, RTP, NC...

  9. 78 FR 28147 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of... referred to as the ``Act.'' The Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this proposed rule in... are familiar with the Committee's needs and with the costs for goods and services in their local area...

  10. 75 FR 17072 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 Nectarines and Peaches Grown..., as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter referred to as the ``Act.'' The Department of Agriculture... peaches, respectively. They are familiar with the Committees' needs, and with the costs for goods and...

  11. 77 FR 39184 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of... ``Act.'' The Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order... in a designated area of southeastern California. They are familiar with the Committee's needs and...

  12. 78 FR 51098 - Apricots Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 922 Apricots Grown in Designated Counties... amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter referred to as the ``Act.'' The Department of Agriculture (USDA... designated counties in Washington. They are familiar with the Committee's needs, and with the costs of goods...

  13. 78 FR 57099 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida... Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this proposed rule in conformance with Executive Order 12866. This proposed rule... avocados. They are familiar with the Committee's needs and with the costs of goods and services in their...

  14. 76 FR 7119 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of... ``Act.'' The Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order... in a designated area of southeastern California. They are familiar with the Committee's needs and...

  15. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, M.; Meunier, J. D.; Davidian, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10...

  16. Root uptake and translocation of perfluorinated alkyl acids by three hydroponically grown crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felizeter, S.; McLachlan, M.S.; de Voogt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato, cabbage, and zucchini plants were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. They were exposed to 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) at four different concentrations via the nutrient solution. At maturity the plants were harvested, and the roots, stems, leaves, twigs (where applicable), and

  17. Crop growth rate differs in warm season C4-grasses grown in pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Strain R) grown in pure and mixed stands under low and high water levels was investigated at one month interval namely: 30, 60 and 90 days after emergence (DAE), in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas, USA during spring 2010. The corn CGR in the mixed ...

  18. Phosphorus reduces the zinc concentration in cereals pot-grown on calcareous Vertisols from southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio Rafael; Del Campillo, María Carmen; Torrent, José

    2017-08-01

    Zinc deficiency, a major problem in crops grown on soils low in available Zn, is even more important in phosphorus-rich soils. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of soil P and Zn levels, and of fertilizer application, on yield and Zn concentration in cereal grains. Wheat and barley were successively pot-grown on 20 calcareous Vertisols low in available Zn and ranging widely in available P. Grain yield in the plants grown on the native soils was positively correlated with Olsen P but not with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn except for wheat on P-rich soils. Grain Zn concentration was negatively correlated with Olsen P. Grain Zn uptake differed little among soils. Application of P to the soils increased grain yield insignificantly and P concentration significantly; however, it reduced grain Zn concentration (particularly at low Olsen P values). Applying Zn alone only increased grain Zn concentration, whereas applying P and Zn in combination increased yield and grain Zn concentration at low and high Olsen P values, respectively. Applying P alone to plants grown on calcareous Vertisols low in available P and Zn may in practice reduce grain Zn concentrations while not increasing grain yield significantly. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Giving to the Good and the Needy: Parental Support of Grown Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen; Miller, Laura; Birditt, Kira; Zarit, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Parents may provide many types of support to their grown children. Parents age 40 to 60 (N = 633) reported the support they exchange with each child over age 18 (N = 1,384). Mothers and fathers differentiated among children within families, but provided emotional, financial, and practical help on average every few weeks to each child. Offspring…

  20. Simulating phosphorus removal from a vertical-flow constructed wetland grown with C alternifolius species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Lihua Cui; Gary Feng; John Read

    2015-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) is a promising technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to develop a STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) model for estimating phosphorus (P) removal in an artificial VFCW (i.e., a substrate column with six zones) grown...

  1. Crystalline perfection and optical properties of rapid grown KH2PO4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ††No. 52 Institute of North Industries Group, Yantai Department, Yantai 264003, China. MS received 23 November 2012; revised 3 April 2013. Abstract. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals were grown in the presence of a series of chromate. (CrO2−. 4. ) additive concentrations via rapid growth method. CrO2−.

  2. An integrated method for quantifying root architecture of field-grown maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Guo, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A number of techniques have recently been developed for studying the root system architecture (RSA) of seedlings grown in various media. In contrast, methods for sampling and analysis of the RSA of field-grown plants, particularly for details of the lateral root components, are generally inadequate. Methods An integrated methodology was developed that includes a custom-made root-core sampling system for extracting intact root systems of individual maize plants, a combination of proprietary software and a novel program used for collecting individual RSA information, and software for visualizing the measured individual nodal root architecture. Key Results Example experiments show that large root cores can be sampled, and topological and geometrical structure of field-grown maize root systems can be quantified and reconstructed using this method. Second- and higher order laterals are found to contribute substantially to total root number and length. The length of laterals of distinct orders varies significantly. Abundant higher order laterals can arise from a single first-order lateral, and they concentrate in the proximal axile branching zone. Conclusions The new method allows more meaningful sampling than conventional methods because of its easily opened, wide corer and sampling machinery, and effective analysis of RSA using the software. This provides a novel technique for quantifying RSA of field-grown maize and also provides a unique evaluation of the contribution of lateral roots. The method also offers valuable potential for parameterization of root architectural models. PMID:24532646

  3. Responses of two field-grown coffee species to drought and re-hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Chen, Y.J.; Cao, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    The gas exchange, parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence, contents of pigments, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), as well as lipid peroxidation were investigated in two field-grown coffee species, Coffea arabica and C. liberica, exposed to drought and

  4. 75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referenda order. SUMMARY: This... that time, the pear industry has been regulated by a State marketing order. If the results of the pear...

  5. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  6. Ag-catalyzed InAs nanowires grown on transferable graphite flakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Holdt, Jakob; Kanne, Thomas; Sestoft, Joachim E.

    2016-01-01

    on exfoliated graphite flakes by molecular beam epitaxy. Ag catalyzes the InAs nanowire growth selectively on the graphite flakes and not on the underlying InAs substrates. This allows for easy transfer of the flexible graphite flakes with as-grown nanowire ensembles to arbitrary substrates by a micro-needle...

  7. Crystalline perfection and optical properties of rapid grown KH2PO4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 5. Crystalline perfection and optical properties of rapid grown KH2PO4 crystal with chromate additive. Jianxu Ding Bing Liu Shenglai Wang Xiaoming Mu Shengjun Zhu Guangxia Liu Wenjie Liu Yun Sun Lin Liu Duanliang Wang. Volume 36 Issue 5 October ...

  8. Modeling osmotic salinity effects on yield characteristics of substrate-grown greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Bos, van den A.L.; Voogt, W.

    2004-01-01

    In a series of experiments with different osmotic potentials in the root environment, various vegetables, and ornamentals were grown in a substrate system. The osmotic potential was varied by addition of nutrients. Yield characteristics of the crop were related to the osmotic potential of the

  9. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optimization of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) parameters for long and vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires (NWs) were investigated. Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was ...

  10. RAPD-PCR analysis of some species of Euphorbia grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempts to identify species of Euphorbia (Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia helioscopia, Euphorbia granulata and Euphorbia hirta) grown in University of Baghdad Campus in Jadiriyah and determine the genetic polymorphism among them by using DNA markers generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  11. Thermal, FT–IR and dielectric studies of gel grown sodium oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. Oxalic acid metabolism is important in humans, animals and plants. The effect of oxalic acid sodium salt is widely studied in living body. The growth of sodium oxalate single crystals by gel growth is reported, which can be used to mimic the growth of crystals in vivo. The grown single crystals are colourless, ...

  12. Raman spectral indicators of catalyst decoupling for transfer of CVD grown 2D materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen; Wang, Ruizhi

    2017-01-01

    Through a combination of monitoring the Raman spectral characteristics of 2D materials grown on copper catalyst layers, and wafer scale automated detection of the fraction of transferred material, we reproducibly achieve transfers with over 97.5% monolayer hexagonal boron nitride and 99.7% monola...

  13. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from

  14. Electrical properties of in-situ grown and transferred organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Madsen, Morten; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    -crystalline templates, such as muscovite mica, on which mutually parallel nanofibers are self-assembled upon vapor deposition of the organic material under high vacuum conditions. Besides such single-crystalline templates, the nanofibers can also be grown on non-crystalline gold surfaces, on which the orientation...

  15. Thermal stability of amorphous carbon films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, T. A.; McCarty, K. F.; Barbour, J. C.; Siegal, M. P.; Dibble, Dean C.

    1996-03-01

    The thermal stability in vacuum of amorphous tetrahedrally coordinated carbon (a-tC) films grown on Si has been assessed by in situ Raman spectroscopy. Films were grown in vacuum on room-temperature substrates using laser fluences of 12, 22, and 45 J/cm2 and in a background gas of either hydrogen or nitrogen using a laser fluence of 45 J/cm2. The films grown in vacuum at high fluence (≳20J/cm2) show little change in the a-tC Raman spectra with temperature up to 800 °C. Above this temperature the films convert to glassy carbon (nanocrystalline graphite). Samples grown in vacuum at lower fluence or in a background gas (H2 or N2) at high fluence are not nearly as stable. For all samples, the Raman signal from the Si substrate (observed through the a-tC film) decreases in intensity with annealing temperature indicating that the transparency of the a-tC films is decreasing with temperature. These changes in transparency begin at much lower temperatures (˜200 °C) than the changes in the a-tC Raman band shape and indicate that subtle changes are occurring in the a-tC films at lower temperatures.

  16. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... referenda are an effective means for determining whether producers favor continuation of marketing order...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 945 Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be...

  17. 78 FR 24036 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... small entity orientation and compatibility. There are approximately 1,500 producers of processed pears... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  18. Silicon accumulation and distribution in petunia and sunflower grown in a rice hull-amended substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silicon (Si) is a plant beneficial element associated with mitigation of abiotic and biotic stresses. Most greenhouse-grown ornamentals are considered low Si accumulators based on foliar Si concentration. However, Si accumulates in all tissues, and there is little published data on the distributio...

  19. Positron annihilation studies of defects in molecular beam epitaxy grown III-V layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umlor, M.T.; Keeble, D.J.; Cooke, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A summary of recent positron annihilation experiments on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown III-V layers is Presented. Variable energy positron beam measurements on Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 As undoped and Si doped have been completed. Positron trapping at a open volume defect in Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 :Si for temperatures from 300 to 25 K in the dark was observed. The positron trap was lost after 1.3 eV illumination at 25K. These results indicate an open volume defect is associated with the local structure of the deep donor state of the DX center. Stability of MBE GaAs to thermal annealing war, investigated over the temperature range of 230 to 700 degrees C, Proximity wafer furnace anneals in flowing argon were used, Samples grown above 450 degrees C were shown to be stable but for sample below this temperature an anneal induced vacancy related defect was produced for anneals between 400 and 500 degrees C. The nature of the defect was shown to be different for material grown at 350 and 230 degrees C. Activation energies of 2.5 eV to 2.3 eV were obtained from isochronal anneal experiments for samples grown at 350 and 230 degrees C, respectively

  20. Stomatal response characteristics of Tradescantia virginiana grown at high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Nejad, A.; Meeteren, van U.

    2005-01-01

    Plants produced at high relative air humidity (RH) show poor control of water loss after transferring to low RH, a phenomenon which is thought to be due to their stomatal behaviour. The stomatal anatomy and responses of moderate (55%) and high (90%) RH grown Tradescantia virginiana plants to

  1. Growth and development of wetland-grown taro under different plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is widely grown in Uganda but the extent of its production and consumption is not known, partly because it has been ignored as legitimate crop for research and development (R&D), and it is managed outside the conventional agricultural production, marketing and economic channels. Therefore, there is limited information ...

  2. Magnetic anisotropy and domain structure of manganese ferrite grown epitaxially on MgO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Lodder, J.C.; Mensinga, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    The properties of polycrystalline manganese ferrite thin films have been discussed in previous papers. The present study was undertaken to obtain supplementary information on the magnetic anisotropy and domain properties of the films. The ferrite films were grown epitaxially by an evaporation

  3. Trace gas emissions from a sun and shade grown ornamental crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work has begun to establish baseline approximations for greenhouse gas (GHG) (CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions of several horticultural crops, though much work is still needed to expand contingencies for multiple best management practices. In this study, GHG emissions from one shade-grown speci...

  4. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optimization of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) parameters for long and vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires (NWs) were investigated. Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was ...

  5. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propiconazole) spray intervals (7, 14, 21 day) and no spray control were arranged in a RCBD in 4 replications to assess net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) effect on malt quality. The varieties were grown at Holetta agricultural research center in 2005, ...

  6. On the morphology of SrCO 3 crystals grown at the interface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When fatty acid was used as an additive at the interface, the crystals grown were self-assembled needle shaped strontianite crystallites branching out from the seed crystal via secondary nucleation. Under identical conditions of supersaturation, the presence of fatty amine molecules at the liquid–liquid interface resulted in ...

  7. Electrical Characterization of Ti-Silicate Films Grown by Atomic Layer Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjae; Yong, Kijung

    2007-08-01

    Electrical characterization was performed for Ti-silicate films, which were deposited by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD). Before the deposition of Ti-silicate films, the silicon substrates were pretreated differently using hydrofluoric acid (HF)-etching, chemical oxidation, and thermal oxidation. Regardless of the pretreatment methods, the grown films showed a highly smooth surface with rms below 0.52 nm. The electrical properties of the grown Ti-silicate films showed a strong dependence on the substrate pretreatments. The 5-nm-thick Ti-silicate films grown on hydrogen-passivated Si and chemically oxidized Si showed rather high leakage currents, whereas the films grown on thermally oxidized Si showed low leakage currents below 1× 10-7 A/cm2 at a bias of -1 V. All of the films showed a positive shift in the flatband voltage (VFB) upon annealing. Also, each film showed low a hysteresis below 180 mV and the hysteresis decreased upon annealing.

  8. Growth and study of some gel grown group II single crystals of iodate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Page 1 ... Abstract. Single crystals of calcium iodate and barium iodate were grown by simple gel technique by single diffusion method. The optimum conditions were established by varying various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of the reactants etc. Crystals having ...

