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Sample records for decolorationis s12 grown

  1. [Effects of iron on azoreduction by Shewanella decolorationis S12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-Juan; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The effects of soluble and insoluble Fe(III) on anaerobic azoreduction by Shewanella decolorationis S12 were examined in a series of experiments. Results showed that the effects of iron on anaerobic azoreduction depended on the solubility and concentration of the compounds. Azoreduction was inhibited by insoluble Fe(III) and 0.05-2 mmol/L Fe2 O3 all decelerated the azoreduction activity of 0.2 mmol/L amaranth, but the increase in the concentrations of Fe2O3 did not cause an increasing inhibition. Soluble Fe(III) of which concentration less than 0.4 mmol/L enhanced azoreduction activity of 0.2 mmol/L amaranth but there was no linear relationship between the concentration of soluble Fe(III) and azoreduction activity. Soluble Fe(III) of which concentration more than 1 mmol/L inhibited azoreduction activity of 0.2 mmol/L amaranth and an increasing concentration resulted in an increased inhibition. The inhibition was strengthened under the conditions of limited electron donor. On the other hand, soluble Fe(III) and Fe(II) could relieve the inhibition of azoreduction by dicumarol which blocked quinone cycle. It suggests that in addition to quinone cycle, there is a Fe(III) Fe(II) cycle shuttling electrons in cytoplasmic and periplasmic environment. That is the reason why low concentration of soluble Fe(III) or Fe (II) can enhance azoreduction of S. decolorationis S12. It also indicates that insoluble Fe(III) and high concentration of soluble Fe(III) do compete with azo dye for electrons once it acts as electron acceptor. Thus, when iron and azo dye coexisted, iron could serve as an electron transfer agent or electron competitive inhibitor for anaerobic azoreduction under different conditions. High efficiency of azoreduction can be achieved through controlling the solubility and concentration of irons.

  2. Multiple approaches towards decolorization and reuse of a textile dye (VB-B) by a marine bacterium Shewanella decolorationis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SatheeshBabu, S.; Mohandass, C.; VijayRaj, A.S.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Dhale, M.A.

    stream_size 41279 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Water_Air_Soil_Pollut_224_1500a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Water_Air_Soil_Pollut_224_1500a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8...     1    Author version: Water Air Soil Pollut., vol.224(4); 2013; 1500 Multiple approaches towards decolorization and reuse of a textile dye (VB-B) by a marine bacterium Shewanella decolorationis S. Satheesh Babu, C.Mohandass*, A.S.Vijay Raj, R...

  3. Biological production of hydroxylated aromatics : Optimization strategies for Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, A.

    2010-01-01

    To replace environmentally unfriendly petrochemical production processes, the demand for bio-based production of organic chemicals is increasing. This thesis focuses on the biological production of hydroxylated aromatics from renewable substrates by engineered P. putida S12 including several cases

  4. Testosterone 15β-hydroxylation by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Sperling, E.M.G.M.; Wiegerinck, P.H.G.; Brands, F.T.L.; Wery, J.; Bont, J.A.M.de

    2007-01-01

    A steroid 15β-hydroxylating whole-cell solvent tolerant biocatalyst was constructed by expressing the Bacillus megaterium steroid hydroxylase CYP106A2 in the solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. Testosterone hydroxylation was improved by a factor 16 by co-expressing Fer, a putative Fe-S protein

  5. Physiological response of Pseudomonas putida S12 subjected to reduced water activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Heipieper, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of osmotic stress, given as decreased water activity (aw), on growth and the accumulation of potassium and the compatible solute betaine by Pseudomonas putida S12 was investigated. Reduced aw was imposed by addition of sodium chloride, sucrose, glycerol or polyethylene glycol to the

  6. Establishment of oxidative D-xylose metabolism in Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnen, J.P.; Winde, J.H. de; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative D-xylose catabolic pathway of Caulobacter crescentus, encoded by the xylXABCD operon, was expressed in the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12. This engineered transformant strain was able to grow on D-xylose as a sole carbon source with a biomass yield of 53% (based on g

  7. Mutational analysis of S12 protein and implications for the accuracy of decoding by the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Cukras, Anthony R; Rogers, Elizabeth J; Southworth, Daniel R; Green, Rachel

    2007-12-07

    The fidelity of aminoacyl-tRNA selection by the ribosome depends on a conformational switch in the decoding center of the small ribosomal subunit induced by cognate but not by near-cognate aminoacyl-tRNA. The aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin bind to the decoding center and induce related structural rearrangements that explain their observed effects on miscoding. Structural and biochemical studies have identified ribosomal protein S12 (as well as specific nucleotides in 16S ribosomal RNA) as a critical molecular contributor in distinguishing between cognate and near-cognate tRNA species as well as in promoting more global rearrangements in the small subunit, referred to as "closure." Here we use a mutational approach to define contributions made by two highly conserved loops in S12 to the process of tRNA selection. Most S12 variant ribosomes tested display increased levels of fidelity (a "restrictive" phenotype). Interestingly, several variants, K42A and R53A, were substantially resistant to the miscoding effects of paromomycin. Further characterization of the compromised paromomycin response identified a probable second, fidelity-modulating binding site for paromomycin in the 16S ribosomal RNA that facilitates closure of the small subunit and compensates for defects associated with the S12 mutations.

  8. LOFT CIS analysis: 24'' H and V Duct outside penetration S-12A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, A.T.

    1978-01-01

    The 24'' H and V Duct and related piping outside the LOFT containment and connected to containment penetration S-12A were analyzed to ASME Section III, Subsection NC (Class 2) criteria. The duct is part of the Containment Isolation System. The model considered the duct from the containment O.D. outward through the second isolation valve. Results of this analysis show that this section of the line will meet Class 2 requirements without modification

  9. LOFT CIS analysis: 24'' H and V Duct outside penetration S-12A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, A.T.

    1978-08-18

    The 24'' H and V Duct and related piping outside the LOFT containment and connected to containment penetration S-12A were analyzed to ASME Section III, Subsection NC (Class 2) criteria. The duct is part of the Containment Isolation System. The model considered the duct from the containment O.D. outward through the second isolation valve. Results of this analysis show that this section of the line will meet Class 2 requirements without modification.

  10. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Sludge Palm Oil Using Pseudomonas putida S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Du-Kyeong; Lee, Cho-Ryong; Lee, Sun Hee; Bae, Jung-Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon; Rhee, Young Ha; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2017-05-28

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics produced by bacteria, but their use in diverse applications is prohibited by high production costs. To reduce these costs, the conversion by Pseudomonas strains of P HAs from crude s ludge p alm oil ( SPO) a s an inexpensive renewable raw material was tested. Pseudomonas putida S12 was found to produce the highest yield (~41%) of elastomeric medium-chain-length (MCL)-PHAs from SPO. The MCL-PHA characteristics were analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. These findings may contribute to more widespread use of PHAs by reducing PHA production costs.

  11. Graphic Grown Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  12. An Examination of XMOOCs: An Embedded Single Case Study Based on Conole’s 12 Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil KOCDAR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to examine the xMOOCs offered by one of the mainstream MOOC platforms in Conole’s 12 dimensions. For this purpose, the research employed an embedded single case study using heuristic inquiry to collect data. The researchers participated in three xMOOCs and took into consideration the characteristics of these MOOCs by rating them as low, medium or high in terms of Conole’s 12 dimensions. Inter-rater reliability was 92 percent. The study showed that the openness, massiveness, diversity, use of multimedia, communication among learners, learning pathway and amount of reflection dimensions were high. The communication with instructors, degree of collaboration and autonomy dimensions were medium, and the quality assurance, certification, and formal learning dimensions were low. After explaining characteristics of xMOOCs from the perspective of open learning, the study highlighted that xMOOCs dramatically differ with regard to the implementation of the freemium business model to education and course delivery methods. It was concluded that MOOCs are not a new form of learning, but a new form of organizing learning similar to the open university movement, but which promises more flexibility and access than open universities.

  13. Design and synthesis of the superionic conductor Na10SnP2S12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William D.; Tsujimura, Tomoyuki; Miara, Lincoln J.; Wang, Yan; Kim, Jae Chul; Ong, Shyue Ping; Uechi, Ichiro; Suzuki, Naoki; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are emerging as candidates for large-scale energy storage due to their low cost and the wide variety of cathode materials available. As battery size and adoption in critical applications increases, safety concerns are resurfacing due to the inherent flammability of organic electrolytes currently in use in both lithium and sodium battery chemistries. Development of solid-state batteries with ionic electrolytes eliminates this concern, while also allowing novel device architectures and potentially improving cycle life. Here we report the computation-assisted discovery and synthesis of a high-performance solid-state electrolyte material: Na10SnP2S12, with room temperature ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 rivalling the conductivity of the best sodium sulfide solid electrolytes to date. We also computationally investigate the variants of this compound where tin is substituted by germanium or silicon and find that the latter may achieve even higher conductivity.

  14. Design and synthesis of the superionic conductor Na10SnP2S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William D; Tsujimura, Tomoyuki; Miara, Lincoln J; Wang, Yan; Kim, Jae Chul; Ong, Shyue Ping; Uechi, Ichiro; Suzuki, Naoki; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-03-17

    Sodium-ion batteries are emerging as candidates for large-scale energy storage due to their low cost and the wide variety of cathode materials available. As battery size and adoption in critical applications increases, safety concerns are resurfacing due to the inherent flammability of organic electrolytes currently in use in both lithium and sodium battery chemistries. Development of solid-state batteries with ionic electrolytes eliminates this concern, while also allowing novel device architectures and potentially improving cycle life. Here we report the computation-assisted discovery and synthesis of a high-performance solid-state electrolyte material: Na10SnP2S12, with room temperature ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm(-1) rivalling the conductivity of the best sodium sulfide solid electrolytes to date. We also computationally investigate the variants of this compound where tin is substituted by germanium or silicon and find that the latter may achieve even higher conductivity.

  15. Bilateral cochlear implants in infants: a new approach--Nucleus Hybrid S12 project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Bruce J; Dunn, Camille C; Walker, Elizabeth A; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya; Tomblin, Bruce; Turner, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate whether the use of a shorter-length cochlear implant (10 mm) on one ear and a standard electrode (24 mm) on the contralateral ear is a viable bilateral option for children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether the ear with the shorter-length electrode performs similarly to the standard-length electrode. Our goal was to provide an option of electrical stimulation that theoretically might preserve the structures of the scala media and organ of Corti. The study is being conducted as a repeated-measure, single-subject experiment. University of Iowa-Department of Otolaryngology. Eight pediatric patients with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss between the ages of 12 and 24 months. Nucleus Hybrid S12 10-mm electrode and a Nucleus Freedom implant in the contralateral ear. The Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) parent questionnaire, Early Speech Perception, Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure word test, and Children's Vowel tests will be used to evaluate speech perception and the Minnesota Child Development Inventory and Preschool Language Scales 3 test will be used to evaluate language growth. Preliminary results for 8 children have been collected before and after the operation using the IT-MAIS. All 3 children showed incremental improvements in their IT-MAIS scores overtime. Early Speech Perception, Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure word test, and Children's Vowel word perception results indicated no difference between the individual ears for the 2 children tested. Performance compared with age-matched children implanted with standard bilateral cochlear implants showed similar results to the children implanted with Nucleus Hybrid S12 10-mm electrode and a Nucleus Freedom implant in contralateral ears. The use of a shorter-length cochlear implant on one ear and a standard-length electrode on the

  16. Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Infants: A New Approach—Nucleus Hybrid S12 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Bruce J.; Dunn, Camille C.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya; Tomblin, Bruce; Turner, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate whether the use of a shorter-length cochlear implant (10 mm) on one ear and a standard electrode (24 mm) on the contralateral ear is a viable bilateral option for children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether the ear with the shorter-length electrode performs similarly to the standard-length electrode. Our goal was to provide an option of electrical stimulation that theoretically might preserve the structures of the scala media and organ of Corti. Study Design The study is being conducted as a repeated-measure, single-subject experiment. Setting University of Iowa—Department of Otolaryngology. Patients Eight pediatric patients with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss between the ages of 12 and 24 months. Interventions Nucleus Hybrid S12 10-mm electrode and a Nucleus Freedom implant in the contralateral ear. Main Outcome Measures The Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) parent questionnaire, Early Speech Perception, Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure word test, and Children’s Vowel tests will be used to evaluate speech perception and the Minnesota Child Development Inventory and Preschool Language Scales 3 test will be used to evaluate language growth. Results Preliminary results for 8 children have been collected before and after the operation using the IT-MAIS. All 3 children showed incremental improvements in their IT-MAIS scores overtime. Early Speech Perception, Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure word test, and Children’s Vowel word perception results indicated no difference between the individual ears for the 2 children tested. Performance compared with age-matched children implanted with standard bilateral cochlear implants showed similar results to the children implanted with Nucleus Hybrid S12 10-mm electrode and a Nucleus Freedom implant in contralateral ears

  17. Influence of Li10GeP2S12-type solid electrolyte on cell thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jishnu Bhattacharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We elucidate few critical facts about the lithium superionic conductor (Li10GeP2S12 and few other compounds of the same family as the electrolyte in Li-ion cells. The dimensionality of diffusion process and existence of ‘structural’ lithiums are not well understood in this material. From the ab-initio MD simulations, we find that the material transport Li-ions predominantly in the crystallographic c-direction. Nevertheless, the cross-channel diffusion is significant as well. We explored the mobility of individual Li-ions and do not find evidence that supports the proposition of structural Li-ions in LGPS. We find nominal effect of local Ge-P ordering and of Li-concentration change on diffusivity, which not only provides information about the invariance of diffusivity at different conditions of operation, but also ensures that identification of the ground state structure in LGPS having partially occupied Li and Ge/P sublattices should have minimal effect on the diffusion analysis. We computed the dilute Li insertion and extraction voltages for LGPS from ab-initio total energy calculation. The dilute voltages indicate that the material is prone to react by exchanging Li-ions with the electrodes at typical operating range of voltages indicating formation of some interphase at the electrode-electrolyte interface, which necessitates further experimental investigation

  18. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  19. Grown on Novel Microcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Falk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells have been tested as a cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease but will require additional study before further clinical trials can be planned. We now show that the long-term survival and neurotrophic potential of hRPE cells can be enhanced by the use of FDA-approved plastic-based microcarriers compared to a gelatin-based microcarrier as used in failed clinical trials. The hRPE cells grown on these plastic-based microcarriers display several important characteristics of hRPE found in vivo: (1 characteristic morphological features, (2 accumulation of melanin pigment, and (3 high levels of production of the neurotrophic factors pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Growth of hRPE cells on plastic-based microcarriers led to sustained levels (>1 ng/ml of PEDF and VEGF-A in conditioned media for two months. We also show that the expression of VEGF-A and PEDF is reciprocally regulated by activation of the GPR143 pathway. GPR143 is activated by L-DOPA (1 μM which decreased VEGF-A secretion as opposed to the previously reported increase in PEDF secretion. The hRPE microcarriers are therefore novel candidate delivery systems for achieving long-term delivery of the neuroprotective factors PEDF and VEGF-A, which could have a value in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

  20. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  1. Spin-triplet excitons and anisotropy effects in the S=12 gapped antiferromagnet BaCuSi2O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvyagin, S.A.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Stern, R.; Jaime, M.; Sasago, Y.; Uchinokura, K.

    2007-01-01

    BaCuSi 2 O 6 can be regarded as an almost ideal realization of an S=12 system of weakly interacting spin dimers with spin-singlet ground state and gapped excitation spectrum. We argue that the fine structure observed in low-temperature EPR spectra of BaCuSi 2 O 6 is a fingerprint of triplet excitations (excitons). Analyzing the angular dependence of the exciton modes allows us to precisely calculate the zero-field splitting within the triplet states and, correspondingly, the anisotropy parameter, D=0.07cm -1 . The proposed procedure can be applied for studying anisotropy effects in a large number of S=12 gapped quantum antiferromagnets with dimerized or alternating spin structure

  2. The mitochondrial gene encoding ribosomal protein S12 has been translocated to the nuclear genome in Oenothera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, L; Brennicke, A; Schuster, W

    1992-01-01

    The Oenothera mitochondrial genome contains only a gene fragment for ribosomal protein S12 (rps12), while other plants encode a functional gene in the mitochondrion. The complete Oenothera rps12 gene is located in the nucleus. The transit sequence necessary to target this protein to the mitochondrion is encoded by a 5'-extension of the open reading frame. Comparison of the amino acid sequence encoded by the nuclear gene with the polypeptides encoded by edited mitochondrial cDNA and genomic sequences of other plants suggests that gene transfer between mitochondrion and nucleus started from edited mitochondrial RNA molecules. Mechanisms and requirements of gene transfer and activation are discussed. Images PMID:1454526

  3. Skin cancer full-grown from scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors investigate the peculiarities of skin cancer full-grown from scar, the theory of it's descent, quote some statistical data on skin cancer full-grown from scar and variety clinical forms of skin cancer full-grown from scar was shown, quote some methods of treatment

  4. Photoelectric guided AGV based on MC9S12XS128MAL%基于MC9S12XS128MAL控制的光电导引式AGV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 汪宇辰; 梁伟健; 叶波; 周杰

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the drawbacks that automatic guided vehicles (AGV) are bulky and expensive,a system based on Freescale micro processor Mc9S12XS128MAL was used to design the economic photoelectric guided AGV system with the sophisticated intelligent car racing of the Froescale cup and the cheep electric wheelchairs.Experimental study on the ultrosonic sensors was carried out on a test rig.The obastacle distance in emergency was measured experimentally.The LCD module was introduced to display the real time velocity with using photoelectric encoders.Two brushless DC motors were used to drive the wheels,the deviation accumulated algorithm was proposed,The function was realized that the brushless DC motors successfully drive the AGV forward and to turn through differential control.At last,the control method was validated in the experiment.The results indicate that the AGV system is of quick dynamic response and stable operation,and the automatic control of the AGV is excellently realized.%针对目前国内自动导引运输车(AGV)体积大、价格贵的问题,在技术成熟的“飞思卡尔”智能汽车竞赛和价格低廉的电动轮椅车的基础上,设计了一款基于“飞思卡尔”MC9S12XS128MAL微处理器控制的经济型光电导引式AGV系统.在试验台上对超声波传感器进行了测试,确定了紧急情况下的避障距离;采用光电码盘测速,由液晶模块显示出AGV的实时速度;同时结合无刷直流电机驱动原理,提出了基于偏差累积算法的控制方法,实现了差动方式的无刷直流电机驱动AGV直线行驶和转弯的功能,最后通过实验验证了该控制方法的有效性.研究结果表明,此AGV系统响应迅速、运行稳定,很好地实现了AGV的自动控制.

  5. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  6. An insight into intrinsic interfacial properties between Li metals and Li10GeP2S12 solid electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingbing; Ju, Jiangwei; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Jianjun; Xiao, Ruijuan; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2017-11-29

    Density functional theory simulations and experimental studies were performed to investigate the interfacial properties, including lithium ion migration kinetics, between lithium metal anode and solid electrolyte Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 (LGPS). The LGPS[001] plane was chosen as the studied surface because the easiest Li + migration pathway is along this direction. The electronic structure of the surface states indicated that the electrochemical stability was reduced at both the PS 4 - and GeS 4 -teminated surfaces. For the interface cases, the equilibrium interfacial structures of lithium metal against the PS 4 -terminated LGPS[001] surface (Li/PS 4 -LGPS) and the GeS 4 -terminated LGPS[001] surface (Li/GeS 4 -LGPS) were revealed based on the structural relaxation and adhesion energy analysis. Solid electrolyte interphases were expected to be formed at both Li/PS 4 -LGPS and Li/GeS 4 -LGPS interfaces, resulting in an unstable state of interface and large interfacial resistance, which was verified by the EIS results of the Li/LGPS/Li cell. In addition, the simulations of the migration kinetics show that the energy barriers for Li + crossing the Li/GeS 4 -LGPS interface were relatively low compared with the Li/PS 4 -LGPS interface. This may contribute to the formation of Ge-rich phases at the Li/LGPS interface, which can tune the interfacial structures to improve the ionic conductivity for future all-solid-state batteries. This work will offer a thorough understanding of the Li/LGPS interface, including local structures, electronic states and Li + diffusion behaviors in all-solid-state batteries.

  7. Transposon mutations in the flagella biosynthetic pathway of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 result in a decreased expression of solvent efflux genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J; Bruinenberg, R; Keizer-Gunnink, [No Value; de Bont, JAM

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen solvent-sensitive transposon mutants were generated from the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida strain S12 by applying the TnMOD-KmO mutagenesis system. These mutants were unable to grow in the presence of octanol and toluene. By cloning the region flanking the transposon insertion point a

  8. Ribosomal proteins S12 and S13 function as control elements for translocation of the mRNA:tRNA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Anthony R; Southworth, Daniel R; Brunelle, Julie L; Culver, Gloria M; Green, Rachel

    2003-08-01

    Translocation of the mRNA:tRNA complex through the ribosome is promoted by elongation factor G (EF-G) during the translation cycle. Previous studies established that modification of ribosomal proteins with thiol-specific reagents promotes this event in the absence of EF-G. Here we identify two small subunit interface proteins S12 and S13 that are essential for maintenance of a pretranslocation state. Omission of these proteins using in vitro reconstitution procedures yields ribosomal particles that translate in the absence of enzymatic factors. Conversely, replacement of cysteine residues in these two proteins yields ribosomal particles that are refractive to stimulation with thiol-modifying reagents. These data support a model where S12 and S13 function as control elements for the more ancient rRNA- and tRNA-driven movements of translocation.

  9. CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARD ORGANICALLY GROWN LETTUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Johnson, Bradey; Cochran, Kerry; Hamilton, Lynn L.

    2002-01-01

    This research shows that approximately 29 percent of lettuce purchases in California expect to purchase an organically grown lettuce product in the future. Organic lettuce purchasers are more likely to be female, have a higher household income and a higher level of education. Consumers are concerned with the freshness, quality, price, and environmental impact of the lettuce they purchase.

  10. Recrystallization phenomena of solution grown paraffin dendrites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.F.A.; Hollander, F.; Stasse, O.; van Suchtelen, J.; van Enckevort, W.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Paraffin crystals were grown from decane solutions using a micro-Bridgman set up for in-situ observation of the morphology at the growth front. It is shown that for large imposed velocities, dendrites are obtained. After dendritic growth, aging or recrystallization processes set in rather quickly,

  11. Isolation of a putative probiotic strain S12 and its effect on growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease-resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Li, Zheng; Tan, Beiping; Lao, Ye; Duan, Zhiyong; Sun, Wuwei; Dong, Xiaohui

    2014-12-01

    The common pathogens in aquaculture are very different from those in terrestrial animals. The objective of this study was to isolate probiotic strain (s) from the digestive tract of healthy white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which was effective against aquatic animal pathogens. The putative probiotic strain S12 was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on the morphological and biochemical properties and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The L. vannamei were fed with five different diets: control (basal diet with no probiotics or antibiotics), antibiotic control (basal diet supplemented with 0.3% florfenicol), basal diet supplemented with 5 × 10(9) cfu kg(-1) , 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) and 5 × 10(11) cfu kg(-1) probiotic S12 (PS1-3). Each diet was randomly fed to quadruplication groups of 40 shrimps (0.4 ± 0.01 g) reared in tanks. After an 8-week feeding, the survival rate of shrimps fed with PS1 and PS3 were the highest among all treatments (P Vibrio harveyi at 4-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in PS2 and PS3 groups than that in the control. After being infected with V. harveyi at 8-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower in the probiotic and antibiotic groups than that in the control (P < 0.05). This study suggested that probiotics could be used as an effective immunopotentiator, the optimal dose of the probiotic strain S12 is 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-17

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  13. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  14. Heteroepitaxially grown InP solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C.K.; Brinker, D.J.; Wilt, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Although they are significantly more radiation resistant than either Si or GaAs solar cells, their high wafer cost presents a barrier to the widespread use of InP solar cells in space. For this reason, the authors have initiated a program aimed at producing high efficiency, radiation resistant solar cells processed from InP heteroepitaxially grown on cheaper substrates. The authors' objective is to present the most recent results emanating from this program together with the results of their initial proton irradiations on these cells. This paper reports that InP cells were processed from a 4 micron layer of InP, grown by OMCVD on a silicon substrate, with a 0.5 micron buffer layer between the InP directly grown on a GaAs substrate. Initial feasibility studies, in a Lewis sponsored program at the Spire corporation, resulted in air mass zero efficiencies of 7.1% for the former cells and 9.1% for the latter. These initial low efficiencies are attributed to the high dislocation densities caused by lattice mismatch. The authors' preirradiation analysis indicates extremely low minority carrier diffusion lengths, in both cell base and emitter, and high values of both the diffusion and recombination components of the diode reverse saturation currents. Irradiation by 10 MeV protons, to a fluence of 10 13 cm -2 , resulted in relatively low degradation in cell efficiency, short circuit current and open circuit voltage

  15. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  16. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  17. Recent results in characterization of melt-grown and quench-melt- grown YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, U.; Poeppel, R.B.; Gangopadhyay, A.K.

    1992-02-01

    From the standpoint of applications, melt-grown (MG) and quench-melt-grown (QMG) bulk YBCO superconductors are of considerable interest. In this paper, we studied the intragranular critical current density (J c ), the apparent pinning potential (U o ), and the irreversibility temperature (T irr ) of MG and QMG samples and compared the results to those for conventionally sintered YBCO. A systematic increase in U o and a slower drop in J c with temperature indicate a systematic improvement in flux-pinning properties in progressing from the sintered YBCO to QMG and MG samples. Weaker pinning is observed in the QMG YBCO than in the MG samples

  18. Sixth-order Douglas-Kroll: two-component reference data for one-electron ions from 1s12 through 4f72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuellen, Christoph van

    2005-01-01

    Quasirelativistic Douglas-Kroll calculations including spin-orbit interaction have been performed for hydrogen-like (one-electron) ions. The Douglas-Kroll operators have been implemented up to the sixth order, and a huge even-tempered basis set has been applied that gives results to microhartree accuracy for the energy levels 1s 12 through 4f 72 for all ions with nuclear charge from Z=1 up to Z=100. Besides providing reference data for other implementations, these results can be used to analyse the performance of the Douglas-Kroll method. Such an analysis is presented for the 1s energy levels and the spin-orbit splitting of the 2p shell. The leading order of the error of the Douglas-Kroll result is different for 2s and 2p 12 although these levels are degenerate both at nonrelativistic and Dirac level

  19. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi.

  20. Creep properties of a thermally grown alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, K.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kjkang@chonnam.ac.kr; Mercer, C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    A unique test system has been developed to measure creep properties of actual thermally grown oxides (TGO) formed on a metal foil. The thickness of TGO, load and displacement can be monitored in situ at high temperature. Two batches of FeCrAlY alloys which differ from each other in contents of yttrium and titanium were selected as the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} TGO forming materials. The creep tests were performed on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of thickness 1-4 {mu}m, thermally grown at 1200 deg. C in air. The strength of the substrate was found to be negligible, provided that the TGO and substrate thickness satisfy: h{sub TGO} > 1 {mu}m and H{sub sub} {<=} 400 {mu}m. The steady-state creep results for all four TGO thicknesses obtained on batch I reside within a narrow range, characterized by a parabolic creep relation. It is nevertheless clear that the steady-state creep rates vary with TGO thickness: decreasing as the thickness increases. For batch II, the steady-state creep rates are higher and now influenced more significantly by TGO thickness. In comparison with previous results of the creep properties for bulk polycrystalline {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a grain size of {approx}2 {mu}m, the creep rates for the TGO were apparently higher, but both were significantly affected by yttrium content. The higher creep rate and dependency on the TGO thickness led to a hypothesis that the deformation of the TGO under tensile stress at high temperature was not a result of typical creep mechanisms such as diffusion of vacancies or intra-granular motion of dislocations, but a result of inter-grain growth of TGO. Results also indicate that the amount of yttrium may influence the growth strain as well as the creep rate.

  1. Direct observation of a non-isothermal crystallization process in precursor Li10GeP2S12 glass electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Mori, Shigeo; Shiotani, Shinya; Yamamura, Hideyuki; Iba, Hideki

    2017-11-01

    Crystallization of a precursor Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS) glass electrolyte by heat treatment significantly improves its ionic conductivity. The LGPS crystalline phase obtained by heat treatment above 450 °C shows an ionic conductivity on the order of 10-2 S/cm. To clarify the correlation between the crystallization behavior of precursor LGPS glasses and ionic conductivity, we developed an observation technique to visualize precipitated nanocrystallites and a new method to evaluate the crystallization degree via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ TEM observation revealed that LGPS nanocrystallites precipitated above 450 °C and their size remained fundamentally intact during heating. That is, the crystallization behavior could be characterized by only the formation of LGPS nanocrystallites in an amorphous matrix. In addition, the crystallization degree was quantitatively evaluated from electron diffraction patterns. The crystallization degree remarkably increased at around 450 °C and reached more than 60% above 450 °C. Based on these results, a high ionic conductivity of approximately 1.0 × 10-2 S/cm was confirmed to be directly associated with the appearance of the LGPS crystalline phase.

  2. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  3. Leaf anatomy of genotypes of banana plant grown under coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of spectral light quality on different anatomical features of banana tree plantlets grown under coloured shade nets. Banana plants of five genotypes obtained from micropropagation, were grown under white, blue, red and black nets, with shade of 50%, in a completely randomized ...

  4. Influence of shading on container-grown flowering dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare root dogwoods can be successfully grown when transplanted into a container production system. Shade treatments regardless of color or density did have an effect on the plant growth of Cherokee Brave™ and Cherokee Princess dogwood. Plants grown under 50% black and 50% white shade had more heigh...

  5. Structural Reliability of the Nigerian Grown Abura Timber Bridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural performance as timber bridge beams. Samples of the Nigerian grown Abura timber were bought from timber market, seasoned naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a moisture content of ...

  6. Superconductivity in MBE grown InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunes, M.; Balkan, N. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, CO4 3SQ, Colchester (United Kingdom); Tiras, E.; Ardali, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ajagunna, A.O.; Iliopoulos, E.; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, FORTH and Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    We present the experimental investigation of superconductivity in unintentionally doped MBE grown InN samples with various InN film thicknesses. A significant change in resistivity was observed at 3.82 K, for an 1080 nm InN layer with carrier concentration n{sub 3D}=1.185x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. However, no significant resistance change was observed in the case of InN samples with carrier density of 1.024x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, 1.38x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, and thicknesses of 2070 and 4700 nm, respectively. The carrier density of all investigated samples was within the range of values between the Mott transition (2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) and the superconductivity to metal transition (7x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}). We believe that at lower temperatures ({sup 3}He) which we cannot achieve with our set-up, the phase transition in other samples is likely to be observed. The origin of the observed anisotropic type-II superconductivity is discussed (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DO SUCO RUMINAL DE BOVINOS “A FRESCO” E APÓS 12 HORAS DE CONSERVAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lorena Guimarães

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se no presente estudo os parâmetros físicos (cor, odor, consistência e tempo de sedimentação e flotação, químicos (pH, e tempo de redução do azul de metileno e biológicos (avaliação dos protozoários in vitro, contagem de infusórios e percentagem de protozoários viáveis do suco ruminal de 50 fêmeas bovinas adultas clinicamente saudáveis, imediatamente após a colheita e ao final de 12 horas de armazenamento em garrafas térmicas comuns. Utilizaram-se animais em lactação, da raça Girolando, e alimentados a pasto de Brachiaria decumbens. As análises foram realizadas em uma amostra individual de, aproximadamente, 400 ml de suco ruminal, colhida com sonda oroesofágica do tipo Schambye e Sorensen. Os resultados foram avaliados por meio de estatística descritiva e teste “t” de student para amostras pareadas (P<0,05. Os aspectos físicos, a avaliação in vitro dos infusórios e o número de protozoários por mililitro encontravam-se dentro dos padrões de normalidade na primeira avaliação, porém, após 12 horas de conservação, foram observadas alterações sugestivas de modificações na microbiota do suco ruminal. Constataram-se, após conservação, reduções estatísticas significativas em relação ao pH, percentual de protozoários viáveis e aumento no tempo de redução do azul de metileno (PRAM. Conclui-se que a garrafa térmica comum pode ser usada como opção na conservação de suco ruminal de bovinos em situações de clínica de campo, porém a análise no momento da colheita apresenta resultados mais fidedignos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bovinos, fluido ruminal, métodos de conservação, pH, protozoários.

  9. assessment of cadmium and lead in soil and tomatoes grown

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAHMUD IMAM

    Transfer of Heavy Metals from Soil to Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in irrigated farmlands of ... respectively being the highest elements absorbed by the lettuce samples from the irrigated .... radioactive elements and organic chemicals,.

  10. Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological implications. ... the leafy vegetables is attributed to plant differences in tolerance to heavy metals. ... Treatment of industrial effluents and phyto-extraction of excess metals from ...

  11. Quality and Quantity Evaluations of Shade Grown Forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. P. Ladyman; M. S. Kerley; R. L. Kallenbach; H. E. Garrett; J. W. Van Sambeek; N. E. Navarrete-Tindall

    2003-01-01

    Seven legumes were grown during the summer-fall of 2000, at the Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center (39? 01 ' N, 92? 46' W) near New Franklin, MO. The forages were grown in 7.5L white pots placed on light-colored gravel either under full sunlight, 45% sunlight, or 20% sunlight created by a shade cloth over a rectangular frame. Drip irrigation was...

  12. Law Enforcement Efforts to Control Domestically Grown Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-25

    mari- juana grown indoors , the involvement of large criminal organizations, and the patterns of domestic marijuana distribution. In response to a GAO...information is particularly important if the amount of marijuana grown indoors and the number of large-scale cultiva- tion and distribution organizations... marijuana indoors is becoming increasingly popular. A 1982 narcotics assessment by the Western States Information Network (WSIN)2 of marijuana

  13. Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO2-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO 2 . Both air-grown cells, that have a CO 2 concentrating system, and 5% CO 2 -grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO 2 -grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO 2 fixation by high CO 2 -grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO 2 -grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase

  14. Anisotropic Friction of Wrinkled Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fei; Yasaei, Poya; Yao, Wentao; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza

    2017-06-21

    Wrinkle structures are commonly seen on graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method due to the different thermal expansion coefficient between graphene and its substrate. Despite the intensive investigations focusing on the electrical properties, the nanotribological properties of wrinkles and the influence of wrinkle structures on the wrinkle-free graphene remain less understood. Here, we report the observation of anisotropic nanoscale frictional characteristics depending on the orientation of wrinkles in CVD-grown graphene. Using friction force microscopy, we found that the coefficient of friction perpendicular to the wrinkle direction was ∼194% compare to that of the parallel direction. Our systematic investigation shows that the ripples and "puckering" mechanism, which dominates the friction of exfoliated graphene, plays even a more significant role in the friction of wrinkled graphene grown by CVD. The anisotropic friction of wrinkled graphene suggests a new way to tune the graphene friction property by nano/microstructure engineering such as introducing wrinkles.

  15. Cuprous oxide thin films grown by hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, M.; Biswas, I.; Pujaru, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting cuprous oxide films were grown by a hydrothermal electro-deposition technique on metal (Cu) and glass (ITO) substrates between 60 °C and 100 °C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the formation of cubic cuprous oxide films in different preferred orientations depending upon the deposition technique used. Film growth, uniformity, grain size, optical band gap and photoelectrochemical response were found to improve in the hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique. - Highlights: • Cu 2 O thin films were grown on Cu and glass substrates. • Conventional and hydrothermal electrochemical deposition techniques were used. • Hydrothermal electrochemical growth showed improved morphology, thickness and optical band gap

  16. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  17. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Strontium tartrate; dopant; effect of magnetic field; thermal behaviour. 1. Introduction ... tals of such type of compounds cannot be grown by either slow evaporation or ... is observed under a stereo binocular microscope (Carl. Zeiss) and ... a depth of 1⋅8 cm due to the diffusion of the top solution. After about a week ...

  18. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Despite the availability of many species of amaranth in Kenya, there is inadequate information on their nutritional diversity and how they can be best used in mitigation of malnutrition. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the nutritional diversity of five leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya. Methodology ...

  19. Annealing behavior of solution grown polyethylene single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, J.; Tian, M.

    2006-01-01

    The morphology evolution of solution grown polyethylene single crystals has been studied upon annealing below their melting temperature by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM investigations have been performed ex situ, which means AFM investigations at room temperature after the annealing

  20. Copper and lead levels in two popular leafy vegetables grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the levels of two heavy metals, Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), in two popular leafy vegetables grown around Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. Vegetable samples of Pumpkin leaves ( Cucurbita moschata) and Chinese cabbage ( Brassica chinensis) were collected from three sites and ...

  1. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are ...

  2. Scanning tunneling microscopy of hexagonal BN grown on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, H.; Hamada, T.; Endo, T.; Osaka, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The microscopic surface topography of thin BN x films grown on graphite by electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition have been imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy in air. The scanning tunneling microscope has generated images of hexagonal BN with atomic resolution

  3. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  4. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Yield and water productivity of potatoes grown in 4.32 m2 lysimeters were measured in coarse sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam and imposed to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. PRD and DI as water-saving irrigation treatments received 65% of FI after...

  5. Antioxidative properties of some phototropic microalgae grown in waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Peter

    for the screening and selection of the species. In this study,the potential antioxidant activities of 12 micro algal sample from Chlorella., Spirulina., Euglena, Scenedesmus and Haematococcus species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facilities were evaluated using three antioxidant assays, including...

  6. Responses of soilless grown tomato plants to arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Responses of soilless grown tomato plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (Glomus fasciculatum) colonization in re-cycling and open systems. H. Yildiz Dasgan1*, Sebnem Kusvuran1 and Ibrahim Ortas2. 1Cukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture ...

  7. Atomically flat platinum films grown on synthetic mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2018-04-01

    Atomically flat platinum thin films were heteroepitaxially grown on synthetic fluorophlogopite mica [KMg3(AlSi3O10)F2] by van der Waals epitaxy. Platinum films deposited on a fluorophlogopite mica substrate by inductively coupled plasma-assisted sputtering with oxygen introduction on a synthetic mica substrate resulted in the growth of twin single-crystalline epitaxial Pt(111) films.

  8. Light-emission from in-situ grown organic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2011-01-01

    Organic crystalline nanofibers made from phenylene-based molecules exhibit a wide range of extraordinary optical properties such as intense, anisotropic and polarized luminescence that can be stimulated either optically or electrically, waveguiding and random lasing. For lighting and display...... of morphological characterization and demonstrate how appropriate biasing with an AC gate voltage enables electroluminescence from these in-situ grown organic nanostructures....

  9. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  10. Growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis grown in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a stand-level growth and yield model for short-rotationEucalyptus grandis grown for pulp wood production at Piggs Peak in Swaziland. The data were derived from a Nelder 1a spacing trial established with E. grandis clonal cuttings in 1998 and terminated in 2005. Planting density ...

  11. pH-sensor properties of electrochemically grown iridium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Robben, M.A.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The open-circuit potential of an electrochemically grown iridium oxide film is measured and shows a pH sensitivity between −60 and −80 mV/pH. This sensitivity is found to depend on the state of oxidation of the iridium oxide film; for a higher state of oxidation (or more of the oxide in the high

  12. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  13. 78 FR 57101 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... rate currently in effect. The quantity of assessable walnuts for the 2013-14 marketing year is... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0056; FV13-984-1 PR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  14. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  15. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California walnut handlers are subject to... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0062; FV11-984-1 FR] Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  16. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive handlers are... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  17. Composition of MBE-grown iron oxide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, F.C; Hibma, T; Smulders, P.J M; Niesen, L

    A wide range of iron oxides have been grown epitaxially on MgO(100) substrates using a dual beam technique in which the deposited iron is oxidised by a beam of NO2 particles. At high fluxes magnetite (Fe3-deltaO4) phases with compositions between near-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3O4, delta = 0) and

  18. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... 20250-0237, or internet: regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Stobbe, Marketing... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 981 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0082; FV14-981-1 CR] Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  19. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  20. Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formation...

  1. Single layer porous gold films grown at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renyun; Hummelgard, Magnus; Olin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Large area porous gold films can be used in several areas including electrochemical electrodes, as an essential component in sensors, or as a conducting material in electronics. Here, we report on evaporation induced crystal growth of large area porous gold films at 20, 40 and 60 deg. C. The gold films were grown on liquid surface at 20 deg. C, while the films were grown on the wall of beakers when temperature increased to 40 and 60 deg. C. The porous gold films consisted of a dense network of gold nanowires as characterized by TEM and SEM. TEM diffraction results indicated that higher temperature formed larger crystallites of gold wires. An in situ TEM imaging of the coalescence of gold nanoparticles mimicked the process of the growth of these porous films, and a plotting of the coalescence time and the neck radius showed a diffusion process. The densities of these gold films were also characterized by transmittance, and the results showed film grown at 20 deg. C had the highest density, while the film grown at 60 deg. C had the lowest consistent with SEM and TEM characterization. Electrical measurements of these gold films showed that the most conductive films were the ones grown at 40 deg. C. The conductivities of the gold films were related to the amount of contamination, density and the diameter of the gold nanowires in the films. In addition, a gold film/gold nanoparticle hybrid was made, which showed a 10% decrease in transmittance during hybridization, pointing to applications as chemical and biological sensors.

  2. Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100 s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shock initiation experiments on ratchet grown PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olinger, Barton W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deluca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierce, Timothy H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Nathaniel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the shock initiation behavior of PBX 9502 pressed to less than nominal density (nominal density is 1.890 {+-} 0.005 g/cm{sup 3}) with PBX 9502 pressed to nominal density and then ''ratchet grown'' to low density. PBX 9502 is an insensitive plastic bonded explosive consisting of 95 weight % dry-aminated tri-amino-tri-nitro-benzene (TATB) and 5 weight % Kel-F 800 plastic binder. ''Ratchet growth'' - an irreversible increase in specific volume - occurs when an explosive based on TATB is temperature cycled. The design of our study is as follows: PBX 9502, all from the same lot, received the following four treatments. Samples in the first group were pressed to less than nominal density. These were not ratchet grown and used as a baseline. Samples in the second group were pressed to nominal density and then ratchet grown by temperature cycling 30 times between -54 C and +80 C. Samples in the final group were pressed to nominal density and cut into 100 mm by 25.4 mm diameter cylinders. During thermal cycling the cylinders were axially constrained by a 100 psi load. Samples for shock initiation experiments were cut perpendicular (disks) and parallel (slabs) to the axial load. The four sample groups can be summarized with the terms pressed low, ratchet grown/no load, axial load/disks, and axial load/slabs. All samples were shock initiated with nearly identical inputs in plate impact experiments carried out on a gas gun. Wave profiles were measured after propagation through 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm of explosive. Side by side comparison of wave profiles from different samples is used as a measure of relative sensitivity. All reduced density samples were more shock sensitive than nominal density PBX 9502. Differences in shock sensitivity between ratchet grown and pressed to low density PBX 9502 were small, but the low density pressings are slightly more sensitive than the ratchet grown samples.

  4. Large local lattice expansion in graphene adlayers grown on copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, José; Arezki, Hakim; Nguyen, Van Luan; Shen, Jiahong; Mucha-Kruczyński, Marcin; Yao, Fei; Boutchich, Mohamed; Chen, Yue; Lee, Young Hee; Asensio, Maria C.

    2018-05-01

    Variations of the lattice parameter can significantly change the properties of a material, and, in particular, its electronic behaviour. In the case of graphene, however, variations of the lattice constant with respect to graphite have been limited to less than 2.5% due to its well-established high in-plane stiffness. Here, through systematic electronic and lattice structure studies, we report regions where the lattice constant of graphene monolayers grown on copper by chemical vapour deposition increases up to 7.5% of its relaxed value. Density functional theory calculations confirm that this expanded phase is energetically metastable and driven by the enhanced interaction between the substrate and the graphene adlayer. We also prove that this phase possesses distinctive chemical and electronic properties. The inherent phase complexity of graphene grown on copper foils revealed in this study may inspire the investigation of possible metastable phases in other seemingly simple heterostructure systems.

  5. Locally Grown Foods and Farmers Markets: Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Smalley

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Farm viability poses a grave challenge to the sustainability of agriculture and food systems: the number of acres in production continues to decline as the majority of farms earn negative net income. Two related and often overlapping marketing strategies, (i locally grown foods and (ii distribution at farmers markets, can directly enhance food system sustainability by improving farm profitability and long-term viability, as well as contributing to an array of ancillary benefits. We present results of a representative Michigan telephone survey, which measured consumers’ perceptions and behaviors around local foods and farmers markets. We discuss the implications of our findings on greater farm profitability. We conclude with suggestions for future research to enhance the contributions of locally grown foods and farmers markets to overall food system sustainability.

  6. Surface oxidation phenomena of boride coatings grown on iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbucicchio, M.; Palombarini, G.; Sambogna, G.

    1992-01-01

    Very hard boride coatings are grown on various metals using thermochemical as well as chemical vapour deposition techniques. In this way many surface properties, and in particular the wear resistance, can be considerably improved. Usually, also the corrosion behaviour of the treated components is important. In particular, oxidizing atmospheres are involved in many applications where, therefore, coating-environment interactions can play a relevant role. In a previous work, the early stages of the oxidation of iron borides were studied by treating single phase compacted powders in flowing oxygen at low temperatures (300-450deg C). In the present paper, the attention is addressed to the oxidation of both single phase and polyphase boride coatings thermochemically grown on iron. The single phase boride coatings were constituted by Fe 2 B, while the polyphase coatings were constituted by an inner Fe 2 B layer and an outer FeB-base layer. All the boride layers displayed strong (002) preferred crystallographic orientations. (orig.)

  7. X-ray diffraction study of directionally grown perylene crystallites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiby, Dag W.; Lemke, H. T.; Hammershøj, P.

    2008-01-01

    Using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, perylene crystallites grown on thin highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films on silicon substrates have been investigated. All the perylene crystallites are found to orient with the ab plane of the monoclinic unit cell parallel to the subst......Using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, perylene crystallites grown on thin highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films on silicon substrates have been investigated. All the perylene crystallites are found to orient with the ab plane of the monoclinic unit cell parallel...... to the substrate. The scattering data is interpreted as a trimodal texture of oriented perylene crystallites, induced by interactions between the perylene molecules and the oriented PTFE substrate. Three families of biaxial orientations are seen, with the axes (h = 1, 2, or 3) parallel to the PTFE alignment......, all having the ab-plane parallel to the substrate. About 92% of the scattered intensity corresponds to a population with highly parallel to (PTFE)....

  8. Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-07-07

    Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore's law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, R; Watko, E; Colpitts, T

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are reported. The growth conditions necessary to obtain stoichiometric ZnSb films and the effects of various growth parameters on the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of the films are described. The as-grown ZnSb films are p-type. It was observed that the thicker ZnSb films offer improved carrier mobilities and lower free-carrier concentration levels. The Seebeck coefficient of ZnSb films was found to rise rapidly at approximately 160 C. The thicker films, due to the lower doping levels, indicate higher Seebeck coefficients between 25 to 200 C. A short annealing of the ZnSb film at temperatures of {approximately}200 C results in reduced free-carrier level. Thermal conductivity measurements of ZnSb films using the 3-{omega} method are also presented.

  10. Present and future applications of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa, J.M. de [CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA), Saragossa (Spain); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Saragossa (Spain); Fernandez-Pacheco, A. [University of Cambridge, TFM Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Currently, magnetic nanostructures are routinely grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). In the present article, we review the milestones produced in the topic in the past as well as the future applications of this technology. Regarding past milestones, we highlight the achievement of high-purity cobalt and iron deposits, the high lateral resolution obtained, the growth of 3D magnetic deposits, the exploration of magnetic alloys and the application of magnetic deposits for Hall sensing and in domain-wall conduit and magnetologic devices. With respect to future perspectives of the topic, we emphasize the potential role of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID for applications related to highly integrated 2D arrays, 3D nanowires devices, fabrication of advanced scanning-probe systems, basic studies of magnetic structures and their dynamics, small sensors (including biosensors) and new applications brought by magnetic alloys and even exchange biased systems. (orig.)

  11. Photoemission electronic states of epitaxially grown magnetite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalecki, R.; Kolodziejczyk, A.; Korecki, J.; Spiridis, N.; Zajac, M.; Kozlowski, A.; Kakol, Z.; Antolak, D.

    2007-01-01

    The valence band photoemission spectra of epitaxially grown 300 A single crystalline magnetite films were measured by the angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (ARUPS) at 300 K. The samples were grown either on MgO(0 0 1) (B termination) or on (0 0 1) Fe (iron-rich A termination), thus intentionally presenting different surface stoichiometry, i.e. also different surface electronic states. Four main features of the electron photoemission at about -1.0, -3.0, -5.5 and -10.0 eV below a chemical potential show systematic differences for two terminations; this difference depends on the electron outgoing angle. Our studies confirm sensitivity of angle resolved PES technique on subtleties of surface states

  12. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  13. Polyol concentrations in Aspergillus repens grown under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Na(+), K(+) and the ratio of Na(+)/K(+) were higher in cells of the halotolerant Aspergillus repens grown with 2 M NaCl than without NaCl. The osmolytes, proline, glycerol, betaine and glutamate, did not affect the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, nor the polyol content of cells under any conditions. The concentrations of polyols, consisting of glycerol, arabitol, erythritol and mannitol, changed markedly during growth, indicating that they have a crucial role in osmotic adaptation.

  14. Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; McKnight, Timothy E [Greenback, TN; Guillorn, Michael A [Ithaca, NY; Ilic, Bojan [Ithaca, NY; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Knoxville, TX; Doktycz, Mitchel J [Knoxville, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN

    2012-03-27

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

  15. Spectral response of THM grown CdZnTe crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H.; Awadalla, S.A.; Harris, F.

    2008-01-01

    The spectral response of several crystals grown by the Traveling Heater Method (THM) were investigated. An energy resolution of 0.98% for a Pseudo Frisch-Grid of 4 × 4 × 9 mm3 and 2.1% FWHM for a coplanar-grid of size 11 × 11 × 5 mm3 were measured using 137Cs-662 keV. In addition a 4% FWHM at 122...

  16. Electrolytic coloration of air-grown sodium fluoride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Han Li; Song Cuiying; Guo Meili; Wang Na

    2007-01-01

    Air-grown sodium fluoride crystals were colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode at various temperatures and electric field strengths, which should mainly benefit appropriate coloration temperatures and electric field strengths. O 2 - , F, M, N 1 , N 2 color centers and O 2- -F + complexes were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V color center migration was determined. The formation of the color centers was explained

  17. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, J. G.; Hole, P.; Salisbury, F. B.; Bingham, G. E.

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur.

  18. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  19. Expression of virulence factors by Staphylococcus aureus grown in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oogai, Yuichi; Matsuo, Miki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Kato, Fuminori; Sugai, Motoyuki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces many virulence factors, including toxins, immune-modulatory factors, and exoenzymes. Previous studies involving the analysis of virulence expression were mainly performed by in vitro experiments using bacterial medium. However, when S. aureus infects a host, the bacterial growth conditions are quite different from those in a medium, which may be related to the different expression of virulence factors in the host. In this study, we investigated the expression of virulence factors in S. aureus grown in calf serum. The expression of many virulence factors, including hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, and iron acquisition factors, was significantly increased compared with that in bacterial medium. In addition, the expression of RNA III, a global regulon for virulence expression, was significantly increased. This effect was partially restored by the addition of 300 μM FeCl₃ into serum, suggesting that iron depletion is associated with the increased expression of virulence factors in serum. In chemically defined medium without iron, a similar effect was observed. In a mutant with agr inactivated grown in serum, the expression of RNA III, psm, and sec4 was not increased, while other factors were still induced in the mutant, suggesting that another regulatory factor(s) is involved. In addition, we found that serum albumin is a major factor for the capture of free iron to prevent the supply of iron to bacteria grown in serum. These results indicate that S. aureus expresses virulence factors in adaptation to the host environment.

  20. InN-based layers grown by modified HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrkin, A.; Usikov, A.; Soukhoveev, V.; Kovalenkov, O.; Ivantsov, V.; Dmitriev, V.; Collins, C.; Readinger, E.; Shmidt, N.; Davydov, V.; Nikishin, S.; Kuryatkov, V.; Song, D.; Rosenbladt, D.; Holtz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains results on InN and InGaN growth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on various substrates including sapphire and GaN/sapphire, AlGaN/sapphire, and AlN/sapphire templates. The growth processes are carried out at atmospheric pressure in a hot wall reactor in the temperature range from 500 to 750 and ordm;C. Continuous InN layers are grown on GaN/sapphire template substrates. Textured InN layers are deposited on AlN/sapphire and AlGaN/sapphire templates. Arrays of nano-crystalline InN rods with various shapes are grown directly on sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction rocking curves for the (002)InN reflection have the full width at half maximum (FWHM) as narrow as 270 arcsec for the nano-rods and 460 arcsec for the continuous layers. In x Ga 1-x N layers with InN content up to 10 mol.% are grown on GaN/sapphire templates. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Assessing biodiesel quality parameters for wastewater grown Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Samadhan Yuvraj; K Bharti, Randhir; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2017-07-01

    Microalgae are reported as the efficient source of renewable biodiesel which should be able to meet the global demand of transport fuels. Present study is focused on assessment of wastewater grown indigenous microalga Chlorella sp. for fuel quality parameters. This was successfully grown in secondary treated waste water diluted with tap water (25% dilution) in glass house. The microalga showed a dry weight of 0.849 g L -1 with lipid content of 27.1% on dry weight basis on 21st day of incubation. After transesterification, the yield of fatty acid methyl ester was 80.64% with major fatty acids as palmitic, linoleic, oleic and linolenic. The physical parameters predicted from empirical equations in the biodiesel showed cetane number as 56.5, iodine value of 75.5 g I 2 100 g -1 , high heating value 40.1 MJ kg -1 , flash point 135 °C, kinematic viscosity 4.05 mm 2 s -1 with density of 0.86 g cm 3 and cold filter plugging point as 0.7 °C. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), 1 H, 13 C NMR spectrum confirmed the chemical nature of biodiesel. The results indicated that the quality of biodiesel was almost as per the criterion of ASTM standards; hence, wastewater grown Chlorella sp. can be used as a promising strain for biodiesel production.

  2. Alfalfa seedlings grown outdoors are more resistant to UV-induced DNA damage than plants grown in a UV-free environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Shinnosuke; Trunk, J.G.; Sutherland, J.C.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The relative UV sensitivities of alfalfa seedlings grown outdoors versus plants grown in a growth chamber under UV-filtered cool white fluorescent bulbs have been determined using three criteria: (1) level of endogenous DNA damage as sites for the UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus, (2) susceptibility to pyrimidine dimer induction by a UV challenge exposure and (3) ability to repair UV-induced damage. We find that outdoor-grown plants contain approximately equal frequencies of endogenous DNA damages, are less susceptible to dimer induction by a challenge exposure of broad-spectrum UV and photorepair dimers more rapidly than plants grown in an environmental chamber under cool white fluorescent lamps plus a filter removes most UV radiation. These data suggest that plants grown in a natural environment would be less sensitive to UVB-induced damage than would be predicted on the basis of studies on plants grown under minimum UV. (author)

  3. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... onion producers in the designated production area. Small agricultural service firms, which include...; FV13-955-1 IR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements AGENCY... Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in...

  4. Leaf chemical composition of twenty-one Populus hybrid clones grown under intensive culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Dickson; Philip R. Larson

    1976-01-01

    Leaf material from 21 nursery-grown Populus hybrid clones was analyzed for three nitrogen fractions (total N, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids) and three carbhydrate fractions (reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, and total nonstructural carbohydrates-TNC). In addition, nursery-grown green ash and silver maple, field-grown bigtooth and trembling aspen, and...

  5. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  6. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Unal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of ethanol extracts of some organically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables. Methods: The ethanol extracts of kailan (Brassica alboglabra, bayam (Amaranthus spp. and sawi (Brassica parachinensis were tested for total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and total anthocyanin content (TAC and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results: In TPC test, sawi extract showed the highest phenolic content while bayam contained the least phenolic content for both organically and conventionally grown types. In TFC test, organically grown sawi extract showed the highest flavonoid content, while organically grown kailan extract showed the least flavonoid content among all types of vegetables. The flavonoid content of the conventionally grown types of vegetable extracts was the highest in kalian and the least in sawi. For 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, the activity increased with the increasing concentration of each extract. All conventionally grown vegetable extracts showed higher antioxidant activity compared to their organically grown counterparts. Extracts of conventionally grown sawi showed the highest percentage inhibition followed by conventionally grown kailan and organically grown sawi. There were no correlation between TPC, TFC, TAC and IC25 of both organically and conventionally grown vegetables. However, there was a correlation between TAC and IC25 of conventionally grown vegetable extracts. The results showed relatively similar polyphenol content between organically and conventionally grown vegetable extracts. However, the conventionally grown vegetables extracts generally have higher antioxidant activity compared to the organically grown extracts. Conclusions: These results suggested that the different types of agricultural practice had a significant contribution to the

  7. Synthesis and Secretion of Isoflavones by Field-Grown Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analyzed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expression of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages. Isoflavone contents were higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during both vegetative and reproductive stages, and were comparable in the rhizosphere soil between these two stages. We analyzed the degradation dynamics of daidzein and its glucosides to develop a model for predicting rhizosphere isoflavone contents from the amount of isoflavones secreted in hydroponic culture. Conjugates of daidzein were degraded much faster than daidzein, with degradation rate constants of 8.51 d-1 for malonyldaidzin and 11.6 d-1 for daidzin, vs. 9.15 × 10-2 d-1 for daidzein. The model suggested that secretion of isoflavones into the rhizosphere is higher during vegetative stages than during reproductive stages in field-grown soybean. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. InN layers grown by the HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrkin, A.L.; Ivantsov, V.; Usikov, A.; Dmitriev, V.A.; Chambard, G.; Ruterana, P.; Davydov, A.V.; Sundaresan, S.G.; Lutsenko, E.; Mudryi, A.V.; Readinger, E.D.; Chern-Metcalfe, G.D.; Wraback, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the properties of high quality HVPE InN and on successful subsequent MBE growth of InN layers with improved characteristics on HVPE InN template substrates. InN layers were grown by HVPE on GaN/sapphire HVPE templates. The (00.2) XRD rocking curve of the best InN layer (RC) had the FWHM of about 375 arc sec, being the narrowest XRD RCs ever reported for HVPE InN. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed that at the GaN/InN interface, the threading dislocations that come from GaN were transmitted into the InN layer. We estimated the dislocation density in HVPE grown InN to be in the low 10 9 cm -2 range. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) confirmed monocrystalline structure of the InN layers surface. Layers photoluminescence (PL) showed edge emission around 0.8 eV. Hall measured free electron concentration was in the range of 10 19 -10 20 cm -3 and electron mobility was ∝200 cm 2 /V s. MBE growth of InN was performed on the HVPE grown InN template substrate demonstrating the improvement of material quality in the case of homo-epitaxial growth of InN. Demonstration of the high quality HVPE InN materials opens a new way for InN substrate development. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Spherical Nb single crystals containerlessly grown by electrostatic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Y.S.; Takeya, H.; Hirata, K.; Togano, K.

    2003-01-01

    Spherical Nb (T m =2750 K) single crystals were grown via containerless electrostatic levitation (ESL). Samples became spherical at melting in levitation and undercooled typically 300-450 K prior to nucleation. As-processed samples were still spherical without any macroscopic shape change by solidification showing a uniform dendritic surface morphology. Crystallographic {111} planes exposed in equilateral triangular shapes on the surface by preferential macroetching and spotty back-reflection Laue patterns confirm the single crystal nature of the ESL-processed Nb samples. No hysteresis in magnetization between zero field and field cooling also implies a clean defect-free condition of the spherical Nb single crystals

  10. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rut’kov, E. V.; Lavrovskaya, N. P.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Gall, N. R.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  11. Loose smut of barley grown in three types of farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nedelcheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Over the period of 2014-2015, on the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture in Karnobat, Bulgaria, was set a field trial with twenty cultivars of barley – 15 two-row: Obzor, Emon, Perun, Orfey, Lardeya, Asparuh, Kuber, Zagorets, Imeon, Sayra, Devinya, Sitara, Krami, Vicky, Potok; 3 four-row: Veslets, Aheloy 2, Tamaris; and 2 six-row cultivars – IZ Bori and Bozhin. All the cultivars were grown in three types of farming: conventional, organic and biodynamic. In conventional farming were applied pesticides and nitrogen fertilization. In the organic production were not used pesticides, mineral and organic fertilizers; and in biodynamic farming was applied biodynamic compost prepared from manure and biodynamic preparations (also organic. In conventional farming, the seeds were disinfected before sowing with Kinto plus (Triticonazole 20 g/l + Prochloraz 60 g/l, at a rate of 150 ml/100 kg seeds. In organic and biodynamic farming were used nondisinfected seeds. In the phenophase of full maturity of barley was conducted monitoring survey for plants infected with loose smut in all 2 the trial variants, the number of infected plants per m were counted and the infection rates were calculated. Infected plants of Tamaris grown in the three types of farming underwent microscopic analysis and measurement of 100 teliospores from each variant. The aim of this experiment was to investigate varietal susceptibility of barley to Ustilago nuda, grown in three types of farming, and to establish if the growing method affects the size of the teliospores of the pathogen. With two-row barley were found plants of Lardeya, Kuber, Devinya, Krami and Vicky infected with Ustilago nuda. Krami manifested the lowest resistance in the three types of farming. With four-row barley, Tamaris was found to be highly susceptible and Veslets was poorly resistant. Both cultivars expressed weaker susceptibility in conventional and biodynamic farming and stronger in

  12. The uptake of 131I by some hydroponically grown crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.; de la Paz, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Biologically labelled vegetables which include kangkong and sweet potato tops were grown hydroponically in a modified Hoagland-Arnon nutrient solution containing radioiodine with 0.5% non-radioactive Nal solution as the medium. The crops considered in this study are commonly eaten by Filipinos. The concentration of the solution as well as the uptake in the plant system were determined at various time intervals. The extent of radioiodine uptake through air-water-plant pathway is one of the parameters needed for calculating the dose that the general populace could be exposed to, due to radioactivity in the environment. (author)

  13. Defects in zinc oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Francis C.C., E-mail: ccling@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Zilan; Ping Ho, Lok; Younas, M. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Anwand, W.; Wagner, A. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Su, S.C. [Institute of Optoelectronic Material and Technology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Shan, C.X. [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2016-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on c-plane sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition method. Systematic studies on the effects of annealing are performed to understand the thermal evolutions of the defects in the films. Particular attention is paid to the discussions of the ZnO/sapphire interface thermal stability, the Zn-vacancy related defects having different microstructures, the origins of the green luminescence (∼2.4–2.5 eV) and the near band edge (NBE) emission at 3.23 eV.

  14. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rut’kov, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Lavrovskaya, N. P. [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (Russian Federation); Sheshenya, E. S., E-mail: sheshenayket@gmail.ru; Gall, N. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  15. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  16. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of 210 Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg -1 fresh wt. obtained here is according to 210 Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg -1 . (author)

  17. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  18. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83% and lipid (40.45%, with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%, antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  19. Gene expression from plants grown on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Alexander; Pereira, Rhea; Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie

    Three experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006 as part of the TROPI experiments. These experiments were performed to study graviTROPIsm and photoTROPIsm responses of Arabidopsis in microgravity (µg). Seedlings were grown with a variety of light and gravitational treatments for approximately five days. The frozen samples were returned to Earth during three space shuttle missions in 2007 and stored at -80° C. Due to the limited amount of plant biomass returned, new protocols were developed to minimize the amount of material needed for RNA extraction as a preparation for microarray analysis. Using these new protocols, RNA was extracted from several sets of seedlings grown in red light followed by blue light with one sample from 1.0g treatment and the other at µg. Using a 2-fold change criterion, microarray (Affymetrix, GeneChip) results showed that 613 genes were upregulated in the µg sample while 757 genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes in response to µg included transcription factors from the WRKY (15 genes), MYB (3) and ZF (8) families as well as those that are involved in auxin responses (10). Downregulated genes also included transcription factors such as MYB (5) and Zinc finger (10) but interestingly only two WRKY family genes were down-regulated during the µg treatment. Studies are underway to compare these results with other samples to identify the genes involved in the gravity and light signal transduction pathways (this project is Supported By: NASA NCC2-1200).

  20. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Weak localization behavior observed in graphene grown on germanium substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinbo Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional electron systems (2DES usually show the weak localization behavior in consequence of electron interaction in the limited dimension. Distinct from other 2DES, the monolayer graphene, due to the chirality, exhibits unique weak localization behavior sensitive to not only inelastic but also elastic carrier scattering. Grain boundaries, which usually exist in monolayer graphene, are apparently related to the elastic carrier scattering process, thus affecting the weak localization behavior. However, their effect is scarcely studied due to the lack of an ideal platform. Here, a complementary system consisting of both single-crystalline graphene grown on Ge (110 and poly-crystalline graphene grown on Ge (111 is constructed. From the comparison of magnetoresistivity measurements, the weak localization effect is found to be greatly enhanced for the poly-crystalline graphene on Ge(111 compared to the single-crystalline graphene on Ge(110. The degraded transport performance in graphene/Ge(111 is due to the presence of grain boundary in poly-crystalline graphene, which results in the enhanced elastic intervalley scattering. In addition, the inelastic scattering originating from the strong electron-electron interaction at low temperature also contributes to weak localization of poly-crystalline graphene/Ge(111.

  2. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  3. 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in field-grown onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of soil amendments on concentrations of two volatile organic compounds, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in onion bulbs. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots (n = 20) were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1 bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spetrometric (GC/MS) analyses of mature onion bulbs crude extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Soil amended with yard waste compost enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 31 and 59%, respectively. Soil amended with chicken manure enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 28 and 43%, respectively. Concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone were lowest in onion bulbs of plants grown in sewage sludge and unamended soil, respectively. The increased concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in onion bulbs may provide a protective character against insect and spider mite attack in field grown onions.

  4. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21–47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

  5. Characterization of Cellulolytic Bacterial Cultures Grown in Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idris Alshelmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF of palm kernel cake (PKC. The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30∘C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.

  6. Yield of lettuce grown in aquaponic system using different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Jordan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the aquaponic system, the characteristics of the materials used as substrate directly affect plant development, because besides acting as a support base, they must present a surface to fix microorganisms, responsible for the conversion of nutrients into forms more easily available to plants. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of four growing substrates on the yield of lettuce grown in aquaponic system. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments, which corresponded to the substrates, and six replicates. Plants were grown using the nutrient film technique (NFT system. The substrates used in the experiment were: coconut shell fiber with crushed stone #3, expanded vermiculite, zeolite and phenolic foam. The treatment with phenolic foam was considered as the least suitable for lettuce cultivation in aquaponic system, because it caused lower yield (20.8 t ha-1. The treatment using coconut shell fiber with crushed stone #3 was considered as the most adequate, since it led to higher yield (39.9 t ha-1 compared with the other substrates analyzed.

  7. Stress determination in thermally grown alumina scales using ruby luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renusch, D.; Veal, B.W.; Koshelev, I.; Natesan, K.; Grimsditch [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hou, P.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    By exploiting the strain dependence of the ruby luminescence line, we have measured the strain in alumina scales thermally grown on Fe-Cr- Al alloys. Results are compared and found to be reasonably consistent with strains determined using x rays. Oxidation studies were carried out on alloys Fe - 5Cr - 28Al and Fe - 18Cr - 10Al (at.%). Significantly different levels of strain buildup were observed in scales on these alloys. Results on similar alloys containing a ``reactive element`` (Zr or Hf) in dilute quantity are also presented. Scales on alloys containing a reactive element (RE) can support significantly higher strains than scales on RE-free alloys. With the luminescence technique, strain relief associated with spallation thresholds is readily observed.

  8. Photosensitivity of nanocrystalline ZnO films grown by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayouchi, R.; Bentes, L.; Casteleiro, C.; Conde, O.; Marques, C.P.; Alves, E.; Moutinho, A.M.C.; Marques, H.P.; Teodoro, O.; Schwarz, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the properties of ZnO thin films grown by laser ablation of ZnO targets on (0 0 0 1) sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ), under substrate temperatures around 400 deg. C. The films were characterized by different methods including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS analysis revealed that the films are oxygen deficient, and XRD analysis with θ-2θ scans and rocking curves indicate that the ZnO thin films are highly c-axis oriented. All the films are ultraviolet (UV) sensitive. Sensitivity is maximum for the films deposited at lower temperature. The films deposited at higher temperatures show crystallite sizes of typically 500 nm, a high dark current and minimum photoresponse. In all films we observe persistent photoconductivity decay. More densely packed crystallites and a faster decay in photocurrent is observed for films deposited at lower temperature

  9. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... density in the furrow. Most roots accumulated in the surface layers of coarse sand as compared to the other soil types. In the deep soil profile (30–70 cm) a higher root density was found in loamy sand compared with the sandy loam and coarse sand. Approximately twice the amounts of roots were found below...

  10. Nanocomposite oxide thin films grown by pulsed energy beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, M.; Petitmangin, A.; Hebert, C.; Seiler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highly non-stoichiometric indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were grown by pulsed energy beam deposition (pulsed laser deposition-PLD and pulsed electron beam deposition-PED) under low oxygen pressure. The analysis of the structure and electrical transport properties showed that ITO films with a large oxygen deficiency (more than 20%) are nanocomposite films with metallic (In, Sn) clusters embedded in a stoichiometric and crystalline oxide matrix. The presence of the metallic clusters induces specific transport properties, i.e. a metallic conductivity via percolation with a superconducting transition at low temperature (about 6 K) and the melting and freezing of the In-Sn clusters in the room temperature to 450 K range evidenced by large changes in resistivity and a hysteresis cycle. By controlling the oxygen deficiency and temperature during the growth, the transport and optical properties of the nanocomposite oxide films could be tuned from metallic-like to insulating and from transparent to absorbing films.

  11. InN grown by migration enhanced afterglow (MEAglow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, Kenneth Scott A.; Alexandrov, Dimiter; Terziyska, Penka; Georgiev, Vasil; Georgieva, Dimka; Binsted, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    InN thin films were grown by a new technique, migration enhanced afterglow (MEAglow), a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) form of migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE). Here we describe the apparatus used for this form of film deposition, which includes a scalable hollow cathode nitrogen plasma source. Initial film growth results for InN are also presented including atomic force microscopy (AFM) images that indicate step flow growth with samples having root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of as little as 0.103 nm in some circumstances for film growth on sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results are also provided for samples with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of the (0002) ω-2θ peak of as little as 290 arcsec. Low pressure conditions that can result in damage to the InN during growth are described. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Optical absorption in gel grown cadmium tartrate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S K; Kothari, A J; Patel, R G; Chauha, K M; Chudasama, B N

    2006-01-01

    Single crystals of cadmium tartrate pentahydrate (CTP) have been grown by the famous gel technique. The slow and controlled reaction between Cd 2+ and (C 4 H 4 O 6 ) 2- ions in silica hydrogel results in formation of the insoluble product, CdC 4 H 4 O 6 .5H 2 O. Optical absorption spectra have been recorded in the range 200 to 2500 nm. Fundamental absorption edge for electronic transition has been analyzed. The direct allowed transition is found to be present in the region of relatively higher photon energy. Analysis of the segments of α 1/2 versus hν graph has been made to separate individual contribution of phonons. The phonons involved in the indirect transition are found to correspond to 335 and 420 cm -1 . Scattering of charge carriers in the lattice is found due to acoustic phonons

  13. Alkaline-doped manganese perovskite thin films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibes, M.; Gorbenko, O.; Martinez, B.; Kaul, A.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of La 1-x Na x MnO 3 thin films grown by MOCVD on various single-crystalline substrates. Under appropriate conditions epitaxial thin films have been obtained. The Curie temperatures of the films, which are very similar to those of bulk samples of similar composition, reflect the residual strain caused by the substrate. The anisotropic magnetoresistance AMR of the films has been analyzed in some detail, and it has been found that it has a two-fold symmetry at any temperature. Its temperature dependence mimics that of the electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measured at similar fields, thus suggesting that the real structure of the material contributes to the measured AMR besides the intrinsic component

  14. Heavy metal absorption by vegetables grown in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, F.; Riolfatti, M.; Ravazzolo, E.; Da Ros, D.; Brigato, L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors study the bibliographic and experimental data on absorption by vegetables of several heavy metals present in the soil or brought to it via fertilizations, especially with the use of compost coming from waste treatment plants. The presence of heavy metals in the soil causes increased levels of these toxic substances in the edible parts of the vegetables grown in that soil. Not to be neglected is also the absorption by the leaf apparatus of airborne particulate containing heavy metals which deposit on the parts of the vegetable exposed to the air. The available data lack homogeneity of investigation as they have been draw from studies which followed different methodologies. Therefore further studies are required in order to: eliminate some of the variables that might affect the absorption of metals from the soil and supply comparable data. Moreover, a greater number of vegetable species and their different edible parts will have to be taken into consideration

  15. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  16. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Initial spacing of poplars and willows grown as arable coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, A.; Johns, C.

    1997-11-01

    Two clones of poplar and two clones of willow were grown at two sites, on a three year cutting cycle, at six different square spacings, between 0.8 metres and 1.5 metres. The two willow clones 'Bowles hybrid' and 'Dasyclados' were planted at both sites. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Beaupre' and Populus trichocarpa 'Columbia River'' were planted at Wishanger in Hampshire. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Boelare' and Populus trichocarpa 'Trichobel' were planted at Downham Market in Norfolk. The highest yield of 17.55 oven dry tonnes per hectare (odt/ha/annum) was obtained from 'Bowles hybrid', at the closest spacing, grown on a water meadow adjacent to the River Wey at Wishanger. The highest yield for all clones at both sites was achieved at the closest spacing (in this first rotation). There was a significant linear effect. One of the most interesting observations was that when comparing the gradient of the linear relationship, within species, the gradient was steeper for the higher yielding clone. This was particularly so for the willows. This would suggest that higher yielding clones are more tolerant of crowding, or, that upright Salix viminalis make better use of close space than the more spreading Salix dasyclados. The new Salix x Salix schwerinnii hybrids should therefore also be responsive to closer spacing. The same effect was observed for the poplars at Wishanger only, but the difference was not as dramatic. There was a suggestion from the highest yielding poplar plots that optimum yield may still be obtained at the currently recommended spacing of 1.0 metre x 1.0 metre. (author)

  18. Understanding the defect structure of solution grown zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, Laura-Lynn [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sankar, Gopinathan, E-mail: g.sankar@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Handoko, Albertus D. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Goh, Gregory K.L., E-mail: g-goh@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconducting oxide with many potential applications in various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Much effort has been made to understand the ZnO structure and its defects. However, one major issue in determining whether it is Zn or O deficiency that provides ZnO its unique properties remains. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an ideal, atom specific characterization technique that is able to probe defect structure in many materials, including ZnO. In this paper, comparative studies of bulk and aqueous solution grown ({<=}90 Degree-Sign C) ZnO powders using XAS and x-ray pair distribution function (XPDF) techniques are described. The XAS Zn-Zn correlation and XPDF results undoubtedly point out that the solution grown ZnO contains Zn deficiency, rather than the O deficiency that were commonly reported. This understanding of ZnO short range order and structure will be invaluable for further development of solid state lighting and other optoelectronic device applications. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO powders have been synthesized through an aqueous solution method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defect structure studied using XAS and XPDF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn-Zn correlations are less in the ZnO powders synthesized in solution than bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn vacancies are present in the powders synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS and XPDF, when used complementary, are useful characterization techniques.

  19. Relaxor properties of barium titanate crystals grown by Remeika method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michel; Tiagunov, Jenia; Dul'kin, Evgeniy; Mojaev, Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) crystals have been grown by the Remeika method using both the regular KF and mixed KF-NaF (0.6-0.4) solvents. Typical acute angle "butterfly wing" BT crystals have been obtained, and they were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (including energy dispersive spectroscopy), conventional dielectric and acoustic emission methods. A typical wing has a triangular plate shape which is up to 0.5 mm thick with a 10-15 mm2 area. The plate has a (001) habit and an atomically smooth outer surface. Both K+ and F- solvent ions are incorporated as dopants into the crystal lattice during growth substituting for Ba2+ and O2- ions respectively. The dopants' distribution is found to be inhomogeneous, their content being almost an order of magnitude higher (up to 2 mol%) at out surface of the plate relatively to the bulk. A few μm thick surface layer is formed where a multidomain ferroelectric net is confined between two≤1 μm thick dopant-rich surfaces. The layer as a whole possess relaxor ferroelectric properties, which is apparent from the appearance of additional broad maxima, Tm, in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity around the ferroelectric phase transition. Intense acoustic emission responses detected at temperatures corresponding to the Tm values allow to observe the Tm shift to lower temperatures at higher frequencies, or dispersion, typical for relaxor ferroelectrics. The outer surface of the BT wing can thus serve as a relaxor thin film for various electronic application, such as capacitors, or as a substrate for BT-based multiferroic structure. Crystals grown from KF-NaF fluxes contain sodium atoms as an additional impurity, but the crystal yield is much smaller, and while the ferroelectric transition peak is diffuse it does not show any sign of dispersion typical for relaxor behavior.

  20. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  1. Single crystal diamond detectors grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuve, C.; Angelone, M.; Bellini, V.; Balducci, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pillon, M.; Potenza, R.; Pucella, G.; Russo, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Sutera, C.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2007-01-01

    The detection properties of heteropitaxial (polycrystalline, pCVD) and homoepitaxial (single crystal, scCVD) diamond films grown by microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in the Laboratories of Roma 'Tor Vergata' University are reported. The pCVD diamond detectors were tested with α-particles from different sources and 12 C ions produced by 15MV Tandem accelerator at Southern National Laboratories (LNS) in Catania (Italy). pCVDs were also used to monitor 14MeV neutrons produced by the D-T plasma at Joint European Torus (JET), Culham, U.K. The limit of pCVDs is the poor energy resolution. To overcome this problem, we developed scCVD diamonds using the same reactor parameters that optimized pCVD diamonds. scCVD were grown on a low cost (100) HPHT single crystal substrate. A detector 110μm thick was tested under α-particles and under 14MeV neutron irradiation. The charge collection efficiency spectrum measured under irradiation with a triple α-particle source shows three clearly resolved peaks, with an energy resolution of about 1.1%. The measured spectra under neutron irradiation show a well separated C(n,α 0 ) 9 Be12 reaction peak with an energy spread of 0.5MeV for 14.8MeV neutrons and 0.3MeV for 14.1MeV neutrons, which are fully compatible with the energy spread of the incident neutron beams

  2. Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on ethanol stillage as a nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T P; Strohfus, B

    1996-01-01

    Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans strain RP-1 using thin stillage from fuel ethanol production as a nitrogen source was studied in a medium using corn syrup as a carbon source. The use of 1% thin stillage as a nitrogen source instead of ammonium sulphate elevated polysaccharide production by strain RP-1 cells when grown on a concentration of up to 7.5% corn syrup, independent of yeast extract supplementation. Dry weights of cells grown in medium containing ammonium sulphate as the nitrogen source were higher than the stillage-grown cells after 7 days of growth. The viscosity of the polysaccharide on day 7 was higher for cells grown on thin stillage rather than ammonium sulphate as a nitrogen source. The pullulan content of the polysaccharide elaborated by ammonium sulphate-grown cells on day 7 was higher than the pullulan content of polysaccharide produced by stillage-grown cells regardless of whether yeast extract was added to the culture medium.