  9. Proximate biochemical composition and caloric potential in the raft-grown green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A

    .5-34.2 and 3.1-21.2% respectively. Major biochemical constituents were found to be influenced by phytoplankton abundance and were also found to vary with maturation and spawning cycle. The caloric potential in the raft-grown mussel varied from 3.33 to 4.9 K cal...

  10. Optical characteristics of ZnO single crystal grown by the hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G. Z.; Yin, J. G., E-mail: gzhchen@siom.ac.cn, E-mail: yjg@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, L. H.; Zhang, P. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, Y. C. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (China); Zhang, C. L. [Guilin Research Institute of Geology for Mineral Resources (China); Gu, S. L. [Nanjing University, Department of Physics (China); Hang, Y., E-mail: yhang@siom.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (China)

    2015-12-15

    ZnO single crystals have been grown by the hydrothermal method. Raman scattering and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) have been used to study samples of ZnO that were unannealed or annealed in different ambient gases. It is suggested that the green emission may originate from defects related to copper in our samples.

  11. Crop growth rate differs in warm season C4-grasses grown in pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-23

    Jul 23, 2014 ... Analysis of variance for crop growth rate of summer cereals grown alone in pure and mixed stands under low and high water ... Crop growth rate means and significance of differences for the pre-planned comparisons at first cut (30 DAE). ...... assessment by fiber optic point quadrats and gas exchange.

  12. The Grotesques of Oval Defects on the MBE-Grown GaAs Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y. C.; Lee, C. T.

    1987-05-01

    In addition to the regular oval defect, two grotesque features, named pyramidal and ellipsoidal shaped defects, have been observed on MBE-grown GaAs layers. Those grotesque defects were demonstrated to have come from a foreign contamination of the Ga source. A method for reducing those defects is also proposed.

  13. Effects of mutual shading on the regulation of photosynthesis in field-grown sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Li-Na; Jiang, Chuang-Dao; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In the field, close planting inevitably causes mutual shading and depression of leaf photosynthesis. To clarify the regulative mechanisms of photosynthesis under these conditions, the effects of planting density on leaf structure, gas exchange and proteomics were carefully studied in field-grown sorghum. In the absence of mineral deficiency, (1) close planting induced a significant decrease in light intensity within populations, which further resulted in much lower stomatal density and other anatomical characteristics associated with shaded leaves; (2) sorghum grown at high planting density had a lower net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance than those grown at low planting density; (3) approximately 62 protein spots changed their expression levels under the high planting density conditions, and 22 proteins associated with photosynthesis were identified by mass spectrometry. Further analysis revealed the depression of photosynthesis caused by mutual shading involves the regulation of leaf structure, absorption and transportation of CO2, photosynthetic electron transport, production of assimilatory power, and levels of enzymes related to the Calvin cycle. Additionally, heat shock protein and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein play important roles in photoprotection in field-grown sorghum. A model for the regulation of photosynthesis under mutual shading was suggested based on our results. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Organically Grown Soybean Production in the USA: Constraints and Management of Pathogens and Insect Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen L. Hartman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most produced and consumed oil seed crop worldwide. In 2013, 226 million metric tons were produced in over 70 countries. Organically produced soybean represents less than 0.1% of total world production. In the USA, the certified organic soybean crop was grown on 53 thousand ha or 0.17% of the total soybean acreage in the USA (32 million ha in 2011. A gradual increase in production of organically grown soybean has occurred since the inception of organic labeling due to increased human consumption of soy products and increased demand for organic soybean meal to produce organic animal products. Production constraints caused by pathogens and insect pests are often similar in organic and non-organic soybean production, but management between the two systems often differs. In general, the non-organic, grain-type soybean crop are genetically modified higher-yielding cultivars, often with disease and pest resistance, and are grown with the use of synthetic pesticides. The higher value of organically produced soybean makes production of the crop an attractive option to some farmers. This article reviews production and uses of organically grown soybean in the USA, potential constraints to production caused by pathogens and insect pests, and management practices used to reduce the impact of these constraints.

  15. A study on gumbo seed grown in Congo Brazzaville for its food and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, energy content and mineral concentrations of okra seeds grown in two localities of Congo Brazzaville were investigated. The paper also reports the physicochemical characteristics of the oil extracted from the seeds. Ash was highest (5.84±0. 2%) in Dolisie okra seeds (DOS) followed by Brazzaville ...

  16. Mineral content in grains of seven food-grade sorghum hybrids grown in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a major crop used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral content in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The ...

  17. Physical properties of lauric acid crystals grown with KBr in aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    The magnitude of nonlinear polarization increased by adding an electron donating group or an electron withdrawing group into the π – electron conjugated frame work [5] for sub-atomic outline. Recently, we have reported the NLO activity of lauric acid (LA) single crystal grown in ethanol solution [6].When NLO materials are ...

  18. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 983 Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing...

  19. 77 FR 21841 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ..., and New Mexico handlers. As with all Federal marketing order programs, reports and forms are... / Thursday, April 12, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 983 Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate...

  20. Strain relaxation in thin films of Cu grown on Ni(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.B.; Baker, J.; Nielsen, M.

    1998-01-01

    Surface X-ray diffraction and kinematical model calculations are used to determine the strain relaxation of embedded wedges with internal (111) facets formed in thin Cu films when grown on Ni(001). We show the wedges to be inhomogenously strained with a large lateral relaxation near the Cu...

  1. 77 FR 13015 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ...: Section 930.10, the definition of ``Handle''; Section 930.50, ``Marketing Policy'' and Section 930.58... from definition of handle. 2. Amendment 2 would revise the ``marketing policy'' provisions in section... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon...

  2. Root growth and physiology of potted and field-grown trembling aspen exposed to tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Coleman; R.E. Dickson; J.G. Isebrands; D.F. Karnosky

    1996-01-01

    We studied root growth and respiration of potted plants and field-grown aspen trees (Populus tremuloides Michx.) exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone. Root dry weight of potted plants decreased up to 45% after 12 weeks of ozone treatment, and root system respiration decreased by 27%. The ozone-induced decrease in root system respiration of...

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial resistant genes in chicken gut microbiome grown on organic and conventional diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha V. Hegde

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are widely used in chicken production for therapeutic purposes, disease prevention and growth promotion, and this may select for drug resistant microorganisms known to spread to humans through consumption of contaminated food. Raising chickens on an organic feed regimen, without the use of antibiotics, is increasingly popular with the consumers. In order to determine the effects of diet regimen on antibiotic resistant genes in the gut microbiome, we analyzed the phylotypes and identified the antimicrobial resistant genes in chicken, grown under conventional and organic dietary regimens. Phylotypes were analyzed from DNA extracted from fecal samples from chickens grown under these dietary conditions. While gut microbiota of chicken raised in both conventional and organic diet exhibited the presence of DNA from members of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, organic diet favored the growth of members of Fusobacteria. Antimicrobial resistance genes were identified from metagenomic libraries following cloning and sequencing of DNA fragments from fecal samples and selecting for the resistant clones (n=340 on media containing different concentrations of eight antibiotics. The antimicrobial resistant genes exhibited diversity in their host distribution among the microbial population and expressed more in samples from chicken grown on a conventional diet at higher concentrations of certain antimicrobials than samples from chicken grown on organic diet. Further studies will elucidate if this phenomena is widespread and whether the antimicrobial resistance is indeed modulated by diet. This may potentially assist in defining strategies for intervention to reduce the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the production environment.

  4. Study of gel grown mixed crystals of Bax Ca ((IO3) 4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth of mixed crystals of BaCa1–(IO3)4 were carried out with simple gel method. The effect of various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of reactants on the growth was studied. Crystals having different morphologies and habits were obtained. The grown ...

  5. Contamination level in vegetables grown around Peshawar using sewerage and canal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.

    2001-01-01

    The level of contamination in vegetables grown around Peshawar using sewerage/canal water is reported. The vegetable samples were collected from three representative locations. The results indicated that vegetables grown with sewerage water contained higher levels of Cd, Cu and Pb than those with irrigation water. Maximum amount of Cd was in Qulfa (3.68 mu g/ g) followed by sponge gourd leaves (3.38 mu g/ g) the tomato leaves (93.32 mu g/ g). while Pb in tomato leaves (4.88 mu g / g), Cu content ranged between 2.08 and 7.5 mu g/g in these vegetables. In the vegetables grown with canal water the Cd ranged 0.82 - 2.88 mu g/g, Cu 2.38 mu g /g and Pb 0.84 - 1.88 mu g/ g. The concentration of Fe and P in the vegetables of sewerage water ranged 9.0-25.0 and 5.6-14.8 mg/100g respectively while those grown with canal water 9.0-11.0 mg/ 100 g and 8.4-12.8 mg/ 100 g respectively. (author)

  6. Diurnal patterns of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 fixation in orchard grown Torreya taxifolia (Arn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita C. Koehn; Robert L. Doudrick

    1999-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 fixation in orchard measurements were taken on sunny days in October 1996, on three Torreya taxifolia (Arn.) plants grown in an open canopy orchard. Information from chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analysis indicated that during periods of highest light intensity and temperatures there were...

  7. Improved field emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown on stainless steel substrate and its application in ionization gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Yongjun, E-mail: wyjlxlz@163.com [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Huzhong [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong, Changkun [Institute of Micro-Nano Structures and Optoelectronics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Li, Da [Division of Advanced Nanomaterials, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The high quality CNT arrays were successfully grown on conductive stainless steel substrates. • The CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate exhibited superior field emission properties. • A high vacuum level about 10–8 Pa was measured by resultant CNT-based ionization gauge. • The ionization gauge with CNT cathode demonstrated a high stability. - Abstract: Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique on different substrates. Microstructures and field emission characteristics of the as-grown CNT arrays were investigated systematically, and its application in ionization gauge was also evaluated preliminarily. The results indicate that the as-grown CNT arrays are vertically well-aligned relating to the substrate surfaces, but the CNTs grown on stainless steel substrate are longer and more crystalline than the ones grown on silicon wafer substrate. The field emission behaviors of the as-grown CNT arrays are strongly dependent upon substrate properties. Namely, the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate has better field emission properties, including lower turn on and threshold fields, better emission stability and repeatability, compared with the one grown on silicon wafer substrate. The superior field emission properties of the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate are mainly attributed to low contact resistance, high thermal conductivity, good adhesion strength, etc. In addition, the metrological behaviors of ionization gauge with the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate as an electron source were investigated, and this novel cathode ionization gauge extends the lower limit of linear pressure measurement to 10{sup −8} Pa, which is one order of magnitude lower than the result reported for the same of gauge with CNT cathode.

  8. Estimation of N2-fixation in cowpea grown in monoculture or in mixture with maize using 15 N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammaa, Mouhammad; Kurd Ali, Fawaz

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under natural climatic conditions to determine the proportion of different nitrogen sources (air, soil, fertilizer) in cowpea and maize grown alone or in mixture using 15 N isotope dilution technique. On average, the proportion of N derived from fixation by cowpea grown in mixed culture was 55% lower than that derived by the sole cropped cowpea (77%). Dry matter produced by one plant of maize grown in mixed culture was twice as much as that produced by a plant grown in mono culture. Moreover, total nitrogen content in one maize plant grown in mixed culture was 213 mg higher than that determined by two plant of maize grown in mono culture (171 mg). However, the amount of nitrogen derived from soil by maize grown in mixed culture was equal or even higher than that taken up by two plants of maize grown in mono culture. This indicates a better utilization of soil N by the maize in mixed culture. This data emphasize the crucial role of interspecific competition in soil N uptake. Data from this study do not support the hypothesis of N transfer from the legume to the cereal because no significant differences were found between mixed and pure maize in terms of 15 N in excess content. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  9. 75 FR 34345 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...; FV10-956-1 FR] Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast... under the marketing order regulating the handling of sweet onions grown in the Walla Walla Valley of... Sweet Onion Marketing Committee (hereinafter referred to as the ``Committee''). This rule revises the...

  10. 75 FR 18428 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 956 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0020; FV10-956-1 PR] Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla... the handling of sweet onions grown in the Walla Walla Valley of southeast Washington and northeast Oregon. The marketing order is administered locally by the Walla Walla Sweet Onion Marketing Committee...

  11. Genetic variation in yield and chemical composition of wide range of sorghum accessions grown in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.S.; Wang, M.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Liu, Z.; Han, L.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum can be grown on marginal and waste lands as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production in the vast areas of north-west China. Fifty-six sorghum accessions were grown in 2009 at the experimental station of Xinjiang Agricultural University, located at Urumchi, Xinjiang, China. A total of 31

  12. 76 FR 67317 - Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, OR; Modification of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 958 Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule revises the handling regulation for onions handled under the Idaho-Eastern Oregon onion marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of onions grown in...

  13. 77 FR 40250 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ...). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York... intended to facilitate sales and lessen the impact of market expansion activities on volume restriction... amended (7 CFR part 930), regulating the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New...

  14. 77 FR 36119 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 983

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 983 Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 983 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... ``Marketing Agreement Regulating the Handling of Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico...

  15. Electrical and structural properties of (Pd/Au) Schottky contact to as grown and rapid thermally annealed GaN grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirwal, Varun Singh, E-mail: varun.nirwal30@gmail.com; Singh, Joginder; Gautam, Khyati; Peta, Koteswara Rao [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We studied effect of thermally annealed GaN surface on the electrical and structural properties of (Pd/Au) Schottky contact to Ga-polar GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrate. Current voltage (I-V) measurement was used to study electrical properties while X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was used to study structural properties. The Schottky barrier height calculated using I-V characteristics was 0.59 eV for (Pd/Au) Schottky contact on as grown GaN, which increased to 0.73 eV for the Schottky contact fabricated on 700 °C annealed GaN film. The reverse bias leakage current at -1 V was also significantly reduced from 6.42×10{sup −5} A to 7.31×10{sup −7} A after annealing. The value of series resistance (Rs) was extracted from Cheung method and the value of R{sub s} decreased from 373 Ω to 172 Ω after annealing. XRD results revealed the formation of gallide phases at the interface of (Pd/Au) and GaN for annealed sample, which could be the reason for improvement in the electrical properties of Schottky contact after annealing.