  3. The Ties That Bind: Midlife Parents' Daily Experiences With Grown Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-04-01

    Daily pleasant or stressful experiences with grown children may contribute to parental well-being. This diary study focused on midlife parents' ( N = 247) reports regarding grown children for 7 days. Nearly all parents (96%) had contact with a child that week via phone, text, or in person. Nearly all parents shared laughter or enjoyable interactions with grown children during the study week. More than half of parents experienced stressful encounters (e.g., child got on nerves) or stressful thoughts about grown children (e.g., worrying, fretting about a problem). Pleasant and stressful experiences with grown children were associated with parents' positive and negative daily moods. A pleasant experience with a grown child the same day as a stressful experience mitigated effects of those stressful experiences on negative mood, however. The findings have implications for understanding intergenerational ambivalence and stress buffering in this tie.

  4. The Ties That Bind: Midlife Parents’ Daily Experiences With Grown Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Daily pleasant or stressful experiences with grown children may contribute to parental well-being. This diary study focused on midlife parents’ (N = 247) reports regarding grown children for 7 days. Nearly all parents (96%) had contact with a child that week via phone, text, or in person. Nearly all parents shared laughter or enjoyable interactions with grown children during the study week. More than half of parents experienced stressful encounters (e.g., child got on nerves) or stressful thoughts about grown children (e.g., worrying, fretting about a problem). Pleasant and stressful experiences with grown children were associated with parents’ positive and negative daily moods. A pleasant experience with a grown child the same day as a stressful experience mitigated effects of those stressful experiences on negative mood, however. The findings have implications for understanding intergenerational ambivalence and stress buffering in this tie. PMID:27022198

  5. Uptake of Radium by Grass and Shrubs Grown on Mineral Heaps: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Yusof, M.A. Wahab; Ibrahim, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study of the uptake of 226 Ra and 228 Ra by grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps was carried out. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in grass and shrubs were measured using gamma spectrometry. The result showed that grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps contained elevated levels of radium compared to grass and shrubs grown on normal soils. Thus, these plants might be used for phytoremediation of radium contaminated soil. (author)

  6. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria and iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.B.; Li, X.M.; Zhou, S.G.; Zhuang, L.; Cao, F.; Huang, D.Y.; Xu, W.; Liu, T.X.; Feng, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The transformation of DDT was studied in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (Shewanella decolorationis S12) and iron oxide (α-FeOOH). The results showed that S. decolorationis could reduce DDT into DDD, and DDT transformation rate was accelerated by the presence of α-FeOOH. DDD was observed as the primary transformation product, which was demonstrated to be transformed in the abiotic system of Fe 2+ + α-FeOOH and the system of DIRB + α-FeOOH. The intermediates of DDMS and DBP were detected after 9 months, likely suggesting that reductive dechlorination was the main dechlorination pathway of DDT in the iron-reducing system. The enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT was mainly due to biogenic Fe(II) sorbed on the surface of α-FeOOH, which can serve as a mediator for the transformation of DDT. This study demonstrated the important role of DIRB and iron oxide on DDT and DDD transformation under anaerobic iron-reducing environments. - This is the first case reporting the reductive dechlorination of DDT in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria and iron oxide.

  7. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria and iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.B., E-mail: cefbli@soil.gd.c [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li, X.M. [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou, S.G.; Zhuang, L. [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Cao, F. [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, D.Y.; Xu, W.; Liu, T.X. [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Feng, C.H. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The transformation of DDT was studied in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (Shewanella decolorationis S12) and iron oxide (alpha-FeOOH). The results showed that S. decolorationis could reduce DDT into DDD, and DDT transformation rate was accelerated by the presence of alpha-FeOOH. DDD was observed as the primary transformation product, which was demonstrated to be transformed in the abiotic system of Fe{sup 2+} + alpha-FeOOH and the system of DIRB + alpha-FeOOH. The intermediates of DDMS and DBP were detected after 9 months, likely suggesting that reductive dechlorination was the main dechlorination pathway of DDT in the iron-reducing system. The enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT was mainly due to biogenic Fe(II) sorbed on the surface of alpha-FeOOH, which can serve as a mediator for the transformation of DDT. This study demonstrated the important role of DIRB and iron oxide on DDT and DDD transformation under anaerobic iron-reducing environments. - This is the first case reporting the reductive dechlorination of DDT in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria and iron oxide.

  8. Crops for biodiesel to be grown on mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrichsen, H.

    2007-12-01

    Natural Resources Canada has launched a feasibility project along with several branches of the federal government, provincial government, Laurentian University and mining and forestry companies to determine if crops suitable for producing biodiesel fuel can be grown on mine tailings. The concept first came about when a biodiesel plant was proposed to be built in Sudbury. Although plans for the plant have been abandoned, the biodiesel crop project is still going ahead. Crops will be cultivated on 2 half-hectare plots on the CVRD Inco tailings in Sudbury, 1 half-hectare plot on the Xstrata Nickel tailings in Sudbury and 1 half-hectare plot on the Goldcorp tailings in Timmins. Paper sludge from St. Marys Paper Company in Sault Ste. Marie and Domtar in Espanola will be spread on the plots in January when the frozen ground is easier to work on with heavy equipment. In the spring, the plots will be seeded with corn, canola or soy, with the possibility of alder and willow in the future. Instruments to monitor groundwater on the sites will also be installed. Biodiesel produced with vegetable or meat oils has been touted as being an environmentally sound diesel fuel. Emissions from vehicles fueled by biodiesel are 40 to 100 per cent lower than those from conventional diesel engines. Proponents of the project emphasize the value of using marginal lands like mine tailings to grow crops for biodiesel fuel instead of prime agricultural land. There are 2,500 hectares of tailings in Sudbury that could be potentially used for this purpose, and about 2,000 hectares at one mine site in Timmins. A Sudbury-area farmer will provide advice about growing the crops and will also grow the same crops on a portion of his land for a comparative evaluation of crop yield. The paper sludge offers the benefit of allowing crops to be grown, but it also cuts off oxygen flow to the tailings underneath, thereby preventing sulphides in the tailings from rusting. The paper sludge may even help the

  9. As-Grown Gallium Nitride Nanowire Electromechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Joshua R.

    Technological development in recent years has led to a ubiquity of micro- and nano-scale electromechanical devices. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, mass, etc., are now found in nearly all electronic devices at both the industrial and consumer levels. As has been true for integrated circuit electronics, these electromechanical devices have continued to be scaled down in size. For many nanometer-scale structures with large surface-to-volume ratio, dissipation (energy loss) becomes prohibitively large causing a decreasing sensitivity with decreasing sensor size. In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are investigated as singly-clamped (cantilever) mechanical resonators with typical mechanical quality factors, Q (equal to the ratio of resonance frequency to peak full-width-at-half-maximum-power) and resonance frequencies, respectively, at or above 30,000, and near 1 MHz. These Q values---in vacuum at room temperature---indicate very low levels of dissipation; they are essentially the same as those for bulk quartz crystal resonators that form the basis of simple clocks and mass sensors. The GaN nanowires have lengths and diameters, respectively, of approximately 15 micrometers and hundreds of nanometers. As-grown GaN nanowire Q values are larger than other similarly-sized, bottom-up, cantilever resonators and this property makes them very attractive for use as resonant sensors. We demonstrate the capability of detecting sub-monolayer levels of atomic layer deposited (ALD) films, and the robust nature of the GaN nanowires structure that allows for their 'reuse' after removal of such layers. In addition to electron microscope-based measurement techniques, we demonstrate the successful capacitive detection of a single nanowire using microwave homodyne reflectometry. This technique is then extended to allow for simultaneous measurements of large ensembles of GaN nanowires on a single sample, providing statistical information about the distribution of

  10. Effect Of Bird Manure On Cotton Plants Grown On Soils Sampled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton plant had a better development and growth when bird manure was only applied to soil or combined with mineral fertilizer and when cotton was grown on a soil where the previous crops were cereals (maize or sorghum). Planting cotton on a soil where the previous crop grown was maize or sorghum had no significant ...

  11. 76 FR 34181 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...; FV11-983-1 PR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendments to... amendments to Marketing Agreement and Order No. 983, which regulates the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico, were proposed by the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee...

  12. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 983 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0077; FV10-983-3 CR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. DATES: The...

  13. 78 FR 21520 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...; FV12-923-1 FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in...

  14. 78 FR 76031 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. The Committee's...

  15. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 945 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0109; FV11-945-1] Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated... among eligible producers of Irish potatoes in certain designated counties in Idaho, and Malheur County... Irish potatoes grown in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from March 5 to...

  16. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY... suspends the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown in Southeastern states (order), and the rules and regulations implemented thereunder, through March 1, 2014. The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes...

  17. Quantification of the growth response of light quantity of greenhouse grown crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Broekhuijsen, A.G.M.; Nijs, E.M.F.M.; Raaphorst, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Growers have often assumed that a 1% increment in light results in a 1% yield increase. In this study, this rule of thumb has been evaluated for a number of greenhouse grown crops: fruit vegetables (cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper), soil grown vegetables (lettuce, radish), cut flowers (rose,

  18. Characterization of GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers grown

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers are grown by a metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) system. The crystalline quality of these epitaxially grown layers is studied by different characterization techniques. PL measurements indicate band edge emission peak at 363.8 nm and 312 nm for GaN and AlGaN layers ...

  19. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations. 780.506 Section 780.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION....506 Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations. The exemption provided by section 13(a...

  20. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...

  1. Mid-Atlantic Consumer Purchasing Behavior and Knowledge of Locally Grown and Seasonal Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Amy J.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Hyde, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Atlantic urban consumers were surveyed on their fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors and their knowledge of produce grown in the region. Consumers were generally unaware of what produce is grown in the mid-Atlantic and during what months they are harvested. Additionally, differences pertaining to number of produce items purchased were…

  2. Helicopter Parents and Landing Pad Kids: Intense Parental Support of Grown Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Wesselmann, Eric D.; Zarit, Steven; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira S.

    2012-01-01

    Popular media describe adverse effects of helicopter parents who provide intense support to grown children, but few studies have examined implications of such intense support. Grown children (N = 592, M age = 23.82 years, 53% female, 35% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) and their parents (N = 399, M age = 50.67 years, 52% female; 34%…

  3. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780.505 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  4. Heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, A.; Ahmad, A.; Randhawa, M.A.; Ahmad, R.; Khalid, N.

    2012-01-01

    Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) contents of various vegetables (bitter melon, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, cucumber and bell pepper) produced in Rawalpindi, Pakistan was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. All vegetables grown at sewage water by farmers showed the highest contamination of heavy metals, followed by local market, Progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. The concentration ranges in mg/kg were (1.45 -2.55) for Cd, (3.10 to 4.92) Cr, (12.15- 20.50) Cu, (25.00-51.00) for Fe, (7.80 to 15.60) for Mn, (10.16 to 15.42) for Ni, (2.12 to 5.41) Pb and (16.58 to 24.08) for zinc. The contamination was above the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs), set out by WHO. Irregular trends in concentration were also observed in vegetables obtained from local market, progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. (author)

  5. ARSENIC AND COPPER UPTAKE BY CABBAGES GROWN ON POLLUTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cabbages (Brassica Juncea (L. Czern were grown in pot experiments on typical unpolluted and polluted soils with concentration changing from 20.50 - 50.00 mg As/kg and 156.00 - 413.00 mg Cu/kg dry soil. The results demonstrate the elevation of As and Cu in soil may lead to increased uptake by these cabbages subsequent entry into human food chain. It was found 11.84- 32.12 mg As/kg and 46.86 - 94.47 mg Cu/kg dry leaves. It has tendency increase uptake and accumulation of Cu in cabbage tissue with increasing cultivated time, whereas, it was found accumulation of As in cabbages tissue decreased with time prolonging. The quantity of As and Cu in these cabbages, were significant higher than 0.2 mg As/kg and 5.0 mg Cu/kg fresh vegetable, the permissible limit concentration in fresh vegetable. This indicated that human may As and Cu exposure occur through eating these vegetables.

  6. Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Musco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability. The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM] and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM, respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins. Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries.

  7. Sample sufficiency of chinese pink grown in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José lopes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cravina is an excellent plant to build up gardens due to its early flowering, abundant flowering and great performance in spring and autumn. The objective was to estimate the sample size for plant chinese pink, grown on different substrates, and check the variability of the sample size between growth parameters and production and substrates. They used seven treatments (substrates: S1 = 50% soil + 50% rice husk ash; S2 = 80% soil + 20% earthworm castings; S3 = 80% rice husk ash + 20% earthworm castings; S4 = 40% soil + 40% rice husk ash + 20% earthworm castings; S5 = 100% peat; S6 = 100% commercial substrate Mecplant®; S7 = 50% peat + 50% rice husk ash, with 56 repetitions each, totaling 392 plants of garden pink, which was evaluated in 17 of growth and production parameters. The methodology used to bootstrap resampling, with replacement, for each character within each substrate with predetermined error: 5, 10, 20 and 40% of the average (D%. To a 95% confidence interval, with D = 20%, the substrate 50% soil and 50% of rice husk ash had the largest sample size 11 characters; when comparing the characters , the number of flower buds had the highest sample size on average 113 plants. Using samples of 44 plant chinese pink for commercial substrate Mecplant® meet the lower precisions or equal to 20% for all variables. There is variation in sample size in relation to the substrate used and the variable evaluated in chinese pink plants.

  8. Disorder in silicon films grown epitaxially at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzkopf, J.; Selle, B.; Bohne, W.; Roehrich, J.; Sieber, I.; Fuhs, W.

    2003-01-01

    Homoepitaxial Si films were prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on Si(100) substrates at temperatures of 325-500 deg. C using H 2 , Ar, and SiH 4 as process gases. The gas composition, substrate temperature, and substrate bias voltage were systematically varied to study the breakdown of epitaxial growth. Information from ion beam techniques, like Rutherford backscattering and heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis, was combined with transmission and scanning electron micrographs to examine the transition from ordered to amorphous growth. The results suggest that the breakdown proceeds in two stages: (i) highly defective but still ordered growth with a defect density increasing with increasing film thickness and (ii) formation of conically shaped amorphous precipitates. The hydrogen content is found to be directly related to the degree of disorder which acts as sink for excessive hydrogen. Only in almost perfect epitaxially grown films is the hydrogen level low, and an exponential tail of the H concentration into the crystalline substrate is observed as a result of the diffusive transport of hydrogen

  9. The structure of Ta nanopillars grown by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.M.; Gall, D.

    2006-01-01

    Regular arrays of Ta nanopillars, 200 nm wide and 500 nm tall, were grown on SiO 2 nanosphere patterns by glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Plan-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy analyses show dramatic changes in the structure and morphology of individual nanopillars as a function of growth temperature T s ranging from 200 to 700 deg. C. At low temperatures, T s ≤ 300 deg. C, single nanopillars develop on each sphere and branch into subpillars near the pillar top. In contrast, T s ≥ 500 deg. C leads to branching during the nucleation stage at the pillar bottom. The top branching at low T s is associated with surface mounds on a growing pillar that, due to atomic shadowing, develop into separated subpillars. At high T s , the branching occurs during the nucleation stage where multiple nuclei on a single SiO 2 sphere develop into subpillars during a competitive growth mode which, in turn, leads to intercolumnar competition and the extinction of some nanopillars

  10. Modeling uptake kinetics of cadmium by field-grown lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Weiping [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: chenweip@yahoo.com.cn; Li Lianqing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chang, Andrew C.; Wu Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kwon, Soon-Ik [Agricultural Environmental and Ecology Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Bottoms, Rick [Desert Research and Extension Center, 1004 East Holton Road, El Centro, CA 92243 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cadmium uptake by field grown Romaine lettuce treated with P-fertilizers of different Cd levels was investigated over an entire growing season. Results indicated that the rate of Cd uptake at a given time of the season can be satisfactorily described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that is, plant uptake increases as the Cd concentration in soil solution increases, and it gradually approaches a saturation level. However, the rate constant of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics changes over the growing season. Under a given soil Cd level, the cadmium content in plant tissue decreases exponentially with time. To account for the dynamic nature of Cd uptake, a kinetic model integrating the time factor was developed to simulate Cd plant uptake over the growing season: C{sub Plant} = C{sub Solution} . PUF{sub max} . exp[-b . t], where C{sub Plant} and C{sub Solution} refer to the Cd content in plant tissue and soil solution, respectively, PUF{sub max} and b are kinetic constants. - A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the uptake of Cd under field conditions.

  11. Modeling uptake kinetics of cadmium by field-grown lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weiping; Li Lianqing; Chang, Andrew C.; Wu Laosheng; Kwon, Soon-Ik; Bottoms, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium uptake by field grown Romaine lettuce treated with P-fertilizers of different Cd levels was investigated over an entire growing season. Results indicated that the rate of Cd uptake at a given time of the season can be satisfactorily described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that is, plant uptake increases as the Cd concentration in soil solution increases, and it gradually approaches a saturation level. However, the rate constant of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics changes over the growing season. Under a given soil Cd level, the cadmium content in plant tissue decreases exponentially with time. To account for the dynamic nature of Cd uptake, a kinetic model integrating the time factor was developed to simulate Cd plant uptake over the growing season: C Plant = C Solution . PUF max . exp[-b . t], where C Plant and C Solution refer to the Cd content in plant tissue and soil solution, respectively, PUF max and b are kinetic constants. - A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the uptake of Cd under field conditions

  12. Thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; Watko, E.; Colpitts, T.

    1997-04-01

    The thermoelectric properties of metallorganic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) ZnSb films are reported. The growth conditions necessary to obtain stoichiometric ZnSb films and the effects of various growth parameters on the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of the films are described. The as-grown ZnSb films are p-type. It was observed that the growth of thicker ZnSb films lead to improved carrier mobilities and lower free-carrier concentrations. The Seebeck coefficient of ZnSb films was found to rise rapidly at approximately 160 to 170 C, with peak Seebeck coefficients as high as 470 microV/K at 220 C. The various growth conditions, including the use of intentional dopants, to improve the Seebeck coefficients at room temperature and above, are discussed. A short annealing of the ZnSb films at temperatures of ∼ 200 C resulted in reduced free-carrier levels and higher Seebeck coefficients at 300 K. Finally, ZT values based on preliminary thermal conductivity measurements using the 3-ω method are reported

  13. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Methyl halide emissions from greenhouse-grown mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Steven L.; Wang, Nun-Yii; Walser, Maggie L.; Cicerone, Ralph J.

    2007-01-01

    Two mangrove species, Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle, were greenhouse grown for nearly 1.5 years from saplings. A single individual of each species was monitored for the emission of methyl halides from aerial tissue. During the first 240 days, salinity was incrementally increased with the addition of seawater, and was maintained between 18 and 28‰ for the duration of the study. Exponential growth occurred after 180 days. Methyl halide emissions normalized to leaf area were measured throughout the study and varied dramatically. Emission rates normalized to land area (mg m-2 y-1), assuming a LAI = 5, yielded 82 and 29 for CH3Cl, 10 and 1.6 for CH3Br, and 26 and 11 for CH3I, for A. germinans and R. mangle, respectively. From these preliminary determinations, only CH3I emissions emerge as being of possible global atmospheric significance. This study emphasizes the need for field studies of methyl halide emissions from mangrove forests.

  15. Resilience among abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, J M; Widom, C S

    2001-01-01

    Although an extensive literature has accumulated documenting the maladaptive outcomes associated with childhood victimization, a limited body of knowledge addresses resilience. This paper sought to operationalize the construct of resilience across a number of domains of functioning and time periods and to determine the extent to which abused and neglected children grown up demonstrate resilience. Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 were matched on gender, age, race, and approximate family social class with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Between 1989 and 1995. 1,196 participants (676 abused and neglected and 520 controls) were administered a 2-hr in-person interview, including a psychiatric assessment. Resilience requires meeting the criteria for success across six of eight domains of functioning: employment, homelessness, education, social activity, psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, and two domains assessing criminal behavior (official arrest and self-reports of violence). Results indicate that 22% of abused and neglected individuals meet the criteria for resilience. More females met the criteria for resilience and females were successful across a greater number of domains than males. We speculate on the meaning of these findings and discuss implications for the child maltreatment field. Limitations of the study are also acknowledged.

  16. Characterization of traditional tomato varieties grown in organic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Cebrino, F.; Lozano, M.; Ayuso, M. C.; Bernalte, M. J.; Vidal-Aragon, M. C.; Gonzalez-Gomez, D.

    2011-07-01

    Organic horticulture is a sustainable agricultural model that can provide high quality products and allows conservation of genetic diversity. Traditional tomato varieties are well adapted to organic production and they have the organoleptic characteristics demanded by consumers. Seven traditional tomato varieties were studied: BGV-001020, BGV-000998, BGV-001000, BGV-004123, CIDA-44-A, CIDA-62, CIDA-59-A, and they were compared with a tomato Marmandetype commercial cv. Baghera, all them grown under organic production. Several quality variables were measured to establish whether any of the traditional varieties might be suitable for commercial production. CIDA-62 was shown to be the most promising variety. It produces tomatoes of very high quality under organic conditions. It excels in terms of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C (459.22 mg kg{sup -}1 fw) and lycopene (62.25 mg kg{sup -}1 fw) and in its total antioxidant activity (43.58 mg Trolox/100 g fw). It is also outstanding in terms of its sugar content (4.56% fructose and glucose combined) and of its total soluble solids content (6.22 degree centigrade Brix). All of these variables are associated with both sensory quality and health benefits. Other varieties that emerged with relatively high levels of total soluble solids content, lycopene, vitamin C and total antioxidant activity were BGV-004123 and BGV-001020. (Author) 41 refs.

  17. A novel conformation of gel grown biologically active cadmium nicotinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Lekshmi P.; Bijini, B. R.; Divya, R.; Nair, Prabitha B.; Eapen, S. M.; Dileep Kumar, B. S.; Nishanth Kumar, S.; Nair, C. M. K.; Deepa, M.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2017-11-01

    The elimination of toxic heavy metals by the formation of stable co-ordination compounds with biologically active ligands is applicable in drug designing. A new crystalline complex of cadmium with nicotinic acid is grown at ambient temperature using the single gel diffusion method in which the crystal structure is different from those already reported. Single crystal x-ray diffraction reveals the identity of crystal structure belonging to monoclinic system, P21/c space group with cell dimensions a = 17.220 (2) Å, b = 10.2480 (2) Å, c = 7.229(9) Å, β = 91.829(4)°. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallinity of the sample. The unidentate mode of co-ordination between the metal atom and the carboxylate group is supported by the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectral data. Thermal analysis ensures the thermal stability of the complex. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are also calculated. The stoichiometry of the complex is confirmed by the elemental analysis. The UV-visible spectral analysis shows the wide transparency window of the complex in the visible region. The band gap of the complex is found to be 3.92 eV. The complex shows excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  18. Secretomic survey of Trichoderma harzianum grown on plant biomass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mendoza, Diana Paola; Junqueira, Magno; do Vale, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Sousa, Marcelo Valle de; Ricart, Carlos André Ornelas

    2014-04-04

    The present work aims at characterizing T. harzianum secretome when the fungus is grown in synthetic medium supplemented with one of the four substrates: glucose, cellulose, xylan, and sugarcane bagasse (SB). The characterization was done by enzymatic assays and proteomic analysis using 2-DE/MALDI-TOF and gel-free shotgun LC-MS/MS. The results showed that SB induced the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities when compared with the other substrates, while remarkable differences in terms of number and distribution of protein spots in 2-DE gels were also observed among the samples. Additionally, treatment of the secretomes with PNGase F revealed that most spot trails in 2-DE gels corresponded to N-glycosylated proteoforms. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the samples identified 626 different protein groups, including carbohydrate-active enzymes and accessory, noncatalytic, and cell-wall-associated proteins. Although the SB-induced secretome displayed the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, it did not correspond to a higher proteome complexity because CM-cellulose-induced secretome was significantly more diverse. Among the identified proteins, 73% were exclusive to one condition, while only 5% were present in all samples. Therefore, this study disclosed the variation of T. harzianum secretome in response to different substrates and revealed the diversity of the fungus enzymatic toolbox.

  19. Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Wallis, D J; Humphreys, C J

    2013-01-01

    The use of III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is now widespread in applications such as indicator lamps, display panels, backlighting for liquid-crystal display TVs and computer screens, traffic lights, etc. To meet the huge market demand and lower the manufacturing cost, the LED industry is moving fast from 2 inch to 4 inch and recently to 6 inch wafer sizes. Although Al 2 O 3 (sapphire) and SiC remain the dominant substrate materials for the epitaxy of nitride LEDs, the use of large Si substrates attracts great interest because Si wafers are readily available in large diameters at low cost. In addition, such wafers are compatible with existing processing lines for 6 inch and larger wafers commonly used in the electronics industry. During the last decade, much exciting progress has been achieved in improving the performance of GaN-on-Si devices. In this contribution, the status and prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si substrates are reviewed. The issues involved in the growth of GaN-based LED structures on Si and possible solutions are outlined, together with a brief introduction to some novel in situ and ex situ monitoring/characterization tools, which are especially useful for the growth of GaN-on-Si structures. (review article)

  20. Suppression of Mg propagation into subsequent layers grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anchal; Tahhan, Maher; Mates, Tom; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature (LT) flow modulation epitaxy (FME) or "pulsed" growth was successfully used to prevent magnesium from Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) grown p-GaN:Mg layers riding into subsequently deposited n-type layers. Mg concentration in the subsequent layers was lowered from ˜1 × 1018 cm-3 for a medium temperature growth at 950 °C to ˜1 × 1016 cm-3 for a low temperature growth at 700 °C via FME. The slope of the Mg concentration drop in the 700 °C FME sample was 20 nm/dec—the lowest ever demonstrated by MOCVD. For growth on Mg implanted GaN layers, the drop for a medium temperature regrowth at 950 °C was ˜10 nm/dec compared to >120 nm/dec for a high temperature regrowth at 1150 °C. This drop-rate obtained at 950 °C or lower was maintained even when the growth temperature in the following layers was raised to 1150 °C. A controlled silicon doping series using LT FME was also demonstrated with the lowest and highest achieved doping levels being 5 × 1016 cm-3 and 6 × 1019 cm-3, respectively.

  1. Productive performance of soybean cultivars grown in different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Belchior Marchetti Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants density in soybean cultivation is an important management practice to achieve high grain yield. In this way, the objective was to evaluate the agronomic traits and grain yield in soybean in different plant densities, in two locations in the south of Minas Gerais. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, arranged in a split plot design, with three replications. Plots were composed of four population densities (300, 400, 500 and 600 thousand plants per hectare and the subplots were composed of six cultivars (‘BMX Força RR’, ‘CD 250 RR’, ‘FMT 08 - 60.346/1’, ‘NA 5909 RR’, ‘TMG 7161 RR’ and ‘V - TOP RR’ grown in Lavras and Inconfidentes, both in Minas Gerais. At the time of harvest was determined the plant height, lodging, insertion of the first pod, harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of grains, number of grains per pod and yield. Regardless of the soybean cultivar, the plant density of up to 600,000 per ha does not affect grain yield, plant height, lodging, harvest index, and number of grains per pod. The cultivars ‘V-TOP RR’ and ‘BMX FORÇA RR’ showed high grain yield and good agronomic traits in Lavras and Incofidentes.

  2. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-07-17

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  3. Arsenic uptake and speciation in vegetables grown under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Juhasz, A L; Weber, J

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) by vegetables is a potential human exposure pathway. The speciation of As in vegetables is an important consideration due to the varying toxicity of different As species. In this study, common Australian garden vegetables were hydroponically grown with As-contaminated irrigation water to determine the uptake and species of As present in vegetable tissue. The highest concentrations of total As were observed in the roots of all vegetables and declined in the aerial portions of the plants. Total As accumulation in the edible portions of the vegetables decreased in the order radish > mung bean > lettuce = chard. Arsenic was present in the roots of radish, chard, and lettuce as arsenate (As(V)) and comprised between 77 and 92% of the total As present, whereas in mung beans, arsenite (As(III)) comprised 90% of the total As present. In aerial portions of the vegetables, As was distributed equally between both As(V) and As(III) in radish and chard but was present mainly as As(V) in lettuce. The presence of elevated As in vegetable roots suggests that As species may be complexed by phytochelatins, which limits As translocation to aerial portions of the plant.

  4. Insitu CCVD grown bilayer graphene transistors for applications in nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessely, Pia Juliane; Schwalke, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We invented a method to fabricate graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) on oxidized silicon wafers in a Silicon CMOS compatible process. The graphene layers needed are grown in situ by means of a transfer-free catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) process directly on silicon dioxide. Depending on the process parameters the fabrication of single, double or multi-layer graphene FETs (GFETs) is possible. The produced graphene layers have been characterized by SEM, TEM, TEM-lattice analysis as well as Raman-Spectroscopy. Directly after growth, the fabricated GFETs are electrically functional and can be electrically characterized via the catalyst metals which are used as contact electrodes. In contrast to monolayer graphene FETs, the fabricated bilayer graphene FETs (BiLGFETs) exhibit unipolar p-type MOSFET behavior. Furthermore, the on/off current-ratio of 10 4 up to several 10 7 at room temperature of the fabricated BiLGFETs allows their use in digital logic applications [1]. In addition, a stable hysteresis of the GFETs enables their use as memory devices without the need of storage capacitors and therefore very high memory device-densities are possible. The whole fabrication process is fully Si-CMOS compatible, enabling the use of hybrid silicon/graphene electronics.

  5. Diurnal photosynthesis and stomatal resistance in field-grown soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Muller, R.N.; Seegers, P.

    1976-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis in green plants is the major determinant of crop yield. Although the effects of air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, on photosynthesis has been studied, many unsolved questions remain. This is especially true with regard to reduction of photosynthetic rate under conditions of chronic exposure causing little or no visible injury. It was the purpose of these studies to develop techniques suitable for measuring photosynthetic rates of field-grown plants without dramatically altering the microenvironment of the plants. Gross photosynthetic rates of soybeans (Glycine max. cv. Wayne) in the field were measured by exposing a small section of representative leaves for 30 seconds to 14 CO 2 in a normal atmospheric mixture by a technique similar to that of Incoll and Wright. A 1-cm 2 section of the area exposed to 14 CO 2 is punched from the leaf and processed for liquid scintillation counting. Since the treatment period is of such short duration, there is little photorespiratory loss of 14 CO 2 , and thus, the amount of 14 C fixed in the leaf can be related to the gross photosynthetic rate. Other parameters measured during the course of these experiments were stomatal resistance, light intensity, leaf water potential, and air temperature

  6. Weed flora in organically grown spring cereals in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora in organically grown spring cereals was investigated in southern and central Finland in 1997-1999 with the primary purpose of determining the species composition and the level of weed infestation. Altogether 165 fields were surveyed in the middle of the growing season. A total of 126 weed species were found, of which 42 exceeded the frequency level of 10%. The most frequent weed species were Chenopodium album, Stellaria media, Galeopsis spp. and Viola arvensis. Elymus repens was the most frequent grass species. The average density of weeds was 469 plants m-2 (median 395, and the air-dry biomass was 678 kg ha-1 (median 567 which accounted for 17% of the total biomass of the crop stand. Infestation by Chenopodium album and the perennial species Elymus repens, Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis is of major concern. Weed control strategies should include direct control measures to overcome weed problems related to the conversion period from conventional to organic growing.

  7. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheswari, J. Uma, E-mail: umak.anand@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The M.D.T.Hindu College, Tirunelveli 627010, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnan, C. [Department of Physics, Arignar Anna College, Aralvoymoli 629301, Tamilnadu (India); Kalyanaraman, S. [Physics Research Centre, Sri Paramakalyani College, Alwarkurichi 627412, Tamilnadu (India); Selvarajan, P. [Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-12-01

    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV–Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  8. InGaAs Quantum Well Grown on High-Index Surfaces for Superluminescent Diode Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The morphological and optical properties of In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells grown on various substrates are investigated for possible application to superluminescent diodes. The In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100, (210, (311, and (731 substrates. A broad photoluminescence emission peak (~950 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM of 48 nm is obtained from the sample grown on (210 substrate at room temperature, which is over four times wider than the quantum well simultaneously grown on (100 substrate. On the other hand, a very narrow photoluminescence spectrum is observed from the sample grown on (311 with FWHM = 7.8 nm. The results presented in this article demonstrate the potential of high-index GaAs substrates for superluminescent diode applications.

  9. Element distribution of the barley plant grown in an agar slice suspended culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino-Nakanishi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    1991-01-01

    An agar slice suspended culture was devised for the further study of the barley root. The roots were placed into an agar covered with a nylon cloth and suspended in a water culture vessel. Barley roots grown in the agar developed hardly any root hair. The element contents of the root grown in the agar culture and that in the water culture were measured by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of K, Mg and Cl in the root grown in the agar were about half of these grown in the water. Na and Mn concentrations were the same and Ca concentration was slightly higher when grown in the agar. The agar system is expected to provide more information to study the root hair. (author)

  10. Point defects in ZnO crystals grown by various techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čížek, J; Vlček, M; Hruška, P; Lukáč, F; Melikhova, O; Anwand, W; Selim, F; Hugenschmidt, Ch; Egger, W

    2017-01-01

    In the present work point defects in ZnO crystals were characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy combined with back-diffusion measurement of slow positrons. Defects in ZnO crystals grown by various techniques were compared. Hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals contain defects characterized by lifetime of ≈181 ps. These defects were attributed to Zn vacancies associated with hydrogen. ZnO crystals prepared by other techniques (Bridgman, pressurized melt growth, and seeded chemical vapour transport) exhibit shorter lifetime of ≈165 ps. Positron back-diffusion studies revealed that hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals contain higher density of defects than the crystals grown by other techniques. The lowest concentration of defects was detected in the crystal grown by seeded chemical vapor transport. (paper)

  11. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalaura Carducci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  12. Quality of Heliconia psittacorum seedlings grown on different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Luiz Laurinho dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of good seedlings depends on the quality of the matrix and propagation techniques used. In choosing a substrate should be particularly observed physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to assess the development and vigor of heliconia seedlings from Heliconia psittacorum species, grown on different substrates and mixtures. The materials that form the treatments were: burnt rice husk (RHB, vermiculite (VC, sugarcane waste burnt (SWB, subsoil (S, chicken bedding (CB, cattle manure (CM, earthworm humus (EH, coconut husk powder (CSP and Horticultural Plantmax (HP. The treatments chosen were: 1( ⅔ CM + ⅓ CSP, 2( ⅔CM + ⅓RHB, 3( ⅔CB + ⅓ SWB, 4(CSP, 5(½VC+ ½SWB, 6(⅔ S + ⅓ CB, 7(⅓CM + ⅔SWB, 8(⅔ CM + ⅓SWB, 9(⅔CB + ⅓RHB, 10(⅓CM + ⅔RHB, 11(⅓CB + ⅔SWB, 12(⅔CB + ⅓CSP, 13(⅔EH + ⅓CSP, 14(⅔EH + ⅓SWB, 15(⅓CB + ⅔RHB, 16(⅓EH + ⅔SWB, 17(⅔EH + ⅓RHB, 18( ½VC + ½RHB, 19(S, 20(⅔ S + ⅓ CM, 21(⅔ S + ⅓ EH, 22(EH, 23(HP, 24(⅓EH + ⅔RHB. Samples of all treatment compositions were taken and carried out chemical and physical analysis. A set of ten treatments (1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 20 and 22 basically consisting of CM EH, RHB, CSP and SWB produced the best seedlings and treatment with CB as a main component or not produced the worst seedlings due to high electrical conductivity

  13. Some analytical characters of cottonseed varieties grown in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergiz, Cevdet

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen cottonseed varieties grown in Turkey were analysed. The average oil content in varieties ranged from 309.7g Kg-1 to 379.5g Kg-1 whereas the range in values of gossypol content for glanded varieties was 7.4-12.8g Kg-1. One glandless variety contained gossypol as 0.2g Kg-1. The samples contained 337.2- 466.5g Kg-1 protein. Fatty acid composition of the oils obtained from cottonseed varieties were also determined. Generally total gossypol content of cottonseed varieties were below the limits established by the some nations for human food or animal feed.

    Se han analizado dieciséis variedades de semillas de algodón cultivadas en Turquía. El contenido medio de aceite en las distintas variedades osciló entre 309,7g Kg-1 y 379,5g Kg-1 mientras que el contenido en gosipol para variedades con glándulas fue desde 7,4 a 12,8g Kg-1. Una variedad sin glándula tuvo un valor en gosipol de 0, Kg-1. El valor en proteínas de las muestras osciló entre 337,2 y 466,5g Kg-1. También se determinó la composición en ácidos grasos de los aceites obtenidos de las distintas variedades de semilla de algodón. Por lo general el contenido total en gosipol en las distintas variedades fue inferior a los límites establecidos por algunas naciones para su consumo humano o para alimentación animal.

  14. Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  16. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hobeom; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Lee, Tae-Woo; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current (J sc ), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while J sc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge. (paper)

  17. Textured YBCO films grown on wires: application to superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechoux, N; Jiménez, C; Chaudouët, P; Rapenne, L; Sarigiannidou, E; Robaut, F; Petit, S; Garaudée, S; Porcar, L; Soubeyroux, J L; Odier, P; Bruzek, C E; Decroux, M

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to fabricate superconducting wires made of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) on La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) buffered and biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W (NiW) are described. Wires were manually shaped from LZO buffered NiW tapes. Different diameters were produced: 1.5, 2 and 3 mm. The wires were further covered with YBCO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We developed an original device in which the round substrate undergoes an alternated rotation of 180° around its axis in addition to a reel-to-reel translation. This new approach allows covering the whole circumference of the wire with a YBCO layer. This was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For all wire diameters, the YBCO layer thickness varied from 300 to 450 nm, and the cationic composition was respected. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed directly on an as-deposited wire without surface preparation allowing the investigation of the crystalline quality of the film surface. Combining EBSD with XRD results we show that YBCO grows epitaxially on the LZO buffered NiW wires. For the first time, superconductive behaviors have been detected on round substrates in both the rolling and circular direction. J c reached 0.3 MA cm −2 as measured at 77 K by transport and third-harmonic detection. Those preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the MOCVD for complex geometries, especially for YBCO deposition on small diameter wires. This approach opens huge perspectives for the elaboration of a new generation of YBCO-based round conductors. (paper)

  18. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Asiah

    2004-07-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l{sup -1} was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l{sup -1}) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l{sup -1}. The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l{sup -1}. The N level of 400 mg l{sup -1} in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high

  19. Nitrogen utilisation of lowland cauliflower grown on coconut coir dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Strong wind, high rainfall, the spread of diseases during rainy season and pests problems in open field agriculture have led to the current trend in growing vegetables under protected environment. The occurrence of soil borne disease, and limited suitable land for agriculture are some of the reasons to look for alternative media such as coconut coir dust. The basic properties of coconut coir dust as a soil less growing medium and the utilisation of nitrogen (n) fertiliser for the lowland cauliflower grown in them have not been thoroughly investigated and are therefore not well understood. This study has been conducted by the need to provide a basis for determining optimal levels/ concentration and forms of nitrogen supply, and by the need to minimize environmental consequences of lowland cauliflower production. It focuses on the effects of N supply in terms of different levels of N and ionic N forms in the nutrient solution, on the growth, development and N utilisation of cauliflower grown in coconut coir dust under greenhouse condition in the lowlands. Based on the plant growth parameters studied coconut coir dust was found to be more suitable than oil palm empty fruit bunch as a growing medium. From the growth and development study using coconut coir dust, it can be deduced that the N requirement by the plant is less at later growth stage regardless of low or high level of N in the nutrient solution. However, low level of N of 50 mg l -1 was found to be inadequate for plant growth and curd yield. The N concentration levels of 200 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution optimised both the vegetative and curd production. A somewhat lower level of N (170 mg l -1 ) produced curd weight not significantly different from N level of 200 mg l -1 . The plant growth and curd yield was reduced by about 29.0 % at 400 mg N l -1 . The N level of 400 mg l -1 in the nutrient solution may be in excess to that actually required by the plant, resulting in a high unused N nutrient

  20. As-grown deep-level defects in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shang; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Honda, Unhi; Shibata, Tatsunari; Matsumura, Toshiya; Tokuda, Yutaka; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Kachi, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Traps of energy levels E c -0.26 and E c -0.61 eV have been identified as as-grown traps in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition by using deep level transient spectroscopy of the Schottky contacts fabricated by resistive evaporation. The additional traps of E c -0.13 and E c -0.65 eV have been observed in samples whose contacts are deposited by electron-beam evaporation. An increase in concentration of the E c -0.13 and E c -0.65 eV traps when approaching the interface between the contact and the GaN film supports our argument that these traps are induced by electron-beam irradiation. Conversely, the depth profiles of as-grown traps show different profiles between several samples with increased or uniform distribution in the near surface below 50 nm. Similar profiles are observed in GaN grown on a sapphire substrate. We conclude that the growth process causes these large concentrations of as-grown traps in the near-surface region. It is speculated that the finishing step in the growth process should be an essential issue in the investigation of the surface state of GaN.

  1. Conformity and structure of titanium oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jogi, Indrek [University of Tartu, Institute of Experimental Physics and Technology, Taehe 4, 51010, Tartu (Estonia)], E-mail: indrek.jogi@ut.ee; Paers, Martti; Aarik, Jaan; Aidla, Aleks [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Laan, Matti [University of Tartu, Institute of Experimental Physics and Technology, Taehe 4, 51010, Tartu (Estonia); Sundqvist, Jonas; Oberbeck, Lars; Heitmann, Johannes [Qimonda Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG, Koenigsbruecker Strasse 180, 01099, Dresden (Germany); Kukli, Kaupo [University of Tartu, Institute of Experimental Physics and Technology, Taehe 4, 51010, Tartu (Estonia)

    2008-06-02

    Conformity and phase structure of atomic layer deposited TiO{sub 2} thin films grown on silicon substrates were studied. The films were grown using TiCl{sub 4} and Ti(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} as titanium precursors in the temperature range from 125 to 500 {sup o}C. In all cases perfect conformal growth was achieved on patterned substrates with elliptical holes of 7.5 {mu}m depth and aspect ratio of about 1:40. Conformal growth was achieved with process parameters similar to those optimized for the growth on planar wafers. The dominant crystalline phase in the as-grown films was anatase, with some contribution from rutile at relatively higher temperatures. Annealing in the oxygen ambient resulted in (re)crystallization whereas the effect of annealing depended markedly on the precursors used in the deposition process. Compared to films grown from TiCl{sub 4}, the films grown from Ti(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} were transformed into rutile in somewhat greater extent, whereas in terms of step coverage the films grown from Ti(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} remained somewhat inferior compared to the films grown from TiCl{sub 4}.

  2. Nucleoli from growing oocytes support the development of enucleolated full-grown oocytes in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Ogushi, Sugako; Miyano, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Recent research has shown that the maternal nucleolus is essential for embryonic development. The morphology of the nucleolus in growing oocytes differs from that in full-grown oocytes. We determined the ability of nucleoli from growing oocytes to substitute for nucleoli of full-grown oocytes in terms of supporting embryonic development in this study. Growing (around 100 microm in diameter) and full-grown porcine oocytes (120 microm) were collected from small (0.6-1.0 mm) and large antral follicles (4-5 mm), respectively. The nucleolus was aspirated from full-grown oocytes by micromanipulation, and the resulting enucleolated oocytes were matured to metaphase II; the nucleoli originating from full-grown and growing oocytes were then injected into the oocytes. The Chromatin of growing oocytes was aspirated with the nucleolus during the enucleolation process. Growing oocytes were thus treated with actinomycin D to release the chromatin from their nucleoli, and the nucleoli were collected and transferred to the enucleolated and matured full-grown oocytes. After activation by electro-stimulation, nucleoli were formed in pronuclei of sham-operated oocytes. Enucleolated oocytes that had been injected with nucleoli from either full-grown or growing, however, did not form any nucleoli in the pronuclei. No enucleolated oocytes developed to blastocysts, whereas enucleolated oocytes injected with nucleoli from full-grown oocytes (15%) or growing oocytes (18%) developed to blastocysts. These results indicate that the nucleoli from growing oocytes can substitute for nucleoli from full-grown oocytes during early embryonic development. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Rutile TiO2 thin films grown by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnarsson, B.; Magnus, F.; Tryggvason, T.K.; Ingason, A.S.; Leosson, K.; Olafsson, S.; Gudmundsson, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Thin TiO 2 films were grown on Si(001) substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Optical and structural properties of films were compared both before and after post-annealing using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray reflection (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both dcMS- and HiPIMS-grown films reveal polycrystalline rutile TiO 2 , even prior to post-annealing. The HiPIMS-grown films exhibit significantly larger grains compared to that of dcMC-grown films, approaching 100% of the film thickness for films grown at 700 °C. In addition, the XRR surface roughness of HiPIMS-grown films was significantly lower than that of dcMS-grown films over the whole temperature range 300–700 °C. Dispersion curves could only be obtained for the HiPIMS-grown films, which were shown to have a refractive index in the range of 2.7–2.85 at 500 nm. The results show that thin, rutile TiO 2 films, with high refractive index, can be obtained by HiPIMS at relatively low growth temperatures, without post-annealing. Furthermore, these films are smoother and show better optical characteristics than their dcMS-grown counterparts. - Highlights: • We demonstrate growth of rutile TiO 2 on Si (111) by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • The films exhibit significantly larger grains than dc magnetron sputtered films • TiO 2 films with high refractive index are obtained without post-growth annealing

  4. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Study of CdTe quantum dots grown using a two-step annealing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kriti; Pandey, Praveen K.; Nagpal, Swati; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

    2006-02-01

    High size dispersion, large average radius of quantum dot and low-volume ratio has been a major hurdle in the development of quantum dot based devices. In the present paper, we have grown CdTe quantum dots in a borosilicate glass matrix using a two-step annealing method. Results of optical characterization and the theoretical model of absorption spectra have shown that quantum dots grown using two-step annealing have lower average radius, lesser size dispersion, higher volume ratio and higher decrease in bulk free energy as compared to quantum dots grown conventionally.

  6. Study on grown-in defects in CZ-Si by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Hori, F.; Oshima, R.

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the nature of grown-in microdefects of a silicon wafer taken from a czochralski-grown single crystal (CZ-Si) in which ring oxidation-induced stacking faults (ring-OSF) are formed after oxidation heat treatment, positron annihilation coincidence Doppler broadening experiments (CDB) have been performed. Vacancy-type defects were detected in the central region of a wafer of an as-grown crystal, and they were changed with annealing. It was confirmed that different types of defects were formed in the regions of outside and inside of the ring-OSF. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of Si(100) homoepitaxy grown in the STM at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grube, H. (Holger); Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.); Pomeroy, J. M. (Joshua M.); Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.)

    2002-01-01

    We explore the growth of low-temperature bulk-like Si(100) homoepitaxy with regard to microscopic surface roughness and defects We characterize films grown at different temperatures up to 500K in-situ by means of an effusion cell added to our UHVSTM. The development of novel architectures for future generation computers calls for high-quality homoepitaxial (WOO) grown at low temperature. Even though Si(100) can be grown crystalline up to a limited thickness: the microstructure reveals significant small-scale surface roughness and defects specific to low-temperature growth. Both can he detrimental to fabrication and operation of small-scale electronic devices.

  8. Surface characterization of low-temperature grown yttrium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Mirosław; Lisowski, Wojciech; Pisarek, Marcin; Nikiforow, Kostiantyn; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2018-04-01

    The step-by-step growth of yttrium oxide layer was controlled in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The O/Y atomic concentration (AC) ratio in the surface layer of finally oxidized Y substrate was found to be equal to 1.48. The as-grown yttrium oxide layers were then analyzed ex situ using combination of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), elastic-peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize their surface chemical composition, electron transport phenomena and surface morphology. Prior to EPES measurements, the Y oxide surface was pre-sputtered by 3 kV argon ions, and the resulting AES-derived composition was found to be Y0.383O0.465C0.152 (O/Y AC ratio of 1.21). The SEM images revealed different surface morphology of sample before and after Ar sputtering. The oxide precipitates were observed on the top of un-sputtered Y oxide layer, whereas the oxide growth at the Ar ion-sputtered surface proceeded along defects lines normal to the layer plane. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) characterizing electron transport was evaluated as a function of energy in the range of 0.5-2 keV from the EPES method. Two reference materials (Ni and Au) were used in these measurements. Experimental IMFPs determined for the Y0.383O0.465C0.152 and Y2O3 surface compositions, λ, were uncorrected for surface excitations and approximated by the simple function λ = kEp at electron energies E between 500 eV and 2000 eV, where k and p were fitted parameters. These values were also compared with IMFPs resulting from the TPP-2 M predictive equation for both oxide compositions. The fitted functions were found to be reasonably consistent with the measured and predicted IMFPs. In both cases, the average value of the mean percentage deviation from the fits varied between 5% and 37%. The IMFPs measured for Y0.383O0.465C0.152 surface composition were found to be similar to the IMFPs for Y2O3.

  9. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  10. 76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... forms to collect information related to the Federal marketing orders for nectarines and peaches grown in... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrew Hatch, Supervisory Marketing Specialist, Marketing Order... Email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Marketing Order Nos. 916 and 917...

  11. Study of surface morphology and alignment of MWCNTs grown by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukrullah, S., E-mail: zshukrullah@gmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: zshukrullah@gmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, M. S., E-mail: zshukrullah@gmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Yasar, M., E-mail: Muhammad.yasar@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    In this research work, Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized successfully by using floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) method. Different ferrocene amounts (0.1, 0.125 and 0.15 g) were used as catalyst and ethylene was used as a carbon precursor at reaction temperature of 800°C. Characterization of the grown MWCNTs was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained data showed that the catalyst weight affects the nanotubes diameter, alignment, crystallinity and growth significantly, whereas negligible influence was noticed on CNTs forest length. The dense, uniform and meadow like patterns of grown CNTs were observed for 0.15 g ferrocene. The average diameter of the grown CNTs was found in the range of 32 to 75 nm. Close inspection of the TEM images also confirmed the defects in some of the grown CNTs, where few black spots were evident in CNTs structure.

  12. Epitaxial Ge Solar Cells Directly Grown on Si (001) by MOCVD Using Isobutylgermane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Kim, Kangho; Lee, Jaejin; Kim, Chang Zoo; Kang, Ho Kwan; Park, Won-Kyu

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxial Ge layers have been grown on Si (001) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using an isobutylgermane (IBuGe) metalorganic source. Low and high temperature two-step growth and post annealing techniques are employed to overcome the lattice mismatch problem between Ge and Si. It is demonstrated that high quality Ge epitaxial layers can be grown on Si (001) by using IBuGe with surface RMS roughness of 2 nm and an estimated threading dislocation density of 4.9 × 107 cm -2. Furthermore, single-junction Ge solar cells have been directly grown on Si substrates with an in situ MOCVD growth. The epitaxial Ge p- n junction structures are investigated with transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical C- V measurements. As a result, a power conversion efficiency of 1.69% was achieved for the Ge solar cell directly grown on Si substrate under AM1.5G condition.

  13. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho [Dept. of Nano-physics, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho [Nanotechnology and Advanced Material Engineering, HMC, and GRI, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs.

  14. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Agricultural Statistics Service, the total farm-gate value of summer/fall processed pears grown in Oregon and... introductory text and paragraph (a) are revised to read as follows: Sec. 927.237 Processed pear assessment rate...

  15. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho; Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs

  16. Study of surface morphology and alignment of MWCNTs grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukrullah, S.; Mohamed, N. M.; Shaharun, M. S.; Yasar, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized successfully by using floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) method. Different ferrocene amounts (0.1, 0.125 and 0.15 g) were used as catalyst and ethylene was used as a carbon precursor at reaction temperature of 800°C. Characterization of the grown MWCNTs was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained data showed that the catalyst weight affects the nanotubes diameter, alignment, crystallinity and growth significantly, whereas negligible influence was noticed on CNTs forest length. The dense, uniform and meadow like patterns of grown CNTs were observed for 0.15 g ferrocene. The average diameter of the grown CNTs was found in the range of 32 to 75 nm. Close inspection of the TEM images also confirmed the defects in some of the grown CNTs, where few black spots were evident in CNTs structure

  17. Helicopter Parents and Landing Pad Kids: Intense Parental Support of Grown Children

    OpenAIRE

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Wesselmann, Eric D.; Zarit, Steven; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira S.

    2012-01-01

    Popular media describe adverse effects of helicopter parents who provide intense support to grown children, but few studies have examined implications of such intense support. Grown children (N = 592, M age = 23.82 years, 53% female, 35% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) and their parents (n = 399, M age = 50.67 years, 52% female; 34% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) reported on the support they exchanged with one another. Intense support involved parents’ providing several t...

  18. Nucleoli from growing oocytes inhibit the maturation of enucleolated, full-grown oocytes in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Ogushi, Sugako; Miyano, Takashi; Fulka, Josef

    2011-06-01

    In mammals, the nucleolus of full-grown oocyte is essential for embryonic development but not for oocyte maturation. In our study, the role of the growing oocyte nucleolus in oocyte maturation was examined by nucleolus removal and/or transfer into previously enucleolated, growing (around 100 µm in diameter) or full-grown (120 µm) pig oocytes. In the first experiment, the nucleoli were aspirated from growing oocytes whose nucleoli had been compacted by actinomycin D treatment, and the enucleolated oocytes were matured in vitro. Most of non-treated or actinomycin D-treated oocytes did not undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; 13% and 12%, respectively). However, the GVBD rate of enucleolated, growing oocytes significantly increased to 46%. The low GVBD rate of enucleolated, growing oocytes was restored again by the re-injection of nucleoli from growing oocytes (23%), but not when nucleoli from full-grown oocytes were re-injected into enucleolated, growing oocytes (49%). When enucleolated, full-grown oocytes were injected with nucleoli from growing or full-grown oocytes, the nucleolus in the germinal vesicle was reassembled (73% and 60%, respectively). After maturation, the enucleolated, full-grown oocytes injected with nucleoli from full-grown oocytes matured to metaphase II (56%), whereas injection with growing-oocyte nucleoli reduced this maturation to 21%. These results suggest that the growing-oocyte nucleolus is involved in the oocyte's meiotic arrest, and that the full-grown oocyte nucleolus has lost the ability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sears

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94% average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  20. Composition of Whiskers Grown on Copper in Repository Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, Hans-Peter; Tarkpea, Peeter; Holgersson, Stellan

    2001-11-01

    There is a hypothesis that a special family of local attack on copper based on growth of whiskers of sulfide, oxide/hydroxide and also carbonate/malachite could appear in the repository environment. It was earlier demonstrated that such whiskers could grow in a laboratory simulated repository environment, containing sulfide. A suggested composition of whiskers has earlier been forwarded but was not demonstrated. In the present work whiskers and their substrates were grown and characterized by investigations with a combination of SEM-EDS, XRD and LRS (Laser Raman Spectroscopy) techniques. SEM-EDS was used to determine the morphology and an elemental composition and distribution of whiskers and their substrate. A special effort was made to find out if the whisker growth is of a local or global character. The phase status could be determined locally and globally by combining XRD and LRS techniques on whiskers and substrates. Ideally, LRS gives a phase resolution down to a radius of 1 μm on the sample surface. This is of great value as it is of interest to study if there are phase differences in different parts of a whisker. Such information is important to understand the whisker growth mechanism. Cylindrical samples of pure copper were prepared and exposed to the selected de-aerated model groundwater containing, among other ions, chloride and sulfide. Exposure was performed in sealed glass flasks under de-aerated conditions. After exposure the copper sample was investigated on the surface, in cross section and on whiskers using the mentioned techniques. The results show that a black, easily detached layer of corrosion products is formed on the sample surface. The corrosion layer was subdivided into at least five parallel strata (probably more) of different composition. Numerous small pits and shallow pitting attacks with a larger radius were observed in the copper metal and the metal surface was in general very rough. A multitude of very easily detached whiskers or

  1. Violaxanthin is an abscisic acid precursor in water-stressed dark-grown bean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Walton, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The leaves a dark-grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings accumulate considerably lower quantities of xanthophylls and carotenes than do leaves of light-grown seedlings, but they synthesize at least comparable amounts of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites when water stressed. We observed a 1:1 relationship on a molar basis between the reduction in levels of ciolaxanthin, 9'-cis-neoxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin and the accumulation of ABA, phaseic acid, and dihydrophaseic acid, when leaves from dark-grown plants were stressed for 7 hours. Early in the stress period, reductions in xanthophylls were greater than the accumulation of ABA and its metabolites, suggesting the accumulation of an intermediate which was subsequently converted to ABA. Leaves which were detached, but no stressed, did not accumulate ABA nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced. Leaves from plants that had been sprayed with cycloheximido did not accumulate ABA when stressed, nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced significantly. Incubation of dark-grown stressed leaves in an 18 O 2 -containing atmosphere resulted in the synthesis of ABA with levels of 18 O in the carboxyl group that were virtually identical to those observed in light-grown leaves. The results of these experiments indicate that violaxanthin is an ABA precursor in stressed dark-grown leaves, and they are used to suggest several possible pathways from violaxanthin to ABA

  2. High-quality GaN nanowires grown on Si and porous silicon by thermal evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekari, L., E-mail: lsg09_phy089@student.usm.my [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Ramizy, A.; Omar, K.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new kind of substrate (porous silicon) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also this research introduces an easy and safe method to grow high quality GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a new growth process to decrease the cost, complexity of growth of GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a controllable method to synthesize GaN NWs by thermal evaporation. - Abstract: Nanowires (NWs) of GaN thin films were prepared on as-grown Si (1 1 1) and porous silicon (PS) substrates using thermal evaporation method. The film growth produced high-quality wurtzite GaN NWs. The size, morphology, and nanostructures of the crystals were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The NWs grown on porous silicon were thinner, longer and denser compared with those on as-grown Si. The energy band gap of the NWs grown on PS was larger than that of NWs on as-grown Si. This is due to the greater quantum confinement effects of the crystalline structure of the NWs grown on PS.

  3. VLS-grown diffusion doped ZnO nanowires and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Pushan Guha; Dutta, Amartya; Das, Arpita; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Sen, Sayantani; Pramanik, Pallabi

    2015-01-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowires were deposited by vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) method on to aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by sol-gel technique. For various device applications, current injection into such nanowires is critical. This is expected to be more efficient for ZnO nanowires deposited on to AZO compared to those deposited on to a foreign substrate such as silicon. In this work we compare the morphological and optical properties of nanowires grown on AZO with those grown under similar conditions on silicon (Si) wafers. For nanowires grown on silicon, diameters around 44 nm with heights around 2.2 μm were obtained. For the growth on to AZO, the diameters were around 90 nm while the heights were around 520 nm. Room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) measurements show improved near band-edge emission for nanowires grown on to AZO, indicating higher material quality. This is further established by low temperature photoluminescence (LT-PL) measurements where excitonic transitions with width as small as 14 meV have been obtained at 4 K for such structures. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies indicate the presence of Al in the nanowires, indicating a new technique for introduction of dopants into these structures. These results indicate that ZnO nanowires on sol-gel grown AZO thin films show promise in the development of various optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  4. Violaxanthin is an abscisic acid precursor in water-stressed dark-grown bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Walton, D.C. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The leaves a dark-grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings accumulate considerably lower quantities of xanthophylls and carotenes than do leaves of light-grown seedlings, but they synthesize at least comparable amounts of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites when water stressed. We observed a 1:1 relationship on a molar basis between the reduction in levels of ciolaxanthin, 9{prime}-cis-neoxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin and the accumulation of ABA, phaseic acid, and dihydrophaseic acid, when leaves from dark-grown plants were stressed for 7 hours. Early in the stress period, reductions in xanthophylls were greater than the accumulation of ABA and its metabolites, suggesting the accumulation of an intermediate which was subsequently converted to ABA. Leaves which were detached, but no stressed, did not accumulate ABA nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced. Leaves from plants that had been sprayed with cycloheximido did not accumulate ABA when stressed, nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced significantly. Incubation of dark-grown stressed leaves in an {sup 18}O{sub 2}-containing atmosphere resulted in the synthesis of ABA with levels of {sup 18}O in the carboxyl group that were virtually identical to those observed in light-grown leaves. The results of these experiments indicate that violaxanthin is an ABA precursor in stressed dark-grown leaves, and they are used to suggest several possible pathways from violaxanthin to ABA.

  5. Hydraulics and gas exchange recover more rapidly from severe drought stress in small pot-grown grapevines than in field-grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Pascual; Botía, Pablo; Keller, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Modifications of plant hydraulics and shoot resistances (R shoot ) induced by water withholding followed by rewatering, and their relationships with plant water status, leaf gas exchange and water use efficiency at the leaf level, were investigated in pot-grown and field-grown, own-rooted Syrah grapevines in an arid climate. Water stress induced anisohydric behavior, gradually reducing stomatal conductance (g s ) and leaf photosynthesis (A) in response to decreasing midday stem water potential (Ψ s ). Water stress also rapidly increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g s ); this effect persisted for many days after rewatering. Whole-plant (K plant ), canopy (K canopy ), shoot (K shoot ) and leaf (K leaf ) hydraulic conductances decreased during water stress, in tune with the gradual decrease in Ψ s , leaf gas exchange and whole plant water use. Water-stressed vines also had a lower Ψ gradient between stem and leaf (ΔΨ l ), which was correlated with lower leaf transpiration rate (E). E and ΔΨ l increased with increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in non-stressed control vines but not in stressed vines. Perfusion of xylem-mobile dye showed that water flow to petioles and leaves was substantially reduced or even stopped under moderate and severe drought stress. Leaf blade hydraulic resistance accounted for most of the total shoot resistance. However, hydraulic conductance of the whole root system (K root ) was not significantly reduced until water stress became very severe in pot-grown vines. Significant correlations between K plant , K canopy and Ψ s , K canopy and leaf gas exchange, K leaf and Ψ s , and K leaf and A support a link between water supply, leaf water status and gas exchange. Upon re-watering, Ψ s recovered faster than gas exchange and leaf-shoot hydraulics. A gradual recovery of hydraulic functionality of plant organs was also observed, the leaves being the last to recover after rewatering. In pot-grown vines, K canopy recovered rather

  6. Fast-grown CdS quantum dots: Single-source precursor approach vs microwave route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregnaux, Mathieu [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique: Approche Multi-échelles des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57070 Metz (France); Dalmasso, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.dalmasso@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique: Approche Multi-échelles des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57070 Metz (France); Durand, Pierrick [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique et Modélisations, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, UMR CNRS 7036, Faculté des Sciences, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (France); Zhang, Yudong [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Lorraine, UMR CNRS 7239, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz cedex 01 (France); Gaumet, Jean-Jacques; Laurenti, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique: Approche Multi-échelles des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-10-01

    A cross-disciplinary protocol of characterization by joint techniques enables one to closely compare chemical and physical properties of CdS quantum dots (QDs) grown by single source precursor methodology (SSPM) or by microwave synthetic route (MWSR). The results are discussed in relation with the synthesis protocols. The QD average sizes, reproducible as a function of the temperatures involved in the growth processes, range complementarily in 2.8–4.5 nm and 4.5–5.2 nm for SSPM and MWSR, respectively. Hexagonal and cubic structures after X-ray diffraction on SSPM and MWSR grown CdS QDs, respectively, are tentatively correlated to a better crystalline quality of the latter with respect to the further ones, suggested by (i) a remarkable stability of the MWSR grown QDs after exposure to air during several days and (ii) no evidence of their fragmentation during mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, after a fair agreement between size dispersities obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and MS, in contrast with the discrepancy found for the SSPM grown QDs. Correlatively, a better optical quality is suggested for the MWSR grown QDs by the resolution of n > 1 excitonic transitions in their absorption spectra. The QD average sizes obtained by TEM and deduced from MS are in overall agreement. This agreement is improved for the MWSR grown QDs, taking into account a prolate shape of the QDs also observed in the TEM images. For both series of samples, the excitonic responses vs the average sizes are consistent with the commonly admitted empirical energy-size correspondence. A low energy PL band is observed in the case of the SSPM grown QDs. Its decrease in intensity with QD size increase suggests a surface origin tentatively attributed to S vacancies. In the case of the MWSR grown QDs, the absence of this PL is tentatively correlated to an absence of S vacancies and therefore to the stable behavior observed when the QDs are exposed to air. - Highlights: • Single

  7. Protein profile of mouse ovarian follicles grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, Amandine; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Chardonnet, Solenne; Pionneau, Cédric; Fédérici, Christian; Almeida Santos, Teresa; Poirot, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    Could the follicle proteome be mapped by identifying specific proteins that are common or differ between three developmental stages from the secondary follicle (SF) to the antrum-like stage? From a total of 1401 proteins identified in the follicles, 609 were common to the three developmental stages investigated and 444 were found uniquely at one of the stages. The importance of the follicle as a functional structure has been recognized; however, up-to-date the proteome of the whole follicle has not been described. A few studies using proteomics have previously reported on either isolated fully-grown oocytes before or after meiosis resumption or cumulus cells. The experimental design included a validated mice model for isolation and individual culture of SFs. The system was chosen as it allows continuous evaluation of follicle growth and selection of follicles for analysis at pre-determined developmental stages: SF, complete Slavjanski membrane rupture (SMR) and antrum-like cavity (AF). The experiments were repeated 13 times independently to acquire the material that was analyzed by proteomics. SFs (n = 2166) were isolated from B6CBA/F1 female mice (n = 42), 12 days old, from 15 l. About half of the follicles isolated as SF were analyzed as such (n = 1143) and pooled to obtain 139 μg of extracted protein. Both SMR (n = 359) and AF (n = 124) were obtained after individual culture of 1023 follicles in a microdrop system under oil, selected for analysis and pooled, to obtain 339 μg and 170 μg of protein, respectively. The follicle proteome was analyzed combining isoelectric focusing (IEF) fractionation with 1D and 2D LC-MS/MS analysis to enhance protein identification. The three protein lists were submitted to the 'Compare gene list' tool in the PANTHER website to gain insights on the Gene Ontology Biological processes present and to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to highlight protein networks. A label-free quantification was performed with 1D LC-MS/MS analyses to

  8. Loblolly pine grown under elevated CO2 affects early instar pine sawfly performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R S; Lincoln, D E; Thomas, R B

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of loblolly pine Pinus taeda (L.), were grown in open-topped field chambers under three CO 2 regimes: ambient, 150 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient, and 300 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient. A fourth, non-chambered ambient treatment was included to assess chamber effects. Needles were used in 96 h feeding trials to determine the performance of young, second instar larvae of loblolly pine's principal leaf herbivore, red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch). The relative consumption rate of larvae significantly increased on plants grown under elevated CO 2 , and needles grown in the highest CO 2 regime were consumed 21% more rapidly than needles grown in ambient CO 2 . Both the significant decline in leaf nitrogen content and the substantial increase in leaf starch content contributed to a significant increase in the starch:nitrogen ratio in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Insect consumption rate was negatively related to leaf nitrogen content and positively related to the starch:nitrogen ratio. Of the four volatile leaf monoterpenes measured, only β-pinene exhibited a significant CO 2 effect and declined in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Although consumption changed, the relative growth rates of larvae were not different among CO 2 treatments. Despite lower nitrogen consumption rates by larvae feeding on the plants grown in elevated CO 2 , nitrogen accumulation rates were the same for all treatments due to a significant increase in nitrogen utilization efficiency. The ability of this insect to respond at an early, potentially susceptible larval stage to poorer food quality and declining levels of a leaf monoterpene suggest that changes in needle quality within pines in future elevated-CO 2 atmospheres may not especially affect young insects and that tree-feeding sawflies may respond in a manner similar to herb-feeding lepidopterans.

  9. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  10. Investigation of ZnTe thin films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarchuk, B.; Savchuk, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to optimization of the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) growth condition of ZnTe films on various substrates and subsequent investigation of relevant parameters of growth process, structural, optical and electrical properties of grown films. Studies of the effect of growth parameters on the structural quality and properties of grown films were carried out. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the ZnTe films, which have been deposited at optimal substrate temperatures, were characterized by a (111) preferred orientation with large average grain size. The optical transmission and reflectance in the energy range 1.5-5.5 eV for films grown at various substrate temperatures were measured. We calculated the variation in the absorption coefficient with the photon energy from the transmittance spectrum for samples grown at various substrate temperatures. Obtained data were analyzed and the value of the absorption coefficient, for allowed direct transitions, has been determined as a function of photon energy. We found that the undoped ZnTe films, which were grown by the PLD method, are typically p-type and possess resistivity in the range of 10 3 Ωcm at room temperature. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Growth and electrical properties of AlOx grown by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kawaharamura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide (AlOx thin films were grown using aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac3 as a source solute by mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD. The AlOx thin films grown at temperatures above 400°C exhibited a breakdown field (EBD over 6 MV/cm and a dielectric constant (κ over 6. It is suggested that residual OH bonding in the AlOx thin films grown at temperatures below 375°C caused degradation of the breakdown field (EBD. With FC type mist CVD, the reaction proceeded efficiently (Ea = 22–24 kJ/mol because the solvent, especially H2O, worked as a stronger oxygen source. The AlOx film could be grown at 450°C with a high deposition rate (23 nm/min and smooth surface (RMS = 1.5 nm. Moreover, the AlOx thin films grown by mist CVD had excellent practicality as insulators because the gate leakage current (IG of the oxide thin film transistor (TFT with an IGZO/AlOx stack was suppressed below 1 pA at a gate voltage (VG of 20 V.

  12. Increased sensitivity of the respiratory system of plants grown in Gibberellic acid toward fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustinec, J; Pokorna, V; Ruzicka, J

    1962-01-01

    Gibberellic acid in concentrations between 2 and 80 mg/l does not affect the ratio of radioactivities of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ liberated from glucose-6-/sup 14/C and -1-/sup 14/C(C/sub 6//C/sub 1/) when acting for several hours on sliced wheat leaves, and that at a concentration of 10 mg/l it does not alter the degree of inhibition of respiration due to fluoride, iodoacetate and malonate or the consumption of oxygen. A linear relationship was established between the decrease in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ liberation from glucose-/sup 14/C and the concentration of gibberellic acid. The C/sub 6//C/sub 1/ ratio as well as the absolute values of radioactivity decrease more rapidly in the course of several days after the germination of plants grown in a solution of gibberellic acid (10-20 mg/l) than in the water-grown controls. Fluoride inhibits the respiration of plants grown in gibberellic acid more than of those grown in water, its tissue concentration being either equal or less in the gibberellic -grown plants; the effect of iodoacetate and malonate is the same with plants of equal age (4 days) in both variants. 11 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  13. Zn-vacancy related defects in ZnO grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, F. C. C.; Luo, C. Q.; Wang, Z. L.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2017-02-01

    Undoped and Ga-doped ZnO (002) films were grown c-sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. Znvacancy related defects in the films were studied by different positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). These included Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) employing a continuous monenergetic positron beam, and positron lifetime spectroscopy using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam attached to an electron linear accelerator. Two kinds of Znvacancy related defects namely a monovacancy and a divacancy were identified in the films. In as-grown undoped samples grown with relatively low oxygen pressure P(O2)≤1.3 Pa, monovacancy is the dominant Zn-vacancy related defect. Annealing these samples at 900 oC induced Zn out-diffusion into the substrate and converted the monovacancy to divacancy. For the undoped samples grown with high P(O2)=5 Pa irrespective of the annealing temperature and the as-grown degenerate Ga-doped sample (n=1020 cm-3), divacancy is the dominant Zn-vacancy related defect. The clustering of vacancy will be discussed.

  14. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTITUMOR, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC CONSTITUENTS OF FIELD-GROWN AND IN VITRO-GROWN LYSIMACHIA VULGARIS L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Guner, Birgul; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2017-01-01

    Lysimachia vulgaris L. (Yellow loosestrife) is a medicinal plant in the family Myrsinaceae. It has been used in the treatment of fever, ulcer, diarrhea and wounds in folk medicine. It has also analgesic, expectorant, astringent and anti-inflammatory activities. Two different sources of the plant (field-grown and in vitro -grown) were used to evaluate the biological activities (antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant) of L. vulgaris. In vitro-grown plant materials were collected from L. vulgaris plants that were previously regenerated in our laboratory. Plant materials were extracted with water, ethanol and acetone. For antibacterial test, disc diffusion method and 10 different pathogenic bacteria were used. Antioxidant activity was indicated by using DPPH method. The total phenol amount by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu method and the total flavonoid amount by using aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) colorimetric method were determined. Generally, yellow loosestrife extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes) . Strong antitumor activity of yellow loosestrife was observed via potato disc diffusion bioassay. Nine different phenolics were also determined and compared by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Future investigations should be focused on fractionation of the extracts to identify active components for biological activity.

  16. Fabrication of in-situ grown graphene reinforced Cu matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yakun; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; Shi, Chunsheng; Li, Jiajun; Nash, Philip; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Graphene/Cu composites were fabricated through a graphene in-situ grown approach, which involved ball-milling of Cu powders with PMMA as solid carbon source, in-situ growth of graphene on flaky Cu powders and vacuum hot-press sintering. SEM and TEM characterization results indicated that graphene in-situ grown on Cu powders guaranteed a homogeneous dispersion and a good combination between graphene and Cu matrix, as well as the intact structure of graphene, which was beneficial to its strengthening effect. The yield strength of 244 MPa and tensile strength of 274 MPa were achieved in the composite with 0.95 wt.% graphene, which were separately 177% and 27.4% enhancement over pure Cu. Strengthening effect of in-situ grown graphene in the matrix was contributed to load transfer and dislocation strengthening. PMID:26763313

  17. Structural characterization of one-dimensional ZnO-based nanostructures grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallet, Vincent; Falyouni, Farid; Marzouki, Ali; Haneche, Nadia; Sartel, Corinne; Lusson, Alain; Galtier, Pierre [Groupe d' Etude de la Matiere Condensee (GEMAC), CNRS-Universite de Versailles St-Quentin, Meudon (France); Agouram, Said [SCSIE, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Enouz-Vedrenne, Shaima [Thales Research and Technology France, Palaiseau (France); Munoz-Sanjose, Vicente [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Various one-dimensional (1D) ZnO-based nanostructures, including ZnO nano-wires (NWs) grown using vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) process, ZnO/ZnSe core/shell, nitrogen-doped ZnO and ZnMgO NWs were grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis is presented. For all the samples, a high crystalline quality is observed. Some features are emphasized such as the gold contamination of ZnO wires grown under the metal droplets in the VLS process. It is concluded that MOCVD is a suitable technique for the realization of original ZnO nanodevices. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Surface characterization of ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbulanga, C.M., E-mail: crispin.mbulanga@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Urgessa, Z.N.; Tankio Djiokap, S.R.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Duvenhage, M.M.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O Box 77000, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    The surface composition of as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods (ZNs) grown by a two-step chemical bath deposition method is investigated by the following surface-sensitive techniques: Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The presence of H on the surface and throughout the entire thickness of ZNs is confirmed by TOF-SIMS. Based on TOF-SIMS results, the O2 XPS peak mostly observable at ~531.5 is assigned to O bound to H. Furthermore, it is found that the near surface region of as-grown ZNs is Zn-rich, and annealing at high temperature (~850 °C) removes H-related defects from the surface of ZNs and affect the balance of zinc and oxygen concentrations.

  19. Field emission from carbon nanotube bundle arrays grown on self-aligned ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun; Fang Guojia; Yuan Longyan; Liu Nishuang; Ai Lei; Xiang Qi; Zhao Dongshan; Pan Chunxu; Zhao Xingzhong

    2007-01-01

    The field emission (FE) properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle arrays grown on vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) are reported. The ZNRs were first synthesized on ZnO-seed-coated Si substrate by the vapour phase transport method, and then the radically grown CNTs were grown directly on the surface of the ZNRs from ethanol flames. The CNT/ZNR composite showed a turn-on field of 1.5 V μm -1 (at 0.1 μA cm -2 ), a threshold field of 4.5 V μm -1 (at 1 mA cm -2 ) and a stable emission current with fluctuations of 5%, demonstrating significantly enhanced FE of ZNRs due to the low work function and high aspect ratio of the CNTs, and large surface-to-volume ratio of the underlying ZNRs

  20. Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.; Loke, W. K.; Li, D. S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Saadsaoud, N.; Tripon-Canseliet, C. [Laboratoire d' Electronique et Electromagnétisme, Pierre and Marie Curie University, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Lampin, J. F.; Decoster, D. [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Chazelas, J. [Thales Airborne Systems, 2 Avenue Gay Lussac, 78852 Elancourt (France)

    2013-09-09

    We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 10{sup 7} Ω cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 μm, and a carrier lifetime of ∼1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductive switch application.

  1. Nitrogen and amino acids content in lake Drukshyaj plancton organisms biocenoses grown in model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsh, A.V.; Budrene, S.F.; Yankyavichyus, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Biocenoses growth in lake Drukshyaj (from 1984 water reservoir of the Ignalina NPP) collected in July 1985 and grown in 2 various in composition culture media: in medium close in composition of main minerals to water of high capacity reservoir (medium 1) and in medium Fitzjarld (medium 2), has shown that the medium affects the component composition of plancton, as well as dominating types of algae. Phytoplancton was dominating component in biomass in both media. In medium 1 dominate green and diatoms, in medium 2 - blue-green algae. Content of proteins and amino acids in biomass changed depending on duration of biocenoses growth when dominating green and diatoms in biocenoses mass grown in medium 1, it reached maximum on the 15th day, and when dominating blue-green algae in biocenoses biomass grown in medium 2 - on the 30th day

  2. Observation of Zn vacancies in ZnO grown by chemical vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, F.; Saarinen, K. [Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 1100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Grasza, K.; Mycielski, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-03-15

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the vacancy defects in ZnO crystals grown by both the conventional and contactless chemical vapor transport (CVT and CCVT). Our results show that Zn vacancies or Zn vacancy related defects are present in as-grown ZnO, irrespective of the growth method. Zn vacancies are observed in CVT-grown undoped ZnO and (Zn,Mn)O. The Zn vacancies present in undoped CCVT-ZnO are the dominant negatively charged point defect in the material. Doping the material with As introduces also Zn vacancy-related defect complexes with larger open volume. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Multilayer porous structures of HVPE and MOCVD grown GaN for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniste, T.; Ciers, Joachim; Monaico, Ed.; Martin, D.; Carlin, J.-F.; Ursaki, V. V.; Sergentu, V. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Grandjean, N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report on a comparative study of electrochemical processes for the preparation of multilayer porous structures in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metal organic chemical vapor phase deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN. It was found that in HVPE-grown GaN, multilayer porous structures are obtained due to self-organization processes leading to a fine modulation of doping during the crystal growth. However, these processes are not totally under control. Multilayer porous structures with a controlled design have been produced by optimizing the technological process of electrochemical etching in MOCVD-grown samples, consisting of five pairs of thin layers with alternating-doping profiles. The samples have been characterized by SEM imaging, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and micro-reflectivity measurements, accompanied by transfer matrix analysis and simulations by a method developed for the calculation of optical reflection spectra. We demonstrate the applicability of the produced structures for the design of Bragg reflectors.

  4. Influence of Si-doping on heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieneke, Matthias; Bastek, Barbara; Noltemeyer, Martin; Hempel, Thomas; Rohrbeck, Antje; Witte, Hartmut; Veit, Peter; Blaesing, Juergen; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW/IEP, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Si-doped a-plane GaN samples with nominal doping levels up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} were grown on r-plane sapphire by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Silane flow rates higher than 59 nmol/min lead to three dimensional grown crystallites as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence suggest considerably reduced defect densities in the large micrometer-sized GaN crystallites. Especially, transmission electron microscopy images verify a very low density of basal plane stacking faults less than 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} in these crystallites consisting of heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN. In our presentation the influence of the Si doping on the basal plane stacking faults will be discussed.

  5. The performance studies of DKDP crystals grown by a rapid horizontal growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hu; Chen, Duanyang; Shao, Jianda

    2018-04-01

    A deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal with about 70% deuterium level was grown by a rapid horizontal growth method with independent design equipment, which includes a continuous filtration system. The cooling program during crystal growth was designed according to a self-developed software to catch the size of growing crystal in real time. The crystal structure, optical performance and laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of this DKDP crystal were investigated in this paper. The deuterium concentration of the crystal was confirmed by the neutron diffraction technique, which was effective and available in determining a complete range of deuteration level. The dielectric property was measured to evaluate the perfection of the lattice. The transmittance and LIDT were carried out further to evaluate the optical and functional properties of this DKDP crystal grown in the rapid horizontal growth technique. All of the detailed characterization for DKDP figured out that the 70% deuterated KDP crystal grown in this way had relatively good qualities.