  16. Extremely smooth YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ "thin" film grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Wu, Y.; Enomoto, Y.; Tanabe, K.; Koshizuka, N.

    2002-02-01

    Extremely smooth single crystal YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ "thin" films, 1-3 μm thick, have been successfully grown on YBCO-seeded MgO substrates by liquid phase epitaxy. The morphology study on the as-grown samples has revealed a step-flow growth mechanism, with each step height of about 1.1 nm, i.e. the c-axis lattice constant of YBCO. The mean surface roughness in a large 25 μm×25 μm area is ˜0.76 nm, determined by an atomic force microscope. After annealing in pure oxygen, the ˜2 μm thick films exhibit high-quality high- Tc superconductivity with zero resistance transition temperature TC0≈91 K and critical current density JC=4.74×10 4 A/cm 2 (transport measurement with 1 μV/cm criterion) at 77 K.

  17. Increased Biomass of Nursery-Grown Douglas-Fir Seedlings upon Inoculation with Diazotrophic Endophytic Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings are periodically challenged by biotic and abiotic stresses. The ability of endophytes to colonize the interior of plants could confer benefits to host plants that may play an important role in plant adaptation to environmental changes. In this greenhouse study, nursery-grown Douglas-fir seedlings were inoculated with diazotrophic endophytes previously isolated from poplar and willow trees and grown for fifteen months in nutrient-poor conditions. Inoculated seedlings had significant increases in biomass (48%, root length (13% and shoot height (16% compared to the control seedlings. Characterization of these endophytes for symbiotic traits in addition to nitrogen fixation revealed that they can also solubilize phosphate and produce siderophores. Colonization was observed through fluorescent microscopy in seedlings inoculated with gfp- and mkate-tagged strains. Inoculation with beneficial endophytes could prove to be valuable for increasing the production of planting stocks in forest nurseries.

  18. Prismatic dislocation loops and concentric dislocation loops in HPHT-grown diamond single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.-W.; Li, M.-S.; Zou, Z.-D.; Gong, Z.-G.; Hao, Z.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    As-grown diamond single crystals grown from Fe-Ni-C system under high temperature-high pressure were examined by transmission electron microscopy. There exist prismatic dislocation loops and concentric dislocation loops in the diamond, which are related to the nonequilibrium nature of the diamond synthesis process. The prismatic dislocation loops may be formed by vacancy condensation during rapid cooling from high temperature, and the Burgers vector of the dislocation is determined by diffraction contrast as 1/2 . Moire fringes formed by two overlapping (1 1 1) close-packed planes were used to study concentric dislocation loops. The concentric dislocation loops may be derived from thermal stress caused by the inclusions in the diamond, which cause a strain field due to the thermal contraction difference between the inclusions and the diamond during cooling from high temperature

  19. High Throughput Characterization of Epitaxially Grown Single-Layer MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Ghasemi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of single-layer MoS2 with chemical vapor deposition is an established method that can produce large-area and high quality samples. In this article, we investigate the geometrical and optical properties of hundreds of individual single-layer MoS2 crystallites grown on a highly-polished sapphire substrate. Most of the crystallites are oriented along the terraces of the sapphire substrate and have an area comprised between 10 µm2 and 60 µm2. Differential reflectance measurements performed on these crystallites show that the area of the MoS2 crystallites has an influence on the position and broadening of the B exciton while the orientation does not influence the A and B excitons of MoS2. These measurements demonstrate that differential reflectance measurements have the potential to be used to characterize the homogeneity of large-area chemical vapor deposition (CVD-grown samples.

  20. Raman spectral indicators of catalyst decoupling for transfer of CVD grown 2D materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen; Wang, Ruizhi

    2017-01-01

    Through a combination of monitoring the Raman spectral characteristics of 2D materials grown on copper catalyst layers, and wafer scale automated detection of the fraction of transferred material, we reproducibly achieve transfers with over 97.5% monolayer hexagonal boron nitride and 99.7% monola......Through a combination of monitoring the Raman spectral characteristics of 2D materials grown on copper catalyst layers, and wafer scale automated detection of the fraction of transferred material, we reproducibly achieve transfers with over 97.5% monolayer hexagonal boron nitride and 99.......7% monolayer graphene coverage, for up to 300 mm diameter wafers.We find a strong correlation between the transfer coverage obtained for graphene and the emergence of a lower wavenumber 2D peak component, with the concurrent disappearance of the higher wavenumber 2Dþ peak component during oxidation...

  1. Microstructure of nitrides grown on inclined c-plane sapphire and SiC substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, M.; Honshio, A.; Miyake, Y.; Nakano, K.; Tsuchiya, N.; Tsuda, M.; Okadome, Y.; Balakrishnan, K.; Iwaya, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2006-01-01

    High-quality (112-bar 0) GaN layers with atomically flat surface have been grown on a precisely offset-angle-controlled (11-bar 02) sapphire substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Insertion of AlGaN layer between underlying AlN layer and GaN was found to improve crystalline quality of upper GaN layer. In addition, a combination of high growth condition followed and epitaxial lateral overgrowth has been employed for the growth of GaN and this helped in reducing the dislocation density in the resultant layers. GaN and AlN were grown on (303-bar 8) SiC substrates by MOVPE and sublimation methods, respectively. The crystal orientation of GaN and AlN could be just aligned to that of the substrate. Microstructure analysis of the layers was also carried out by transmission electron microscopy

  2. Homojunction GaAs solar cells grown by close space vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Jason W. [University of Oregon; Ritenour, Andrew J. [University of Oregon; Greenaway, Ann L. [University of Oregon; Aloni, Shaul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Boettcher, Shannon W. [University of Oregon

    2014-06-08

    We report on the first pn junction solar cells grown by homoepitaxy of GaAs using close space vapor transport (CSVT). Cells were grown both on commercial wafer substrates and on a CSVT absorber film, and had efficiencies reaching 8.1%, open circuit voltages reaching 909 mV, and internal quantum efficiency of 90%. The performance of these cells is partly limited by the electron diffusion lengths in the wafer substrates, as evidenced by the improved peak internal quantum efficiency in devices fabricated on a CSVT absorber film. Unoptimized highly-doped n-type emitters also limit the photocurrent, indicating that thinner emitters with reduced doping, and ultimately wider band gap window or surface passivation layers, are required to increase the efficiency.

  3. Electron microscopy of an aluminum layer grown on the vicinal surface of a gallium arsenide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovygin, M. V., E-mail: lemi@miee.ru; Borgardt, N. I. [National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET” (Russian Federation); Kazakov, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Seibt, M. [Universität Göttingen, IV. Physikalisches Institut (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    A thin Al layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a misoriented GaAs (100) substrate is studied by transmission electron microscopy. Electron diffraction data and bright-field, dark-field, and high-resolution images show that, in the layer, there are Al grains of three types of crystallographic orientation: Al (100), Al (110), and Al (110)R. The specific structural features of the interfaces between the differently oriented grains and substrate are studied by digital processing of the high-resolution images. From quantitative analysis of the dark-field images, the relative content and sizes of the differently oriented grains are determined. It is found that atomic steps at the substrate surface cause an increase in the fraction and sizes of Al (110)R grains and a decrease in the fraction of Al (100) grains, compared to the corresponding fractions and sizes in the layer grown on a singular substrate surface.

  4. Photocatalytic properties of chemically grown vanadium oxide at 65 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernardou, D., E-mail: dimitra@iesl.forth.gr [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Science Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Drosos, H.; Fasoulas, J. [Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Koudoumas, E. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Electrical Engineering Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katsarakis, N. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Science Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-03-31

    In this paper, the photocatalytic response of amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings prepared by hydrothermal growth at 65 °C is presented. The position of the substrate during the deposition and the pH of the solution were found to affect the coverage and the response of the coatings upon catalysis. The photocatalytic activity of the coatings was tested using stearic acid as a pollutant for an illumination time of 480 min. The materials grown on microscope glass positioned at an angle of 0° with respect to the bottom of the bottle exhibit the best photocatalytic activity, degrading stearic acid by 64% due to the enhanced surface coverage. - Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings at 65 °C • Their properties are dependent on the substrate arrangement. • Their photocatalytic activity is correlated with the oxide coverage.

  5. Etching and ellipsometry studies on CL-VPE grown GaN epilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puviarasu P.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface morphological characteristics of wet chemical etched GaN layers grown at different temperatures on (0 0 0 1 sapphire substrates by Chloride-Vapor Phase Epitaxy (Cl-VPE have been studied using optical microscope. Significant surface morphology changes have been observed in correlation to the growth temperature and etching time. Also optical properties of the as grown and high-energy silicon (Si ion irradiated gallium nitride (GaN epilayers were studied using monochromatic ellipsometry. The effect of ion fluences on the refractive index of the GaN has been investigated and it has been found to decrease with an increase of ion fluence. This decrease is attributed to irradiation-induced defects and polycrystallization which plays an important role in determining the optical properties of silicon (Si ion irradiated GaN layers.

  6. Trace element content of vegetables grown in the victorian goldfields: characterization of a potential hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, G.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants take-up trace elements essential to healthy growth, but if metal accumulation is excessive, harmful effects are noted in the plant and potentially in the organisms that feed on them. Central Victoria has a rich gold mining heritage, and as such, much of the landscape has been disturbed by the addition of mine waste material, providing an abundant source of metals in a mobile environment. A biogeochemical survey was conducted to evaluate the trace element content of backyard vegetable gardens in the gold field region and the trace element accumulation in commonly grown vegetables. Vegetable (n150) and soil (n59) samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results indicate that vegetables grown in the central Victorian goldfields have only slightly elevated trace element content. Some exceptions exist, specifically for silverbeet, but the hazard potential is minimal

  7. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, A.M.A., E-mail: Ghostvolca@hotmail.com [Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, El Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmad, I.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); Kamel, A.M. [Labeled Compounds Department, Radioisotopes Production Division, Hot Labs Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Abou-Zaabal 13759 (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  8. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Jang, Leewoon; Jeon, Juwon; Kim, Myoung; Kim, Jinsoo; Lee, Inhwan; Kwak, Joonseop; Lee, Jaejin

    2010-01-01

    The photoluminescence properties of zinc-oxide thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique have been investigated. Zinc-oxide thin films with a wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation were grown in aqueous solution at 90 .deg. C on sapphire substrates with a p-GaN buffer layer by using the hydrothermal technique. The low-temperature photoluminescence analysis revealed a sharp bound-exciton-related luminescence peak at 3.366 eV with a very narrow peak width. The temperature-dependent variations of the emission energy and of the integrated intensity were studied. The activation energy of the bound exciton complex was calculated to be 7.35 ± 0.5 meV from the temperature dependent quenching of the integral intensities.

  9. Characterization of large cadmium zinc telluride crystals grown by traveling heater method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H.; Awadalla, S.A.; Iniewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions/precipitates of these c......The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions...

  10. New method for the determination of the defect profile in thin layers grown over a substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubiaga, A.; Garcia, J.A.; Plazaola, F. [Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao (Spain); Tuomisto, F. [Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada i Electromagnetisme, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    We present a new method to obtain information about the defect profile of films grown over high quality substrates. The method is valid, at least, for films where the positron mean-diffusion length is small. We have used the method for the case of ZnO films grown over sapphire, but the method can be generalized very easily to other film/substrate systems. Applying the method to the ratio of W and S parameters obtained from Doppler broadening measurements, W/S plots, one can determine the thickness of the film and the defect profile trend in the film, when mainly one positron trap is contributing to positron trapping within the film. Indeed, the quality of such a characterization is very important for the potential technological applications of the film. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. New method for the determination of the defect profile in thin layers grown over a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubiaga, A.; Garcia, J.A.; Plazaola, F.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method to obtain information about the defect profile of films grown over high quality substrates. The method is valid, at least, for films where the positron mean-diffusion length is small. We have used the method for the case of ZnO films grown over sapphire, but the method can be generalized very easily to other film/substrate systems. Applying the method to the ratio of W and S parameters obtained from Doppler broadening measurements, W/S plots, one can determine the thickness of the film and the defect profile trend in the film, when mainly one positron trap is contributing to positron trapping within the film. Indeed, the quality of such a characterization is very important for the potential technological applications of the film. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Nondestructive measurement of homoepitaxially grown GaN film thickness with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Takehiro

    2017-12-01

    In vertical devices containing GaN homoepitaxial layers on GaN substrates, the layer thickness is a key parameter that needs to be clarified before starting the device process. We applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to a homoepitaxially grown GaN film that consisted of an n--GaN layer. The estimated film thickness from the FT-IR spectrum agreed well with the results of cross-sectional scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence images. This is the first report of nondestructive film thickness measurements for homoepitaxially grown GaN and indicates the applicability of FT-IR to the nondestructive inspection of vertical GaN power devices.

  13. Characterization of growth sectors in synthetic quartz grown from cylindrical seeds parallel to [0001] direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Guzzo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the morphology and the impurity distribution were investigated in growth sectors formed around the [0001] axis of synthetic quartz crystals. Plates containing cylindrical holes and cylindrical bars parallel to [0001] were prepared by ultrasonic machining and further used as seed-crystals. The hydrothermal growth of synthetic quartz was carried out in a commercial autoclave under NaOH solution during 50 days. The morphologies of crystals grown from cylindrical seeds were characterized by X-ray diffraction topography. For both types of crystals, +X- and X- growth sectors were distinctly observed. Infrared spectroscopy and ionizing radiation were adopted to reveal the distribution of point defects related to Si-Al substitution and OH-species. It was found a different distribution of Al-related centers in relation to the crystals grown from conventional Y-bar and Z-plate seeds.

  14. Phase-separated CsI-NaCl scintillator grown by the Czochralski method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Ohashi, Yoshihiro; Den, Toru

    2014-08-01

    A phase-separated CsI-NaCl scintillator with light-guiding properties was grown by the Czochralski method. The CsI-NaCl eutectic phase usually consists of NaCl cylinders in a CsI matrix and contains grain boundaries. However, we have grown composites without grain boundaries by creating a convex solid/liquid interface, selecting a single grain by Dash's neck method, and increasing the diameter of the composite moderately. The good continuous convection flow required for these conditions was achieved by suppressing the drop in the aspect ratio of the melt height to the crucible radius with a double crucible setup. We successfully obtained a CsI-NaCl:Tl composite that was uniform with no grain boundaries greater than 30 mm in diameter.