  6. Enhancement of optical properties of InAs quantum dots grown by using periodic arsine interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungsub; Yang, Changjae; Sim, Uk; Lee, Jaeyel; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Youngsoo

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the morphological and optical properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by using periodic arsine interruption (PAI) and compared them with QDs grown conventionally. In the conventional growth, the formation of large islands was observed, which suppresses the nucleation and growth of QDs. Furthermore, the growth of capping layers was significantly degraded by these large islands. On the other hand, in the PAI growth, the formation of large islands was completely suppressed, resulting in the increase of the density and aspect ratio of QDs and the uniform growth of capping layers. As a result of photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we found that the emission efficiency was enhanced and the full-width-half-maximum was reduced to 32 meV. The temperature dependence of these optical properties also revealed the enhancement of the uniformity of QDs grown by the PAI method.

  7. Use of Kelvin probe force microscopy for identification of CVD grown graphene flakes on copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mehta, B. R.; Kanjilal, D.

    2017-05-01

    Graphene flakes have been grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method on Cu foils. The obtained graphene flakes have been characterized by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The graphene flakes grown on Cu foil comprise mainly single layer graphene and confirm that the nucleation for graphene growth starts very quickly. Moreover, KPFM has been found to be a valuable technique to differentiate between covered and uncovered portion of Cu foil by graphene flakes deposited for shorter duration. The results show that KPFM can be a very useful technique in understanding the mechanism of graphene growth.

  8. Annihilation characteristics in as-grown and electron irradiated Zn II-VI semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, P.; La Cruz, R.M. de; Pareja, R.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the positron lifetime has been investigated in as-grown crystals of Zns, ZnSe and ZnTe over the temperature range 8-320 K. Also, isochronal annealing experiments up to 1175 K have been performed on these crystals. Zns and ZnSe crystals have been electron irradiated at room temperature and at 77 K. From the results in as-grown and annealed crystals, the values of (230±3), (240±5) and (266±3) ps are attributed to the positron lifetime in the bulk of Zns, ZnSe and ZnTe, respectively. 8 refs., 3 figs

  9. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagni, O. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Somhlahlo, N.N. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Weichsel, C. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)]. E-mail: andrew.leitch@nmmu.ac.za

    2006-04-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies.

  10. Lead, arsenic, and copper content of crops grown on lead arsenate-treated and untreated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, D

    1972-01-01

    Increased lead and arsenic concentrations in the surface soil (0-15 cm), resulting from applications of lead arsenate (PbHAs0/sub 1/), increased both lead and arsenic levels in crops grown on treated plots. The lead levels in some crops approached or exceeded the Canadian residue tolerance of 2.0 ppM. Lead arsenate soil treatments did not affect copper absorption by crops. On areas such as old orchard land contaminated with lead arsenate residues it may be advisable to ascertain crops, and also to determine the lead affinity and arsenic sensitivity of the plants to be grown.

  11. GaSb grown from Sn solvent at low temperatures by LPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compean, V H; Anda, F de; Mishurnyi, V A; Gorbatchev, A Yu, E-mail: fdeanda@cactus.iico.uaslp.m [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Av. Karakorum 1470, Col. Lomas 4a Sec., San Luis Potosi, SLP, CP 78210 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The LPE growth of GaSb using Sn as a solvent has been studied in the temperature range 250-370 C and using liquid solutions covering a wide range of compositions. In order to find the growth conditions the phase diagram has been determined experimentally around the same temperature region. It is shown the Sn incorporates into the grown layers and that it behaves as an acceptor. The photoluminescence spectra of the grown layers with different Sn contents show characteristic peaks that can be attributed to different recombination processes.

  12. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagni, O.; Somhlahlo, N.N.; Weichsel, C.; Leitch, A.W.R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies

  13. Paramagnetic resonance of LaGaO3: Mn single crystals grown by floating zone melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhenin, V. A.; Potapov, A. P.; Artyomov, M. Yu.; Salosin, M. A.; Fokin, A. V.; Gil'mutdinov, I. F.; Mukhamedshin, I. R.

    2016-02-01

    The EPR spectrum of Mn-doped lanthanum gallate single crystals grown by floating zone melting with optical heating has been studied. In contrast to the crystals grown according to the Czochralski method, no manganese is found in these crystals even after high-temperature annealing in air. The spectral characteristics of Fe3+ and Gd3+ centers in crystals prepared by various methods have been compared in the rhombohedral phase, and the fourth-rank nondiagonal parameters of the Fe3+ trigonal centers have been determined, as well.

  14. Annihilation characteristics in As-grown and electron irradiated Zn II-VI semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.M. de la; Pareja, R.; Moser, P.

    1992-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the positron lifetime has been investigated in as-grown crystals of ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe over the temperature range 8-320 K. Also, isochronal annealing experiments up to 1175 K have been performed on these crystals. ZnS and ZnSe crystals have been electron irradiated at room temperature and at 77 K. From the results in as-grown and annealed crystals, the values of (230±3), (240±5) and (266±3) ps are attributed to the positron lifetime in the bulk of ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe, respectively

  15. Fabrication of radiation detectors with HgI2 crystals grown from a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friant, Alain; Mellet, Jean; Saliou, Charles; Mohammed Brahim, Tayeb.

    1979-01-01

    Mercuric Iodide crystals grown from a solution of molecular complexes with dimethylsulfoxide have been evaluated as γ-ray and X-ray room temperature detectors. Compared with materials grown from the vapor phase these crystals are characterized by a larger size, a lower level of native defects, but a higher impurity level. Detector technology, X-ray and γ-ray (up to 662 keV) detection properties and characterization measurements (T.S.C., photoconductivity, photovoltaic effect) are described. The effect of light on crystal properties is briefly discussed [fr

  16. Growth and antimicrobial studies of γ-glycine crystal grown using CuSO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, V.; Dhanasekaran, P.

    2018-05-01

    In the current work single crystals of pure and 1M of CuSO4-added glycine were grown by slow evaporation method and its optical and antimicrobial properties were studied. The Polymorph of glycine transforms from a-glycine to γ-glycine due to the incorporation of CuSO4 on glycine was affirmed by the PXRD and FTIR studies. The impact of CuSO4 on the antimicrobial action of the grown samples was deliberate by utilizing the agar diffusion method.

  17. Anisotropy of electrical resistivity in PVT grown WSe2-x crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, G. K.; Patel, Y. A.; Agarwal, M. K.

    2018-05-01

    Single crystals of p-type WSe2 and WSe1.9 were grown by a physical vapour transport technique. The anisotropy in d.c. electrical resistivity was investigated in these grown crystals. The off-stoichiometric WSe1.9 exhibited a higher anisotropy ratio as compared to WSe2 crystals. The electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of a large number of stacking faults in these crystals. The resistivity enhancement along the c-axis and anisotropic effective mass ratio explained on the basis of structural disorder introduced due to off-stoichiometry.

  18. Comparative study for antibacterial potential of in vitro and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafique, M; Khan, S J [Pakistan Councile of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Food and Biotechnology

    2011-09-15

    The antimicrobial activities of in vitro grown callus extract and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant leaves extracts were studied and compared. Effect of extraction solvent was also assessed. These extracts were tested in vitro against eight bacterial strains following disc diffusion method. The results indicated that in vitro grown callus extracts of O. basilicum exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against tested Gram positive microorganisms as compared to in vivo grown plant material extract. These findings indicate towards potential use of biotechnology for natural therapeutic agent production. (author)

  19. Crystalline perfection and mechanical investigations on vertical Bridgman grown Bismuth telluride (Bi_2Te_3) single crystals for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Anuj; Vijayan, N.; Singh, Budhendra; Thukral, Kanika; Maurya, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    High efficiency thermoelectric materials plays a vital role in power generation and refrigeration applications. Bismuth telluride (Bi_2Te_3) is one among them. In the present work single crystal of bismuth telluride was grown using vertical Bridgman technique. The phase of grown crystals was analysed using a powder X-ray diffractometer. Quality of the grown crystal was assessed by using high resolution X-ray diffractometer and observed that it is fairly good. Further mechanical investigations on grown crystal was carried out using nano-indentation technique and various mechanical properties like hardness, stiffness and Young’s modulus were evaluated. Observed results clearly indicate its suitability for thermoelectric applications.

  20. Improved field emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown on stainless steel substrate and its application in ionization gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Huzhong; Dong, Changkun; Li, Da

    2016-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique on different substrates. Microstructures and field emission characteristics of the as-grown CNT arrays were investigated systematically, and its application in ionization gauge was also evaluated preliminarily. The results indicate that the as-grown CNT arrays are vertically well-aligned relating to the substrate surfaces, but the CNTs grown on stainless steel substrate are longer and more crystalline than the ones grown on silicon wafer substrate. The field emission behaviors of the as-grown CNT arrays are strongly dependent upon substrate properties. Namely, the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate has better field emission properties, including lower turn on and threshold fields, better emission stability and repeatability, compared with the one grown on silicon wafer substrate. The superior field emission properties of the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate are mainly attributed to low contact resistance, high thermal conductivity, good adhesion strength, etc. In addition, the metrological behaviors of ionization gauge with the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate as an electron source were investigated, and this novel cathode ionization gauge extends the lower limit of linear pressure measurement to 10-8 Pa, which is one order of magnitude lower than the result reported for the same of gauge with CNT cathode.

  1. Comparative study for antibacterial potential of in vitro and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, M.; Khan, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of in vitro grown callus extract and in vivo grown Ocimum basilicum L. plant leaves extracts were studied and compared. Effect of extraction solvent was also assessed. These extracts were tested in vitro against eight bacterial strains following disc diffusion method. The results indicated that in vitro grown callus extracts of O. basilicum exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against tested Gram positive microorganisms as compared to in vivo grown plant material extract. These findings indicate towards potential use of biotechnology for natural therapeutic agent production. (author)

  2. Effect of amaranth dye on the growth and properties of conventional and SR method grown KAP single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu Rao, G.; P., Rajesh; Ramasamy, P.

    2018-04-01

    The 0.1 mol% amaranth added KAP single crystals were grown from aqueous solutions by both slow evaporation solution technique and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. The single crystal having dimension of 45 mm length and 12 mm diameter was grown with growth rate of 1.5 mm/day using SR method. 87 % transmittance is obtained for SR method grown amaranth added KAP single crystal. The high intense luminescence at 661 nm is obtained from amaranth added conventional and SR method grown KAP single crystal. The amaranth added KAP single crystal possesses good mechanical and laser damage threshold stability.

  3. Effects of zinc toxicity on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; López-Millán, A-F; Abadía, A; Abadía, J

    2009-05-01

    The effects of high Zn concentration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in a controlled environment in hydroponics. High concentrations of Zn sulphate in the nutrient solution (50, 100 and 300 microm) decreased root and shoot fresh and dry mass, and increased root/shoot ratios, when compared to control conditions (1.2 microm Zn). Plants grown with excess Zn had inward-rolled leaf edges and a damaged and brownish root system, with short lateral roots. High Zn decreased N, Mg, K and Mn concentrations in all plant parts, whereas P and Ca concentrations increased, but only in shoots. Leaves of plants treated with 50 and 100 microm Zn developed symptoms of Fe deficiency, including decreases in Fe, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, increases in carotenoid/chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b ratios and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin cycle pigments. Plants grown with 300 microm Zn had decreased photosystem II efficiency and further growth decreases but did not have leaf Fe deficiency symptoms. Leaf Zn concentrations of plants grown with excess Zn were high but fairly constant (230-260 microg.g(-1) dry weight), whereas total Zn uptake per plant decreased markedly with high Zn supply. These data indicate that sugar beet could be a good model to investigate Zn homeostasis mechanisms in plants, but is not an efficient species for Zn phytoremediation.

  4. Estimating leaf area and leaf biomass of open-grown deciduous urban trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    1996-01-01

    Logarithmic regression equations were developed to predict leaf area and leaf biomass for open-grown deciduous urban trees based on stem diameter and crown parameters. Equations based on crown parameters produced more reliable estimates. The equations can be used to help quantify forest structure and functions, particularly in urbanizing and urban/suburban areas.

  5. Phenotypic Characteristics Of Ten Garlic Cultivars Grown At Different North American Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs are marketed for their health and culinary values. It is difficult to identify garlic cultivars or classes grown under diverse conditions as a result of their highly elastic environmental responses, particularly relating to skin color and clove arrangement of bulbs....

  6. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.d...

  7. Postharvest evaluation of soilless-grown table grape during storage in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; Buttaro, Donato; Santamaria, Pietro; Serio, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    Soilless growth systems, developed mainly for vegetables and ornamental crops, have also been used recently as an alternative to soil culture for table grape in order to achieve optimal production performance. In this study, sensory, physical and chemical parameters were analysed in table grapes obtained from soil and soilless growth systems at harvest and during storage in air or modified atmosphere. At harvest, soilless-grown berries were 30% firmer than those grown in soil. Moreover, they showed 60% higher antioxidant activity and total phenol content than soil-grown fruits. Modified atmosphere storage resulted in a better quality of table grapes compared with those stored in air. Furthermore, soilless growth was more suitable than soil growth for preserving visual quality and controlling rachis browning and weight loss. Since the soilless system produces berries that are cleaner and of higher quality than those grown in soil, the implementation of soilless growth for the production of health-promoting and convenience fruits is suggested. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Low Temperature CVD Grown Graphene for Highly Selective Gas Sensors Working under Ambient Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardella, F.; Vollebregt, S.; Polichetti, T.; Alfano, B.; Massera, E.; Sarro, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report on gas sensors based on graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition at 850 °C. Mo was used as catalyst for graphene nucleation. Resistors were directly designed on pre-patterned Mo using the transfer-free process we recently developed, thus avoiding films damage during the

  9. Study of gel grown mixed crystals of Bax Ca ((IO3) 4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth of mixed crystals of BaCa1–(IO3)4 were carried out with simple gel method. The effect of various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of reactants on the growth was studied. Crystals having different morphologies and habits were obtained. The grown ...

  10. Simulating phosphorus removal from a vertical-flow constructed wetland grown with C alternifolius species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Lihua Cui; Gary Feng; John Read

    2015-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) is a promising technique for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to develop a STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) model for estimating phosphorus (P) removal in an artificial VFCW (i.e., a substrate column with six zones) grown...

  11. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, M.; Meunier, J. D.; Davidian, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10...

  12. GaIn As Quantum Dots (QD) grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Vazquez, F E; Mishurnyi, V A; Gorbatchev, A Yu; De Anda, F [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigation en Comunicacion Optica, Av. Karakorum 1470, Col. Lomas 4a Sec., San Luis Potosi, SLP, CP 78210 (Mexico); Elyukhin, V A, E-mail: fcoe_ov@prodigy.net.m, E-mail: andre@cactus.iico.uaslp.m [CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico D.F., CP 07360 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    The majority of the semiconductor structures with QD today are grown by MBE and MOCVD. It is known that the best material quality can be achieved by LPE because, in contrast to MBE and MOCVD, this method is realized at near-equilibrium conditions. To develop QD LPE technology first of all it is necessary to find out a growth technique allowing the crystallization of epitaxial materials with very small volume. This can be done by means of different techniques. In this work we apply a low temperature short-time growth method, which allows the production not only of single, but also of multilayer heterostructures. We have grown Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-z}As QD on GaAs (100) substrates at 450 C. The details of the QD formation, depending on composition of the Ga{sub x}In{sub -x} As solid solutions, have been studied by atom-force microscopy. The photoluminescence spectra of investigated samples show, in addition to a short-wave GaAs related peak, a longer wavelength line, which disappears after removal of the grown GaInAs material using an etching solution. This fact, together with atom-force microscopy results can be interpreted as a proof that QD heterostructures were grown successfully by LPE.

  13. Passivation of MBE grown InGaSb/InAs superlattice photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam S.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed wet chemical passivation tests on InGaSb/InAs superlattice photodiode structures grown molecular beam epitaxy. The details of the devices growth and characterization as well as the results of chemical passivation involving RuCl3 and H2SO4 with SiO2 dielectric depositions are presented.

  14. Root uptake and translocation of perfluorinated alkyl acids by three hydroponically grown crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felizeter, S.; McLachlan, M.S.; de Voogt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato, cabbage, and zucchini plants were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. They were exposed to 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) at four different concentrations via the nutrient solution. At maturity the plants were harvested, and the roots, stems, leaves, twigs (where applicable), and

  15. Crop growth rate differs in warm season C4-grasses grown in pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Strain R) grown in pure and mixed stands under low and high water levels was investigated at one month interval namely: 30, 60 and 90 days after emergence (DAE), in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas, USA during spring 2010. The corn CGR in the mixed ...

  16. RAPD-PCR analysis of some species of Euphorbia grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family ^____^

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... This study attempts to identify species of Euphorbia (Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia helioscopia,. Euphorbia granulata and Euphorbia hirta) grown in University of Baghdad Campus in Jadiriyah and determine the genetic polymorphism among them by using DNA markers generated by polymerase.

  17. ZnO based nanowires grown by chemical vapour deposition for selective hydrogenation of acetylene alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Protasova, L.N.; Rebrov, E.; Choy, K.L.; Pung, S.Y.; Engels, V.; Cabaj, M.; Wheatley, A.E.H.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) with a length of 1.5–10 µm and a mean diameter of ca. 150 nm were grown by chemical vapour deposition onto a c-oriented ZnO seed layer which was deposited by atomic layer deposition on Si substrates. The substrates were then spin-coated with an ethanol solution

  18. Performance of cowpea grown as an intercrop with maize of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The negative effects of shade were more pronounced in the semi-determinate cowpea than in the indeterminate. Therefore, in high maize populations, indeterminate spreading cowpeas should be grown; while semi-determinate cowpeas should be planted in low to moderate maize populations because of their intolerance ...

  19. The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wood quality of Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen grown in the Mpumalanga forest region: scientific paper. ... When present, the amounts of included resin, pieces of bark and other debris at the occluded pruning cuts, were small and of little practical significance. The wood machined without any difficulty in the wet and ...

  20. Thermal stability of amorphous carbon films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, T. A.; McCarty, K. F.; Barbour, J. C.; Siegal, M. P.; Dibble, Dean C.

    1996-03-01

    The thermal stability in vacuum of amorphous tetrahedrally coordinated carbon (a-tC) films grown on Si has been assessed by in situ Raman spectroscopy. Films were grown in vacuum on room-temperature substrates using laser fluences of 12, 22, and 45 J/cm2 and in a background gas of either hydrogen or nitrogen using a laser fluence of 45 J/cm2. The films grown in vacuum at high fluence (≳20J/cm2) show little change in the a-tC Raman spectra with temperature up to 800 °C. Above this temperature the films convert to glassy carbon (nanocrystalline graphite). Samples grown in vacuum at lower fluence or in a background gas (H2 or N2) at high fluence are not nearly as stable. For all samples, the Raman signal from the Si substrate (observed through the a-tC film) decreases in intensity with annealing temperature indicating that the transparency of the a-tC films is decreasing with temperature. These changes in transparency begin at much lower temperatures (˜200 °C) than the changes in the a-tC Raman band shape and indicate that subtle changes are occurring in the a-tC films at lower temperatures.

  1. Comparison of antimicrobial resistant genes in chicken gut microbiome grown on organic and conventional diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha V. Hegde

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are widely used in chicken production for therapeutic purposes, disease prevention and growth promotion, and this may select for drug resistant microorganisms known to spread to humans through consumption of contaminated food. Raising chickens on an organic feed regimen, without the use of antibiotics, is increasingly popular with the consumers. In order to determine the effects of diet regimen on antibiotic resistant genes in the gut microbiome, we analyzed the phylotypes and identified the antimicrobial resistant genes in chicken, grown under conventional and organic dietary regimens. Phylotypes were analyzed from DNA extracted from fecal samples from chickens grown under these dietary conditions. While gut microbiota of chicken raised in both conventional and organic diet exhibited the presence of DNA from members of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, organic diet favored the growth of members of Fusobacteria. Antimicrobial resistance genes were identified from metagenomic libraries following cloning and sequencing of DNA fragments from fecal samples and selecting for the resistant clones (n=340 on media containing different concentrations of eight antibiotics. The antimicrobial resistant genes exhibited diversity in their host distribution among the microbial population and expressed more in samples from chicken grown on a conventional diet at higher concentrations of certain antimicrobials than samples from chicken grown on organic diet. Further studies will elucidate if this phenomena is widespread and whether the antimicrobial resistance is indeed modulated by diet. This may potentially assist in defining strategies for intervention to reduce the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the production environment.

  2. Silicon accumulation and distribution in petunia and sunflower grown in a rice hull-amended substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silicon (Si) is a plant beneficial element associated with mitigation of abiotic and biotic stresses. Most greenhouse-grown ornamentals are considered low Si accumulators based on foliar Si concentration. However, Si accumulates in all tissues, and there is little published data on the distributio...

  3. Origin of Spontaneous Core-Shell AIGaAs Nanowires Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Shtrom, I. V.; Reznik, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies, we unravel the origin of spontaneous core shell AlGaAs nanowires grown by gold-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Our AlGaAs nanowires have a cylindrical core...

  4. Molecular Beam Epitaxy-Grown InGaN Nanowires and Nanomushrooms for Solid State Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Gasim, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    InGaN is a promising semiconductor for solid state lighting thanks to its bandgap which spans the entire visible regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. InGaN is grown heteroepitaxially due to the absence of a native substrate; however, this results

  5. Low temperature synthesis and field emission characteristics of single to few layered graphene grown using PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avshish; Khan, Sunny; Zulfequar, M.; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by PECVD system at a low temperature of 600 °C. • From different characterization techniques, the presence of single and few layered graphene was confirmed. • X-ray diffraction pattern of the graphene showed single crystalline nature of the film. • The as-grown graphene films were observed extremely good field emitters with long term emission current stability. - Abstract: In this work, high-quality graphene has successfully been synthesized on copper (Cu) coated Silicon (Si) substrate at very large-area by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This method is low cost and highly effective for synthesizing graphene relatively at low temperature of 600 °C. Electron microscopy images have shown that surface morphology of the grown samples is quite uniform consisting of single layered graphene (SLG) to few layered graphene (FLG). Raman spectra reveal that graphene has been grown with high-quality having negligible defects and the observation of G and G' peaks is also an indicative of stokes phonon energy shift caused due to laser excitation. Scanning probe microscopy image also depicts the synthesis of single to few layered graphene. The field emission characteristics of as-grown graphene samples were studied in a planar diode configuration at room temperature. The graphene samples were observed to be a good field emitter having low turn-on field, higher field amplification factor and long term emission current stability.

  6. 77 FR 21841 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent production years from $0.0007 to $0.0005 per pound of assessed weight pistachios...

  7. 76 FR 60361 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...; FV-983-2 IR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Decreased Assessment Rate...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Administrative Committee for Pistachios... weight pistachios. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of...

  8. 75 FR 68681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio marketing order (order). The interim rule streamlined the aflatoxin sampling and testing procedures under the order's rules and regulations for pistachios to be shipped for...

  9. Positron annihilation studies of defects in molecular beam epitaxy grown III-V layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umlor, M.T.; Keeble, D.J.; Cooke, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A summary of recent positron annihilation experiments on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown III-V layers is Presented. Variable energy positron beam measurements on Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 As undoped and Si doped have been completed. Positron trapping at a open volume defect in Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 :Si for temperatures from 300 to 25 K in the dark was observed. The positron trap was lost after 1.3 eV illumination at 25K. These results indicate an open volume defect is associated with the local structure of the deep donor state of the DX center. Stability of MBE GaAs to thermal annealing war, investigated over the temperature range of 230 to 700 degrees C, Proximity wafer furnace anneals in flowing argon were used, Samples grown above 450 degrees C were shown to be stable but for sample below this temperature an anneal induced vacancy related defect was produced for anneals between 400 and 500 degrees C. The nature of the defect was shown to be different for material grown at 350 and 230 degrees C. Activation energies of 2.5 eV to 2.3 eV were obtained from isochronal anneal experiments for samples grown at 350 and 230 degrees C, respectively

  10. Growth and study of some gel grown group II single crystals of iodate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Single crystals of calcium iodate and barium iodate were grown by simple gel technique by single diffusion method. The optimum conditions were established by varying various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of the reactants etc. Crystals having different.

  11. Characterization of GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers grown by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers are grown by a metalorganic chemical ... reported by introducing annealing of the GaN layer in nitrogen [5], Fe doping [6], .... [2] Y F Wu, S M Wood, R P Smith, S Sheppard, S T Allen, P Parikh and J Milligan,.

  12. The effects of Fe-chelate type and PH on substrate grown roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Sonneveld, C.

    2009-01-01

    Substrate grown roses appear to be susceptible to chlorosis, which indicates problems with Fe or Mn uptake and hence yield reduction. In common practice this problem is often treated by the addition of extra Fe-chelate, or the use of Fe-EDDHA instead of Fe-DTPA. In previous tests, it was shown that

  13. Ag-catalyzed InAs nanowires grown on transferable graphite flakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Holdt, Jakob; Kanne, Thomas; Sestoft, Joachim E.

    2016-01-01

    on exfoliated graphite flakes by molecular beam epitaxy. Ag catalyzes the InAs nanowire growth selectively on the graphite flakes and not on the underlying InAs substrates. This allows for easy transfer of the flexible graphite flakes with as-grown nanowire ensembles to arbitrary substrates by a micro...

  14. Accelerated carrier recombination by grain boundary/edge defects in MBE grown transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Roy, Anupam; Rai, Amritesh; Movva, Hema C. P.; Meng, Xianghai; He, Feng; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Wang, Yaguo

    2018-05-01

    Defect-carrier interaction in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) plays important roles in carrier relaxation dynamics and carrier transport, which determines the performance of electronic devices. With femtosecond laser time-resolved spectroscopy, we investigated the effect of grain boundary/edge defects on the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited carrier in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown MoTe2 and MoSe2. We found that, comparing with exfoliated samples, the carrier recombination rate in MBE-grown samples accelerates by about 50 times. We attribute this striking difference to the existence of abundant grain boundary/edge defects in MBE-grown samples, which can serve as effective recombination centers for the photoexcited carriers. We also observed coherent acoustic phonons in both exfoliated and MBE-grown MoTe2, indicating strong electron-phonon coupling in this materials. Our measured sound velocity agrees well with the previously reported result of theoretical calculation. Our findings provide a useful reference for the fundamental parameters: carrier lifetime and sound velocity and reveal the undiscovered carrier recombination effect of grain boundary/edge defects, both of which will facilitate the defect engineering in TMD materials for high speed opto-electronics.

  15. EXAFS investigations on PbMoO4 single crystals grown under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on PbMoO4 (LMO) crystals have been performed at the recently-commissioned dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-8) of INDUS-2 Synchrotron facility at Indore, India. The LMO samples were prepared under three different conditions viz. (i) grown from ...

  16. 77 FR 72683 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...; FV12-923-1 IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of sweet...

  17. 75 FR 31663 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... producer returns by providing pack differentiation; and benefit producers, handlers, and consumers. DATES... producer returns by providing pack differentiation, and is expected to benefit producers, handlers, and..., and container regulations for any variety or varieties of cherries grown in the production area...

  18. Structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown on silicon and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of undoped ZnO thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering on silicon .... voluted O1 s and (c) typical Zr 3d spectra of ZrO2/ZnO/Si film. .... strate doping concentration (NB) of ≈ 2⋅5 × 1015 cm–3 is.

  19. Interactions between nitrate and chloride in nutrient solutions for substrate grown tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Sonneveld, C.

    2004-01-01

    In two successive experiments tomato was grown at different Cl and NO3 concentrations in the root environment with rockwool as a sub-strate. The EC value in the nutrient solution was fairly constant, varying between 3.5 and 4.0 dS m-1 in all treatments. The NO3 concentrations in the treatments

  20. 76 FR 65360 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... operate without marketing order requirements in order to review the effectiveness of the order. During the... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0027; FV11-953-1 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions...

  1. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from

  2. 76 FR 4201 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Avenue, SW., Stop 0237, Washington, DC 20250-0237; Telephone: (202) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, E-mail... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 [Doc. No. AO-FV-08-0174; AMS-FV-08-0085; FV08-920-3 C] Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920...

  3. A study of 1/f noise in InP grown by CBE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.Y.; Leijs, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The origin of low-frequency noise in InP was studied experimentally by measuring the noise of InP layers grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Such InP layers are unintentionally doped, but of varying purity and always of n-type conductivity. We performed noise measurements at temperatures from 77

  4. 76 FR 18001 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... rate established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

  5. 78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...; FV13-946-1 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2013-2014 fiscal year and all subsequent fiscal periods from $0.003 to $0.0025 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally...

  6. 76 FR 41589 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers...

  7. Extraction and characterization of seed oil from naturally-grown Chinese tallow trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Qin Yang; Hui Pan; Tao Zeng; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2013-01-01

    Seeds were collected from locally and naturally grown Chinese tallow trees (CTT) and characterized for general physical and chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the lipids. The effects of four different solvents (petroleum ether, hexane, diethyl ether, and 95 % ethanol) and two extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and conventional...

  8. 78 FR 23671 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... behalf. There are approximately 85 producers of onions in the production area and approximately 30... FR] Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... Texas Onion Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.025 to $0.03 per...

  9. 78 FR 56816 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... to regulation under the order and approximately 80 onion producers in the designated production area...; FV13-955-1 FIR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements AGENCY... the reporting and assessment requirements prescribed under the marketing order for Vidalia onions...

  10. Commercial potential of rambutan cultivars grown at two locations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown on an Oxisol and Ultisol were evaluated for four years under intensive management at Isabela and Corozal, Puerto Rico, respectively. There were significant differences in number and weight of fruits per hectare between locations and years. Signif...

  11. Are grown-ups with congenital heart disease willing to participate in an exercise program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, Manon L.; Feenstra, Marlies; de Greef, Mathieu; Nieuwland, Wybe; Hoendermis, Elke S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the willingness of grown-ups with congenital heart disease (GUCH) to participate in the GUCH Training Program-Individualised (GTI), an exercise program specifically designed for GUCH, and to identify factors affecting their willingness to participate. In this cross-sectional

  12. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots in te...

  13. Modeling osmotic salinity effects on yield characteristics of substrate-grown greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Bos, van den A.L.; Voogt, W.

    2004-01-01

    In a series of experiments with different osmotic potentials in the root environment, various vegetables, and ornamentals were grown in a substrate system. The osmotic potential was varied by addition of nutrients. Yield characteristics of the crop were related to the osmotic potential of the

  14. Electrical properties of in-situ grown and transferred organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Madsen, Morten; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Para-hexaphenylene (p6P) molecules have the ability to self-assemble into organic nanofibers, which exhibit a range of interesting optical and optoelectronic properties such as intense, polarized luminescence, waveguiding and lasing. The nanofibers are typically grown on specific single...

  15. Trace gas emissions from a sun and shade grown ornamental crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work has begun to establish baseline approximations for greenhouse gas (GHG) (CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions of several horticultural crops, though much work is still needed to expand contingencies for multiple best management practices. In this study, GHG emissions from one shade-grown speci...

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayers grown by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant, K. Mohan; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Pryds, Nini

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the structural and the magnetic properties of Gd/Fe multilayered thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition onto Si (001) substrates at room temperature. he Fe layer thickness is varied from 70 to 150 nm and its effect on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Gd/Fe ...

  17. Location of catalase in crystalline peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Ineke; Roggenkamp, Rainer; Harder, Willem; Veenhuis, Marten

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the intraperoxisomal location of catalase in peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha by (immuno)cytochemical means. In completely crystalline peroxisomes, in which the crystalline matrix is composed of octameric alcohol oxidase (AO) molecules, most of the catalase protein

  18. Cytochemical Localization of Catalase Activity in Methanol-Grown Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, J.P. van; Veenhuis, M.; Vermeulen, C.A.; Harder, W.

    1975-01-01

    The localization of peroxidase activity in methanol-grown cells of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has been studied by a method based on cytochemical staining with diaminobenzidine (DAB). The oxidation product of DAB occurred in microbodies, which characteristically develop during growth on methanol,

  19. Basic Density and Strength Properties Variations in Cordia Africana (Lam) Grown Under Agroforestry in Arumeru, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahonge, C.P.I.

    2007-01-01

    Variations in basic density and strength properties of Cordia africana (lam) grown under agroforestry in Arumeru district Arusha Tanzania were determined. Tree sampling procedure and data collection based on standard methods (ISO 3129.of 1975). The main results indicated that basic density increased

  20. Phosphorus reduces the zinc concentration in cereals pot-grown on calcareous Vertisols from southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio Rafael; Del Campillo, María Carmen; Torrent, José

    2017-08-01

    Zinc deficiency, a major problem in crops grown on soils low in available Zn, is even more important in phosphorus-rich soils. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of soil P and Zn levels, and of fertilizer application, on yield and Zn concentration in cereal grains. Wheat and barley were successively pot-grown on 20 calcareous Vertisols low in available Zn and ranging widely in available P. Grain yield in the plants grown on the native soils was positively correlated with Olsen P but not with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn except for wheat on P-rich soils. Grain Zn concentration was negatively correlated with Olsen P. Grain Zn uptake differed little among soils. Application of P to the soils increased grain yield insignificantly and P concentration significantly; however, it reduced grain Zn concentration (particularly at low Olsen P values). Applying Zn alone only increased grain Zn concentration, whereas applying P and Zn in combination increased yield and grain Zn concentration at low and high Olsen P values, respectively. Applying P alone to plants grown on calcareous Vertisols low in available P and Zn may in practice reduce grain Zn concentrations while not increasing grain yield significantly. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The functional localization of cytochromes b in the respiratory chain of anaerobically grown Proteus mirabilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wielink, J E; Reijnders, W N; Van Spanning, R J; Oltmann, L F; Stouthamer, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The functional localization of the cytochromes b found in anaerobically grown Proteus mirabilis was investigated. From light absorption spectra, scanned during uninhibited and HQNO-inhibited electron transport to various electron acceptors, it was concluded that all cytochromes b function between

  2. Uptake of perfluorinated alkyl acids by hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felizeter, S.; McLachlan, M.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    An uptake study was carried out to assess the potential human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) through the ingestion of vegetables. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown in PFAA-spiked nutrient solutions at four different concentrations, ranging from 10 ng/L to 10 μg/L. Eleven

  3. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee locally...

  4. Contamination level in vegetables grown around Peshawar using sewerage and canal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.

    2001-01-01

    The level of contamination in vegetables grown around Peshawar using sewerage/canal water is reported. The vegetable samples were collected from three representative locations. The results indicated that vegetables grown with sewerage water contained higher levels of Cd, Cu and Pb than those with irrigation water. Maximum amount of Cd was in Qulfa (3.68 mu g/ g) followed by sponge gourd leaves (3.38 mu g/ g) the tomato leaves (93.32 mu g/ g). while Pb in tomato leaves (4.88 mu g / g), Cu content ranged between 2.08 and 7.5 mu g/g in these vegetables. In the vegetables grown with canal water the Cd ranged 0.82 - 2.88 mu g/g, Cu 2.38 mu g /g and Pb 0.84 - 1.88 mu g/ g. The concentration of Fe and P in the vegetables of sewerage water ranged 9.0-25.0 and 5.6-14.8 mg/100g respectively while those grown with canal water 9.0-11.0 mg/ 100 g and 8.4-12.8 mg/ 100 g respectively. (author)

  5. Proximate composition of CELSS crops grown in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.

    Edible biomass from four crops of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), four crops of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), four crops of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), and three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown in NASA's CELSS Biomass Production Chamber were analyzed for proximate composition. All plants were grown using recirculating nutrient (hydroponic) film culture with pH and electrical conductivity automatically controlled. Temperature and humidity were controlled to near optimal levels for each species and atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained near 100 Pa during the light cycles. Soybean seed contained the highest percentage of protein and fat, potato tubers and wheat seed contained the highest levels of carbohydrate, and lettuce leaves contained the highest level of ash. Analyses showed values close to data published for field-grown plants with several exceptions: In comparison with field-grown plants, wheat seed had higher protein levels; soybean seed had higher ash and crude fiber levels; and potato tubers and lettuce leaves had higher protein and ash levels. The higher ash and protein levels may have been a result of the continuous supply of nutrients (e.g., potassium and nitrogen) to the plants by the recirculating hydroponic culture.

  6. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for early identification of bacteria grown in blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabbe, Jean-Benoît; Zanardo, Laura; Mégraud, Francis; Bessède, Emilie

    2015-08-01

    This note reports an interesting way to rapidly identify bacteria grown from blood culture bottles. Chocolate agar plates were inoculated with 1 drop of the positive blood bottle medium. After a 3-hour incubation, the growth veil was submitted to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: 77% of the bacteria present have been correctly identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 7095 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... FIR] Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee), for the 2010-11 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.27 to $0.37 per 55-pound bushel container of Florida avocados handled. The Committee...

  8. 77 FR 71688 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...; FV12-915-1 FIR] Avocados Grown in South Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.37 to $0.25 per 55-pound bushel container of Florida avocados handled. The...

  9. 78 FR 57099 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 915 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0054; FV13-915-2 PR] Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased... rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee... Florida avocados handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which regulates the...

  10. Antioxidant activity screening of extracts from Sideritis species (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Evstatieva, L.N.; Kortenska, V.; Handjieva, N.

    2003-01-01

    Plant samples from several species and populations of the genus Sideritis (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria (S scardica, S syriaca and S montana) were extracted with different solvents. Their antioxidant activities were determined by the -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

  11. 78 FR 8047 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, South Texas onion... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 959 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0039; FV12-959-1 PR] Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  12. 78 FR 30782 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Change in Minimum Grade Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ..., regardless of market destination. However, maintaining the current minimum grade requirement for avocados... Service 7 CFR Part 915 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0067; FV13-915-1 PR] Avocados Grown in South Florida; Change in... prescribed under the Florida avocado marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of avocados...

  13. Polarity and microstructure in InN thin layers grown by MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, N.; Nakahara, Y.; Amano, H.

    2006-01-01

    Microstructures in InN grown on sapphire (0001) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) were analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to clarify the growth process. Special attention was paid to the selectivity of the crystal polarity of InN. The InN thin films grown on sapphire after nitridation has a flat surface while those grown on YSZ has hillocks on the surface. The crystal polarity was determined by comparing the experimentally observed intensity distribution in convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) disks with those simulated by the Broch-wave method. It was found that the InN grown on the sapphire has a nitrogen-polarity and the one on YSZ has a mixture of In- and N-polarities. The effect of surface-nitridation of sapphire on the growth process is also discussed (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Growth-related problems of aging and senescence in fast growing trees grown on short rotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, T J

    1981-06-01

    The paper is aimed at identifying some possible problem areas in the future management of coppice stands on short rotations. The paper considers the possible role of plant hormones, water, cultural and enviromental factors in regulating shoot production, growth and senescence in hardwoods grown on short rotations for biomass production. 77 references.

  15. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik; Das, Satyajit; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Zhao, Kui; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In2O3/ZnO heterojunction. We find that In2O3/ZnO transistors

  16. Root growth and physiology of potted and field-grown trembling aspen exposed to tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Coleman; R.E. Dickson; J.G. Isebrands; D.F. Karnosky

    1996-01-01

    We studied root growth and respiration of potted plants and field-grown aspen trees (Populus tremuloides Michx.) exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone. Root dry weight of potted plants decreased up to 45% after 12 weeks of ozone treatment, and root system respiration decreased by 27%. The ozone-induced decrease in root system respiration of...

  17. Domain structures of LiNbO3 crystals grown by a floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Shoji; Ishii, Eiichi; Tsuzuki, Akihiro; Sekiya, Tadashi; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Takahashi, Akio.