  15. Optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown from tin catalyst layers on silicon coated glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, Jeremy

    2012-08-20

    The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ∼4 wires/μ m2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  16. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  17. Bioaccumulations of heavy metals in Ipomoea aquatica grown in bottom ash recycling wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Odette Varela; Rivera, Eva B; Huang, Wu-Jang

    2014-05-01

    A plant bioassay using hydroponically grown Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach) was applied to assess the phytotoxicity of untreated and treated wastewaters from a municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash recycling facility. The 50%-diluted, untreated wastewater exhibited acute toxicity (plants died within 24 hours). Highly diluted doses (3 and 6%) of both wastewater types displayed no significant differences when compared with the control. Treating the wastewater through sequential physical filtration and chemical precipitation processes decreased not only the dissolved solids content but also the pH and salt content. In addition, significant accumulations of Sr, Cr, and Sn were observed in the hydroponically grown I. aquatica plant tissues; in particular, the bioaccumulation of Sr in the leaves and roots was unexpectedly high.

  18. Effect of copper surface pre-treatment on the properties of CVD grown graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Sik; Woo, Jeong-Min; Geum, Dae-Myeong; Rani, J. R.; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2014-12-01

    Here, we report the synthesis of high quality monolayer graphene on the pre-treated copper (Cu) foil by chemical vapor deposition method. The pre-treatment process, which consists of pre-annealing in a hydrogen ambient, followed by diluted nitric acid etching of Cu foil, helps in removing impurities. These impurities include native copper oxide and rolling lines that act as a nucleation center for multilayer graphene. Raman mapping of our graphene grown on pre-treated Cu foil primarily consisted of ˜98% a monolayer graphene with as compared to 75 % for the graphene grown on untreated Cu foil. A high hydrogen flow rate during the pre-annealing process resulted in an increased I2D/IG ratio of graphene up to 3.55. Uniform monolayer graphene was obtained with a I2D/IG ratio and sheet resistance varying from 1.84 - 3.39 and 1110 - 1290 Ω/□, respectively.

  19. Silica Deposition on the Leaves of Mir- and Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William F.; Bubenheim, David L.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bingham, Gail E.; McManus, William R.; Biesinger, H. D.; Strickland, D. T.; Levinskikh, Maragarita; Sytchev, Vladimir N.; Podolsky, Igor

    2000-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis were used to investigate the nature of crystals deposited on leaves of Mir- and Earth-grown Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. Leaves from these plants exhibited dense and uniformly distributed crystals on leaf abaxial surfaces when viewed by SEM. Young leaves showed that crystals initially accumulated around the stomata on the adaxial surface, but became more dense and uniformly distributed as the leaves aged. EDX microanalyses of the Balkanine (a nutrient charged clinoptilolite zeolite) medium in which the wheat plants were grown showed an elemental pattern similar to that observed on the wheat leaves. The absence of N and P in the Balkanine suggests that they were completely utilized by the plants. Only Si and O were evident in the drying agent, Sorb-it-Silica (trademark), and perhaps could have accounted for some of the Si observed on the plant tissue.

  20. Anisotropy of mosaic structure of GaAsP layers grown on GaAs substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, T. [Daido Institute of Technology, 10-3, Takiharu-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8530 (Japan); Kato, T. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., 2-30, Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8545 (Japan); Jin, X.G.; Tanioku, M.; Ujihara, T.; Takeda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yamamoto, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Mano, A.; Okumi, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Nakanishi, T. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Horinaka, H.; Matsuyama, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuen-cho, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Yasue, T.; Koshikawa, T. [Fundamental Electronics Research Institute, Osaka Electro-Communication University, 18-8, Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa 572-8530 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    The crystalline structure of GaAsP layers grown on GaAs and GaP(001) substrates, used for spin polarized photocathodes, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. The layers on the GaAs substrate possess a mosaic structure observable by X-ray topography and consist of many large blocks. The mosaicity is anisotropic and the distribution of the mosaic is restricted within the (110) plane, and the blocks zigzag around the [110] direction. The layer grown on the GaP substrate was uniform and no mosaic was observed in the topographs. The results indicate that different mechanisms of strain release occur in GaAsP layers for tensile and compressive strains. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Electrochemical properties of seamless three-dimensional carbon nanotubes-grown graphene modified with horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Kikuo; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized through sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the surface of a seamless three-dimensional hybrid of carbon nanotubes grown at the graphene surface (HRP-SDS/CNTs/G) and its electrochemical properties were investigated. Compared with graphene alone electrode modified with HRP via SDS (HRP-SDS/G electrode), the surface coverage of electroactive HRP at the CNTs/G electrode surface was approximately 2-fold greater because of CNTs grown at the graphene surface. Based on the increase in the surface coverage of electroactive HRP, the sensitivity to H2O2 at the HRP-SDS/CNTs/G electrode was higher than that at the HRP-SDS/G electrode. The kinetics of the direct electron transfer from the CNTs/G electrode to compound I and II of modified HRP was also analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolic responses to lithium in galactose-grown yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Christoffer; Regenberg, Birgitte; Lagniel, G.

    2003-01-01

    , and nucleotide metabolism were down-regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas genes responsive to different stresses as well as genes from energy reserve metabolism and monosaccharide metabolism were up-regulated. Compared with the proteomic data, 26% of the down-regulated and 48% of the up......Lithium is highly toxic to yeast when grown in galactose medium mainly because phosphoglucomutase, a key enzyme of galactose metabolism, is inhibited. We studied the global protein and gene expression profiles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in galactose in different time intervals after addition...... of lithium. These results were related to physiological studies where both secreted and intracellular metabolites were determined. Microarray analysis showed that 664 open reading frames were down-regulated and 725 up-regulated in response to addition of lithium. Genes involved in transcription, translation...

  3. Giant current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene as grown on nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodepudi, S C; Singh, A P; Pramanik, S

    2014-05-14

    Strong magnetoresistance effects are often observed in ferromagnet-nonmagnet multilayers, which are exploited in state-of-the-art magnetic field sensing and data storage technologies. In this work we report a novel current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistance effect in multilayer graphene as grown on a catalytic nickel surface by chemical vapor deposition. A negative magnetoresistance effect of ∼10(4)% has been observed, which persists even at room temperature. This effect is correlated with the shape of the 2D peak as well as with the occurrence of D peak in the Raman spectrum of the as-grown multilayer graphene. The observed magnetoresistance is extremely high as compared to other known materials systems for similar temperature and field range and can be qualitatively explained within the framework of "interlayer magnetoresistance" (ILMR).

  4. Multilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the SiC (000- 1) surface; structure and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinkle, M.; Hicks, J.; Tejeda, A.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Le Fevre, P.; Bertran, F.; Tinkey, H.; Clark, M.C.; Soukiassian, P.; Martinotti, D.; Hass, J.; Conrad, E.H. (CNRS-UMR); (CEAS); (GIT)

    2010-10-22

    We review the progress towards developing epitaxial graphene as a material for carbon electronics. In particular, we discuss improvements in epitaxial graphene growth, interface control and the understanding of multilayer epitaxial graphene's (MEG's) electronic properties. Although graphene grown on both polar faces of SiC will be discussed, our discussions will focus on graphene grown on the (000{bar 1}) C-face of SiC. The unique properties of C-face MEG have become apparent. These films behave electronically like a stack of nearly independent graphene sheets rather than a thin Bernal stacked graphite sample. The origins of multilayer graphene's electronic behaviour are its unique highly ordered stacking of non-Bernal rotated graphene planes. While these rotations do not significantly affect the inter-layer interactions, they do break the stacking symmetry of graphite. It is this broken symmetry that leads to each sheet behaving like isolated graphene planes.

  5. Structural and physical properties of InAlAs quantum dots grown on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, B. S.; Daly, A. Ben; Craciun, D.; Alexandrou, I.; Lazar, S.; Lemaître, A.; Maaref, M. A.; Iacomi, F.; Craciun, V.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), which have particular physical properties due to the three dimensions confinement effect, could be used in many advanced optoelectronic applications. We investigated the properties of InAlAs/AlGaAs QDs grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs/Al0.5Ga0.5As layers. The optical properties of QDs were studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). Two bandgap transitions corresponding to the X-Sh and X-Ph energy structure were observed. The QDs structure was investigated using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). HRXRD investigations showed that the layers grew epitaxially on the substrate, with no relaxation. HRTEM investigations confirmed the epitaxial nature of the grown structures. In addition, it was revealed that the In atoms aggregated in some prismatic regions, forming areas of high In concentration, that were still in perfect registry with the substrate.

  6. Photoluminescence characteristics of Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy grown ZnSe crystal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yoh; Kuronuma, Ryoichi; Inoue, Masanori; Sasaki, Shoichiro; Miyamoto, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic green photoluminescence emission and related phenomena in Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE)-grown ZnSe crystal layers were investigated to explore the nature of the center responsible for the green emission. The intensity of the green emission showed a distinct nonlinear dependence on excitation intensity. Pb-diffused polycrystalline ZnSe was similarly examined for comparison. The characteristic green emission has been observed only in MBE-grown ZnSe crystal layers with moderate Pb doping. The results of the investigations on the growth conditions, luminescence, and related properties of the ZnSe crystal layers suggest that the green emission is due to isolated Pb replacing Zn and surrounded with regular ZnSe lattice with a high perfection

  7. Photocatalytic properties of chemically grown vanadium oxide at 65 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernardou, D.; Drosos, H.; Fasoulas, J.; Koudoumas, E.; Katsarakis, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the photocatalytic response of amorphous V 2 O 5 coatings prepared by hydrothermal growth at 65 °C is presented. The position of the substrate during the deposition and the pH of the solution were found to affect the coverage and the response of the coatings upon catalysis. The photocatalytic activity of the coatings was tested using stearic acid as a pollutant for an illumination time of 480 min. The materials grown on microscope glass positioned at an angle of 0° with respect to the bottom of the bottle exhibit the best photocatalytic activity, degrading stearic acid by 64% due to the enhanced surface coverage. - Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown amorphous V 2 O 5 coatings at 65 °C • Their properties are dependent on the substrate arrangement. • Their photocatalytic activity is correlated with the oxide coverage

  8. The optical properties of transferred graphene and the dielectrics grown on it obtained by ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikov, Aarne; Kahro, Tauno; Matisen, Leonard; Kodu, Margus; Tarre, Aivar; Seemen, Helina; Alles, Harry

    2018-04-01

    Graphene layers grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method and transferred from Cu-foils to the oxidized Si-substrates were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Raman and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) methods. The optical properties of transferred CVD graphene layers do not always correspond to the ones of the exfoliated graphene due to the contamination from the chemicals used in the transfer process. However, the real thickness and the mean properties of the transferred CVD graphene layers can be found using ellipsometry if a real thickness of the SiO2 layer is taken into account. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods were used to grow dielectric layers on the transferred graphene and the obtained structures were characterized using optical methods. The approach demonstrated in this work could be useful for the characterization of various materials grown on graphene.

  9. Radioactivity in tomatoes grown on mine tailings from Oka, a niobium mining region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, M.; Boudreau, A.; Roy, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity contained in the tailings of a niobium mine in the Oka region, Quebec, was the object of concern for the population of the area in 1979. To find the impact of these tailings on fruit and vegetables grown in this environment, an investigation of the radioactivity found on tomatoes grown in green houses in niobium tailings and in vermiculites was undertaken. The tailings contained a high level of natural radioactivity and a small amount of 137 Cs while the vermiculites had a very low level of natural radioactivity and an appreciable amount of 137 Cs. Cesium-137 was the only nuclide detected in tomato ashes in measurable quantity. Absence of natural radioactivity is explained by its presence as insoluble minerals

  10. Influence of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown in Elevated CO2 on Apatite Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. A.; Morra, B.

    2016-12-01

    We ran a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that release of plant nutrients contained in apatite will be accelerated by the growth of Langstrath Stringless green bean in the presence of atmospheric CO2 meant to simulate possible future atmospheric conditions due a higher demand of nutrients and growth rate caused by elevated CO2. We hypothesize that elevated atmospheric CO2 will lead to both increased root growth and organic acid exudation. These two traits will lead to improved acquisition of P derived from apatite. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Plants were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Mini-greenhouses were utilized to control CO2 levels. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution lacking in Ca and P. Calcium and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served as a proxy for apatite dissolution. Plants were harvested biweekly during the eight-week experiment and analyzed for Ca and P to calculate apatite dissolution kinetics. Preliminary results suggest that approximately four times more P and Ca are present in the leachate from experiments containing plants under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels than in abiotic experiments; however, the amounts of both P and Ca released in experiments conducted under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels are similar. Additionally, the amount of P in plant tissue grown under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions is similar. Plants grown in elevated CO2 had a greater root to shoot ratio. The planted microcosms were found to have a lower pH than abiotic controls most likely due to root respiration and exudation of organic acids.

  11. Nutritional properties of cherry tomatoes harvested at different times and grown in an organic cropping.

    OpenAIRE

    PINHO, L. de; ALMEIDA, A. C.; COSTA, C. A.; PAES, M. C. D.; GLÓRIA, M. B. A.; SOUZA, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of the cherry tomato cultivated in organic and conventional production systems and harvested at either 30 or 45 days of cropping were evaluated using a randomized, 2x2 factorial design (2 cropping systems x 2 harvesting times) with five repetitions. The parameters analyzed were color, centesimal composition, total energetic value, carotenoids and bioactive amine content. Tomatoes harvested at 30 days had higher total soluble solid (TSS) content when grown c...

  12. Different proportions of laccase isoenzymes produced by submerged cultures of Trametes versicolor grown on lignocellulosic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, D; Lorenzo, M; Sanromán, Ma A

    2004-02-01

    The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor grown in submerged culture produced two laccase isoenzymes, LacI and LacII. Addition of insoluble lignocellulosic materials into the culture medium increased the total laccase activity. The proportion of laccase isoenzymes also changed depending on the lignocellulosic material employed, with ratios of activity LacII/LacI from 0.9 (barley straw) to 4.4 (grape stalks). Besides, this proportion played an important role in the dye decolourisation.

  13. Strain-engineered graphene grown on hexagonal boron nitride by molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Summerfield, Alex; Davies, Andrew; Cheng, Tin S.; Korolkov, Vladimir V.; Cho, YongJin; Mellor, Christopher J.; Foxon, C. Thomas; Khlobystov, Andrei N.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Eaves, Laurence; Novikov, Sergei V.; Beton, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene grown by high temperature molecular beam epitaxy on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) forms continuous domains with dimensions of order 20??m, and exhibits moir? patterns with large periodicities, up to ~30?nm, indicating that the layers are highly strained. Topological defects in the moir? patterns are observed and attributed to the relaxation of graphene islands which nucleate at different sites and subsequently coalesce. In addition, cracks are formed leading to strain relaxation, hig...

  14. contents of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) type grown in Konya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, several physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of one earliest (May 19) sweet cherry type grown in Konya region were determined. The results in terms of chemical properties were total soluble solids, 18.33 mg/100 g; pH, 3.86; color, S41P50E41; texture, 0.25 kg/cm2; and juice yield, 66.28%.

  15. Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra of GaAs grown directly on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemon, S.; Shastry, S. K.; Norris, P.; Jagannath, C.; Lambert, G.

    1986-05-01

    The photoluminescence of GaAs/Si grown by OMCVD has been analyzed as a function of temperature and the dominant high temperature line identified as a conduction-band-to-valence-band transition. Photoluminescence excitation spectra indicate that the transition is excitonic at 4.2 K. A second line, also identified as intrinsic, dominates the spectra below 100 K. A biaxial tensile strain is proposed to account for the two intrinsic lines through a splitting of the valence band degeneracy.

  16. Stress variations due to microcracks in GaAs grown on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacobi, B. G.; Zemon, S.; Norris, P.; Jagannath, C.; Sheldon, P.

    1987-12-01

    Luminescence studies of thick (≥5 μm) GaAs epitaxial layers grown on Si substrates reveal regions of nonuniform stress associated with the presence of microcracks. Using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy as a tool for microcharacterization, the magnitude of the stress, derived from the peak positions of the luminescence spectra, is shown to increase gradually as a function of distance from the intersection of two microcracks. The greatest degree of stress relief was found at this intersection.

  17. Evolution of deep centers in GaN grown by hydride vapor phaseepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.-Q.; Look, D.C.; Jasinski, J.; Benamara, M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Molnar, R.J.

    2001-04-18

    Deep centers and dislocation densities in undoped n GaN, grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), were characterized as a function of the layer thickness by deep level transient spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. As the layer thickness decreases, the variety and concentration of deep centers increase, in conjunction with the increase of dislocation density. Based on comparison with electron irradiation induced centers, some dominant centers in HVPE GaN are identified as possible point defects.

  18. Glow curves and the emission of flux-grown BaFCl:Na crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaiah, K.; Hari Babu, V.

    1984-01-01

    The thermoluminescence glow curves and the emission spectra of flux-grown BaFCl:Na crystals were recorded. An additional TL peak at 320 K, an optical absorption band at 570nm and an emission peak at 490 nm have been seen in X/γ-irradiated crystals. Bleaching, room-temperature annealing and high-temperature emission results led us to conclude that the sodium impurity is responsible for the additional glow peak optical absorption band and emission peak. (author)

  19. Determination of Leaf Dust Accumulation on Certain Plant Species Grown Alongside National Highway- 22, India

    OpenAIRE

    Navjot Singh Kaler; S. K. Bhardwaj; K. S. Pant; T. S. Rai

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is one of the major contributors to accumulate dust on plants grown alongside roads. Plants intercept tons of dust, absorb noise and serve as acoustic screens on busy highways. Vegetation contributes in reducing dust concentration in environment by acting as a sink for air pollutants. Taking this into account, the present study was conducted on National highway- 22 from Parwanoo to Solan, falling in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Specifically, four plant species...

  20. Comparative Phenotypical and Molecular Analyses of Arabidopsis Grown under Fluorescent and LED Light

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Franka; Soll, J?rgen; B?lter, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Comparative analyses of phenotypic and molecular traits of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under standardised conditions is still a challenge using climatic devices supplied with common light sources. These are in most cases fluorescent lights, which have several disadvantages such as heat production at higher light intensities, an invariable spectral output, and relatively rapid “ageing”. This results in non-desired variations of growth conditions and lowers the comparability of data acquired ove...

  1. Post-annealing effects on pulsed laser deposition-grown GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yu-Wen; Wu, Hao-Yu; Lin, Yu-Zhong; Lee, Cheng-Che; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the post-annealing effects on gallium nitride (GaN) thin films grown from pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are investigated. The as-deposited GaN thin films grown from PLD are annealed at different temperatures in nitrogen ambient. Significant changes of the GaN crystal properties are observed. Raman spectroscopy is used to observe the crystallinity, the change of residual stress, and the thermal decomposition of the annealed GaN thin films. X-ray diffraction is also applied to identify the crystal phase of GaN thin films, and the surface morphology of GaN thin films annealed at different temperatures is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Through the above analyses, the GaN thin films grown by PLD undergo three stages: phase transition, stress alteration, and thermal decomposition. At a low annealing temperature, the rock salt GaN in GaN films is transformed into wurtzite. The rock salt GaN diminishes with increasing annealing temperature. At a medium annealing temperature, the residual stress of the film changes significantly from compressive strain to tensile strain. As the annealing temperature further increases, the GaN undergoes thermal decomposition and the surface becomes granular. By investigating the annealing temperature effects and controlling the optimized annealing temperature of the GaN thin films, we are able to obtain highly crystalline and strain-free GaN thin films by PLD. - Highlights: • The GaN thin film is grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition. • The GaN film undergoes three stages with increasing annealing temperature. • In the first stage, the film transfers from rock salt to wurtzite phase. • In the second stage, the stress in film changes from compressive to tensile. • In the final stage, the film thermally decomposes and becomes granular

  2. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was measured by ...

  3. Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladashvili, N.V.; Tkeshelashvili, M.Ya.; Berikashvili, V.Sh.; Babayan, T.L.; Latov, V.K.; Belikov, V.M.; Kvesitadze, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

  4. GC determination of fatty acids in green beans grown in Galicia (N.W. Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    López Hernández, J.; González-Castro, M. J.; Simal-Lozano, J.; Vázquez-Blanco, M. E.; Vázquez-Orderiz, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of lauric, myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic acids in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Galicia (N.W. Spain) were determinated by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Palmitic acid was the most abundant fatty acid component (113 mg/100 g. of lyophilizate; 35.2% of total fatty acid content), followed by linolenic acid (23.1%) and linoleic acid (21.6%).

    Se determinaron, mediante croma...

  5. Biomass distribution efficiency of rose cv. Charlotte grown in soil and substrates at second production peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Y González G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing plants in substrates is an alternative for the production of roses under unfavorable soil conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the biomass distribution efficiency of rose cv. Charlotte grown in soil and substrates under greenhouse conditions until second production peak. In this trial, soil and substrates with 100% burned rice husk (100BR H; 65% burned rice husk: 35% coconut fiber (65BR H; 35% burned rice husk: 65% coconut fiber (35BR H; and 100% coconut fiber (100CF were used. The experimental design consisted of a randomized complete block design with three repetitions. Destructive sampling was carried out using whole plants and flowering stems at previously determined bud stages. Leaf area and dry matter in organs were measured and growth rate and physiological indexes were calculated. The assessed variables were fitted to logistic and exponential models. The plants grown in substrates with BR H (burned rice husk showed similar values regarding dry matter and fresh weight accumulation in organs. Plants in the soil treatment were the last ones to reach the different development stages of the flowering buds, while those that were grown in 100CF were the first ones. The treatments 35BR H and 100CF showed less growth of flowering stems, which was expressed in terms of relative dry matter increase per day. The plants grown in soil showed more dry matter in leaves and stems but less in flower buds. The 65BR H treatment showed some of the highest dry matter accumulations in leaves, stems and flower buds and also showed the highest leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio, and specific leaf area values

  6. MoS2 Nanoparticles Grown on Graphene: An Advanced Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Xie, Liming; Liang, Yongye; Hong, Guosong; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materials for electrocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting are central to the area of renewable energy. Here, we developed a solvothermal synthesis of MoS2 nanoparticles selectively on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets suspended in solution. The resulting MoS2/RGO hybrid material possessed nanoscopic few-layer MoS2 structures with abundant exposed edges stacked onto graphene, in strong contrast to large aggregated MoS2 particles grown freely in solution without GO. The...

  7. Morphology and photoluminescence of nanostructured oxides grown by copper passivation in aqueous potassium hydroxide solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepniowski, W.J.; Stojadinović, Stevan; Vasilić, Rastko; Tadić, Nenad; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Abrahami, S.T.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Copper foil was anodized in 1 M KOH at potentials ranging from −400 to −100 mV vs. Ag|AgCl electrode. Cyclic voltammetry showed a distinct peak with a maximum at around −150 mV. For anodizing at −100 and −200 mV, nanowires with diameters of ca. 19 and 24 nm respectively were found to be grown.

  8. Evolution of nitrate level in green lettuce conventional grown under natural conditions and aquaponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Flavius Blidariu; Drasovean Alexandru; Grozea Adrian; Radulov Isidora; Lalescu Dacian

    2013-01-01

    Aquaponics integrates growing plants without soil technology with aquaculture, having an important role in recovery of nutrients from effluents. The research aimed to evaluate nitrates level in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) conventional grown under natural conditions and in integrated aquaponic system with a recirculated aquaculture system designed for pikeperch growth (Sander lucioperca). Conventional production (54 plants) has been obtained in the field without fertilizer or pesticide management...

  9. Yield of determinate tomato cultivars grown in a closed hydroponic system as affected by plant spacing

    OpenAIRE

    Maboko, Martin M; Plooy, Christian P Du; Chiloane, Silence

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In South Africa there are no established spacing recommendations for determinate tomato cultivar production under closed hydroponic systems. This study was conducted to determine yield and quality of hydroponically grown determinate tomato cultivars at different plant densities. Four determinate tomato cultivars (Dynimo, Mariana, Mion and Sama) were subjected to four plant densities (10, 16, 20 and 25 plants/m2) during the spring/summer and summer/fall seasons. Experimental layout wa...

  10. Effect of copper surface pre-treatment on the properties of CVD grown graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Sik Kim; Jeong-Min Woo; Dae-Myeong Geum; J. R. Rani; Jae-Hyung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the synthesis of high quality monolayer graphene on the pre-treated copper (Cu) foil by chemical vapor deposition method. The pre-treatment process, which consists of pre-annealing in a hydrogen ambient, followed by diluted nitric acid etching of Cu foil, helps in removing impurities. These impurities include native copper oxide and rolling lines that act as a nucleation center for multilayer graphene. Raman mapping of our graphene grown on pre-treated Cu foil primarily consis...

  11. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    İbrahim Demir

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was.

  12. Dramatic improvement of crystal quality for low-­temperature-grown rabbit muscle aldolase

    OpenAIRE

    Park, HaJeung; Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Sygusch, Jurgen; Izard, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Rabbit muscle aldolase (RMA) was crystallized in complex with the low-complexity domain (LC4) of sorting nexin 9. Monoclinic crystals were obtained at room temperature that displayed large mosaicity and poor X-ray diffraction. However, orthorhombic RMA–LC4 crystals grown at 277 K under similar conditions exhibited low mosaicity, allowing data collection to 2.2 Å Bragg spacing and structure determination.

  13. Variation of Specific Gravity in Plantation-Grown Trees of Bigleaf Mahogany

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe; J. B. Harris; D. Wyckoff

    1963-01-01

    As a prelude to tree improvement work in the genus Swietenia, a study was made of specific gravity variation within the bole of six plantation-grown trees of bigleaf mahogany. Variation was appreciable, from 0.36 to 0.65 , and several patterns were determined. Specific gravity of the tree increased with growth rate, as expressed in diameter at breast height, but not...

  14. Effect of the niobium additions in the passive films potentiostatically grown in a sulphate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuri, S.E.; Martins, M.; D'Alkaine, C.V.

    1984-01-01

    The stability of passive films potentiostatically grown on stainless steel electrodes was studied in a 2 N sulfuric acid. The effect of Niobium contents in the base metal was considered. The reactivation time was measured using the method of Potential Decay Measurements under Open-Circuit Conditions after electrochemical aging in the passivity region, and its influence on the surface oxidation states, was discussed. (Author) [pt

  15. Isolation of intact chains of polyphosphate from "Propionibacterium shermanii" grown on glucose or lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J E; Beegen, H; Wood, H G

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the isolation of intact polyphosphate (poly P) from "Propionibacterium shermanii." It is demonstrated, by including [32P]poly P during the extraction, that this procedure does not hydrolyze the poly P, and it is shown that two other widely used procedures do cause breakdown of the poly P. The procedure presented allows isolation of three fractions, short-chain poly P which is soluble in trichloroacetic acid, long-chain poly P which is soluble at neutral pH, and long-chain poly P which is present in volutin granules. Cells which had been grown on lactate did not contain short-chain poly P but did contain a high amount of long-chain poly P, which accumulated to 3% of the cell dry weight. At least 70% of this poly P was present in volutin granules. The poly P ranged in length from 250 to 725 phosphate residues and was the same average size as that synthesized in vitro by the poly P kinase from "P. shermanii". This indicates that the poly P kinase is responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of the poly P. In contrast to cells grown on lactate, those which had been grown on glucose did not contain volutin granules, did contain short-chain poly P and had 100-fold less long-chain poly P than lactate-grown cells. We propose that during the fermentation of glucose, the amount of poly P is lower than during growth on lactate because it is continuously utilized as a substrate in the phosphorylation of glucose. Images PMID:3782036

  16. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  17. Characterization of Rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM) and non-GM maizes

    OpenAIRE

    Bumunang,Emmanuel Wihkochombom; Babalola,Olubukola Oluranti

    2014-01-01

    This study was done to examine the rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM) maize and its non-GM counterpart. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and at post-harvest from two experimental fields in Gauteng, South Africa. Total rhizobacteria (cfu/g) in GM and non-GM soil samples was not significantly different across the different media 30 DAS and at post-harvest. Rhizobacterial isolates obtained were biochemically characterized using the anal...