    1986-01-01

    LiNbO 3 single crystals were grown from the congruently melting composition by a floating zone technique. It was confirmed by etching that the single domain crystals were produced without applying any external electric field. When annealed above the Curie temperature, antiparallel domain appeared in the form of annual rings. (author)

  18. Mineral content in grains of seven food-grade sorghum hybrids grown in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a major crop used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral content in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The ...

  19. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optimization of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) parameters for long and vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires (NWs) were investigated. Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was ...

  20. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propiconazole) spray intervals (7, 14, 21 day) and no spray control were arranged in a RCBD in 4 replications to assess net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) effect on malt quality. The varieties were grown at Holetta agricultural research center in 2005, ...

  1. Growth and development of wetland-grown taro under different plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is widely grown in Uganda but the extent of its production and consumption is not known, partly because it has been ignored as legitimate crop for research and development (R&D), and it is managed outside the conventional agricultural production, marketing and economic channels. Therefore, there is limited information ...

  2. All-MOCVD-grown BH laser on P-InP substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tadashi; Ishimura, E.; Nakajima, Yasuo; Tada, Hitoshi; Kimura, T.; Ohkura, Y.; Goto, Katsuhiko; Omura, Etsuji; Aiga, Masao

    1993-07-01

    A very low cw threshold current of 2.5 mA ( 25 degree(s)C) and 8.0 mA ( 80 degree(s)C) with high reliability has been realized in the all-MOCVD grown BH lasers on p-InP substrates. A strained MQW active layer of 1.3 micrometers wavelength and the precise carrier confinement buried structure by MOCVD is employed for the BH lasers. The excellent potential of long lifetime of the all-MOCVD grown laser has also been confirmed. After the high temperature and the high current (100 degree(s)C, 200 mA) aging test, no significant degradation is observed which is comparable with the well-established LPE grown lasers. The BH laser is also operating stably over 3700 hrs under the APC condition of 50 degree(s)C, 10 mW. Finally, an extremely uniform 10-element all-MOCVD grown LD array is demonstrated, which has the threshold current uniformity of 2.4 +/- 0.1 mA ( 25 degree(s)C) and 9.2 +/- 0.2 mA ( 80 degree(s)C). The growth mechanism in the MOCVD is also described.

  3. Accelerated carrier recombination by grain boundary/edge defects in MBE grown transition metal dichalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Defect-carrier interaction in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs plays important roles in carrier relaxation dynamics and carrier transport, which determines the performance of electronic devices. With femtosecond laser time-resolved spectroscopy, we investigated the effect of grain boundary/edge defects on the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited carrier in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE-grown MoTe2 and MoSe2. We found that, comparing with exfoliated samples, the carrier recombination rate in MBE-grown samples accelerates by about 50 times. We attribute this striking difference to the existence of abundant grain boundary/edge defects in MBE-grown samples, which can serve as effective recombination centers for the photoexcited carriers. We also observed coherent acoustic phonons in both exfoliated and MBE-grown MoTe2, indicating strong electron-phonon coupling in this materials. Our measured sound velocity agrees well with the previously reported result of theoretical calculation. Our findings provide a useful reference for the fundamental parameters: carrier lifetime and sound velocity and reveal the undiscovered carrier recombination effect of grain boundary/edge defects, both of which will facilitate the defect engineering in TMD materials for high speed opto-electronics.

  4. Improved field emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown on stainless steel substrate and its application in ionization gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Yongjun, E-mail: wyjlxlz@163.com [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Huzhong [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong, Changkun [Institute of Micro-Nano Structures and Optoelectronics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Li, Da [Division of Advanced Nanomaterials, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The high quality CNT arrays were successfully grown on conductive stainless steel substrates. • The CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate exhibited superior field emission properties. • A high vacuum level about 10–8 Pa was measured by resultant CNT-based ionization gauge. • The ionization gauge with CNT cathode demonstrated a high stability. - Abstract: Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique on different substrates. Microstructures and field emission characteristics of the as-grown CNT arrays were investigated systematically, and its application in ionization gauge was also evaluated preliminarily. The results indicate that the as-grown CNT arrays are vertically well-aligned relating to the substrate surfaces, but the CNTs grown on stainless steel substrate are longer and more crystalline than the ones grown on silicon wafer substrate. The field emission behaviors of the as-grown CNT arrays are strongly dependent upon substrate properties. Namely, the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate has better field emission properties, including lower turn on and threshold fields, better emission stability and repeatability, compared with the one grown on silicon wafer substrate. The superior field emission properties of the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate are mainly attributed to low contact resistance, high thermal conductivity, good adhesion strength, etc. In addition, the metrological behaviors of ionization gauge with the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate as an electron source were investigated, and this novel cathode ionization gauge extends the lower limit of linear pressure measurement to 10{sup −8} Pa, which is one order of magnitude lower than the result reported for the same of gauge with CNT cathode.

  5. Phyllosphere Microbiota Composition and Microbial Community Transplantation on Lettuce Plants Grown Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aerial surfaces of plants, or phyllosphere, are microbial habitats important to plant and human health. In order to accurately investigate microbial interactions in the phyllosphere under laboratory conditions, the composition of the phyllosphere microbiota should be representative of the diversity of microorganisms residing on plants in nature. We found that Romaine lettuce grown in the laboratory contained 10- to 100-fold lower numbers of bacteria than age-matched, field-grown lettuce. The bacterial diversity on laboratory-grown plants was also significantly lower and contained relatively higher proportions of Betaproteobacteria as opposed to the Gammaproteobacteria-enriched communities on field lettuce. Incubation of field-grown Romaine lettuce plants in environmental growth chambers for 2 weeks resulted in bacterial cell densities and taxa similar to those on plants in the field but with less diverse bacterial populations overall. In comparison, the inoculation of laboratory-grown Romaine lettuce plants with either freshly collected or cryopreserved microorganisms recovered from field lettuce resulted in the development of a field-like microbiota on the lettuce within 2 days of application. The survival of an inoculated strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was unchanged by microbial community transfer; however, the inoculation of E. coli O157:H7 onto those plants resulted in significant shifts in the abundance of certain taxa. This finding was strictly dependent on the presence of a field-associated as opposed to a laboratory-associated microbiota on the plants. Phyllosphere microbiota transplantation in the laboratory will be useful for elucidating microbial interactions on plants that are important to agriculture and microbial food safety. PMID:25118240

  6. Study of grown-in and radiation-induced defects in indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaban, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    This research is focused on (1) conducting detailed theoretical and experimental study of grown-in and radiation-induced defects in liquid encapsulated Czohralski (LEC) grown, Zn-doped P-type indium phosphide (InP), (2) identifying the physical origin of the defects detected using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) method, and (3) and developing a second-order model to interpret the presence of nonexponential capacitance transients in DLTS method. Analysis of grown-in and radiation-induced defects in P-type InP is undertaken. The main research results are summarized as follows: (1) DLTS analysis of grown-in defects in liquid LEC-grown, Zn-doped, P-type InP is made in this study. A single-hole trap of E/sub v/ + 0.52 eV is detected with a trap density of 1.8 x 10 15 cm -3 . The physical origin of this hole trap is attributed to a phosphorus vacancy or phosphorus interstitial-related defect. (2) One-MeV electron-irradiated P-type InP introduced two new hole traps, namely E/sub v/ + 0.34 and E/sub v/ + 0.58 eV with introduction rates (dN/sub T/d phi) of 0.4 and 1.2 per electron-cm, respectively. (3) A theoretical model is developed to interpret nonexponential capacitance transients in a deep-level transient spectroscopy method when the capture process competes with the dominant thermal-emission process

  7. Characteristics evaluation of stilbene single crystal grown by vertical bridgman technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Kwang Ho

    2012-02-01

    As the nature of organic scintillator, stilbene single crystal's decay time is only a couple of nano seconds, which makes it suitable for fast neutron detection. However, the entire amount of stilbene single crystal being used relies on import currently. As the necessity of fast neutron detection equipment such as KSTAR and Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor system increases, the goal is to have our own domestic technology through the growth of stilbene single crystal. The emission wavelength of grown stilbene single crystal is confirmed, and the property of grown stilbene single crystal is assessed compared to commercial stilbene (Ukraine ISMA research center) through gamma ray and neutron tests. In this research, we have grown stilbenes through Bridgman technique, and obtained three stilbenes out of two amples. (Two ones of Φ 30 mm x 15 mm, and Φ 40 mm x 17 mm from the first ample, and size of Φ 25 mm x 13 mm from the other) The grown stilbene's emission wavelength and inherent property of stilbene are confirmed. As the result of gamma ray test, we have confirmed linearity of grown stilbene's scintillator, and the relative light yield ratio is proven 101% efficiency to reference stilbene. Neutron detection efficiency of the three stilbenes amounts to 80% of reference stilbene, and FOM of them is 108% efficiency to reference stilbene's one. Although Ukraine ISMA research center still holds a dominant position with world-class efficiency and performance of its stilbene, we expect to produce a better stilbene with our domestic technology development. Through this, fast neutron detection technique can be obtained, which opens up an opportunity to be used not only in neutron monitoring system in nuclear fusion reactor, but also in alternative measurement technique as the unit price of He-3 increases recently

  8. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Melt-Grown Bulk Indium Gallium Arsenide and Indium Arsenic Phosphide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    spectrum, photoluminescence (PL), and refractive index measurements. Other methods such as infrared imagery and micro probe wavelength dispersing ...States. AFIT/DS/ENP/11-M02 OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT- GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ...CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT-GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ALLOYS Jean Wei, BS, MS Approved

  9. 76 FR 57001 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Proposed Amendment of Marketing Order No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 983 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0099; FV11-983-1 PR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona... pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico, and provides growers with the opportunity to vote in... Administrative Committee for Pistachios (Committee), which is responsible for local administration of the order...

  10. 77 FR 36119 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 983

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...; FV11-983-1 FR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Order Amending Marketing Order... amends Marketing Agreement and Order No. 983 (order), which regulates the handling of pistachios grown in... Committee for Pistachios (Committee), which is responsible for local administration of the order. The...

  11. Estimation of N2-fixation in cowpea grown in monoculture or in mixture with maize using 15 N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammaa, Mouhammad; Kurd Ali, Fawaz

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under natural climatic conditions to determine the proportion of different nitrogen sources (air, soil, fertilizer) in cowpea and maize grown alone or in mixture using 15 N isotope dilution technique. On average, the proportion of N derived from fixation by cowpea grown in mixed culture was 55% lower than that derived by the sole cropped cowpea (77%). Dry matter produced by one plant of maize grown in mixed culture was twice as much as that produced by a plant grown in mono culture. Moreover, total nitrogen content in one maize plant grown in mixed culture was 213 mg higher than that determined by two plant of maize grown in mono culture (171 mg). However, the amount of nitrogen derived from soil by maize grown in mixed culture was equal or even higher than that taken up by two plants of maize grown in mono culture. This indicates a better utilization of soil N by the maize in mixed culture. This data emphasize the crucial role of interspecific competition in soil N uptake. Data from this study do not support the hypothesis of N transfer from the legume to the cereal because no significant differences were found between mixed and pure maize in terms of 15 N in excess content. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  12. 75 FR 3333 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2 AGENCY... requirement under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2. The marketing order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by the Colorado Potato...

  13. 75 FR 17034 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...; FV09-948-2 IFR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3...: This rule relaxes the size requirement prescribed under the Colorado potato marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by...

  14. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...; FV12-948-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2...: This rule modifies the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado and is...

  15. 78 FR 35743 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for.... SUMMARY: This interim rule modifies the size requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado...

  16. 78 FR 43827 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Modoc and Siskiyou Counties, California, and in All Counties in Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 947 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0036; FV13-947-1 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Modoc and Siskiyou... handling of Irish potatoes grown in Modoc and Siskiyou Counties, California, and in all counties in Oregon... by the Oregon-California Potato Committee (Committee), which recommended termination of the marketing...

  17. Genetic variation in yield and chemical composition of wide range of sorghum accessions grown in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.S.; Wang, M.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Liu, Z.; Han, L.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum can be grown on marginal and waste lands as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production in the vast areas of north-west China. Fifty-six sorghum accessions were grown in 2009 at the experimental station of Xinjiang Agricultural University, located at Urumchi, Xinjiang, China. A total of 31

  18. Weed Growth and Efficacy of Pre-Applied Herbicides in Alternative Rooting Substrates Used in Container-Grown Nursery Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container-grown nursery crops in the Southeastern United States are typically grown in a rooting substrate comprised primarily of the ground bark of pine trees. However pine bark is becoming less available and more costly due to changes in production and marketed practices within Southeastern pine f...

  19. D-penicillamine exhibits a higher radioprotective effect in suckling mice than in grown-up animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlan, Gy.; Lakatos, L.; Dezsi, Z.; Hatvani, I.; Pintye, E.; Karmazsin, L.; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Debrecen

    1982-01-01

    Grown-up and suckling mice were exposed to whole-body 60 Co-irradiation of 6-10 Gy. The survival time was significantly increased in suckling animals by 3000 mg per kg body weight D-penicillamine applied intraperitoneally 60 min before irradiation, whereas the same treatment had no significant effect in grown-up animals. (L.E.)

  20. Novel scanning procedure enabling the vectorization of entire rhizotron-grown root systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobet Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an original spit-and-combine imaging procedure that enables the complete vectorization of complex root systems grown in rhizotrons. The general principle of the method is to (1 separate the root system into a small number of large pieces to reduce root overlap, (2 scan these pieces one by one, (3 analyze separate images with a root tracing software and (4 combine all tracings into a single vectorized root system. This method generates a rich dataset containing morphological, topological and geometrical information of entire root systems grown in rhizotrons. The utility of the method is illustrated with a detailed architectural analysis of a 20-day old maize root system, coupled with a spatial analysis of water uptake patterns.

  1. Novel scanning procedure enabling the vectorization of entire rhizotron-grown root systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Draye, Xavier

    2013-01-04

    : This paper presents an original spit-and-combine imaging procedure that enables the complete vectorization of complex root systems grown in rhizotrons. The general principle of the method is to (1) separate the root system into a small number of large pieces to reduce root overlap, (2) scan these pieces one by one, (3) analyze separate images with a root tracing software and (4) combine all tracings into a single vectorized root system. This method generates a rich dataset containing morphological, topological and geometrical information of entire root systems grown in rhizotrons. The utility of the method is illustrated with a detailed architectural analysis of a 20-day old maize root system, coupled with a spatial analysis of water uptake patterns.

  2. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Jang, Leewoon; Jeon, Juwon; Kim, Myoung; Kim, Jinsoo; Lee, Inhwan; Kwak, Joonseop; Lee, Jaejin

    2010-01-01

    The photoluminescence properties of zinc-oxide thin films grown by using the hydrothermal technique have been investigated. Zinc-oxide thin films with a wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation were grown in aqueous solution at 90 .deg. C on sapphire substrates with a p-GaN buffer layer by using the hydrothermal technique. The low-temperature photoluminescence analysis revealed a sharp bound-exciton-related luminescence peak at 3.366 eV with a very narrow peak width. The temperature-dependent variations of the emission energy and of the integrated intensity were studied. The activation energy of the bound exciton complex was calculated to be 7.35 ± 0.5 meV from the temperature dependent quenching of the integral intensities.

  3. Phase-separated CsI-NaCl scintillator grown by the Czochralski method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Ohashi, Yoshihiro; Den, Toru

    2014-08-01

    A phase-separated CsI-NaCl scintillator with light-guiding properties was grown by the Czochralski method. The CsI-NaCl eutectic phase usually consists of NaCl cylinders in a CsI matrix and contains grain boundaries. However, we have grown composites without grain boundaries by creating a convex solid/liquid interface, selecting a single grain by Dash's neck method, and increasing the diameter of the composite moderately. The good continuous convection flow required for these conditions was achieved by suppressing the drop in the aspect ratio of the melt height to the crucible radius with a double crucible setup. We successfully obtained a CsI-NaCl:Tl composite that was uniform with no grain boundaries greater than 30 mm in diameter.

  4. Influence of electron irradiation on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L W; So, C K; Zhu, C Y; Gu, Q L; Fung, S; Ling, C C; Li, C J; Brauer, G; Anwand, W; Skorupa, W

    2008-01-01

    The resistivity of hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals increased from ∼10 3 Ω cm to ∼10 6 Ω cm after 1.8 MeV electron irradiation with a fluence of ∼10 16 cm −2 , and to ∼10 9 Ω cm as the fluence increased to ∼10 18 cm −2 . Defects in samples were studied by thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS). After the electron irradiation with a fluence of 10 18 cm −2 , the normalized TSC signal increased by a factor of ∼100. A Zn vacancy was also introduced by the electron irradiation, though with a concentration lower than expected. After annealing in air at 400 °C, the resistivity and the deep traps concentrations recovered to the levels of the as-grown sample, and the Zn vacancy was removed

  5. Electron irradiation induced deep centers in hydrothermally grown ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z.-Q.; Claflin, B.; Look, D. C.; Farlow, G. C.

    2007-01-01

    An n-type hydrothermally grown ZnO sample becomes semi-insulating (ρ∼10 8 Ω cm) after 1-MeV electron-irradiation. Deep traps produced by the irradiation were studied by thermally stimulated current spectroscopy. The dominant trap in the as-grown sample has an activation energy of 0.24 eV and is possibly related to Li Zn acceptors. However, the electron irradiation introduces a new trap with an activation energy of 0.15 eV, and other traps of energy 0.30 and 0.80 eV, respectively. From a comparison of these results with positron annihilation experiments and density functional theory, we conclude that the 0.15-eV trap may be related to V Zn

  6. Trace element content of vegetables grown in the victorian goldfields: characterization of a potential hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, G.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants take-up trace elements essential to healthy growth, but if metal accumulation is excessive, harmful effects are noted in the plant and potentially in the organisms that feed on them. Central Victoria has a rich gold mining heritage, and as such, much of the landscape has been disturbed by the addition of mine waste material, providing an abundant source of metals in a mobile environment. A biogeochemical survey was conducted to evaluate the trace element content of backyard vegetable gardens in the gold field region and the trace element accumulation in commonly grown vegetables. Vegetable (n150) and soil (n59) samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results indicate that vegetables grown in the central Victorian goldfields have only slightly elevated trace element content. Some exceptions exist, specifically for silverbeet, but the hazard potential is minimal

  7. Relations of enzymes inAspergillus repens grown under sodium chloride stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Aspergillus repens, a salt-pan isolate, was halotolerant. When grown for 72 h (log phase) and 144 h (beginning of stationary phase) in a medium containing 2M sodium chloride, the activities of invertase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were found to have increased. Control cultures grown in a medium devoid of 2M NaCl failed to show such changes. The activities of MDH, G6PDH, and GDH increased with rising concentrations of Na(+) (as NaCl) when added up to 100MM in vitro. At higher concentrations they decreased. Changes in kinetic constants, Km and Vmax of these enzymes, as well as their de novo synthesis, were found to be some of the responses to NaCl stress-mediated changes.

  8. Characterization of growth sectors in synthetic quartz grown from cylindrical seeds parallel to [0001] direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Guzzo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the morphology and the impurity distribution were investigated in growth sectors formed around the [0001] axis of synthetic quartz crystals. Plates containing cylindrical holes and cylindrical bars parallel to [0001] were prepared by ultrasonic machining and further used as seed-crystals. The hydrothermal growth of synthetic quartz was carried out in a commercial autoclave under NaOH solution during 50 days. The morphologies of crystals grown from cylindrical seeds were characterized by X-ray diffraction topography. For both types of crystals, +X- and X- growth sectors were distinctly observed. Infrared spectroscopy and ionizing radiation were adopted to reveal the distribution of point defects related to Si-Al substitution and OH-species. It was found a different distribution of Al-related centers in relation to the crystals grown from conventional Y-bar and Z-plate seeds.

  9. Effect of solution chemistry on the characteristics of hydrothermally grown WO_3 for electroactive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, K.; Louloudakis, D.; Vernardou, D.; Savvakis, C.; Katsarakis, N.; Koudoumas, E.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermally grown tungsten trioxide coatings were prepared at 95 °C using different metal sulfates. Morphology of the oxides was altered from grains to flower- and urchin-like structures using potassium sulfate, sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate, respectively. The flower-like structures presented the highest deintercalated charge, 35 mC cm"−"2 with time response of 96 s. In addition, they indicated a charge transfer resistance across the tungsten trioxide–electrolyte interface of 752 Ω. These outcomes imply that they are promising candidates for electroactive applications. - Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown WO_3 coatings with controlled properties. • The choice of metal sulfate is important in determining their properties. • Flower-like hexagonal WO_3 structures for electroactive applications.

  10. Photocatalytic properties of chemically grown vanadium oxide at 65 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernardou, D., E-mail: dimitra@iesl.forth.gr [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Science Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Drosos, H.; Fasoulas, J. [Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Koudoumas, E. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Electrical Engineering Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katsarakis, N. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Science Department, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-03-31

    In this paper, the photocatalytic response of amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings prepared by hydrothermal growth at 65 °C is presented. The position of the substrate during the deposition and the pH of the solution were found to affect the coverage and the response of the coatings upon catalysis. The photocatalytic activity of the coatings was tested using stearic acid as a pollutant for an illumination time of 480 min. The materials grown on microscope glass positioned at an angle of 0° with respect to the bottom of the bottle exhibit the best photocatalytic activity, degrading stearic acid by 64% due to the enhanced surface coverage. - Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings at 65 °C • Their properties are dependent on the substrate arrangement. • Their photocatalytic activity is correlated with the oxide coverage.

  11. Photocatalytic properties of chemically grown vanadium oxide at 65 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernardou, D.; Drosos, H.; Fasoulas, J.; Koudoumas, E.; Katsarakis, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the photocatalytic response of amorphous V 2 O 5 coatings prepared by hydrothermal growth at 65 °C is presented. The position of the substrate during the deposition and the pH of the solution were found to affect the coverage and the response of the coatings upon catalysis. The photocatalytic activity of the coatings was tested using stearic acid as a pollutant for an illumination time of 480 min. The materials grown on microscope glass positioned at an angle of 0° with respect to the bottom of the bottle exhibit the best photocatalytic activity, degrading stearic acid by 64% due to the enhanced surface coverage. - Highlights: • Hydrothermally grown amorphous V 2 O 5 coatings at 65 °C • Their properties are dependent on the substrate arrangement. • Their photocatalytic activity is correlated with the oxide coverage

  12. P-N junction solar cell grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazrati Fard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth of GaAs epilayers by Molecular Beam Epitaxy was accomplished for the first time in Iran. The layers were grown on GaAs (001) substrates (p+ wafer) with Si impurity for p n junction solar cell fabrication at a rate of nearly one micron per hour and 0.25 micron per quarter. Crystalline quality of grown layers had been monitored during growth by Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction system. Doping profile and layer thickness was assessed by electrochemical C-V profiling method. Then Hall measurements were conducted on small samples both in room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature so giving average carrier concentration and compensation ratio. The results as like: V oc , I sc , F F, η were comparable with other laboratory reports. information for obtaining good and repeatable growths was collected. Therefore, the conditions of repeatable quality growth p n junction solar cells onto GaAs (001) substrates were determined

  13. Incorporation of transuranics into vegetable and field crops grown at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.H.F.; Leavitt, V.D.; Beckert, W.F.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Radish, lettuce, barley, and alfalfa plants were grown from seeds in undisturbed soil in Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site to determine the uptake of transuranics under field conditions. The plants were grown in small greenhouses erected over the soil to preclude aerial deposition of resuspended transuranics on the growing plants. The crops were irrigated during the growing season with either distilled water, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in distilled water, fertilizer in distilled water, or a combination of DTPA and fertilizer in distilled water. The plutonium and americium contents of the harvested plants showed differences which are mostly attributable to the effects of the treatments and the resulting changes in soil pH during the experiment

  14. Cyan laser diode grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turski, H.; Muziol, G.; Wolny, P.; Cywiński, G.; Grzanka, S.; Sawicka, M.; Perlin, P.; Skierbiszewski, C.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate AlGaN-cladding-free laser diodes (LDs), operating in continuous wave (CW) mode at 482 nm grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The maximum CW output power was 230 mW. LDs were grown on c-plane GaN substrates obtained by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The PAMBE process was carried out in metal-rich conditions, supplying high nitrogen flux (Φ N ) during quantum wells (QWs) growth. We found that high Φ N improves quality of high In content InGaN QWs. The role of nitrogen in the growth of InGaN on (0001) GaN surface as well as the influence of LDs design on threshold current density are discussed

  15. Radioactivity in tomatoes grown on mine tailings from Oka, a niobium mining region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, M.; Boudreau, A.; Roy, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity contained in the tailings of a niobium mine in the Oka region, Quebec, was the object of concern for the population of the area in 1979. To find the impact of these tailings on fruit and vegetables grown in this environment, an investigation of the radioactivity found on tomatoes grown in green houses in niobium tailings and in vermiculites was undertaken. The tailings contained a high level of natural radioactivity and a small amount of 137 Cs while the vermiculites had a very low level of natural radioactivity and an appreciable amount of 137 Cs. Cesium-137 was the only nuclide detected in tomato ashes in measurable quantity. Absence of natural radioactivity is explained by its presence as insoluble minerals

  16. Optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown from tin catalyst layers on silicon coated glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, Jeremy

    2012-08-20

    The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ∼4 wires/μ m2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  17. Silica Deposition on the Leaves of Mir- and Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William F.; Bubenheim, David L.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bingham, Gail E.; McManus, William R.; Biesinger, H. D.; Strickland, D. T.; Levinskikh, Maragarita; Sytchev, Vladimir N.; Podolsky, Igor

    2000-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis were used to investigate the nature of crystals deposited on leaves of Mir- and Earth-grown Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. Leaves from these plants exhibited dense and uniformly distributed crystals on leaf abaxial surfaces when viewed by SEM. Young leaves showed that crystals initially accumulated around the stomata on the adaxial surface, but became more dense and uniformly distributed as the leaves aged. EDX microanalyses of the Balkanine (a nutrient charged clinoptilolite zeolite) medium in which the wheat plants were grown showed an elemental pattern similar to that observed on the wheat leaves. The absence of N and P in the Balkanine suggests that they were completely utilized by the plants. Only Si and O were evident in the drying agent, Sorb-it-Silica (trademark), and perhaps could have accounted for some of the Si observed on the plant tissue.

  18. Structural and physical properties of InAlAs quantum dots grown on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, B. S.; Daly, A. Ben; Craciun, D.; Alexandrou, I.; Lazar, S.; Lemaître, A.; Maaref, M. A.; Iacomi, F.; Craciun, V.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), which have particular physical properties due to the three dimensions confinement effect, could be used in many advanced optoelectronic applications. We investigated the properties of InAlAs/AlGaAs QDs grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs/Al0.5Ga0.5As layers. The optical properties of QDs were studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). Two bandgap transitions corresponding to the X-Sh and X-Ph energy structure were observed. The QDs structure was investigated using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). HRXRD investigations showed that the layers grew epitaxially on the substrate, with no relaxation. HRTEM investigations confirmed the epitaxial nature of the grown structures. In addition, it was revealed that the In atoms aggregated in some prismatic regions, forming areas of high In concentration, that were still in perfect registry with the substrate.

  19. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on aluminum foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itir Bakis Dogru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs grown on aluminum foils were used as flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Aluminum foils were used as readily available, cheap and conductive substrates, and VACNTs were grown directly on these foils through chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Solution based ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP method was used for the deposition of the CNT catalyst. Direct growth of VACNTs on aluminum foils ruled out both the internal resistance of the supercapacitor electrodes and the charge transfer resistance between the electrode and electrolyte. A specific capacitance of 2.61 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 800 mV/s was obtained from the fabricated electrodes, which is further improved through the bending cycles.

  20. Characterization of large cadmium zinc telluride crystals grown by traveling heater method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H.; Awadalla, S.A.; Iniewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions/precipitates of these c......The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions...

  1. Locally Grown, Natural Ingredients? The Isotope Ratio Can Reveal a Lot!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossier, Joël S; Maury, Valérie; Pfammatter, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    This communication gives an overview of selected isotope analyses applied to food authenticity assessment. Different isotope ratio detection technologies such as isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) are briefly described. It will be explained how δ(18)O of water contained in fruits and vegetables can be used to assess their country of production. It will be explained why asparagus grown in Valais, in the centre of the Alps carries much less heavy water than asparagus grown closer to the sea coast. On the other hand, the use of δ(13)C can reveal whether a product is natural or adulterated. Applications including honey or sparkling wine adulteration detection will be briefly presented.

  2. Neutralization of Hydroxide Ion in Melt-Grown NaCl Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterson, Dumas A.

    1961-01-01

    Many recent studies of solid-state phenomena, particularly in the area of crystal imperfections, have involved the use of melt-grown NaCl single crystals. Quite often trace impurities in these materials have had a prominent effect on these phenomena. Trace amounts of hydroxide ion have been found in melt-grown NaCl crystals. This paper describes a nondestructive method of neutralizing the hydroxide ion in such crystals. Crystals of similar hydroxide content are maintained at an elevated temperature below the melting point of NaCl in a flowing atmosphere containing. dry hydrogen chloride. Heat treatment is continued until an analysis of the test specimens shows no excess hydroxide ion. A colorimetric method previously described4 is used for this analysis.

  3. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, A.M.A., E-mail: Ghostvolca@hotmail.com [Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, El Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmad, I.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); Kamel, A.M. [Labeled Compounds Department, Radioisotopes Production Division, Hot Labs Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Abou-Zaabal 13759 (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  4. Investigation of in-pile grown corrosion films on zirconium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, O.; Hermann, A.; Bart, G.; Blank, H.; Ray, I.L.F.

    1996-01-01

    In-pile grown corrosion films on different fuel rod claddings (standard Zircaloy-4, extra low tin Zircaloy (ELS), and Zr2.5Nb) have been studied using a variety of experimental techniques. The aim of the investigations was to find out common features and differences between the corrosion layers grown on zirconium alloys having different composition. Methods applied were scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electrochemical anodization. The morphological differences have been observed between the specimens that could explain the irradiation enhancement of corrosion of Zircaloy-4. The features of the compact oxide close to the oxide/metal interface have been characterized by electrochemical methods. The relationship between the thickness of this protective oxide and the overall oxide thickness has been investigated by EIS. It was found that this relation is dependent on the location of the oxide along the fuel rod and on the corrosion rate

  5. Microstructure of nitrides grown on inclined c-plane sapphire and SiC substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, M.; Honshio, A.; Miyake, Y.; Nakano, K.; Tsuchiya, N.; Tsuda, M.; Okadome, Y.; Balakrishnan, K.; Iwaya, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2006-01-01

    High-quality (112-bar 0) GaN layers with atomically flat surface have been grown on a precisely offset-angle-controlled (11-bar 02) sapphire substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Insertion of AlGaN layer between underlying AlN layer and GaN was found to improve crystalline quality of upper GaN layer. In addition, a combination of high growth condition followed and epitaxial lateral overgrowth has been employed for the growth of GaN and this helped in reducing the dislocation density in the resultant layers. GaN and AlN were grown on (303-bar 8) SiC substrates by MOVPE and sublimation methods, respectively. The crystal orientation of GaN and AlN could be just aligned to that of the substrate. Microstructure analysis of the layers was also carried out by transmission electron microscopy

  6. Field emission response from multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on electrochemically engineered copper foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Amit Kumar; Jain, Vaibhav [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Saini, Krishna [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Lahiri, Indranil, E-mail: indrafmt@iitr.ac.in [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2017-02-01

    Exciting properties of carbon nanotube has proven it to be a promising candidate for field emission applications, if its processing cost can be reduced effectively. In this research, a new electrochemical technique is proposed for growing carbon nanotubes in selective areas by thermal chemical vapour deposition. In this process, electrochemical processing is used to create localized pits and deposition of catalysts, which act as roots to support growth and alignment of the CNTs on copper substrate. CNTs grown thus were characterized and studied using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy, elucidating presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). These CNT emitters have comparatively lower turn-on field and higher field enhancement factor. - Highlights: • Electrochemical pitting for localized carbon nanotube growth is proposed. • Electrochemical pitting method shows patterning effect on the substrate. • Size and density of pits depend on voltage, pH and temperature. • CNTs thus grown shows good field emission response.

  7. Photoluminescence characteristics of Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy grown ZnSe crystal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yoh; Kuronuma, Ryoichi; Inoue, Masanori; Sasaki, Shoichiro; Miyamoto, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic green photoluminescence emission and related phenomena in Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE)-grown ZnSe crystal layers were investigated to explore the nature of the center responsible for the green emission. The intensity of the green emission showed a distinct nonlinear dependence on excitation intensity. Pb-diffused polycrystalline ZnSe was similarly examined for comparison. The characteristic green emission has been observed only in MBE-grown ZnSe crystal layers with moderate Pb doping. The results of the investigations on the growth conditions, luminescence, and related properties of the ZnSe crystal layers suggest that the green emission is due to isolated Pb replacing Zn and surrounded with regular ZnSe lattice with a high perfection

  8. New method for the determination of the defect profile in thin layers grown over a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubiaga, A.; Garcia, J.A.; Plazaola, F.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method to obtain information about the defect profile of films grown over high quality substrates. The method is valid, at least, for films where the positron mean-diffusion length is small. We have used the method for the case of ZnO films grown over sapphire, but the method can be generalized very easily to other film/substrate systems. Applying the method to the ratio of W and S parameters obtained from Doppler broadening measurements, W/S plots, one can determine the thickness of the film and the defect profile trend in the film, when mainly one positron trap is contributing to positron trapping within the film. Indeed, the quality of such a characterization is very important for the potential technological applications of the film. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. New method for the determination of the defect profile in thin layers grown over a substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubiaga, A.; Garcia, J.A.; Plazaola, F. [Fisika Aplikatua II Saila, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao (Spain); Tuomisto, F. [Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada i Electromagnetisme, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    We present a new method to obtain information about the defect profile of films grown over high quality substrates. The method is valid, at least, for films where the positron mean-diffusion length is small. We have used the method for the case of ZnO films grown over sapphire, but the method can be generalized very easily to other film/substrate systems. Applying the method to the ratio of W and S parameters obtained from Doppler broadening measurements, W/S plots, one can determine the thickness of the film and the defect profile trend in the film, when mainly one positron trap is contributing to positron trapping within the film. Indeed, the quality of such a characterization is very important for the potential technological applications of the film. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Vapor-solid-solid grown Ge nanowires at integrated circuit compatible temperature by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongyunshen; Song, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhenpu; Sun, Hao; Han, Yi; Li, Yaoyao; Zhang, Liyao; Xue, Zhongying; Di, Zengfeng; Wang, Shumin

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate Au-assisted vapor-solid-solid (VSS) growth of Ge nanowires (NWs) by molecular beam epitaxy at the substrate temperature of ˜180 °C, which is compatible with the temperature window for Si-based integrated circuit. Low temperature grown Ge NWs hold a smaller size, similar uniformity, and better fit with Au tips in diameter, in contrast to Ge NWs grown at around or above the eutectic temperature of Au-Ge alloy in the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Six ⟨110⟩ growth orientations were observed on Ge (110) by the VSS growth at ˜180 °C, differing from only one vertical growth direction of Ge NWs by the VLS growth at a high temperature. The evolution of NWs dimension and morphology from the VLS growth to the VSS growth is qualitatively explained by analyzing the mechanism of the two growth modes.

  11. The optical properties of transferred graphene and the dielectrics grown on it obtained by ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikov, Aarne; Kahro, Tauno; Matisen, Leonard; Kodu, Margus; Tarre, Aivar; Seemen, Helina; Alles, Harry

    2018-04-01

    Graphene layers grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method and transferred from Cu-foils to the oxidized Si-substrates were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Raman and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) methods. The optical properties of transferred CVD graphene layers do not always correspond to the ones of the exfoliated graphene due to the contamination from the chemicals used in the transfer process. However, the real thickness and the mean properties of the transferred CVD graphene layers can be found using ellipsometry if a real thickness of the SiO2 layer is taken into account. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods were used to grow dielectric layers on the transferred graphene and the obtained structures were characterized using optical methods. The approach demonstrated in this work could be useful for the characterization of various materials grown on graphene.

  12. Electrochemical properties of seamless three-dimensional carbon nanotubes-grown graphene modified with horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Kikuo; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized through sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the surface of a seamless three-dimensional hybrid of carbon nanotubes grown at the graphene surface (HRP-SDS/CNTs/G) and its electrochemical properties were investigated. Compared with graphene alone electrode modified with HRP via SDS (HRP-SDS/G electrode), the surface coverage of electroactive HRP at the CNTs/G electrode surface was approximately 2-fold greater because of CNTs grown at the graphene surface. Based on the increase in the surface coverage of electroactive HRP, the sensitivity to H2O2 at the HRP-SDS/CNTs/G electrode was higher than that at the HRP-SDS/G electrode. The kinetics of the direct electron transfer from the CNTs/G electrode to compound I and II of modified HRP was also analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced electrochemical activity using vertically aligned carbon nanotube electrodes grown on carbon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Augusto de Morais

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were successfully grown on flexible carbon fibers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The diameter of the CNT is controllable by adjusting the thickness of the catalyst Ni layer deposited on the fiber. Vertically aligned nanotubes were grown in a Plasma Enhanced Chemical Deposition system (PECVD at a temperature of 630 ºC, d.c. bias of -600 V and 160 and 68 sccm flow of ammonia and acetylene, respectively. Using cyclic voltammetry measurements, an increase of the surface area of our electrodes, up to 50 times higher, was observed in our samples with CNT. The combination of VACNTs with flexible carbon fibers can have a significant impact on applications ranging from sensors to electrodes for fuel cells.

  14. Optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown from tin catalyst layers on silicon coated glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, Jeremy; Centeno, Anthony; Mendis, Budhika G.; Reehal, H. S.; Alford, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ∼4 wires/μ m2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  15. Transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolic responses to lithium in galactose-grown yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Christoffer; Regenberg, Birgitte; Lagniel, G.

    2003-01-01

    Lithium is highly toxic to yeast when grown in galactose medium mainly because phosphoglucomutase, a key enzyme of galactose metabolism, is inhibited. We studied the global protein and gene expression profiles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in galactose in different time intervals after addition...... of lithium. These results were related to physiological studies where both secreted and intracellular metabolites were determined. Microarray analysis showed that 664 open reading frames were down-regulated and 725 up-regulated in response to addition of lithium. Genes involved in transcription, translation......-regulated proteins were also identified as being changed on the mRNA level. Functional clusters obtained from proteome data were coincident with transcriptional clusters. Physiological studies showed that acetate, glycerol, and glycogen accumulate in response to lithium, as reflected in expression data, whereas...

  16. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  17. Some biomedical applications of Balanites aegyptiaca grown naturally in radioactive area, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, A.M.A.; Ahmad, I.A.; Kamel, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a naturally grown desert plant at some radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area, Southeastern Desert. The aim of the present study was to highlight on the B. aegyptiaca species grown naturally at radioactive places in Wadi El-Gemal area (fruit part) on the ability of using the fruit in some biomedical application (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and diabetes). The investigated plant was collected from different location at Wadi El-Gemal area. The uranium content was determined previously and different concentrations from the fruit with highest uranium content were used to examine the effect of B. aegyptiaca (fruit part) on the glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (HDL and LDL-cholesterol) levels using experimental rats. Different analysis techniques were used in order to determine different parameters. The obtained data suggest the beneficial role of B. aegyptiaca fruit as an anti-diabetic and hypo-lipidimic agent.

  18. Influence of electron irradiation on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L. W.; So, C. K.; Zhu, C. Y.; Gu, Q. L.; Li, C. J.; Fung, S.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ling, C. C.

    2008-09-01

    The resistivity of hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals increased from ~103 Ω cm to ~106 Ω cm after 1.8 MeV electron irradiation with a fluence of ~1016 cm-2, and to ~109 Ω cm as the fluence increased to ~1018 cm-2. Defects in samples were studied by thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS). After the electron irradiation with a fluence of 1018 cm-2, the normalized TSC signal increased by a factor of ~100. A Zn vacancy was also introduced by the electron irradiation, though with a concentration lower than expected. After annealing in air at 400 °C, the resistivity and the deep traps concentrations recovered to the levels of the as-grown sample, and the Zn vacancy was removed.