  18. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A. Judd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  19. Morpho-anatomical study of Stevia rebaudiana roots grown in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael V. Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, is used as a food additive because its leaves are a source of steviol glycosides. There are examples of tissue culture based on micropropagation and phytochemical production of S. rebaudiana leaves but there are few studies on adventitious root culture of S. rebaudiana. More than 90% of the plants used in industry are harvested indiscriminately. In order to overcome this situation, the development of methodologies that employ biotechnology, such as root culture, provides suitable alternatives for the sustainable use of plants. The aim of this study was to compare morpho-anatomical transverse sections of S. rebaudiana roots grown in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro system used to maintain root cultures consisted of a gyratory shaker under dark and light conditions and a roller bottle system. Transverse sections of S. rebaudiana roots grown in vitro were structurally and morphologically different when compared to the control plant; roots artificially maintained in culture media can have their development affected by the degree of media aeration, sugar concentration, and light. GC–MS and TLC confirmed that S. rebaudiana roots grown in vitro have the ability to produce metabolites, which can be similar to those produced by wild plants.

  20. Oil and fatty acid composition of peanut cultivars grown in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality and flavor of edible peanuts and its products are affected by fatty acid composition of oil. The information related to chemical composition of Peanut grown in the country are scarce, therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine the oil and fatty acid composition of some commonly grown peanut cultivars in Pakistan. Seven Peanut cultivars were grown during 2008 in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The tested cultivars differed significantly for oil content which ranged from 49.83 to 53.06% on dry weight basis, thus showing differences of 7% among cultivars. The saturated fatty acids (Palmetic and Stearic acid) in different cultivars ranged between 9.95 to 10.79% and 1.63 to 2.19%, respectively. Differences among cultivars for oleic acid exhibited significance which ranged between 49.34 to 54.83%. Similarly, cultivars differed statistically for linoleic ac id which showed a range of 28.99 to 34.23%, thus depicted difference of 7%. Significant differences among tested cultivars may be attributed to the place of origin of particular cultivar. An inverse relationship was exhibited between oleic and linoleic acid, similar to other edible oils. (author)

  1. Electrical characterization of 6H-SiC grown by physical vapor transport method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaremba, G., E-mail: gzaremba@ite.waw.p [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Analysis of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kaniewska, M.; Jung, W. [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Analysis of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Guziewicz, M. [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Semiconductor Processing for Photonics, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-11-25

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements have been used to study the electrical properties of electron traps in n-type 6H-silicon carbide (SiC) grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) technique, designed as Schottky diodes. Ir Schottky- and Ni ohmic-contacts were deposited by sputtering. Current versus voltage (I-V) measurements showed that sputter deposition of the Schottky contact yields diodes with a reduced barrier height and poor rectification characteristics. Four main electron traps revealed in DLTS spectra have activation energies at 0. 39, 0.41, 0,66, and 0.74 eV below the conduction band. Based on a comparison made with electron traps reported in the literature, we conclude that three of them are well-known traps found in the as-grown or irradiated material. There was no emission signature in the literature to make such a correspondence for the trap at 0.74 eV. Strongly nonhomogenous spatial distribution with a tendency of the trap to accumulation at the surface was found by DLTS and C-V profiling. This together with the fact that the trap at 0.74 eV has not been previously reported in as-grown or processed material makes it possible that the trap is sputter deposition induced defect.

  2. Distribution of Te Inclusions in CdMnTe Crystal Grown by Traveling Heater Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jianming; Zhang, Jijun; Mao, Yifei; Lin, Liwen; Min, Jiahua; Liang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jian; Tang, Ke; Wang, Linjun

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated Te inclusions in CdMnTe crystals grown by the traveling heater method (THM). Three CdMnTe ingots were grown under different growth temperatures of 850°C, 900°C, and 950°C by the THM method. In the CdMnTe ingots, the concentration of Te inclusion was lower in the middle-to-deposit part, and the size of Te inclusions kept growing till the last-to-deposit part. The concentrations of Te inclusions along the CdMnTe ingots were in the range of 104-106 cm-3, with the size in the range of 3-16 μm. CdMnTe crystals grown under 900°C had the lowest density and size of Te inclusion, due to the smooth and near-planar growth interface as revealed by infrared (IR) transmission microscopy. The relationship between the origin of Te inclusions and growth interface was analyzed during the THM growth of CdMnTe. IR transmission spectrometry was used to characterize Te inclusions in CdMnTe crystals. Current-voltage (I-V) and energy response measurements were carried out to reveal the resistivity (ρ) and energy resolution of CdMnTe detectors. The effects of Te inclusions on the optical and electrical properties of CdMnTe crystals for nuclear detector applications are discussed.

  3. Topographic and spectroscopic characterization of electronic edge states in CVD grown graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Minghu; Girão, E Costa; Jia, Xiaoting; Bhaviripudi, Sreekar; Li, Qing; Kong, Jing; Meunier, V; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    We used scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) techniques to analyze the relationships between the edge shapes and the electronic structures in as-grown chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). A rich variety of single-layered graphene nanoribbons exhibiting a width of several to 100 nm and up to 1 μm long were studied. High-resolution STM images highlight highly crystalline nanoribbon structures with well-defined and clean edges. Theoretical calculations indicate clear spin-split edge states induced by electron-electron Coulomb repulsion. The edge defects can significantly modify these edge states, and different edge structures for both sides of a single ribbon produce asymmetric electronic edge states, which reflect the more realistic features of CVD grown GNRs. Three structural models are proposed and analyzed to explain the observations. By comparing the models with an atomic resolution image at the edge, a pristine (2,1) structure was ruled out in favor of a reconstructed edge structure composed of 5-7 member rings, showing a better match with experimental results, and thereby suggesting the possibility of a defective morphology at the edge of CVD grown nanoribbons. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Hydroxyapatite growth on multiwall carbon nanotubes grown on titanium fibers from a titanium sheet

    KAUST Repository

    Chetibi, Loubna

    2013-09-27

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was grown on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) deposited on TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) that were hydrothermally grown on Ti metal sheets. The HA was electrochemically grown on the MWCNTs/TiO2 porous layer. It was found that the HA grows on the MWCNTs/TiO2 NFs in the form of dense coating with nanorice grain-shaped. The incorporation of MWCNTs between HA and TiO2 NFs has led to higher adhesion strength as measured by micro-scratching test indicating the benefit of MWCNTs on the improving the bonding strength of HA layer. The obtained coatings exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid. It is expected that this simple route for preparing the new HA/MWCNTs/TiO2/Ti-layered structure might be used not only in the biomedical field, but also in catalysis and biological sensing among others. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  5. Photoluminescence studies of GaAs grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D.; Agarwala, S.; Morkoc, H.

    1989-01-01

    GaAs-based field-effect transistor structures have been grown on InP substrates with the InGaAs/GaAs strained-layer superlattices and 1.5 micron GaAs layer as the buffer. The low-temperature (4 K) photoluminescence (PL) from this GaAs buffer has been studied for the first time. Among five observable peaks, the excitonic transition at energy 1.513 eV and the impurity associated recombination at energy 1.483 eV have been identified with the aid of reflection, absorption, and temperature and excitation-intensity dependent PL measurements. The peak at 1.504 eV, most probably due to an exciton bound to a defect, is greatly enhanced compared with that of homoepitaxially grown GaAs. The optical results show that GaAs films of good quality can be grown on InP substrate, which is consistent with device results.

  6. Microarray Data Analysis of Space Grown Arabidopsis Leaves for Genes Important in Vascular Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzeal, A. J.; Wyatt, S. E.; Parsons-Wingerter, P.

    2016-01-01

    Venation patterning in leaves is a major determinant of photosynthesis efficiency because of its dependency on vascular transport of photoassimilates, water, and minerals. Arabidopsis thaliana grown in microgravity show delayed growth and leaf maturation. Gene expression data from the roots, hypocotyl, and leaves of A. thaliana grown during spaceflight vs. ground control analyzed by Affymetrix microarray are available through NASAs GeneLab (GLDS-7). We analyzed the data for differential expression of genes in leaves resulting from the effects of spaceflight on vascular patterning. Two genes were found by preliminary analysis to be upregulated during spaceflight that may be related to vascular formation. The genes are responsible for coding an ARGOS like protein (potentially affecting cell elongation in the leaves), and an F-boxkelch-repeat protein (possibly contributing to protoxylem specification). Further analysis that will focus on raw data quality assessment and a moderated t-test may further confirm upregulation of the two genes and/or identify other gene candidates. Plants defective in these genes will then be assessed for phenotype by the mapping and quantification of leaf vascular patterning by NASAs VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) software to model specific vascular differences of plants grown in spaceflight.

  7. Evaluation of holocellulase production by plant-degrading fungi grown on agro-industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Félix Gonçalves; de Siqueira, Aline Gonçalves; de Siqueira, Eliane Gonçalves; Carvalho, Marly Azevedo; Peretti, Beatriz Magalhães Pinto; Jaramillo, Paula Marcela Duque; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Félix, Carlos Roberto; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis CS1, Pleurotus ostreatus H1 and Aspergillus flavus produced holocellulases when grown in solid and submerged liquid cultures containing agro-industrial residues, including sugar cane bagasse and dirty cotton residue, as substrates. These isolates proved to be efficient producers of holocellulases under the conditions used in this screening. Bromatological analysis of agro-industrial residues showed differences in protein, fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content. Maximal holocellulase activity (hemicellulase, cellulase and pectinase) was obtained using solid-state cultivation with 10% substrate concentration. In this case, remarkably high levels of xylanase and polygalacturonase activity (4,008 and 4,548 IU/l, respectively) were produced by A. flavus when grown in media containing corn residue, followed by P. ostreatus H1 with IU/l values of 1,900 and 3,965 when cultivated on 5% and 10% sugar cane bagasse, respectively. A. brasiliensis CS1 showed the highest reducing sugar yield (11.640 mg/ml) when grown on medium containing sugar cane bagasse. A. brasiliensis was also the most efficient producer of protein, except when cultivated on dirty cotton residue, which induced maximal production in A. flavus. Comparison of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse and dirty cotton residue by crude extracts of A. brasiliensis CS1, P. ostreatus H1 and A. flavus showed that the best reducing sugar yield was achieved using sugar cane bagasse as a substrate.

  8. Extended defects in MBE-grown CdTe-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichrowska, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Kret, Slawomir; Chusnutdinow, Sergij; Karczewski, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Rawski, Michal [Analytical Laboratory, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Yastrubchak, Oksana [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Extended defects in the p -ZnTe/n -CdTe heterojunctions grown by the molecular-beam epitaxy technique on two different substrates, GaAs and CdTe, have been investigated by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four hole traps, called H1 to H4, and one electron trap, called E3, have been revealed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunctions grown on the GaAs substrates. The H1, H3, H4 and E3 traps have been attributed to the electronic states of dislocations on the ground of their logarithmic capture kinetics. The DLTS peaks associated with the H1 and E3 traps were not observed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunction grown on the CdTe substrate. They are most likely associated with threading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the GaAs substrate. Cross-sectional TEM images point out that they are dislocations of the 60 -type. In both the types of heterojunctions the H4 trap was observed only under forward-bias filling pulse, suggesting that this trap is associated with the CdTe/ZnTe interface. In addition, TEM images revealed also the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults in the CdTe layers, which may considerably affect their electronic properties. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. α-Ga2O3 grown by low temperature atomic layer deposition on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. W.; Jarman, J. C.; Johnstone, D. N.; Midgley, P. A.; Chalker, P. R.; Oliver, R. A.; Massabuau, F. C.-P.

    2018-04-01

    α-Ga2O3 is a metastable phase of Ga2O3 of interest for wide bandgap engineering since it is isostructural with α-In2O3 and α-Al2O3. α-Ga2O3 is generally synthesised under high pressure (several GPa) or relatively high temperature (∼500 °C). In this study, we report the growth of α-Ga2O3 by low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) on sapphire substrate. The film was grown at a rate of 0.48 Å/cycle, and predominantly consists of α-Ga2O3 in the form of (0001) -oriented columns originating from the interface with the substrate. Some inclusions were also present, typically at the tips of the α phase columns and most likely comprising ε-Ga2O3. The remainder of the Ga2O3 film - i.e. nearer the surface and between the α-Ga2O3 columns, was amorphous. The film was found to be highly resistive, as is expected for undoped material. This study demonstrates that α-Ga2O3 films can be grown by low temperature ALD and suggests the possibility of a new range of ultraviolet optoelectronic and power devices grown by ALD. The study also shows that scanning electron diffraction is a powerful technique to identify the different polymorphs of Ga2O3 present in multiphase samples.

  10. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp. Grown in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo P. Vanhanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L., Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little, Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don, Johann’s pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert, Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L. and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière, was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  11. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P.; Savage, Geoffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann’s pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals. PMID:28239104

  12. Production and chemical composition of three sugarcane cultivars grown under Af climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sousa Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and yield of three sugarcane cultivars grown under Af climate conditions. Three sugarcane cultivars were examined, namely, IACSP93-6006, RB83-5486, and SP79-1011, in a randomized block design with three treatments, four blocks, and two replicates per block; means were compared using Tukey's test at 5% probability level. Significant differences were observed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, lignin (LIG, cellulose, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, total carbohydrates, carbohydrate fractions B2 and C, and dry matter yield. The fiber components (NDFap, LIG, and fraction C displayed low values. The cultivars produced high dry matter yields, especially IACSP93-6006 and SP79-1011. There were no differences among sucrose (Pol values and the NDF/Pol ratios. The low Pol values indicate that sugarcane grown under Af climate conditions does not produce high levels of sucrose. The three sugarcane cultivars grown under the Af climate conditions produce high yields of DM/ha but low concentrations of the fiber components, as well as low Pol concentrations.