  19. Giant current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene as grown on nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodepudi, S C; Singh, A P; Pramanik, S

    2014-05-14

    Strong magnetoresistance effects are often observed in ferromagnet-nonmagnet multilayers, which are exploited in state-of-the-art magnetic field sensing and data storage technologies. In this work we report a novel current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistance effect in multilayer graphene as grown on a catalytic nickel surface by chemical vapor deposition. A negative magnetoresistance effect of ∼10(4)% has been observed, which persists even at room temperature. This effect is correlated with the shape of the 2D peak as well as with the occurrence of D peak in the Raman spectrum of the as-grown multilayer graphene. The observed magnetoresistance is extremely high as compared to other known materials systems for similar temperature and field range and can be qualitatively explained within the framework of "interlayer magnetoresistance" (ILMR).

  20. Local electrical properties of thermally grown oxide films formed on duplex stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Q.; Yang, B. J.; He, J. Y.; Qiao, L. J.

    2018-06-01

    The local electrical properties of thermally grown oxide films formed on ferrite and austenite surfaces of duplex stainless steel at different temperatures were investigated by Current sensing atomic force microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The current maps and XPS/AES analyses show that the oxide films covering austenite and ferrite surfaces formed at different temperatures exhibit different local electrical characteristics, thickness and composition. The dependence of electrical conductivity of oxide films covering austenite and ferrite surface on the formation temperature is attributed to the film thickness and semiconducting structures, which is intrinsically related to thermodynamics and kinetics process of film grown at different temperature. This is well elucidated by corresponding semiconductor band structures of oxide films formed on austenite and ferrite phases at different temperature.

  1. Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladashvili, N.V.; Tkeshelashvili, M.Ya.; Berikashvili, V.Sh.; Babayan, T.L.; Latov, V.K.; Belikov, V.M.; Kvesitadze, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

  2. Estimation of metal uptake in plant parts of roadside grown maize at selected growth stages

    OpenAIRE

    Anongo, M'ember C.; Uyovbisere, Edward O.; Ekong, Nsima J.

    2015-01-01

    Health risk assessment of heavy metals in roadside grown foodcrops consumed by humans is a very good technique because such assessment would provide information about any threat regarding heavy metal contamination. Plant and corresponding soil samples were collected for trace metal analysis to ascertain potential health risks. The non-significant differences of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels among the selected growth stages shows that the levels of Pb and Cd in the foodcrops were not influ...

  3. Overcoming doping limits in MOVPE grown n-doped InP for plasmonic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Xiao, Sanshui; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Effect of the growth parameters on carrier concentration in MOVPE grown silicon-doped InP is studied. The dopant flow, V/III ratio and substrate temperature are optimized by considering the origin of the doping limits. In addition, two different group V precursors, namely PH3 and TBP, are compare......×1019cm-3 is achieved. Optical properties of the samples are investigated by Fourier transform infrared reflection (FTIR) spectroscopy and are fitted by a Drude-Lorentz function....

  4. Electronic and Mechanical Properties of GrapheneGermanium Interfaces Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-27

    that graphene acts as a diffusion barrier to ambient contaminants, as similarly prepared bare Ge exposed to ambient conditions possesses a much...in-plane order underneath the graphene (Figure 1b,f). The stabilization of Ge terraces with half-step heights indicates that the graphene modifies the...Electronic and Mechanical Properties of Graphene −Germanium Interfaces Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition Brian Kiraly,†,‡ Robert M. Jacobberger

  5. Yield and Quality of Lettuce and Rocket Grown in Floating Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridon Alexandros PETROPOULOS; Eleni CHATZIEUSTRATIOU; Eleni CONSTANTOPOULOU; Georgios KAPOTIS

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing trend towards cultivating leafy vegetables in hydroponic systems. Floating system is an alternative hydroponic system suitable for the production of baby vegetable products, ready-to eat salads and minimally processed leafy vegetables. However, the implementation of this system for the production of fully grown leafy vegetables is not sufficiently studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential of floating system as an alternative g...

  6. CNTs grown on nanoporous carbon from zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghun; Young, Christine; Lee, Jaewoo; Park, Min-Sik; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-10-27

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) grown on nanoporous carbon (NPC), which yields coexisting amorphous and graphitic nanoarchitectures, have been prepared on a large scale from zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) by introducing bimetallic ions (Co 2+ and Zn 2+ ). Interestingly, the hybrid Co/Zn-ZIF-derived NPC showed rich graphitic CNTs on the surface. This NPC was utilized for a coin-type supercapacitor cell with an aqueous electrolyte, which showed enhanced retention at high current density and good stability over 10 000 cycles.

  7. Control of chemical bonding of the ZnO surface grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, K.; Komuro, T.; Hama, K.; Koike, K.; Sasa, S.; Inoue, M.; Yano, M.

    2004-01-01

    Toward the fabrication of enzyme modified field effect transistors (EnFETs) as one of organic/inorganic hybridized structures, surface bonding of the ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy was controlled by ex situ treatments. Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement revealed that O-H bonds exist at the surface of ZnO. It was found that the number of O-H bond could be changed with reversibility using plasma and thermal treatments

  8. Microtexture of the thermally grown alumina in commercial thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadge, M. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Zhao, X. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Xiao, P. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Ping.Xiao@manchester.ac.uk

    2006-02-15

    otextures of the thermally grown {alpha}-alumina (TGO) in isothermally treated and thermal cycled electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings (EB-PVD-TBC) and isothermally treated air plasma sprayed (APS-TBC) specimens were studied by high resolution electron back-scattered diffraction. The TGO in EB-PVD specimens exhibited a basal microtexture. The TGO in APS specimens, however, did not show any significant microtexture development.

  9. Characterization for rbs of layers de grown cdznse for chemical deposition (cbd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrero, E.; Larramendi, E.; Calzadilla, O.

    1999-01-01

    Depth and composition of CdZnSe thin films grown by Chemical Bath Deposition were characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Depth and the relative cuantitity of Se, both decrease when annealed in air. The films have a non-stoichiometric Cd:Zn:Se composition constant from the substrate to the surface , with vacancies of Se. After annealing all the films come up to a similar composition: Cd( Zn 0.2 )Se

  10. Biomass distribution efficiency of rose cv. Charlotte grown in soil and substrates at second production peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Y González G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing plants in substrates is an alternative for the production of roses under unfavorable soil conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the biomass distribution efficiency of rose cv. Charlotte grown in soil and substrates under greenhouse conditions until second production peak. In this trial, soil and substrates with 100% burned rice husk (100BR H; 65% burned rice husk: 35% coconut fiber (65BR H; 35% burned rice husk: 65% coconut fiber (35BR H; and 100% coconut fiber (100CF were used. The experimental design consisted of a randomized complete block design with three repetitions. Destructive sampling was carried out using whole plants and flowering stems at previously determined bud stages. Leaf area and dry matter in organs were measured and growth rate and physiological indexes were calculated. The assessed variables were fitted to logistic and exponential models. The plants grown in substrates with BR H (burned rice husk showed similar values regarding dry matter and fresh weight accumulation in organs. Plants in the soil treatment were the last ones to reach the different development stages of the flowering buds, while those that were grown in 100CF were the first ones. The treatments 35BR H and 100CF showed less growth of flowering stems, which was expressed in terms of relative dry matter increase per day. The plants grown in soil showed more dry matter in leaves and stems but less in flower buds. The 65BR H treatment showed some of the highest dry matter accumulations in leaves, stems and flower buds and also showed the highest leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio, and specific leaf area values

  11. Dynamical x-ray diffraction studies of interfacial strain in superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.M.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hamm, R.A.; Panish, M.B.; Ritter, D.; Mancrander, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on dynamical X-ray diffraction studies that have been carried out for lattice-matched InGaAs/InP superlattices grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. The (400) X-ray satellite pattern, which is predominantly affected by the strain modulation, was analyzed. The strain and thickness of the actual layers including the presence of strained interfacial regions were determined

  12. Strain and Structure Heterogeneity in MoS2 Atomic Layers Grown by Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    cture heterogeneity in MoS2 atomiclayers grown by chemical vapour deposition 6. AUTHORS Zheng Liu, Matin Amani, Sina Najmaei, Quan Xu, Xiaolong Zou...deposition Zheng Liu1•2•3·*, Matin Amani4·*, Sina Najmaei5·*, Quan Xu6•7, Xiaolong Zou5, Wu Zhou8, Ting Yu9, Caiyu Qiu9, A Glen Birdwell4, Frank J. Crowne4

  13. Cell wall degrading enzymes in Trichoderma asperellum grown on wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    . asperellum was grown on wheat bran, the greatest range of enzymes activity was detected and a total of 175 glycoside hydrolases from 48 glycoside hydrolase families were identified in the transcriptome. The glycoside hydrolases were identified on a functional level using the bioinformatical tool Peptide...... the theory that the glycoside hydrolases have evolved from a common ancestor, followed by a specialization in which saprotrophic fungi such as T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum lost a significant number of genes including several glycoside hydrolases....

  14. The characteristics of carbon nanotubes grown at low temperature for electronic device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Seob [Department of Photoelectronics Information, Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin [School of Information and Communications Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440–746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong, E-mail: jaehyeong@skku.edu [School of Information and Communications Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440–746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    For the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in flexible electronic devices, the CNTs were grown on Corning 1737 glass substrate by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method. To deposit the catalyst layer, TiN buffer layer of 200 nm thickness and Ni catalyst layer of 60 nm were first deposited on the glass by r.f. magnetron sputtering method. The CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} gases are used as the synthesis gas of CNTs and the working pressure was about 2.13 kPa, and the substrate bias was about − 200 V. The growth time was from 2 min to 5 min and the microwave power was about 800 W. The substrate temperature as the main parameter was changed from 400 °C to 550 °C. The structural properties of CNTs synthesized with the substrate temperature were investigated using Raman, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy methods. The surface and electrical properties of CNTs grown by MPECVD method were studied by scanning probe microscopy and four-point probe methods. We obtained the multi-walled CNTs (MW-CNTs). Multi-walled CNTs were vertically grown on Ni/TiN/glass substrates below 500 °C without any glass deformations. As the substrate temperature was increased, the crystallinity of CNTs was improved. Ni catalyst was found at the tip of CNT by the TEM observation and the grown CNTs were found to have a multi-walled with bamboo like structure. - Highlights: • Synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Effects of substrate temperature on carbon nanotubes properties. • Improvement of the crystallinity with increasing substrate temperature. • Reduction of sheet resistance with increasing substrate temperature.

  15. Real structure of LaGaO3 monocrystals grown by Czochralski method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.N.; Morozova, O.Yu.; Ponomarev, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    A complex X-ray diffraction study of lanthanum (ortho)gallate crystal structure and structural defects in LaGaO 3 crystals grown by the Czochralski method is carried out. Coordinates of atoms in LaGaO 3 unit cell are determined. X-Ray topographic studies of oriented LaGaO 3 sublayers for high-tc superconductor film growth are optimized. The substructure of monocrystals is studied

  16. Seed origin and size of ponderosa pine planting stock grown at several California nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank J. Baron; Gilbert H. Schubert

    1963-01-01

    Ponderosa pine planting stock (1-0 and 2-0) grown from five different seed collection zones in the California pine region differed noticeably in size. On the west side of the Sierra Nevada, seeds from zones above 4,000 feet yielded smaller seedlings than those from lower zones, but larger seedlings than those from east-side sources. Average dimensions (seedling weight...

  17. Translocation of aluminum to grain crops grown in different agricultural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Kazi, T.G.; Kolachi, N.F.; Afridi, H.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mobility and transport of Aluminum (AI) by shoot and grain crops (wheat and maize) grown on two different agricultural soil irrigated with water have high (lake water) and low levels (canal water) of AI. The total and bio available fractions (deionized water, 0.11 M CH/sub 3/COOH, 0.05 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDT A) and 0.1 M HCl extractable) of Al in both understudied agricultural soils and correlate with respective total Al in the edible parts (grains) and non edible parts (Shoots) of wheat and maize. The All content in lake and canal water samples was found in the range of 750 - 1340 and 90 - 50 micro g/L respectively. The total and extractable Al in both agricultural soil samples, edible and non edible parts of wheat and maize were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion in microwave oven. The edible and non edible part of both crops absorbed significantly high levels of Al grown on agricultural soil irrigated with lake water (SILW) as compared to those grown on soil irrigated with can water (SICW) had low level of A] (p< O.OI). The transfer factor of Al from soils to edible and non edible parts of wheat and maize were also evaluated. It was observed that the bioaccumulation of Al was found to be high in non edible parts of both crops grown in SILW. This study highlights the increased danger of growing food crops in the agricultural land continuously irrigated by A] contaminated lake water. (author)

  18. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  19. contents of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) type grown in Konya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, several physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of one earliest (May 19) sweet cherry type grown in Konya region were determined. The results in terms of chemical properties were total soluble solids, 18.33 mg/100 g; pH, 3.86; color, S41P50E41; texture, 0.25 kg/cm2; and juice yield, 66.28%.

  20. Physicochemical composition and antioxidant activity of several pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luana; Pereira, J.A.; Lopéz-Cortés, Isabel; Salazar, Domingo M.; González-Álvarez, Julia; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Nine pomegranate cultivars grown in Spain were selected, and their physicochemical (total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, maturity index, monomeric anthocyanin pigment, flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins, and vitamin C) and antioxidant properties and polyphenolic composition of the juices were compared. A total of 53 polyphenols were identified, showing cultivars different profiles. Of all nine cultivars, Katirbasi had the highest contents of flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins and vitamin...

  1. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was measured by ...

  2. Post-annealing effects on pulsed laser deposition-grown GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yu-Wen; Wu, Hao-Yu; Lin, Yu-Zhong; Lee, Cheng-Che; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the post-annealing effects on gallium nitride (GaN) thin films grown from pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are investigated. The as-deposited GaN thin films grown from PLD are annealed at different temperatures in nitrogen ambient. Significant changes of the GaN crystal properties are observed. Raman spectroscopy is used to observe the crystallinity, the change of residual stress, and the thermal decomposition of the annealed GaN thin films. X-ray diffraction is also applied to identify the crystal phase of GaN thin films, and the surface morphology of GaN thin films annealed at different temperatures is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Through the above analyses, the GaN thin films grown by PLD undergo three stages: phase transition, stress alteration, and thermal decomposition. At a low annealing temperature, the rock salt GaN in GaN films is transformed into wurtzite. The rock salt GaN diminishes with increasing annealing temperature. At a medium annealing temperature, the residual stress of the film changes significantly from compressive strain to tensile strain. As the annealing temperature further increases, the GaN undergoes thermal decomposition and the surface becomes granular. By investigating the annealing temperature effects and controlling the optimized annealing temperature of the GaN thin films, we are able to obtain highly crystalline and strain-free GaN thin films by PLD. - Highlights: • The GaN thin film is grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition. • The GaN film undergoes three stages with increasing annealing temperature. • In the first stage, the film transfers from rock salt to wurtzite phase. • In the second stage, the stress in film changes from compressive to tensile. • In the final stage, the film thermally decomposes and becomes granular

  3. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suporn Charumanee; Songwut Yotsawimonwat; Panee Sirisa-ard; Kiatisak Pholsongkram

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examin...

  4. Effect of the soil type on the microbiome in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiter, Susanne; Ding, Guo-Chun; Heuer, Holger; Neumann, Günter; Sandmann, Martin; Grosch, Rita; Kropf, Siegfried; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The complex and enormous diversity of microorganisms associated with plant roots is important for plant health and growth and is shaped by numerous factors. This study aimed to unravel the effects of the soil type on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce. We used an experimental plot system with three different soil types that were stored at the same site for 10 years under the same agricultural management to reveal differences directly linked to the soil type and no...

  5. Effect of the soil type on the microbiome in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne eSchreiter; Susanne eSchreiter; Guo-chun eDing; Guo-chun eDing; Holger eHeuer; Günter eNeumann; Martin eSandmann; Rita eGrosch; Siegfried eKropf; Kornelia eSmalla

    2014-01-01

    The complex and enormous diversity of microorganisms associated with plant roots is important for plant health and growth and is shaped by numerous factors. This study aimed to unravel the effects of the soil type on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce. We used an experimental plot system with three different soil types that were stored at the same site for ten years under the same agricultural management to reveal differences directly linked to the soil type and n...

  6. Epitaxially Grown Ultra-Flat Self-Assembling Monolayers with Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takane Imaoka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mono-molecular films formed by physical adsorption and dendrimer self-assembly were prepared on various substrate surfaces. It was demonstrated that a uniform dendrimer-based monolayer on the subnanometer scale can be easily constructed via simple dip coating. Furthermore, it was shown that an epitaxially grown monolayer film reflecting the crystal structure of the substrate (highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG can also be formed by aligning specific conditions.

  7. Thermal efficiency and particulate pollution estimation of four biomass fuels grown on wasteland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandpal, J.B.; Madan, M. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Rural Development and Technology

    1996-10-01

    The thermal performance and concentration of suspended particulate matter were studied for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels, namely Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocepholea, Jatropha curcus, and Morus alba grown in wasteland. Among the four biomass fuels, the highest thermal efficiency was achieved with Acacia nilotica. The suspended particulate matter concentration for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels ranged between 850 and 2,360 {micro}g/m{sup 3}.

  8. A Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopy Investigation of Fungal Hyphae Grown under Optimal and Stressed Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeghalmi, A.; Kaminskyj, S.; Gough, K.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron FTIR can provide high spatial resolution ( o C but have growth defects at 42 o C. We have also investigated Neurospora and Rhizopus cultures grown in media with optimal or elevated pH. Significant differences between the spectra of the three fungi are likely related to differences in composition and structure. In addition, high spatial resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy provides an outstanding method for monitoring subtle subcellular changes that accompany environmental stress

  9. Effect of the niobium additions in the passive films potentiostatically grown in a sulphate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuri, S.E.; Martins, M.; D'Alkaine, C.V.

    1984-01-01

    The stability of passive films potentiostatically grown on stainless steel electrodes was studied in a 2 N sulfuric acid. The effect of Niobium contents in the base metal was considered. The reactivation time was measured using the method of Potential Decay Measurements under Open-Circuit Conditions after electrochemical aging in the passivity region, and its influence on the surface oxidation states, was discussed. (Author) [pt

  10. Trace element toxicity in VA mycorrhizal cucumber grown on weathered coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosskey, M.G.; Adriano, D.C. (University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Mycorrhizal colonization is widely recognized as enhancing plant growth on severely disturbed sites. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to determine if inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi will enhance vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basinss, Spores of Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) and Glomus etunicatum (Becker and Gerdemann) were added to weathered precipitator ash (EC-0.91 dSm[sup -1], pH 5.0) and to a pasteurized soils of the same pH (Grossarenic Paleudult, 92% sand, 1% organic matter). Some soil and ash were left unamended as non-mycorrhizal controls. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsette 76) seeds were sown, watered regularly, and fertilized periodically with macronutrient solution. By 8 weeks all ash-grown plants exhibited smaller leaves with leaf margin curl and necrosis, and plant biomass was significantly less (0.75x) than soil-grown plants. Based on analysis of 18 elements in plant tissues, toxicity to B, Mn, or Zn could have caused growth suppression, confirming trace element problems for plant growth on fly ash. For plants grown on fly ash, G. etunicatum was the only fungus that colonized roots (20% of root length reduced from 67% on soil) and it suppressed plant growth to 0.80 x that of uninoculated ash-grown plants. Correspondingly, shoot Zn concentration in G. etunicatum-inoculated plants was 3.5 x higher than in uninoculated plants and at generally toxic levels (273 mg kg[sup -1]). Glomus etunicatum had no other significant effects on elemental concentrations. These results indicate that VAM colonization in acid, weathered fly ash suppressed plant growth by facilitating uptake of Zn to toxic levels, and implies a limitation to successful use of VAM for vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basins.

  11. Influence of Maize Rotations on the Yield of Soybean Grown in Meloidogyne incognita Infested Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kinloch, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A replicated field study was conducted from 1972 to 1980 involving soybeans grown in 2-, 3-, and 4-year rotations with maize in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Monocultured soybeans were maintained as controls. Cropping regimes involved root-knot nematode susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars and soybeans treated and not treated with nematicides. Yields of susceptible cultivars declined with reduced length of rotation. Nematicide treatment significantly increased yields of sus...

  12. Evolution of nitrate level in green lettuce conventional grown under natural conditions and aquaponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Flavius Blidariu; Drasovean Alexandru; Grozea Adrian; Radulov Isidora; Lalescu Dacian

    2013-01-01

    Aquaponics integrates growing plants without soil technology with aquaculture, having an important role in recovery of nutrients from effluents. The research aimed to evaluate nitrates level in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) conventional grown under natural conditions and in integrated aquaponic system with a recirculated aquaculture system designed for pikeperch growth (Sander lucioperca). Conventional production (54 plants) has been obtained in the field without fertilizer or pesticide management...

  13. Biochemical and biological responses in V79 cells grown in different background radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amicarelli, F.; Colafarina, S.; Ara, C.; Antonelli, F.; Balata, M.; Belli, M.; Simone, G.; Satta, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In order to investigate the influence of a low background radiation environment on the biochemical and biological responses of mammalian cells cultured in vitro, a cell culture laboratory has been set up at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), located under the Gran Sasso d'Italia mountain, where cosmic rays are reduced by a factor of 10 6 and neutrons by a factor of 10 3 respect to the outside environment. Chinese hamster V79 cells were grown in parallel for up to nine months at LNGS and at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS). At the LNGS the exposure due to radon was reduced by a factor of about 25 with respect to the ISS. The biological end points addressed concerned cells proliferation, the expression of enzymes specific for the reduction of superoxydes, mutation induction by gamma-rays at the hprt locus and apoptotic sensitivity. After 9 months of culture, the cells grown at the LNGS, compared to the cells grown at the ISS, exhibit: i) a significant increase of the cell density at confluence; ii) a significantly higher capacity to scavenge organic and inorganic hydroperoxydes but a reduced scavenging capacity towards superoxide anions; iii) an increase in both the basal hprt mutation frequency and the sensitivity to the mutagenic effect of gamma-rays. The cells grown at the LNGS also show greater apoptotic sensitivity at the third month of culture that is no longer detected after nine months. Overall, these data suggest that cell response to ionizing radiation may be more complex than that predicted by a linear relationship with the dose and are consistent with the occurrence of an adaptive response related to the background radiation. However, other possibilities cannot be excluded such as the selection, in the two cultures, of clones having different characteristics, independently of the different radiation background. Work is in progress to better elucidate this point

  14. Characterization of Species of Cladobotryum which Cause Cobweb Disease in Edible Mushrooms Grown in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Back, Chang-Gi; Lee, Chang-Yun; Seo, Geon-Sik; Jung, Hee-Young

    2012-01-01

    Four Cladobotryum isolates were collected from four different commercially grown mushroom types infected with cobweb disease in Cheongdo-gun and Chilgok-gun of Gyeongbuk Province, Korea in 2010. The isolates were identified as C. mycophilum from Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii, C. varium from Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus marmoreus. The cultural characteristics of the four isolates were investigated using potato dextrose agar (PDA) media under nine different temperatures ranging...

  15. Dramatic improvement of crystal quality for low-­temperature-grown rabbit muscle aldolase

    OpenAIRE

    Park, HaJeung; Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Sygusch, Jurgen; Izard, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Rabbit muscle aldolase (RMA) was crystallized in complex with the low-complexity domain (LC4) of sorting nexin 9. Monoclinic crystals were obtained at room temperature that displayed large mosaicity and poor X-ray diffraction. However, orthorhombic RMA–LC4 crystals grown at 277 K under similar conditions exhibited low mosaicity, allowing data collection to 2.2 Å Bragg spacing and structure determination.

  16. Radiation after-effects in daughter generations of barley grown under conditions of enhanced radioactive background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, O.N.; Shershunova, V.I.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Stimulation of growth and development was observed in the first daughter generation of barley plants grown under conditions simulating an enhanced radioactive background. The stimulatory effect was partially reproduced in the second generation, and signs of depression of initial growth of plants were found in the third generation. A great number of alterations and their regular occurrence allow to refer them to lingering modifications originating under the effect of a radiation factor on vegetating plants

  17. Positron mobility in thermally grown SiO2 measured by Doppler broadening technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Y.; Leung, T.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    The positron mobility in thermally grown SiO 2 is deduced from Doppler broadening lineshape data on a metal-oxide-semiconductor sample for positrons implanted into the oxide layer. The fitted mobility is ∼13(10)x10 -3 cm 2 /s V. This value is between that of the electron and hole mobilities in the same system and is two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous estimate from positron measurements

  18. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    İbrahim Demir

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was.

  19. Influence of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown in Elevated CO2 on Apatite Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. A.; Morra, B.

    2016-12-01

    We ran a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that release of plant nutrients contained in apatite will be accelerated by the growth of Langstrath Stringless green bean in the presence of atmospheric CO2 meant to simulate possible future atmospheric conditions due a higher demand of nutrients and growth rate caused by elevated CO2. We hypothesize that elevated atmospheric CO2 will lead to both increased root growth and organic acid exudation. These two traits will lead to improved acquisition of P derived from apatite. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Plants were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Mini-greenhouses were utilized to control CO2 levels. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution lacking in Ca and P. Calcium and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served as a proxy for apatite dissolution. Plants were harvested biweekly during the eight-week experiment and analyzed for Ca and P to calculate apatite dissolution kinetics. Preliminary results suggest that approximately four times more P and Ca are present in the leachate from experiments containing plants under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels than in abiotic experiments; however, the amounts of both P and Ca released in experiments conducted under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels are similar. Additionally, the amount of P in plant tissue grown under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions is similar. Plants grown in elevated CO2 had a greater root to shoot ratio. The planted microcosms were found to have a lower pH than abiotic controls most likely due to root respiration and exudation of organic acids.

  20. Polarization dependent femtosecond laser modification of MBE-grown III-V nanostructures on silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbergen, Sander R.; Gibson, Ricky; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Mehravar, Soroush; Keiffer, Patrick; Azarm, Ali; Kieu, Khanh

    2017-01-01

    We report a novel, polarization dependent, femtosecond laser-induced modification of surface nanostructures of indium, gallium, and arsenic grown on silicon via molecular beam epitaxy, yielding shape control from linear and circular polarization of laser excitation. Linear polarization causes an elongation effect, beyond the dimensions of the unexposed nanostructures, ranging from 88 nm to over 1 um, and circular polarization causes the nanostructures to flatten out or form loops of material,...

  1. Physiology of solvent tolerance in Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isken, S.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic solvents, like toluene, are toxic for living organisms. This toxicity is an important drawback in the environmental biotechnology as well as in the application of solvents in the production of fine chemicals by whole-cell biotransformations. The effects of organic

  2. Reasons for Vaping Among U.S. 12th Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Polce, Rebecca J; Patrick, Megan E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Miech, Richard A; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2018-04-01

    Vaping has recently increased in popularity among adolescents. Little is known about heterogeneity of vapers, particularly in terms of why they vape. Identifying major subgroups of adolescent vapers by reasons for vaping is important to understand adolescent vaping behavior and to identify those most at risk for other substance use. Monitoring Future data from 2015 and 2016 were used in a latent class analysis to identify subgroups of 12th graders based on their endorsement of 10 potential reasons for vaping. Multinomial regression with a latent class outcome was used to predict class membership. Three distinct classes of vapers were identified: adolescents who were (1) Vaping to Experiment (29.4%), (2) Vaping to Replace Cigarettes (7.3%), and (3) Vaping for Taste + Entertainment (63.4%). Vaping only flavors was associated with lower odds of membership and cigarette use was associated with higher odds of membership in the Vaping to Replace Cigarettes subgroup, and marijuana was associated with lower odds of membership in the Vaping to Experiment subgroup, compared with the Vaping for Taste + Entertainment subgroup. This study identified multiple subgroups of vapers based on reasons for vaping. Whereas a small subgroup vaped for reasons related to cigarette use, most adolescent vapers reported vaping for reasons unrelated to cigarette use. There were considerable differences in primary reasons for vaping and risk for traditional cigarette and other substance use, suggesting different intervention strategies may be needed for different subgroups of vapers. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of Vitamin C, b-carotene and Riboflavin Contents in Five Green Vegetables Organically and Conventionally Grown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amin; Cheah, Sook Fun

    2003-03-01

    As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse β-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kai-lan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research.

  4. Acceptor Type Vacancy Complexes In As-Grown ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuniga-Perez, J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the many technological areas that ZnO is interesting for is the construction of opto-electronic devices working in the blue-UV range as its large band gap (∼3.4 eV at 10 K) makes them suitable for that purpose. As-grown ZnO shows generally n-type conductivity partially due to the large concentration of unintentional shallow donors, like H, but impurities can also form complexes with acceptor type defects (Zn vacancy) leading to the creation of compensating defects. Recently, Li Zn and Na Zn acceptors have been measured and H could form similar type of defects. Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation spectroscopy experimental results on the observation of Zn related vacancy complexes in ZnO thin films, as-grown, O implanted and Al doped will be presented. Results show that as-grown ZnO film show small Zn vacancy related complexed that could be related to presence of H as a unintentional doping element.

  5. Electrical and structural characterization of as-grown and annealed hydrothermal bulk ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassier, G. H.; Hayes, M.; Auret, F. D.; Mamor, M.; Bouziane, K.

    2007-01-01

    Hall effect measurements in the range 20-370 K on as-grown and annealed hydrothermal bulk ZnO have been performed. The bulk conductivity in the highly resistive as-grown sample was found to decrease and then increase after annealing at 550 deg. C and 930 deg. C, respectively. The conduction in the as-grown material is attributed to a deep donor which is replaced by a much shallower donor after annealing at 930 deg. C. Annealing at both temperatures also produced strong surface conduction effects. Nondegenerate low-mobility surface conduction dominated the electrical properties of the sample annealed at 550 deg. C, while a degenerate surface channel was formed after annealing at 930 deg. C. In addition, Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS/C) was used to assess the effect of annealing on the crystalline quality of the samples. RBS/C measurements reveal that annealing at 930 deg. C leads to significant improvement of the crystalline quality of the material, while annealing at 550 deg. C results in the segregation of a nonchanneling impurity at the surface

  6. Susceptibility of chemostat-grown Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae to chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, M S; Berg, J D; Hoff, J C; Matin, A

    1985-01-01

    The resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents could be influenced by growth environment. The susceptibility of two enteric bacteria, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae, to chlorine dioxide was investigated. These organisms were grown in a defined medium in a chemostat and the influence of growth rate, temperature, and cell density on the susceptibility was studied. All inactivation experiments were conducted with a dose of 0.25 mg of chlorine dioxide per liter in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.0 and 23 degrees C. The results indicated that populations grown under conditions that more closely approximate natural aquatic environments, e.g., low temperatures and growth at submaximal rates caused by nutrient limitation, were most resistant. The conclusion from this study is that antecedent growth conditions have a profound effect on the susceptibility of bacteria to disinfectants, and it is more appropriate to use the chemostat-grown bacteria as test organisms to evaluate the efficacy of a certain disinfectant.

  7. Characterization of carbon nanotubes grown on Fe70Pd30 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zishan H.; Islam, S.S.; Kung, S.C.; Perng, T.P.; Khan, Samina; Tripathi, K.N.; Agarwal, Monika; Zulfequar, M.; Husain, M.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by a LPCVD on nanocrystalline Fe-Pd film. CNTs are grown for 30min and 1h respectively. From the SEM images, the diameter of these nanotubes varies from 40-80nm and the length is several micro-meter approximately. TEM observations suggest that the CNTs are multi-walled and the structure changes from ordinary geometry of CNTs to bamboo shaped. We have observed sharp G and D bands in the Raman spectra of these carbon nanotubes. Higher D-band is observed for the carbon nanotubes grown for longer time (1h), showing that these nanotubes contain more amorphous carbon. The field emission measurements for these CNTs are also performed. For CNTs grown for longer time (1h), a superior turn-on field of 4.88V/μm (when the current density achieves 10μA/cm 2 ) is obtained and a current density of 29.36mA/cm 2 can be generated at 9.59V/μm

  8. Topographic and spectroscopic characterization of electronic edge states in CVD grown graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Minghu; Girão, E Costa; Jia, Xiaoting; Bhaviripudi, Sreekar; Li, Qing; Kong, Jing; Meunier, V; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    We used scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) techniques to analyze the relationships between the edge shapes and the electronic structures in as-grown chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). A rich variety of single-layered graphene nanoribbons exhibiting a width of several to 100 nm and up to 1 μm long were studied. High-resolution STM images highlight highly crystalline nanoribbon structures with well-defined and clean edges. Theoretical calculations indicate clear spin-split edge states induced by electron-electron Coulomb repulsion. The edge defects can significantly modify these edge states, and different edge structures for both sides of a single ribbon produce asymmetric electronic edge states, which reflect the more realistic features of CVD grown GNRs. Three structural models are proposed and analyzed to explain the observations. By comparing the models with an atomic resolution image at the edge, a pristine (2,1) structure was ruled out in favor of a reconstructed edge structure composed of 5-7 member rings, showing a better match with experimental results, and thereby suggesting the possibility of a defective morphology at the edge of CVD grown nanoribbons. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  9. Survival of Potentially Pathogenic Human-Associated Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Anabelle; Garland, Jay L.; Lim, Daniel V.

    1996-01-01

    Plants may serve as reservoirs for human-associated bacteria (H-AB) in long-term space missions containing bioregenerative life support systems. The current study examined the abilities of five human-associated potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli, to colonize and grow in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat, a candidate crop for life support. All of these bacteria have been recovered from past NASA missions and present potential problems for future missions. The abilities of these organisms to adhere to the roots of axenic five-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) were evaluated by enumeration of the attached organisms after a one hour incubation of roots in a suspension (approximately 10(exp 8 cu/ml)) of the H-AB. Results showed that a greater percentage of P. aeruginosa cells adhered to the wheat roots than the other four H-AB. Similarly incubated seedlings were also grown under attempted axenic conditions for seven days to examine the potential of each organism to proliferate in the rhizosphere (root colonization capacity). P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa showed considerable growth. E. coli and S. aureus showed no significant growth, and S. pyogenes died off in the wheat rhizosphere. Studies examining the effects of competition on the survival of these microorganisms indicated that P. aeruginosa was the only organism that survived in the rhizosphere of hydroponically grown wheat in the presence of different levels of microbial competition.

  10. Extended defects in MBE-grown CdTe-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichrowska, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Kret, Slawomir; Chusnutdinow, Sergij; Karczewski, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Rawski, Michal [Analytical Laboratory, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Yastrubchak, Oksana [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Extended defects in the p -ZnTe/n -CdTe heterojunctions grown by the molecular-beam epitaxy technique on two different substrates, GaAs and CdTe, have been investigated by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Four hole traps, called H1 to H4, and one electron trap, called E3, have been revealed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunctions grown on the GaAs substrates. The H1, H3, H4 and E3 traps have been attributed to the electronic states of dislocations on the ground of their logarithmic capture kinetics. The DLTS peaks associated with the H1 and E3 traps were not observed in the DLTS spectra measured for the heterojunction grown on the CdTe substrate. They are most likely associated with threading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the GaAs substrate. Cross-sectional TEM images point out that they are dislocations of the 60 -type. In both the types of heterojunctions the H4 trap was observed only under forward-bias filling pulse, suggesting that this trap is associated with the CdTe/ZnTe interface. In addition, TEM images revealed also the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults in the CdTe layers, which may considerably affect their electronic properties. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Electrical properties of as-grown and proton-irradiated high purity silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Jerzy, E-mail: krupka@imio.pw.edu.pl [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Karcz, Waldemar [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kamiński, Paweł [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 13, 301-919 Warsaw (Poland); Jensen, Leif [Topsil Semiconductor Materials A/S, Siliciumvej 1, DK-3600 Frederikssund (Denmark)

    2016-08-01

    The complex permittivity of as-grown and proton-irradiated samples of high purity silicon obtained by the floating zone method was measured as a function of temperature at a few frequencies in microwave spectrum by employing the quasi TE{sub 011} and whispering gallery modes excited in the samples under test. The resistivity of the samples was determined from the measured imaginary part of the permittivity. The resistivity was additionally measured at RF frequencies employing capacitive spectroscopy as well as in a standard direct current experiment. The sample of as-grown material had the resistivity of ∼85 kΩ cm at room temperature. The sample irradiated with 23-MeV protons had the resistivity of ∼500 kΩ cm at 295 K and its behavior was typical of the intrinsic material at room and at elevated temperatures. For the irradiated sample, the extrinsic conductivity region is missing and at temperatures below 250 K hopping conductivity occurs. Thermal cycle hysteresis of the resistivity for the sample of as-grown material is observed. After heating and subsequent cooling of the sample, its resistivity decreases and then slowly (∼50 h) returns to the initial value.

  12. Morphology and photoresponse of crystalline antimony film grown on mica by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafa Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimony is a promising material for the fabrication of photodetectors. This study deals with the growth of a photosensitive thin film by the physical vapor deposition (PVD of antimony onto mica surface in a furnace tube. The geometry of the grown structures was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and elemental diffraction analysis. XRD peaks of the antimony film grown on mica mostly matched with JCPDF Card. The formation of rhombohedral crystal structures in the film was further confirmed by SEM micrographs and chemical composition analysis. The Hall measurements revealed good electrical conductivity of the film with bulk carrier concentration of the order of 1022 Ω·cm-3 and mobility of 9.034 cm2/Vs. The grown film was successfully tested for radiation detection. The photoresponse of the film was evaluated using its current-voltage characteristics. These investigations revealed that the photosensitivity of the antimony film was 20 times higher than that of crystalline germanium.

  13. Microarray Data Analysis of Space Grown Arabidopsis Leaves for Genes Important in Vascular Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzeal, A. J.; Wyatt, S. E.; Parsons-Wingerter, P.

    2016-01-01

    Venation patterning in leaves is a major determinant of photosynthesis efficiency because of its dependency on vascular transport of photoassimilates, water, and minerals. Arabidopsis thaliana grown in microgravity show delayed growth and leaf maturation. Gene expression data from the roots, hypocotyl, and leaves of A. thaliana grown during spaceflight vs. ground control analyzed by Affymetrix microarray are available through NASAs GeneLab (GLDS-7). We analyzed the data for differential expression of genes in leaves resulting from the effects of spaceflight on vascular patterning. Two genes were found by preliminary analysis to be upregulated during spaceflight that may be related to vascular formation. The genes are responsible for coding an ARGOS like protein (potentially affecting cell elongation in the leaves), and an F-boxkelch-repeat protein (possibly contributing to protoxylem specification). Further analysis that will focus on raw data quality assessment and a moderated t-test may further confirm upregulation of the two genes and/or identify other gene candidates. Plants defective in these genes will then be assessed for phenotype by the mapping and quantification of leaf vascular patterning by NASAs VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) software to model specific vascular differences of plants grown in spaceflight.

  14. Hydroxyapatite growth on multiwall carbon nanotubes grown on titanium fibers from a titanium sheet

    KAUST Repository

    Chetibi, Loubna

    2013-09-27

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was grown on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) deposited on TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) that were hydrothermally grown on Ti metal sheets. The HA was electrochemically grown on the MWCNTs/TiO2 porous layer. It was found that the HA grows on the MWCNTs/TiO2 NFs in the form of dense coating with nanorice grain-shaped. The incorporation of MWCNTs between HA and TiO2 NFs has led to higher adhesion strength as measured by micro-scratching test indicating the benefit of MWCNTs on the improving the bonding strength of HA layer. The obtained coatings exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid. It is expected that this simple route for preparing the new HA/MWCNTs/TiO2/Ti-layered structure might be used not only in the biomedical field, but also in catalysis and biological sensing among others. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  15. Complex impedance spectroscopy of alkali impurities in as-grown, irradiated and annealed quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devautour-Vinot, S.; Cambon, O.; Prud'homme, N.; Giuntini, J. C.; Boy, J.-J.; Cibiel, G.