  13. Metabolic responses of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 grown on diesel oil and various hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczi, Krisztián; Kis, Ágnes; Horváth, Balázs; Maróti, Gergely; Hegedüs, Botond; Perei, Katalin; Rákhely, Gábor

    2015-11-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 is able to degrade diesel oil, normal-, iso- and cycloparaffins and aromatic compounds. The complete DNA content of the strain was previously sequenced and numerous oxygenase genes were identified. In order to identify the key elements participating in biodegradation of various hydrocarbons, we performed a comparative whole transcriptome analysis of cells grown on hexadecane, diesel oil and acetate. The transcriptomic data for the most prominent genes were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of two genes coding for alkane-1-monooxygenase enzymes was highly upregulated in the presence of hydrocarbon substrates. The transcription of eight phylogenetically diverse cytochrome P450 (cyp) genes was upregulated in the presence of diesel oil. The transcript levels of various oxygenase genes were determined in cells grown in an artificial mixture, containing hexadecane, cycloparaffin and aromatic compounds and six cyp genes were induced by this hydrocarbon mixture. Five of them were not upregulated by linear and branched hydrocarbons. The expression of fatty acid synthase I genes was downregulated by hydrocarbon substrates, indicating the utilization of external alkanes for fatty acid synthesis. Moreover, the transcription of genes involved in siderophore synthesis, iron transport and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis was also upregulated, indicating their important role in hydrocarbon metabolism. Based on the results, complex metabolic response profiles were established for cells grown on various hydrocarbons. Our results represent a functional annotation of a rhodococcal genome, provide deeper insight into molecular events in diesel/hydrocarbon utilization and suggest novel target genes for environmental monitoring projects.

  14. Amphoteric Behavior of Impurities in GaN Film Grown on Si Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Ick; Lee, Dong-Sik; Lee, Heon-Bok; Hahm, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2007-05-01

    Hall measurement presented that an unintentionally doped uniform and crack-free GaN film grown on n-type (111)-oriented Si substrate with high temperature-grown relatively thin AlN single and multiple buffer layer shows p-type conductivity. The position of valence band maximum at the surface of the film measured by the synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy is below Fermi level at 1.09 eV due to band bending at the surface, which is indicative for the p-type nature of the grown film. The n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) fabricated on the GaN layer exhibited normally-off mode operation. This cannot be achieved if the GaN layer is not p-type. It is believed that the spatial coordination of auto-doped Si atoms, out-diffused from the substrate, or carbon complexes from metal-organic (MO) precursor favorably occupy the substitutional nitrogen site of the GaN film when the film is under tensile strain during the growth, which clearly explains that the p-type conduction is originated from the stress dependent amphoteric nature of Si atom and/or carbon complex in GaN.

  15. An elemental analysis of conventionally, organically and self-grown carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčová, Anna; Návesník, Jakub; Jičínská, Jaroslava; Černohorský, Tomáš

    2016-02-01

    Conventionally-, organically- and self-grown carrots available across the Czech market were characterised based on their elemental, nitrate and dry matter content (218 samples, 20 parameters) in order to assess the quality of the carrots and address the question whether organic also means better. The results were compared with information describing the elemental composition of carrots published previously, recommended daily intakes, and legislative limits for contaminants in food. Significant differences in the amounts of Na, K, S, Al, Mn, Ni, As and Cd were observed between conventional and organic carrots. From the perspective of inter-element interactions, and the origin of these, a principal components analysis of the datasets found no significant differences between conventionally- and organically-grown carrots. For the consumer, it is valuable to know there are no differences between conventionally- and organically-grown carrots, and no potential harm arising from heavy metal contamination. Based on our data, carrots are an excellent source of potassium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Commensal Strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis Overexpresses Membrane Proteins Associated with Pathogenesis When Grown in Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila-Arcos, S; Ding, S; Aloria, K; Arizmendi, J M; Fearnley, I M; Walker, J E; Goñi, F M; Alkorta, I

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of implanted medical devices. The most important factor in the pathogenesis of these infections is the formation of bacterial biofilms. Bacteria grown in biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics and to the immune defence system than planktonic bacteria. In these infections, the antimicrobial therapy usually fails and the removal of the biofilm-coated implanted device is the only effective solution. In this study, three proteomic approaches were performed to investigate membrane proteins associated to biofilm formation: (i) sample fractionation by gel electrophoresis, followed by isotopic labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis, (ii) in-solution sample preparation, followed by isotopic labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis and (iii) in-solution sample preparation and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis. We found that the commensal strain S. epidermidis CECT 231 grown in biofilms expressed higher levels of five membrane and membrane-associated proteins involved in pathogenesis: accumulation-associated protein, staphylococcal secretory antigen, signal transduction protein TRAP, ribonuclease Y and phenol soluble modulin beta 1 when compared with bacteria grown under planktonic conditions. These results indicate that a commensal strain can acquire a pathogenic phenotype depending on the mode of growth.

  17. Residual carrier density in GaSb grown on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Ueta, Akio; Ohtani, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between the densities of residual carriers and those of dislocation in GaSb films grown on Si substrates were investigated. Dislocation density was evaluated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM images indicated that the dislocation density after a 5-μm-thick GaSb film was grown was below 1 x 10 8 /cm 2 although the density near the interface between the Si substrate and the GaSb film was about 3 x 10 9 /cm 2 . Forming a dislocation loop by growing a thick GaSb layer may decrease the dislocation density. The density and mobility of the residual carrier were investigated by Hall measurement using the van der Pauw method. The residual carriers in GaSb grown on Si substrates were holes, and their densities decreased significantly from 4.2 x 10 18 to 1.4 x 10 17 /cm 3 as GaSb thickness was increased from 500 to 5500 nm

  18. Morphology and photoresponse of crystalline antimony film grown on mica by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafa Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimony is a promising material for the fabrication of photodetectors. This study deals with the growth of a photosensitive thin film by the physical vapor deposition (PVD of antimony onto mica surface in a furnace tube. The geometry of the grown structures was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and elemental diffraction analysis. XRD peaks of the antimony film grown on mica mostly matched with JCPDF Card. The formation of rhombohedral crystal structures in the film was further confirmed by SEM micrographs and chemical composition analysis. The Hall measurements revealed good electrical conductivity of the film with bulk carrier concentration of the order of 1022 Ω·cm-3 and mobility of 9.034 cm2/Vs. The grown film was successfully tested for radiation detection. The photoresponse of the film was evaluated using its current-voltage characteristics. These investigations revealed that the photosensitivity of the antimony film was 20 times higher than that of crystalline germanium.

  19. Effects of drought on cadmium accumulation in peanuts grown in a contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shenglan; Wang, Xvming; Su, Genqiang; Shi, Gangrong

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of drought stress on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in contaminated calcareous soils. Five peanut cultivars were grown in a calcareous soil spiked with 4 mg Cd kg(-1) soil (dry weight) under well-watered, mild drought, and severe drought conditions. The biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation in plant tissues were determined. The five cultivars significantly differed from each other in biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation. The effect of drought on Cd accumulation in peanuts varies with plant tissues, cultivars, and developmental stages. Drought decreased root Cd concentrations in seedlings of the two high Cd-accumulating cultivars (Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3), which is associated with increasing leaf active Fe content. However, for the mature plants, drought stress caused an increase in Cd accumulation in roots, pod walls, and seeds depending on peanut cultivars. Negative correlations were found between seed Cd concentration and biomasses in both preflowering seedlings and mature plants. The seed Cd concentration in mature plants was also observed to be positively correlated with the shoot Cd concentration in preflowering seedlings. The increased Cd concentration in seeds of drought-stressed peanut plants grown in Cd-contaminated calcareous soils might be attributed to the drought-induced decrease of biomass production.

  20. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Lesley A; Jackson, Brian E; Fonteno, William C

    2015-07-03

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  1. Uptake and translocation of sulfamethazine by alfalfa grown under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan; Struckhoff, Garrett; Pugh, Kameron; Singh, Om

    2017-03-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used in intensive animal agriculture operations collectively known as Concentrated Animal Feed Operations (CAFO) which include dairy, poultry and swine farms. Wastewater generated by CAFOs often contains low levels of antibiotics and is typically managed in an anaerobic lagoon. The objective of this research is to investigate the uptake and fate of aqueous sulfamethazine (SMN) antibiotic by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grass grown under hydroponic conditions. Uptake studies were conducted using hydroponically grown alfalfa in a commercially available nutrient solution supplemented with 10mg/L of SMN antibiotic. Analysis of alfalfa sap, root zone, middle one-third, and top portion of the foliage showed varying uptake rate and translocation of SMN. The highest average amount of SMN (8.58μg/kg) was detected in the root zone, followed by the top portion (1.89μg/kg), middle one-third (1.30μg/kg), and sap (0.38μg/kg) samples, indicating a clear distribution of SMN within the sampled regions. The ultraviolet (UV) spectra of parent SMN and translocated SMN identified in different parts of the plant present the possibility of metabolization during the uptake process. Uptake of SMN using alfalfa grown under hydroponic conditions has potential as a promising remediation technology for removal of similar antibiotics from wastewater lagoons. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Improvement in Field Electron Emission Performance of Natural-Precursor-Grown Carbon Nanofibers by Thermal Annealing in Argon Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pradip; Zamri, Mohd; Ghosh, Debasish; Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi; Hashimoto, Shinobu; Ohashi, Shuho; Tanemura, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown on a graphite substrate by the spray pyrolysis of a botanical hydrocarbon, turpentine oil, using ferrocene as the catalyst and sulfur as the promoter. The as-grown CNFs were annealed at 450 °C for 30 min in an air, and then at 1800 °C in an argon atmosphere for 2 h. The annealed CNFs have better degree of crystallinity and reduced number of defects compared with the as-grown CNFs confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The as-grown and annealed CNFs were found to be effective electron emitters with turn-on fields of 3.2 and 2.1 V/µm, respectively. The improvement in field emission (FE) performance can be explained in terms of the higher degree of graphitization of the CNFs after thermal annealing. This improved FE performance of the natural precursor grown CNFs was comparable to the FE performance level attainable for the conventional carbon nanomaterials grown using petroleum products. Thus, it was considered that the use of petroleum products could be avoidable for CNF growth and that CNFs grown using ecofriendly materials are very promising for the application in future field emission displays (FEDs).

  3. An in vitro study of bone cells grown on an electrospun scaffold for bone repair and reconstruction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wepener, I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .1007/s10856-012-4751-y Results (Mitochondrial membrane potential) Fig. 4: Mitochondrial membrane measurement of osteoblast cells grown on (a) tissue culture plates (control) and (b) on electrospun scaffolds. Cells grown on electrospun scaffolds did.... (2012), J Mater Sci: Mater Med, DOI 10.1007/s10856-012-4751-y Results (Cell cycle progression) Fig. 6: Histogram representation of osteoclast-like cells grown for 6 days on (a) tissue culture plates (control) and (b) electrospun scaffold. Normal cell...

  4. Production of novel types of antibacterial liamocins by diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans grown on different culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective was to compare production of antibacterial liamocins by diverse strains of A. pullulans grown on different culture media. Results: Liamocins produced by strains of A. pullulans have potential agricultural and pharmaceutical applications as antibacterials with specificity aga...

  5. Short-term variations in photosynthetic parameters of Nannochloropsis cultures grown in two types of outdoor mass cultivation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromkamp, J.C.; Beardall, J.; Sukenik, A.; Kopecky, J.; Masojidek, J.; van Bergeijk, S.; Gabai, S.; Shaham, E.; Yamson, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated productivity under different operational (optical) conditions using the unicellular alga Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyta). This alga is often grown in mass algal cultures because it contains high contents of the polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA,

  6. Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber/Polydicyclopentadiene Composites: Shapeable Pastes to Make Composite Tooling and Plasma Erosion-Resistant Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pittman, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCF) with 60-250nm diameters and 10 to 80 micrometers lengths were blended with the nonpolar organic monomer, dicyclopentadiene, to create liquid dispersions or pastes (based on the wt% fiber used...

  7. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agouram, S.; Zuniga Perez, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Universitat de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Burjassot (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    ZnO films were grown on GaAs(100), GaAs(111)A and GaAs(111)B substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and tertiarybutanol (t-butanol) were used as Zn and O precursors, respectively. The influence of the growth temperature and GaAs substrate orientation on the crystalline orientation and morphology of the ZnO grown films has been analysed. Crystallinity of grown films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD); thickness and morphology of ZnO films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM results reveal significant differences between morphologies depending on growth temperature but not significant differences were detected on the texture of grown films. (orig.)

  8. Molecular Beam Epitaxy-Grown InGaN Nanomushrooms and Nanowires for White Light Source Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gasim, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the observation of coexisting InGaN nanomushrooms and nanowires grown via MBE. Photoluminescence characterization shows that the nanostructures emit yellow and blue light, respectively. The combined emission is promising for white-LEDs.

  9. The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. (Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela))

    1994-06-01

    The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

  10. Locally Grown: Examining Attitudes and Perceptions About Organic Cotton Production and Manufacturing Between Mississippi Cotton Growers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes and perceptions about organic cotton of Mississippi cotton growers and producers in comparison to fashion-conscious consumers, including advantages/disadvantages of growing and production processes, quality control, consumer preferences, and competitive price structures/profit margins. A sample size of 16 local Mississippi growers and/or producers and 44 undergraduate students at a mid-major Southeastern university were chosen to participate in the study. Instruments were developed based on current research and the definition of organic cotton production defined by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results indicate 75% of growers and producers do not perceive a quality difference between organic and conventionally grown cotton, while 72.7% of the consumers report organically grown cotton is capable of producing a higher quality product compared to conventionally grown cotton. Even with an increase in organic cotton prices (25- 40% higher premium, only 25% of growers and producers would be willing to convert, while a majority (52.3% of consumers would not be willing to spend more than 25% extra for an organically grown cotton product. Consumers indicate the negative effects of conventionally grown cotton, yet many report little knowledge about organic cotton production, while growers/producers immediately dismiss organically grown cotton as a retail marketing strategy.

  11. Growth, structural, optical, mechanical and quantum chemical analysis of unidirectional grown bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate (BGSSA) single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, R.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Amarsingh Bhabu, K.; Balu, T.; Murugakoothan, P.; Rajasekaran, T. R.

    2018-02-01

    Bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate single crystal was grown by using Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method from the solution of methanol and water in equimolar ratio. Good quality crystal with 50 mm length and 10 mm in diameter was grown. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the crystal structure and it was found to be orthorhombic. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopic study revealed that the SR method grown crystal had good optical transparency with wide optical band gap of 4.4 eV. The presence of the functional groups and modes of vibrations were identified by FTIR spectroscopy recorded in the range 4000-400 cm-1. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal was confirmed using Vickers microhardness tester by applying load from 25 g to 100 g. Density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP/6-31-G (d,p) level basis set was employed and hence the optimized molecular geometry, first order hyperpolarizability, dipole moment, thermodynamic functions, molecular electrostatic potential and frontier molecular orbital analysis of the grown BGSSA sample was computed and analysed.

  12. Reasons for Vaping among U.S. 12th Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Polce, Rebecca J; Patrick, Megan E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Miech, Richard A; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2017-12-20

    Vaping has recently increased in popularity among adolescents. Little is known about heterogeneity of vapers, particularly in terms of why they vape. Identifying major subgroups of adolescent vapers by reasons for vaping is important to understand adolescent vaping behavior and to identify those most at risk for other substance use. Monitoring Future data from 2015 and 2016 were used in a latent class analysis to identify subgroups of 12th graders based on their endorsement of 10 potential reasons for vaping. Multinomial regression with a latent class outcome was used to predict class membership. Three distinct classes of vapers were identified: adolescents who were (1) Vaping to Experiment (29.4%), (2) Vaping to Replace Cigarettes (7.3%), and (3) Vaping for Taste + Entertainment (63.4%). Vaping only flavors was associated with lower odds of membership and cigarette use was associated with higher odds of membership in the Vaping to Replace Cigarettes subgroup, and marijuana was associated with lower odds of membership in the Vaping to Experiment subgroup, compared with the Vaping for Taste + Entertainment subgroup. This study identified multiple subgroups of vapers based on reasons for vaping. Whereas a small subgroup vaped for reasons related to cigarette use, most adolescent vapers reported vaping for reasons unrelated to cigarette use. There were considerable differences in primary reasons for vaping and risk for traditional cigarette and other substance use, suggesting different intervention strategies may be needed for different subgroups of vapers. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiology of solvent tolerance in Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isken, S.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic solvents, like toluene, are toxic for living organisms. This toxicity is an important drawback in the environmental biotechnology as well as in the application of solvents in the production of fine chemicals by whole-cell biotransformations. The effects of organic

  14. Occurrence and Dispersal of Indicator Bacteria on Cucumbers Grown Horizontally or Vertically on Various Mulch Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Shirley A; Callahan, Mary Theresa; Pagadala, Sivaranjani

    2016-10-01

    No data exist on the impact of cultivation practices on food safety risks associated with cucumber. Cucumbers are typically grown horizontally over a mulch cover, with fruit touching the ground, but this vining plant grows well in vertical systems. To assess whether production system affects bacterial dispersal onto plants, field trials were conducted over 2 years. Cucumber cultivar 'Marketmore 76' was grown horizontally on plastic, straw, or bare ground or vertically on trellises installed on bare ground in soil previously amended with raw dairy manure. Fruit, flower, leaf, and soil samples were collected to quantify Escherichia coli , thermotolerant coliforms, and enterococci by direct plating. E. coli isolates were characterized by BOX-PCR to evaluate relatedness among strains. Although thermotolerant coliforms and enterococci were significantly less abundant on fruit in year 1 (P straw-mulched beds had higher levels of enterococci compared with fruit grown on bare ground (P plastic mulch beds (P straw-mulched, and trellised beds (subcluster B1). None of the isolates from soil and flowers in this subcluster were related to isolates recovered from fruit, showing that flower colonization does not necessarily lead to fruit colonization. One cluster of isolates contained those from flowers and fruits but not soil, indicating a source other than manure-amended soil. Straw may be a source of E. coli ; a number of closely related E. coli isolates were retrieved from soil and fruits from straw-mulched beds. Our approach revealed E. coli dispersal patterns and could be used to assess bacterial transmission in other production systems.

  15. Light and temperature regulation of greening in dark-grown ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skribanek, Anna; Solymosi, Katalin; Hideg, Eva; Böddi, Béla

    2008-12-01

    The last steps of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis were studied at different light intensities and temperatures in dark-germinated ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) seedlings. Pigment contents and 77 K fluorescence emission spectra were measured and the plastid ultrastructure was analysed. All dark-grown organs contained protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) forms with similar spectral properties to those of dark-grown angiosperm seedlings, but the ratios of these forms to each other were different. The short-wavelength, monomeric Pchlide forms were always dominating. Etioplasts with small prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and few prothylakoids (PTs) differentiated in the dark-grown stems. Upon illumination with high light intensities (800 micromol m(-2) s(-1) photon flux density, PFD), photo-oxidation and bleaching occurred in the stems and the presence of (1)O(2) was detected. When Chl accumulated in plants illuminated with 15 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PFD it was significantly slower at 10 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. At room temperature, the transformation of etioplasts into young chloroplasts was observed at low light, while it was delayed at 10 degrees C. Grana did not appear in the plastids even after 48 h of greening at 20 degrees C. Reaccumulation of Pchlide forms and re-formation of PLBs occurred when etiolated samples were illuminated with 200 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PFD at room temperature for 24 h and were then re-etiolated for 5 days. The Pchlide forms appeared during re-etiolation had similar spectral properties to those of etiolated seedlings. These results show that ginkgo seedlings are very sensitive to temperature and light conditions during their greening, a fact that should be considered for ginkgo cultivation.

  16. In-depth investigation of spin-on doped solar cells with thermally grown oxide passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mahmmod Ahmad

    Full Text Available Solar cell industrial manufacturing, based largely on proven semiconductor processing technologies supported by significant advancements in automation, has reached a plateau in terms of cost and efficiency. However, solar cell manufacturing cost (dollar/watt is still substantially higher than fossil fuels. The route to lowering cost may not lie with continuing automation and economies of scale. Alternate fabrication processes with lower cost and environmental-sustainability coupled with self-reliance, simplicity, and affordability may lead to price compatibility with carbon-based fuels. In this paper, a custom-designed formulation of phosphoric acid has been investigated, for n-type doping in p-type substrates, as a function of concentration and drive-in temperature. For post-diffusion surface passivation and anti-reflection, thermally-grown oxide films in 50–150-nm thickness were grown. These fabrication methods facilitate process simplicity, reduced costs, and environmental sustainability by elimination of poisonous chemicals and toxic gases (POCl3, SiH4, NH3. Simultaneous fire-through contact formation process based on screen-printed front surface Ag and back surface through thermally grown oxide films was optimized as a function of the peak temperature in conveyor belt furnace. Highest efficiency solar cells fabricated exhibited efficiency of ∼13%. Analysis of results based on internal quantum efficiency and minority carried measurements reveals three contributing factors: high front surface recombination, low minority carrier lifetime, and higher reflection. Solar cell simulations based on PC1D showed that, with improved passivation, lower reflection, and high lifetimes, efficiency can be enhanced to match with commercially-produced PECVD SiN-coated solar cells. Keywords: Crystalline Si solar cells, Phosphoric acid spin-on doping, Screen printing, Thermal oxide passivation

  17. Specific activities of radium-226 in vegetables grown in Na Mom District, Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkunrat, S.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific activity of radium-226 in 13 types of vegetables grown in Namom district, Songkhla province, were analyzed using a low background gamma-ray spectrometer. The analyzed vegetables included Ivy Gourd, Yellow Cassia, White Popinac, Yard Long Bean, Rice, Peanut, Egg Plant, Spineless Amaranth, Swamp Cabbage, Mustart, Chinese Cabbage, Collards and Cucumbers. The control vegetables were taken from Bangklum district, 40 km south of Namom district. The samples were weighed, dried in an oven and finally burnt to ash in a furnace before being analyzed for a gamma ray of 186.2 keV emitted from Radium-226. The results showed that the geometrical means of specific activity of radium-226 of vegetables grown in Pijit, Namom, Klongrang and Thungkamin sub-district and over the Namom district were 1082, 1220, 1457, 1253 and 1250 mBq/kg, respectively. The highest and lowest values were 7882 and 26 mBq/kg, found in Ivy Gourd and Yard Long Bean, respectively. The high specific activities of radium-226 in vegetables were found to be distributed uniformly in the area. This probably indicated the source of radium-226 was also distributed uniformly in the shallow granitic bedrock throughout the area. We concluded that the radium-226 contents in vegetables grown in Namom district depended on the absorbability of alkaline earth metals in vegetables themselves, geographic features and radium content in natural water in the area. The estimated annual effective dose averaged over Namom district was 21 μSv. Consumption of Ivy Gourd may receive the maximum annual effective dose of 132 μSv.

  18. Kinetin modulates physio-hormonal attributes and isoflavone contents of Soybean grown under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Hussain, Anwar; Khan, Sumera Afzal; Irshad, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Iqbal, Amjad; Ullah, Nazif; Rehman, Gauhar; Kim, Ho-Youn; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Crop productivity continues to decline due to a wide array of biotic and abiotic stresses. Salinity is one of the worst abiotic stresses, as it causes huge losses to crop yield each year. Kinetin (Kn) has been reported as plant growth regulator since long, but its role in improving plant growth and food quality under saline conditions through mediating phytohormonal cross-talk is poorly studied. Current study was designed to evaluate the impact of exogenously applied Kn on growth, isoflovones and endogenous phytohormones of soybean grown under NaCl induced salt stress. Soybean plants were grown in perlite (semi hydroponic), and under controlled green-house conditions. Elevated levels of exogenous Kn significantly mitigated the adverse effect of NaCl and rescued plant growth attributes, i.e., plant height, fresh and dry biomass of soybean plants grown in all treatments. Higher diadzen, glycitin, and genistin contents were observed in plants treated with elevated Kn in the presence or absence of NaCl induce salt stress. The gibberellins (GAs) biosynthesis pathway was up-regulated by Kn as the bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents were significantly higher in Kn treated plants, as compared to control, while GAs level reduced in NaCl treated plants. Contrary to GAs, the abscisic acid contents declined with Kn but promoted in NaCl stressed soybean plants. The endogenous jasmonic acid and salicylic acid contents of soybean enhanced with elevated Kn application, but they showed an antagonistic response under salt stress. Current study supports the active role of Kn to ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress on the growth and food quality of soybean. The favorable role of Kn toward soybean growth under salt stress may be attributed to its potential to modulate cross-talk between the various phytohormones involved in soybean growth and its resistance to salinity stress.

  19. Transfer factors of {sup 134}Cs for olive and orange trees grown on different soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarlou, V.; Nobeli, C.; Anoussis, J. [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Haidouti, C. [Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (Greece); Papanicolaou, E. [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    1999-10-01

    Transfer factors (TF) of {sup 134}Cs to olive and citrus trees grown on two different soils, were determined for a 3-year greenhouse experiment. Two-year-old trees were transplanted with their entire rootball into large pots containing the contaminated soil (110 kg pot{sup -1}). The soil was transferred to each pot in layers on the top of which {sup 134}Cs as CsCl was dripped (18.5 MBq pot{sup -1}). For both evergreen trees, soil type significantly influenced radiocaesium transfer. {sup 134}Cs concentration was lower for the calcareous-heavy soil than for the acid-light soil. Transfer factors of orange trees were higher than those of olive trees in the acid-light soil. Although a significant amount of {sup 134}Cs was measured in olives grown on the acid-light soil, no {sup 134}Cs was detected in the unprocessed olive oil when an oil fraction (5% f.w.) was extracted. On the contrary the edible part of the oranges showed the highest {sup 134}Cs concentration of all plant parts. The relationship between {sup 134}Cs uptake and potassium content in the different plant compartments was also studied when selected trees were cut down. The potassium concentration in the plants was not significantly different between the trees growing in the two types of soil in spite of the big differences in the {sup 134}Cs uptake in the two soils. TF values and potassium content in the different plant compartments of each tree were highly correlated. For both crops transfer factors as well as potassium content were the highest in the developing plant parts (new leaves and branches, flowers). The transfer factors of {sup 134}Cs for the studied trees are in the same order of magnitude as the values of annual crops grown under similar conditions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Gentamicin-Eluting Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Grown on the Ultrafine-Grained Titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Sima Hashemi; Hadjizadeh, Afra

    2017-08-01

    Titanium (Ti)-based materials is the most appropriate choices for the applications as orthopedic and dental implants. In this regard, ultrafine-grained (UFG) titanium with an enhanced mechanical properties and surface energy has attracted more attention. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes grown on the titanium could enhance bone bonding, cellular response and are good reservoirs for loading drugs and antibacterial agents. This article investigates gentamicin loading into and release from the TiO 2 nanotubes, grown on the UFG compared to coarse-grained (CG) titanium substrate surfaces. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) was employed to produce the UFG structure titanium. TiO 2 nanotubes were grown by the anodizing technique on both UFG and CG titanium substrate surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging confirmed TiO 2 nanotube growth on the surface. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis results show that the amount of gentamicin load-release in the anodized UFG titanium sample is higher than that of CG one which can be explained in terms of thicker TiO 2 nanotube arrays layer formed on UFG sample. Moreover, the anodized UFG titanium samples released the drug in a longer time than CG (1 day for the UFG titanium vs. 3 h for the CG one). Regarding wettability analysis, anodized UFG titanium sample showed more enhanced hydrophilicity than CG counterpart. Therefore, the significantly smaller grain size of pure titanium provided by the ECAP technique coupled with appropriate subsequent anodization treatment not only offers a good combination of biocompatibility and adequate mechanical properties but also it provides a delayed release condition for gentamicin.