    2007-01-01

    This work compares the dielectric relaxation properties of different crystalline quartz materials, according to their source (natural or synthetics). It is shown that these relaxation properties are due to a hopping process of alkaline (Li + , Na + , and K + ) impurities located near [Al-O 4 ] 5- tetrahedra. A detailed analysis, in terms of the distribution function of the dielectric loss peak, allowed us to perfectly distinguish the different types of as-grown quartz. We show that (i) the natural quartz has less stable M + charge carriers than the synthetic materials and that (ii) the homogeneity of the M + trapping sites, created by the [Al-O 4 ] 5- tetrahedra, strongly depends on the crystal growth conditions. These features were then studied using quartz samples with different treatment conditions: as-grown, irradiated, or annealed at high temperature. We propose that the irradiation greatly facilitates the M + relaxation, by creating additional low energy M + hosting sites, whose number depends on the source of the quartz crystals. We also show that for 100 krad irradiation, the saturation state of the defects is already reached for all the materials under consideration. Finally, we propose that the irradiation followed by annealing at 450 deg. C improves the M + stability and homogeneity in quartz materials, compared with the as-grown materials, this trend being much more relevant for the natural than for the synthetic quartz

  16. Direct transfer of multilayer graphene grown on a rough metal surface using PDMS adhesion engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Lee, Youngbok; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Ahn, Chi Won; Lee, Wonhee

    2016-09-01

    The direct transfer of graphene using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamping has advantages such as a ‘pick-and-place’ capability and no chemical residue problems. However, it is not easy to apply direct PDMS stamping to graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition on rough, grainy metal surfaces due to poor contact between the PDMS and graphene. In this study, graphene consisting of a mixture of monolayers and multiple layers grown on a rough Ni surface was directly transferred without the use of an adhesive layer. Liquid PDMS was cured on graphene to effect a conformal contact with the graphene. A fast release of graphene from substrate was achieved by carrying out wet-etching-assisted mechanical peeling. We also carried out a thermal post-curing of PDMS to control the level of adhesion between PDMS and graphene and hence facilitate a damage-free release of the graphene. Characterization of the transferred graphene by micro-Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and optical microscopy showed neither cracks nor contamination from the transfer. This technique allows a fast and simple transfer of graphene, even for multilayer graphene grown on a rough surface.

  17. Wrinkle-Free Single-Crystal Graphene Wafer Grown on Strain-Engineered Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bing; Pang, Zhenqian; Chen, Shulin; Li, Xin; Meng, Caixia; Li, Jiayu; Liu, Mengxi; Wu, Juanxia; Qi, Yue; Dang, Wenhui; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jin; Kang, Ning; Xu, Hongqi; Fu, Qiang; Qiu, Xiaohui; Gao, Peng; Wei, Yujie; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2017-12-26

    Wrinkles are ubiquitous for graphene films grown on various substrates by chemical vapor deposition at high temperature due to the strain induced by thermal mismatch between the graphene and substrates, which greatly degrades the extraordinary properties of graphene. Here we show that the wrinkle formation of graphene grown on Cu substrates is strongly dependent on the crystallographic orientations. Wrinkle-free single-crystal graphene was grown on a wafer-scale twin-boundary-free single-crystal Cu(111) thin film fabricated on sapphire substrate through strain engineering. The wrinkle-free feature of graphene originated from the relatively small thermal expansion of the Cu(111) thin film substrate and the relatively strong interfacial coupling between Cu(111) and graphene, based on the strain analyses as well as molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we demonstrated the transfer of an ultraflat graphene film onto target substrates from the reusable single-crystal Cu(111)/sapphire growth substrate. The wrinkle-free graphene shows enhanced electrical mobility compared to graphene with wrinkles.

  18. High quality long-wavelength lasers grown by atmospheric organometallic vapor phase epitaxy using tertiarybutylarsine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.I.; Young, M.G.; Oron, M.; Koren, U.; Kisker, D.

    1990-01-01

    High quality long-wavelength InGaAsP/InP lasers were grown by atmospheric organometallic vapor phase epitaxy using tertiarybutylarsine (TBA) as a substitute for AsH 3 . Electrical and photoluminescence measurements on InGaAs and InGaAsP showed that TBA-grown material was at least as good as AsH 3 material in terms of suitability for lasers. From two wafers grown by TBA, current thresholds I th as low as 11 mA were obtained for a 2-μm-wide semi-insulating blocking planar buried heterostructure laser lasing near 1.3 μm wavelength. The differential quantum efficiencies η D were as high as 21%/facet with a low internal loss α=21 cm -1 . In addition I th as low as 18 mA and η D as high as 18% have been obtained for multiplequantum well lasers at 1.54 μm wavelength. These results show that TBA might be used to replace AsH 3 without compromising on laser performance

  19. The biotechnology of hydrogen production by Nostoc flagelliforme grown under chemostat conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtl, R.R.; Bazin, M.J.; Hall, D.O. [Div. of Life Sciences, King`s College, London Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    The potential of using N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacteria to produce hydrogen photobiologically has stimulated research on the physiology and biotechnology of species exhibiting high H{sub 2} production rates over long periods of time. In this work Nostoc flagelliforme, a terrestrial N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterium, has been examined to establish its physiology and potential for H{sub 2} production under controlled conditions. Cell filaments of N. flagelliforme were purified and grown in liquid culture to optimize its H{sub 2} metabolism. In batch-grown cultures the activity of nitrogenase, the key enzyme for H{sub 2} production in N{sub 2}-fixing organisms, was found to be high only during a short phase of exponential growth. A chemostat system was thus constructed for long-term experiments using continuous cultures, with the aim of exploiting the exponential growth phase. The dilution rate (D) and environmental factors, such as N{sub 2} concentration in the gas phase and temperature, significantly influenced H{sub 2} production. Cells grown continuously under the optimized conditions of D=0.022 h{sup -1}, 34 C and 5.1 kPa N{sub 2} in the gas phase exhibited H{sub 2} production rates that were more than four times higher than the maximal rates under standard batch growth conditions. (orig.)

  20. Oil and fatty acid composition of peanut cultivars grown in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality and flavor of edible peanuts and its products are affected by fatty acid composition of oil. The information related to chemical composition of Peanut grown in the country are scarce, therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine the oil and fatty acid composition of some commonly grown peanut cultivars in Pakistan. Seven Peanut cultivars were grown during 2008 in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The tested cultivars differed significantly for oil content which ranged from 49.83 to 53.06% on dry weight basis, thus showing differences of 7% among cultivars. The saturated fatty acids (Palmetic and Stearic acid) in different cultivars ranged between 9.95 to 10.79% and 1.63 to 2.19%, respectively. Differences among cultivars for oleic acid exhibited significance which ranged between 49.34 to 54.83%. Similarly, cultivars differed statistically for linoleic ac id which showed a range of 28.99 to 34.23%, thus depicted difference of 7%. Significant differences among tested cultivars may be attributed to the place of origin of particular cultivar. An inverse relationship was exhibited between oleic and linoleic acid, similar to other edible oils. (author)

  1. Electrical characterization of 6H-SiC grown by physical vapor transport method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaremba, G., E-mail: gzaremba@ite.waw.p [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Analysis of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kaniewska, M.; Jung, W. [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Analysis of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Guziewicz, M. [Institute of Electron Technology, Department of Semiconductor Processing for Photonics, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-11-25

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements have been used to study the electrical properties of electron traps in n-type 6H-silicon carbide (SiC) grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) technique, designed as Schottky diodes. Ir Schottky- and Ni ohmic-contacts were deposited by sputtering. Current versus voltage (I-V) measurements showed that sputter deposition of the Schottky contact yields diodes with a reduced barrier height and poor rectification characteristics. Four main electron traps revealed in DLTS spectra have activation energies at 0. 39, 0.41, 0,66, and 0.74 eV below the conduction band. Based on a comparison made with electron traps reported in the literature, we conclude that three of them are well-known traps found in the as-grown or irradiated material. There was no emission signature in the literature to make such a correspondence for the trap at 0.74 eV. Strongly nonhomogenous spatial distribution with a tendency of the trap to accumulation at the surface was found by DLTS and C-V profiling. This together with the fact that the trap at 0.74 eV has not been previously reported in as-grown or processed material makes it possible that the trap is sputter deposition induced defect.

  2. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A. Judd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  3. Effects of annealing on the recombination dynamics of low-temperature grown ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilker, B.; Bekeny, C.; Voss, T.; Gutowski, J. [IFP, Universitaet Bremen, 28334 Bremen (Germany); Hauschild, R.; Kalt, H. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Postels, B.; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, A. [IHT, TU Braunschweig, 38023 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    We present systematic temperature and excitation density dependent time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements of as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods fabricated by an aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique at {proportional_to}90 C. The as-grown nanorods show strong nearband-edge and rather weak deep-level emission indicating their already good optical quality. At 4K, we find a broad emission line at 3.36 eV (line width 30 meV) which we attribute to recombination from a donor band formed through the high donor concentration. After annealing in oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres at 600-800 C well-resolved and sharper excitonic transitions are observed. To understand the recombination dynamics in the nanorods we carried out TRPL measurements using a frequency-doubled femtosecond laser and a streak camera. The as-grown sample shows a very fast monoexponential decay time of {proportional_to}10ps independent of temperature and excitation density. In contrast, the annealed samples exhibit a biexponential decay. Each a fast {tau}1 and a slow {tau}2 time constant have been determined for all annealed samples both of them significantly varying depending on the annealing atmosphere and temperature. This will be discussed on the basis of a phenomenological rate-equation model.

  4. Atomic structure of defects in GaN:Mg grown with Ga polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Tomaszewicz, T.; Zakharov, D.; Jasinski, J.; O'Keefe, M.A.; Hautakangas, S.; Laakso, A.; Saarinen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Electron microscope phase images, produced by direct reconstruction of the scattered electron wave from a focal series of high-resolution images, were used to determine the nature of defects formed in GaN:Mg crystals. We studied bulk crystals grown from dilute solutions of atomic nitrogen in liquid gallium at high pressure and thin films grown by the MOCVD method. All the crystals were grown with Ga-polarity. In both types of samples the majority of defects were three dimensional Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids with bases on the (0001) plane and six walls on {11(und 2)3} planes seen in cross-section as triangulars. Some other defects appear in cross-section as trapezoidal (rectangular) defects as a result of presence of truncated pyramids. Both type of defects have hollow centers. They are decorated by Mg on all six side walls and a base. The GaN which grows inside on the defect walls shows polarity inversion. It is shown that change of polarity starts from the defect tip and propagates to the base, and that the stacking sequence changes from ab in the matrix to bc inside the defect. Exchange of the Ga sublattice with the N sublattice within the defect leads to 0.6 ± 0.2(angstrom) displacement between Ga sublattices outside and inside the defects. It is proposed that lateral overgrowth of the cavities formed within the defect takes place to restore matrix polarity on the defect base

  5. Tailoring the optical characteristics of microsized InP nanoneedles directly grown on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Sun, Hao; Ren, Fan; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Chen, Roger; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2014-01-08

    Nanoscale self-assembly offers a pathway to realize heterogeneous integration of III-V materials on silicon. However, for III-V nanowires directly grown on silicon, dislocation-free single-crystal quality could only be attained below certain critical dimensions. We recently reported a new approach that overcomes this size constraint, demonstrating the growth of single-crystal InGaAs/GaAs and InP nanoneedles with the base diameters exceeding 1 μm. Here, we report distinct optical characteristics of InP nanoneedles which are varied from mostly zincblende, zincblende/wurtzite-mixed, to pure wurtzite crystalline phase. We achieved, for the first time, pure single-crystal wurtzite-phase InP nanoneedles grown on silicon with bandgaps of 80 meV larger than that of zincblende-phase InP. Being able to attain excellent material quality while scaling up in size promises outstanding device performance of these nanoneedles. At room temperature, a high internal quantum efficiency of 25% and optically pumped lasing are demonstrated for single nanoneedle as-grown on silicon substrate. Recombination dynamics proves the excellent surface quality of the InP nanoneedles, which paves the way toward achieving multijunction photovoltaic cells, long-wavelength heterostructure lasers, and advanced photonic integrated circuits.

  6. Hydroxyapatite growth on multiwall carbon nanotubes grown on titanium fibers from a titanium sheet

    KAUST Repository

    Chetibi, Loubna; Achour, Amine; Peszke, Jerzy; Hamana, Djamel; Achour, Slimane

    2013-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was grown on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) deposited on TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) that were hydrothermally grown on Ti metal sheets. The HA was electrochemically grown on the MWCNTs/TiO2 porous layer. It was found that the HA grows on the MWCNTs/TiO2 NFs in the form of dense coating with nanorice grain-shaped. The incorporation of MWCNTs between HA and TiO2 NFs has led to higher adhesion strength as measured by micro-scratching test indicating the benefit of MWCNTs on the improving the bonding strength of HA layer. The obtained coatings exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid. It is expected that this simple route for preparing the new HA/MWCNTs/TiO2/Ti-layered structure might be used not only in the biomedical field, but also in catalysis and biological sensing among others. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  7. Energy variable monoenergetic positron beam study of oxygen atoms in Czochralski grown Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, S.; Wei, L.; Tabuki, Y.; Nagai, R.; Takeda, E.

    1992-01-01

    A monoenergetic positron beam has been used to investigate the state of interstitial oxygen in Czochralski-grown Si with the coverage of SiO 2 (100 nm) and poly-Si (200 nm)/SiO 2 (100 nm), respectively. It was found that (i) the growth of SiO 2 gives rise to a strong Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiations in the bulk of Si, (ii) such a broadening can be recovered to the original level by annealing at 450degC, by the removal of overlayers using chemical etching and long-term aging at room temperature, (iii) the film stress over the CZ-grown Si is responsible for the rearrangement of oxygen atoms in S and (iv) only tensile stress gives rise to the clustering of oxygen atoms. The observed broadening was assigned to arise from the positron trapping by oxygen interstitial clusters. It was concluded that film stress is responsible for the rearrangement of oxygen atoms in CZ-grown Si. (author)

  8. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čížek, J., E-mail: jakub.cizek@mff.cuni.cz; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I. [Department of Low-Temperature Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-180 00, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Valenta, J. [Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J. [Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-22

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.

  9. Thermal evolution of defects in undoped zinc oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zilan; Su, Shichen; Ling, Francis Chi-Chung, E-mail: ccling@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Anwand, W.; Wagner, A. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-21

    Undoped ZnO films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on c-plane sapphire with different oxygen pressures. Thermal evolutions of defects in the ZnO films are studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Raman spectroscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and with the electrical properties characterized by the room temperature Hall measurement. Oxygen deficient defect related Raman lines 560 cm{sup −1} and 584 cm{sup −1} are identified and their origins are discussed. Thermal annealing induces extensive Zn out-diffusion at the ZnO/sapphire interface and leaves out Zn-vacancy in the ZnO film. Two types of Zn-vacancy related defects with different microstructures are identified in the films. One of them dominates in the samples grown without oxygen. Annealing the sample grown without oxygen or growing the samples in oxygen would favor the Zn-vacancy with another microstructure, and this Zn-vacancy defect persists after 1100 °C annealing.

  10. Thermal evolution of defects in undoped zinc oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zilan; Su, Shichen; Ling, Francis Chi-Chung; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2014-07-01

    Undoped ZnO films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on c-plane sapphire with different oxygen pressures. Thermal evolutions of defects in the ZnO films are studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Raman spectroscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and with the electrical properties characterized by the room temperature Hall measurement. Oxygen deficient defect related Raman lines 560 cm-1 and 584 cm-1 are identified and their origins are discussed. Thermal annealing induces extensive Zn out-diffusion at the ZnO/sapphire interface and leaves out Zn-vacancy in the ZnO film. Two types of Zn-vacancy related defects with different microstructures are identified in the films. One of them dominates in the samples grown without oxygen. Annealing the sample grown without oxygen or growing the samples in oxygen would favor the Zn-vacancy with another microstructure, and this Zn-vacancy defect persists after 1100 °C annealing.

  11. Acceptor Type Vacancy Complexes In As-Grown ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuñiga-Pérez, J.

    2010-11-01

    One of the many technological areas that ZnO is interesting for is the construction of opto-electronic devices working in the blue-UV range as its large band gap (˜3.4 eV at 10 K) makes them suitable for that purpose. As-grown ZnO shows generally n-type conductivity partially due to the large concentration of unintentional shallow donors, like H, but impurities can also form complexes with acceptor type defects (Zn vacancy) leading to the creation of compensating defects. Recently, LiZn and NaZn acceptors have been measured and H could form similar type of defects. Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation spectroscopy experimental results on the observation of Zn related vacancy complexes in ZnO thin films, as-grown, O implanted and Al doped will be presented. Results show that as-grown ZnO film show small Zn vacancy related complexed that could be related to presence of H as a unintentional doping element.

  12. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čížek, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Valenta, J.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.

    2015-01-01

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration

  13. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížek, J.; Valenta, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.

    2015-06-01

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.

  14. Thermal evolution of defects in undoped zinc oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zilan; Su, Shichen; Ling, Francis Chi-Chung; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Undoped ZnO films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on c-plane sapphire with different oxygen pressures. Thermal evolutions of defects in the ZnO films are studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Raman spectroscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and with the electrical properties characterized by the room temperature Hall measurement. Oxygen deficient defect related Raman lines 560 cm −1 and 584 cm −1 are identified and their origins are discussed. Thermal annealing induces extensive Zn out-diffusion at the ZnO/sapphire interface and leaves out Zn-vacancy in the ZnO film. Two types of Zn-vacancy related defects with different microstructures are identified in the films. One of them dominates in the samples grown without oxygen. Annealing the sample grown without oxygen or growing the samples in oxygen would favor the Zn-vacancy with another microstructure, and this Zn-vacancy defect persists after 1100 °C annealing.

  15. Biological Control of Diseases of Vegetables Grown Hydroponically in Thailand: Challenge and Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanamaneesathian, Mana

    2015-01-01

    In Thailand, yield loss due to plant diseases in vegetables grown hydroponically is very high as a result of the growers` lack of knowledge for controlling diseases and their un- willingness to invest in setting-up the proper hydroponic system from the beginning. Severe root rot disease caused by Pythium spp. is frequent and can be anticipated in the hot climate in Thailand. This review focuses on the diseases in temperate lettuces which have been produced hydroponically and have been attacked by plant pathogens, particularly Pythium spp. Biological control of vegetable diseases grown hydroponically has been investigated in Thailand. Research is being carried out to identify effective strains of the antagonists, formulating the applicable products and delivering them appropriately to control the disease. Products of Bacillus subtilis, Chaetomium globosom and Trichoderma harzianum have been recommended for use to control diseases in vegetables grown hydroponically. Control efficacy of these products is varied as the biological products have been used by the growers in the paradigm of using chemical fungicide for disease control in hydroponic production system, overlooking the intrinsic characteristics of the biological control products. The recent patent, which minimizes the effects of sunlight and heat on the nutrient solution without the use of an external energy for cooling the nutrient, should be applied in producing hydroponic vegetables to mitigate poor plant growth and root rot disease outbreak in Thailand.

  16. The density and compositional analysis of titanium doped sapphire single crystal grown by the Czocharlski method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, H. H.; Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium doped sapphire (Ti:Al2O3) crystal has attracted attention not only as beautiful gemstones, but also due to their applications as high power laser action. It is very important crystal for tunable solid state laser. Ti:Al2O3 crystals have been success grown using the Czocharlski method with automatic diameter control (ADC) system. The crystals were grown with different pull rates. The structure of the crystal was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The density of the crystal was measurement based on the Archimedes principle and the chemical composition of the crystal was confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of crystals are showed single main peak with a high intensity. Its shows that the samples are single crystal. The Ti:Al2O3 grown with different pull rate will affect the distribution of the concentration of dopant Ti3+ and densities on the sapphire crystals boules as well on the crystal growth process. The increment of the pull rate will increase the percentage distribution of Ti3+ and on the densities of the Ti:Al2O3 crystal boules. This may be attributed to the speed factor of the pull rate of the crystal that then caused changes in the heat flow in the furnace and then causes the homogeneities is changed of species distribution of atoms along crystal.

  17. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  18. α-Ga2O3 grown by low temperature atomic layer deposition on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. W.; Jarman, J. C.; Johnstone, D. N.; Midgley, P. A.; Chalker, P. R.; Oliver, R. A.; Massabuau, F. C.-P.

    2018-04-01

    α-Ga2O3 is a metastable phase of Ga2O3 of interest for wide bandgap engineering since it is isostructural with α-In2O3 and α-Al2O3. α-Ga2O3 is generally synthesised under high pressure (several GPa) or relatively high temperature (∼500 °C). In this study, we report the growth of α-Ga2O3 by low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) on sapphire substrate. The film was grown at a rate of 0.48 Å/cycle, and predominantly consists of α-Ga2O3 in the form of (0001) -oriented columns originating from the interface with the substrate. Some inclusions were also present, typically at the tips of the α phase columns and most likely comprising ε-Ga2O3. The remainder of the Ga2O3 film - i.e. nearer the surface and between the α-Ga2O3 columns, was amorphous. The film was found to be highly resistive, as is expected for undoped material. This study demonstrates that α-Ga2O3 films can be grown by low temperature ALD and suggests the possibility of a new range of ultraviolet optoelectronic and power devices grown by ALD. The study also shows that scanning electron diffraction is a powerful technique to identify the different polymorphs of Ga2O3 present in multiphase samples.

  19. Evaluation of Diverse Microalgal Species as Potential Biofuel Feedstocks Grown Using Municipal Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiibel, Sage R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Lemos, Mark S.; Kelly, Brian P.; Cushman, John C., E-mail: jcushman@unr.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-05-11

    Microalgae offer great potential as a third-generation biofuel feedstock, especially when grown on wastewater, as they have the dual application for wastewater treatment and as a biomass feedstock for biofuel production. The potential for growth on wastewater centrate was evaluated for forty microalgae strains from fresh (11), brackish (11), or saltwater (18) genera. Generally, freshwater strains were able to grow at high concentrations of centrate, with two strains, Neochloris pseudostigmata and Neochloris conjuncta, demonstrating growth at up to 40% v/v centrate. Fourteen of 18 salt water Dunaliella strains also demonstrated growth in centrate concentrations at or above 40% v/v. Lipid profiles of freshwater strains with high-centrate tolerance were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and compared against those obtained on cells grown on defined maintenance media. The major lipid compounds were found to be palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1), and linoleic (18:2) acids for all freshwater strains grown on either centrate or their respective maintenance medium. These results demonstrate the highly concentrated wastewater can be used to grow microalgae, which limits the need to dilute wastewater prior to algal production. In addition, the algae produced generate lipids suitable for biodiesel or green diesel production.

  20. A Commensal Strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis Overexpresses Membrane Proteins Associated with Pathogenesis When Grown in Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila-Arcos, S; Ding, S; Aloria, K; Arizmendi, J M; Fearnley, I M; Walker, J E; Goñi, F M; Alkorta, I

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of implanted medical devices. The most important factor in the pathogenesis of these infections is the formation of bacterial biofilms. Bacteria grown in biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics and to the immune defence system than planktonic bacteria. In these infections, the antimicrobial therapy usually fails and the removal of the biofilm-coated implanted device is the only effective solution. In this study, three proteomic approaches were performed to investigate membrane proteins associated to biofilm formation: (i) sample fractionation by gel electrophoresis, followed by isotopic labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis, (ii) in-solution sample preparation, followed by isotopic labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis and (iii) in-solution sample preparation and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis. We found that the commensal strain S. epidermidis CECT 231 grown in biofilms expressed higher levels of five membrane and membrane-associated proteins involved in pathogenesis: accumulation-associated protein, staphylococcal secretory antigen, signal transduction protein TRAP, ribonuclease Y and phenol soluble modulin beta 1 when compared with bacteria grown under planktonic conditions. These results indicate that a commensal strain can acquire a pathogenic phenotype depending on the mode of growth.

  1. Germanium nanoislands grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: Annealing time dependent surface morphology and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samavati, Alireza; Othaman, Z.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Amjad, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Structural and optical properties of ∼ 20 nm Ge nanoislands grown on Si(100) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering under varying annealing conditions are reported. Rapid thermal annealing at a temperature of 600°C for 30 s, 90 s, and 120 s are performed to examine the influence of annealing time on the surface morphology and photoluminescence properties. X-ray diffraction spectra reveal prominent Ge and GeO 2 peaks highly sensitive to the annealing time. Atomic force microscope micrographs of the as-grown sample show pyramidal nanoislands with relatively high-density 10 11 cm −2) ). The nanoislands become dome-shaped upon annealing through a coarsening process mediated by Oswald ripening. The room temperature photoluminescence peaks for both as-grown 3.29 eV) and annealed 3.19 eV) samples consist of high intensity and broad emission, attributed to the effect of quantum confinement. The red shift (∼0.10 eV) of the emission peak is attributed to the change in the size of the Ge nanoislands caused by annealing. Our easy fabrication method may contribute to the development of Ge nanostructure-based optoelectronics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. Evaluation of diverse microalgal species as potential biofuel feedstocks grown using municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage R Hiibel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae offer great potential as a third-generation biofuel feedstock, especially when grown on wastewater, as they have the dual application for wastewater treatment and as a biomass feedstock for biofuel production. The potential for growth on wastewater centrate was evaluated for forty microalgae strains from fresh (11, brackish (11, or saltwater (18 genera. Generally, freshwater strains were able to grow at high concentrations of centrate, with two strains, Neochloris pseudostigmata and N. conjuncta, demonstrating growth at up to 40% v/v centrate. Fourteen of eighteen salt water Dunaliella strains also demonstrated growth in centrate concentrations at or above 40% v/v. Lipid profiles of freshwater strains with high-centrate tolerance were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and compared against those obtained on cells grown on defined maintenance media. The major lipid compounds were found to be palmitic (16:0, oleic (18:1, and linoleic (18:2 acids for all freshwater strains grown on either centrate or their respective maintenance medium. These results demonstrate the highly concentrated wastewater can be used to grow microalgae, which limits the need to dilute wastewater prior to algal production. In addition, the algae produced generate lipids suitable for biodiesel or green diesel production.

  3. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Lesley A; Jackson, Brian E; Fonteno, William C

    2015-07-03

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  4. Residual carrier density in GaSb grown on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Ueta, Akio; Ohtani, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between the densities of residual carriers and those of dislocation in GaSb films grown on Si substrates were investigated. Dislocation density was evaluated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM images indicated that the dislocation density after a 5-μm-thick GaSb film was grown was below 1 x 10 8 /cm 2 although the density near the interface between the Si substrate and the GaSb film was about 3 x 10 9 /cm 2 . Forming a dislocation loop by growing a thick GaSb layer may decrease the dislocation density. The density and mobility of the residual carrier were investigated by Hall measurement using the van der Pauw method. The residual carriers in GaSb grown on Si substrates were holes, and their densities decreased significantly from 4.2 x 10 18 to 1.4 x 10 17 /cm 3 as GaSb thickness was increased from 500 to 5500 nm

  5. Uptake and translocation of sulfamethazine by alfalfa grown under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan; Struckhoff, Garrett; Pugh, Kameron; Singh, Om

    2017-03-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used in intensive animal agriculture operations collectively known as Concentrated Animal Feed Operations (CAFO) which include dairy, poultry and swine farms. Wastewater generated by CAFOs often contains low levels of antibiotics and is typically managed in an anaerobic lagoon. The objective of this research is to investigate the uptake and fate of aqueous sulfamethazine (SMN) antibiotic by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grass grown under hydroponic conditions. Uptake studies were conducted using hydroponically grown alfalfa in a commercially available nutrient solution supplemented with 10mg/L of SMN antibiotic. Analysis of alfalfa sap, root zone, middle one-third, and top portion of the foliage showed varying uptake rate and translocation of SMN. The highest average amount of SMN (8.58μg/kg) was detected in the root zone, followed by the top portion (1.89μg/kg), middle one-third (1.30μg/kg), and sap (0.38μg/kg) samples, indicating a clear distribution of SMN within the sampled regions. The ultraviolet (UV) spectra of parent SMN and translocated SMN identified in different parts of the plant present the possibility of metabolization during the uptake process. Uptake of SMN using alfalfa grown under hydroponic conditions has potential as a promising remediation technology for removal of similar antibiotics from wastewater lagoons. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Study of the possibility of the production of amino acid mixtures from yeast autolysates grown on the nutrient medium from grape and apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardzehveladze, E.G.; Mikeladze, G.G.; Gordienko, S.B.; Belikov, V.M.; Latov, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. ellipsoideus were grown on the juices diffused from apple and grape pomace. The amino acid composition of the yeasts was very similar to the amino acid composition of yeast grown on molasses.

  7. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis of high metal content micro-structures grown by electron beam induced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoira, F.; Hoffmann, P.; Olsson, C.O.A.; Xanthopoulos, N.; Mathieu, H.J.; Doppelt, P.

    2005-01-01

    An auger electron spectroscopy study was carried out on Rh-containing micro-structures grown by electron beam induced deposition (EBID) of the iso-structural and iso-electronic precursors [RhCl(PF 3 ) 2 ] 2 and [RhCl(CO) 2 ] 2 . A material containing between 55 and 60 at.% Rh was obtained from both precursors. The chemical composition of structures grown from the two different precursors indicates a similar decomposition mechanism. Deposits grown from [RhCl(PF 3 ) 2 ] 2 showed a chemical composition independent of electron energy and electron dose in the investigated range of conditions

  8. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agouram, S.; Zuniga Perez, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Universitat de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Burjassot (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    ZnO films were grown on GaAs(100), GaAs(111)A and GaAs(111)B substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and tertiarybutanol (t-butanol) were used as Zn and O precursors, respectively. The influence of the growth temperature and GaAs substrate orientation on the crystalline orientation and morphology of the ZnO grown films has been analysed. Crystallinity of grown films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD); thickness and morphology of ZnO films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM results reveal significant differences between morphologies depending on growth temperature but not significant differences were detected on the texture of grown films. (orig.)

  9. Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber/Polydicyclopentadiene Composites: Shapeable Pastes to Make Composite Tooling and Plasma Erosion-Resistant Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pittman, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCF) with 60-250nm diameters and 10 to 80 micrometers lengths were blended with the nonpolar organic monomer, dicyclopentadiene, to create liquid dispersions or pastes (based on the wt% fiber used...

  10. The Morse code effect: A crystal-crystal transformation observed in gel-grown lead (II) oxalate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisgarten, J. N.; Marks, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on an unusual crystal-crystal transformation phenomenon, which we have called the Morse Code Effect, based on the change in appearance of lead(II) oxalate crystals grown in agarose gels.

  11. Preferential colonization and release of Legionella pneumophila from mature drinking water biofilms grown on copper versus unplasticized polyvinylchloride coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legionella persistence and amplification in premise drinking water systems is a known contributor to legionellosis outbreaks, especially in the presence of suitable eukaryotic hosts. Here we examined Legionella pneumophila behavior within drinking water biofilms grown on copper ...

  12. Production of novel types of antibacterial liamocins by diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans grown on different culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective was to compare production of antibacterial liamocins by diverse strains of A. pullulans grown on different culture media. Results: Liamocins produced by strains of A. pullulans have potential agricultural and pharmaceutical applications as antibacterials with specificity aga...

  13. Molecular Beam Epitaxy-Grown InGaN Nanomushrooms and Nanowires for White Light Source Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gasim, Anwar A.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the observation of coexisting InGaN nanomushrooms and nanowires grown via MBE. Photoluminescence characterization shows that the nanostructures emit yellow and blue light, respectively. The combined emission is promising for white-LEDs.

  14. A Review of the Fabrication and Properties of Vapor-Grown Carbon Nanofiber/Polymer Composites (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tibbetts, Gary G; Lake, Max L; Strong, Karla L; Rice, Brian P

    2006-01-01

    .... In the following paper, we review the published data for vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) composites and show that the best results, achieved with satisfactory dispersion, are consistent with each other and with...

  15. ZnO homoepitaxy on the O polar face of hydrothermal and melt-grown substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.J. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Technical Univ. of Troyes (France); CNRS, Troyes (France); Hosseini Teherani, F. [Nanovation SARL, Orsay (France); Largeteau, A.; Demazeau, G. [ICMCB-CNRS, Bordeaux 1 University (Science and Technology), Pessac (France); Moisson, C.; Turover, D. [Novasic, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat. 4, BP 267, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Nause, J. [Cermet Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Garry, G. [Thales Research, Domaine de Corbeville, Orsay (France); Kling, R.; Gruber, T. [Ulm University, Department of Semiconductor Physics, Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Braunschweig Technical University, Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Jomard, F.; Galtier, P.; Lusson, A. [LPSC-CNRS, Meudon (France); Monteiro, T.; Soares, M.J.; Neves, A.; Carmo, M.C.; Peres, M. [University of Aveiro, Physics Department, Aveiro (Portugal); Lerondel, G.; Hubert, C. [Technical University of Troyes-CNRS (FRE2671), 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, Troyes (France)

    2007-07-15

    2 cm diameter hydrothermal ZnO crystals were grown and then made into substrates using both mechanical and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP polishing showed superior results with an (0002) {omega} scan full width half maximum (FWHM) of 67 arcsec and an root mean square (RMS) roughness of 2 Aa. In comparison, commercial melt-grown substrates exhibited broader X-ray diffraction (XRD) linewidths with evidence of sub-surface crystal damage due to polishing, including a downward shift of c-lattice parameter. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed strong Li, Fe, Co, Al and Si contamination in the hydrothermal crystals as opposed to the melt-grown substrates, for which glow discharge mass spectroscopy studies had reported high levels of Pb, Fe, Cd and Si. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies indicated that the hydrothermal crystal had high defect and/or impurity concentrations compared with the melt-grown substrate. The dominant bound exciton for the melt-grown substrate was indexed to Al. ZnO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition. The melt-grown substrates gave superior results with XRD (0002) {omega} and 2{theta}/{omega} WHM of 124 and 34 arcsec, respectively. Atomic force microscope measurements indicated a low RMS roughness (1.9 nm) as confirmed by fringes in the XRD 2{theta}/{omega} scan. It was suggested that the improvement in XRD response relative to the substrate might be due to ''healing'' of sub-surface polishing damage due to the elevated T{sub s} used for the growth. Indeed the c-lattice parameter for the homoepitaxial layer on the melt-grown substrate had become that which would be expected for strain-free ZnO. Furthermore, the stability of the PL peak positions relative to bulk ZnO, confirmed that the films appear practically strain free. (orig.)

  16. Locally Grown: Examining Attitudes and Perceptions About Organic Cotton Production and Manufacturing Between Mississippi Cotton Growers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes and perceptions about organic cotton of Mississippi cotton growers and producers in comparison to fashion-conscious consumers, including advantages/disadvantages of growing and production processes, quality control, consumer preferences, and competitive price structures/profit margins. A sample size of 16 local Mississippi growers and/or producers and 44 undergraduate students at a mid-major Southeastern university were chosen to participate in the study. Instruments were developed based on current research and the definition of organic cotton production defined by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results indicate 75% of growers and producers do not perceive a quality difference between organic and conventionally grown cotton, while 72.7% of the consumers report organically grown cotton is capable of producing a higher quality product compared to conventionally grown cotton. Even with an increase in organic cotton prices (25- 40% higher premium, only 25% of growers and producers would be willing to convert, while a majority (52.3% of consumers would not be willing to spend more than 25% extra for an organically grown cotton product. Consumers indicate the negative effects of conventionally grown cotton, yet many report little knowledge about organic cotton production, while growers/producers immediately dismiss organically grown cotton as a retail marketing strategy.

  17. The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. (Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela))

    1994-06-01

    The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

  18. Transfer factors of 134Cs for olive and orange trees grown on different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarlou, V.; Nobeli, C.; Anoussis, J.; Haidouti, C.; Papanicolaou, E.

    1999-01-01

    Transfer factors (TF) of 134 Cs to olive and citrus trees grown on two different soils, were determined for a 3-year greenhouse experiment. Two-year-old trees were transplanted with their entire rootball into large pots containing the contaminated soil (110 kg pot -1 ). The soil was transferred to each pot in layers on the top of which 134 Cs as CsCl was dripped (18.5 MBq pot -1 ). For both evergreen trees, soil type significantly influenced radiocaesium transfer. 134 Cs concentration was lower for the calcareous-heavy soil than for the acid-light soil. Transfer factors of orange trees were higher than those of olive trees in the acid-light soil. Although a significant amount of 134 Cs was measured in olives grown on the acid-light soil, no 134 Cs was detected in the unprocessed olive oil when an oil fraction (5% f.w.) was extracted. On the contrary the edible part of the oranges showed the highest 134 Cs concentration of all plant parts. The relationship between 134 Cs uptake and potassium content in the different plant compartments was also studied when selected trees were cut down. The potassium concentration in the plants was not significantly different between the trees growing in the two types of soil in spite of the big differences in the 134 Cs uptake in the two soils. TF values and potassium content in the different plant compartments of each tree were highly correlated. For both crops transfer factors as well as potassium content were the highest in the developing plant parts (new leaves and branches, flowers). The transfer factors of 134 Cs for the studied trees are in the same order of magnitude as the values of annual crops grown under similar conditions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. In-depth investigation of spin-on doped solar cells with thermally grown oxide passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mahmmod Ahmad

    Full Text Available Solar cell industrial manufacturing, based largely on proven semiconductor processing technologies supported by significant advancements in automation, has reached a plateau in terms of cost and efficiency. However, solar cell manufacturing cost (dollar/watt is still substantially higher than fossil fuels. The route to lowering cost may not lie with continuing automation and economies of scale. Alternate fabrication processes with lower cost and environmental-sustainability coupled with self-reliance, simplicity, and affordability may lead to price compatibility with carbon-based fuels. In this paper, a custom-designed formulation of phosphoric acid has been investigated, for n-type doping in p-type substrates, as a function of concentration and drive-in temperature. For post-diffusion surface passivation and anti-reflection, thermally-grown oxide films in 50–150-nm thickness were grown. These fabrication methods facilitate process simplicity, reduced costs, and environmental sustainability by elimination of poisonous chemicals and toxic gases (POCl3, SiH4, NH3. Simultaneous fire-through contact formation process based on screen-printed front surface Ag and back surface through thermally grown oxide films was optimized as a function of the peak temperature in conveyor belt furnace. Highest efficiency solar cells fabricated exhibited efficiency of ∼13%. Analysis of results based on internal quantum efficiency and minority carried measurements reveals three contributing factors: high front surface recombination, low minority carrier lifetime, and higher reflection. Solar cell simulations based on PC1D showed that, with improved passivation, lower reflection, and high lifetimes, efficiency can be enhanced to match with commercially-produced PECVD SiN-coated solar cells. Keywords: Crystalline Si solar cells, Phosphoric acid spin-on doping, Screen printing, Thermal oxide passivation

  20. Inflorescence and leaves essential oil composition of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD BAGHER HASSANPOURAGHDAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the essential oils of leaves and inflorescences, water distilled volatile oils of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L. were analyzed by GC/EI-MS. Fifty components were identified in the inflorescence and leaf essential oils of the basil plants, accounting for 98.8 and 99.9 % of the total quantified components respectively. Phenylpropanoids (37.7 % for the inflorescence vs. 58.3 % for the leaves were the predominant class of oil constituents, followed by sesquiterpenes (33.3 vs. 19.4 % and monoterpenes (27.7 vs. 22.1 %. Of the monoterpenoid compounds, oxygenated monoterpenes (25.2 vs. 18.9 % were the main subclass. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25 vs. 15.9 % were the main subclass of sesquiterpenoidal compounds. Methyl chavicol, a phenylpropane derivative, (37.2 vs. 56.7 % was the principle component of both organ oils, with up to 38 and 57 % of the total identified components of the inflorescence and leaf essential oils, respectively. Linalool (21.1 vs. 13.1 % was the second common major component followed by α-cadinol (6.1 vs. 3 %, germacrene D (6.1 vs. 2.7 % and 1,8-cineole (2.4 vs. 3.5 %. There were significant quantitative but very small qualitative differences between the two oils. In total, considering the previous reports, it seems that essential oil composition of hydroponically grown O. basilicum L. had volatile constituents comparable with field grown counterparts, probably with potential applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries.