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Sample records for decidua

  1. Maternal Adaptive Immune Cells in Decidua Parietalis Display a More Activated and Coinhibitory Phenotype Compared to Decidua Basalis

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    Martin Solders

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maternal part of the placenta, the decidua, consists of maternal immune cells, decidual stromal cells, and extravillous fetal trophoblasts. In a successful pregnancy, these cell compartments interact to provide an intricate balance between fetal tolerance and antimicrobial defense. These processes are still poorly characterized in the two anatomically different decidual tissues, basalis and parietalis. We examined immune cells from decidua basalis and parietalis from term placentas (n=15 with flow cytometry. By using multivariate discriminant analysis, we found a clear separation between the two decidual compartments based on the 81 investigated parameters. Decidua parietalis lymphocytes displayed a more activated phenotype with a higher expression of coinhibitory markers than those isolated from basalis and contained higher frequencies of T regulatory cells. Decidua basalis contained higher proportions of monocytes, B cells, and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells. The basalis B cells were more immature, and parietalis MAIT cells showed a more activated phenotype. Conventional T cells, NK cells, and MAIT cells from both compartments potently responded with the production of interferon-γ and/or cytotoxic molecules in response to stimulation. To conclude, leukocytes in decidua basalis and parietalis displayed remarkable phenotypic disparities, indicating that the corresponding stromal microenvironments provide different immunoregulatory signals.

  2. Anti-termite efficacy of Capparis decidua and its combinatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Capparis deciduas and its combinatorial mixtures were evaluated to observe the anti-termite efficacy against Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus. These have shown very high termiticidal activity and wood protection in the soil. It is proved by very low LD50 values i.e. 0.0218mg/g and 0.021mg/g obtained ...

  3. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media

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    P. Arora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.

  4. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium by Capparis deciduas in Acidic Media

    OpenAIRE

    P. Arora; S. Kumar; M. K. Sharma; S. P. Mathur

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency of ethanolic extract of different parts of Capparis deciduas (Ker) in acidic medium has been evaluated by mass loss and thermometric methods. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained from the two methods are in good agreement and are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and acid.

  5. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in human decidua after RU486 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W L; Wang, J D; Fu, Y; Zhu, P D

    1993-07-01

    To examine RU486 action on decidua at the level of cellular estrogen receptor (ER) and P receptor (PR). Controlled basic study for contragestion mechanism of mifepristone. Normal human volunteers in an academic research environment. Sixty women with 6 to 7 weeks of gestation who voluntarily requested termination of pregnancy were recruited and randomly divided into three groups. A single dose of 200 mg RU486 was orally administered to the two treatment groups 12 and 24 hours, respectively, before surgical interruption of pregnancies. Placebo was used for control group. Decidual tissues were collected right after operation. Immunocytochemical reactions of PR and ER in decidua after RU486 treatment were compared with the control subjects. The differences of the reaction in decidual area with or without trophoblast invasion were noted. RU486 treatment increased PR and ER staining in vessel and stroma of decidua without trophoblast invasion (decidua parietalis) but not in decidua with trophoblast invasion (decidua capsularis or basalis). Chi-squared analysis indicated a significant increase in the number of ER-positive samples after RU486 treatment. The decidua parietalis was the primary target site of RU486. The lack of RU486 effect on decidua capsularis implied that trophoblast invasion prevented against antiprogestin impact.

  6. Trace elements in the human endometrium and decidua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenfeldt, K.; Landgren, B.-M.; Plantin, L.-O.; Diczfalusy, E.

    1977-01-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, 25 trace elements, which are usually present in biological material, were estimated in 31 specimens of human endometrial tissue obtained at various phases of the menstrual cycle and in 14 specimens of decidua from the 12th to 18th week of pregnancy. Among the 13 trace elements invariably found in all specimens, the levels of copper, potassium, rubidium, antimony and zinc were significantly higher and those of bromine, selenium and sodium significantly lower in the endometrium than in the decidua. No difference was found in the levels of gold, calcium, cobalt, cesiuj and iron. Among the 12 trace elements which were found only occasionally, chromium, mercury, silver and cadmium were detected in approximately half and cerium and scandium in approximately one-fourth of the 45 samples studied. Arsenic, barium, lanthanum, molybdenum, samarium and strontium were detected only rarely. The cyclic variations in the endometrial levels of calcium, rubidium and copper were highly significant and those in the levels of gold, cesium, iron, potassium and zinc probably significant. (author)

  7. Immunoexpression of CD30 and CD30 ligand in deciduas from spontaneous abortions

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    M Trovato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of CD30 and CD30-L in 35 deciduas obtained from women following elective abortion during normal physiological gestation and in 60 deciduas obtained from women after spontaneous abortion with or without signs of inflammation. The main difference was noticed in the first trimester of gestation in which was found a decrease in CD30/CD30-L-positive decidual glandular and stromal cells in a greater number of cases of spontaneous abortions with respect to cases of physiological pregnancies (70% vs 50%, p<0.05. In addition, deciduas from spontaneous abortions with inflammation and without inflammation reacted similarly. The reduced expression of CD30 and CD30-L and their cellular pattern detected in the deciduas from spontaneous abortions suggest that the CD30/CD30-L system is crucial for preventing abortions in the first trimester. And furthermore, the distinctive expression of CD30/CD30- L in deciduas from physiological pregnancies may indicate that the CD30/CD30-L system exerts its main role in the first trimester.

  8. Ectopic decidua of the greater omentum: a case report

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    Biserka Pigac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidua is defined as extrauterine deposits of decidual stromal cells. It occurs in 85-100% of pregnancies. Focal sites can be present in various locations, yet a peritoneal location is rare. A 24- year- old woman underwent a cesarean section in 39th week of her first pregnancy, during which adhesions of the omentum to the fundus, entire left side of the uterus, and a part of the right front abdominal wall were found. An operative specimen was taken for a pathohistological analysis under the assumption of being fibrous adhesive tissue. The analysis revealed ectopic decidual tissue composed of large, polygonal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large nuclei with conspicuous nucleoli infiltrated with mature fatty cells and lymphocytes. Strong staining for vimentin was observed in the decidual cell cytoplasm and for a progesterone- receptor in the cell nuclei, medium staining was detected for S-100, and negative staining for CK 5/ 6, HMB-45, desmin, smooth muscle actin, estrogen and androgen- receptors. We present this case in order to educate clinicians and pathologists about the phenomenon of ectopic deciduosis. Although it can exist as asymptomatic condition, we point out the importance of considering this condition since it can result in serious pathology, like intraperitoneal hemorrhage and labour obstruction, if remains unrecognized. Another pitfall is possible confusion of this entity with other conditions. A resemblance to adhesions of the omentum and malignant neoplastic lesions, like squamous cell and metastatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, malignant decidual mesothelioma, metastatic mucin -producing adenocarcinoma, can be deceiving. These obstacles may present a pitfall to clinicians and pathologists, with a negative impact on patient treatment and outcome.

  9. Effect of Mifepristone on the Telomerase Activity in Chorion and Decidua during Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge-qing XIA; Ya-li XIONG; Yong-hong SUN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate telomerase activity in chorion and decidua from abortion induced by mifepristone incorporated with misoprostol at early pregnancy Methods TRAP-SYBR Green assay was used to detect the expression of telomerase. Forty specimen were obtained from medicinal abortion (experiment group) and forty were from normal induced abortion (control group).Results Positive expression, of chorion telomerase was significantly different between the experimental group (28%, 11/40) and the control group (73%, 29/40) (P<0. 05).While in decidua, the positive rate was 28% (11/40) in the experimental group and 20% (9/40) in the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05).Conclusion It is suggested that miferistone may significantly decrease the telomerase activity in chorion but not in decidua.

  10. Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk. Edgew

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    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms.

  11. Studies on Expression of IGF-II Gene in Deciduas Derived from Medical Abortion Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of insulin-like growth factor-Ⅱ (IGF-Ⅱ ) upon the maintenance of decidua in early pregnancy and its relationship with progesterone, as well as its role in medical abortion. Materials & Methods Decidua tissue was obtained from 28 women who undergoing surgical abortion and 39 for medical abortion respectively at 5~7 weeks of gestation. The extracted total RNA was reversely transcripted and amplified by PCR with spe cific primers (IGF-Ⅱ and β-actin). The products were semi-quantitated by MIAS 300 system and qualitatively analyzed by southern blotting. Results The expression of IGF-Ⅱ gene in decidua from surgical abortion was signif icantly higher than that from medical abortion (P<0.05). The average IGF-Ⅱ gene transcription values were 1. 54±0.79 and 0.72±0.39 respectively. The results of southern blotting proved qualitatively that the RT-PCR products were IGF-Ⅱ cDNA. Conclusion IGF-Ⅱ plays a role in the maintenance of decidua in early pregnancy. It may act as a mediator of progestin. It's also involved in the molecular mechanism of mifepristone.

  12. FEATURES OF VASCULAR DECIDUA IN THE WOMEN WITH INTRAUTERINE SEPTUM

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    V. I. Gladchuk

    2015-12-01

    Одесский национальный медицинский университет, Одесса, Украина   Summary The density of microcirculatory vessels in parietal and basal parts of deciduas (PD and BD was less when compared with the control by 28,8% (P<0,05 and 29,7% (P<0,05 correspondently in women with complete intrauteral septum who had infertility period, which lasted not less than 5 years (from 5,0 up to 13,5 years with the consequent first trimester miscarriage have been investigated. The general square of microcirculatory vessels in secretory part of decidual endometrium exceeded control value by 24,0% (P<0,05, while lumen square of vessels in PD and BD exceeded control data by 57,3% and 50,5% (P<0,05 correspondently. Established differencies of microcirculatory vessels are considered as a pathogenetic of the infertility and miscarriage in women with intrauteral septum.   Key words: vessels of decidua, intrauteral septum, miscarriage, infertility.       Реферат У женщин с полной внутриматочной перегородкой, у которых наблюдался период бесплодия период бесплодия составил не менее 5 лет (от 5,0 до 13,5 лет с последующим спонтанным прерыванием беременности в первом триместре, плотность сосудистой сети в париетальной и базальной частей децидуальной оболочки (ПД и БД была меньше чем в группе контроля на 28,8% (P<0,05 и на 29,7% (P<0,05 соответственно. Общая площадь сосудистой сети в секреторном эндометрии децидуальной оболочки была на 24,0% больше, чем в контроле (P<0,05, а площадь поперечного сечения сосудов в ПД

  13. Variation of proximate composition and minerals within different parts of capparis decidua (forssk.) edgew. As a function of harvesting seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gull, T.; Sultana, B.; Mahmood, Z.; Anwar, F.; Nouman, W.; Shahid, S. A.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Capparis decidua (C. decidua) is an important medicinal plant from the family Capparaceae. The present study explores the proximate (moisture, protein, crude fiber, dry matter) composition and minerals profile of various parts including stem bark, fruit shoot, root and flower of C. decidua harvested from Cholistan desert, Punjab, Pakistan in two seasons i.e. April and September. C. decidua fruits contained relatively higher amounts of proximate constituents followed by the flowers especially in case of protein while stem bark and roots mainly contained fiber. In comparison with other parts, the content of minerals was higher while traces of heavy metals i.e. Ni, Co and Cd were recorded in C. decidua fruits and flowers. Overall, harvesting seasons exhibited a significant (p<0.05) effect on the distribution of most of the constituents within different parts of Capparis decidua. The samples collected in September were found to be richer in protein and minerals and vice versa. The results of this study support that C. decidua fruits and flowers can be explored as a viable source of minerals and vegetable protein both for human beings and livestock to supplement nutrition. (author)

  14. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

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    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  15. Studies on Expression of IGF-Ⅱ Gene in Deciduas De-rived from Medical Abortion Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峻; 汪玉宝; 毛叶萌; 毛全福; 杜晓岩

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of insulin-like growth factor- Ⅱ (IGF- Ⅱ ) upon the maintenance of decidua in early pregnancy and its relationship with progesterone, as well as its role in medical abortion.Materials & Methods Decidua tissue was obtained from 28 women who undergoing surgical abortion and 39 for medical abortion respectively at 5~7 weeks of gestation.The extracted total RNA was reversely transeripted and amplified by PCR with spe-cific primers (IGF- Ⅱ and β-actin). The products were semi-quantitated by MIAS 300 system and qualitatively analyzed by southern blotting.Results The expression of IGF- Ⅱ gene in decidua from surgical abortion was signif-icantly higher than that from medical abortion (P<0. 05). The average IGF- Ⅱ gene transcription values were 1.54±0. 79 and 0. 72± 0. 39 respectively. The results of southern blotting proved qualitatively that the RT-PCR products were IGF- Ⅱ cDNA.Conclusion IGF- Ⅱ plays a role in the maintenance of decidua in early pregnancy. It may act as a mediator of progestin. It's also involved in the molecular mechanism of mifepristone.

  16. Isolation and cellular properties of mesenchymal cells derived from the decidua of human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Daisuke; Shofuda, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Ban, Chiaki; Ueda, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Mami; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2011-09-01

    The clinical promise of cell-based therapies is generally recognized, and has driven an intense search for good cell sources. In this study, we isolated plastic-adherent cells from human term decidua vera, called decidua-derived-mesenchymal cells (DMCs), and compared their properties with those of bone marrow-derived-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). The DMCs strongly expressed the mesenchymal cell marker vimentin, but not cytokeratin 19 or HLA-G, and had a high proliferative potential. That is, they exhibited a typical fibroblast-like morphology for over 30 population doublings. Cells phenotypically identical to the DMCs were identified in the decidua vera, and genotyping confirmed that the DMCs were derived from the maternal components of the fetal adnexa. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression pattern of CD antigens on the DMCs was almost identical to that on BM-MSCs, but some DMCs expressed the CD45 antigen, and over 50% of them also expressed anti-fibroblast antigen. In vitro, the DMCs showed good differentiation into chondrocytes and moderate differentiation into adipocytes, but scant evidence of osteogenesis, compared with the BM-MSCs. Gene expression analysis showed that, compared with BM-MSCs, the DMCs expressed higher levels of TWIST2 and RUNX2 (which are associated with early mesenchymal development and/or proliferative capacity), several matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, 3, 10, and 12), and cytokines (BMP2 and TGFB2), and lower levels of MSX2, interleukin 26, and HGF. Although DMCs did not show the full multipotency of BM-MSCs, their higher proliferative ability indicates that their cultivation would require less maintenance. Furthermore, the use of DMCs avoids the ethical concerns associated with the use of embryonic tissues, because they are derived from the maternal portion of the placenta, which is otherwise discarded. Thus, the unique properties of DMCs give them several advantages for clinical use, making them an interesting and

  17. Global alteration in gene expression profiles of deciduas from women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, S A; Fan, X; Hong, Y; Sang, Q-X; Giaccia, A; Westphal, L M; Lathi, R B; Krieg, A J; Nayak, N R

    2012-09-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) occurs in ∼5% of women. However, the etiology is still poorly understood. Defects in decidualization of the endometrium during early pregnancy contribute to several pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of idiopathic RPL. We performed microarray analysis to identify gene expression alterations in the deciduas of idiopathic RPL patients. Control patients had one antecedent term delivery, but were undergoing dilation and curettage for current aneuploid miscarriage. Gene expression differences were evaluated using both pathway and gene ontology (GO) analysis. Selected genes were validated using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A total of 155 genes were found to be significantly dysregulated in the deciduas of RPL patients (>2-fold change, P genes up-regulated and 133 genes down-regulated. GO analysis linked a large percentage of genes to discrete biological functions, including immune response (23%), cell signaling (18%) and cell invasion (17.1%), and pathway analysis revealed consistent changes in both the interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-8 pathways. All genes in the IL-8 pathway were up-regulated while genes in the IL-1 pathway were down-regulated. Although both pathways can promote inflammation, IL-1 pathway activity is important for normal implantation. Additionally, genes known to be critical for degradation of the extracellular matrix, including matrix metalloproteinase 26 and serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal-type 1, were also highly up-regulated. In this first microarray approach to decidual gene expression in RPL patients, our data suggest that dysregulation of genes associated with cell invasion and immunity may contribute significantly to idiopathic recurrent miscarriage.

  18. Human Decidua-Derived Mesenchymal Cells Are a Promising Source for the Generation and Cell Banking of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shofuda, Tomoko; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Fukusumi, Hayato; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Bamba, Yohei; Yoshitatsu, Sumiko; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Furue, Miho Kusuda; Kohara, Arihiro; Akamatsu, Wado; Okada, Yohei; Okano, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Mami

    2012-01-01

    Placental tissue is a biomaterial with remarkable potential for use in regenerative medicine. It has a three-layer structure derived from the fetus (amnion and chorion) and the mother (decidua), and it contains huge numbers of cells. Moreover, placental tissue can be collected without any physical danger to the donor and can be matched with a variety of HLA types. The decidua-derived mesenchymal cells (DMCs) are highly proliferative fibroblast-like cells that express a similar pattern of CD a...

  19. Cytological and molecular relationships between Larix decidua, L. leptolepis and Larix x eurolepis: identification of species-specific Chromosoms and synchronization of mitotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkongolo, K K; Klimaszewska, K

    1995-05-01

    The effects of different concentrations of hydroxyurea (HU) and aphidicolin (APH) on the mitotic index (MI) were compared in cells of embryogenic cultures of Larix decidua, L. leptolepis, and L. decidua x L. leptolepis (Larix x eurolepis). The highest enhancement of the MI was obtained with HU at 1.25 mM and 0.6% colchicine. In general the MI decreased with an increase of HU or APH concentration (over 1.25 mM for HU and 5 μM for APH). Detailed karyotype analyses were made on the somatic complement of L. decidua, L. leptolepis, and their hybrid. These karyotypes were asymmetrical and advanced, with the smaller chromosomes being more submedian than the larger ones. The topography of chromosome 7 of L. decidua and chromosome 9 of L. leptolepis was found to be the most significant cytotaxonomic characteristic in differentiating these two species. Cytological data indicate that Japanese larch (L. leptolepis) is phylogenetically closer to European larch (L. decidua) than the Siberian larch group (L. sibirica and L. sukaczewii). Chromosomes with unusually long kinetochores were found in both species and the hybrid. Hyperploid cells (2n = 25) were observed in the hybrid (Larix x eurolepis) material analyzed. A genomic L. decidua probe hybridized strongly to dots of DNA from L. leptolepis indicating that there is high sequence homology between these two species.

  20. The decidua of preeclamptic-like BPH/5 mice exhibits an exaggerated inflammatory response during early pregnancy.

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    Heyward, C Y; Sones, J L; Lob, H E; Yuen, L C; Abbott, K E; Huang, W; Begun, Z R; Butler, S D; August, A; Leifer, C A; Davisson, R L

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy characterized by late-gestation hypertension and proteinuria. Because the only definitive treatment is delivery of the fetus and placenta, preeclampsia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality of both mother and fetus. The BPH/5 mouse model, which spontaneously develops a syndrome strikingly similar to preeclampsia, displays excessive inflammation and suppression of inflammation improves pregnancy outcomes. During early pregnancy, decidual macrophages play an important role in promoting maternal tolerance to fetal antigens and regulating tissue remodeling, two functions that are critical for normal placental development. BPH/5 pregnancies are characterized by abnormal placentation; therefore, we hypothesized that macrophage localization and/or function is altered during early pregnancy at the site of placental formation (the decidua) compared to C57BL/6 controls. At early gestation time points, before the onset of maternal hypertension or proteinuria, there was a reduction in the number of macrophages in BPH/5 decidua and a concomitant increase in activated T cells compared with C57BL/6. BPH/5 decidua also exhibited decreased expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and increased expression of pro-inflammatory, inducible nitric oxide synthase. Together, these data suggest that a reduction in decidual macrophages during pregnancy is associated with immune activation in BPH/5 mice, inadequate placental development and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antitermite Activities of C. decidua Extracts and Pure Compounds against Indian White Termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae

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    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we have tested antitermite responses of Capparis decidua stem, root, flower, and fruit extracts and pure compounds to Odontotermes obesus in various bioassays. Crude stem extract has shown very high susceptibility and very low LD50 values, that is, 14.171 μg/mg in worker termites. From stem extract, three pure compounds were isolated in pure form namely, heneicosylhexadecanoate (CDS2, triacontanol (CDS3, and 2-carboxy-1, 1-dimethylpyrrolidine (CDS8 which have shown very low LD50 value in a range of 5.537–10.083 μg/mg. Similarly, one novel compound 6-(1-hydroxy-non-3-enyl-tetrahydropyran-2-one (CDF1 was isolated from flower extract that has shown an LD50 8.08 μg/gm. Repellent action of compounds was tested in a Y-shaped glass olfactometer in which CDF1 compounds have significantly repelled termites to the opposite arm. Besides this, C. decidua extracts have shown significant reduction (P<0.05 and 0.01 in termite infestation in garden saplings when it was coated on cotton tags and employed over tree trunks. Further, C. deciduas stem extract was used for wood seasoning, which gave very good results as test wood sticks have shown significantly (P<0.05 and 0.01 very low termite infestation.

  2. Micropropagation of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. - a tree of arid horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, N S; Shekhawat, N S

    1995-12-01

    A method for micropropagation of mature trees of Capparis decidua was developed. Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal explants on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium+0.1mgl(-1) NAA+5.0mgl(-1)BAP+additives (50mgl(-1) ascorbic acid and25 mgl(-1) each of adenine sulphate, L-arginine and citric acid) at 28 ± 2°C, 12 h/dphotoperiod and 35-40 μmol m(-2)s(-1) photon flux density. The shoots were multiplied by (i) subculture of nodal shoot segments onto MS +0.1 mgl(--1) IAA+1.0mgl(-1) BAPH+additives, and (ii) repeated transfer of original explant onto MS+ 0.1mgl(-1) IAA+mg l(-1) BAP+additives, at intervals of 3 weeks. Sixty to 70% of the shoots rooted when pulse treated with 100 mg l(-1) IBA in half strength MS liquid medium for 4h, and then transferred onto hormone-free half-strength agar-gelled MS basal saltmedium. Incubation in dark at 33 ± 2°C for 6d favoured root induction. In vitro hardened plants were transferred to pots.

  3. Effects of Drought and Salinity on European Larch (Larix decidua Mill. Seedlings

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    Ioana M. Plesa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Larix decidua, the European larch, is not normally affected by drought or salinity in its natural habitats, but it may be when grown as an ornamental tree, by the widespread practice of winter de-icing of mountain roads with NaCl, and because of global warming-induced environmental changes. The responses of two-month-old larch seedlings to 30 days water deficit (withholding irrigation or salt stress (150 mM NaCl treatments were studied by determining stress-induced changes in several growth parameters and biochemical markers (ion and osmolyte contents, level of oxidative stress, activation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Both treatments caused the inhibition of growth, degradation of photosynthetic pigments, a small increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress biomarker, and the activation of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR. In all cases, salinity appeared to have stronger effects on the seedlings than water deficit. The presence of relatively high concentrations of glycine betaine, both in control and stressed plants, may represent a constitutive mechanism of defence against stress in European larch. Additionally, other responses were specific for salt stress and included the activation of K+ transport from roots to shoots and the accumulation of Pro as an osmoprotectant.

  4. Larix decidua Bark as a Source of Phytoconstituents: An LC-MS Study

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    Valeria Baldan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Larix decidua bark is a waste of the timber industry and is widely diffused in Northern Italy. This material can be considered a good source of antioxidants and phytoconstituents with possible use in cosmetic or nutraceutical products. In this study, simple extraction of larch bark was performed using mixtures of ethanol/water. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition of larch bark extract was studied using LC-MSn methods and the main constituents were identified as flavonoids, spiro-polyphenols, and procyanidins. To confirm the identification by LC-MS semi-preparative HPLC was performed in order to isolate the main constituents and verify the structures by 1H-NMR. Antioxidant properties were studied using an in vitro approach combining DPPH assay and LC-MS in order to establish different roles of the various classes of phytochemicasl of the extract. DPPH activity of some of the isolated compounds was also assessed. The overall results indicate this waste material as a good source of antioxidant compounds, mainly procyanidins, whichresulted the most active constituents in the DPPH assay.

  5. Mesenchymal Stem/Multipotent Stromal Cells from Human Decidua Basalis Reduce Endothelial Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshabibi, Manal A; Al Huqail, Al Joharah; Khatlani, Tanvir; Abomaray, Fawaz M; Alaskar, Ahmed S; Alawad, Abdullah O; Kalionis, Bill; Abumaree, Mohamed Hassan

    2017-09-15

    Recently, we reported the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the decidua basalis of human placenta (DBMSCs). These cells express a unique combination of molecules involved in many important cellular functions, which make them good candidates for cell-based therapies. The endothelium is a highly specialized, metabolically active interface between blood and the underlying tissues. Inflammatory factors stimulate the endothelium to undergo a change to a proinflammatory and procoagulant state (ie, endothelial cell activation). An initial response to endothelial cell activation is monocyte adhesion. Activation typically involves increased proliferation and enhanced expression of adhesion and inflammatory markers by endothelial cells. Sustained endothelial cell activation leads to a type of damage to the body associated with inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the ability of DBMSCs to protect endothelial cells from activation through monocyte adhesion, by modulating endothelial proliferation, migration, adhesion, and inflammatory marker expression. Endothelial cells were cocultured with DBMSCs, monocytes, monocyte-pretreated with DBMSCs and DBMSC-pretreated with monocytes were also evaluated. Monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells was examined following treatment with DBMSCs. Expression of endothelial cell adhesion and inflammatory markers was also analyzed. The interaction between DBMSCs and monocytes reduced endothelial cell proliferation and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. In contrast, endothelial cell migration increased in response to DBMSCs and monocytes. Endothelial cell expression of adhesion and inflammatory molecules was reduced by DBMSCs and DBMSC-pretreated with monocytes. The mechanism of reduced endothelial proliferation involved enhanced phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Our study shows for the first time that DBMSCs protect endothelial cells from activation by

  6. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF SUBSTANCES WITH REDUCTION POTENTIAL AT LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA, PICEA ABIES (L. KARST. AND THUJA ORIENTALIS L

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    Ioana Anca Ieremia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica, Picea abies (L. Karst and Thuja orientalis L. The treatment was applied in one variant, germinated seeds in ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit in 3 concentrations.

  7. Genetic diveristy and breeding of larch (Larix decidua Mill. in Romania

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    Georgeta Mihai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it is one of the most important coniferous species, the larch(Larix decidua Mill. covers a restricted area in Romania, only 0.3% of the forest area, most being represented by artificial stands. The natural area of the larch is fragmented, being concentrated into five genetic centers: Ceahlãu, Ciucas, Bucegi, Lotru and Apuseni. The speed of growth, high productivity, high wood quality and resistanceto adversities resulted in initiating research on the genetic variability of the larch. In 1978 and 1982 respectively, by means of international collaboration, two series of comparative trials were installed, with Romanian and foreign provenances of larch, totalizing 6 experimental areas. Selection of seed stands followed, andamong them, more than 300 plus trees. There have been installed 26 orchards (134 hectares of which 3 (15 hectares are interspecific seed orchards (Larix x eurolepis.This paper presents the results obtained over the last years, regarding the continuing larch breeding program; genetic variation of the main characters in multisite provenances comparative trials planted in 1982, evaluation of the genetic parameters in a clonal seed orchard in order to advance to the second generation seed orchard, and a study of the genetic diversity by means of primary biochemical markers. The provenance tests include 24 populations of larch, 13 Romanian and 11 from the following countries: Germany (4, Austria (2, Belgium (1 and the Czech Republic (4. The studied characters are total height, diameter at 1.30 meters, volume/tree, branches characters, stem straightness and survival. At the age of 25 years from planting, the variance analysis reveals significant interpopulation genetic variation for all the studied characters. The expected genetic gain and the genetic parameters, estimated inthe Adâncata larch seed orchard, shows that selection on the clones level, in the first generation seed orchard, can be successfully applied, being

  8. Genetic diversity and breeding of larch (Larix decidua Mill. in Romania

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    Georgeta Mihai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although it is one of the most important coniferous species, the larch (Larix decidua Mill. covers a restricted area in Romania, only 0.3% of the forest area, most being represented by artificial stands. The natural area of the larch is fragmented, being concentrated into five genetic centers: Ceahlău, Ciucas, Bucegi, Lotru and Apuseni. The speed of growth, high productivity, high wood quality and resistance to adversities resulted in initiating research on the genetic variability of the larch. In 1978 and 1982 respectively, by means of international collaboration, two series of comparative trials were installed, with Romanian and foreign provenances of larch, totalizing 6 experimental areas. Selection of seed stands followed, and among them, more than 300 plus trees. There have been installed 26 orchards (134 hectares of which 3 (15 hectares are interspecific seed orchards (Larix x eurolepis. This paper presents the results obtained over the last years, regarding the continuing larch breeding program; genetic variation of the main characters in multisite provenances comparative trials planted in 1982, evaluation of the genetic parameters in a clonal seed orchard in order to advance to the second generation seed orchard, and a study of the genetic diversity by means of primary biochemical markers. The provenance tests include 24 populations of larch, 13 Romanian and 11 from the following countries: Germany (4, Austria (2, Belgium (1 and the Czech Republic (4. The studied characters are total height, diameter at 1.30 meters, volume/tree, branches characters, stem straightness and survival. At the age of 25 years from planting, the variance analysis reveals significant interpopulation genetic variation for all the studied characters. The expected genetic gain and the genetic parameters, estimated in the Adâncata larch seed orchard, shows that selection on the clones level, in the first generation seed orchard, can be successfully applied, being

  9. Methylated Fatty Acids from Heartwood and Bark of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua: Effect of Strong Acid Treatment

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    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylated fatty acid (FA compounds in the heartwood and bark of some softwood species, specifically Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua, grown in the Czech Republic were evaluated. Strong H2SO4 was used for methylation of the lipids. The highest content of lipid was found in P. abies bark (40.132 mg/g o.d. sample, and the lowest content was in A. alba wood (11.027 mg/g o.d. sample. The highest concentration of FAs was observed in L. decidua bark. The highest percentages of FAs in wood of P. sylvestris were arachidic acid and oleic acid. In bark, the highest percentages of FAs were stearic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. The FAs with the highest concentrations in A. alba wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and margarinic, and those in bark were behenic acid, lignoceric acid, and arachidic acid. P. abies wood FAs showed arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and margarinic acid, and the bark contained lignoceric acid and arachidic acid. The FAs of L. decidua wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid, and in bark they were pentacosylic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, lignoceric acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid. The lack of typically dominant unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 18:1, 18:2, compared to literature values were attributed to the application of strong acid for the hydrolysis.

  10. Cultivation of corneal endothelial cells on a pericellular matrix prepared from human decidua-derived mesenchymal cells.

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    Ryohei Numata

    Full Text Available The barrier and pump functions of the corneal endothelium are essential for the maintenance of corneal transparency. Although corneal transplantation is the only current therapy for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction, the potential of tissue-engineering techniques to provide highly efficient and less invasive therapy in comparison to corneal transplantation has been highly anticipated. However, culturing human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs is technically difficult, and there is no established culture protocol. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a pericellular matrix prepared from human decidua-derived mesenchymal cells (PCM-DM as an animal-free substrate for HCEC culture for future clinical applications. PCM-DM enhanced the adhesion of monkey CECs (MCECs via integrin, promoted cell proliferation, and suppressed apoptosis. The HCECs cultured on the PCM-DM showed a hexagonal morphology and a staining profile characteristic of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and ZO-1 at the plasma membrane in vivo, whereas the control HCECs showed a fibroblastic phenotype. The cell density of the cultured HCECs on the PCM-DM was significantly higher than that of the control cells. These results indicate that PCM-DM provides a feasible xeno-free matrix substrate and that it offers a viable in vitro expansion protocol for HCECs while maintaining cellular functions for use as a subsequent clinical intervention for tissue-engineered based therapy of corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by In-Situ Transesterification in Capparis Deciduas Seed

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    Prasad E FUNDE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available (FAME Fatty acid methyl ester is made virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible and animal fats. Fatty acid methyl ester operates in compression ignition engines like petro-diesel. Fatty acid methyl ester can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel. Petrodiesel can be replaced by biodiesel due to its superiority. It has various advantages. The seeds of Capparis deciduas are found to contain non-edible oil in the range of about 63.75 %. The percentage of biodiesel yield increases with concentration of KOH as a catalyst. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the cost effective new source of energy by single step reaction i.e. production of oil by combining extraction and reaction of extract with the mixture of alcohols. In this article the effect of catalyst concentration, time, water content and temperature on in-situ transesterification is studied to obtain optimum yield and Fatty acid methyl ester (Biodiesel Fuel characterization tests show the striking similarity of various physical & chemical properties and campers to ASTM standards.

  12. Combining molecular-marker and chemical analysis of Capparis deciduas (Capparaceae in the Thar Desert of Western Rajasthan (India

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    Sushil Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thar Desert, a very inhospitable place, accommodates only plant species that survive acute drought, unpredictable precipitation, and those can grow in the limited moisture of sandy soils. Capparis decidua is among one of the few plants able to grow well under these conditions. This species is highly exploited and has been naturally taken, as local people use it for various purposes like food, timber and fuel, although, no management or conservation efforts have been established. The present study was conducted in this arid area of Western Rajasthan (India with the aim to obtain preliminary molecular information about this group of plants. We evaluated diversity among 46 samples of C. decidua using chemical parameters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Fourteen chemical parameters and eight minerals (total 22 variables of this species fruits were estimated. A total of 14 RAPD primers produced 235 band positions, of which 81.27% were polymorphic. Jaccard s similarity coefficients for RAPD primers ranged from 0.34 to 0.86 with a mean genetic similarity of 0.50. As per observed coefficient of variation, NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber content was found to be the most variable trait followed by starch and soluble carbohydrate. The Manhattan dissimilarity coefficient values for chemical parameters ranged between 0.02-0.31 with an average of 0.092. The present study revealed a very low correlation (0.01 between chemical parameters and RAPD-based matrices. The low correlation between chemical- and RAPD-based matrices indicated that the two methods were different and highly variable. The chemical-based diversity will assist in selection of nutritionally rich samples for medicinal purpose, while genetic diversity to face natural challenges and find sustainable ways to promote conservation for future use.El desierto de Thar, un lugar muy inhóspito, alberga sólo a las especies de plantas capaces de resistir a condiciones de sequ

  13. Preculturing effect of thidiazuron on in vitro shoot multiplication and micropropagation round in Capparis decidua (Forsk.) an important multipurpose plant.

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    Bukhari, Najat A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, Kahkashan

    2016-09-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for clonal multiplication of an important shrub: Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew, through in vitro shoot induction and multiplication from nodal explants. Pretreatment of nodal explants in a liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with various thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations at relatively high levels (5-100 μM) for different time duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d), proved a significant approach for in vitro shoot production. After an initial exposure time to TDZ, nodal explants were inoculated onto a MS basal medium devoid of TDZ for further induction and proliferation. The highest regeneration rate (85%), average number of shoots/explant (8.7 ± 0.22) and maximum shoot length (3.9 ± 0.33 cm) were obtained from the nodal explants exposed to 50 μM TDZ for 8 d. The nodal explants excised from the proliferated cultures of TDZ (50 μM) for 8 d were used as explants and showed an enhancement rate after next three round of in vitro propagation. Best results for rooting was obtained by ex vitro treatment of shoots with 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 20 min. as it produced an average of 5.7 ± 0.41 roots per microshoot with 4.4 ± 0.39 cm root length in 84% shoots. Different planting substrates was tested for maximum survival of hardening off micropropagated plantlets and soilrite proved most effective than others as 97.1 ± 7.21 plantlets survived. All micropropagated plants grew well in natural conditions and showed similar morphology to the mother plant.

  14. miR-375 induces human decidua basalis-derived stromal cells to become insulin-producing cells.

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    Shaer, Anahita; Azarpira, Negar; Vahdati, Akbar; Karimi, Mohammad Hosein; Shariati, Mehrdad

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on the development of renewable sources of isletreplacement tissue for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. Placental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising source for regenerative medicine due to their plasticity and easy availability. They have the potential to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. miR-375 is a micro RNA that is expressed in the pancreas and involved in islet development. Human placental decidua basalis MSCs (PDB-MSCs) were cultured from full-term human placenta. The immunophenotype of the isolated cells was checked for CD90, CD105, CD44, CD133 and CD34 markers. The MSCs (P3) were chemically transfected with hsa-miR-375. Total RNA was extracted 4 and 6 days after transfection. The expressions of insulin, NGN3, GLUT2, PAX4, PAX6, KIR6.2, NKX6.1, PDX1, and glucagon genes were evaluated using real-time qPCR. On day 6, we tested the potency of the clusters in response to the high glucose challenge and assessed the presence of insulin and NGN3 proteins via immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that more than 90% of the cells were positive for CD90, CD105 and CD44 and negative for CD133 and CD34. Morphological changes were followed from day 2. Cell clusters formed during day 6. Insulin-producing clusters showed a deep red color with DTZ. The expression of pancreatic-specific transcription factors increased remarkably during the four days after transfection and significantly increased on day 7. The clusters were positive for insulin and NGN3 proteins, and C-peptide and insulin secretion increased in response to changes in the glucose concentration (2.8 mM and 16.7 mM). In conclusion, the MSCs could be programmed into functional insulin-producing cells by transfection of miR-375.

  15. CO2 enrichment alters diurnal stem radius fluctuations of 36-yr-old Larix decidua growing at the alpine tree line.

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    Dawes, Melissa A; Zweifel, Roman; Dawes, Nicholas; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2014-06-01

    To understand how trees at high elevations might use water differently in the future, we investigated the effects of CO2 enrichment and soil warming (separately and combined) on the water relations of Larix decidua growing at the tree line in the Swiss Alps. We assessed diurnal stem radius fluctuations using point dendrometers and applied a hydraulic plant model using microclimate and soil water potential data as inputs. Trees exposed to CO2 enrichment for 9 yr showed smaller diurnal stem radius contractions (by 46 ± 16%) and expansions (42 ± 16%) compared with trees exposed to ambient CO2 . Additionally, there was a delay in the timing of daily maximum (40 ± 12 min) and minimum (63 ± 14 min) radius values for trees growing under elevated CO2 . Parameters optimized with the hydraulic model suggested that CO2 -enriched trees had an increased flow resistance between the xylem and bark, representing a more buffered water supply system. Soil warming did not alter diurnal fluctuation dynamics or the CO2 response. Elevated CO2 altered the hydraulic water flow and storage system within L. decidua trees, which might have contributed to enhanced growth during 9 yr of CO2 enrichment and could ultimately influence the future competitive ability of this key tree-line species. © 2014 WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research - SLF. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. IFPA Meeting 2010 Workshops Report II: Placental pathology; trophoblast invasion; fetal sex; parasites and the placenta; decidua and embryonic or fetal loss; trophoblast differentiation and syncytialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khan, A; Aye, I L; Barsoum, I; Borbely, A; Cebral, E; Cerchi, G; Clifton, V L; Collins, S; Cotechini, T; Davey, A; Flores-Martin, J; Fournier, T; Franchi, A M; Fretes, R E; Graham, C H; Godbole, G; Hansson, S R; Headley, P L; Ibarra, C; Jawerbaum, A; Kemmerling, U; Kudo, Y; Lala, P K; Lassance, L; Lewis, R M; Menkhorst, E; Morris, C; Nobuzane, T; Ramos, G; Rote, N; Saffery, R; Salafia, C; Sarr, D; Schneider, H; Sibley, C; Singh, A T; Sivasubramaniyam, T S; Soares, M J; Vaughan, O; Zamudio, S; Lash, G E

    2011-03-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting. At IFPA Meeting 2010 diverse topics were discussed in twelve themed workshops, six of which are summarized in this report. 1. The placental pathology workshop focused on clinical correlates of placenta accreta/percreta. 2. Mechanisms of regulation of trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling were discussed in the trophoblast invasion workshop. 3. The fetal sex and intrauterine stress workshop explored recent work on placental sex differences and discussed them in the context of whether boys live dangerously in the womb.4. The workshop on parasites addressed inflammatory responses as a sign of interaction between placental tissue and parasites. 5. The decidua and embryonic/fetal loss workshop focused on key regulatory mediators in the decidua, embryo and fetus and how alterations in expression may contribute to different diseases and adverse conditions of pregnancy. 6. The trophoblast differentiation and syncytialisation workshop addressed the regulation of villous cytotrophoblast differentiation and how variations may lead to placental dysfunction and pregnancy complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental control of CO2-assimilation and leaf conductance in Larix decidua Mill. : I. A comparison of contrasting natural environments.

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    Benecke, U; Schulze, E -D; Matyssek, R; Havranek, W M

    1981-08-01

    CO 2 -assimilation and leaf conductance of Larix decidua Mill. were measured in the field at high (Patscherkofel, Austria) and low (Bayreuth, Germany) elevation in Europe, and outside its natural range along an altitudinal gradient in New Zealand.Phenology of leaf and stem growth showed New Zealand sites to have much longer growing seasons than in Europe, so that the timberline (1,330 m) season was almost twice as long as at the Austrian timberline (1,950 m).The maximum rates of photosynthesis, A max , were similar at all sites after completion of leaf growth, namely 3 to 3.5 μmol m -2 s -1 . Only the sun needles of the Bayreuth tree reached 3.5 to 5 μmol m -2 s -1 . Light response curves for CO 2 -assimilation changed during leaf ontogeny, the slope being less in young than in adult leaves. The temperature optimum for 90% of maximum photosynthesis was at all sites similar between ca. 12-28°C for much of the summer. Only at the cooler high altitude timberline sites were optima lower at ca. 10-16°C in developing needles during early summer.A linear correlation existed between A max and leaf conductance at A max , and this showed no difference between the sites except for sun needles at Bayreuth.Leaf conductance responded strongly to light intensity and this was concurrent with the light response of CO 2 -uptake. A short-term and a long-term effect were differentiated. With increasing age maximum rates of CO 2 -uptake and leaf conductance at A max increased, whereas short-term response during changes in light declined. The stomata became less responsive with increasing age and tended to remain open. The stomatal responses to light have a significant effect on the water use efficiency during diurnal courses. A higher water use efficiency was found for similar atmospheric conditions in spring than in autumn.Stomata responded with progressive closure to declining air humidity in a similar manner under dissimilar climates. Humidity response thus showed insensitivity

  18. Human Decidua-Derived Mesenchymal Cells Are a Promising Source for the Generation and Cell Banking of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofuda, Tomoko; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Fukusumi, Hayato; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Bamba, Yohei; Yoshitatsu, Sumiko; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Furue, Miho Kusuda; Kohara, Arihiro; Akamatsu, Wado; Okada, Yohei; Okano, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Mami; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2013-01-01

    Placental tissue is a biomaterial with remarkable potential for use in regenerative medicine. It has a three-layer structure derived from the fetus (amnion and chorion) and the mother (decidua), and it contains huge numbers of cells. Moreover, placental tissue can be collected without any physical danger to the donor and can be matched with a variety of HLA types. The decidua-derived mesenchymal cells (DMCs) are highly proliferative fibroblast-like cells that express a similar pattern of CD antigens as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (BM-MSCs). Here we demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be efficiently generated from DMCs by retroviral transfer of reprogramming factor genes. DMC-hiPS cells showed equivalent characteristics to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in colony morphology, global gene expression profile (including human pluripotent stem cell markers), DNA methylation status of the OCT3/4 and NANOG promoters, and ability to differentiate into components of the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. The RNA expression of XIST and the methylation status of its promoter region suggested that DMC-iPSCs, when maintained undifferentiated and pluripotent, had three distinct states: (1) complete X-chromosome reactivation, (2) one inactive X-chromosome, or (3) an epigenetic aberration. Because DMCs are derived from the maternal portion of the placenta, they can be collected with the full consent of the adult donor and have considerable ethical advantages for cell banking and the subsequent generation of human iPS cells for regenerative applications. PMID:26858858

  19. GC/MS Analysis of Oil Extractives from Wood and Bark of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua

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    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood and bark oil extractives components (OECs of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua grown in the Czech Republic were analyzed using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The analysis showed the presence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, diterpenoids, and resin acids. The highest percentages of OECs in the wood of P. sylvestris were α-fenchyl alcohol (26.04%, D-fenchyl alcohol (12.39%, and L-borneol (8.81%; the OECs in the bark included α-methyl-γ-butyrolactone (31.88% and isodecyl octyl phthalate (15.85%. The most frequently occurring OEC in A. alba wood were 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (73.36%, α-cedrol (10.08%, and 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,6-heptatriene (7.35%; the most OECs in the bark were di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (59.83%, methyl cyclopentane (16.63%, and 13-epimanool (6.31%. P. abies wood OECs included 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (29.42%, α-cedrol (26.98%, ∆3-carene (6.08%, and terpinen-4-ol (5.42%; the most OECs in the bark were di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.91%, cyclohexane (12.89%, caryophyllene oxide (8.90%, and α-pinene (4.59%. OECs of L. decidua wood were α-terpineol (26.06%, isoborneol (14.12%, camphene (11.78%, D-fenchyl alcohol (10.39%, and larixol (4.85%; OECs in the bark were larixol (33.29%, phthalic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (16.96%, 13-epimanool (15.40%, and cyclohexane (8.44%.

  20. Human decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into functional alveolar type II-like cells that synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant complexes.

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    Alejandro Cerrada

    Full Text Available Lung alveolar type II (ATII cells are specialized in the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension to minimize the work of breathing. Surfactant synthesis, assembly and secretion are closely regulated and its impairment is associated with severe respiratory disorders. At present, well-established ATII cell culture models are not available. In this work, Decidua-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (DMSCs have been differentiated into Alveolar Type II- Like Cells (ATII-LCs, which display membranous cytoplasmic organelles resembling lamellar bodies, the organelles involved in surfactant storage and secretion by native ATII cells, and accumulate disaturated phospholipid species, a surfactant hallmark. Expression of characteristic ATII cells markers was demonstrated in ATII-LCs at gene and protein level. Mimicking the response of ATII cells to secretagogues, ATII-LCs were able to exocytose lipid-rich assemblies, which displayed highly surface active capabilities, including faster interfacial adsorption kinetics than standard native surfactant, even in the presence of inhibitory agents. ATII-LCs could constitute a highly useful ex vivo model for the study of surfactant biogenesis and the mechanisms involved in protein processing and lipid trafficking, as well as the packing and storage of surfactant complexes.

  1. Tracing fresh assimilates through Larix decidua exposed to elevated CO₂ and soil warming at the alpine treeline using compound-specific stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Kathrin; Rinne, Katja T; Hagedorn, Frank; Dawes, Melissa A; Saurer, Matthias; Hoch, Günter; Werner, Roland A; Buchmann, Nina; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2013-02-01

    How will carbon source-sink relations of 35-yr-old larch trees (Larix decidua) at the alpine treeline respond to changes in atmospheric CO(2) and climate? We evaluated the effects of previously elevated CO(2) concentrations (9 yr, 580 ppm, ended the previous season) and ongoing soil warming (4 yr, + 4°C). Larch branches were pulse labeled (50 at% (13)CO(2)) in July 2010 to trace fresh assimilates through tissues (buds, needles, bark and wood) and non-structural carbon compounds (NCC; starch, lipids, individual sugars) using compound-specific isotope analysis. Nine years of elevated CO(2) did not lead to increased NCC concentrations, nor did soil warming increase NCC transfer velocities. By contrast, we found slower transfer velocities and higher NCC concentrations than reported in the literature for lowland larch. As a result of low dilution with older carbon, sucrose and glucose showed the highest maximum (13)C labels, whereas labels were lower for starch, lipids and pinitol. Label residence times in needles were shorter for sucrose and starch (c. 2 d) than for glucose (c. 6 d). Although our treatments showed no persistent effect on larch carbon relations, low temperature at high altitudes clearly induced a limitation of sink activities (growth, respiration, root exudation), expressed in slower carbon transfer and higher NCC concentrations. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Isolation and characterization of true mesenchymal stem cells derived from human term decidua capable of multilineage differentiation into all 3 embryonic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Maria I; Grande, Jesús; Moreno, Ana; Domínguez, Irene; Bornstein, Rafael; Flores, Ana I

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to isolate and characterize a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human term placental membranes. We isolated an adherent cell population from extraembryonic membranes. Morphology, phenotype, growth characteristics, karyotype, and immunological and differentiation properties were analyzed. The isolated placental MSCs were from maternal origin and named as decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs). DMSCs differentiated into derivatives of all germ layers. It is the first report about placental MSC differentiation into alveolar type II cells. Clonally expanded DMSCs differentiated into all embryonic layers, including pulmonary cells. DMSCs showed higher life span than placental cells from fetal origin and proliferated without genomic instability. The data suggest that DMSCs are true multipotent MSCs, distinguishing them from other placental MSCs. DMSCs could be safely used in the mother as a potential source of MSCs for pelvic floor dysfunctions and immunological diseases. Additionally, frozen DMSCs can be stored for both autologous and allogeneic tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-way regulation between cells and aligned collagen fibrils: local 3D matrix formation and accelerated neural differentiation of human decidua parietalis placental stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Zhu, Bofan; Strakova, Zuzana; Wang, Rong

    2014-08-08

    It has been well established that an aligned matrix provides structural and signaling cues to guide cell polarization and cell fate decision. However, the modulation role of cells in matrix remodeling and the feedforward effect on stem cell differentiation have not been studied extensively. In this study, we report on the concerted changes of human decidua parietalis placental stem cells (hdpPSCs) and the highly ordered collagen fibril matrix in response to cell-matrix interaction. With high-resolution imaging, we found the hdpPSCs interacted with the matrix by deforming the cell shape, harvesting the nearby collagen fibrils, and reorganizing the fibrils around the cell body to transform a 2D matrix to a localized 3D matrix. Such a unique 3D matrix prompted high expression of β-1 integrin around the cell body that mediates and facilitates the stem cell differentiation toward neural cells. The study offers insights into the coordinated, dynamic changes at the cell-matrix interface and elucidates cell modulation of its matrix to establish structural and biochemical cues for effective cell growth and differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from human decidua inhibits the binding and biological action of IGF-I in cultured choriocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritvos, O.; Ranta, T.; Jalkanen, J.; Suikkari, A.M.; Voutilainen, R.; Bohn, H.; Rutanen, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The placenta expresses genes for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and possesses IGF-receptors, suggesting that placental growth is regulated by IGFs in an autocrine manner. We have previously shown that human decidua, but not placenta, synthesizes and secretes a 34 K IGF-binding protein (34 K IGF-BP) called placental protein 12. We now used human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cell monolayer cultures and recombinant (Thr59)IGF-I as a model to study whether the decidual 34 K IGF-BP is able to modulate the receptor binding and biological activity of IGFs in trophoblasts. JEG-3 cells, which possess type I IGF receptors, were unable to produce IGF-BPs. Purified 34 K IGF-BP specifically bound [125I]iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I. Multiplication-stimulating activity had 2.5% the potency of (Thr59)IGF-I, and insulin had no effect on the binding of [125I] iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I. 34 K IGF-BP inhibited the binding of [125I] iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to JEG-3 monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner by forming with the tracer a soluble complex that could not bind to the cell surface as demonstrated by competitive binding and cross-linking experiments. After incubating the cell monolayers with [125I]iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I in the presence of purified binding protein, followed by cross-linking, no affinity labeled bands were seen on autoradiography. In contrast, an intensely labeled band at 40 K was detected when the incubation medium was analyzed, suggesting that (Thr59)IGF-I and 34 K IGF-BP formed a complex in a 1:1 molar ratio. Also, 34 K IGF-BP inhibited both basal and IGF-I-stimulated uptake of alpha-[3H]aminoisobutyric acid in JEG-3 cells. RNA analysis revealed that IGF-II is expressed in JEG-3 cells

  5. Historia poblacional, orígenes africanos y microevolución de los actuales afro-colombianos inferidos desde caracteres epigenéticos en la dentición decidua y permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Burbano, Miguel E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Setenta y cinco rasgos coronales no-métricos en la dentición permanente y decidua fueron registrados en 178 modelos dentales de individuos afro-colombianos pertenecientes a la comunidad de Guapi. Se recolectaron datos comparativos de 33 grupos africanos, otro grupo afro-estadounidense en la dentición permanente, en 4 grupos afro-americanos y otros 12 grupos de diferente ascendencia étnica, en la dentición decidua. Un análisis multivariado de componentes principales basado en frecuencias dentales, mostró que los afro-colombianos poseen gran afinidad genética con el Africa Sub-Sahariana, específicamente con grupos del Occidente, del Oriente y del Sur-Oriente africano. Este mismo análisis detectó una marcada divergencia dental con las poblaciones Norafricanas. Los resultados de esta investigación concuerdan con recientes estudios genéticos, basados en marcadores de ADNmt. A pesar que la dentición es evolutivamente conservativa y estable en una escala diacrónica corta, se concluyó que en 400 años de microevolución de los africanos en Colombia, su pool genético original se ha modificado levemente, debido a la influencia de presiones selectivas y flujo génico interétnico, con nativos americanos y grupos de origen caucásico. Se sugiere que los grupos afro-descendientes del Norte, Centro y Sur de América poseen historias poblacionales y evolutivas distintas, debido tanto a procesos de diferenciación fenotípica regional y local como a orígenes geográficos y étnicos diferentes.

  6. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  7. Comparación de dimensiones oclusales en dentición decidua completa entre niños de 3 a 5 años de la Clínica Estomatológica Central de la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia y el distrito de Yamango (Piura en el año 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Enrique- Zambrano- Maguiña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar y comparar las dimensiones oclusales en dentición decidua completa entre niños residentes en el distrito de Yamango en el departamento de Piura con modelos de estudio de niños en dentición decidua completa atendidos en la Clínica Estomatológica Central en la ciudad Lima. Material y métodos: se evaluaron modelos de estudio de 124 niños, 56 hombres y 68 mujeres, de 3 a 5 años de edad con oclusión normal y maloclusión clase I. Se utilizó la prueba de U de Mann- Whitney (p<0.05 para evaluar diferencias entre sujetos por lugar de procedencia, sexo y edad. Resultados: se reportaron medidas promedio, desviación estándar y significancia estadística. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en todas las dimensiones oclusales comparadas por procedencia, sexo y edad.

  8. Cambios esqueléticos, faciales y dentoalveolares producidos por el tratamiento con placas de acetato y elásticos de clase III en pacientes con mesiorrelación esquelética y dental en dentición decidua o mixta temprana

    OpenAIRE

    Espinal Botero, Gabriel Emilio; Betancur Pérez, John Jairo; Blandón Uribe, Ana María; Ortiz Burgos, Paola Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: el propósito fue establecer los cambios clínicos y radiográficos con el uso durante un año de placas de acetato bimaxilares con elásticos de clase III para el tratamiento de la clase III esquelética en pacientes con dentición decidua o mixta temprana. Métodos: se hizo un estudio clínico prospectivo cuasi-experimental en 26 sujetos entre tres y nueve años. Se tomaron radiografías cefálicas laterales y modelos de estudio al inicio, a los seis meses y al año de tratamiento, se eval...

  9. Genetic variability of woolly aphid (Adelges laricis Vall.) resistance in European larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blada, I. [Forest Research Inst., Bucharest (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    One hundred and eleven clones of European larch were exposed to the woolly aphid and then outplanted in three locations using a randomized complete block design. At ages 11 and 19 years resistance was measured on 102 clones at 2 locations. Highly significant genetic differences were observed among the clones at both locations and at both ages. Highly significant clone x location, clone x location x age interactions were also observed. Differences between the most resistant and most susceptible clones was 483%. Sufficient genetic variation for a breeding program was present. Broad-sense heritability estimates for Adelges resistance varied by location. Significant age to age, location to location and age to location phenotypic correlation for resistance were found. Larch resistance seems to be under polygenic control. A substantial genetic gain could be achieved by selecting the best clones and using vegetative propagation, including somaclonal embryogenesis, for multiplication. 23 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  10. Genetic variability of woolly aphid (Adelges laricis Vall.) resistance in European larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blada, I [Forest Research Inst., Bucharest (Romania)

    1996-12-31

    One hundred and eleven clones of European larch were exposed to the woolly aphid and then outplanted in three locations using a randomized complete block design. At ages 11 and 19 years resistance was measured on 102 clones at 2 locations. Highly significant genetic differences were observed among the clones at both locations and at both ages. Highly significant clone x location, clone x location x age interactions were also observed. Differences between the most resistant and most susceptible clones was 483%. Sufficient genetic variation for a breeding program was present. Broad-sense heritability estimates for Adelges resistance varied by location. Significant age to age, location to location and age to location phenotypic correlation for resistance were found. Larch resistance seems to be under polygenic control. A substantial genetic gain could be achieved by selecting the best clones and using vegetative propagation, including somaclonal embryogenesis, for multiplication. 23 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  11. Polymerase chain reaction amplification fails to detect aromatase cytochrome P450 transcripts in normal human endometrium or decidua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulun, S E; Mahendroo, M S; Simpson, E R

    1993-06-01

    It has been proposed that the biosynthesis of estrogens by the human endometrium may be of physiological significance during the menstrual cycle. Local estrogen production was also suggested to be important in the development of endometrial cancer; however, the presence or absence of aromatase enzyme activity in normal human endometrium is controversial. To address this issue, we used a sensitive technique capable of detecting mRNA transcripts present in only very low copy number. The polymerase chain reaction linked to reverse transcription (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the presence or absence of aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) transcripts in endometrial tissues (n = 7) and endometrial stromal cells (n = 9) under various culture conditions. RNA was isolated from four proliferative and three secretory tissue samples and from cultured endometrial stromal cells isolated from seven proliferative and two secretory endometria. Five sets of cultures were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), estradiol (E2), and forskolin. Additionally, RNA was isolated from decidualized endometrium obtained from a patient with tubal pregnancy. A single stranded cDNA was synthesized from total RNA using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase and a P450arom-specific oligonucleotide. The single stranded cDNA was used as a template for PCR and was amplified for 20-35 cycles using P450arom-specific primers. RNA from adipose tissue and placenta was amplified to provide positive controls, whereas myometrial RNA was used as a negative control. In two experiments involving two endometrial tissues and three sets of cells in culture, a rat P450arom cRNA was coamplified in each sample as an internal control to demonstrate that the remote possibility of RT-PCR failures in individual test samples cannot account for our negative results. By Southern or slot blot hybridization of the amplified fragments using human and rat P450arom-specific probes, we found no evidence for the presence of P450arom transcripts in normal endometrium, decidualized endometrium, or endometrial stromal cells in culture. In our hands, assay of aromatase activity using [3H]water release from [3H]androstenedione by endometrial stromal cells in culture treated with MPA and E2, did not reveal any detectable aromatase activity. The same cells responded to MPA plus E2 treatment by a significant increase in PRL secretion into the culture medium. Presently, RT-PCR is the most sensitive method available for the detection of specific mRNA species in low copy numbers. These findings are indicative of the absence of P450arom transcripts in normal human endometrium.

  12. Endometrial cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 is inhibited by human chorionic gonadotrophin, and is increased in the decidua of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, A W; Duncan, W C; King, A E

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a considerable cause of morbidity and occasional mortality. Currently, there is no reliable test to differentiate ectopic from intrauterine gestation. We have previously used array technology to demonstrate that differences in gene expression in decidualized...... was inversely proportional to serum hCG concentrations (P caused a reduction in CRISP-3 expression (P pregnancy of unknown...... gestation-matched women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy (n = 8), evacuation of uterus for miscarriage (n = 6) and surgery for EP (n = 11) was subjected to quantitative RT-PCR, morphological assessment, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Sera were analysed for progesterone and human...

  13. Isolation and characterization of essential oils from the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zule, Janja; Tišler, Vesna; Žurej, Andrej; Torelli, Niko

    2003-01-01

    Les dernières évolutions de l’Internet se sont traduites par l’émergence de nouvelles applications distribuées et par la multiplication des technologies réseaux (sans fils, mobiles. . . ) ainsi que des services offerts par les opérateurs sur de nouveaux types de terminaux (portable, PDA. . . ). L’enjeu socio économique majeur de ces avancées est le futur Internet ambiant, à la fois ubiquitaire et intelligent, au travers duquel l’utilisateur pourra, quelle que soit sa localisation ...

  14. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decidual vascularization and the expression of angiogenic growth factors and proteases in first trimester spontaneous abortions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, M.; Dennert, I.; Rost, E.; Koolwijk, P.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Helmerhorst, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Decidual vascular development is important for implantation. This study analysed decidual vascular adaptation to implantation in correlation with miscarriage in decidual secretory endometrium (DSE), decidua parietalis (DP) and decidua basalis (DB) of miscarriage patients and matched

  16. Co-expression of cytokeratins and vimentin by highly invasive trophoblast in the white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi, and the black mastiff bat, Molossus ater, with observations on intermediate filament proteins in the decidua and intraplacental trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwaik, N K; Rasweiler, J J; Muradali, F

    1998-11-01

    Histological and immunocytochemical studies of gravid reproductive tracts obtained from the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi) and the black mastiff bat (Molossus ater) have established that both species develop unusually invasive trophoblast. This is released by the developing discoidal haemochorial placenta, expresses both cytokeratins and vimentin, and invades the myometrium and adjacent tissues (including the ovaries) via interstitial migration within the walls of maternal blood vessels. Hence, this trophoblast is noteworthy for the extent to which it undergoes an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. In Molossus, it originates from the cytotrophoblastic shell running along the base of the placenta, is mononuclear, and preferentially invades maternal arterial vessels serving the discoidal placenta. This trophoblast may have a role in dilatation of these vessels when the discoidal placenta becomes functional. In Diaemus, the highly invasive trophoblast appears to originate instead from a layer of syncytiotrophoblast on the periphery of the placenta is multinucleated, and vigorously invades both arterial and venous vessels. During late pregnancy, it becomes extensively branched and sends attenuated processes around many of the myometrial smooth muscle fibres. In view of its distribution, this trophoblast could have important influences upon myometrial contractility and the function of blood vessels serving the gravid tract. Other aspects of intermediate filament expression in the uteri and placentae of these bats are also noteworthy. Many of the decidual giant cells in Molossus co-express cytokeratins and vimentin, while the syncytiotrophoblast lining the placental labyrinth in Diaemus late in pregnancy expresses little cytokeratin.

  17. Tratamiento de una maloclusión clase III en dentición decidua y mixta con expansión rápida palatina y máscara facial

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Soldevilla, Luciano; Aliaga Del Castillo, Arón

    2014-01-01

    Reportamos el seguimiento de un caso clínico de mordida cruzada que en un inicio comprometió el uso de un aparato de expansión palatina adhesivo de acrílico, que después de la estabilización del tratamiento y coincidente con el recambio dentario anterosuperior, sufrió recidiva de la mordida cruzada anterior, la cual fue corregida con el uso de máscara facial. El propósito de corregir la mordida cruzada en edades tempranas permite que se produzca mejoras en el patrón esquelético de clase III y...

  18. [Effect of total flavones from Cuscuta chinensis on expression of Fas/FasL, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xia; You, Zhao-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2008-11-01

    To explore the effect of total flavones from cuscuta chinensis (TFCC) on expression of Fas, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion. The model rats of bromocriptine during 6-8 d of pregnancy induced early abortion was established, adopting respectively herbs in high and low dosage and progesterone affect model rat and after 12 d, Immunohistochemical was applied to determine Fas, HB-EGF and PCNA in deciduas and placenta. Expression of PCNA on trophoblast and deciduas, HB-EGF on trophoblast, PR on deciduas in the model used Semen cuscutae flavonoid, proesterone and normal pregnacy, were significantlly higher than those of the pure model. Expression of Fas on trophoblast and deciduas in above four groups, were significantlly lower than those of the pure model. There were no expression of HB-EGF on deciduas. TFCC regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of the deciduas and cytotrophoblasts and prevents spontaneous abortions.

  19. The placenta and foetal membranes of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A discoidal hemodichorial placenta is present in Scotophilus borbonicus. Evidence is presented which suggests that histotrophic nutrition, in addition to hemotrophic nutrition, occurs. The foetal trophospongium phagocytoses cell debris and glandular secretions derived from the maternal endometrium (decidua basalis).

  20. Assessment of microbial diversity under arid plants by culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capparis deciduas) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was assessed and defined by culture-dependent and cultureindependent approaches on the basis of 16S rRNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The average ...

  1. Novel Models to Study Effect of High-Altitude Hypoxic Exposure and Placental Insufficency on Fetal Oxygen Metabolism and Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    maternal decidua is required for recruitment of uNK and TB cells into the decidua for the purpose of remodeling of the spiral arteries. When this fails , as...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0238 TITLE: Novel Models to Study Effect of High-Altitude Hypoxic Exposure and Placental Insufficency on Fetal...that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it

  2. Environmental effects on stem water deficit in co-occurring conifers exposed to soil dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Wieser, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    We monitored dynamics of stem water deficit (Δ W) and needle water potential ( Ψ) during two consecutive growing seasons (2011 and 2012) in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m above sea level, Tyrol, Austria), where Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Larix decidua form mixed stands. Δ W was extracted from stem circumference variations, which were continuously recorded by electronic band dendrometers (six trees per species) and correlations with environmental variables were performed. Results revealed that (i) Δ W reached highest and lowest values in P. abies and L. decidua, respectively, while mean minimum water potential ( Ψ ea) amounted to -3.0 MPa in L. decidua and -1.8 MPa in P. abies and P. sylvestris. (ii) Δ W and Ψ ea were significantly correlated in P. abies ( r = 0.630; P = 0.038) and L. decidua ( r = 0.646; P = 0.032). (iii) In all species, Δ W reached highest values in late summer and was most closely related to temperature ( P drought-sensitive L. decidua and drought-tolerant P. sylvestris indicate that various water storage locations are depleted in species showing different strategies of water status regulation, i.e. anisohydric vs. isohydric behavior, respectively, and/or water uptake efficiency differs among these species. Close coupling of Δ W to temperature suggests that climate warming affects plant water status through its effect on atmospheric demand for moisture.

  3. Expression of AIF-1 and RANTES in Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion and Possible Association with Alloimmune Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong LI; Hai-lin WANG; Ya-juan ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of allograft inflammatory factor-1(AIF-1)and (RANTES) in sera and deciduas on unexplained early spontaneous abortion.Methods AIF-1 and RANTES were examined in sera and deciduas/endometria of 43 unexplained early spontaneous abortion women (group A),40 healthy women with early pregnancy(group B)and 20 healthy women with no pregnancy (group C). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in this study. Results AIF-1 protein was expressed both in deciduas of group A and in endometria of group C.In group A, H scores in the recurrent abortion deciduas specimens were significantly greater than those in the first abortion;in endometrium,expression of AIF-1 was greater in the secretory than in proliferative phase of group C.In group B,concentrations of RANTES in sera were higher in 7th-8th week of pregnancy than in 6th-7th and >8th week of pregnancy;expression of AIF-1 protein showed a negative correlation with RASNTES concentration;a significant increase of the RANTES levels in sera and tissue was observed in group B. Conclusion These results demonstrate, for the first time,that AIF-1 are expressed in deciduas of unexplained spontaneous abortion suggesting that AIF-1 involve in alloimmune abortion; RANTES might act as a novel blocking antibody;AIF-1 and RANTES might act as reliable markers for diagnosis of early alloimmune abortion.

  4. Decidual tissue growth and regression in the guinea pig: regulation by uterine blood flow and relation to circulating progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, D R

    1984-05-01

    The role of uterine blood flow (UBF) in the modulation of experimentally induced decidua formation was assessed in mature guinea pigs. The response to endometrial trauma, as indexed by uterine weight changes, was dependent upon the type of stimulus used, with deciduogenic effectiveness as follows: saline = oil = knife scratch less than scissor cut. Both the knife scratch and scissor cut techniques induced elevations in UBF compared with control values. Neither uterine weight nor UBF increased when trauma was applied to unresponsive uteri, indicating that inflammation was not the cause of uterine hyperemia. Uterine weight increased from basal levels on the day of trauma (i.e. day 5 of the estrous cycle) to a maximal weight between days 10 and 12 posttrauma. Maximal growth of the induced decidua occurred under conditions of elevated UBF. Subsequently, UBF declined between days 10 and 15 posttrauma, preceding the associate resorption of the induced decidua. During the period of decidua growth, serum progesterone levels were elevated compared with those in control animals. These data indicate that experimentally induced decidua formation in the guinea pig is associated with uterine hyperemia and increased corpus luteum activity, both of which are necessary for proper endometrial differentiation. It is hypothesized that these events mimic the uterine hyperemia associated with blastocyst implanplantation and early placentation in this species.

  5. Placenta accreta: diagnosis, management and the molecular biology of the morbidly adherent placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, William A; Zalud, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    Placenta accreta is now the chief cause of postpartum hemorrhage resulting in maternal and neonatal morbidity. Prenatal diagnosis decreases blood loss at delivery and intra and post-partum complications. Ultrasound is critical for diagnosis and MRI is a complementary tool when the diagnosis is uncertain. Peripartum hysterectomy has been the standard of therapy but conservative management is increasingly being used. The etiology of accreta is due to a deficiency of maternal decidua resulting in placental invasion into the uterine myometrium. The molecular basis for the development of invasive placentation is yet to be elucidated but may involve abnormal paracrine/autocrine signaling between the deficient maternal decidua and the trophoblastic tissue. The interaction of hormones such as Relaxin which is abundant in maternal decidua and insulin-like 4, an insulin-like peptide found in placental trophoblastic tissue may play role in the formation of placenta accreta.

  6. [Trophoblast: conductor of the maternal immune tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesdag, V; Salzet, M; Vinatier, D

    2014-11-01

    Pregnancy is a temporary semi-allograft that survives for nine months. The importance of this event for the survival of the species justifies several tolerance mechanisms that are put into place at the beginning of pregnancy, some of which occur even at the time of implantation. The description of these mechanisms underlines the leadership of the trophoblast. The trophoblast is the conductor of the events, protects himself by expressing specific antigens and regulates the environment of the decidua according to the calendar of the events of the pregnancy The trophoblast and the decidual environment attract the effectors of immunity, almost all present in the decidua. The immunological atmosphere of the decidua evolves during the pregnancy modulating the level of activation of the immunological cells and adapting the level of activation to the stage of the pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Decidual natural killer cells in recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosević, Dragana Radović; Lilić, Vekoslav; Basić, Hakija; Pavlović, Aleksandra Tubić; Stefanović, Milan; Milosević, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    A repeated or habitual miscarriage (PSP) is defined as three or more consecutive losses of pregnancy. In the first three months of pregnancy, habitual miscarriages occur in about 1% of pregnant women, out of which 50% are of an unknown etiology. It is believed that among them, the greatest number is the consequence of an inadequate alloimmune response of a women to the pregnancy. The endocrine and immune systems are in a close interaction during the implantation and maintaining of pregnancy. This communication is the most obvious on endometrium of pregnancy decidua. The aim of the study was to identify the number and the subpopulation distribution of the decidual NK cells in the decidua by using an immunohistochemical method. The research included a group of 30 women who had had two spontaneous miscarriages consecutively in the first three months of their pregnancy, while the curettage after the third spontaneous abortion was histopathologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. The control group consisted of 20 women without a problematic reproductive anamnesis, who had had their pregnancy terminated for social reasons. The criteria for the eliminating from the research were the diagnosed uterus anomalies, positive screening on thrombophilia, as well as women suffering from diabetes melitus and the ones with the thyroid gland function disorder. The number and the phenotype structure of the uterus NK cells were significantly different between the decidua of a normal pregnancy and that in PSP. In the decidua in PSP, there were much more NK cells with the phenotype of the peripheral circulation CD57 and CD56dim, while in the decidua of the control group the dominant cells were the typical uNK cell subpopulation CD56bright. The above mentioned results show that the disregulation of the immunocompetent cells of the decidua, by creating an inadequate cytokine milieu, is one of the mechanism of rejecting the semiallogeneic blastocyst.

  8. Maternal Nodal inversely affects NODAL and STOX1 expression in the fetal placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Krishna Thulluru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nodal, a secreted signaling protein from the TGFβ-super family plays a vital role during early embryonic development. Recently, it was found that maternal decidua-specific Nodal knockout mice show intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and preterm birth. As the chromosomal location of NODAL is in the same linkage area as the susceptibility gene STOX1, associated with the familial form of early-onset, IUGR-complicated pre-eclampsia, their potential maternal-fetal interaction was investigated. Pre-eclamptic mothers with children who carried the STOX1 susceptibility allele themselves all carried the NODAL H165R SNP, which causes a 50% reduced activity. Surprisingly, in decidua Nodal knockout mice the fetal placenta showed up-regulation of STOX1 and NODAL expression. Conditioned media of human first trimester decidua and a human endometrial stromal cell line (T-HESC treated with siRNAs against NODAL or carrying the H165R SNP were also able to induce NODAL and STOX1 expression when added to SGHPL-5 first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells. Finally, a human TGFß-BMP-Signaling-Pathway PCR-Array on decidua and the T-HESC cell line with Nodal knockdown revealed upregulation of Activin-A, which was confirmed in conditioned media by ELISA. We show that maternal decidua Nodal knockdown gives upregulation of NODAL and STOX1 mRNA expression in fetal extravillous trophoblast cells, potentially via upregulation of Activin-A in the maternal decidua. As both Activin-A and Nodal have been implicated in pre-eclampsia, being increased in serum of pre-eclamptic women and upregulated in pre-eclamptic placentas respectively, this interaction at the maternal-fetal interface might play a substantial role in the development of pre-eclampsia.

  9. Tratamiento Endodóntico no Instrumentado en dientes deciduos

    OpenAIRE

    Perona-G; Mungi-S

    2014-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta la complejidad del tratamiento pulpar en una pieza decidua y diversos factores que determinan el éxito clínico como son la anatomía de una pieza decidua, el proceso de reabsorción ya sea de origen fisiológico o por una infección odontogénica, la conducta del paciente, la técnica empleada y la pericia del operador; es de suma importancia que en la práctica odontopediátrica se tenga en cuenta ciertos procedimientos que aseguren la presencia del diente en boca hasta su exfolia...

  10. KC-46A Third Main Operating Base (MOB 3) Beddown Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    and a multi-level parking garage. Plans also envision a high-energy dining, retail and entertainment district with an eight-screen cinema , bowling...gigantea ssp. tecta possumhaw Ilex decidua yaupon Ilex vomitoria Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonica wax myrtle Morella cerifera saw greenbrier

  11. [The conservative treatment of placenta accreta. A clinical case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuso, A; Rocchi, B; Garbo, S; Baudino, G; Repetti, F

    1993-09-01

    The following description is a clinical case of placenta accreta and its conservative treatment. According to some authors, abnormal adhesion of the placenta depends on the alteration of the equilibrium between the trophoblastic tissue invasion and the reaction of the decidua. Consequently we have various degrees of penetration of the myometrium by chorionic villi into areas of deficit, sparse or absent decidua. Whatever the pathogenetic mechanism, the final clinical picture is slight to deep penetration of the trophoblastic tissue into the uterine wall. That causes absence of the normal plane of cleavage between placenta and maternal decidua, no spontaneous placental detachment during the third stage of labour and no possible manual removal. The patient, primigravida, was admitted at the 36th Week of gestation with PROM and physiologically delivered a neonate weighing 1820 g, after she spontaneously began labour. The newborn was admitted in the neonatal-pathology ward because it was premature although the Apgar score at 1-5 minutes after birth was 5-9. Placental ejection was awaited for 1 hour, then manual exploration of the uterine cavity was undertaken. The normal plane of cleavage between placental tissue and decidua was absent and therefore manual extraction of the placenta was impossible. Surgery was stopped and, after informed consensus was obtained from the patient, a conservative treatment was tried. After cutting the umbilical cord as short as possible and checking for vaginal bleeding, the patient was moved to obstetrics ward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recognized by Hippocrates and was carefully described in the sixth century by Actues of Amida, who was the first to use the term hydatid. However, it was not until 1903 that Marchand identified uterine choriocarcinoma as a chorionic malignancy rather than a uterine malignancy arising in the decidua (2). Though gestational.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upadhyay, R. Vol 14, No 3 (2010) - Articles Anti-termite efficacy of Capparis decidua and its combinatorial mixtures for the control of Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae) in Indian soil. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-8362. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  14. Changes in the Ratio of Tc1/Tc2 and Th1/Th2 Cells but Not in Subtypes of NK-Cells in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayi Hou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that natural killer (NK cell activity and Th1 immunitymay be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study aimed to investigate theimmunophenotypes of NK cells and type 1/type 2 immunity in both decidua and maternalperipheral blood between normal (n=11 and preeclamptic pregnant women (n=20 by flowcytometry. The results showed that no significant difference was observed between patientsand controls by detecting CD56+ CD69+ and CD56+ CD94+ NK cells in both peripheralblood and decidua. Moreover, in preeclamptic patients, decreased percentages of Tc2 andTh2 cells and the increased ratios of Tc1/Tc2 were determined in both decidua andmaternal peripheral blood. In addition, the ratio of Th1/Th2 in peripheral blood alsoincreased. There was no significant difference of immunophenotypes of uNK cells betweenpreeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Local decidua and systematic immunity did notcorrelate with each other. These results suggest that the type 1/type 2 immunity shifted totype 1 immunity including Th1 and Tc1 cells may contribute to the patho-genesis ofpreeclampsia.

  15. The complement system at the embryo implantation site: friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eBulla

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An inflammatory-like process and vascular remodeling represent the main changes that occur in decidua in the early phase of pregnancy. These changes are partly induced by trophoblast cells that colonize the decidua and are also contributed by the complement system. C1q is one of the component components produced at feto-maternal interface that serves an important function in placental development. Decidual endothelial cells synthesize and express C1q on the cell surface where it acts as a molecular bridge between endovascular trophoblast and endothelial cells. C1q is also produced by extravillous trophoblast and is used to favor trophoblast migration through the decidua. C7 is another component produced and expressed on the membrane of endothelial cells and is involved in the control of the proinflammatory effect of the terminal complement complex. Defective expression of C1q by trophoblast is associated with impaired trophoblast invasion of decidua and may have important implications in pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia characterized by reduced vascular remodeling. Local control of complement activation by several complement regulators including cell-bound C7 is critical to prevent complement-mediated tissue damage as suggested by recent data showing an association of preeclampsia with mutations in the genes encoding for some complement regulators.

  16. Rates of spontaneous hybridization and hybrid recruitment in co-existing exotic and native mature larch populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, P.G.; Gros-Louis, M.C.; Lamothe, M.; Perron, M; Bousquet, J.; Isabel, N.

    2014-01-01

    Exotic larch (Larix decidua Mill., Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr. and Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and their hybrids have been introduced into Canada to test adaptation and growth for reforestation purposes. For tree breeding opera- tions, provenance trials and seed orchards of exotic larches and their

  17. Influence of relative NK-DC abundance on placentation and its relation to epigenetic programming in the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitag, N.; Zwier, M. V.; Barrientos, G.; Tirado-Gonzalez, I.; Conrad, M. L.; Rose, M.; Scherjon, S. A.; Plosch, T.; Blois, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Normal placentation relies on an efficient maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Within the decidua, natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DC) have a critical role in modulating angiogenesis and decidualization associated with pregnancy. However, the contribution of these immune cells to the

  18. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle was determined by qPCR and protein localisation by immunohistochemistry. The structure of col-IV in placenta was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the expression of col-IV alpha chain NC1 domains and collagen receptors was localised by immunohistochemistry. Col-IV alpha chains were selectively up-regulated during the menstrual cycle and decidualisation. Primary extravillous trophoblast cells express collagen receptors and secrete col-IV in vitro and in vivo, resulting in the increased levels found in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis. A novel expression pattern of col-IV in the mesenchyme of placental villi, as a three-dimensional network, was found. NC1 domains of col-IV alpha chains are known to regulate tumour cell migration and the selective expression of these domains in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis was determined. Col-IV is expressed as novel forms in the placenta. These findings suggest that col-IV not only represents a structural protein providing tissue integrity but also influences the invasive behaviour of trophoblast cells at the implantation site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. cDNA cloning, mRNA distribution and heterogeneity, chromosomal location, and RFLP analysis of human osteopontin (OPN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, M F; Kerr, J M; Termine, J D

    1990-01-01

    A human osteopontin (OP) cDNA was isolated from a library made from primary cultures of human bone cells. The distribution of osteopontin mRNA in human tissues was investigated by Northern analysis and showed that the human message was predominant in cultures of bone cells and in decidua cells...... osteopontin cDNA indicated that the gene is a single copy with an approximate length of 5.4-8.2 kb....

  20. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementation interacts and protects embryos from maternal diabetes-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, R; Kurtz, M; Mazzucco, M B; Musikant, D; White, V; Jawerbaum, A

    2012-05-01

    Maternal diabetes increases the risk of embryo malformations. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementations have been shown to reduce embryo malformations in experimental models of diabetes. In this study we here tested whether folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact to prevent embryo malformations in diabetic rats, and analyzed whether they act through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), and nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species production. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration prior to mating. From Day 0.5 of pregnancy, rats did or did not receive folic acid (15 mg/kg) and/or a 6% safflower oil-supplemented diet. Embryos and decidua were explanted on Day 10.5 of gestation for further analysis of embryo resorptions and malformations, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels, NO production and lipid peroxidation. Maternal diabetes induced resorptions and malformations that were prevented by folic acid and safflower oil supplementation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were increased in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats and decreased with safflower oil and folic acid supplementations. In diabetic animals, the embryonic and decidual TIMPs were increased mainly with safflower oil supplementation in decidua and with folic acid in embryos. NO overproduction was decreased in decidua from diabetic rats treated with folic acid alone and in combination with safflower oil. These treatments also prevented increases in embryonic and decidual lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact and protect the embryos from diabetes-induced damage through several pathways related to a decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators.

  1. Safflower and olive oil dietary treatments rescue aberrant embryonic arachidonic acid and nitric oxide metabolism and prevent diabetic embryopathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, R; White, V; Martínez, N; Kurtz, M; Capobianco, E; Jawerbaum, A

    2010-04-01

    Aberrant arachidonic acid and nitric oxide (NO) metabolic pathways are involved in diabetic embryopathy. Previous works have found diminished concentrations of PGE(2) and PGI(2) in embryos from diabetic rats, and that PGI(2) is capable of increasing embryonic PGE(2) concentrations through the activation of the nuclear receptor PPARdelta. PPARdelta activators are lipid molecules such as oleic and linoleic acids, present in high concentrations in olive and safflower oils, respectively. The aim of this study was to analyze the capability of dietary supplementation with either 6% olive or 6% safflower oils to regulate PGE(2), PGI(2) and NO concentrations in embryos and deciduas from control and diabetic rats during early organogenesis. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) 1 week before mating. Animals were fed with the oil-supplemented diets from Days 0.5 to 10.5 of gestation. PGI(2) and PGE(2) were measured by EIA and NO through the evaluation of its stable metabolites nitrates-nitrites in 10.5 day embryos and deciduas. We found that the olive and safflower oil-supplemented treatments highly reduced resorption and malformation rates in diabetic animals, and that they were able to prevent maternal diabetes-induced alterations in embryonic and decidual PGI(2) and PGE(2) concentrations. Moreover, these dietary treatments prevented NO overproduction in embryos and deciduas from diabetic rats. These data indicate that in maternal diabetes both the embryo and the decidua benefit from the olive and safflower oil supplementation probably through mechanisms that involve the rescue of aberrant prostaglandin and NO generation and that prevent developmental damage during early organogenesis.

  2. Decidual activin: its role in the apoptotic process and its regulation by prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Christian; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Bao, Lei; Telleria, Carlos M; Ferguson-Gottschall, Susan; Gibori, Gil B; Gu, Yan; Bowen-Shauver, Jennifer M; Horseman, Nelson D; Gibori, Geula

    2003-05-01

    Successful pregnancy requires profound differentiation and reorganization of the uterine tissues including, as pregnancy progresses, extensive apoptosis of decidual tissue to accommodate the developing conceptus. We have previously shown a positive correlation between expression of activin A and apoptosis in the decidua and have also shown that expression of activin A occurs at the time when prolactin (PRL) receptors disappear from decidual cells. The goals of this study were to examine whether activin A plays a role in decidual apoptosis and whether expression of activin A in the decidua is regulated by PRL and placental lactogens. Studies were carried out using primary rat decidual cells, a decidual cell line (GG-AD), and PRL null mice. Treatment of decidual cells with activin A significantly increased DNA degradation, caspase 3 activity, and caspase 3 mRNA expression. However, this effect was observed only in the absence of endogenous activin production by these cells. Addition of follistatin to decidual cells that were producing activin A decreased both caspase 3 activity and mRNA expression. Similarly, addition of activin-blocking antibodies to cultures of GG-AD cells, which also produce activin A, caused a reduction in both DNA degradation and caspase 3 activity. PRL and placental lactogens caused an inhibition of activin A mRNA expression in primary decidual cells. Even more convincingly, decidua of PRL null mice expressed abundant activin A at a time when no expression of this hormone is detected in wild-type mice and treatment of PRL null mice with PRL caused a profound inhibition of activin A mRNA expression. In summary, our investigations into the role and regulation of decidual activin have revealed that activin A can induce cell death in the decidua and that its expression is under tight regulation by PRL and placental lactogens.

  3. Training Program in the Molecular Basis of Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    the pathogenesis of these cancers. In concert decidua were immunostained with an anti-BrdU monoclonal with Knudson’s "two- hit " theory of...12618-12622ical homogeneity from bovine testes. The high level of DNA 32. Higashitani, A., Tabata , S., Endo, H., and Hotta, Y. (1990) Cell Struct. Funct...separate enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 250:8438-8444. 21. Higashitani, A., S. Tabata , H. Endo, and Y. Hotta. 1990. Purification of DNA 51. Stubbs, L., and H

  4. Ecological Baseline, Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    cedar eTm (Uiimus crassifolia), Texas ash (Fraxinus texansis), and Texas persimmon ( Diospyros texana). Conversely, the two predominant tree species...Ilex decidua), Mex- ican buckeye (Ungnadia spjeciosa), and Texas persimmon ( Diospyros texana). Vines included greenbrier (Smilax bona-nox) and white...Hedgehey Cactus (Echinocereus sp.) has been observed on Fort Hood. Due to the brief period of flowering for this genus , the individual species were not

  5. Placenta accreta located in the posterior wall of the uterus: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ozler, Sibel; Oztas, Efser; Kadioglu, Nezaket; Sirvan, Levent; Uzunlar, Ozlem; Caglar, Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal invasive implantation of the placenta is thought to occur as a result of the defect in the decidua basalis of the women who have a history of cesarean delivery. Massive obstetric hemorrhage incidence is increased in placenta accreta cases. Although ultrasonographic and doppler examinations, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used, the diagnosis of placenta accreta in the early pregnancy weeks is poor. Therefore, the presence of life-threatening vaginal bleeding in the ea...

  6. Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor neuropilin-1 at the human embryo-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston-Buest, Dunja M; Porn, Anne C; Schanz, Andrea; Kruessel, Jan-S; Janni, Wolfgang; Hess, Alexandra P

    2011-02-01

    Angiogenesis is required for successful implantation of the invading blastocyst. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important key player in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling during the implantation process. Besides its well-characterized receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been shown to play an additional role in the signaling process of angiogenesis in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle, as a co-receptor of VEGF. These findings led to the hypothesis that NRP-1 might play a role in the vascular remodeling process during embryo implantation and the establishment of a pregnancy. NRP-1 mRNA transcript and protein expression were investigated in human choriocarcinoma cell lines (JEG-3, Jar and BeWo) aiming to evaluate the expression of NRP-1 in vitro, as well as in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy, by western blot analysis (three samples of each trimester of pregnancy). The localization of NRP-1 in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (five samples of each trimester of pregnancy). NRP-1 transcript and protein were expressed in all cell lines examined. Corresponding to the analysis of human tissue by western blot and the localization by immunohistochemistry, NRP-1 protein higher expressed in samples of early pregnancy in comparison to the end of pregnancy. NRP-1 was expressed in the decidua, villi and invading cytotrophoblast of all samples investigated. This is the first study clearly showing the expression of NRP-1 in human decidua and trophoblast, suggesting an important role for the VEGF co-receptor NRP-1 besides the established receptor VEGFR2 at the embryo-maternal interface during embryonic implantation and placentation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing growth phenology of co-occurring deciduous and evergreen conifers exposed to drought

    OpenAIRE

    Swidrak, Irene; Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological events are influenced by climate factors such as temperature and rainfall. To evaluate phenological responses to water availability in a Spring Heath-Pine wood (Erico-Pinetum typicum), the focus of this study was to determine intra-annual dynamics of apical and lateral growth of co-occurring early successional Larix decidua and Pinus sylvestris and late successional Picea abies exposed to drought. The effect of reduced plant water availability on growth phenology was invest...

  8. Antigen-presenting cells represent targets for R5 HIV-1 infection in the first trimester pregnancy uterine mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Marlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the first trimester of pregnancy, HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission is relatively rare despite the permissivity of placental cells to cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. The placenta interacts directly with maternal uterine cells (decidual cells but the physiological role of the decidua in the control of HIV-1 transmission and whether decidua could be a source of infected cells is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To answer to this question, decidual mononuclear cells were exposed to HIV-1 in vitro. Decidual cells were shown to be more susceptible to infection by an R5 HIV-1, as compared to an X4 HIV-1. Infected cells were identified by flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that CD14(+ cells were the main targets of HIV-1 infection in the decidua. These infected CD14(+ cells expressed DC-SIGN, CD11b, CD11c, the Fc gamma receptor CD16, CD32 and CD64, classical MHC class-I and class-II and maturation and activation molecules CD83, CD80 and CD86. The permissivity of decidual tissue was also evaluated by histoculture. Decidual tissue was not infected by X4 HIV-1 but was permissive to R5 HIV-1. Different profiles of infection were observed depending on tissue localization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of HIV-1 target cells in the decidua in vitro and the low rate of in utero mother-to-child transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy suggest that a natural control occurs in vivo limiting cell-to-cell infection of the placenta and consequently infection of the fetus.

  9. [Reconstruction of the phylogenetic position of larch (Larix sukaczewii Dylis) by sequencing data for the trnK intron of chloroplast DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashalkhanov, S I; Konstantinov, Iu M; Verbitskiĭ, D S; Kobzev, V F

    2003-10-01

    To reconstruct the systematic relationships of larch Larix sukaczewii, we used the chloroplast trnK intron sequences of L. decidua, L. sukaczewii, L. sibirica, L. czekanovskii, and L. gmelinii. Analysis of phylogenetic trees constructed using the maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods showed a clear divergence of the trnK intron sequences between L. sukaczewii and L. sibirica. This divergence reaches intraspecific level, which supports a previously published hypothesis on the taxonomic isolation of L. sukaczewii.

  10. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface

    OpenAIRE

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle ...

  11. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrate pools in phloem and xylem of two alpine timberline conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Oberhuber, W

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies on non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves in trees focused on xylem NSC reserves, while still little is known about changes in phloem carbohydrate pools, where NSC charging might be significantly different. To gain insight on NSC dynamics in xylem and phloem, we monitored NSC concentrations in stems and roots of Pinus cembra (L.) and Larix decidua (Mill.) growing at the alpine timberline throughout 2011. Species-specific differences affected tree phenology and carbon allocation during the course of the year. After a delayed start in spring, NSC concentrations in L. decidua were significantly higher in all sampled tissues from August until the end of growing season. In both species, NSC concentrations were five to seven times higher in phloem than that in xylem. However, significant correlations between xylem and phloem starch content found for both species indicate a close linkage between long-term carbon reserves in both tissues. In L. decidua also, free sugar concentrations in xylem and phloem were significantly correlated throughout the year, while a lack of correlation between xylem and phloem free sugar pools in P. cembra indicate a decline of phloem soluble carbohydrate pools during periods of high sink demand.

  12. Methylation of Promoter Regions of Genes of the Human Intrauterine Renin Angiotensin System and Their Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D. Sykes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrauterine renin angiotensin system (RAS is implicated in placentation and labour onset. Here we investigate whether promoter methylation of RAS genes changes with gestation or labour and if it affects gene expression. Early gestation amnion and placenta were studied, as were term amnion, decidua, and placenta collected before labour (at elective caesarean section or after spontaneous labour and delivery. The expression and degree of methylation of the prorenin receptor (ATP6AP2, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1, and two proteases that can activate prorenin (kallikrein, KLK1, and cathepsin D, CTSD were measured by qPCR and a DNA methylation array. There was no effect of gestation or labour on the methylation of RAS genes and CTSD. Amnion and decidua displayed strong correlations between the percent hypermethylation of RAS genes and CTSD, suggestive of global methylation. There were no correlations between the degree of methylation and mRNA abundance of any genes studied. KLK1 was the most methylated gene and the proportion of hypermethylated KLK1 alleles was lower in placenta than decidua. The presence of intermediate methylated alleles of KLK1 in early gestation placenta and in amnion after labour suggests that KLK1 methylation is uniquely dynamic in these tissues.

  13. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  14. Infection-Induced Thrombin Production: A Potential Novel Mechanism for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liping; Allen, Terrence K; Marinello, William P; Murtha, Amy P

    2018-04-13

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a leading contributor to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have demonstrated that thrombin causes fetal membrane weakening and subsequently PPROM. Although blood is suspected as the likely source of thrombin in fetal membranes and amniotic fluid of patients with PPROM, this has not been proven. Ureaplasma Parvum (U. parvum) is emerging as a pathogen involved in prematurity, including PPROM, but until now, prothrombin production directly induced by bacteria in fetal membranes has not been described. This study was designed to investigate whether U. parvum exposure can induce prothrombin production in fetal membranes cells. Primary fetal membrane cells (amnion epithelial, chorion trophoblast, and decidua stromal) or full-thickness fetal membrane tissue explants from elective, term, uncomplicated cesarean deliveries were harvested. Cells or tissue explants were infected with live U. parvum (1 x 10 5 , 1 x 10 6 , or 1 x 10 7 colony forming units (cfu)/ml) or lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli J5, L-5014, Sigma, 100 ng/ml or 1000 ng/ml) for 24 hours. Tissue explants were fixed for immunohistochemistry staining of thrombin/prothrombin. Fetal membrane cells were fixed for confocal immunofluorescent staining of the biomarkers of fetal membrane cell types and thrombin/prothrombin. Protein and mRNA were harvested from the cells and tissue explants for Western blot or qRT-PCR to quantify thrombin/prothrombin protein or mRNA production, respectively. Data are presented as mean values ± standard errors of mean. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Dunnett's test. Prothrombin production and localization was confirmed by Western blot and immunostainings in all primary fetal membrane cells and tissue explants. Immunofluorescence observations revealed a perinuclear localization of prothrombin in amnion epithelial cells. Localization of prothrombin in chorion and

  15. Xylem and phloem phenology in co-occurring conifers exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Variability in xylem and phloem phenology among years and species is caused by contrasting temperatures prevailing at the start of the growing season and species-specific sensitivity to drought. The focus of this study was to determine temporal dynamics of xylem and phloem formation in co-occurring deciduous and evergreen coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria). By repeated micro-sampling of the stem, timing of key phenological dates of xylem and phloem formation was compared among mature Pinus sylvestris , Larix decidua and Picea abies during two consecutive years. Xylem formation in P. sylvestris started in mid and late April 2011 and 2012, respectively, and in both years about 2 week later in P. abies and L. decidua . Phloem formation preceded xylem formation on average by 3 week in P. sylvestris , and c . 5 week in P. abies and L. decidua . Based on modeled cell number increase, tracheid production peaked between early through late May 2011 and late May through mid-June 2012. Phloem formation culminated between late April and mid-May in 2011 and in late May 2012. Production of xylem and phloem cells continued for about 4 and 5-6 months, respectively. High variability in xylem increment among years and species is related to exogenous control by climatic factors and species-specific sensitivity to drought, respectively. On the other hand, production of phloem cells was quite homogenous and showed asymptotic decrease with respect to xylem cells indicating endogenous control. Results indicate that onset and culmination of xylem and phloem formation are controlled by early spring temperature, whereby strikingly advanced production of phloem compared to xylem cells suggests lower temperature requirement for initiation of the former.

  16. Characterization of the subsets of human NKT-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Jian; Huang, Shi-Yun; Sun, Xin

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the subsets of natural killer T (NKT)-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the peripheral blood (PB) and/or decidual tissue of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The percentages of NKT-like cells in the PB and deciduas of URSA patients in early pregnancy and in the PB of nonpregnant women were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of interferon (IFN)-γ (Th1 cytokine) and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, in the PB and decidual tissue was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most percentages of subsets of NKT-like cells (CD3(+)CD56(+), CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+)) in the PB and deciduas were significantly greater in URSA patients than in normal pregnant and nonpregnant women. A cut-off value of 3.75% for the increased percentage of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB appeared to be predictive of pregnancy failure. Moreover, we found that in the decidua, IFN-γ expression was significantly higher, while IL-4 and IL-10 expression was significantly lower in URSA patients compared with those with a normal pregnancy. The ratio of decidual Th1/Th2 cytokines in URSA patients was significantly increased compared with that in normal pregnant women. Decidual IL-4 expression correlated negatively with the percentages of blood CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells and the decidual CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells. NKT-like cells may play an important role in maintaining normal pregnancy. Measurement of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB may provide a potential tool for assessing patients' risk of spontaneous abortion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanmahel Davila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions

  18. Lack of photosynthetic or stomatal regulation after 9 years of elevated [CO2] and 4 years of soil warming in two conifer species at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Kathrin; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Hagedorn, Frank; Schaub, Marcus; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Alpine treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries. Understanding the effects of elevated [CO2 ] and warming on CO2 and H2 O gas exchange may help predict responses of treelines to global change. We measured needle gas exchange of Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata DC trees after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (575 µmol mol(-1) ) and 4 years of soil warming (+4 °C) and analysed δ(13) C and δ(18) O values of needles and tree rings. Tree needles under elevated [CO2 ] showed neither nitrogen limitation nor end-product inhibition, and no down-regulation of maximal photosynthetic rate (Amax ) was found. Both tree species showed increased net photosynthetic rates (An ) under elevated [CO2 ] (L. decidua: +39%; P. mugo: +35%). Stomatal conductance (gH2O ) was insensitive to changes in [CO2 ], thus transpiration rates remained unchanged and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) increased due to higher An . Soil warming affected neither An nor gH2O . Unresponsiveness of gH2O to [CO2 ] and warming was confirmed by δ(18) O needle and tree ring values. Consequently, under sufficient water supply, elevated [CO2 ] induced sustained enhancement in An and lead to increased C inputs into this ecosystem, while soil warming hardly affected gas exchange of L. decidua and P. mugo at the alpine treeline. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Juanmahel; Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Li, Quanxi; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2015-01-01

    During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions that mediate stromal

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of the anatomical growth response of European conifers to mechanical disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneuwly, Dominique M; Stoffel, Markus; Dorren, Luuk K A; Berger, Frédéric

    2009-10-01

    Studies on tree reaction after wounding were so far based on artificial wounding or chemical treatment. For the first time, type, spread and intensity of anatomical responses were analyzed and quantified in naturally disturbed Larix decidua Mill., Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Abies alba Mill. trees. The consequences of rockfall impacts on increment growth were assessed at the height of the wounds, as well as above and below the injuries. A total of 16 trees were selected on rockfall slopes, and growth responses following 54 wounding events were analyzed on 820 cross-sections. Anatomical analysis focused on the occurrence of tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRD) and on the formation of reaction wood. Following mechanical disturbance, TRD production was observed in 100% of L. decidua and P. abies wounds. The radial extension of TRD was largest at wound height, and they occurred more commonly above, rather than below, the wounds. For all species, an intra-annual radial shift of TRD was observed with increasing axial distance from wounds. Reaction wood was formed in 87.5% of A. alba following wounding, but such cases occurred only in 7.7% of L. decidua. The results demonstrate that anatomical growth responses following natural mechanical disturbance differ significantly from the reactions induced by artificial stimuli or by decapitation. While the types of reactions remain comparable between the species, their intensity, spread and persistence disagree considerably. We also illustrate that the external appearance of wounds does not reflect an internal response intensity. This study reveals that disturbance induced under natural conditions triggers more intense and more widespread anatomical responses than that induced under artificial stimuli, and that experimental laboratory tests considerably underestimate tree response.

  1. Clinical value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in abortion or curettage-obtained specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine or ectopic pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaomei; Wang Yuping; Wang Lisha; Yang Jingxiu; Gao Xueyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in endometrial specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies. Methods: The examined specimens included: (1) Group I, 35 specimens with suspected intermediate trophoblast in decidua (2) Group II, 30 specimens with decidua-like plump endometrial stroma cells and/ or A-S phenomena in glandular epithelium (3) 30 specimens from proven intrauterine pregnancies serving as controls. Histochemistry (SP method) was used for HPL detection in all these specimens. Results: In the 30 proven intrauterine pregnancies, decidua and villa were present in all the specimens. Only 24 of the 30 were found to be HPL(+) with 6 HPL negatives (20%). In Group I , 28 of the 35 specimens were found to be HPL(+) and all of 28 were from intrauterine pregnancies: Of the 7 HPL negative cases, 5 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy, the remaining 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. In Group II, 22 of 30 specimens were HPL(+) and all were from intrauterine pregnancy. Of the 8 HPL negative cases, 6 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy and 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. Combining the data from Group I and II, we could see that in the total 15 HPL negative cases, 11 were with ectopic pregnancy (11/15=73.3%) and 4 were with intrauterine pregnancy (4/15=26.7%). Conclusion: In specimens of intrauterine contents, demonstration of HPL (+) cells could be regarded as confirmative evidence of intrauterine pregnancy. However, the reverse did not hold true. Many of the HPL negative specimens were from intrauterine pregnancies (in this study 4/15 or 26.7%). Therefore, in HPL negative cases, there was a high possibility of ectopic pregnancy but further examinations were required to ascertain the diagnosis. (authors)

  2. Downregulation of SPARC expression inhibits the invasion of human trophoblast cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Jiang

    Full Text Available Successful pregnancy depends on the precise regulation of extravilloustrophoblast (EVT invasion into the uterine decidua. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine is a matricellular glycoprotein that plays critical roles in the pathologies associated with obesity and diabetes, as well as tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of SPARC in the process of trophoblast invasion which shares many similarities with tumor cell invasion. By Western blot, higher expression of SPARC was observed in mouse brain, ovary and uterus compared to other mouse tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a spatio-temporal expression of SPARC in mouse uterus in the periimplantation period. At the implantation site of d8 pregnancy, SPARC mainly accumulated in the secondary decidua zone (SDZ, trophoblast cells and blastocyst. The expression of SPARC was also detected in human placental villi and trophoblast cell lines. In a Matrigel invasion assay, we found SPARC-specific RNA interference significantly reduced the invasion of human extravilloustrophoblast HTR8/SVneo cells. Microarray analysis revealed that SPARC depletion upregulated the expression of interleukin 11 (IL11, KISS1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP4, collagen type I alpha 1 (COLIA1, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9, and downregulated the expression of the alpha polypeptide of chorionic gonadotropin (CGA, MMP1, gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1, et al. The gene array result was further validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The present data indicate that SPARC may play an important role in the regulation of normal placentation by promoting the invasion of trophoblast cells into the uterine decidua.

  3. Transcriptional factor PU.1 regulates decidual C1q expression in early pregnancy in human

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    Priyaa Madhukaran Raj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway, which in addition to being synthesized in the liver, is also expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells. Trophoblast invasion during early placentation results in accumulation of debris that triggers the complement system. Hence, both early and late components of the classical pathway are widely distributed in the placenta and decidua. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to significantly contribute to feto-maternal tolerance, trophoblast migration, and spiral artery remodeling, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Pregnancy in mice, genetically deficient in C1q, mirrors symptoms similar to that of human preeclampsia. Thus, regulated complement activation has been proposed as an essential requirement for normal successful pregnancy. Little is known about the molecular pathways that regulate C1q expression in pregnancy. PU.1, an Ets-family transcription factor, is required for the development of hematopoietic myeloid lineage immune cells, and its expression is tissue- specific. Recently, PU.1 has been shown to regulate C1q gene expression in dendritic cells and macrophages. Here, we have examined if PU.1 transcription factor regulates decidual C1q expression. We used immune-histochemical analysis, PCR and immunostaining to localize and study the gene expression of PU.1 transcription factor in early human decidua. PU.1 was highly expressed at gene and protein level in early human decidual cells including trophoblast and stromal cells. Surprisingly, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic PU.1 expression was observed. Decidual cells with predominantly nuclear PU.1 expression had higher C1q expression. It is likely that nuclear and cytoplasmic PU.1 localization has a role to play in early pregnancy via regulating C1q expression in the decidua during implantation.

  4. Active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. VII. Spontaneous abortion of allogeneic CBA/J x DBA/2 fetuses in the uterus of CBA/J mice correlates with deficient non-T suppressor cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.; Chaput, A.; Tutton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of allograft and unexplained spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. Previous studies have shown the presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the murine decidua which block the generation and reactivation of anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) by elaborating a factor that inhibits the response to interleukin 2 (IL 2). A deficiency of these suppressor cells was associated with implants of xenogeneic Mus caroli embryos in the Mus musculus uterus which are infiltrated by maternal lymphoid cells and aborted. A deficiency of such suppressor cells in the lymph nodes draining the uterus of CBA/J females in the process of aborting their semi-allogeneic CBA x DBA/2 F 1 progeny has also been shown. CBA/J females possess significantly lower levels of decidua-associated non-T suppressor cells on day 8.5 to 10.5 of allopregnancy than do mothers that will produce large litters of live babies. The F 1 embryos are infiltrated by maternal lymphocytes prior to abortion, and the infiltration and abortion rate appears to be augmented by pre-immunization with paternal DBA/2 spleen cells. The CBA/J x DBA/2J mating combination provides a model of spontaneous abortion in which immunologic factors play an important role and demonstrates that the association between deficiency of decidua-associated suppressor cells and xenopregnancy failure also holds true for the failure of allopregnancies resulting from natural within-species mating

  5. Prokineticin-1 (PROK1) modulates interleukin (IL)-11 expression via prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) and the calcineurin/NFAT signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian H; Evans, Jemma; Maldonado-Pérez, David; Critchley, Hilary O; Sales, Kurt J; Jabbour, Henry N

    2010-03-01

    Prokineticin-1 (PROK1) is a multifunctional secreted protein which signals via the G-protein coupled receptor, PROKR1. Previous data from our laboratory using a human genome survey microarray showed that PROK1-prokineticin receptor 1 (PROKR1) signalling regulates numerous genes important for establishment of early pregnancy, including the cytokine interleukin (IL)-11. Here, we have shown that PROK1-PROKR1 induces the expression of IL-11 in PROKR1 Ishikawa cells and first trimester decidua via the calcium-calcineurin signalling pathway in a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G(q/11)), extracellular signal-regulated kinases, Ca(2+) and calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells dependent manner. Conversely, treatment of human decidua with a lentiviral miRNA to abolish endogenous PROK1 expression results in a significant reduction in IL-11 expression and secretion. Importantly, we have also shown a regulatory role for the regulator of calcineurin 1 isoform 4 (RCAN1-4). Overexpression of RCAN1-4 in PROKR1 Ishikawa cells using an adenovirus leads to a reduction in PROK1 induced IL-11 indicating that RCAN1-4 is a negative regulator in the calcineurin-mediated signalling to IL-11. Finally, we have shown the potential for both autocrine and paracrine signalling in the human endometrium by co-localizing IL-11, IL-11Ralpha and PROKR1 within the stromal and glandular epithelial cells of non-pregnant endometrium and first trimester decidua. Overall we have identified and characterized the signalling components of a novel PROK1-PROKR1 signalling pathway regulating IL-11.

  6. Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Christine Waasdorp; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Brocato, Megan; Krull, Mona; Narkewicz, Michael R; Rosen, Hugo R

    2010-08-30

    Vertical transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric cases of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. In contrast to the adult population who develop persistent viremia in approximately 80% of cases following exposure, the rate of mother-to-child transmission (2-6%) is strikingly low. Protection from vertical transmission likely requires the coordination of multiple components of the immune system. Placenta and decidua provide a direct connection between mother and infant. We hypothesized that innate immune responses would differ across the three compartments (decidua, placenta and cord blood) and that hepatitis C exposure would modify innate immunity in these tissues. The study was comprised of HCV-infected and healthy control mother and infant pairs from whom cord blood, placenta and decidua were collected with isolation of mononuclear cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to assess the phenotype, intracellular cytokine production and cytotoxicity of the cells. In keeping with a model where the maternal-fetal interface provides antiviral protection, we found a gradient in proportional frequencies of NKT and gammadelta-T cells being higher in placenta than cord blood. Cytotoxicity of NK and NKT cells was enhanced in placenta and placental NKT cytotoxicity was further increased by HCV infection. HCV exposure had multiple effects on innate cells including a decrease in activation markers (CD69, TRAIL and NKp44) on NK cells and a decrease in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both placenta and cord blood of exposed infants. In summary, the placenta represents an active innate immunological organ that provides antiviral protection against HCV transmission in the majority of cases; the increased incidence in preterm labor previously described in HCV-seropositive mothers may be related to enhanced cytotoxicity of NKT cells.

  7. Acute Fetal Demise with First Trimester Maternal Infection Resulting from Listeria monocytogenes in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Bryce; Wiepz, Gregory J.; Schotzko, Michele; Bondarenko, Gennadiy I.; Durning, Maureen; Simmons, Heather A.; Mejia, Andres; Faith, Nancy G.; Sampene, Emmanuel; Suresh, Marulasiddappa; Kathariou, Sophia; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Four pregnant cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) received a single intragastric inoculation between days 36 and 46 of gestation with 107 CFU of an L. monocytogenes strain isolated from a previous cluster of human listeriosis cases that resulted in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fecal shedding, maternal bacteremia, and fetal demise were consistently noted within 7 to 13 days. Biopsy specimens of maternal liver, spleen, and lymph node displayed variable inflammation and relatively low bacterial burden. In comparison, we observed greater bacterial burden in the decidua and placenta and the highest burden in fetal tissues. Histopathology indicated vasculitis, fibrinoid necrosis, and thrombosis of the decidual spiral arteries, acute chorioamnionitis and villitis in the placenta, and hematogenous infection of the fetus. Vascular pathology suggests early impact of L. monocytogenes infection on spiral arteries in the decidua, which we hypothesize precipitates subsequent placentitis and fetal demise. These results demonstrate that L. monocytogenes tropism for the maternal reproductive tract results in infection of the decidua, placenta, and the fetus itself during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:28223455

  8. Utilidad de una prueba cualitativa para la detección de fibronectina fetal en secreción cervicovaginal como predictor de parto prematuro

    OpenAIRE

    L.R. López-Ocaña; F. Palacios-Torres; M.O. Coreño-Juárez; D.A. Obando-Izquierdo; E. Krug-Llamas; R.R. Villanueva-Romero; M. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez; Y.M. Gómez Alegre; M.L. Martínez Morgado

    2015-01-01

    La fibronectina fetal es una glucoproteína de la matriz extracelular que se localiza en la interfase materno-fetal de las membranas amnióticas, entre la decidua y el corion. Los niveles séricos de fibronectina fetal ≥ 50 ng/ml a partir de las 22 semanas de gestación más se han asociado con un riesgo de partos prematuros espontáneos. El parto prematuro es el nacimiento que se presenta antes de las 37 semanas de gestación, es multicausal, contribuye con un 70% de la mortalidad perinatal y su...

  9. Among-tree variability and feedback effects result in different growth responses to climate change at the upper treeline in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Matthias; Bugmann, Harald; Nötzli, Magdalena; Bigler, Christof

    2017-10-01

    Upper treeline ecotones are important life form boundaries and particularly sensitive to a warming climate. Changes in growth conditions at these ecotones have wide-ranging implications for the provision of ecosystem services in densely populated mountain regions like the European Alps. We quantify climate effects on short- and long-term tree growth responses, focusing on among-tree variability and potential feedback effects. Although among-tree variability is thought to be substantial, it has not been considered systematically yet in studies on growth-climate relationships. We compiled tree-ring data including almost 600 trees of major treeline species ( Larix decidua , Picea abies , Pinus cembra , and Pinus mugo ) from three climate regions of the Swiss Alps. We further acquired tree size distribution data using unmanned aerial vehicles. To account for among-tree variability, we employed information-theoretic model selections based on linear mixed-effects models (LMMs) with flexible choice of monthly temperature effects on growth. We isolated long-term trends in ring-width indices (RWI) in interaction with elevation. The LMMs revealed substantial amounts of previously unquantified among-tree variability, indicating different strategies of single trees regarding when and to what extent to invest assimilates into growth. Furthermore, the LMMs indicated strongly positive temperature effects on growth during short summer periods across all species, and significant contributions of fall ( L. decidua ) and current year's spring ( L. decidua , P. abies ). In the longer term, all species showed consistently positive RWI trends at highest elevations, but different patterns with decreasing elevation. L. decidua exhibited even negative RWI trends compared to the highest treeline sites, whereas P. abies , P. cembra , and P. mugo showed steeper or flatter trends with decreasing elevation. This does not only reflect effects of ameliorated climate conditions on tree

  10. Dengue infection in pregnancy and its impact on the placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Fernandes Ribeiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A histopathological and immunohistochemical study was conducted in placental tissues and retained products of conception from 24 patients with confirmed dengue infection during pregnancy. The immunohistochemical assay was positive for dengue virus in 19 placental and three ovular remnants analyzed. The light microscopic findings were signs of hypoxia, choriodeciduitis, deciduitis and intervillositis and the viral antigens were found in cytoplasmic of the trophoblast, villous stroma and decidua. Our results suggest that immunohistochemistry could be used as a laboratory confirmation method for dengue in pregnant women, especially in endemic areas when embedded material is the only material available.

  11. Diastema medio interincisal y su relación con el frenillo labial superior: una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Pizán, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    El diastema medio interincisal es una característica normal en la dentición decidua y mixta, lacual tiende a desaparecer posteriormente con la erupción de los caninos y segundas molaressuperiores permanentes. La mayoría de investigadores coinciden en señalar que el frenillo labialsuperior anómalo puede ser un importante factor etiológico en casos de diastemas patológicos,existiendo también otros factores como: hábitos perniciosos prolongados, desequilibrio muscularde la cavidad bucal, impedim...

  12. Women with Recurrent Miscarriage Have Decreased Expression of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-Hydroxylase by the Fetal-Maternal Interface.

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    Li-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available Effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy have been associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1 is integral to the vitamin D metabolic pathway. The enzyme catalyzes localized conversion of pro-hormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Our aim was to investigate the expression of CYP27B1 at the fetal-maternal interface in the first trimester pregnancy and to determine whether CYP27B1 was associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM.Expressions of CYP27B1 mRNA and protein in villi and decidua from 20 women undergoing primary miscarriage, 20 women with RM and 20 women with normal pregnancy were evaluated by western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR. The co-localization of CYP27B1 and certain cytokines including IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 expression were examined using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy.Women with RM had a significantly lower expression of CYP27B1 mRNA and protein in villous and decidual tissues compared with the normal pregnant women (P = 0.000 in villus, P = 0.002 in decidua for mRNA; P = 0.036 in villus, P = 0.007 in decidua for protein.. Compared with the normal pregnancy, immunostaining for CYP27B1 was significantly decreased in villous trophoblasts and decidual glandular epithelial cells in RM women. No significant differences in the localization of CYP27B1, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 expression were identified between the normal pregnant and RM women.Women with RM have a lower level of CYP27B1 expression in chorionic villi and decidua compared with normal pregnant women, suggesting that reduced CYP27B1 expression may be associated with RM. The consistent localization of CYP27B1 and IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 expression in villous and decidual tissues suggests the importance of the local production of 1,25(OH2D3 at the fetal-maternal interface to regulate cytokine responses.

  13. Quantifying ozone uptake at the canopy level of spruce, pine and larch trees at the alpine timberline: an approach based on sap flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Matyssek, R.; Koestner, B.; Oberhuber, W.

    2003-01-01

    Sap-flow based measurements can be used to estimate ozone uptake at whole-tree and stand levels. - Micro-climatic and ambient ozone data were combined with measurements of sap flow through tree trunks in order to estimate whole-tree ozone uptake of adult Norway spruce (Picea abies), cembran pine (Pinus cembra), and European larch (Larix decidua) trees. Sap flow was monitored by means of the heat balance approach in two trees of each species during the growing season of 1998. In trees making up the stand canopy, the ozone uptake by evergreen foliages was significantly higher than by deciduous ones, when scaled to the ground area. However, if expressed per unit of whole-tree foliage area, ozone flux through the stomata into the needle mesophyll was 1.09, 1.18 and 1.40 nmol m -2 s -1 in Picea abies, Pinus cembra and Larix decidua, respectively. These fluxes are consistent with findings from measurements of needle gas exchange, published from the same species at the study site. It is concluded that the sap flow-based approach offers an inexpensive, spatially and temporally integrating way for estimating ozone uptake at the whole-tree and stand level, intrinsically covering the effect of boundary layers on ozone flux

  14. Placental Expression Patterns of Galectin-1, Galectin-2, Galectin-3 and Galectin-13 in Cases of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hutter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Galectins (gal are members of the mammalian β-galactoside-binding proteins and recognize Galβ1-4GlcNAc and Galβ1-4GalNac (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF sequences of several cell surface oligosaccharides. In this study, gal-1, -2, -3 and -13 were investigated systematically in the trophoblast and decidua compartment of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR placentas and normal third trimester control placentas and stratified by fetal gender and gestational age. Within this study, 29 third trimester placentas after delivery were analyzed. Fetal gender was equally divided within both groups, and immunohistochemical staining was analyzed according to fetal gender and gestational age. Double immune-fluorescence with trophoblast-specific markers was used to identify galectin-expressing cells at the feto-maternal interface in the decidua. Gal-3 was significantly downregulated only in the extravillous trophoblast of IUGR placentas. In contrast, expressions of gal-2 and gal-13 were downregulated in both villous and extravillous trophoblast cells of IUGR placentas. In addition, gal-2 and gal-13 showed a highly correlated expression scheme in the placenta. There are significant gender-specific expression patterns for single prototype galectins with downregulation of gal-2 and gal-13 of male gender placentas in cases of IUGR. Gal-3 as the chimera type galectin shows only little gender-specific differences in expression, which disappear in IUGR cases.

  15. In vitro efficacy of selected medicinal plants from Cholistan desert, Pakistan, against gastrointestinal helminths of sheep and goats

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    Muhammad Asif Raza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths are a major constraint to small ruminants in extensive husbandry systems of tropical regions. Yet, unavailability, high prices, side effects, and development of parasite resistance often limit the use of synthetic anthelmintics. Traditional medicinal plants might be an effective low-cost alternative. Therefore the in vitro anthelmintic activity of leaf extracts of the ligneous plants Capparis decidua, Salsola foetida, Suaeda fruticosa, Haloxylon salicornicum, and Haloxylon recurvum from Cholistan, Pakistan, was investigated against adult worms of Haemonchus contortus, Trichuris ovis, and Paramphistomum cervi. Various concentrations (from 7.8 to 500 mg dry matter ml^(−1 of three extracts (aqueous, methanol, and aqueous-methanol of each plant were tested at different time intervals for their anthelmintic activity via adult motility assay. Plant species (p<=0.01, extract type (p<=0.001, parasite species (p<=0.001, extract concentration (p<=0.001, time of exposure (p<=0.001 and their interactions (p<=0.001 affected the number of immobile or dead helminths. The 50% lethal concentration (LC_(50 values indicated that the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of C. decidua, H. recurvum, and H. salicornicum as well as the methanol extract of S. fruticosa have the potential to be developed into plant-based remedies against the studied helminths. Further studies are needed to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of these extracts, in order to develop effective, cheap and locally available anthelmintics for pastoralists in Cholistan and neighbouring desert regions.

  16. Intra-annual dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in the cambium of mature conifer trees reflects radial growth demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Sonia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Treydte, Kerstin; Traversi, Maria Laura; King, Gregory M; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    The presence of soluble carbohydrates in the cambial zone, either from sugars recently produced during photosynthesis or from starch remobilized from storage organs, is necessary for radial tree growth. However, considerable uncertainties on carbohydrate dynamics and the consequences on tree productivity exist. This study aims to better understand the variation in different carbon pools at intra-annual resolution by quantifying how cambial zone sugar and starch concentrations fluctuate over the season and in relation to cambial phenology. A comparison between two physiologically different species growing at the same site, i.e., the evergreen Picea abies Karst. and the deciduous Larix decidua Mill., and between L. decidua from two contrasting elevations, is presented to identify mechanisms of growth limitation. Results indicate that the annual cycle of sugar concentration within the cambial zone is coupled to the process of wood formation. The highest sugar concentration is observed when the number of cells in secondary wall formation and lignification stages is at a maximum, subsequent to most radial growth. Starch disappears in winter, while other freeze-resistant non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) increase. Slight differences in NSC concentration between species are consistent with the differing climate sensitivity of the evergreen and deciduous species investigated. The general absence of differences between elevations suggests that the cambial activity of trees growing at the treeline was not limited by the availability of carbohydrates at the cambial zone but instead by environmental controls on the growing season duration.

  17. Stable Water Use Efficiency under Climate Change of Three Sympatric Conifer Species at the Alpine Treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Leo, Marco; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten Erhard Edgar

    2016-01-01

    The ability of treeline associated conifers in the Central Alps to cope with recent climate warming and increasing CO2 concentration is still poorly understood. We determined tree ring stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Pinus cembra, Picea abies, and Larix decidua trees from 1975 to 2010. Stable isotope ratios were compared with leaf level gas exchange measurements carried out in situ between 1979 and 2007. Results indicate that tree ring derived intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) of P. cembra, P. abies and L. decidua remained constant during the last 36 years despite climate warming and rising atmospheric CO2. Temporal patterns in Δ(13)C and Δ(18)O mirrored leaf level gas exchange assessments, suggesting parallel increases of CO2-fixation and stomatal conductance of treeline conifer species. As at the study site soil water availability was not a limiting factor iWUE remained largely stable throughout the study period. The stability in iWUE was accompanied by an increase in basal area increment (BAI) suggesting that treeline trees benefit from both recent climate warming and CO2 fertilization. Finally, our results suggest that iWUE may not change species composition at treeline in the Austrian Alps due to similar ecophysiological responses to climatic changes of the three sympatric study species.

  18. Water quality assessment and flora study of desert thar and nagarparkar district tharparkar, sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, S.M.; Mahar, M.A.; Khuhawar, M.Y.; Jahangir, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A number of water samples (24) were collected from wells, water pumps, natural and artificial depressions from Naukot, Vajuto, Mithi, Islamkot, Virawah and Nagarparkar area and analyzed on the site and at the laboratories for 18 different parameters. There was a wide variation in water quality; conductivity 157 to 41400 micro S/m and total dissolved solids 100 to 26500 mg/L. The highest values were observed at Virawah area and lowest at an artificial depression of rainwater within Nagarparkar town. The higher vegetation of Thar region consists mainly of thorny or prickly shrubs and perennial herbs capable of drought resistance as Calligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Salvadora oleoides, Acacia senegal, Capparis decidua, Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis spicigera, Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Zizyphus nummularia. During rainy season when dunes are covered with grasses and other herbs Salvadora oleoides, Capparis decidua, and Tamarix aphylla were found scattered in Thar area. Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Salvadora oleoides, Commiphora mukul, Barleria prionitis, Blepharis sindica, Euphorbia caudicifolia were found on dry and rocky area. Rainwater pools contain total 83 algal sp; 37 sp belonging to Cyanophyta; 23 sp Volocothyta; 10 sp Chlorophyta; 3 sp Charophyta; 10 sp Bacillarophyta; some algal species found epiphytic on aquatic plants such as Chaetophora pisiformis, Stigeoclonium subsecundum, Oedogonium sp. Spirogyra rhizobrachialis, S. fluviatilis and Gloeotrichia natans attached to Najas minor, Nymphaea stellata, and Typha domingensis. (author)

  19. Traditional plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Sursagar constituency, Jodhpur, Rajasthan - An ethnomedicinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manoj

    2015-11-04

    In Jodhpur, large number of people suffering with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes). They are using medicinal plants along with modern medicine for the management of diabetes. The aim of this work is to document the anti-diabetic plants and determine the most relevant anti-diabetic plant species using the Disease Consensus Index. Ethnomedicinal survey was conducted for selection of anti-diabetic plant. Structured questionnaire was developed for calculation of Disease Consensus Index and administered to fifty Type 2 diabetic patients for recording their response. Twenty-one species of anti-diabetic plants were recorded, Momordica charantia (score: 0.71), Azadirachta indica (score: 0.64), Trigonella foenum-graecum (score: 0.63), Capparis decidua (score: 0.60), Withania coagulans (score: 0.54), Gymnema sylvestre (score: 0.52) and Syzygium cumini (score: 0.51) were the most significant anti-diabetic plants of the area of study, having DCI more than 0.5. Use of anti-diabetic plants is prevalent diabetic patients of the area. C. decidua, W. coagulans and G. sylvestre are recommend the further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation due to high DCI score and relatively unexplored status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of Placental Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 in Physiological Pregnancy, preeclampsia and chorioamnionitis

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    Alessandra Casciaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophic factors are a group of proteins that act as paracrine and autocrine growth factors. They are involved in the regulation of morphogenesis and development of several tissues. The present study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the expression of Neurotrophin-3 in the human placenta during normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia and chorioamnionitis. Neurotrophin-3 mRNA, assessed by RT-PCR analysis in six term placentas, were observed in all the specimens examined. Neurotrophin-3 protein expression and tissue distribution was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in placenta samples from uncomplicated first trimester (n = 5 and term (n = 5 pregnancies as well as in specimens from preeclampsia (n = 5 and chorioamnionitis (n = 5. In first trimester specimens, strong immunoreactivity was present in villous stromal cells, in the cyto- and syncytiotrophoblast, in decidua cells and in endometrial glands. Third trimester specimens showed prominent immunostaining in cyto- and syncytiotrophoblast cells, in decidua cells and in the amniotic membranes. Villous stromal cells were weakly stained. Similar protein localization was observed in placentas with preeclampsia and chorioamnionitis. In the latter, however, positive villous stromal cells increased in number and in staining intensity when compared with controls and preeclampsia (p < 0.001. The roles of Neurotrophin-3 in pregnancy are presently unknown. A regulatory function on placenta and foetal brain development and maternal inflammatory response may be hypothesized.

  1. Stable water use efficiency under climate change of three sympatric conifer species at the Alpine treeline

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    Gerhard eWieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of treeline associated conifers in the Central Alps to cope with recent climate warming and increasing CO2 concentration is still poorly understood. We determined tree ring stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Pinus cembra, Picea abies and Larix decidua trees from 1975-2010. Stable isotope ratios were compared with leaf level gas exchange measurements carried out in situ between 1979 and 2007. Results indicate that tree ring derived intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE of P. cembra, P. abies and L. decidua remained constant during the last 36 years despite climate warming and rising atmospheric CO2. Temporal patterns in Δ13C and Δ18O mirrored leaf level gas exchange assessments, suggesting parallel increases of CO2-fixation and stomatal conductance of treeline conifer species. As at the study site soil water availability was not a limiting factor iWUE remained largely stable throughout the study period. The stability in iWUE was accompanied by an increase in basal area increment (BAI suggesting that treeline trees benefit from both recent climate warming and CO2 fertilization. Finally, our results suggest that iWUE may not change species composition at treeline in the Austrian Alps due to similar ecophysiological responses to climatic changes of the three sympatric study species.

  2. Roles of the insulinlike growth factor family in nonpregnant human endometrium and at the decidual: trophoblast interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, L C; Irwin, J C

    1999-01-01

    The insulinlike growth factor (IGF) family is believed to be important in endometrial development during the menstrual cycle and in the process of implantation. The mitogenic, differentiative, and antiapoptotic properties of the IGFs and their binding proteins, as well as their spatial and temporal expression in cycling endometrium, suggest that they may participate in endometrial growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and perhaps angiogenesis. IGFBP proteases, which increase IGF bioavailability, have been localized to endometrial stromal cells and to the human cytotrophoblast and likely play important roles in endometrial, decidual, and trophoblast physiology. IGFBP-1 is a major protein product of nonpregnant endometrium during the mid-late secretory phase and occurs in abundance in decidua. Its roles as an IGF-binding protein and as a trophoblast integrin ligand suggest that it may have multiple roles in endometrial development and in interactions between the decidua and the invading trophoblast. Recent evidence suggests that it may have a role in the process of shallow implantation in the clinical disorder of preclampsia. In contrast to knowledge about the roles of IGF peptides, IGFBP proteases, and IGFBPs in normal endometrial development and early human pregnancy, little information is available regarding this family in abnormal endometrial development, in occult endometrial defects, and in uterine receptivity and nonreceptivity.

  3. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-04-28

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas.

  4. Increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators expression and decreased epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits expression in early abortion: findings from a mouse model and clinical cases of abortion.

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    Min Zhou

    Full Text Available The status of the maternal endometrium is vital in regulating humoral homeostasis and for ensuring embryo implantation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits (ENaC-α play an important role in female reproduction by maintaining humoral and cell homeostasis. However, it is not clear whether the expression levels of CFTR and ENaC-α in the decidual component during early pregnancy are related with early miscarriage. CBA×DBA/2 mouse mating has been widely accepted as a classical model of early miscarriage. The abortion rate associated with this mating was 33.33% in our study. The decidua of abortion-prone CBA female mice (DBA/2 mated had higher CFTR mRNA and protein expression and lower ENaC-α mRNA and protein expression, compared to normal pregnant CBA mice (BLAB/C mated. Furthermore, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression were observed in the uterine tissue from women with early miscarriage, as compared to those with successful pregnancy. In conclusion, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression in the decidua of early abortion may relate with failure of early pregnancy.

  5. Up-regulated expression of Tim-3/Gal-9 at maternal-fetal interface in pregnant woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fan-fan; Zuo, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Hao, Hai-yan; Dang, Jing; Jiang, Min; He, Meng-zhou; Deng, Dong-rui

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3)/Galectin (Gal)-9 pathway and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) was studied. Thirty-one pregnant women with RSA and 27 normal early gravidas were investigated to detect the levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas by Western blotting. Meanwhile, the concentration of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 in peripheral blood plasma was determined by ELISA in 25 healthy fertile non-pregnant controls, the normal early gravidas and pregnant women with RSA mentioned above, respectively. It was found that the relative expression levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas were significantly increased in pregnant women with RSA as compared with those in the normal early gravidas. The concentration of IL-4 in peripheral blood plasma of pregnant women with RSA was lower than that of the normal early gravidas (Ppregnant controls (Ppregnant women with RSA was significantly higher than that of the normal early gravidas (Ppregnant controls (P<0.05). It was suggested that the overexpression of Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway may be related to the pathogenesis of RSA.

  6. Oxygen Modulates Human Decidual Natural Killer Cell Surface Receptor Expression and Interactions with Trophoblasts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alison E.; Goulwara, Sonu S.; Whitley, Guy S.; Cartwright, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    Decidual natural killer (dNK) cells have been shown to both promote and inhibit trophoblast behavior important for decidual remodeling in pregnancy and have a distinct phenotype compared to peripheral blood NK cells. We investigated whether different levels of oxygen tension, mimicking the physiological conditions of the decidua in early pregnancy, altered cell surface receptor expression and activity of dNK cells and their interactions with trophoblast. dNK cells were isolated from terminated first-trimester pregnancies and cultured in oxygen tensions of 3%, 10%, and 21% for 24 h. Cell surface receptor expression was examined by flow cytometry, and the effects of secreted factors in conditioned medium (CM) on the trophoblast cell line SGHPL-4 were assessed in vitro. SGHPL-4 cells treated with dNK cell CM incubated in oxygen tensions of 10% were significantly more invasive (P cells treated with dNK cell CM incubated in oxygen tensions of 3% or 21%. After 24 h, a lower percentage of dNK cells expressed CD56 at 21% oxygen (P cells expressed NKG2D at 10% oxygen (P oxygen tensions, with large patient variation. This study demonstrates dNK cell phenotype and secreted factors are modulated by oxygen tension, which induces changes in trophoblast invasion and endovascular-like differentiation. Alterations in dNK cell surface receptor expression and secreted factors at different oxygen tensions may represent regulation of function within the decidua during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:25232021

  7. Innate and adaptive immune interactions at the fetal-maternal interface in healthy human pregnancy and preeclampsia

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    Peter eHsu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune tolerance of the fetus is indispensible for a healthy pregnancy outcome. Nowhere is this immune tolerance more important than at the fetal-maternal interface – the decidua, the site of implantation and placentation. Indeed, many lines of evidence suggest an immunological origin to the common pregnancy-related disorder, preeclampsia. Within the innate immune system, decidual NK cells and antigen presenting cells (including dendritic cells and macrophages make up a large proportion of the decidual leukocyte population, and are thought to modulate vascular remodeling and trophoblast invasion. On the other hand, within the adaptive immune system, Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg cells are crucial for ensuring immune tolerance towards the semi-allogeneic fetus. Additionally, another population of CD4+HLA-G+ suppressor T cells has also been identified as a potential player in the maintenance of immune tolerance. More recently, studies are beginning to unravel the potential interactions between the innate and the adaptive immune system within the decidua, that are required to maintain a healthy pregnancy. In this review, we discuss the recent advances exploring the complex crosstalk between the innate and the adaptive immune system during human pregnancy.

  8. Endogenous lysophosphatidic acid participates in vascularisation and decidualisation at the maternal-fetal interface in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordelli, Micaela S; Beltrame, Jimena S; Zotta, Elsa; Gomez, Natalia; Dmytrenko, Ganna; Sales, María Elena; Blois, Sandra M; Davio, Carlos; Martinez, Silvina Perez; Franchi, Ana M; Ribeiro, María L

    2017-10-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) affects several female reproductive functions through G-protein-coupled receptors. LPA contributes to embryo implantation via the lysophospholipid LPA 3 receptor. In the present study we investigated the participation of endogenous LPA signalling through the LPA 3 receptor in vascularisation and decidualisation, two crucial events at the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant rats were treated with diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP), a highly selective antagonist of LPA 3 receptors, on Day 5 of gestation. Pregnant rats received intrauterine (i.u.) injections of single doses of DGPP (0.1mgkg -1 ) in a total volume of 2μL in the left horn (treated horn) in the morning of GD5. DGPP treatment produced aberrant embryo spacing and increased embryo resorption. The LPA 3 receptor antagonist decreased the cross-sectional length of the uterine and arcuate arteries and induced histological anomalies in the decidua and placentas. Marked haemorrhagic processes, infiltration of immune cells and tissue disorganisation were observed in decidual and placental tissues from sites of resorption. The mRNA expression of three vascularisation markers, namely interleukin 10 (Il10), vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (Vegfr1), was reduced at sites of resorption from Day 8. The results show that the disruption of endogenous LPA signalling by blocking the LPA 3 receptor modified the development of uterine vessels with consequences in the formation of the decidua and placenta and in the growth of embryos.

  9. Preeclampsia with and without intrauterine growth restriction-Two pathogenetically different entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic-Stevanovic, Jelena; Krstic, Miljan; Radovic-Janosevic, Dragana; Stefanovic, Milan; Antic, Vladimir; Djordjevic, Ivana

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the differences in histopathological features of basal decidua and placenta in cases of preeclampsia with or without fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A prospective case-control study included a study group consisting of 30 pregnant women with preeclampsia completed by cesarean section (CS), in 19 of whom preeclampsia was associated with IUGR, and in 11 it was not. The control group consisted of 20 healthy pregnant women delivered by elective CS. Placentas and samples of placental bed obtained during CS were histopathologically (HP) analyzed after hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical labeling of Cytokeratin 7 (CK7) trophoblastic cells in decidua. Regarding the HP changes in the spiral arteries in preeclampsia, the most frequent features were inadequate transformation of spiral arteries with poor trophoblastic invasion (70.0%) and fibrinoid necrosis of the media (66.7%), and rarely acute atherosis (33.3%) and thrombosis (30.0%). Villous hypermaturity was more frequently found in placentas of patients with preeclampsia with IUGR (p preeclampsia with and without IUGR regarding some of HP alterations of placental bed. Alterations of the placental bed in terms of decidual vasculopathy are more the characteristics of the preeclampsia itself than IUGR, while changes in placental villi primarily follow the presence of IUGR, which could indicate that preeclampsia with and without IUGR are two pathogenetically different entities.

  10. Early embryonic demise: no evidence of abnormal spiral artery transformation or trophoblast invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, E; Robson, S C; Ayis, S; Lyall, F; Bulmer, J N

    2006-03-01

    Invasion by extravillous trophoblast of uterine decidua and myometrium and the associated spiral artery 'transformation' are essential for the development of normal pregnancy. Small pilot studies of placental bed and basal plate tissues from miscarriages have suggested that impaired interstitial and endovascular trophoblast invasion may play a role in the pathogenesis of miscarriage. The hypothesis that early miscarriage is associated with reduced extravillous trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation was tested in a large series of placental bed biopsies containing decidua and myometrium and at least one spiral artery from early, karyotyped embryonic miscarriages (

  11. Dopamine synthesis and dopamine receptor expression are disturbed in recurrent miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Michael J; Stavrou, Stavroula; Kuhn, Christina; Hofmann, Simone; Hermelink, Kerstin; Heidegger, Helene; Hutter, Stefan; Mayr, Doris; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo; Vattai, Aurelia

    2018-05-01

    l-dopa decarboxylase (DDC) is responsible for the synthesis of dopamine. Dopamine, which binds to the D 2 -dopamine receptor (D2R), plays an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Aim of our study was the analysis of DDC and D2R expression in placentas of spontaneous miscarriages (SMs) and recurrent miscarriages (RMs) in comparison to healthy controls. Patients with SM (n = 15) and RM (n = 15) were compared with patients from healthy pregnancies (n = 15) (pregnancy weeks 7-13 each). Placental tissue has been collected from SMs and RMs from the first trimester (Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, LMU Munich) and from abruptions (private practice, Munich). Placental cell lines, BeWo- and JEG-3 cells, were stimulated with the trace amines T 0 AM and T 1 AM in vitro . Levels of DDC and D2R in trophoblasts and the decidua were lower in RMs in comparison to healthy controls. Stimulation of BeWo cells with T 1 AM significantly reduced DDC mRNA and protein levels. Via double-immunofluorescence, a DDC-positive cell type beneath decidual stromal cells and foetal EVT in the decidua could be detected. Downregulation of DDC and D2R in trophoblasts of RMs reflects a reduced signal cascade of catecholamines on the foetal side. © 2018 The authors.

  12. Tratamiento Endodóntico no Instrumentado en dientes deciduos

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    Perona-G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la complejidad del tratamiento pulpar en una pieza decidua y diversos factores que determinan el éxito clínico como son la anatomía de una pieza decidua, el proceso de reabsorción ya sea de origen fisiológico o por una infección odontogénica, la conducta del paciente, la técnica empleada y la pericia del operador; es de suma importancia que en la práctica odontopediátrica se tenga en cuenta ciertos procedimientos que aseguren la presencia del diente en boca hasta su exfoliación fisiológica, es de esta manera que la Técnica de Endodoncia no Instrumentadas en dientes deciduos es un tema muy importante a tener presente en cuanto a terapia pulpar se refiere. Las pulpectomías no instrumentadas (NIET; termino mal empleado para este procedimiento, ya que la técnica no consiste en realizar una pulpectomía propiamente dicha; en su lugar emplean diversas pastas que tienen por objetivo la desinfección de los conductos radiculares mediante el empleo de sustancias bacteriostáticas y bactericidas y de esta manera permitirán la reparación del los tejidos dañados. El propósito de este artículo fue hacer una revisión de la literatura de todo lo concerniente a Terapia Endodóntica no Instrumentada en dentición decidua. En conclusión se puede decir que dadas las características de la dentición temporal, la cual impide una completa manipulación de los conductos radiculares, el éxito de la pulpectomía depende de la reducción o eliminación de las bacterias no solo dentro del conducto sino también en lugares donde la preparación química y mecánica sea difícil de acceder, en la técnica NIET se utiliza una mezcla de antibióticos para esterilizar el conducto radicular en vez de usar la técnica de instrumentación, las pastas obturadoras asumen un papel fundamental para que la reparación de los elementos dentarios se desenvuelva de acuerdo a los patrones biológicos normales.

  13. Human decidual stromal cells secrete soluble pro-apoptotic factors during decidualization in a cAMP-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leno-Durán, E; Ruiz-Magaña, M J; Muñoz-Fernández, R; Requena, F; Olivares, E G; Ruiz-Ruiz, C

    2014-10-10

    Is there a relationship between decidualization and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells (DSC)? Decidualization triggers the secretion of soluble factors that induce apoptosis in DSC. The differentiation and apoptosis of DSC during decidualization of the receptive decidua are crucial processes for the controlled invasion of trophoblasts in normal pregnancy. Most DSC regress in a time-dependent manner, and their removal is important to provide space for the embryo to grow. However, the mechanism that controls DSC death is poorly understood. The apoptotic response of DSC was analyzed after exposure to different exogenous agents and during decidualization. The apoptotic potential of decidualized DSC supernatants and prolactin (PRL) was also evaluated. DSC lines were established from samples of decidua from first trimester pregnancies. Apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry. PRL production, as a marker of decidualization, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DSCs were resistant to a variety of apoptosis-inducing substances. Nevertheless, DSC underwent apoptosis during decidualization in culture, with cAMP being essential for both apoptosis and differentiation. In addition, culture supernatants from decidualized DSC induced apoptosis in undifferentiated DSC, although paradoxically these supernatants decreased the spontaneous apoptosis of decidual lymphocytes. Exogenously added PRL did not induce apoptosis in DSC and an antibody that neutralized the PRL receptor did not decrease the apoptosis induced by supernatants. Further studies are needed to examine the involvement of other soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC in the induction of apoptosis. The present results indicate that apoptosis of DSC occurs in parallel to differentiation, in response to decidualization signals, with soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC being responsible for triggering cell death. These studies are relevant in the understanding of how the regression of decidua

  14. Characteristic Changes in Decidual Gene Expression Signature in Spontaneous Term Parturition

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    Haidy El-Azzamy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The decidua has been implicated in the “terminal pathway” of human term parturition, which is characterized by the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways in gestational tissues. However, the transcriptomic changes in the decidua leading to terminal pathway activation have not been systematically explored. This study aimed to compare the decidual expression of developmental signaling and inflammation-related genes before and after spontaneous term labor in order to reveal their involvement in this process. Methods Chorioamniotic membranes were obtained from normal pregnant women who delivered at term with spontaneous labor (TIL, n = 14 or without labor (TNL, n = 15. Decidual cells were isolated from snap-frozen chorioamniotic membranes with laser microdissection. The expression of 46 genes involved in decidual development, sex steroid and prostaglandin signaling, as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways, was analyzed using high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Chorioamniotic membrane sections were immunostained and then semi-quantified for five proteins, and immunoassays for three chemokines were performed on maternal plasma samples. Results The genes with the highest expression in the decidua at term gestation included insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1, galectin-1 (LGALS1, and progestogen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP; the expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, homeobox A11 (HOXA11, interleukin 1β (IL1B, IL8, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2, and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES was higher in TIL than in TNL cases; the expression of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2, CCL5, LGALS1, LGALS3, and PAEP was lower in TIL than in TNL cases; immunostaining confirmed qRT-PCR data for IL-8, CCL2, galectin-1, galectin-3, and PAEP; and no correlations between the decidual gene expression and the maternal plasma protein concentrations of CCL2, CCL5, and

  15. Comparing growth phenology of co-occurring deciduous and evergreen conifers exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-12-01

    Plant phenological events are influenced by climate factors such as temperature and rainfall. To evaluate phenological responses to water availability in a Spring Heath-Pine wood (Erico-Pinetum typicum), the focus of this study was to determine intra-annual dynamics of apical and lateral growth of co-occurring early successional Larix decidua and Pinus sylvestris and late successional Picea abies exposed to drought. The effect of reduced plant water availability on growth phenology was investigated by conducting a rainfall exclusion experiment. Timing of key phenological dates (onset, maximum rate, end, duration) of growth processes were compared among species at the rain-sheltered and control plot during 2011 and 2012. Shoot and needle elongation were monitored on lateral branches in the canopy at c . 16 m height and radial growth was recorded by automatic dendrometers at c . 1.3 m height of > 120 yr old trees. Different sequences in aboveground growth phenology were detected among the three species under the same growing conditions. While onset of radial growth in April through early May was considerably preceded by onset of needle growth in Larix decidua (5 - 6 weeks) and shoot growth in Pinus sylvestris ( c . 3 weeks), it occurred quite simultaneously with onset of shoot growth in Picea abies . Low water availability had a minor impact on onset of aboveground growth, which is related to utilization of stored water, but caused premature cessation of aboveground growth. At the control plot mean growing season length was 130 days in Pinus sylvestris , 95 days in Larix decidua and 73 days in Picea abies supporting the hypothesis that early successional species are resource expenders, while late successional species are more efficient in utilizing resources and develop safer life strategies. High synchronicity found in culmination of radial growth in late spring (mid-May through early June) prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions in summer

  16. Medicinal flora of the Cholistan desert: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmeed, M.; Ashraf, M.; Nawaz, T.; Naz, N.; Ahmad, M.S.A.; Al-Quriany, F.; Younis, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cholistan desert can be divided into two distinct regions on the basis of topography, soil type and texture, and vegetation structure: the northern Lesser Cholistan and southern Greater Cholistan. The desert is characterized by large saline compacted areas with alluvial clay, sandy ridges and dunes, and semi-stabilized to frequently shifting dunes. The climate is subtropical, harsh, hot and arid, and influenced by seasonal monsoons. Vegetation cover on the sand dunes is comprised by a few tussock-forming grasses including Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum turgidum and Lasiurus scindicus, along with perennial shrubs Calligonum polygonoides, Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Aerva javanica. Interdunal flats are dominated by grasses, mainly Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Sporobolus ioclados, Panicum antidotale, and Ochthochloa compressa, and tall shrubs Calligonum polygonoides and Capparis decidua. Vegetation of saline patches is specific, dominated by halophytes mainly belonging to family Chenopodiaceae (Amaranthaceae). Many plants of the Cholistan desert, including Neurada procumbens, Aerva javanica, Capparis decidua, Cleome brachycarpa, Dipterygium glaucum, Gisekia pharnacioides, Suaeda fruticosa, Achyranthes aspera, Aerva javanica, Alhagi maurorum, Calotropis procera, Capparis decidua, Zaleya pentandra, Mollugo cerviana, Ziziphus mauritiana, Boerhavia procumbens, Cressa cretica and Crotalaria burhia, are frequently used by the local inhabitants to cure chronic and acute diseases. A variety of medicinally important chemical compounds have been extracted and identified from the plants of the Cholistan desert, including terpenes and triterpenoids, sterols and steroids, phenolics, flavonoids, gums and resins, quinones, anthocyanidines, saponins, antioxidants and fatty acids. Habitat degradation, intensive agricultural practices and over exploitation of resources pose a serious threat to the diversity of ethno botanically important plant species. Allopathic medicines are generally

  17. Vectorization of ultrasound-responsive nanoparticles in placental mesenchymal stem cells for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Juan L; de la Torre, Paz; Victoria Cabañas, M; Manzano, Miguel; Grau, Montserrat; Flores, Ana I; Vallet-Regí, María

    2017-05-04

    A new platform constituted by engineered responsive nanoparticles transported by human mesenchymal stem cells is here presented as a proof of concept. Ultrasound-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylenimine to favor their effective uptake by decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The responsive-release ability of the designed nanoparticles is confirmed, both in vial and in vivo. In addition, this capability is maintained inside the cells used as carriers. The migration capacity of the nanoparticle-cell platform towards mammary tumors is assessed in vitro. The efficacy of this platform for anticancer therapy is shown against mammary tumor cells by inducing the release of doxorubicin only when the cell vehicles are exposed to ultrasound.

  18. Exemplifying whole-plant ozone uptake in adult forest trees of contrasting species and site conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Angela J.; Wieser, Gerhard; Metzger, Ursula; Loew, Markus; Wipfler, Philip; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Whole-tree O 3 uptake was exemplified for Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua in stands at high and low altitude and contrasting water availability through sap flow measurement in tree trunks, intrinsically accounting for drought and boundary layer effects on O 3 flux. O 3 uptake of evergreen spruce per unit foliage area was enhanced by 100% at high relative to low elevation, whereas deciduous beech and larch showed similar uptake regardless of altitude. The responsiveness of the canopy conductance to water vapor and, as a consequence, O 3 uptake to soil moisture and air humidity did not differ between species. Unifying findings at the whole-tree level will promote cause-effect based O 3 risk assessment and modeling. - Sap flow-based assessment of whole-tree O 3 uptake reflects similar responsiveness of canopy conductance and O 3 uptake across contrasting tree species and site conditions

  19. Tissue culture of adult larch as a tool for breeding purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewald, D.; Kretzschmar, U. [Federal Research Centre of Forestry and Forest Products, Waldsieversdorf (Germany). Inst. for Forest Tree Biology

    1995-12-31

    Aimed at the identical reproduction of genotypes which are considered superior different methods were tested to establish and to propagate tissue cultures from old larch trees (L. decidua, L. kaempferi, L. sukaczewii, L. gmelinii, L. eurolepis). Serial subcultures without phytohormones (shoot tip propagation) led to the establishment of clone lines. After ten subcultures propagation velocity, shoot morphology and rooting behavior were similar to juvenile plant material. Serial subcultures which included a cytokinin induction led to the formation of adventitious shoot clusters (adventitious bud propagation). Adventitious shoots derived from male flowers of one L. kaempferi clone could be propagated via shoot tip propagation. Micrografting of meristems in vitro resulted in a regained rooting capacity of green cuttings from micrografts. Combining these in vitro techniques offers now the possibility to propagate selected mature larch trees for different breeding purposes. 23 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Development of the inverted visceral yolk sac in three species of caviids (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglino, M A; Franciolli, A L R; de Oliveira, M F; Ambrósio, C E; Bonatelli, M; Machado, M R F; Mess, A

    2008-08-01

    Guinea pig related rodents possess numerous derived placental characters. We attempt to identify diversity within the visceral yolk sac and its association with the chorioallantoic placenta in three species of caviids, two of them possessing a capsule formed by the decidua that covers the chorioallantoic placenta. The results verify that in early pregnancy all three species have an inverted yolk sac placenta. In advanced pregnancy the species differ: Galea spixii, as representative without a capsule, bear a yolk sac in apposition to the chorioallantoic placenta with signs of exchange activity until term. Galea is similar to other caviomorphs in this respect. In Dasyprocta leporina and Cuniculus paca, the representatives possessing a capsule, the yolk sac endoderm lacks signs of substance exchange. Evidently, the presence of a capsule prevents such an interaction. The variations established here must be considered if animal models for human placentation are required which have restricted access to the chorioallantoic placenta from the outside.

  1. Decidual Stromal Cell Response to Paracrine Signals from the Trophoblast: Amplification of Immune and Angiogenic Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, AP; Hamilton, AE; Talbi, S

    2007-01-01

    During the invasive phase of implantation, trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells secrete products that regulate trophoblast differentiation and migration into the maternal endometrium. Paracrine interactions between the extravillous trophoblast and the maternal decidua are important...... a functional genomics approach to investigate these paracrine interactions. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized with progesterone and were further treated with conditioned media (CM) from human trophoblasts (TCM) or, as a control, with conditioned media (CCM) from non-decidualized stromal cells...... regulated groups. The data demonstrate a significant induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as angiogenic/static factors in decidualized endometrial stromal cells in response to trophoblast-secreted products. The data suggest that the trophoblast acts to alter the local immune...

  2. Análisis de las potencialidades de desarrollo frutícola de tipo templado in Guatemala, Departamento del Quiché, Chichicastenango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Battaglia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La fruticultura decidua en Guatemala en el Departamento del El Quiché en la Municipalidad de Chichicastenango, actualmente caracterizada por una producción y una comercialización importante, puede convertirse en una alternativa cultural interesante, generando mayores ingresos adicionales para la economía familiar de las comunidades campesinas.En el articulo se analiza la problemática técnica y cultural de los cultivos frutales de tipo templado mas representados: el manzano, el duraznero y el ciruelo.Además se incluyen indicaciones para las otras especies frutales que podrían ser objeto de introducción y de desarrollo.

  3. Cistanche tubulosa (schenk) r. wight an important medicinal plant occurring in sand dunes of Karak, N.W.F.P., Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilahi, I.; Iqbal, Z.; Shafiq-ur-Rehman

    2010-01-01

    Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight of the family Orobanchaceae has been found growing as a parasite for the first time on Capparis decidua L (Capparidaceae). It is reported for the first time from District Karak (N.W.F.P.) Pakistan. It was also found growing on Calligonum polygonoides L (Polygonaceae), Calotropis procera L. (Asclepiadaceae) and Tamarix indica Willd (Tamaricaceae). The seed germinates on the host root which is near the soil surface and produces haustoria which then penetrate into the deeper layers of the root i.e. to the centre of metaxylem to tap the nutrition from the host, where it is parenchymatous in nature. The nature and habit of both the host and parasite are described in detail. (author)

  4. Multivariate analysis using high definition flow cytometry reveals distinct T cell repertoires between the foetal-maternal interface and the peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eNeller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The human T-cell compartment is a complex system and while some information is known on repertoire composition and dynamics in the peripheral blood, little is known on repertoire composition at different anatomical sites. Here, we determine the T-cell receptor β-variable (TRBV repertoire at the decidua and compare it with the peripheral blood during normal pregnancy and preclampsia. We found total T-cell subset disparity of up to 58% between sites, including large signature TRBV expansions unique to the foetal-maternal interface. Defining the functional nature and specificity of compartment-specific T-cells will be necessary if we are to understand localised immunity, tolerance and pathogenesis.

  5. Pregnancy immunology: decidual immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Pongcharoen, Sutatip

    2008-01-01

    Human pregnancy is a complex process. Placental development depends on the function of secretory molecules produced by placental trophoblast cells as well as by maternal uterine immune cells within the decidua. These decidual immune cells are T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. The interactions between the trophoblast cells and the maternal immune cells have an impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Knowledge about the phenotypes and functions of the maternal immune cells in normal and pathological pregnancies including recurrent spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia and hydatidiform moles may improve our understanding of the immunobiology of the normal pregnancy as a whole and may provide approaches for improving the treatment of pathological pregnancies.

  6. Galectin signature in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2014-03-01

    Members of the galectin family are expressed within the female reproductive tract and have been shown to be involved in multiple biological functions that support the progression of pregnancy. Specific expression patterns of different members of this family have been identified at the maternal decidua and on the placental side. In some cases, mechanisms by which galectins exert their functions have been delineated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review summarizes studies on galectins that have been documented to be important for pregnancy maintenance, either supporting the maternal adaptation to pregnancy or the placentation process. In addition, we focus our discussion on the role of galectins in preeclampsia, a specific life-threatening pregnancy disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct seeding woody species for restoration of bottomlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Connor, Kristina F

    2006-01-01

    I direct seeded (broadcast) seeds of 39 species of trees and shrubs using an ATV-mounted rotary spreader to initiate restoration of bottomland forest on retired agricultural sites. Four sites were planted during February, 2000, and 13 additional sites were planted during April and May, 2001. After two growing seasons, stem density of direct-seeded species varied greatly among study plots (range = 0 to 888 stems/ha) but averaged only 110 stems/ha. I recommend that future efforts at direct seeding focus on seven shrub species (Amorpha fruticosa L., Cephalanthus occidentalis L., Cornus spp., Crataegus spp., Ilex decidua Walt., Morus rubra L., and Prunus spp.) and seven tree species (Celtis laevigata Willd., Diospyros virginiana L., Fraxinus spp., Gleditsia triacanthos L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich, and Ulmus spp.) that successfully established in these trials.

  8. Tissue culture of adult larch as a tool for breeding purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewald, D; Kretzschmar, U [Federal Research Centre of Forestry and Forest Products, Waldsieversdorf (Germany). Inst. for Forest Tree Biology

    1996-12-31

    Aimed at the identical reproduction of genotypes which are considered superior different methods were tested to establish and to propagate tissue cultures from old larch trees (L. decidua, L. kaempferi, L. sukaczewii, L. gmelinii, L. eurolepis). Serial subcultures without phytohormones (shoot tip propagation) led to the establishment of clone lines. After ten subcultures propagation velocity, shoot morphology and rooting behavior were similar to juvenile plant material. Serial subcultures which included a cytokinin induction led to the formation of adventitious shoot clusters (adventitious bud propagation). Adventitious shoots derived from male flowers of one L. kaempferi clone could be propagated via shoot tip propagation. Micrografting of meristems in vitro resulted in a regained rooting capacity of green cuttings from micrografts. Combining these in vitro techniques offers now the possibility to propagate selected mature larch trees for different breeding purposes. 23 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Fetal loss in homozygous mutant Norrie disease mice: a new role of Norrin in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Meunier, Dominique; Shi, Wei; Lüttges, Angela; Pfarrer, Christiane; Fundele, Reinald; Berger, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma gene (NDP) are known to cause X-linked recessive Norrie disease. In addition, NDP mutations have been found in other vasoproliferative retinopathies such as familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, and Coats disease, suggesting a role for Norrin in vascular development. Here we report that female mice homozygous for the Norrie disease pseudoglioma homolog (Ndph) knockout allele exhibit almost complete infertility, while heterozygous females and hemizygous males are fertile. Histological examinations and RNA in situ hybridization analyses revealed defects in vascular development and decidualization in pregnant Ndph-/- females from embryonic day 7 (E7) onwards, resulting in embryonic loss. Using RT-PCR analyses we also demonstrate, for the first time, the expression of Ndph in mouse uteri and deciduae as well as the expression of NDP in human placenta. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence for Norrin playing an important role in female reproductive tissues. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  10. Genetic deletion of Cxcl14 in mice alters uterine NK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Qichen; Chen, Hua; Deng, Zhili; Yue, Jingwen; Chen, Qi; Cao, Yujing; Ning, Lina; Lei, Xiaohua; Duan, Enkui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We first examined the expression of Cxcl14 in MLAp and DB of uterus. •We found the uNK cells in MLAp and decidua express Cxcl14. •In Cxcl14 −/− placenta, we found significantly decreased uNK cells. •We first performed microarray to compare the gene expression in MLAp and DB. -- Abstract: The uterine natural killer cells (uNK cells) are the major immune cells in pregnant uterus and the number of uNK cells is dramatically increased during placentation and embryo development. The uNK cells are necessary for the immune tolerance, cytokine secretion and angiogenesis of placenta. Former studies indicated that the population expansion of uNK cells was accomplished through recruitment of NK cell precursors from the spleen and bone marrow, but not proliferation of NK cells. However, the necessary molecules within this process were little understood. Here in our study, we found the co-localized expression of Cxcl14 protein with uNK cells in E13.5 pregnant uterus. Moreover, we used Cxcl14 knockout mice to examine uNK cells in mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy (MLAp) and decidua basalis (DB) of E13.5 pregnant uterus and found significantly decreased uNK cells in Cxcl14 −/− pregnant uteri compared with Cxcl14 +/− pregnant uteri. To further explorer the molecular change in MLAp and DB after Cxcl14 knockout, we isolated the MLAp and DB from Cxcl14 +/+ and Cxcl14 −/− pregnant uteri and performed microarray analysis. We found many genes were up and down regulated after Cxcl14 knockout. In conclusion, our results suggested the important function of Cxcl14 in uNK cells and the proper level of Cxcl14 protein were required to recruit NK cells to pregnant uterus

  11. In vitro evaluation of novel antiviral activities of 60 medicinal plants extracts against hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Ahmed Hassan; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Al-Dosari, Mohammed Salem; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan

    2017-07-01

    Currently, >35 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants are traditionally used for various liver disorders without a scientific rationale. This is the first experimental evaluation of the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of the total ethanolic and sequential organic extracts of 60 candidate medicinal plants. The extracts were tested for toxicity on HepG2.2.15 cells and cytotoxicity concentration (CC 50 ) values were determined. The extracts were further investigated on HepG2.2.15 cells for anti-HBV activities by analyzing the inhibition of HBsAg and HBeAg production in the culture supernatants, and their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and therapeutic index (TI) values were determined. Of the screened plants, Guiera senegalensis (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =10.65), Pulicaria crispa (ethyl acetate extract, IC 50 =14.45), Coccinea grandis (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =31.57), Fumaria parviflora (hexane extract, IC 50 =35.44), Capparis decidua (aqueous extract, IC 50 =66.82), Corallocarpus epigeus (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =71.9), Indigofera caerulea (methanol extract, IC 50 =73.21), Abutilon figarianum (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =99.76) and Acacia oerfota (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =101.46) demonstrated novel anti-HBV activities in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further qualitative phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins, which are attributed to antiviral efficacies. In conclusion, P. crispa, G. senegalensis and F. parviflora had the most promising anti-HBV potentials, including those of C. decidua , C. epigeus, A. figarianum , A. oerfota and I. caerulea with marked activities. However, a detailed phytochemical study of these extracts is essential to isolate the active principle(s) responsible for their novel anti-HBV potential.

  12. Genetic deletion of Cxcl14 in mice alters uterine NK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qichen [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Shijingshan, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Hua [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China); Deng, Zhili [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Shijingshan, Beijing 100049 (China); Yue, Jingwen; Chen, Qi; Cao, Yujing; Ning, Lina; Lei, Xiaohua [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China); Duan, Enkui, E-mail: duane@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •We first examined the expression of Cxcl14 in MLAp and DB of uterus. •We found the uNK cells in MLAp and decidua express Cxcl14. •In Cxcl14{sup −/−} placenta, we found significantly decreased uNK cells. •We first performed microarray to compare the gene expression in MLAp and DB. -- Abstract: The uterine natural killer cells (uNK cells) are the major immune cells in pregnant uterus and the number of uNK cells is dramatically increased during placentation and embryo development. The uNK cells are necessary for the immune tolerance, cytokine secretion and angiogenesis of placenta. Former studies indicated that the population expansion of uNK cells was accomplished through recruitment of NK cell precursors from the spleen and bone marrow, but not proliferation of NK cells. However, the necessary molecules within this process were little understood. Here in our study, we found the co-localized expression of Cxcl14 protein with uNK cells in E13.5 pregnant uterus. Moreover, we used Cxcl14 knockout mice to examine uNK cells in mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy (MLAp) and decidua basalis (DB) of E13.5 pregnant uterus and found significantly decreased uNK cells in Cxcl14{sup −/−} pregnant uteri compared with Cxcl14{sup +/−} pregnant uteri. To further explorer the molecular change in MLAp and DB after Cxcl14 knockout, we isolated the MLAp and DB from Cxcl14{sup +/+} and Cxcl14{sup −/−} pregnant uteri and performed microarray analysis. We found many genes were up and down regulated after Cxcl14 knockout. In conclusion, our results suggested the important function of Cxcl14 in uNK cells and the proper level of Cxcl14 protein were required to recruit NK cells to pregnant uterus.

  13. Uterine CD56dim and CD16+ Cells in Refractory Antiphospholipid Antibody-Related Pregnancy Loss and Chromosomally Intact Abortuses: A Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa F Gomaa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the role of uterine natural killer (uNK CD56dim and CD16+ cells in patients with refractory antiphospholipid, antibody-mediated, recurrent, pregnancy loss. Settings and Design: A case–control study was conducted between 2012 and 2015 at a university hospital. Patients and Methods: A group of 118 women with a history of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome experiencing fetal loss in spite of low dose aspirin (LDA and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH treatment in the current pregnancy were included in this study. A group of 32 patients undergoing an elective termination of viable pregnancies before 20 weeks were taken as controls. Suction evacuation was performed to collect abortus specimens, and uterine wall curettage was performed to collect decidua specimens, which were then stained using monoclonal antibodies specific to CD56 and CD16. Statistics: Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18 software. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used for making comparison between the groups. Results: Abnormal fetal karyotype was found in nine (9/97 cases of the study group, which means that abnormal karyotype accounts for only 9.3% of the causes of failure of treatment. Abnormal karyotype was found in four cases of the control group. Only cases with normal karyotyping were subjected to decidual uNK cells analysis. We found that CD56dim and CD16+ were found in the decidua of 79 cases (79/97, which means that aberrant natural killer cells expression might account for 81.4% of the cases of refractory antiphospholipid antibody (APA-mediated recurrent pregnancy loss. Conclusion: CD56dim and CD16+uNK cells might be correlated with refractory APA-mediated recurrent pregnancy loss.

  14. Galectin-1 influences trophoblast immune evasion and emerges as a predictive factor for the outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-González, Irene; Freitag, Nancy; Barrientos, Gabriela; Shaikly, Valerie; Nagaeva, Olga; Strand, Magnus; Kjellberg, Lennart; Klapp, Burghard F; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia; Cohen, Marie; Blois, Sandra M

    2013-01-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1) is expressed at the feto-maternal interface and plays a role in regulating the maternal immune response against placental alloantigens, contributing to pregnancy maintenance. Both decidua and placenta contribute to gal-1 expression and may be important for the maternal immune regulation. The expression of gal-1 within the placenta is considered relevant to cell-adhesion and invasion of trophoblasts, but the role of gal-1 in the immune evasion machinery exhibited by trophoblast cells remains to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed gal-1 expression in preimplantation human embryos and first-trimester decidua-placenta specimens and serum gal-1 levels to investigate the physiological role played by this lectin during pregnancy. The effect on human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) expression in response to stimulation or silencing of gal-1 was also determined in the human invasive, proliferative extravillous cytotrophoblast 65 (HIPEC65) cell line. Compared with normal pregnant women, circulating gal-1 levels were significantly decreased in patients who subsequently suffered a miscarriage. Human embryos undergoing preimplantation development expressed gal-1 on the trophectoderm and inner cell mass. Furthermore, our in vitro experiments showed that exogenous gal-1 positively regulated the membrane-bound HLA-G isoforms (HLA-G1 and G2) in HIPEC65 cells, whereas endogenous gal-1 also induced expression of the soluble isoforms (HLA-G5 and -G6). Our results suggest that gal-1 plays a key role in pregnancy maternal immune regulation by modulating HLA-G expression on trophoblast cells. Circulating gal-1 levels could serve as a predictive factor for pregnancy success in early human gestation.

  15. Human decidual macrophages and NK cells differentially express Toll-like receptors and display distinct cytokine profiles upon TLR stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eDuriez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maternofetal pathogen transmission is partially controlled at the level of the maternal uterine mucosa at the fetal implantation site (the decidua basalis, where maternal and fetal cells are in close contact. Toll-like receptors (TLRs may play an important role in initiating rapid immune responses against pathogens in the decidua basalis, however the tolerant microenvironment should be preserved in order to allow fetal development. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of TLRs expressed by decidual macrophages (dMs and NK cells (dNKs, the major decidual immune cell populations.We report for the first time that both human dMs and dNK cells express mRNAs encoding TLRs 1-9, albeit with a higher expression level in dMs. TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 protein expression checked by flow cytometry was positive for both dMs and dNK cells. In vitro treatment of primary dMs and dNK cells with specific TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists enhanced their secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as cytokines and chemokines involved in immune cell crosstalk. Only dNK cells released IFN-γ, whereas only dMs released IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12. TLR9 activation of dMs resulted in a distinct pattern of cytokine expression compared to the other TLRs. The cytokine profiles expressed by dMs and dNK cells upon TLR activation are compatible with maintenance of the fetotolerant immune environment during initiation of immune responses to pathogens at the maternofetal interface.

  16. Spatial segregation and summer habitat use by alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra and mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon in the Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanzin, M.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken on the spatial overlap and habitat selection of the introduced Mouflon and the autochthon Chamois population in the Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park (Eastern Italian Alps. Mouflon distribution within the Park showed a marked seasonal shift from winter (December-May range (400-800 m a. s. I. to the summer (June-November range (1600-1800 m a. s. /J. Consequently, significant overlap with Chamois occurred only in summer. Therefore, spatial overlap and habitat selection were studied in more detail in the summer range of Mouflon. The results showed that the areas most intensively used by the two species were distinct. Both species avoided areas with rock outcrops and dense forests, Mouflon used Pinus mugo stands and scree much more than Chamois, and conversely Chamois used more alpine pastures and Larix decidua stands. The results therefore indicate that Chamois and Mouflon segregate spatially and use different resources.

    [fr]
    Nous avons étudié la superposition spatiale et la sélection de l'habitat des populations de mouflons introduits et de chamois autochtones du Parc National des Dolomites Bellunesi (Alpes italiennes orientales. La distribution du mouflon dans le parc change clairement d'une saison à l'autre (en hiver : décembremai, entre 400-800 m d'altitude ; en été : juin-novembre, entre 1600-1800 m d'altitude. Par conséquent, la population se superpose avec celle du chamois seulement en été. Nous avons alors étudié la distribution estivale du mouflon à une échelle plus fine. Nous avons pu montrer que les territoires les plus utilisés par chacune des deux espèces étaient séparés. Les deux espèces évitaient les terrains avec des escarpements ou blocs rocheux et les forêts denses, toutefois le mouflon utilisait les bosquets de Pinus mugo et les éboulis beaucoup plus fréquemment que le chamois; ce dernier au contraire cherchait plus les pâturages alpins et les for

  17. Inactivation of maternal Hif-1α at mid-pregnancy causes placental defects and deficits in oxygen delivery to the fetal organs under hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenchegowda, Doreswamy; Natale, Bryony; Lemus, Maria A; Natale, David R; Fisher, Steven A

    2017-02-15

    A critical transition occurs near mid-gestation of mammalian pregnancy. Prior to this transition, low concentrations of oxygen (hypoxia) signaling through Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) functions as a morphogen for the placenta and fetal organs. Subsequently, functional coupling of the placenta and fetal cardiovascular system for oxygen (O 2 ) transport is required to support the continued growth and development of the fetus. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hif-1α is required in maternal cells for placental morphogenesis and function. We used Tamoxifen-inducible Cre-Lox to inactivate Hif-1α in maternal tissues at E8.5 (MATcKO), and used ODD-Luciferase as a reporter of hypoxia in placenta and fetal tissues. MATcKO of Hif-1α reduced the number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells and Tpbpa-positve trophoblast cells in the maternal decidua at E13.5 -15.5. There were dynamic changes in all three layers of E13.5-15.5 MATcKO placenta. Of note was the under-development of the labyrinth at E15.5 associated with reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining consistent with reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Labyrinth defects were particularly evident in placentas connected to effectively HIF-1α heterozygous null embryos. MATcKO had no effect on basal ODD-Luciferase activity in fetal organs (heart, liver, brain) at any stage, but at E13.5-15.5 resulted in enhanced induction of the ODD-Luciferase hypoxia reporter when the dam's inspired O 2 was reduced to 8% for 4 hours. MATcKO also slowed the growth after E13.5 of fetuses that were effectively heterozygous for Hif-1α, with most being non-viable at E15.5. The hearts of these E15.5 fetuses were abnormal with reduction in size, thickened epicardium and mesenchymal septum. We conclude that maternal HIF-1α is required for placentation including recruitment of uNK and trophoblast cells into the maternal decidua and other trophoblast cell behaviors. The placental defects render the fetus vulnerable to O 2

  18. Increase in complement iC3b is associated with anti-inflammatory cytokine expression during late pregnancy in mice.

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    Keigo Nakamura

    Full Text Available Immunological tolerance between fetal allograft and mother is crucial for pregnancy establishment and maintenance; however, these mechanisms particularly those during the latter part of pregnancy have not been definitively elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and potential function of innate immunity characteristic to the middle to late pregnancy. We first characterized up-regulated proteins in decidua from day 11 pregnant (P11 mice using 2D-PAGE, followed by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. These analyses identified increased complement component 3 (C3 and its derivatives in P11 decidua. We then found that in the decidual tissues, C3 mRNA increased on P15 and remained high on P19. C3 is converted to C3b and then iC3b by complement component factor I (Cfi and complement receptor 1-like protein (Crry, both of which were present in P19 placentas. In addition, iC3b proteins and its receptor CR3 (Cd11b/Cd18 in decidual and placental tissues increased toward the latter phase of pregnancy. Moreover, CR3 subunit CD11b protein was predominantly localized to spongiotrophoblast layer in the P19 placenta. Because iC3b is known to induce anti-inflammatory cytokine production, the analysis was extended to examine changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, Il12, Il10, and Tgfb1. Il12 expression decreased in P15 and P19 placenta, while high mRNA expression of Il10 and Tgfb1 was found in P19 placental tissues. Furthermore, placental Il10 and Tgfb1 mRNAs were down-regulated when pregnant mice were treated with an anti-C3 antibody, detecting C3, C3b and iC3b. These results indicated that C3 derivatives, in particular, iC3b and its receptor CR3 were up-regulated at the fetal-maternal interface, and suggest that iC3b may regulate the placental expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL10 and TGFB1, during the latter phase of pregnancy.

  19. Upregulation of innate antiviral restricting factor expression in the cord blood and decidual tissue of HIV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nátalli Zanete; Cardoso, Elaine Cristina; Oliveira, Luanda Mara da Silva; de Lima, Josenilson Feitosa; Branco, Anna Cláudia Calvielli Castelo; Ruocco, Rosa Maria de Souza Aveiro; Zugaib, Marcelo; de Oliveira Filho, João Bosco; Duarte, Alberto José da Silva; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2013-01-01

    Programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have reduced the transmission rate of perinatal HIV infection and have thereby increased the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. Natural immunity to HIV-1 infection in both mothers and newborns needs to be further explored. In this study, we compared the expression of antiviral restricting factors in HIV-infected pregnant mothers treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy (n=23) and in cord blood (CB) (n=16), placental tissues (n=10-13) and colostrum (n=5-6) samples and compared them to expression in samples from uninfected (UN) pregnant mothers (n=21). Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were prepared from maternal and CB samples following deliveries by cesarean section. Maternal (decidua) and fetal (chorionic villus) placental tissues were obtained, and colostrum was collected 24 h after delivery. The mRNA and protein expression levels of antiviral factors were then evaluated. We observed a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of antiviral factors in MNCs from HIV-infected mothers and CB, including the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (A3G), A3F, tripartite motif family-5α (TRIM-5α), TRIM-22, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) and IFN-β, compared with the levels detected in uninfected (UN) mother-CB pairs. Moreover, A3G transcript and protein levels and α-defensin transcript levels were decreased in the decidua of HIV-infected mothers. Decreased TRIM-5α protein levels in the villi and increased STING mRNA expression in both placental tissues were also observed in HIV-infected mothers compared with uninfected (UN) mothers. Additionally, colostrum cells from infected mothers showed increased tetherin and IFN-β mRNA levels and CXCL9 protein levels. The data presented here indicate that antiviral restricting factor expression can be induced in utero in HIV-infected mothers. Future studies are warranted to determine

  20. Onset of human preterm and term birth is related to unique inflammatory transcriptome profiles at the maternal fetal interface

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    Radek Bukowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Preterm birth is a main determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity and a major contributor to the overall mortality and burden of disease. However, research of the preterm birth is hindered by the imprecise definition of the clinical phenotype and complexity of the molecular phenotype due to multiple pregnancy tissue types and molecular processes that may contribute to the preterm birth. Here we comprehensively evaluate the mRNA transcriptome that characterizes preterm and term labor in tissues comprising the pregnancy using precisely phenotyped samples. The four complementary phenotypes together provide comprehensive insight into preterm and term parturition. Methods Samples of maternal blood, chorion, amnion, placenta, decidua, fetal blood, and myometrium from the uterine fundus and lower segment (n = 183 were obtained during cesarean delivery from women with four complementary phenotypes: delivering preterm with (PL and without labor (PNL, term with (TL and without labor (TNL. Enrolled were 35 pregnant women with four precisely and prospectively defined phenotypes: PL (n = 8, PNL (n = 10, TL (n = 7 and TNL (n = 10. Gene expression data were analyzed using shrunken centroid analysis to identify a minimal set of genes that uniquely characterizes each of the four phenotypes. Expression profiles of 73 genes and non-coding RNA sequences uniquely identified each of the four phenotypes. The shrunken centroid analysis and 10 times 10-fold cross-validation was also used to minimize false positive finings and overfitting. Identified were the pathways and molecular processes associated with and the cis-regulatory elements in gene’s 5′ promoter or 3′-UTR regions of the set of genes which expression uniquely characterized the four phenotypes. Results The largest differences in gene expression among the four groups occurred at maternal fetal interface in decidua, chorion and amnion. The gene expression profiles showed

  1. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Due to the large size (e.g. sections of tree trunks) and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the timescales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the chronosequence approach and the five-decay class system that is based on a macromorphological assessment. For the decay classes 1-3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose, and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model, a regression approach, and the stage-based matrix model. In the decay classes 1-3, the ages of the CWD were similar and varied between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch, with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative of deadwood age. This seems to be due to a time lag between the death of a standing tree and its contact with the soil. We found distinct tree-species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were estimated to be in the range 0.018 to 0.022 y-1 for spruce and to about 0.012 y-1 for larch. Snapshot sampling (chronosequences) may overestimate the age and mean residence time of CWD. No sampling bias was, however, detectable using the stage-based matrix model. Cellulose and lignin time trends could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 years for spruce and 50 years for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than

  2. The Role of Progesterone and a Novel Progesterone Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1, in the Inflammatory Response of Fetal Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Infection.

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    Liping Feng

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma parvum (U. parvum is gaining recognition as an important pathogen for chorioamnionitis and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We aimed to investigate the roles of progesterone (P4 and a novel progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, in the response of fetal membranes to U. parvum. Fetal membrane cells (amnion, chorion and decidua were isolated and confirmed to be free of Mycoplasmataceae. Cells were treated with U. parvum (5x106 CFU, and adherence was quantified by qPCR. Amnion and chorion cells were transfected with scrambled siRNA or validated PGRMC1 siRNA for 72h. Cells were then treated with U. parvum for 4h with or without pretreatment with P4 (10-7 M or ethanol for 1h. Interleukin-8 (IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 mRNA expression were quantified by qRT-PCR. Culture medium was harvested and analyzed for IL-8 and prostaglandin (PGE2 secretion by ELISA and MMP9 activity by zymography. U. parvum had a mean adherence of 15.0±0.6%, 16.9± 3.7% and 4.7±0.3% in cultured amnion, chorion and decidua cells, respectively. Exposure to U. parvum elicited significant inflammatory responses including induction of IL-8, COX-2, PGE2 and MMP9. A possible role of PGRMC1 was identified in the inhibition of U. parvum-stimulated COX-2 and MMP9 mRNA expression in chorion cells and MMP9 activity in amnion cells. On the other hand, it might enhance the U. parvum-stimulated IL-8 protein secretion in amnion cells. P4, mediated through PGRMC1, significantly inhibited U. Parvum-induced MMP9 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA expression in chorion cells. P4 appeared to attenuate U. parvum induced IL-8 mRNA expression in chorion cells, but this P4 effect might not mediated through PGRMC1. In summary, U. parvum preferentially adheres to and induces inflammatory responses in chorion and amnion cells. P4 and PGRMC1 appear to differentially modulate the inflammatory responses induced by U. parvum among

  3. Creating a placental inflammatory composite index that has a high prognostic relevance to child morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zou, Lile; Zhao, Yanjun; Wu, Ting; Ye, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Selecting pathologic measures of placental inflammation that affect pregnancy and childhood health is largely empirical. We aimed to systematically select several core inflammation-related placental measures to construct a novel placental inflammatory evaluation criterion with a high prognostic relevance to child morbidity. We used data from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1976), a longitudinal birth cohort study that recruited women during pregnancy and followed the children until 7 years of age. Bootstrap resampling, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and receiver-operator curve were used to select placental pathologic measures that were closely related to child morbidity to form a placental inflammatory composite index. Twenty-six candidate placental inflammation-related measures were ranked based on their close association with adverse neonatal outcomes. The top five placental measures were: (i) neutrophilic infiltration in umbilical artery; (ii) placental weight-birthweight ratio; (iii) necrosis in decidua capsularis; (iv) bacterial colony in epithelium of amnion; and (v) opacity of membranes and fetal surface. Several composite indexes were constructed. A five-measure composite index that had the highest prognostic relevance was chosen. Compared with subjects without any of the five abnormal measures, those with any lesion ranging from 1 to 5 had a 1.2- to 4.6-fold risk of adverse child outcomes, respectively. Our composite index is simple, evidence-based, and has predictive value for child morbidity. It may be used as a novel placental inflammatory evaluation criterion. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Direct Measurement of Tree Height Provides Different Results on the Assessment of LiDAR Accuracy

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    Emanuele Sibona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, airborne laser scanning-based and traditional field-based survey methods for tree heights estimation are assessed by using one hundred felled trees as a reference dataset. Comparisons between remote sensing and field-based methods were applied to four circular permanent plots located in the western Italian Alps and established within the Alpine Space project NewFor. Remote sensing (Airborne Laser Scanning, ALS, traditional field-based (indirect measurement, IND, and direct measurement of felled trees (DIR methods were compared by using summary statistics, linear regression models, and variation partitioning. Our results show that tree height estimates by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS approximated to real heights (DIR of felled trees. Considering the species separately, Larix decidua was the species that showed the smaller mean absolute difference (0.95 m between remote sensing (ALS and direct field (DIR data, followed by Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris (1.13 m and 1.04 m, respectively. Our results cannot be generalized to ALS surveys with low pulses density (<5/m2 and with view angles far from zero (nadir. We observed that the tree heights estimation by laser scanner is closer to actual tree heights (DIR than traditional field-based survey, and this was particularly valid for tall trees with conical shape crowns.

  5. How much does climate change threaten European forest tree species distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Paź, Sonia; Frelich, Lee E; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2018-03-01

    Although numerous species distribution models have been developed, most were based on insufficient distribution data or used older climate change scenarios. We aimed to quantify changes in projected ranges and threat level by the years 2061-2080, for 12 European forest tree species under three climate change scenarios. We combined tree distribution data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, EUFORGEN, and forest inventories, and we developed species distribution models using MaxEnt and 19 bioclimatic variables. Models were developed for three climate change scenarios-optimistic (RCP2.6), moderate (RCP4.5), and pessimistic (RPC8.5)-using three General Circulation Models, for the period 2061-2080. Our study revealed different responses of tree species to projected climate change. The species may be divided into three groups: "winners"-mostly late-successional species: Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, and Quercus petraea; "losers"-mostly pioneer species: Betula pendula, Larix decidua, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris; and alien species-Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus rubra, and Robinia pseudoacacia, which may be also considered as "winners." Assuming limited migration, most of the species studied would face a significant decrease in suitable habitat area. The threat level was highest for species that currently have the northernmost distribution centers. Ecological consequences of the projected range contractions would be serious for both forest management and nature conservation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The effects of sildenafil citrate on feto-placental development and haemodynamics in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tello, Jorge; Arias-Álvarez, María; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria-Ángeles; Barbero-Fernández, Alicia; García-García, Rosa María; Rodríguez, María; Lorenzo, Pedro L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Astiz, Susana; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Rebollar, Pilar G

    2017-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of sildenafil citrate (SC) to improve placental and fetal growth in a diet-induced rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Pregnant rabbits were fed either ad libitum (Group C) or restricted to 50% of dietary requirements (Group R) or restricted and treated with SC (Group SC). The treatment with SC improved placental development by increasing vascularity and vessel hypertrophy in the decidua. The assessment of feto-placental haemodynamics showed higher resistance and pulsatility indices at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in fetuses treated with SC when compared with Group R, which had increased systolic peak and time-averaged mean velocities at the MCA. Furthermore, fetuses in the SC group had significantly higher biparietal and thoracic diameters and longer crown-rump lengths than fetuses in Group R. Hence, the SC group had a reduced IUGR rate and a higher kit size at birth compared with Group R. In conclusion, SC may provide potential benefits in pregnancies with placental insufficiency and IUGR, partially counteracting the negative effects of food restriction on placental development and fetal growth. However, the present study also found evidence of a possible blood overflow in the brain that warrants further investigation.

  7. Polymorphisms in DC-SIGN and L-SIGN genes are associated with HIV-1 vertical transmission in a Northeastern Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronaldo Celerino; Segat, Ludovica; Zanin, Valentina; Arraes, Luiz Claudio; Crovella, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are receptors expressed on specialized macrophages in decidua, (Hofbauer and placental capillary endothelial cells), known to interact with several pathogens, including HIV-1. To disclose the possible involvement of these molecules in the susceptibility to HIV vertical transmission, we analyzed DC-SIGN and L-SIGN gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 192 HIV-1 positive children and 58 HIV-1 negative children all born to HIV-1 positive mothers, as well as 96 healthy uninfected children not exposed to HIV-1, all from Northeast Brazil. The frequency of three SNPs in the DC-SIGN promoter (-139G>A, -201G>T and -336A>G) were significantly different when comparing HIV positive children with HIV-1 exposed uninfected children, indicating an association with susceptibility to HIV-1 vertical transmission. This genetic association suggests that DC-SIGN molecule may play a role in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection through vertical transmission. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Action of larch bark in the regulation of cortisol induced stress in sheep

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    Elisa Asquini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Larix decidua (LD dietary administration on gene expression patterns has been evaluated in sheep under ACTH challenge. Experimental protocol was approved by local laws and regulations. Eighteen sheep at maintenance were allotted to 3 groups: CTR (negative control, without ACTH, and supplementation, ACTH (positive control, with ACTH, and without supplementation, LD (ACTH and 50 g/head/day of LD. ACTH was injected for 3 subsequent days to ACTH and LD groups and blood was sampled before (T0 and after 3 (T3 and 51 (T51 hours from the first injection. RNA extracted samples were pooled together within group and time of sampling. A custom oligoarray was synthesized using 24,384 35 -40mer probes designed from 12,194 UniGenes (NCBI on a CombiMatrix 90K platform. Cy5 labelled samples were hybridized on the chip. Statistical analysis, performed with MeV software 4.1 (TIGR, allowed the identification of a set of genes which were up or down regulated as a consequence of ACTH treatment. Genes that resulted differentially expressed were annotated with HomoloGene system and data mining was performed with Babelomics v3.1 tool. Functional analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed genes belong to KEGG pathways involved in immune system response and signaling molecules and interaction. Larch administration was effective in counteracting the effect of ACTH injection on the inflammatory processes, restoring the physiological homeostasis.

  9. Tree-ring proxies of larch bud moth defoliation: latewood width and blue intensity are more precise than tree-ring width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Jarvis, Ingrid; Chavardès, Raphaël D; Daniels, Lori D; Stoffel, Markus

    2018-05-19

    Reconstructions of defoliation by larch bud moth (LBM, Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) based on European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) tree rings have unraveled outbreak patterns over exceptional temporal and spatial scales. In this study, we conducted tree-ring analyses on 105 increment cores of European larch from the Valais Alps, Switzerland. The well-documented history of LBM outbreaks in Valais provided a solid baseline for evaluating the LBM defoliation signal in multiple tree-ring parameters. First, we used tree-ring width measurements along with regional records of LBM outbreaks to reconstruct the occurrence of these events at two sites within the Swiss Alps. Second, we measured earlywood width, latewood width and blue intensity, and compared these parameters with tree-ring width to assess the capacity of each proxy to detect LBM defoliation. A total of six LBM outbreaks were reconstructed for the two sites between AD 1850 and 2000. Growth suppression induced by LBM was, on average, highest in latewood width (59%), followed by total ring width (54%), earlywood width (51%) and blue intensity (26%). We show that latewood width and blue intensity can improve the temporal accuracy of LBM outbreak reconstructions, as both proxies systematically detected LBM defoliation in the first year it occurred, as well as the differentiation between defoliation and non-defoliation years. This study introduces blue intensity as a promising new proxy of insect defoliation and encourages its use in conjunction with latewood width.

  10. Localization and counting of CD68-labelled macrophages in placentas of normal and preeclamptic women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-khafaji, Lina Ali; Al-Yawer, Malak A.

    2017-09-01

    In the human placenta, there are two types of placental macrophages Hofbauer cells of fetal villi and decidual macrophages of maternal decidua basalis. Placental macrophages adopt a specialized phenotype that may hold a key role in synthesis of vital mediators involved in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, parturition and maternal-fetal tolerance. Aberrant behavior of these macrophages can affect trophoblast functions and placental development and potentially can lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Yet, the populations and functions of placental macrophages in women with different parity and women with preeclampsia remain ill-defined and subject of controversy. Immuno-histochemical study using CD68 primary antibody revealed a significant increase in number of CD68 positive fetal and decidual macrophages in preeclamptic subgroups as compared to controls. Fetal macrophages were seen to be localized near fetal vessel wall and near syncytium which were significantly increased in primiparous preeclamptic subgroup. Our study assumed that there may be intermingling of signals between macrophages and trophoblast cells resulting in impairment of trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling which is the primary placental defect in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

  11. Altered glucose transport to utero-embryonic unit in relation to delayed embryonic development in the Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnab, Banerjee; Amitabh, Krishna

    2011-02-10

    The aim of this study was to compare the changes in concentration of glucose and glucose transporters (GLUTs) in the utero-embryonic unit, consisting of decidua, trophoblast and embryo, during delayed and non-delayed periods to understand the possible cause of delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx. The results showed a significantly decreased concentration of glucose in the utero-embryonic unit due to decline in the expression of insulin receptor (IR) and GLUT 3, 4 and 8 proteins in the utero-embryonic unit during delayed period. The in vitro study showed suppressive effect of insulin on expression of GLUTs 4 and 8 in the utero-embryonic unit and a significant positive correlation between the decreased amount of glucose consumed by the utero-embryonic unit and decreased expression of GLUTs 4 (r=0.99; psphinx. Increased supply of fatty acid to the delayed embryo may be responsible for its survival under low glucose condition but unable to promote embryonic development in C. sphinx. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Results of growing relatively smoke resistant types of trees and their practical use. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzschacksch, O.

    1985-01-01

    Achievements in cultivating sulfur dioxide resistant conifers in the German Democratic Republic are summarized. These conifers will be planted in afforestation programs in smoke damage zones I, i.e. in conifer forests at high elevations with maximum pollution damage. Nurseries with the most promising tree types have been established for harvesting seeds for propagation. Cultivation of cuttings and tree grafting is carried out in experimental nurseries along with laboratory gas treatment tests. Smoke resistant varieties of the common spruce Picae abies (L.) show vigorous growth in smoke damage zone I. Other spruce types suitable for cultivation are Picea pungens Engelm., Picea omorica (Panc.) Purk. with the highest vitality in 15 to 20 year old trial plantings in smoke damage zone I extreme, and Picea glanca, rubens and orientalis. Suitable pines are Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. (Murray pine), Pinus mugo Turra, and others; resistant larches are Larix decidua and Larix leptolepis. Deciduous trees being cultivated for afforestation are aspens (Populus tremula L.) and mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.). 11 references.

  13. European larch phenology in the Alps: can we grasp the role of ecological factors by combining field observations and inverse modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, M.; Cremonese, E.; Colombo, R.; Busetto, L.; Galvagno, M.; Ganis, L.; Meroni, M.; Pari, E.; Rossini, M.; Siniscalco, C.; Morra di Cella, U.

    2008-09-01

    Vegetation phenology is strongly influenced by climatic factors. Climate changes may cause phenological variations, especially in the Alps which are considered to be extremely vulnerable to global warming. The main goal of our study is to analyze European larch ( Larix decidua Mill.) phenology in alpine environments and the role of the ecological factors involved, using an integrated approach based on accurate field observations and modelling techniques. We present 2 years of field-collected larch phenological data, obtained following a specifically designed observation protocol. We observed that both spring and autumn larch phenology is strongly influenced by altitude. We propose an approach for the optimization of a spring warming model (SW) and the growing season index model (GSI) consisting of a model inversion technique, based on simulated look-up tables (LUTs), that provides robust parameter estimates. The optimized models showed excellent agreement between modelled and observed data: the SW model predicts the beginning of the growing season (BGS) with a mean RMSE of 4 days, while GSI gives a prediction of the growing season length (LGS) with a RMSE of 5 days. Moreover, we showed that the original GSI parameters led to consistent errors, while the optimized ones significantly increased model accuracy. Finally, we used GSI to investigate interactions of ecological factors during springtime development and autumn senescence. We found that temperature is the most effective factor during spring recovery while photoperiod plays an important role during autumn senescence: photoperiod shows a contrasting effect with altitude decreasing its influence with increasing altitude.

  14. Rehabilitación protésica de un niño de 3 años con Displasia ectodérmica hipohidrótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura María-Márquez-Junco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Displasia Ectodérmica Hipohidrótica (DEH o síndrome de Christ-Siemens-Touraine, es una rara enfermedad de carácter congénito, siendo afectado uno o varios componentes del tejido ectodérmico. Caracterizado por hipohidrosis, hipotricosis e hipodoncia. La mayoría de los casos se relaciona con una herencia recesiva ligada al cromosoma X, afectándose por consiguiente en los varones, pero también existen otras formas de herencia autosómica dominante y recesiva. Se presenta el caso clínico de un niño de 3 años 5 meses con oligodoncia y reabsorción de los procesos alveolares por ausencia total de las piezas deciduas, por lo que se realiza la rehabilitación protésica con prótesis total removible, como resultado se logra aumento de la dimensión vertical, mejora de la fonación, masticación, habla y la autoestima del paciente.

  15. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  16. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in third-trimester placentas is not increased in growth-restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, J Y; Lao, T T; Chan, C C; Chiu, P M; Cheung, A N

    2001-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered the growth factor that stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated its role in regulating placental growth and invasion. Its expression can be upregulated by hypoxia. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is thought to be associated with inadequate placental perfusion, which might result from a failure in the development of the villous vascular network. Our present study was undertaken to examine the relationship between VEGF expression and IUGR in pregnancies with preserved umbilical artery end-diastolic flow. VEGF Expression was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of placentas from 17 pregnancies with normal infant birth weight and 17 pregnancies complicated by IUGR. We found no significant differences in the expression of VEGF in villous syncytiotrophoblasts and intermediate trophoblasts in maternal decidua between IUGR and normal pregnancies. However, in both groups there was a strong correlation in the expression of VEGF with villous syncytiotrophoblasts and intermediate trophoblasts. In normal and IUGR pregnancies the infants' Apgar scores at birth were significantly correlated with VEGF staining in both syncytiotrophoblasts and intermediate trophoblasts (P < .05). A strong correlation also was found between cord hematocrit and VEGF staining in villous syncytiotrophoblasts (P < .05), but VEGF staining in intermediate trophoblasts was not correlated with cord hemoglobin or hematocrit. Our results suggest that VEGF acts in an autocrine and paracrine fashion in both normal and IUGR placentas, and its expression can have an effect on the well being of the infant at birth.

  17. Transfer of 239Pu to mouse fetoplacental tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sato, Hiroshi; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Takahashi, Sentaro

    1993-01-01

    Cross-placental transfer of 239 Pu from the mother to fetus was studied in C3H mice. The activity of 239 Pu in the conceptus was measured 24 hrs after the intravenous injection of 239 Pu citrate on days 10.5 to 16.5 of gestation. More 239 Pu was transferred to the conceptus when the plutonium was administered in the later stages of gestation; 0.12% of the injected dose per conceptus on day 10.5 and 1.3% on day 16.5. In all the gestational stages examined, the yolk sac and decidua contained more than 89% of the total activity distributed in the conceptus. The concentration of 239 Pu in the yolk sac was about two orders of magnitude greater than that in the fetus. The 239 Pu concentration in the maternal liver decreased with the gestational stage. In the early gestational stages the concentration in the maternal liver was greater than that in the yolk sac; but, this relationship was reversed in the later stages. (author)

  18. Parental partners effects on progenies characteristics on hybridization within the Larix genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, J.; Frydl, J. [Forestry and Game Management Research Inst., Jiloviste (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    Larch progenies of maternal clone No. 52-4-11 (Larix decidua Mill.) combined with the series of paternal clones of the same species and further of the Larix leptolepis Gord. and L. gmelini (Rupr.) Ledeb. species were evaluated on three research plots with larch (Larix sp.). Growth in height and thickness as well as stem forming were monitored at the age of 11 and 22 years. There was found out a significant share of variance falling on the action of mother, hence the existence of extra-nuclear heredity can be anticipated, particularly in interspecific hybrids. Comparing with the control in interspecific hybrids mostly luxuriant growth is displayed. On one of the studied plots there was found out the assumed growth depression in the quantitative characters of progenies originated from self-pollination. Some results of the research can be used as an auxiliary criterion in the selection of progenies and trees within the progenies for the establishment of seed orchards to produce hybrid seed of F2 generation. 24 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  19. The likely impact of climate change on the biodiversity of Italian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on literature results and our expert evaluation, we report some likely impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of forest communities in Italy by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region and on the Apennines: at low altitudes, vulnerability of Pinus sp. and Quercus ilex forests, with loss of intraspecific genetic variability; transition from Mediterranean closed-canopy macchia to scattered shrublands; risk of local extinction for coastal populations of mesic/relic hardwood species (e.g., Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus, Zelkova sicula, Fraxinus sp.; ’eastern’ relic species like Quercus troiana, Quercus frainetto, Quercus aegilops, and Q. gussonei in Sicily, and the peripheral low-altitude Fagus sylvatica populations, will be highly vulnerable; in the mid-altitude forest, vulnerability of most demanding species like Quercus cerris and Castanea sativa, possible immigration of Mediterranean species like Quercus ilex; in the montane forest, Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba will be less competitive with respect to more continental and drought-resistant tree species, and could loose genetic variability; relic species like Taxus baccata and Betula aetnensis may be at risk. In the alpine region: upward movement of timberline and changes in timberline communities, for instance Picea abies may be more competitive over Larix decidua, and fragmented species like Pinus cembra might become vulnerable. In general, we recognize the difficulty in separating the effects of climatic variables from those of other processes, like fires and land-use change.

  20. Plasticity in gas-exchange physiology of mature Scots pine and European larch drive short- and long-term adjustments to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Lévesque, Mathieu; Rigling, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Adjustment mechanisms of trees to changes in soil-water availability over long periods are poorly understood, but crucial to improve estimates of forest development in a changing climate. We compared mature trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European larch (Larix decidua) growing along water-permeable channels (irrigated) and under natural conditions (control) at three sites in inner-Alpine dry valleys. At two sites, the irrigation had been stopped in the 1980s. We combined measurements of basal area increment (BAI), tree height and gas-exchange physiology (Δ 13 C) for the period 1970-2009. At one site, the Δ 13 C of irrigated pine trees was higher than that of the control in all years, while at the other sites, it differed in pine and larch only in years with dry climatic conditions. During the first decade after the sudden change in water availability, the BAI and Δ 13 C of originally irrigated pine and larch trees decreased instantly, but subsequently reached higher levels than those of the control by 2009 (15 years afterwards). We found a high plasticity in the gas-exchange physiology of pine and larch and site-specific responses to changes in water availability. Our study highlights the ability of trees to adjust to new conditions, thus showing high resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [IDENTIFICATION OF CAUSES OF EARLY PREGNANCY LOSSES ACCORDING TO HYSTOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsiridze, K; Kintraia, N; Pailodze, M; Gogia, T; Tsaava, F

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the early spontaneous abortions has been conducted (486 cases). Histomorphologic analysis of the curettage material contents erveledinvolutive-regressive developmental chsnges in 108 (22,28%) cases, in 370 cases (77.78%) pathologic changes, like inflammatory changes of deciduas and chorionic villis in 302 cases (80.2%), pathologic prematurity of chorionic vili in 48 cases (12.6%), hydatidiform mole in 28 cases (7.4%). As most cases of pregnancy loss has been reported at 7-9 weeks /172 cases/, we compared histomorphologic data revealed at 7-8 (71 cases) weeks to 5-6 (135 cases) and 10-12 weeks of gestation. Morphologic research data confimed, that at 7-8 weeks compared to 5-6 weeks leading reason ofpregnancy loss was inflammatory changes (OR-1,584), what can be cause of 110 pregnancy losses at 1000 pregnant women (AR-0.11). Data comparing7-9 weeks to 10-12 weeks pregnancy losses, confirm the priority of pathologic immaturity (OR-1,279) and hydatidiform mole (OR-1,557) and could be the risk of 100 cases of pregnancy termination at 1000 pregnant women (AR-0.10).Existing results are of great importance for the preconceptional preparation of women.

  2. Susceptibility of various tree species to SO/sub 2/, HF and magnesite dust pollutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollanschutz, J

    1969-01-01

    The investigations covered an area polluted with SO/sub 2/ and magnesite, with SO/sub 2/ and HF, and with HF. With the aid of an increment borer, the growth of the trees was measured; in other cases, the power of endurance was estimated. In the environment of a magnesite plant magnesite dust and SO/sub 2/ pollution caused growth reduction (in decreasing order) in Abies alba, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris. Larix decidua appeared to be by far the most resistant against both pollutants. Fagus sylvatica still showed a growth increase, though leaf burn symptoms were present; this might be due to fertilization with MgSO/sub 4/ through the leaves. When polluted with both SO/sub 2/ and HF, the (increasing) order was: Populus tremula, Fraxinus excelsior, Fagus + Acer, Picea + Pinus, Larix. Though no differences between Pinus and Picea was found here, it was striking that in the latter species the variation in susceptibility was much greater than in Pinus, which may be important for future selection work. In an atmosphere polluted solely with HF, Pinus showed a greater resistance than Picea and Abies, but it seemed that in its youth, Abies was at least as resistant as Picea. Symptoms do not always correspond with growth reduction and yield losses, and an important growth reduction may occur before any clear symptoms can be observed. Breeding for resistance should be encouraged, especially in spruce.

  3. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (eastern Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzur, J.; Haubold-Rosar, M.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany nearly 1.550 km 2 have been claimed by brown coal mining until now. Mine soils formed of carboniferous and sulfurous overburden are classified as sulfurous mine soils. They remain vegetation-free for decades and may be cultivated only after soil amelioration. The objective of amelioration is a sustained improvement of soil reaction. Lime requirement for the achievement of a certain pH-value is calculated from acid-base-balance (SBB). Lime fertilizers and base-rich brown coal ashes are used for amelioration. As ashes have several advantages, their application is recommended. The ameliorative application of lime fertilizer or brown coal ash should be incorporated intensively into the soil to a depth of 60 cm, better 100 cm. Amelioration includes a mineral fertilization with N, P and K. Afforestation with Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Larix decidua, Larix eurolepis. Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra and Quercus petraea on ameliorated mine soils show surprising good results. Multi-species stands have very positive effects on soil formation. Raw humus is formed under pine and larch, and under deciduous trees moder and mull with higher bioactivity and better development of water and nutrient balance in the topsoil are found. 55 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Similar variation in carbon storage between deciduous and evergreen treeline species across elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Piper, Frida I; Hoch, Günter

    2013-08-01

    The most plausible explanation for treeline formation so far is provided by the growth limitation hypothesis (GLH), which proposes that carbon sinks are more restricted by low temperatures than by carbon sources. Evidence supporting the GLH has been strong in evergreen, but less and weaker in deciduous treeline species. Here a test is made of the GLH in deciduous-evergreen mixed species forests across elevational gradients, with the hypothesis that deciduous treeline species show a different carbon storage trend from that shown by evergreen species across elevations. Tree growth and concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in foliage, branch sapwood and stem sapwood tissues were measured at four elevations in six deciduous-evergreen treeline ecotones (including treeline) in the southern Andes of Chile (40°S, Nothofagus pumilio and Nothofagus betuloides; 46°S, Nothofagus pumilio and Pinus sylvestris) and in the Swiss Alps (46°N, Larix decidua and Pinus cembra). Tree growth (basal area increment) decreased with elevation for all species. Regardless of foliar habit, NSCs did not deplete across elevations, indicating no shortage of carbon storage in any of the investigated tissues. Rather, NSCs increased significantly with elevation in leaves (P treeline species are sink limited when faced with decreasing temperatures. Despite the overall higher requirements of deciduous tree species for carbon storage, no indication was found of carbon limitation in deciduous species in the alpine treeline ecotone.

  5. Experimental soil warming shifts the fungal community composition at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily F; Lindahl, Björn D; Dawes, Melissa A; Peter, Martina; Souza, Rômulo C; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Increased CO 2 emissions and global warming may alter the composition of fungal communities through the removal of temperature limitation in the plant-soil system, faster nitrogen (N) cycling and changes in the carbon (C) allocation of host plants to the rhizosphere. At a Swiss treeline featuring Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, the effects of multiple years of CO 2 enrichment and experimental soil warming on the fungal community composition in the organic horizons were analysed using 454-pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons. Sporocarp production and colonization of ectomycorrhizal root tips were investigated in parallel. Fungal community composition was significantly altered by soil warming, whereas CO 2 enrichment had little effect. Tree species influenced fungal community composition and the magnitude of the warming responses. The abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa was positively correlated with N availability, and ectomycorrhizal taxa specialized for conditions of high N availability proliferated with warming, corresponding to considerable increases in inorganic N in warmed soils. Traits related to N utilization are important in determining the responses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to warming in N-poor cold ecosystems. Shifts in the overall fungal community composition in response to higher temperatures may alter fungal-driven processes with potential feedbacks on ecosystem N cycling and C storage at the alpine treeline. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O3) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics. Presently, ambient ground-level O3 concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO2 Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees. Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation. In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps. PMID:21379395

  7. A study of monoamine oxidase activity in fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, A; Ishikawa, H; Morimoto, T; Hirose, K; Suzuki, A; Saito, H; Yanaihara, T; Arai, Y; Oguchi, K

    1996-05-01

    To study the role of decidual monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and -B activities before delivery, the relationship between MAO activity in fetal membranes and catecholamine (CA) concentration in amniotic fluid (AF) was determined. Fetal membranes and AF were obtained at the time of elective Cesarean section (CS group, n = 11) and Cesarean section due to fetal distress without labor pains (FD group, n = 5). MAO-A and -B activities were radiometrically measured using 14C-5-hydroxytriptamine for MAO-A substrate and 14C-benzylamine for MAO-B substrate. CA concentrations in AF were measured by high performance liquid chromatograph with an electro-chemical detector. Both MAO-A and -B activities in decidua obtained from CS were significantly lower than those obtained from FD. Both norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EP) concentrations were significantly lower in the CS group than the FD group. A significant positive correlation between decidual MAO-A activity and NE concentration in AF was observed. No significant correlation was observed between MAO-B activity and the concentration of NE in AF. There was no correlation between EP concentrations and MAO activities. These results suggest that CA concentration in AF may be related to the activity of MAO in fetal membranes, determined by certain physiological processes during pregnancy. It has been suggested that metabolism of monoamines in fetal membranes also plays an important role in reducing monoamine influx into maternal myometrium from the AF.

  8. Genome-wide association scan identifies a risk locus for preeclampsia on 2q14, near the inhibin, beta B gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Johnson

    Full Text Available Elucidating the genetic architecture of preeclampsia is a major goal in obstetric medicine. We have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS for preeclampsia in unrelated Australian individuals of Caucasian ancestry using the Illumina OmniExpress-12 BeadChip to successfully genotype 648,175 SNPs in 538 preeclampsia cases and 540 normal pregnancy controls. Two SNP associations (rs7579169, p = 3.58×10(-7, OR = 1.57; rs12711941, p = 4.26×10(-7, OR = 1.56 satisfied our genome-wide significance threshold (modified Bonferroni p0.92. We attempted to provide evidence of a putative regulatory role for these SNPs using bioinformatic analyses and found that they all reside within regions of low sequence conservation and/or low complexity, suggesting functional importance is low. We also explored the mRNA expression in decidua of genes ±500 kb of INHBB and found a nominally significant correlation between a transcript encoded by the EPB41L5 gene, ∼250 kb centromeric to INHBB, and preeclampsia (p = 0.03. We were unable to replicate the associations shown by the significant GWAS SNPs in case-control cohorts from Norway and Finland, leading us to conclude that it is more likely that these SNPs are in LD with as yet unidentified causal variant(s.

  9. Resection of Cesarean Scar Pregnancy at Six Weeks of Gestation with Laminaria Cervical Dilatation under Sonographic and Hysteroscopic Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuji Hoshino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In cases of fetal heartbeat- (FHB- positive cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP, the embryo and placenta grow rapidly week by week. We experienced an FHB-positive CSP case at 6 weeks of gestation and assessed the CSP in detail with transvaginal ultrasound and transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS, preoperatively. We performed Laminaria cervical dilatation under TAUS guidance and performed hysteroscopic resection of the pregnancy conceptus and curettage under hysteroscopic and TAUS guidance. We identified the gestational sac attached to the cesarean scar pouch with small plane, decidua basalis, and chorionic villi and present the clinical history and other findings. We also reviewed the related literature and found 76 previous studies, with six cases of FHB-positive CSP that contained hysteroscopic color images of the CSP. We present a review of selected cases. The implantation site was the anterior wall in almost all cases. Cervical dilatation was mainly performed using a Hegar dilator; ours was the only case using Laminaria dilatation. Transcervical resections were performed mainly under ultrasound guidance, with only one case undergoing laparoscopy. Electrocoagulation was performed in three of the six cases.

  10. The Endocannabinoid System in the Postimplantation Period: A Role during Decidualization and Placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the detrimental effects of cannabis consumption during gestation are known for years, the vast majority of studies established a link between cannabis consumption and foetal development. The complex maternal-foetal interrelationships within the placental bed are essential for normal pregnancy, and decidua definitively contributes to the success of this process. Nevertheless, the molecular signalling network that coordinates strategies for successful decidualization and placentation are not well understood. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system highlighted new signalling mediators in various physiological processes, including reproduction. It is known that endocannabinoids present regulatory functions during blastocyst development, oviductal transport, and implantation. In addition, all the endocannabinoid machinery was found to be expressed in decidual and placental tissues. Additionally, endocannabinoid’s plasmatic levels were found to fluctuate during normal gestation and to induce decidual cell death and disturb normal placental development. Moreover, aberrant endocannabinoid signalling during the period of placental development has been associated with pregnancy disorders. It indicates the existence of a possible regulatory role for these molecules during decidualization and placentation processes, which are known to be particularly vulnerable. In this review, the influence of the endocannabinoid system in these critical processes is explored and discussed.

  11. Tree-ring based reconstruction of the seasonal timing, major events and origin of rockfall on a case-study slope in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Schneuwly

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Tree-ring analysis has been used to reconstruct 22 years of rockfall behavior on an active rockfall slope near Saas Balen (Swiss Alps. We analyzed 32 severely injured trees (L. decidua, P. abies and P. cembra and investigated cross-sections of 154 wounds.

    The intra-annual position of callus tissue and of tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts was determined in order to reconstruct the seasonality of past rockfall events. Results indicate strong intra- and inter-annual variations of rockfall activity, with a peak (76% observed in the dormant season (early October – end of May. Within the growth season, rockfall regularly occurs between the end of May and mid July (21.4%, whereas events later in the season appear to be quite rare (2.6%. Findings suggest that rockfall activity at the study site is driven by annual thawing processes and the circulation of melt water in preexisting fissures. Data also indicate that 43% of all rockfall events occurred in 1995, when two major precipitation events are recorded in nearby meteorological stations. Finally, data on impact angles are in very good agreement with the geomorphic situation in the field.

  12. Noninvasive and Quantitative Assessment of In Vivo Fetomaternal Interface Angiogenesis Using RGD-Based Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keramidas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a key process for proper placental development and for the success of pregnancy. Although numerous in vitro methods have been developed for the assessment of this process, relatively few reliable in vivo methods are available to evaluate this activity throughout gestation. Here we report an in vivo technique that specifically measures placental neovascularization. The technique is based on the measurement of a fluorescent alpha v beta 3 (αvβ3 integrin-targeting molecule called Angiolone-Alexa-Fluor 700. The αvβ3 integrin is highly expressed by endothelial cells during the neovascularization and by trophoblast cells during their invasion of the maternal decidua. Angiolone was injected to gravid mice at 6.5 and 11.5 days post coitus (dpc. The fluorescence was analyzed one day later at 7.5 and 12.5 dpc, respectively. We demonstrated that (i Angiolone targets αvβ3 protein in the placenta with a strong specificity, (ii this technique is quantitative as the measurement was correlated to the increase of the placental size observed with increasing gestational age, and (iii information on the outcome is possible, as abnormal placentation could be detected early on during gestation. In conclusion, we report the validation of a new noninvasive and quantitative method to assess the placental angiogenic activity, in vivo.

  13. Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mess, Andrea M; Favaron, Phelipe O; Pfarrer, Christiane; Osmann, Christine; Melo, Allan P F; Rodrigues, Rosangela F; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Bevilacqua, Estela; Miglino, Maria A

    2012-11-30

    Since Xenarthra are serious candidates for being basal to Eutheria, their characteristics, e.g. the placental system, influence perceptions of evolution. However, in the subgroup containing the anteaters, data are very limited. The present study aims to elucidate the nature of the feto-maternal interface in the anteater placenta and to interpret these data within an evolutionary context. Placentas of two species were investigated with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Remnants of the maternal vessel endothelium were absent, resulting in a fully haemochorial barrier throughout the placenta. Two structurally different parts, the villous and trabecular areas were complex and intermingled. In particular, the trabeculae which consisted of cellular, proliferative trophoblast, associated with connective tissue, were attached to the decidua. The villi contained fetal capillaries and hypertrophied mesenchymal cells that occurred near the surface near the end of gestation. The surface of the villi consisted of flat, syncytial trophoblast, interspersed with proliferative trophoblast cells. Based on fundamental differences between anteaters and armadillos, we inferred that placental evolution was more complex than previously thought. The haemochorial pattern of anteaters was likely an ancient condition of xenarthrans. Consequently, villous placentation may be attributed, at least in part, by convergent evolution, but was also characterized by some features that were widespread among xenarthrans.

  14. The up side of decidual natural killer cells: new developments in immunology of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabrane-Ferrat, Nabila; Siewiera, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Early phases of human pregnancy are associated with the accumulation of a unique subset of natural killer (NK) cells in the maternal decidua. Decidual NK (dNK) cells that are devoid of cytotoxicity play a pivotal role in successful pregnancy. By secreting large amounts of cytokines/chemokines and angiogenic factors, dNK cells participate in all steps of placentation including trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrium and vascular remodelling. In this review, we summarize some of dNK cell features and discuss more recent exciting data that challenge the conventional view of these cells. Our new data demonstrate that dNK cells undergo fine tuning or even subvert their classical inhibitory machinery and turn into a real defence force in order to prevent the spread of viruses to fetal tissue. Today it is not clear how these phenotypic and functional adaptations impact cellular cross-talk at the fetal-maternal interface and tissue homeostasis. Ultimately, precise understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern dNK cell plasticity during congenital human cytomegalovirus infection should lead to the design of more robust strategies to reverse immune escape during viral infection and cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Lessons from reproductive immunology for other fields of immunology and clinical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Udo R; Fitzgerald, Justine S; Seyfarth, Lydia; Heinzelmann, Joana; Varosi, Frauke; Voigt, Sandra; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Seewald, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Reproduction is indispensable to evolution and, thus, life. Nonetheless, it overcomes common rules known to established life. Immunology of reproduction, and especially the tolerance of two genetically distinct organisms and their fruitful symbiosis, is one of the most imposing paradox of life. Mechanisms, which are physiologically used for induction of said tolerance, are frequently abused by pathogens or tumors intending to escape the host's immune response. Understanding the regulation of immune responses in pregnancy and the invasion of allogeneic fetus-derived trophoblast cells into the decidua may lead to new therapeutic concepts. In transplantation, knowledge concerning local physiological immunotolerance may be useful for the development of new therapies, which do not require a general immune suppression of the patient. In immunological disorders, such as autoimmune diseases or allergies, immune deviations occur which are either prevented during pregnancy or have parallels to pregnancy. Vice versa, lessons from other fields of immunology may also offer new notions for the comprehension of reproductive immunology and may lead to new therapies for the treatment of pregnancy-related problems.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the potential of tree-ring cellulose content as a novel supplementary proxy in dendroclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehmer, Malin M.; Nicolussi, Kurt; Schlüchter, Christian; Leuenberger, Markus

    2018-02-01

    Cellulose content (CC (%)) in tree rings is usually utilised as a tool to control the quality of the α-cellulose extraction from tree rings in the preparation of stable-isotope analysis in wooden tissues. Reported amounts of CC (%) are often limited to mean values per tree. For the first time, CC (%) series from two high-Alpine species, Larix decidua Mill. (European Larch, LADE) and Pinus cembra L. (Swiss stone pine, PICE) are investigated in modern wood samples and Holocene wood remains from the Early and mid-Holocene. Modern CC (%) series reveal a species-specific low-frequency trend independent of their sampling site over the past 150 years. Climate-cellulose relationships illustrate the ability of CC (%) to record temperature in both species but for slightly different periods within the growing season. The Holocene CC (%) series illustrate diverging low-frequency trends in both species, independent of sampling site characteristics (latitude, longitude and elevation). Moreover, potential age trends are not apparent in the two coniferous species. The arithmetic mean of CC (%) series in the Early and mid-Holocene indicate low CC (%) succeeding cold events. In conclusion, CC (%) in tree rings show high potential to be established as novel supplementary proxy in dendroclimatology.

  17. Diagnostic Value of Endometrial Sampling with Pipelle Suction Curettage for Identifying Endometrial Lesions in Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Behnamfar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While determining the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding, sampling from the endometrium is necessary. Considering that pipelle suction curettage can be performed on an out patient basis and does not require hospitalization, using anesthesia and cervical dilatation, we performed this study. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of dilatation and curettage (D&C with pipelle suction curettage. Methods: This study was quasiexperimental on 200 pre and postmenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding who refered to Shabihkhani hospital in Kashan, Iran. Endometrial sampling was performed in all patients with two methods namely pipelle and D&C. A pathologist examined the samples each having a predetermined code. Results: The mean age of subjects was 46.2 ±6.2 years, minimum age was 35 years and the maximum was 70 years. The various pathological lab findings were proliferative endometrium, secretory endometrium, athrophic, decidua, cystic and adenomatous hyperplasia. The reports were the same in two methods except for 2 cases where they were different: secretory endometrium with D&C but cystic hyperplasia in pipelle method. Conclusions: The result of our study shows the comparability of obtaining endometrial sample by pipelle with D&C. Due to comfort and convenience of patients in pipelle methode especially in the office setting which does not need anesthesia, pipelle method can easily be employed instead of D&C. Keywords: Pipelle Suction Curette, Dilatation and Curettage, Premenopause, Postmenopause.

  18. Uterine NK cells are critical in shaping DC immunogenic functions compatible with pregnancy progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Tirado-González

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC and natural killer (NK cell interactions are important for the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity, but their relevance during early pregnancy remains elusive. Using two different strategies to manipulate the frequency of NK cells and DC during gestation, we investigated their relative impact on the decidualization process and on angiogenic responses that characterize murine implantation. Manipulation of the frequency of NK cells, DC or both lead to a defective decidual response characterized by decreased proliferation and differentiation of stromal cells. Whereas no detrimental effects were evident upon expansion of DC, NK cell ablation in such expanded DC mice severely compromised decidual development and led to early pregnancy loss. Pregnancy failure in these mice was associated with an unbalanced production of anti-angiogenic signals and most notably, with increased expression of genes related to inflammation and immunogenic activation of DC. Thus, NK cells appear to play an important role counteracting potential anomalies raised by DC expansion and overactivity in the decidua, becoming critical for normal pregnancy progression.

  19. Uterine NK cells are critical in shaping DC immunogenic functions compatible with pregnancy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-González, Irene; González, Irene Tirado; Barrientos, Gabriela; Freitag, Nancy; Otto, Teresa; Thijssen, Victor L J L; Moschansky, Petra; von Kwiatkowski, Petra; Klapp, Burghard F; Winterhager, Elke; Bauersachs, Stefan; Blois, Sandra M

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) and natural killer (NK) cell interactions are important for the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity, but their relevance during early pregnancy remains elusive. Using two different strategies to manipulate the frequency of NK cells and DC during gestation, we investigated their relative impact on the decidualization process and on angiogenic responses that characterize murine implantation. Manipulation of the frequency of NK cells, DC or both lead to a defective decidual response characterized by decreased proliferation and differentiation of stromal cells. Whereas no detrimental effects were evident upon expansion of DC, NK cell ablation in such expanded DC mice severely compromised decidual development and led to early pregnancy loss. Pregnancy failure in these mice was associated with an unbalanced production of anti-angiogenic signals and most notably, with increased expression of genes related to inflammation and immunogenic activation of DC. Thus, NK cells appear to play an important role counteracting potential anomalies raised by DC expansion and overactivity in the decidua, becoming critical for normal pregnancy progression.

  20. Profiling Lgals9 splice variant expression at the fetal-maternal interface: implications in normal and pathological human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusschen, Roy; Freitag, Nancy; Tirado-González, Irene; Barrientos, Gabriela; Moschansky, Petra; Muñoz-Fernández, Raquel; Leno-Durán, Ester; Klapp, Burghard F; Thijssen, Victor L J L; Blois, Sandra M

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of fetal-maternal tolerance mechanisms can contribute to pregnancy complications, including spontaneous abortion. Galectin-9 (LGALS9), a tandem repeat lectin associated with immune modulation, is expressed in the endometrium during the mid and late secretory phases and in decidua during human early pregnancy. However, the role of LGALS9 during pregnancy remains poorly understood. We used real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining to analyze the expression of Lgals9/LGALS9 during mouse gestation as well as in human tissues obtained from normal pregnancy and spontaneous abortions. In mice, three Lgals9 splice variants were detected, the expression of which was differentially regulated during gestation. Furthermore, decidual Lgals9 expression was deregulated in a mouse model of spontaneous abortion, whereas placental levels did not change. We further found that the LGALS9 D5 isoform suppresses interferon gamma production by decidual natural killer cells. In human patients, six Lgals9 splice variants were detected, and a decrease in Lgals9 D5/10 was associated with spontaneous abortion. Altogether, these results show a differential regulation of Lgals9 isoform expression during normal and pathological pregnancies and designate Lgals9 as a potential marker for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Differential Spatiotemporal Patterns of Galectin Expression are a Hallmark of Endotheliochorial Placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Melanie L; Freitag, Nancy; Diessler, Mónica E; Hernandez, Rocío; Barrientos, Gabriela; Rose, Matthias; Casas, Luciano A; Barbeito, Claudio G; Blois, Sandra M

    2016-03-01

    Galectins influence the progress of pregnancy by regulating key processes associated with embryo-maternal cross talk, including angiogenesis and placentation. Galectin family members exert multiple roles in the context of hemochorial and epitheliochorial placentation; however, the galectin prolife in endotheliochorial placenta remains to be investigated. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze galectin (gal)-1, gal-3 and gal-9 expression during early and late endotheliochorial placentation in two different species (dogs and cats). We found that during early feline gestation, all three galectin members were more strongly expressed on trophoblast and maternal vessels compared to the decidua. This was accompanied by an overall decrease of gal-1, gal-3 and gal-9 expressions in late feline gestation. In canine early pregnancy, we observed that gal-1 and gal-9 were expressed strongly in cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells compared to gal-3, and no galectin expression was observed in syncytiotrophoblast (STB) cells. Progression of canine gestation was accompanied by increased gal-1 and gal-3 expressions on STB cells, whereas gal-9 expression remained similar in CTB and STB. These data suggest that both the maternal and fetal compartments are characterized by a spatiotemporal regulation of galectin expression during endotheliochorial placentation. This strongly suggests the involvement of the galectin family in important developmental processes during gestation including immunemodulation, trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis. A conserved functional role for galectins during mammalian placental development emerges from these studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Balanced levels of nerve growth factor are required for normal pregnancy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Pierre; Barrientos, Gabriela; Tirado-González, Irene; Cohen, Marie; Moschansky, Petra; Peters, Eva M; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Tometten, Mareike; Blois, Sandra M

    2014-08-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF), the first identified member of the family of neurotrophins, is thought to play a critical role in the initiation of the decidual response in stress-challenged pregnant mice. However, the contribution of this pathway to physiological events during the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy remains largely elusive. Using NGF depletion and supplementation strategies alternatively, in this study, we demonstrated that a successful pregnancy is sensitive to disturbances in NGF levels in mice. Treatment with NGF further boosted fetal loss rates in the high-abortion rate CBA/J x DBA/2J mouse model by amplifying a local inflammatory response through recruitment of NGF-expressing immune cells, increased decidual innervation with substance P(+) nerve fibres and a Th1 cytokine shift. Similarly, treatment with a NGF-neutralising antibody in BALB/c-mated CBA/J mice, a normal-pregnancy model, also induced abortions associated with increased infiltration of tropomyosin kinase receptor A-expressing NK cells to the decidua. Importantly, in neither of the models, pregnancy loss was associated with defective ovarian function, angiogenesis or placental development. We further demonstrated that spontaneous abortion in humans is associated with up-regulated synthesis and an aberrant distribution of NGF in placental tissue. Thus, a local threshold of NGF expression seems to be necessary to ensure maternal tolerance in healthy pregnancies, but when surpassed may result in fetal rejection due to exacerbated inflammation. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  3. The placental problem: Linking abnormal cytotrophoblast differentiation to the maternal symptoms of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Susan J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The placenta is a remarkable organ. In normal pregnancy its specialized cells (termed cytotrophoblasts differentiate into various specialized subpopulations that play pivotal roles in governing fetal growth and development. One cytotrophoblast subset acquires tumor-like properties that allow the cells to invade the decidua and myometrium, a process that attaches the placenta to the uterus. The same subset also adopts a vascular phenotype that allows these fetal cells to breach and subsequently line uterine blood vessels, a process that channels maternal blood to the rest of the placenta. In the pregnancy complication preeclampsia, which is characterized by the sudden onset of maternal hypertension, proteinuria and edema, cytotrophoblast invasion is shallow and vascular transformation incomplete. These findings, together with very recent evidence from animal models, suggest that preeclampsia is associated with abnormal placental production of vasculogenic/angiogenic substances that reach the maternal circulation with the potential to produce at least a subset of the clinical signs of this syndrome. The current challenge is to build on this knowledge to design clinically useful tests for predicting, diagnosing and treating this dangerous disorder.

  4. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  5. Localization of chondromodulin-I at the feto-maternal interface and its inhibitory actions on trophoblast invasion in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondromodulin-I (ChM-I is an anti-angiogenic glycoprotein that is specifically localized at the extracellular matrix of the avascular mesenchyme including cartilage and cardiac valves. In this study, we characterized the expression pattern of ChM-I during early pregnancy in mice in vivo and its effect on invasion of trophoblastic cells into Matrigel in vitro. Results Northern blot analysis clearly indicated that ChM-I transcripts were expressed in the pregnant mouse uterus at 6.5-9.5 days post coitum. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that ChM-I was localized to the mature decidua surrounding the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9-expressing trophoblasts. Consistent with this observation, the expression of ChM-I mRNA was induced in decidualizing endometrial stromal cells in vitro, in response to estradiol and progesterone. Recombinant human ChM-I (rhChM-I markedly inhibited the invasion through Matrigel as well as the chemotactic migration of rat Rcho-1 trophoblast cells in a manner independent of MMP activation. Conclusions This study demonstrates the inhibitory action of ChM-I on trophoblast migration and invasion, implying the potential role of the ChM-I expression in decidual cells for the regulated tissue remodeling and angiogenesis at feto-maternal interface.

  6. Seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil to the tree ring: source water versus needle water enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treydte, Kerstin; Boda, Sonja; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Ullrich, Bastian; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Werner, Willy; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    For accurate interpretation of oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ(18) O), it is necessary to disentangle the mechanisms underlying the variations in the tree's internal water cycle and to understand the transfer of source versus leaf water δ(18) O to phloem sugars and stem wood. We studied the seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil water through the xylem, needles and phloem to the tree rings of Larix decidua at two alpine sites in the Lötschental (Switzerland). Weekly resolved δ(18) O records of precipitation, soil water, xylem and needle water, phloem organic matter and tree rings were developed. Week-to-week variations in needle-water (18) O enrichment were strongly controlled by weather conditions during the growing season. These short-term variations were, however, not significantly fingerprinted in tree-ring δ(18) O. Instead, seasonal trends in tree-ring δ(18) O predominantly mirrored trends in the source water, including recent precipitation and soil water pools. Modelling results support these findings: seasonal tree-ring δ(18) O variations are captured best when the week-to-week variations of the leaf water signal are suppressed. Our results suggest that climate signals in tree-ring δ(18) O variations should be strongest at temperate sites with humid conditions and precipitation maxima during the growing season. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Timing and duration of European larch growing season along altitudinal gradients in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Lea; Fonti, Patrick; Büntgen, Ulf; Esper, Jan; Luterbacher, Jürg; Franzen, Julia; Frank, David

    2010-02-01

    The 2007 European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) growing season was monitored along two elevational transects in the Lötschental valley in the Swiss Alps. Phenological observations and weekly microcore sampling of 28 larch trees were conducted between April and October 2007 at seven study sites regularly spaced from 1350 to 2150 m a.s.l. on northwest- and southeast-facing slopes. The developmental stages of nearly 75,000 individual cells assessed on 1200 thin sections were used to investigate the links between the trees' thermal regimes and growth phases including the beginning and ending of cell enlargement, wall thickening and maturation of the stem wood. Needles appeared approximately 3-4 weeks earlier than stem growth. The duration of ring formation lasted from mid-May to the end of October, with the length of the growing season decreasing along elevation from 137 to 101 days. The onset of the different growing seasons changed by 3-4 days per 100 m elevation; the ending of the growing season, however, appeared minimally related to altitude. If associated with the monitored altitudinal lapse rate of -0.5 degrees C per 100 m, these results translate into a lengthening of the growing season by approximately 7 days per degree Celsius. This study provides new data on the timing and duration of basic growth processes and contributes to quantification of the impacts of global warming on tree growth and productivity.

  8. Up-and-down immunity of pregnancy in humans [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Le Bouteiller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One part of the human placenta in early pregnancy is particularly important for local immunity: the decidua basalis, which is transformed endometrium located at the site of embryo implantation. This placental bed tissue contains both maternal uterine immune cells, including decidual natural killer (NK cells, the dominant leukocyte population exhibiting a unique phenotype, and fetal extravillous trophoblast which comes into direct contact with maternal decidual cells. To establish a successful placental development and healthy pregnancy outcome, the maternal immune system must tolerate paternal antigens expressed by trophoblast cells yet remain efficient for clearing any local pathogen infection. This review deals mainly with decidual NK cells. A key element, among others, to achieve such dual functions is the direct interaction between activating and inhibitory receptors expressed by decidual NK cells and their specific ligands presented by trophoblast or other decidual cells. Depending whether maternal decidual cells and trophoblast are infected by viruses, the balance between activating and inhibitory receptor signals mediated by decidual NK cell–trophoblast cross-talk results in tolerance (healthy pregnancy or specific killing (pathogen-infected cells.

  9. Placenta Accreta at 15 Weeks of Gestational Age and Uterus Preservation with Hysterectomy Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Farzaneh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Placenta accrete refers to an abnormality of placental implantation in which the anchoring placental villi attached to myometrium rather than decidua resulting in a morbidity adherent placenta. Placenta increta (chorionic villi penetrate into the myometrium and placenta percreta (chorionic villi penetrate through the myometrium to the uterine serosa or adjacent organs are related, but more severe, abnormalities of placental implantation. The pathogenesis is primarily attributed to defective decasualization of the implantation site. Placenta accreta has been recognized mostly in the third trimester however may also present in second trimester. It has very heavy, life-threatening hemorrhage to both the mother and fetus. The authors’ report a patient with two previous cesarean deliveries, who had been referred for pregnancy termination from Iranian legal medicine organization with 15 weeks of gestational age and placenta acctera. In this patient, uterus preservation and hysterectomy abortion was performed. The case totally lost 1500 cc blood and she was discharged from hospital two days later, with feeling of well- being. We have examined this patient after 1.5 months, she wasn’t vaginal bleeding and the uterus was in the pelvic and serum BHCG (with titer was negative.

  10. The sonographic appearance and obstetric management of placenta accreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Charleen Sze-yan; Chan, Ben Chong-pun

    2012-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a condition of abnormal placental implantation in which the placental tissue invades beyond the decidua basalis. It may invade into or even through the myometrium and adjacent organs, such as the urinary bladder. The incidence has been rising in recent years. It is one of the important obstetric complications nowadays, leading to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. In the past, this condition was often diagnosed at the time of delivery when massive and unexpected hemorrhage occurred. Hysterectomy, associated with significant physical and psychological consequences, was usually the only management option. As more obstetricians have become aware of this condition, early identification with antenatal imaging diagnostic technology has become possible. Ultrasound scan plays an important role in the antenatal diagnosis. Various sonographic features with different specificity and sensitivity have been described in the literature. In equivocal cases, magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful. With such information, more accurate counseling can be offered to the mothers and their families before delivery. The delivery can also be arranged at a favorable time and in an institution where multidisciplinary support is available. Input from a hematologist, interventional radiologist, intensive care physician, urology surgeon, and/or other specialist are desirable. Apart from hysterectomy, various forms of conservative management can also be considered when the diagnosis is made prior to delivery. Fertility can therefore be preserved. After delivery, with or without hysterectomy performed, psychological support to the mothers and their families is essential. PMID:23239929

  11. Leaf phenology and its associated traits in the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae Fenología foliar y sus caracteres asociados en la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-summer leaf demography of the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis growing near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, is described. Its specific leaf mass (SLM, g m-2 is compared to that of the deciduous and evergreen species of the Andean-Patagonian forests and to that of other communities abroad. The pattern of leaf emergence is intermediate, with leaf flush in spring (basal cohort, BC, followed by successive unfolding of the remaining leaves (distal cohort, DC during summer. The senescence of the BC occurs mainly in autumn, with a loss of 11-31 % of its SLM. The DC falls synchronously in mid-spring and the SLM loss in winter is 10-13 %. The SLM of A. chilensis (103.6 ± 6.2 g m-2 is intermediate when compared to the general mean values of deciduous (73.7 ± 15.9 g m-2 and evergreen species (154.8 ± 45.8 g m-2. The SLM of deciduous and evergreen species of three different forests near San Carlos de Bariloche varied significantly at the end of the growing season while that of A. chilensis showed more constant values. The periodicity of leaf production and senescence in A. chilensis allows the maintenance of one leaf cohort throughout the year, covering the carbon demand for flowering and leaf production in spring. This differentiates the deciduous from the wintergreen species, despite their similar mean leaf life span values, while the evergreen species have a longer leaf turnover. Considering the conditions for growth in each studied forest, the leaf life span was not the only factor determining the SLM value. This variable would also depend on multiple stresses that may act during the ontogenesis and evolution of the leaves in each phenological groupSe describe la demografía foliar después del verano de la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis, creciendo cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Se compara su peso específico foliar (SLM, g m-2 con los valores de especies deciduas y siempreverdes de los

  12. Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the lowland gorilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to baboon or rhesus macaque, trophoblast invasion in the human placental bed occurs by the interstitial as well as the endovascular route and reaches as deep as the inner myometrium. We here describe two rare specimens of gorilla placenta. In the light of recent findings in the chimpa......In contrast to baboon or rhesus macaque, trophoblast invasion in the human placental bed occurs by the interstitial as well as the endovascular route and reaches as deep as the inner myometrium. We here describe two rare specimens of gorilla placenta. In the light of recent findings...... in the chimpanzee, we postulated the occurrence of deep invasion in gorilla pregnancy. Tissues were processed for histology (PAS, orcein), lectin staining (Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1) and immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 7/17, α-actin). A specimen of young but undetermined gestational age included deep placental...... no definite conclusions about the origin of the intramural trophoblast and the time-course of spiral artery invasion. A different late second trimester placenta specimen showed scattered extravillous trophoblast in the basal plate and underlying decidua, as well as a remodelled spiral artery containing...

  13. Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra

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    Mess Andrea M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Xenarthra are serious candidates for being basal to Eutheria, their characteristics, e.g. the placental system, influence perceptions of evolution. However, in the subgroup containing the anteaters, data are very limited. The present study aims to elucidate the nature of the feto-maternal interface in the anteater placenta and to interpret these data within an evolutionary context. Methods Placentas of two species were investigated with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Results Remnants of the maternal vessel endothelium were absent, resulting in a fully haemochorial barrier throughout the placenta. Two structurally different parts, the villous and trabecular areas were complex and intermingled. In particular, the trabeculae which consisted of cellular, proliferative trophoblast, associated with connective tissue, were attached to the decidua. The villi contained fetal capillaries and hypertrophied mesenchymal cells that occured near the surface near the end of gestation. The surface of the villi consisted of flat, syncytial trophoblast, interspersed with proliferative trophoblast cells. Conclusions Based on fundamental differences between anteaters and armadillos, we inferred that placental evolution was more complex than previously thought. The haemochorial pattern of anteaters was likely an ancient condition of xenarthrans. Consequently, villous placentation may be attributed, at least in part, by convergent evolution, but was also characterized by some features that were widespread among xenarthrans.

  14. Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Since Xenarthra are serious candidates for being basal to Eutheria, their characteristics, e.g. the placental system, influence perceptions of evolution. However, in the subgroup containing the anteaters, data are very limited. The present study aims to elucidate the nature of the feto-maternal interface in the anteater placenta and to interpret these data within an evolutionary context. Methods Placentas of two species were investigated with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Results Remnants of the maternal vessel endothelium were absent, resulting in a fully haemochorial barrier throughout the placenta. Two structurally different parts, the villous and trabecular areas were complex and intermingled. In particular, the trabeculae which consisted of cellular, proliferative trophoblast, associated with connective tissue, were attached to the decidua. The villi contained fetal capillaries and hypertrophied mesenchymal cells that occured near the surface near the end of gestation. The surface of the villi consisted of flat, syncytial trophoblast, interspersed with proliferative trophoblast cells. Conclusions Based on fundamental differences between anteaters and armadillos, we inferred that placental evolution was more complex than previously thought. The haemochorial pattern of anteaters was likely an ancient condition of xenarthrans. Consequently, villous placentation may be attributed, at least in part, by convergent evolution, but was also characterized by some features that were widespread among xenarthrans. PMID:23199198

  15. The local origin of decidual cells in pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, T.M.T.; Abrahamsohn, P.A.; Mariano, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate the participation of extrauterine cells in the formation of mouse antimesometrial decidua, [ 3 H]-thymidine was administered ip on days 1, 5 and 6 of pregnancy and the animals were killed 1 h afterwards. A second group of mice received four ip injections of [ 3 H]-thymidine at 6-h intervals on the 1st day of pregnancy and were killed on the 2nd, 5th or 6th day of pregnancy. A third group of virgin mice in estrus received [ 3 H]-thymidine ip four times at 6-h intervals and was killed 96 h after the first injection. Radioautographs of the uteri showed that few endometrial stomal cells were labelled on the 1st and 2nd day of pregnancy. Although many decidual cells incorporated thymidine on the 5th and 6th day of pregnancy in pulse-labelled animals, only few labelled decidual cells were found on the 5th and 6th day of pregnancy in animals that received several injections of thymidine on the 1st and 2nd day of pregnancy. These results indicate that the antimesometrial decidual cells that develop at the beginning of pregnancy are mostly of local origin. The short-term migration of extraneous cells into the uterus to participate in decidualization is not supported by these data. (author) [pt

  16. Parental partners effects on progenies characteristics on hybridization within the Larix genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, J; Frydl, J [Forestry and Game Management Research Inst., Jiloviste (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Larch progenies of maternal clone No. 52-4-11 (Larix decidua Mill.) combined with the series of paternal clones of the same species and further of the Larix leptolepis Gord. and L. gmelini (Rupr.) Ledeb. species were evaluated on three research plots with larch (Larix sp.). Growth in height and thickness as well as stem forming were monitored at the age of 11 and 22 years. There was found out a significant share of variance falling on the action of mother, hence the existence of extra-nuclear heredity can be anticipated, particularly in interspecific hybrids. Comparing with the control in interspecific hybrids mostly luxuriant growth is displayed. On one of the studied plots there was found out the assumed growth depression in the quantitative characters of progenies originated from self-pollination. Some results of the research can be used as an auxiliary criterion in the selection of progenies and trees within the progenies for the establishment of seed orchards to produce hybrid seed of F2 generation. 24 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  17. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L

    2014-08-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  18. Antibiotic Therapy for Premature Rupture of Membranes and Preterm Labor and Effect on Fetal Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelbach-Goebel, B.

    2013-01-01

    In Germany almost 10 % of children are born before the end of 37th week of gestation. In at least one quarter of these cases, ascending infection of the vagina plays a causative role, particularly during the early weeks of gestation. If, in addition to the decidua, the amniotic membrane, amniotic fluid and the umbilical cord are also affected, infection not only triggers uterine contractions and premature rupture of membranes but also initiates a systemic inflammatory reaction on the part of the fetus, which can increase neonatal morbidity. Numerous studies and meta-analyses have found that antibiotic therapy prolongs pregnancy and reduces neonatal morbidity. No general benefit of antibiotic treatment was found for premature uterine contractions. But it is conceivable that a subgroup of pregnant women would benefit from antibiotic treatment. It is important to identify this subgroup of women and offer them targeted treatment. This overview summarizes the current body of evidence on antibiotic treatment for impending preterm birth and the effect on neonatal outcomes. PMID:24771902

  19. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merela, M.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P.; Regvar, M.; Vogel-Mikus, K.; Sersa, I.; Policnik, H.; Pokorny, B.; Levanic, T.; Oven, P.

    2009-01-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 μm thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  20. Immune cells in term and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  1. The roles of the cyclo-oxygenases types one and two in prostaglandin synthesis in human fetal membranes at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawdy, R J; Slater, D M; Dennes, W J; Sullivan, M H; Bennett, P R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative contributions of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) types 1 and 2 to prostaglandin synthesis at term. Fetal membranes were collected from 6 pregnancies after elective caesarean section at term, prior to labour. The presence of COX-1 and COX-2 protein was determined using Western analysis. The relative contributions of the two isoforms of COX to prostaglandin synthesis were determined by incubation of fetal membrane discs with either a COX-2 selective inhibitor, SC236, or a COX-1 selective inhibitor, SC560, and measurement of prostaglandin release during 24 h using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Both COX-1 and COX-2 protein were demonstrated in amnion and chorion-decidua. The COX-2 selective inhibitor, SC-236, significantly reduced prostaglandin synthesis, both in its COX-2 specific and higher, non-specific concentration ranges. The COX-1 selective inhibitor, SC-560, had no effect upon prostaglandin synthesis in its COX-1 specific concentration range, but did significantly reduce prostaglandin synthesis at higher, non-selective concentrations. Fetal membranes contain both COX-1 and COX-2 at term, but only COX-2 contributes towards prostaglandin synthesis. COX-2 selective NSAI drugs will be as effective as non-selective agents in inhibition of fetal membrane prostaglandin synthesis and may represent a new strategy for tocolysis. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  2. Diagnosis and therapy of the subinvolution of placental sites in the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, M B; Arbeiter, K

    1993-01-01

    Within the last 19 years, 20 cases of placentitis post partum have been studied at the clinic. On 14 occasions the condition took the form of excessive uterine bleeding (metrorrhagia) post partum and, on five occasions, of prolonged vaginal discharge lasting 8-13 weeks post partum. One bitch with a clinically undetectable form of this disorder was diagnosed at ovariohysterectomy. The average age of the bitches was 4.5 years (range 2-6 years). Examinations included abdominal palpation, vaginoscopy, vaginal smear examination and, if necessary, radiography and ultrasonography. The presence of decidua-like cells in the smear was confirmed as evidence of abnormal uterine involution. Six dogs were subjected to ovariohysterectomy; histological examination revealed inflamed and degenerated areas of the uterine surface. Decidualike cells were seen for up to 10 weeks post partum. Fourteen bitches were treated successfully with an injection of the progestagen Niagestin (25-50 mg per bitch) and both intrauterine and parenteral antibiotics were administered. The discharge stopped within a few days in all dogs treated. A subsequent normal pregnancy occurred in four cases.

  3. Inhibiting trophoblast PAR-1 overexpression suppresses sFlt-1-induced anti-angiogenesis and abnormal vascular remodeling: a possible therapeutic approach for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yin; Zheng, YanFang; Liu, XiaoXia; Luo, QingQing; Wu, Di; Liu, XiaoPing; Zou, Li

    2018-03-01

    Is it possible to improve vascular remodeling by inhibiting the excessive expression of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) in trophoblast of abnormal placenta? Inhibition of trophoblast PAR-1 overexpression may promote placental angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, offering an alternative therapeutic approach for preeclampsia. PAR-1 is high-affinity receptor of thrombin. Thrombin increases sFlt-1 secretion in trophoblast via the activation of PAR-1. It is reported that the expression of both thrombin and PAR-1 expression are increased in placentas of preeclampsia patients compared with normal placentas. Trophoblast cells were transfected with PAR-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or PAR-1 overexpression plasmids in vitro. Tube formation assays and a villus-decidua co-culture system were used to study the effect of PAR-1 inhibition on placental angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, respectively. Placentas from rats with preeclampsia were transfected with PAR-1 shRNA to confirm the effect of inhibiting PAR-1 overexpression in placenta. The trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo was transfected with PAR-1 shRNA or PAR-1 overexpression plasmids. After 48 h, supernatant was collected and the level of sFlt-1 secretion was measured by ELISA. Human umbilical cord epithelial cells and a villus-decidua co-culture system were treated with conditioned media to study the effect of PAR-1 inhibition on tube formation and villi vascular remodeling. A preeclampsia rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of L-NAME. Plasmids were injected into the placenta of the preeclampsia rats and systolic blood pressure was measured on Days 15 and 19. The effect of different treatments was evaluated by proteinuria, placental weights, fetal weights and fetal numbers in study and control groups. The level of serum sFlt-1 in rats with preeclampsia was also measured. Changes in the placenta microvessels were studied by histopathological staining. PAR-1 shRNA inhibited PAR-1 expression and

  4. Gap junction connexins in female reproductive organs: implications for women's reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhager, Elke; Kidder, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    . CX40, which characterizes the extravillous trophoblast (EVT), supports proliferation of the proximal EVTs while preventing them from differentiating into the invasive pathway. Furthermore, women with recurrent early pregnancy loss as well as those with endometriosis exhibit reduced levels of CX43 in their decidua. The antimalaria drug mefloquine, which blocks gap junction function, is responsible for increased risk of early pregnancy loss and stillbirth, probably due to inhibition of intercellular communication in the decidua or between trophoblast layers followed by an impairment of placental growth. Gap junctions also play a critical role in regulating uterine blood flow, contributing to the adaptive response to pregnancy. Given that reproductive impairment can result from connexin mutations in mice, it is advised that women suffering from somatic disease symptoms associated with connexin gene mutations be additionally tested for impacts on reproductive function. Better knowledge of these essential connexin functions in human female reproductive organs is important for safeguarding women's reproductive health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The role of decidual cells in uterine hemostasis, menstruation, inflammation, adverse pregnancy outcomes and abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Frederick; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Arlier, Sefa; Kayisli, Umit A; Lockwood, Charles J

    2016-06-01

    Human pregnancy requires robust hemostasis to prevent hemorrhage during extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion of the decidualized endometrium, modification of spiral arteries and post-partum processes. However, decidual hemorrhage (abruption) can occur throughout pregnancy from poorly transformed spiral arteries, causing fetal death or spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), or it can promote the aberrant placentation observed in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia; all leading causes of perinatal or maternal morbidity and mortality. In non-fertile cycles, the decidua undergoes controlled menstrual bleeding. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) accompanying progestin-only, long-acting, reversible contraception (pLARC) accounts for most discontinuations of these safe and highly effective agents, thereby contributing to unwanted pregnancies and abortion. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of decidual cells in uterine hemostasis, menstruation, inflammation, adverse pregnancy outcomes and abnormal uterine bleeding. We conducted a critical review of the literature arising from PubMed searches up to December 2015, regarding in situ and in vitro expression and regulation of several specific proteins involved in uterine hemostasis in decidua and cycling endometrium. In addition, we discussed clinical and molecular mechanisms associated with pLARC-induced AUB and pregnancy complications with abruptions, chorioamnionitis or pre-eclampsia. Progestin-induced decidualization of estradiol-primed human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) increases in vivo and in vitro expression of tissue factor (TF) and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) while inhibiting plasminogen activators (PAs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1 (ET-1). These changes in decidual cell-derived regulators of hemostasis, fibrinolysis, extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, and vascular tone prevent hemorrhage during EVT invasion and

  6. Role of stress peptides during human pregnancy and labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Edward W; Grammatopoulos, Dimitris K

    2002-09-01

    Premature birth is the major source of perinatal death and disability. Furthermore, the intrauterine health of the baby is important for preventing certain adult diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms driving the onset of human labour remain uncertain, although several key players have been identified. It is becoming clear that there are many pathways to parturition in humans. Stress peptides, in particular placental corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and possibly the related peptide urocortin, appear to play important roles throughout pregnancy. Plasma CRH is a predictor of the duration of human gestation. During most of pregnancy, CRH, acting via specific CRH receptor subtypes, plays a 'protective' role by promoting myometrial quiescence via the generation of cAMP and cGMP, and upregulation of nitric oxide synthase expression. At term, myometrial contractility is enhanced by a complex series of molecular switches, involving the upregulation of oxytocin receptor expression and crosstalk between the oxytocin and CRH receptors. This results in protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation of specific CRH receptor subtypes, with subsequent desensitization and a shift in the intracellular microenvironment to enhance contractility. CRH/urocortin, via specific receptor isoforms, is now able to activate Gq and potentially enhance the oxytocin-driven generation of inositol triphosphate. In addition, CRH/urocortin, via specific CRH receptor subtypes, may generate prostaglandins from the fetal membranes and decidua, play a role in placental vasodilatation and participate in fetal adrenal function and organ maturation. These peptides and receptors are phylogenetically ancient and well preserved across species. They may have evolved as a mechanism to protect against the 'stress' of premature birth.

  7. Immunohistochemical features of progesterone receptors expression of placental barrier in women with multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Zadorozhna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal disorders are one of the main known causes of miscarriage and preterm birth in multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART. Progesterone and the number of its receptors play an important role in the preservation and prolongation of pregnancy and it is the pressing issue of our time. The study of placentas, as the main site of synthesis of progesterone, has high informative potential and it is the most important diagnostic object, and information received by its research is essential for the full conclusion on the causes, mechanisms, close and long-term effects of multiple pregnancy pathology. Aim. The aim of our study was to investigate immunohistochemical features of placentas from women with dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies in spontaneous fertilization and after use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Methods and results. According to this goal we examined 94 women, 44 of whom had multiple pregnancies due to ART, 42 with separate multiple pregnancy and 38 women with a singleton pregnancy. We carried out clinical and statistical analysis of the course of pregnancy and childbirth in the studied groups. During the study it was found that multiple pregnancies due to assisted reproduction belong to the high risk of gestation, at which premature births occur much more frequently than in singleton pregnancies. We were the first to carry out the immunohistochemical study of placentas in which the highest expression of progesterone receptors in the nuclei of cells of decidua (45% related to the parent structure of the placenta from women with multiple pregnancies caused by ART is found. It is also found that with increasing gestational age, there has been a significant decrease in the expression of the activity of progesterone receptors (from 45 to 2.5%, regardless of the method of conception and the number of fetuses. Conclusions. The results of the study point to the definitive link of structures of

  8. Correlation Between Placental Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Protein Expression Throughout Gestation in Normal Human Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Jayasri; Agamasu, Enyonam; Bendek, Bolek; Salafia, Carolyn M; Mishra, Aruna; Lopez, Julia Vasquez; Kroes, Jessica; Dragich, Sharon Claire; Thakur, Ashley; Mikhail, Magdy

    2018-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-9 plays a role in human placentation. The enzyme confers an invasive ability to cytotrophoblasts and degrades the endometrial matrix as the cells infiltrate the decidua to keep up with placental growth. Since tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) can induce the synthesis of MMP-9, we investigated the patterns of changes in and correlation between placental villous MMP-9 and TNF-α expressions throughout normal human gestation. Placentas were obtained from 179 normal pregnant women who underwent elective abortion or term delivery. Chorionic villi isolated from placental samples were grouped as first, second, and third trimester (7 0/7 -13 0/7 , 13 1/7 -23 6/7 , and 37 0/7 -42 4/7 weeks, respectively). Chorionic villous TNF-α and MMP-9 proteins were assayed using enzyme immunoassay kits. There were significant differences in MMP-9 and TNF-α protein expressions among the trimester groups ( P = .001). The MMP-9 protein increased progressively with an increase in gestational age (GA), but TNF-α peaked in the second trimester. Within each trimester group, we searched for the effects of variation of GA in days on the 2 variables. A significant positive correlation between MMP-9 and GA was noted in the first trimester ( r = 0.364, P = .005). No other comparisons were significant. When GA was controlled for, partial correlation revealed a significant positive correlation between TNF-α and MMP-9 only in the second trimester ( r = 0.300, P = .018). We hypothesize that the TNF-α peak and the positive correlation between TNF-α and MMP-9 in the second trimester of normal human gestation could contribute toward a successful pregnancy outcome.

  9. Warm season precipitation signal in δ2 H values of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high elevation larch trees in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F C; Greule, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Anhäuser, Tobias; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested stable hydrogen isotope ratios of wood lignin methoxyl groups (δ 2 H methoxyl values) as a palaeoclimate proxy in dendrochronology. This is a quite new method in the field of dendrochronology and the sample preparation is much simpler than the methods used before to measure δ 2 H values from wood. We measured δ 2 H methoxyl values in high elevation larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) from Simplon Valley (southern Switzerland). Thirty-seven larch trees were sampled and five individuals analysed for their δ 2 H methoxyl values at annual (1971-2009) and pentadal resolution (1746-2009). The δ 2 H methoxyl values were measured as CH 3 I released upon treatment of the dried wood samples with hydroiodic acid. 10-90 μL from the head-space were injected into the gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/HTC-IRMS) system. Testing the climate response of the δ 2 H methoxyl values, the annually resolved series show a positive correlation of r = 0.60 with June/July precipitation. The pentadally resolved δ 2 H methoxyl series do not show any significant correlation to climate parameters. Increased precipitation during June and July, which are on average warm and relatively dry months, results in higher δ 2 H values of the xylem water and, therefore, higher δ 2 H values in the lignin methoxyl groups. Therefore, we suggest that δ 2 H methoxyl values of high elevation larch trees might serve as a summer precipitation proxy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Immunodetection of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human mineralocorticoid target tissues: evidence for nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojo, M; Ricketts, M L; Petrelli, M D; Moradi, P; Johnson, G D; Bradwell, A R; Hewison, M; Howie, A J; Stewart, P M

    1997-03-01

    11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSI) is an enzyme complex responsible for the conversion of hormonally active cortisol to inactive cortisone; two isoforms of the enzyme have been cloned and characterized. Clinical observations from patients with the hypertensive syndrome apparent mineralocorticoid excess, recently explained on the basis of mutations in the human 11 beta HSD2 gene, suggest that it is the 11 beta HSD2 isoform that serves a vital role in dictating specificity upon the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We have raised a novel antibody in sheep against human 11 beta HSD2 using synthetic multiantigenic peptides and have examined the localization and subcellular distribution of 11 beta HSD2 in mineralocorticoid target tissues. The immunopurified antibody recognized a single band of approximately 44 kDa in placenta, trophoblast, and distal colon. In kidney tissue, two bands of approximately 44 and 48 kDa were consistently observed. No signal was seen in decidua, adrenal, or liver. Immunoperoxidase studies on the mineralocorticoid target tissues, kidney, colon, and parotid gland indicated positive staining in epithelial cells known to express the MR: respectively, renal collecting ducts, surface and crypt colonic epithelial cells, and parotid duct epithelial cells. No staining was seen in these tissues in other sites. The intracellular localization of 11 beta HSD2 in kidney and colon epithelial cells was addressed using confocal laser microscopy. Parallel measurements of 11 beta HSD2 and nuclear propidium iodide fluorescence on sections scanned through an optical section of approximately 0.1 micron indicated significant 11 beta HSD2 immunofluorescence in the nucleus. In human kidney, colon, and salivary gland, 11 beta HSD2 protects the MR from glucocorticoid excess in an autocrine fashion. Furthermore, within these tissues, 11 beta HSD2, which had been considered to be a microsomal enzyme, is also found in the nucleus, suggesting that the

  11. Decellularized extracellular matrices produced from immortal cell lines derived from different parts of the placenta support primary mesenchymal stem cell expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina D Kusuma

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs exhibit undesired phenotypic changes during ex vivo expansion, limiting production of the large quantities of high quality primary MSCs needed for both basic research and cell therapies. Primary MSCs retain many desired MSC properties including proliferative capacity and differentiation potential when expanded on decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM prepared from primary MSCs. However, the need to use low passage number primary MSCs (passage 3 or lower to produce the dECM drastically limits the utility and impact of this technology. Here, we report that primary MSCs expanded on dECM prepared from high passage number (passage 25 human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT transduced immortal MSC cell lines also exhibit increased proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Two hTERT-transduced placenta-derived MSC cell lines, CMSC29 and DMSC23 [derived from placental chorionic villi (CMSCs and decidua basalis (DMSCs, respectively], were used to prepare dECM-coated substrates. These dECM substrates showed structural and biochemical differences. Primary DMSCs cultured on dECM-DMSC23 showed a three-fold increase in cell number after 14 days expansion in culture and increased osteogenic differentiation compared with controls. Primary CMSCs cultured on the dECM-DMSC23 exhibited a two-fold increase in cell number and increased osteogenic differentiation. We conclude that immortal MSC cell lines derived from different parts of the placenta produce dECM with varying abilities for supporting increased primary MSC expansion while maintaining important primary MSC properties. Additionally, this is the first demonstration of using high passage number cells to produce dECM that can promote primary MSC expansion, and this advancement greatly increases the feasibility and applicability of dECM-based technologies.

  12. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits synthesis and release of decidual prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, I.; Costello, A.; Ganong, B.; Bell, R.M.; Handwerger, S.

    1986-01-01

    Activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C by diacylglycerol and phorbol esters has been shown to mediate release of hormones in many systems. To determine whether protein kinase C activation is also involved in the regulation of prolactin release from human decidual, the authors have examined the effects of various acylglycerols and phorbol esters on the synthesis and release of prolactin from cultured human decidual cells. sn-1,2-Dioctanolyglycerol (diC 8 ), which is known to stimulate protein kinase C in other systems, inhibited prolactin release in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 53.1% at 100 μM. Diolein (100 μM), which also stimulates protein kinase C activity in some systems, inhibited prolactin release by 21.3%. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, and 4β-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which activate protein kinase C in other systems, also inhibited the release of prolactin, which the protein kinase C inactivate 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate was without effect. The inhibition of prolactin release was secondary to a decrease in prolactin synthesis. Although diC 8 and PMA inhibited the synthesis and release of prolactin, these agents had no effect on the synthesis or release of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable [ 35 S]methionine-labeled decidual proteins and did not cause the release of the cytosolic enzymes lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. DiC 8 and PMA stimulates the specific activity of protein kinase C in decidual tissue by 14.6 and 14.0-fold, respectively. The inhibition of the synthesis and release of prolactin by diC 8 and phorbol esters strongly implicates protein kinase C in the regulation of the production and release of prolactin from the decidua

  13. Placental Protein 13 (PP13 – a placental immunoregulatory galectin protecting pregnancy

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    Nandor Gabor Than

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, and some confer maternal-fetal immune tolerance in eutherian mammals. A chromosome 19 cluster of galectins has emerged in anthropoid primates, species with deep placentation and long gestation. Three of the five human cluster galectins are solely expressed in the placenta, where they may confer additional immunoregulatory functions to enable deep placentation. One of these is galectin-13, also known as Placental Protein 13 (PP13. It has a jelly-roll fold, carbohydrate-recognition domain and sugar-binding preference resembling to other mammalian galectins. PP13 is predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast and released from the placenta into the maternal circulation. Its ability to induce apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro, and to divert and kill T cells as well as macrophages in the maternal decidua in situ suggests important immune functions. Indeed, mutations in the promoter and an exon of LGALS13 presumably leading to altered or non-functional protein expression are associated with a higher frequency of preeclampsia and other obstetrical syndromes, which involve immune dysregulation. Moreover, decreased placental expression of PP13 and its low first trimester maternal serum concentrations are associated with elevated risk of preeclampsia. Indeed, PP13 turned to be a good early biomarker to assess maternal risk for the subsequent development of pregnancy complications caused by impaired placentation. Due to the ischemic placental stress in preterm preeclampsia, there is an increased trophoblastic shedding of PP13 immunopositive microvesicles starting in the second trimester, which leads to high maternal blood PP13 concentrations. Our meta-analysis suggests that this phenomenon may enable the potential use of PP13 in directing patient management near to or at the time of delivery. Recent findings on the beneficial effects of PP13 on decreasing

  14. Serum ischemia modified albumin level and its relationship with the thiol/disulfide balance in placenta percreta patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanikoglu, Hacer; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Tatli, Faik; Hilali, Nese Gul; Sak, Sibel; Incebiyik, Adnan; Barut, Mert Ulas; Erel, Ozcan; Gonel, Ataman

    2018-06-08

    The pathogenesis of placenta percreta (PP) is not very well known. This study was designed to analyse the oxidative stress (OS), the thiol/disulphide balance, and ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA) the women with PP. The study included 38 pregnant women with PP and 40 similarly aged healthy pregnant women in their third trimester of gestation. We measured the IMA, native and total thiols, and disulphide concentrations in the maternal sera of all of the participating women. The IMA levels were higher and the native and total thiols were lower in the PP group than in the control group. However, there was no statistical significance with respect to the thiol/disulphide balance between the two groups. The results of this study suggest that an increase in the ischaemia and OS and a decrease in the antioxidant status may contribute to the pathogenesis of PP. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Placenta percreta (PP) is a serious complication of pregnancy. Although there are several studies investigating the pathophysiological mechanism of PP, whether the pathology results from a lack of decidua or from the over-invasiveness of trophoblasts remains controversial. The pathology of PP is poorly understood. What do the results of this study add? This prospective study has shown an increased ischaemia modified albumin (IMA) and a decreased antioxidant capacity in the patients with placenta percreta. The results from 38 women with PP suggest that the serum concentrations of IMA and the oxidative stress parameters may be able to predict PP in cases of uncertainty. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The implication of these findings shed light on understanding the pathogenesis of PP for further research.

  15. Hydrological properties of bark of selected forest tree species. Part 2: Interspecific variability of bark water storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilek Anna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present research is the water storage capacity of bark of seven forest tree species: Pinus sylvestris L., Larix decidua Mill., Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Betula pendula Ehrh. and Fagus sylvatica L. The aim of the research is to demonstrate differences in the formation of bark water storage capacity between species and to identify factors influencing the hydrological properties of bark. The maximum water storage capacity of bark was determined under laboratory conditions by performing a series of experiments simulating rainfall and by immersing bark samples in containers filled with water. After each single experiment, the bark samples were subjected to gravity filtration in a desiccator partially filled with water. The experiments lasted from 1084 to 1389 hours, depending on the bark sample. In all the studied species, bark sampled from the thinnest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in mm H2O · cm-3, while bark sampled from the thickest trees - by the lowest capacity. On the other hand, bark sampled from the thickest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in H2O · cm-2 whereas bark from the thinnest trees - by the lowest capacity. In most species tested, as the tree thickness and thus the bark thickness and the coefficient of development of the interception surface of bark increase, the sorption properties of the bark decrease with bark depth, and the main role in water retention is played by the outer bark surface. The bark of European beech is an exception because of the smallest degree of surface development and because the dominant process is the absorption of water. When examining the hydrological properties of bark and calculating its parameters, one needs to take into account the actual surface of the bark of trees. Disregarding the actual bark surface may lead to significant errors in the interpretation of research

  16. Intraspecific variability of European larch for wood properties: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paques, L.E.; Rozenberg, P. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 45 - Olivet (France). Station d`Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers

    1995-12-31

    Wood properties of several natural populations of European larch (Larix decidua Mill) were determined from samples collected in one replicate of the II. International IUFRO provenance experiment, planted in Brittany in 1959. According to provenances, proportion of heartwood ranges from 35 to 58% of basal area, basic density from 442 to 505 g/dm{sup 3} and Young modulus of elasticity from 8474 to 14522 MPa. Positive correlations between girth and heartwood proportion and between wood density and modulus of elasticity but negative correlations between ring width and both density and MOE have been found both at the individual and at the population levels. Variability between and within provenances is high for two major traits (proportion of heartwood and Young modulus of elasticity) for which a SW - NE gradient is shown. For wood density parameters including pilodyn, a greater homogeneity is observed. Besides a now largely recognized superiority for growth traits, Central European populations from the Sudetan Mountains and Central Poland would also produce wood with better properties. On the reverse, Alpine populations from the French Alps growing at low elevations have a slower growth, a denser wood with less heartwood and less strength. Used as a control, the hybrid larch origin (Larix x eurolepis) represents the best compromise for wood properties with the highest strength but an average wood density and one of the highest proportion of heartwood. These preliminary results must be confirmed from a larger set of provenances and completed with other major wood properties such as durability and shrinkage. 17 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Fire, fuel composition and resilience threshold in subalpine ecosystem.

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    Olivier Blarquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the effects of global changes on high altitude ecosystems requires an understanding of the long-term relationships between biota and forcing factors to identify resilience thresholds. Fire is a crucial forcing factor: both fuel build-up from land-abandonment in European mountains, and more droughts linked to global warming are likely to increase fire risks. METHODS: To assess the vegetation response to fire on a millennium time-scale, we analyzed evidence of stand-to-local vegetation dynamics derived from sedimentary plant macroremains from two subalpine lakes. Paleobotanical reconstructions at high temporal resolution, together with a fire frequency reconstruction inferred from sedimentary charcoal, were analyzed by Superposed Epoch Analysis to model plant behavior before, during and after fire events. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that fuel build-up from arolla pine (Pinus cembra always precedes fires, which is immediately followed by a rapid increase of birch (Betula sp., then by ericaceous species after 25-75 years, and by herbs after 50-100 years. European larch (Larix decidua, which is the natural co-dominant species of subalpine forests with Pinus cembra, is not sensitive to fire, while the abundance of Pinus cembra is altered within a 150-year period after fires. A long-term trend in vegetation dynamics is apparent, wherein species that abound later in succession are the functional drivers, loading the environment with fuel for fires. This system can only be functional if fires are mainly driven by external factors (e.g. climate, with the mean interval between fires being longer than the minimum time required to reach the late successional stage, here 150 years. CONCLUSION: Current global warming conditions which increase drought occurrences, combined with the abandonment of land in European mountain areas, creates ideal ecological conditions for the ignition and the spread of fire. A fire return interval of less

  18. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilmann, Britta; Rigling, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree species' potential for surviving future aggravated environmental conditions is rather demanding. The aim of this study was to find a tree-ring-based method suitable for identifying very drought-tolerant species, particularly potential substitute species for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Valais. In this inner-Alpine valley, Scots pine used to be the dominating species for dry forests, but today it suffers from high drought-induced mortality. We investigate the growth response of two native tree species, Scots pine and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), and two non-native species, black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. var. menziesii), to drought. This involved analysing how the radial increment of these species responded to increasing water shortage (abandonment of irrigation) and to increasingly frequent drought years. Black pine and Douglas fir are able to cope with drought better than Scots pine and larch, as they show relatively high radial growth even after irrigation has been stopped and a plastic growth response to drought years. European larch does not seem to be able to cope with these dry conditions as it lacks the ability to recover from drought years. The analysis of trees' short-term response to extreme climate events seems to be the most promising and suitable method for detecting how tolerant a tree species is towards drought. However, combining all the methods used in this study provides a complete picture of how water shortage could limit species.

  19. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, M.; Cherubini, P.; Fravolini, G.; Ascher, J.; Schärer, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Bertoldi, D.; Camin, F.; Larcher, R.; Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the large size and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the time scales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests have been poorly investigated and are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the five-decay class system commonly employed for forest surveys, based on a macromorphological and visual assessment. For the decay classes 1 to 3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) and some others not having enough tree rings, radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model. In the decay classes 1 to 3, the ages of the CWD were similar varying between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative for deadwood age. We found, however, distinct tree species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were 0.012 to 0.018 yr-1 for spruce and 0.005 to 0.012 yr-1 for larch. Cellulose and lignin time trends half-lives (using a multiple-exponential model) could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 yr for spruce and 50 yr for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than 100 years in larch CWD.

  20. Placental Hypoxia During Early Pregnancy Causes Maternal Hypertension and Placental Insufficiency in the Hypoxic Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Loren P; Pence, Laramie; Pinkas, Gerald; Song, Hong; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-12-01

    Chronic placental hypoxia is one of the root causes of placental insufficiencies that result in pre-eclampsia and maternal hypertension. Chronic hypoxia causes disruption of trophoblast (TB) development, invasion into maternal decidua, and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. The pregnant guinea pig shares several characteristics with humans such as hemomonochorial placenta, villous subplacenta, deep TB invasion, and remodeling of maternal arteries, and is an ideal animal model to study placental development. We hypothesized that chronic placental hypoxia of the pregnant guinea pig inhibits TB invasion and alters spiral artery remodeling. Time-mated pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to either normoxia (NMX) or three levels of hypoxia (HPX: 16%, 12%, or 10.5% O 2 ) from 20 day gestation until midterm (39-40 days) or term (60-65 days). At term, HPX (10.5% O 2 ) increased maternal arterial blood pressure (HPX 57.9 ± 2.3 vs. NMX 40.4 ± 2.3, P < 0.001), decreased fetal weight by 16.1% (P < 0.05), and increased both absolute and relative placenta weights by 10.1% and 31.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). At midterm, there was a significant increase in TB proliferation in HPX placentas as confirmed by increased PCNA and KRT7 staining and elevated ESX1 (TB marker) gene expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, quantitative image analysis revealed decreased invasion of maternal blood vessels by TB cells. In summary, this animal model of placental HPX identifies several aspects of abnormal placental development, including increased TB proliferation and decreased migration and invasion of TBs into the spiral arteries, the consequences of which are associated with maternal hypertension and fetal growth restriction. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. An alpine treeline in a carbon dioxide-rich world: synthesis of a nine-year free-air carbon dioxide enrichment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Melissa A; Hagedorn, Frank; Handa, Ira Tanya; Streit, Kathrin; Ekblad, Alf; Rixen, Christian; Körner, Christian; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the impacts of elevated CO2 in a treeline ecosystem in the Swiss Alps in a 9-year free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study. We present new data and synthesize plant and soil results from the entire experimental period. Light-saturated photosynthesis (A max) of ca. 35-year-old Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata was stimulated by elevated CO2 throughout the experiment. Slight down-regulation of photosynthesis in Pinus was consistent with starch accumulation in needle tissue. Above-ground growth responses differed between tree species, with a 33 % mean annual stimulation in Larix but no response in Pinus. Species-specific CO2 responses also occurred for abundant dwarf shrub species in the understorey, where Vaccinium myrtillus showed a sustained shoot growth enhancement (+11 %) that was not apparent for Vaccinium gaultherioides or Empetrum hermaphroditum. Below ground, CO2 enrichment did not stimulate fine root or mycorrhizal mycelium growth, but increased CO2 effluxes from the soil (+24 %) indicated that enhanced C assimilation was partially offset by greater respiratory losses. The dissolved organic C (DOC) concentration in soil solutions was consistently higher under elevated CO2 (+14 %), suggesting accelerated soil organic matter turnover. CO2 enrichment hardly affected the C-N balance in plants and soil, with unaltered soil total or mineral N concentrations and little impact on plant leaf N concentration or the stable N isotope ratio. Sustained differences in plant species growth responses suggest future shifts in species composition with atmospheric change. Consistently increased C fixation, soil respiration and DOC production over 9 years of CO2 enrichment provide clear evidence for accelerated C cycling with no apparent consequences on the N cycle in this treeline ecosystem.

  2. Growth and phenology of three dwarf shrub species in a six-year soil warming experiment at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Rixen, Christian; Cherubini, Paolo; Wipf, Sonja; Hagedorn, Frank; Dawes, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Global warming can have substantial impacts on the phenological and growth patterns of alpine and Arctic species, resulting in shifts in plant community composition and ecosystem dynamics. We evaluated the effects of a six-year experimental soil warming treatment (+4°C, 2007-2012) on the phenology and growth of three co-dominant dwarf shrub species growing in the understory of Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata at treeline in the Swiss Alps. We monitored vegetative and reproductive phenology of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Empetrum hermaphroditum throughout the early growing season of 2012 and, following a major harvest at peak season, we measured the biomass of above-ground ramet fractions. For all six years of soil warming we measured annual shoot growth of the three species and analyzed ramet age and xylem ring width of V. myrtillus. Our results show that phenology of the three species was more influenced by snowmelt timing, and also by plot tree species (Larix or Pinus) in the case of V. myrtillus, than by soil warming. However, the warming treatment led to increased V. myrtillus total above-ground ramet biomass (+36% in 2012), especially new shoot biomass (+63% in 2012), as well as increased new shoot increment length and xylem ring width (+22% and +41%, respectively; average for 2007-2012). These results indicate enhanced overall growth of V. myrtillus under soil warming that was sustained over six years and was not caused by an extended growing period in early summer. In contrast, E. hermaphroditum only showed a positive shoot growth response to warming in 2011 (+21%), and V. gaultherioides showed no significant growth response. Our results indicate that V. myrtillus might have a competitive advantage over the less responsive co-occurring dwarf shrub species under future global warming.

  3. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  4. Responses of Tree Seedlings near the Alpine Treeline to Delayed Snowmelt and Reduced Sky Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Y. Bader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier snowmelt changes spring stress exposure and growing-season length, possibly causing shifts in plant species dominance. If such shifts involve trees, this may lead to changes in treeline position. We hypothesized that earlier snowmelt would negatively affect the performance of tree seedlings near the treeline due to higher spring stress levels, but less so if seedlings were protected from the main stress factors of night frosts and excess solar radiation. We exposed seedlings of five European treeline tree species: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata, and Sorbus aucuparia to two snow-cover treatments (early and late melting, with about two weeks difference combined with reduced sky exposure during the day (shading or night (night warming, repeated in two years, at a site about 200 m below the regional treeline elevation. Physiological stress levels (as indicated by lower Fv/Fm in the first weeks after emergence from snow were higher in early-emerging seedlings. As expected, shade reduced stress, but contrary to expectation, night warming did not. However, early- and late-emerging seedlings did not differ overall in their growth or survival, and the interaction with shading was inconsistent between years. Overall, shading had the strongest effect, decreasing stress levels and mortality (in the early-emerging seedlings only, but also growth. A two-week difference in snow-cover duration did not strongly affect the seedlings, although even smaller differences have been shown to affect productivity in alpine and arctic tundra vegetation. Still, snowmelt timing cannot be discarded as important for regeneration in subalpine conditions, because (1 it is likely more critical in very snow-rich or snow-poor mountains or landscape positions; and (2 it can change (subalpine vegetation phenology and productivity, thereby affecting plant interactions, an aspect that should be considered in future studies.

  5. Growth and phenology of three dwarf shrub species in a six-year soil warming experiment at the alpine treeline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Anadon-Rosell

    Full Text Available Global warming can have substantial impacts on the phenological and growth patterns of alpine and Arctic species, resulting in shifts in plant community composition and ecosystem dynamics. We evaluated the effects of a six-year experimental soil warming treatment (+4°C, 2007-2012 on the phenology and growth of three co-dominant dwarf shrub species growing in the understory of Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata at treeline in the Swiss Alps. We monitored vegetative and reproductive phenology of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Empetrum hermaphroditum throughout the early growing season of 2012 and, following a major harvest at peak season, we measured the biomass of above-ground ramet fractions. For all six years of soil warming we measured annual shoot growth of the three species and analyzed ramet age and xylem ring width of V. myrtillus. Our results show that phenology of the three species was more influenced by snowmelt timing, and also by plot tree species (Larix or Pinus in the case of V. myrtillus, than by soil warming. However, the warming treatment led to increased V. myrtillus total above-ground ramet biomass (+36% in 2012, especially new shoot biomass (+63% in 2012, as well as increased new shoot increment length and xylem ring width (+22% and +41%, respectively; average for 2007-2012. These results indicate enhanced overall growth of V. myrtillus under soil warming that was sustained over six years and was not caused by an extended growing period in early summer. In contrast, E. hermaphroditum only showed a positive shoot growth response to warming in 2011 (+21%, and V. gaultherioides showed no significant growth response. Our results indicate that V. myrtillus might have a competitive advantage over the less responsive co-occurring dwarf shrub species under future global warming.

  6. Soil warming opens the nitrogen cycle at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Melissa A; Schleppi, Patrick; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming may alter ecosystem nitrogen (N) cycling by accelerating N transformations in the soil, and changes may be especially pronounced in cold regions characterized by N-poor ecosystems. We investigated N dynamics across the plant-soil continuum during 6 years of experimental soil warming (2007-2012; +4 °C) at a Swiss high-elevation treeline site (Stillberg, Davos; 2180 m a.s.l.) featuring Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata. In the soil, we observed considerable increases in the NH4+ pool size in the first years of warming (by >50%), but this effect declined over time. In contrast, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations in soil solutions from the organic layer increased under warming, especially in later years (maximum of +45% in 2012), suggesting enhanced DON leaching from the main rooting zone. Throughout the experimental period, foliar N concentrations showed species-specific but small warming effects, whereas δ 15 N values showed a sustained increase in warmed plots that was consistent for all species analysed. The estimated total plant N pool size at the end of the study was greater (+17%) in warmed plots with Pinus but not in those containing Larix, with responses driven by trees. Irrespective of plot tree species identity, warming led to an enhanced N pool size of Vaccinium dwarf shrubs, no change in that of Empetrum hermaphroditum (dwarf shrub) and forbs, and a reduction in that of grasses, nonvascular plants, and fine roots. In combination, higher foliar δ 15 N values and the transient response in soil inorganic N indicate a persistent increase in plant-available N and greater cumulative plant N uptake in warmer soils. Overall, greater N availability and increased DON concentrations suggest an opening of the N cycle with global warming, which might contribute to growth stimulation of some plant species while simultaneously leading to greater N losses from treeline ecosystems and possibly other cold biomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons

  7. How to make a tree ring: Coupling stem water flow and cambial activity in mature Alpine conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard L.; Frank, David C.; Treydte, Kerstin; Steppe, Kathy; Kahmen, Ansgar; Fonti, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Inter-annual tree-ring measurements are used to understand tree-growth responses to climatic variability and reconstruct past climate conditions. In parallel, mechanistic models use experimentally defined plant-atmosphere interactions to explain past growth responses and predict future environmental impact on forest productivity. Yet, substantial inconsistencies within mechanistic model ensembles and mismatches with empirical data indicate that significant progress is still needed to understand the processes occurring at an intra-annual resolution that drive annual growth. However, challenges arise due to i) few datasets describing climatic responses of high-resolution physiological processes over longer time-scales, ii) uncertainties on the main mechanistic process limiting radial stem growth and iii) complex interactions between multiple environmental factors which obscure detection of the main stem growth driver, generating a gap between our understanding of intra- and inter-annual growth mechanisms. We attempt to bridge the gap between inter-annual tree-ring width and sub-daily radial stem-growth and provide a mechanistic perspective on how environmental conditions affect physiological processes that shape tree rings in conifers. We combine sub-hourly sap flow and point dendrometer measurements performed on mature Alpine conifers (Larix decidua) into an individual-based mechanistic tree-growth model to simulate sub-hourly cambial activity. The monitored trees are located along a high elevational transect in the Swiss Alps (Lötschental) to analyse the effect of increasing temperature. The model quantifies internal tree hydraulic pathways that regulate the turgidity within the cambial zone and induce cell enlargement for radial growth. The simulations are validated against intra-annual growth patterns derived from xylogenesis data and anatomical analyses. Our efforts advance the process-based understanding of how climate shapes the annual tree-ring structures

  8. Carbon and oxygen isotope signatures in conifers from the Swiss National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakova (Sidorova), Olga; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Bryukhanova, Marina; Bigler, Christof

    2015-04-01

    Our study investigates the physiological response and plasticity of trees under climatic changes for larch (Larix decidua) and mountain pine (Pinus mugo var. uncinata) in the Swiss National Park.This research was done in the context of investigation tree mortality and their potential to survive under the harsh mountainous conditions. For the stable isotope analysis we selected four mountain pine and four larch trees from each a south- and north-facing slope. Oxygen isotope ratios can give insight into water sources and evaporative processes. To understand the differential response of mountain pine and larch to short-term climatic changes we measured 18O/16O in water extracted from twigs and needles as well as soil samples for each species at both sites. The seasonal variabilities in 18O/16O needles and twigs of mountain pine and larch trees as well as soil samples were related to changes in climate conditions from end of May until middle of October. To reveal the main climatic factors driving tree growth of pine and larch trees in the long-term, tree-ring width chronologies were built and bulk 18O/16O, 13C/12C wood chronologies were analyzed and correlated with climatic parameters over the last 100 years. The results indicate a strong influence of spring and summer temperatures for larch trees, while variation of spring and summer precipitations is more relevant for mountain pine trees. This work is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, Marie-Heim Vögtlin Program PMPDP-2 145507

  9. Actin gene identification from selected medicinal plants for their use as internal controls for gene expression studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, F.U.D.; Banaras, S.

    2015-01-01

    Internal control genes are the constitutive genes which maintain the basic cellular functions and regularly express in both normal and stressed conditions in living organisms. They are used in normalization of gene expression studies in comparative analysis of target genes, as their expression remains comparatively unchanged in all varied conditions. Among internal control genes, actin is considered as a candidate gene for expression studies due to its vital role in shaping cytoskeleton and plant physiology. Unfortunately most of such knowledge is limited to only model plants or crops, not much is known about important medicinal plants. Therefore, we selected seven important medicinal wild plants for molecular identification of actin gene. We used gene specific primers designed from the conserved regions of several known orthologues or homologues of actin genes from other plants. The amplified products of 370-380 bp were sequenced and submitted to GeneBank after their confirmation using different bioinformatics tools. All the novel partial sequences of putative actin genes were submitted to GeneBank (Parthenium hysterophorus (KJ774023), Fagonia indica (KJ774024), Rhazya stricta (KJ774025), Whithania coagulans (KJ774026), Capparis decidua (KJ774027), Verbena officinalis (KJ774028) and Aerva javanica (KJ774029)). The comparisons of these partial sequences by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and phylogenetic trees demonstrated high similarity with known actin genes of other plants. Our findings illustrated highly conserved nature of actin gene among these selected plants. These novel partial fragments of actin genes from these wild medicinal plants can be used as internal controls for future gene expression studies of these important plants after precise validations of their stable expression in such plants. (author)

  10. Comparative studies of placentation and immunology in non-human primates suggest a scenario for the evolution of deep trophoblast invasion and an explanation for human pregnancy disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2011-04-01

    Deep trophoblast invasion in the placental bed has been considered the hallmark of human pregnancy. It occurs by two routes, interstitial and endovascular, and results in transformation of the walls of the spiral arteries as they traverse the decidua and the inner third of the myometrium. Disturbances in this process are associated with reproductive disorders such preeclampsia. In contrast, trophoblast invasion in Old World monkeys occurs only by the endovascular route and seldom reaches the myometrium. Recently, it was shown that this pattern is maintained in gibbons, but that the human arrangement also occurs in chimpanzee and gorilla. There is an interesting parallel with results from placental immunology regarding the evolution of the major histocompatability complex class I antigen HLA-C and its cognate receptors. HLA-C is not present in Old World monkeys or gibbons. It emerged in the orangutan and became polymorphic in the lineage leading to gorilla, bonobo, chimpanzee, and human. Interaction between HLA-C1 and HLA-C2 on the surface of trophoblast and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed by uterine natural killer cells are important regulators of trophoblast invasion. Evolution of this system in great apes may have been one prerequisite for deep trophoblast invasion but seems to have come at a price. The evidence now suggests that certain combinations of maternal genotype for KIRs and fetal genotype for HLA-C imply an increased risk of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and recurrent abortion. The fetal genotype is in part derived from the father providing an explanation for the paternal contribution to reproductive disorders.

  11. Interleukin 18 messenger RNA and proIL-18 protein expression in chorioamniotic membranes from pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Vieira, Eliane Passarelli; Santos, Mariana Perlati dos; Peraçoli, José Carlos; Witkin, Steven S; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    To quantify the expression of IL-18 mRNA and protein in the chorioamniotic membranes of pregnant women with PPROM and correlate expression with histological chorioamnionitis. A case control study that included 42 pregnant women not in labor in the following groups: PPROM (n=28) and controls with intact membranes submitted to selective cesarean section at term (n=14). Expression of IL-18 mRNA in chorioamniotic membranes was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and IL-18 protein expression was measured by western blot. Histopathological analyses and immunolocalization of IL-18 by immunohistochemistry were also performed. Analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney or Fisher's exact tests and the group effect was considered significant if the adjusted p-values were <0.05 and the magnitude of change was greater than 2-fold for mRNA expression. IL-18 mRNA was present in 100% of samples and no difference in expression was observed between term vs. PPROM membranes (fold-change 0.12; p=0.88). In the PPROM group, no difference was observed in IL-18 mRNA regarding gestational age (fold-change 0.11; p=0.42) or the presence of histological chorioamnionitis (fold-change 0.26; p=0.15). ProIL-18 was present in all samples. IL-18 was immunolocalized to amnion, chorion and decidua cells, with intense immunohistochemical staining at the choriodecidual junction. Chorioamniotic membranes are sources of IL-18 mRNA and proIL-18, and their expression is unrelated to PPROM or histological chorioamnionitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of chemokines associated with the recruitment of decidual leukocytes in human labour: potential novel targets for preterm labour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Current therapies for preterm labour (PTL focus on arresting myometrial contractions but are largely ineffective, thus alternative therapeutic targets need to be identified. Leukocytes infiltrate the uterus around the time of labour, and are in particularly abundant in decidua (maternal-fetal interface. Moreover, decidual inflammation precedes labour in rat pregnancies and thus may contribute to initiation of labour. We hypothesized that chemokines mediate decidual leukocyte trafficking during preterm labour (PTL and term labour (TL, thus representing potential targets for preventing PTL. Women were recruited into 4 groups: TL, term not in labour (TNL, idiopathic PTL and PTL with infection (PTLI. Choriodecidual RNA was subjected to a pathway-specific PCR array for chemokines. Differential expression of 12 candidate chemokines was validated by real time RT-PCR and Bioplex assay, with immunohistochemistry to confirm cellular origin. 25 chemokines were upregulated in choriodecidua from TL compared to TNL. A similar pattern was detected in PTL, however a distinct profile was observed in PTLI consistent with differences in leukocyte infiltration. Upregulation of CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL10 mRNA and protein was confirmed in TL, with CCL8 upregulated in PTL. Significant correlations were detected between these chemokines and decidual leukocyte abundance previously assessed by immunohistochemical and image analysis. Chemokines were primarily expressed by decidual stromal cells. In addition, CXCL8 and CCL5 were significantly elevated in maternal plasma during labour, suggesting chemokines contribute to peripheral inflammatory events during labour. Differences in chemokine expression patterns between TL and idiopathic PTL may be attributable to suppression of chemokine expression by betamethasone administered to women in PTL; this was supported by in vitro evidence of chemokine downregulation by clinically relevant concentrations of the steroid

  13. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2 and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion. Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF

  14. Evidence for Differential Glycosylation of Trophoblast Cell Types*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Pang, Poh-Choo; Cohen, Marie E.; Longtine, Mark S.; Schust, Danny J.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Blois, Sandra M.; Dell, Anne; Clark, Gary F.

    2016-01-01

    Human placental villi are surfaced by the syncytiotrophoblast (STB), with a layer of cytotrophoblasts (CTB) positioned just beneath the STB. STB in normal term pregnancies is exposed to maternal immune cells in the placental intervillous space. Extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) invade the decidua and spiral arteries, where they act in conjunction with natural killer (NK) cells to convert the spiral arteries into flaccid conduits for maternal blood that support a 3–4 fold increase in the rate of maternal blood flow into the placental intervillous space. The functional roles of these distinct trophoblast subtypes during pregnancy suggested that they could be differentially glycosylated. Glycomic analysis of these trophoblasts has revealed the expression of elevated levels of biantennary N-glycans in STB and CTB, with the majority of them bearing a bisecting GlcNAc. N-glycans terminated with polylactosamine extensions were also detected at low levels. A subset of the N-glycans linked to these trophoblasts were sialylated, primarily with terminal NeuAcα2–3Gal sequences. EVT were decorated with the same N-glycans as STB and CTB, except in different proportions. The level of bisecting type N-glycans was reduced, but the level of N-glycans decorated with polylactosamine sequences were substantially elevated compared with the other types of trophoblasts. The level of triantennary and tetraantennary N-glycans was also elevated in EVT. The sialylated N-glycans derived from EVT were completely susceptible to an α2–3 specific neuraminidase (sialidase S). The possibility exists that the N-glycans associated with these different trophoblast subpopulations could act as functional groups. These potential relationships will be considered. PMID:26929217

  15. Evidence for Differential Glycosylation of Trophoblast Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Pang, Poh-Choo; Cohen, Marie E; Longtine, Mark S; Schust, Danny J; Haslam, Stuart M; Blois, Sandra M; Dell, Anne; Clark, Gary F

    2016-06-01

    Human placental villi are surfaced by the syncytiotrophoblast (STB), with a layer of cytotrophoblasts (CTB) positioned just beneath the STB. STB in normal term pregnancies is exposed to maternal immune cells in the placental intervillous space. Extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) invade the decidua and spiral arteries, where they act in conjunction with natural killer (NK) cells to convert the spiral arteries into flaccid conduits for maternal blood that support a 3-4 fold increase in the rate of maternal blood flow into the placental intervillous space. The functional roles of these distinct trophoblast subtypes during pregnancy suggested that they could be differentially glycosylated. Glycomic analysis of these trophoblasts has revealed the expression of elevated levels of biantennary N-glycans in STB and CTB, with the majority of them bearing a bisecting GlcNAc. N-glycans terminated with polylactosamine extensions were also detected at low levels. A subset of the N-glycans linked to these trophoblasts were sialylated, primarily with terminal NeuAcα2-3Gal sequences. EVT were decorated with the same N-glycans as STB and CTB, except in different proportions. The level of bisecting type N-glycans was reduced, but the level of N-glycans decorated with polylactosamine sequences were substantially elevated compared with the other types of trophoblasts. The level of triantennary and tetraantennary N-glycans was also elevated in EVT. The sialylated N-glycans derived from EVT were completely susceptible to an α2-3 specific neuraminidase (sialidase S). The possibility exists that the N-glycans associated with these different trophoblast subpopulations could act as functional groups. These potential relationships will be considered. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Comparison between AOT40 and ozone uptake in forest trees of different species, age and site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Nunn, A. J.; Kozovits, A. R.; Reiter, I. M.; Heerdt, C.; Winkler, J. B.; Baumgarten, M.; Häberle, K.-H.; Grams, T. E. E.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Havranek, W. M.

    The current AOT40 concept for inferring risks in forest trees by ozone (O 3) injury is based on an accumulated external O 3 exposure rather than an internal O 3 dose or uptake rate. AOT40 assumes O 3 concentrations below 40 nl l -1 and night-time exposure to be negligible. Hence, this concept is rather inconsistent with observed forest conditions. In contrast, the flux concept of cumulative O 3 uptake (CU) into the leaves has the potential of reflecting a physiologically meaningful internal O 3 dose experienced by trees. In this paper, we relate AOT40 to cumulative O 3 uptake into European beech ( Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce ( Picea abies), European larch ( Larix decidua) and cembran pine ( Pinus cembra) trees differing in size, age and site conditions. We demonstrate that the flux concept can be extended to the tree and the stand level, making use of sap flow measurements through tree trunks. Although in both seedlings and adult trees AOT40 may show some linearity in correlations with average CU, the latter varies, at given AOT40, by 25±11% within and between species. This is because O 3 flux is primarily influenced by stomatal aperture, the latter being affected by climate, canopy position, leaf and tree age while varying between species. In particular, if weighed by detoxification capacity, we suggest, therefore, O 3 uptake related air quality indices to be promoted towards ecologically meaningful standards in forest protection, overcoming the shortcomings of exposure concepts. As O 3 injury results from the balance between O 3 uptake and detoxification in the leaf mesophyll, we conclude the flux concept in combination with measures of biochemical defence to have the capacity for predicting tree response to O 3 stress.

  17. Increase of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chun-fang; YU Xue-wen; JIN Hui; LI Xu

    2004-01-01

    To investigate membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 protein expression level in decidua andconcentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in serum in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion,threatened abortion, and compare the levels with healthy pregnant women. Methods: Thirty-seven women with unexplainedearly spontaneous abortion, 27 women with threatened abortion, and 34 healthy pregnant women undergoing artificial abortionof pregnancy at 6 - 10 weeks of gestation were selected. Decidual samples were collected when women were undergoing arti-ficial abortion, and blood samples were collected at the same time. The level of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 indecidua was detected by flow cytometer, and the concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in sera was mea-sured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The ercentages of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1positive decidual cells were 16.42 ± 7.10 Mean ± SD for women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion and 13.14 ±6.30 for healthy pregnant women ( P < 0.05). Serum oncentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was signifi-cantly higher in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion than in healthy pregnant women and in women withthreatened abortion, and no difference was found between healthy pregnant women and women with threatened abortion.Conclusion: Women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion present significantly higher expression of tumor necrosisfactor receptor 1 than healthy pregnant women, suggesting that over-expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 may cont-ribute to the development of early spontaneous abortion.

  18. Tree-ring growth patterns and climatic signals along a vertical transect of larch sites in the Simplon and Rhône Valleys (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Esper, Jan

    2017-04-01

    State-of-the-art millennial long temperature reconstructions from the European Alps integrate wood samples of Larix decidua Mill. from the Lötschental and Simplon regions in Switzerland (Büntgen et al., 2005; 2006). Some of the oldest samples that enable the extension of the time-series back into the first millennium AD are obtained from old buildings in Simplon Village, through the precise location of these samples and the elevation of sampling sites remain unknown. We here evaluate the growth characteristics of larch tree-ring width data along a vertical transect in the Simplon and Rhône valleys. 330 trees from nine sites in 985, 1100, 1400, 1575, 1710, 1712, 1900, 2020, and 2150 m asl have been sampled and analysed for their climate signals. The results indicate a stronger temperature signal in the tree-ring width with increasing elevation. The lower the sites the more a drought signal is imprinted in the ring width data. The intermediate site at 1400 m asl does not show any pronounced climate signal. A comparison of growth patterns of living-tree sites with samples from the historical buildings in Simplon Village (Riechelmann et al., 2013) indicates the construction timber to origin from intermediate to higher elevations. We therefore do not expect strong temperature signal from these timbers. References: Büntgen, U., Esper, J., Frank, D.C., Nicolussi, K., Schmidhalter, M., 2005. A 1052-year tree-ring proxy for Alpine summer temperatures. Climate Dynamics 25: 141-153. Büntgen, U., Frank, D.C., Nievergelt, D., Esper J., 2006. Summer temperature variations in the European Alps, A.D. 755-2004. Journal of Climate 19: 5606-5623. Riechelmann, D.F.C., Schmidhalter, M., Büntgen, U., Esper, J., 2013. Extending a high-elevation larch ring width chronology from the Simplon region in the Swiss Alps over the past millenium. TRACE 11:103-108.

  19. Soil warming and CO2 enrichment induce biomass shifts in alpine tree line vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Melissa A; Philipson, Christopher D; Fonti, Patrick; Bebi, Peter; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank; Rixen, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Responses of alpine tree line ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming are poorly understood. We used an experiment at the Swiss tree line to investigate changes in vegetation biomass after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm; 2001-2009) and 6 years of soil warming (+4 °C; 2007-2012). The study contained two key tree line species, Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, both approximately 40 years old, growing in heath vegetation dominated by dwarf shrubs. In 2012, we harvested and measured biomass of all trees (including root systems), above-ground understorey vegetation and fine roots. Overall, soil warming had clearer effects on plant biomass than CO2 enrichment, and there were no interactive effects between treatments. Total plant biomass increased in warmed plots containing Pinus but not in those with Larix. This response was driven by changes in tree mass (+50%), which contributed an average of 84% (5.7 kg m(-2) ) of total plant mass. Pinus coarse root mass was especially enhanced by warming (+100%), yielding an increased root mass fraction. Elevated CO2 led to an increased relative growth rate of Larix stem basal area but no change in the final biomass of either tree species. Total understorey above-ground mass was not altered by soil warming or elevated CO2 . However, Vaccinium myrtillus mass increased with both treatments, graminoid mass declined with warming, and forb and nonvascular plant (moss and lichen) mass decreased with both treatments. Fine roots showed a substantial reduction under soil warming (-40% for all roots soil depth) but no change with CO2 enrichment. Our findings suggest that enhanced overall productivity and shifts in biomass allocation will occur at the tree line, particularly with global warming. However, individual species and functional groups will respond differently to these environmental changes, with consequences for ecosystem structure and functioning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cesarean scar pregnancy and early placenta accreta share common histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timor-Tritsch, I E; Monteagudo, A; Cali, G; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J M; Maymon, R; Arslan, A A; Patil, N; Popiolek, D; Mittal, K R

    2014-04-01

    To determine, by evaluation of histological slides, images and descriptions of early (second-trimester) placenta accreta (EPA) and placental implantation in cases of Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), whether these are pathologically indistinguishable and whether they both represent different stages in the disease continuum leading to morbidly adherent placenta in the third trimester. The database of a previously published review of CSP and EPA was used to identify articles with histopathological descriptions and electronic images for pathological review. When possible, microscopic slides and/or paraffin blocks were obtained from the original researchers. We also included from our own institutions cases of CSP and EPA for which pathology specimens were available. Two pathologists examined all the material independently and, blinded to each other's findings, provided a pathological diagnosis based on microscopic appearance. Interobserver agreement in diagnosis was determined. Forty articles were identified, which included 31 cases of CSP and 13 cases of EPA containing histopathological descriptions and/or images of the pathology. We additionally included six cases of CSP and eight cases of EPA from our own institutions, giving a total of 58 cases available for histological evaluation (37 CSP and 21 EPA) containing clear definitions of morbidly adherent placenta. In the 29 cases for which images/slides were available for histopathological evaluation, both pathologists attested to the various degrees of myometrial and/or scar tissue invasion by placental villi with scant or no intervening decidua, consistent with the classic definition of morbidly adherent placenta. Based on the reviewed material, cases with a diagnosis of EPA and those with a diagnosis of CSP showed identical histopathological features. Interobserver correlation was high (kappa = 0.93). EPA and placental implantation in CSP are histopathologically indistinguishable and may represent different stages in

  1. The sonographic appearance and obstetric management of placenta accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung CS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Charleen Sze-yan Cheung, Ben Chong-pun ChanDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong KongAbstract: Placenta accreta is a condition of abnormal placental implantation in which the placental tissue invades beyond the decidua basalis. It may invade into or even through the myometrium and adjacent organs, such as the urinary bladder. The incidence has been rising in recent years. It is one of the important obstetric complications nowadays, leading to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. In the past, this condition was often diagnosed at the time of delivery when massive and unexpected hemorrhage occurred. Hysterectomy, associated with significant physical and psychological consequences, was usually the only management option. As more obstetricians have become aware of this condition, early identification with antenatal imaging diagnostic technology has become possible. Ultrasound scan plays an important role in the antenatal diagnosis. Various sonographic features with different specificity and sensitivity have been described in the literature. In equivocal cases, magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful. With such information, more accurate counseling can be offered to the mothers and their families before delivery. The delivery can also be arranged at a favorable time and in an institution where multidisciplinary support is available. Input from a hematologist, interventional radiologist, intensive care physician, urology surgeon, and/or other specialist are desirable. Apart from hysterectomy, various forms of conservative management can also be considered when the diagnosis is made prior to delivery. Fertility can therefore be preserved. After delivery, with or without hysterectomy performed, psychological support to the mothers and their families is essential.Keywords: ultrasonography, hemorrhage, hysterectomy

  2. Debris flows on forested cones – reconstruction and comparison of frequencies in two catchments in Val Ferret, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bollschweiler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows represent a major threat to infrastructure in many regions of the Alps. Since systematic acquisition of data on debris-flow events in Switzerland only started after the events of 1987, there is a lack of historical knowledge on earlier debris-flow events for most torrents. It is therefore the aim of this study to reconstruct the debris-flow activity for the Reuse de Saleinaz and the La Fouly torrents in Val Ferret (Valais, Switzerland. In total, 556 increment cores from 278 heavily affected Larix decidua Mill., Picea abies (L. Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. trees were sampled. Trees on the cone of Reuse de Saleinaz show an average age of 123 years at sampling height, with the oldest tree aged 325 years. Two periods of intense colonization (the 1850s–1880s and the 1930s–1950s are observed, probably following high-magnitude events that would have eliminated the former forest stand. Trees on the cone of Torrent de la Fouly indicate an average age of 119 years. As a whole, tree-ring analyses allowed assessment of 333 growth disturbances belonging to 69 debris-flow events. While the frequency for the Reuse de Saleinaz study site comprises 39 events between AD 1743 and 2003, 30 events could be reconstructed at the Torrent de la Fouly for the period 1862–2003. Even though the two study sites evince considerably different characteristics in geology, debris-flow material and catchment morphology, they apparently produce debris flows at similar recurrence intervals. We suppose that, in the study region, the triggering and occurrence of events is transport-limited rather than weathering-limited.

  3. Ground biomass assessment of shrub species in tehsil takht-e-nasrati, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Hussain, F.; Musharaf, S.; Musharaf, S.

    2014-01-01

    The shrub biomass of different species of Tehsil Takht-e-Nasrati was different at different altitude. In the present study it was found that the average shrub biomass was decreasing with increasing altitude. Result confirms that the biomass of Saccharum bengalense was high 5020.38 Kg.hec/sup -1/ in phase 1 and phase 2 (4331.58 Kg.hec/sup -1/). The highest ground biomass 1125.1 Kg.hec/sup -1/ of Zizyphus nummularia was found in Phase 3. Furthermore in Phase 4 the biomass of Capparis deciduas was high 437.79 Kg.hec/sup -1/. Along with shrubs average biomass of Saccharum bengalense was high 2665.12 Kg.hec/sup -1/ and low 13.47 Kg.hec/sup -1/ of Cassia angustifolia. With seasons the biomass of Saccharum bengalense (13800 Kg.hec/sup -1/) was greater during winter at Phase 1 and Periploc aaphylla (12.35 Kg.hec-1) biomass was lowers during spring at Phase 4. In comparison in season the biomass was high in winter due to the dormant stage of shrubs in phase 1 while it was low in summer in phase 4. In winter the grazing process was stop due to agriculture point of view while in hilly area the grazing was high and the low percentage of rain fall consequently the biomass was high in plain area as contrast to hilly area. The biomass of shrubs is high in winter while it was low in summer as the grazing and palatability rate was high in summer as well as low in winter. The assessment of shrub biomass in research area is a requirement for successful management at the same time as it gives a complete documentation for the area in complexity and work out unpredictable resources to help imagine shrubs potency and behavior. (author)

  4. Insights into the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in preeclampsia: from the bench to the bedside.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eTersigni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is defined as a hypertensive and coagulative disorder affecting about 2–8% of all pregnancies and it is one of the main causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite the great amount of studies run in this field, little is known about the precise pathogenic mechanisms behind PE. While endothelial and trophoblast dysfunctions, exaggerated inflammatory response and hypercoagulative state have been shown to play a key role in the occurrence of PE, the primary trigger is still unknown. One of the hypotheses is that some infectious agents may represent a trigger for PE onset. Consistently, higher seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP infection, a Gram-negative bacterium with a specific tropism for human gastric mucosa, has been shown in women with PE. Even tighter association has been found between PE and infection with CagA (Cytotoxin-associated gene-A -positive strains of HP. Recent in vitro studies have shown that anti-CagA antibodies cross-react with human trophoblast cells and determine a functional impairment in terms of cell invasiveness, thus, providing the first pathogenic model of HP infection-mediated placental damage. Since in the early process of implantation and placental development, trophoblast invasion of maternal decidua is a crucial step, the proposed autoimmune mechanism induced by HP infection, negatively interfering with the fetal side of the early developing placenta, may represent a mechanism explaining the higher seropositivity for HP infection among PE women. However, the contribution of HP infection to the pathogenesis of PE or to the worsening of its clinical presentation needs to be further investigated as well as the possible impact of pre-pregnacy screening and eradication of HP infection on the incidence of the syndrome.

  5. Intraspecific variability of European larch for wood properties: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paques, L E; Rozenberg, P [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 45 - Olivet (France). Station d` Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers

    1996-12-31

    Wood properties of several natural populations of European larch (Larix decidua Mill) were determined from samples collected in one replicate of the II. International IUFRO provenance experiment, planted in Brittany in 1959. According to provenances, proportion of heartwood ranges from 35 to 58% of basal area, basic density from 442 to 505 g/dm{sup 3} and Young modulus of elasticity from 8474 to 14522 MPa. Positive correlations between girth and heartwood proportion and between wood density and modulus of elasticity but negative correlations between ring width and both density and MOE have been found both at the individual and at the population levels. Variability between and within provenances is high for two major traits (proportion of heartwood and Young modulus of elasticity) for which a SW - NE gradient is shown. For wood density parameters including pilodyn, a greater homogeneity is observed. Besides a now largely recognized superiority for growth traits, Central European populations from the Sudetan Mountains and Central Poland would also produce wood with better properties. On the reverse, Alpine populations from the French Alps growing at low elevations have a slower growth, a denser wood with less heartwood and less strength. Used as a control, the hybrid larch origin (Larix x eurolepis) represents the best compromise for wood properties with the highest strength but an average wood density and one of the highest proportion of heartwood. These preliminary results must be confirmed from a larger set of provenances and completed with other major wood properties such as durability and shrinkage. 17 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  6. Role of EG-VEGF in human placentation: Physiological and pathological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Pascale; Saoudi, Yasmina; Benharouga, Mohamed; Graham, Charles H; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Mazouni, Chafika; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2009-08-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE), the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, is thought to be caused by shallow invasion of the maternal decidua by extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). Data suggest that a fine balance between the expressions of pro- and anti-invasive factors might regulate EVT invasiveness. Recently, we showed that the expression of the new growth factor endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is high in early pregnancy but falls after 11 weeks, suggesting an essential role for this factor in early pregnancy. Using human villous explants and HTR-8/SVneo, a first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line, we showed differential expression of EG-VEGF receptors, PKR1 and PKR2, in the placenta and demonstrated that EG-VEGF inhibits EVT migration, invasion and tube-like organisation. EG-VEGF inhibitory effect on invasion was supported by a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 production. Interference with PKR2 expression, using specific siRNAs, reversed the EG-VEGF-induced inhibitory effects. Furthermore, we determined EG-VEGF circulating levels in normal and PE patients. Our results showed that EG-VEGF levels were highest during the first trimester of pregnancy and decreased thereafter to non-pregnant levels. More important, EG-VEGF levels were significantly elevated in PE patients compared with age-matched controls. These findings identify EG-VEGF as a novel paracrine regulator of trophoblast invasion. We speculate that a failure to correctly down-regulate placental expression of EG-VEGF at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy might lead to PE.

  7. Distinct Transcriptional and Alternative Splicing Signatures of Decidual CD4+ T Cells in Early Human Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Zeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decidual CD4+ T (dCD4 T cells are crucial for the maternal-fetal immune tolerance required for a healthy pregnancy outcome. However, their molecular and functional characteristics are not well elucidated. In this study, we performed the first analysis of transcriptional and alternative splicing (AS landscapes for paired decidual and peripheral blood CD4+ T (pCD4 T cells in human early pregnancy using high throughput mRNA sequencing. Our data showed that dCD4 T cells are endowed with a unique transcriptional signature when compared to pCD4 T cells: dCD4 T cells upregulate 1,695 genes enriched in immune system process whereas downregulate 1,011 genes mainly related to mRNA catabolic process and the ribosome. Moreover, dCD4 T cells were observed to be at M phase, and show increased activation, proliferation, and cytokine production, as well as display an effector-memory phenotype and a heterogenous nature containing Th1, Th17, and Treg cell subsets. However, dCD4 T cells undergo a comparable number of upregulated and downregulated AS events, both of which are enriched in the genes related to cellular metabolic process. And the changes at the AS event level do not reflect measurable differences at the gene expression level in dCD4 T cells. Collectively, our findings provide a comprehensive portrait of the unique transcriptional signature and AS profile of CD4+ T cells in human decidua and help us gain more understanding of the functional characteristic of these cells during early pregnancy.

  8. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Farooqi, M.Z.; Shafiq, M.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  9. Structure, composition and diversity of the vegetation of hub dam catchment area, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    A study of vegetation structure, composition and diversity of Hub-dam catchment area was conducted. A total of 106 species were recorded of which 57 were annuals while 49 were perennials. The vegetation was dominated by small trees and shrubs. Spatial patterns within-community of plant populations using variance/mean ratio and Morisita's index was also investigated. Of the 14 perennial species investigated seven (Barleria acanthoides, Grewia tenax, Indigofera oblongifolia, Aerva persica, Rhazya stricta, Iphiona grantioides and Cymbopogon jwarancusa) predominately exhibited aggregated pattern. Four species (Acacia senegal, Prosopis juliflora, Salvadora oleoides and Calotropis procera) usually exhibited random distribution but infrequently aggregated pattern. Three species (Senna holosericea, Zizyphus nummularia and Vernonia cinerescens) showed aggregated pattern or random distribution more or less equally often. The distribution pattern of vegetation composition and the underlying environmental gradients, correspondence analysis (CA) ordination and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were employed. Group structure inherent in the vegetation was disclosed using Ward's agglomerative cluster analysis. Species diversity was measured and diversity was averaged for each group. Diversity of group I (Acacia senegal and Prosopis juliflora community type) was highest because this community included a number of mid-succession species, while diversity was lowest for group 4 (Prosopis juliflora and Capparis decidua community type) as this community was highly disturbed. In the climax community (group 3), the diversity level slightly decreased, suggesting the monopolization of resources by this community. Four major community types were recognized by Ward's cluster analysis, each of which was associated with particular topographic-edaphic factors, while one was mainly governed by anthropogenic disturbance. Biological spectrum constructed for the flora showed dominance of

  10. Tratamiento Temprano de la Maloclusión Clase III con aparatología Ortopédica: Reporte de caso con 7 años de control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzate-J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las maloclusiones más complejas de diagnosticar y de tratar es la maloclusión clase III.\tSe caracteriza por una alteración en la relación sagital de los maxilares, ya sea por una deficiencia o retrusión maxilar o por un prognatismo o macrognatismo mandibular, o bien sea una combinación de las anteriores. La etiología es multifactorial y es debida a una interacción de factores hereditarios y ambientales. Se presenta una paciente de 4 años de edad, sexo femenino, con patrón hereditario de clase III en su familia materna. Relación esquelética clase III con mandíbula aumentada en longitud, protruida, rotando posterior y maxilar superior retruído. Tipo de crecimiento vertical, con un perfil recto y mordida cruzada anterior y posterior unilateral izquierda. Se instauró tratamiento con aparatología ortopédica durante el periodo de dentición decidua hasta la dentición permanente, para lograr así, equilibrar el crecimiento maxilomandibular. Uno de los aspectos clínicos más complicados del manejo ortopédico de la maloclusión clase III es la recidiva después del período de tratamiento activo; sin embargo en nuestra paciente se consiguen cambios a nivel esquelético, dental y estéticos que se mantuvieron durante el tratamiento

  11. Expression of two isoforms of CD44 in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, F; Seif, M W; Campbell, S; Aplin, J D

    1994-10-01

    The distribution of the cell-surface adhesion glycoprotein CD44 in human endometrium was examined by immunofluorescence using six monoclonal antibodies to epitopes common to all forms of the molecule, and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunoreactivity was observed throughout the menstrual cycle in stroma, vessels, glandular, and luminal epithelium. Variations in staining intensity were observed, especially in the epithelial compartment. CD44 was also expressed strongly by decidualized stromal cells of first-trimester pregnancy. No systematic variation of immunoreactivity was observed with stages of the normal cycle, but a fraction (25%) of the specimens lacked reactivity in the epithelium. To determine the molecular size of the epithelial isoform, an immunoprecipitation technique was developed using surface-radioiodinated, detergent-extracted glands. This indicated the presence at the cell surface of a single dominant CD44E species with an approximate molecular mass of 130 kDa. RT-PCR was used to investigate the isoforms present in whole endometrial tissue, isolated gland fragments, and Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cells. Complementary DNA produced from total endometrial mRNA was PCR-amplified across the splice junction between exons 5 and 15. Transcripts corresponding to the hyaluronate receptor CD44H as well as a larger isoform were identified. CD44H was absent, or very scarce, in cDNA from purified gland epithelium. In contrast, Ishikawa cells expressed this form abundantly. The glands and Ishikawa cells also expressed CD44E containing sequences encoded by exons 12, 13, and 14. These data demonstrate the presence of CD44 in human endometrium and decidua, and show that different isoforms of CD44 are associated with tissue compartments in which different functional roles can be anticipated.

  12. Preserved ex vivo inflammatory status in decidual cells from women with preterm labor and subclinical intrauterine infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Castro-Leyva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the inflammatory response preserved ex vivo by decidual cells isolated from women who experienced preterm labor with and without subclinical intrauterine infection. METHODS: Fetal membranes were obtained after cesarean section from 35 women who delivered before 37 weeks of gestation following spontaneous preterm labor, with no clinical evidence of intrauterine infection. Decidua was microbiologically tested and cultured. Concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9 were measured in the supernatants using Bio-Plex, and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 was measured by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Subclinical infection was confirmed in 10 women (28.5%. Microorganisms isolated were Ureaplasma urealyticum (4, group B streptococci (3, Gardnerella vaginalis (1, and Escherichia coli (2. We found a significant increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a significant decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokines in supernatants from decidual cells obtained from women with preterm labor and subclinical intrauterine infection compared to women without infection. Secretion of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9 and PGE(2 was significantly higher in infected women. Secretion of IL-8 by decidual cells from infected women persisted upon repeated in vitro culture passages. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 30% of idiopathic preterm labor cases were associated with subclinical intrauterine infection, and decidual cells isolated from these cases preserved an ex vivo inflammatory status after in vivo bacterial exposure.

  13. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

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    Rajnish Prakash Singh

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM. It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85% caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75% of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to

  14. Root reinforcement and its implications in shallow landsliding susceptibility on a small alpine catchment

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    Morandi, M. C.; Farabegoli, E.; Onorevoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Roots shear resistance offers a considerable contribution to hill-slope stability on vegetated terrains. Through the pseudo-cohesion of shrubs, trees and turf's roots, the geomechanical properties of soils can be drastically increased, exerting a positive influence on the hillslope stability. We analysed the shallow landsliding susceptibility of a small alpine catchment (Duron valley, Central Dolomites, Italy) that we consider representative of a wide altitude belt of the Dolomites (1800 - 2400 m a.s.l). The catchment is mostly mantled by grass (Nardetum strictae s.l.), with clustered shrubs (Rhododendron hirsutum and Juniperus nana), and trees (Pinus cembra, Larix decidua and Picea abies). The soil depth, investigated with direct and indirect methods, ranges from 0 to 180 cm, with its peak at the hollow axes. Locally, the bedrock, made of Triassic volcanic rocks, is deeply incised by the Holocene drainage network. Intensive grazing of cows and horses pervades the catchment area and cattle-trails occupy ca 20% of the grass cover. We used laboratory and field tests to characterize the geotechnical properties of these alpine soils; moreover we designed and tested an experimental device that measures, in situ, the shear strengths of the grass mantle. In the study area we mapped 18 shallow landslides, mostly related to road cuts and periodically reactivated as retrogressive landslides. The triggering mechanisms of these shallow landslides were qualitatively analysed at large scale and modelled at smaller scale. We used SHALSTAB to model the shallow landsliding susceptibility of the catchment at the basin scale and SLIDE (RocScience) to compute the Safety Factor at the versant scale. Qualitative management solutions are provided, in order to reduce the shallow landsliding susceptibility risk in this alpine context.

  15. Decidual-secreted factors alter invasive trophoblast membrane and secreted proteins implying a role for decidual cell regulation of placentation.

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    Ellen Melaleuca Menkhorst

    Full Text Available Inadequate or inappropriate implantation and placentation during the establishment of human pregnancy is thought to lead to first trimester miscarriage, placental insufficiency and other obstetric complications. To create the placental blood supply, specialized cells, the 'extravillous trophoblast' (EVT invade through the differentiated uterine endometrium (the decidua to engraft and remodel uterine spiral arteries. We hypothesized that decidual factors would regulate EVT function by altering the production of EVT membrane and secreted factors. We used a proteomics approach to identify EVT membrane and secreted proteins regulated by decidual cell factors. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized in vitro by treatment with estradiol (10(-8 M, medroxyprogesterone acetate (10(-7 M and cAMP (0.5 mM for 14 days. Conditioned media (CM was collected on day 2 (non-decidualized CM and 14 (decidualized CM of treatment. Isolated primary EVT cultured on Matrigel™ were treated with media control, non-decidualized or decidualized CM for 16 h. EVT CM was fractionated for proteins <30 kDa using size-exclusion affinity nanoparticles (SEAN before trypsin digestion and HPLC-MS/MS. 43 proteins produced by EVT were identified; 14 not previously known to be expressed in the placenta and 12 which had previously been associated with diseases of pregnancy including preeclampsia. Profilin 1, lysosome associated membrane glycoprotein 1 (LAMP1, dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1/cathepsin C and annexin A2 expression by interstitial EVT in vivo was validated by immunhistochemistry. Decidual CM regulation in vitro was validated by western blotting: decidualized CM upregulated profilin 1 in EVT CM and non-decidualized CM upregulated annexin A2 in EVT CM and pro-DPP1 in EVT cell lysate. Here, non-decidualized factors induced protease expression by EVT suggesting that non-decidualized factors may induce a pro-inflammatory cascade. Preeclampsia is a pro

  16. Plasma Cell Alloantigen 1 and IL-10 Secretion Define Two Distinct Peritoneal B1a B Cell Subsets With Opposite Functions, PC1high Cells Being Protective and PC1low Cells Harmful for the Growing Fetus

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    Anne Schumacher

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available B cells possess various immuno regulatory functions. However, research about their participation in tolerance induction toward the fetus is just emerging. Accumulating evidence supports the idea that B cells can play seemingly conflicting roles during pregnancy, either protecting or harming the fetus. Previous findings indicated the presence of two different peritoneal B cell subsets, defined by the expression of the plasma cell alloantigen 1 (PC1 and with distinct immune modulatory functions. Here, we aimed to study the participation of these two B cell subsets, on pregnancy outcome in a murine model of disturbed fetal tolerance. The frequencies and cell numbers of peritoneal and splenic CD19+IL-10+ and CD19+CD5+IL-10+PC1+ cells were assessed in virgin as well as normal pregnant (NP and abortion-prone (AP females during the course of gestation. Peritoneal PC1low or PC1high B1a B cells were sorted, analyzed for their ability to secrete IL-10 and adoptively transferred into NP or AP females. On gestation day (gd 12, the abortion rate as well as the frequencies and cell numbers of regulatory T cells, TH1 and TH17 cells were determined in spleens and decidua. In addition, mRNA expression of IL-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α was analyzed in decidual tissue. Peritoneal CD19+IL-10+ and CD19+CD5+IL-10+PC1+ frequencies fluctuated during the progression of normal pregnancies while no significant changes were observed in spleen. AP females showed significantly reduced frequencies of both B cell populations and exhibited an altered peritoneal PC1high/PC1low ratio at gd10. Adoptive transfers of PC1low B1a B cells into NP females increased the abortion rate in association with a reduced splenic regulatory T/TH17 ratio. By contrast, the transfer of PC1high B1a B cells into AP females significantly diminished the fetal rejection rate and significantly reduced the numbers of splenic TH17 cells. Our results suggest that the peritoneum harbors two distinct B1a B

  17. Factors driving mortality and growth at treeline: a 30-year experiment of 92 000 conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito, Ignacio; Dawes, Melissa A; Rixen, Christian; Senn, Josef; Bebi, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interplay between environmental factors contributing to treeline formation and how these factors influence different life stages remains a major research challenge. We used an afforestation experiment including 92 000 trees to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of tree mortality and growth at treeline in the Swiss Alps. Seedlings of three high-elevation conifer species (Larix decidua, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, and Pinus cembra) were systematically planted along an altitudinal gradient at and above the current treeline (2075 to 2230 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) in 1975 and closely monitored during the following 30 years. We used decision-tree models and generalized additive models to identify patterns in mortality and growth along gradients in elevation, snow duration, wind speed, and solar radiation, and to quantify interactions between the different variables. For all three species, snowmelt date was always the most important environmental factor influencing mortality, and elevation was always the most important factor for growth over the entire period studied. Individuals of all species survived at the highest point of the afforestation for more than 30 years, although mortality was greater above 2160 m a.s.l., 50-100 m above the current treeline. Optimal conditions for height growth differed from those for survival in all three species: early snowmelt (ca. day of year 125-140 [where day 1 is 1 January]) yielded lowest mortality rates, but relatively later snowmelt (ca. day 145-150) yielded highest growth rates. Although snowmelt and elevation were important throughout all life stages of the trees, the importance of radiation decreased over time and that of wind speed increased. Our findings provide experimental evidence that tree survival and height growth require different environmental conditions and that even small changes in the duration of snow cover, in addition to changes in temperature, can strongly impact tree survival and

  18. Syndecan-1 knock-down in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells leads to significant changes in cytokine and angiogenic factor expression patterns

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    Krüssel Jan-Steffen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful embryonic implantation depends on a synchronized embryo-maternal dialogue. Chemokines, such as chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1, play essential roles in the maternal reproductive tract leading to morphological changes during decidualization, mediating maternal acceptance towards the semi-allograft embryo and induction of angiogenesis. Chemokine binding to their classical G-protein coupled receptors is essentially supported by the syndecan (Sdc family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The aim of this study was to identify the involvement of Sdc-1 at the embryo-maternal interface regarding changes of the chemokine and angiogenic profile of the decidua during the process of decidualization and implantation in human endometrium. Methods A stable Sdc-1 knock-down was generated in the immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line St-T1 and was named KdS1. The ability of KdS1 to decidualize was proven by Insulin-like growth factor binding 1 (IGFBP1 and prolactin (PRL confirmation on mRNA level before further experiments were carried out. Dot blot protein analyses of decidualized knock-down cells vs non-transfected controls were performed. In order to imitate embryonic implantation, decidualized KdS1 were then incubated with IL-1beta, an embryo secretion product, vs controls. Statistical analyses were performed applying the Student's t-test with p Results The induction of the Sdc-1 knock-down revealed significant changes in cytokine and angiogenic factor expression profiles of dKdS1 vs decidualized controls. Incubation with embryonic IL-1beta altered the expression patterns of KdS1 chemokines and angiogenic factors towards inflammatory-associated molecules and factors involved in matrix regulation. Conclusions Sdc-1 knock-down in human endometrial stroma cells led to fulminant changes regarding cytokine and angiogenic factor expression profiles upon decidualization and imitation of embryonic contact. Sdc-1 appears to play an

  19. Climate signal in d13C of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high-elevation alpine larch trees

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    Reichelmann, Dana; Greule, Markus; Treydte, Kerstin; Keppler, Frank; Esper, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Tree-rings of high alpine larch trees (Larix decidua) were investigated by a recently established method that measures d13C values of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (Greule et al. 2009). The resulting d13C time series were tested for their potential as a climate proxy. For this 37 larch trees were sampled at the tree line near Simplon Village (Southern Switzerland). They were analysed for their tree-ring width (TRW) and from five individuals d13C of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (d13Cmethoxyl) were measured at annual resolution from 1971-2009 and at pentadal resolution from 1747-2009. The d13Cmethoxyl chronologies were corrected for the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 concentration and its decreasing d13C value. Further, the physiological response of the trees to these atmospheric changes was corrected using the flexible correction factor approach of Treydte et al. (2009), which minimise the residuals with the target climate data. This approach results in the highest so far reported correction factors of 0.032 - 0.036‰/ppmv CO2, which are explained by a low water-use efficiency of deciduous larch. The climate response of the new d13Cmethoxyl proxy shows a significant correlation of 0.75 for the annually and 0.87 for the pentadally resolved data with June to August temperatures. TRW shows also significant correlations with June to August temperatures, but they are lower than the correlations observed for the d13Cmethoxyl chronologies. These results indicate the potential of d13Cmethoxyl chronologies as a summer temperature proxy from high-elevation alpine trees with an even stronger signal than reported from earlier published tree-ring width and maximum latewood density temperature reconstructions. References: Greule, M., Mosandl, A., Hamilton, J.T.G., Keppler, F., 2009. A simple rapid method to precisely determine 13C/12C ratios of plant methoxyl groups. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 23(11): 1710-1714. Treydte, K.S., Frank, D.C., Saurer, M

  20. Placenta accreta spectrum: pathophysiology and evidence-based anatomy for prenatal ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, Eric; Collins, Sally; Burton, Graham J

    2018-01-01

    Placenta accreta spectrum is a complex obstetric complication associated with high maternal morbidity. It is a relatively new disorder of placentation, and is the consequence of damage to the endometrium-myometrial interface of the uterine wall. When first described 80 years ago, it mainly occurred after manual removal of the placenta, uterine curettage, or endometritis. Superficial damage leads primarily to an abnormally adherent placenta, and is diagnosed as the complete or partial absence of the decidua on histology. Today, the main cause of placenta accreta spectrum is uterine surgery and, in particular, uterine scar secondary to cesarean delivery. In the absence of endometrial reepithelialization of the scar area the trophoblast and villous tissue can invade deeply within the myometrium, including its circulation, and reach the surrounding pelvic organs. The cellular changes in the trophoblast observed in placenta accreta spectrum are probably secondary to the unusual myometrial environment in which it develops, and not a primary defect of trophoblast biology leading to excessive invasion of the myometrium. Placenta accreta spectrum was separated by pathologists into 3 categories: placenta creta when the villi simply adhere to the myometrium, placenta increta when the villi invade the myometrium, and placenta percreta where the villi invade the full thickness of the myometrium. Several prenatal ultrasound signs of placenta accreta spectrum were reported over the last 35 years, principally the disappearance of the normal uteroplacental interface (clear zone), extreme thinning of the underlying myometrium, and vascular changes within the placenta (lacunae) and placental bed (hypervascularity). The pathophysiological basis of these signs is due to permanent damage of the uterine wall as far as the serosa, with placental tissue reaching the deep uterine circulation. Adherent and invasive placentation may coexist in the same placental bed and evolve with advancing

  1. Arabinogalactan proteins in plants

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    Ewa Szczuka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AGPs (arabinogalactan-proteins are the major constituent of arabic gum and have been used as emulsifiers and stabilizing agents. They are also one of the most abundant and heterogeneous class forming a large family of proteoglycans that sculpt the surface not only of plant but also of all eukaryotic cells. Undoubtedly, AGPs appear in numerous biological processes, playing diverse functions. Despite their abundance in nature and industrial utility, the in vivofunction(s of AGPs still remains unclear or even unknown. AGPs are commonly distributed in different plant organs and probably participate in all aspects of plant growth and development including reproduction (e.g. they are present in the stigma including stigma exudates, and in transmitting tissues in styles, pollen grains, and pollen tubes. The functions and evident involvement of AGPs in sexual plant reproduction in a few plant species as Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev. C.F.Liang & A.R.Ferguson, Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G.Don, Lolium perenneL. and Larix deciduaMill. are known from literature. The localization of two kinds of AGP epitopes, recognized by the JIM8 and JIM13 mAbs, in anatomically different ovules revealed some differences in spatial localization of these epitopes in ovules of monocots Galanthus nivalis L. and Galtonia candicans (Baker Decne. and dicots like Oenothera species and Sinapis albaL. A detailed study of the localization of AGPs in egg cells, zygotes, including the zygote division stage, and in two-celled proembryos in Nicotiana tabacumL. prompts consideration of the necessity of their presence in the very early steps of ontogenesis. The selective labeling obtained with AGP mAbs JIM8, JIM13, MAC207, and LM2 during Arabidopsis thaliana(L. Heynh. development suggests that some AGPs can be regarded as molecular markers for gametophytic cell differentiation. Moreover, the results show evident differences in the distribution of specific AGP

  2. Etiology of Cesarean Uterine Scar Defect (Niche): Detailed Critical Analysis of Hypotheses and Prevention Strategies and Peritoneal Closure Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing incidence of cesarean scar (CS) defect/niche and its sequelae, probably not entirely explained by better diagnosis or rising cesarean rate. Discussion of possible etiological factors has received scant attention but would be important to formulate preventive strategies. Meaningful informative studies on long-term sequelae of cesarean section are very difficult and none are available for causation of CS defect. Hence, it is crucial to identify key areas in etiology of CS defect for focused research. This practical review proposes an "ischemia and mal-apposition hypothesis for CS niche", stating that the surgical technique of uterine incision closure is the most important determinant of CS defect formation. Other factors such as cervical location incision, adhesion formation and patient specific factors seem far less important in etiology. Rather than the headline theme of "single versus double-layer closure of uterus", the finer details of surgical technique which achieve good apposition without inducing tissue ischemia seem more important. Different techniques are discussed and it is proposed that continuous, non-locking absorbable sutures in two layers, without including much of decidua and without undue tight (constricting/devasculaizing) pulling of sutures are likely to result in good healing of uterine scar. Single-layer technique may be best reserved for thin myometrial edges especially during repeat cesareans. Adhesions between uterine isthmus and bladder/abdominal wall seem common associations but not causative for CS niche. It would be desirable to prove these surgical principles by good quality prospective randomized "quantitative" studies but the wait may be very long and this should not hinder the adoption of good surgical principles. Science is much cognitive and not just empirical. To consider a related example, the current recommendation of non-suturing of peritoneal layers during cesarean is mistakenly based on short

  3. Uso dello spazio da parte dello scoiattolo comune (Sciurus vulgaris in bosco di conifere

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    M. Adamo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nell?ambito di un progetto di ricerca sull?ecologia dello scoiattolo comune in boschi di conifere delle Alpi, abbiamo avviato uno studio con la radiotelemetria per indagare i fattori che influiscono sull?uso dello spazio da parte degli animali. I risultati riportati nel presente lavoro si riferiscono a due anni successivi caratterizzati da una diversa disponibilità alimentare. L?area di studio si trovava nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso, in Val di Rhemes, all?interno di una pecceta subalpina (Picea abies 85%, Larix decidua 11%, alberi morti 4%. La produzione energetica del bosco (semi delle conifere è stata valutata moltiplicando il n. di piante per ettaro x il n. medio di coni prodotti (contati su 60 alberi campione x il n. medio di semi per cono x il peso medio dei semi, trasformando poi la biomassa in Mj. Le catture sono state effettuate tre volte l?anno nel 2001 e 2002 con 30 trappole incruente Tomahawk tipo 201. Diciotto scoiattoli nel 2001 e 13 nel 2002 sono stati dotati di radiocollare (PD-2C Holohil Systems Ltd. e seguiti in estate e autunno. Sono stati calcolati i seguenti parametri: home range MCP 100%, MCP 95% (animali con singole escursioni, 100% Cluster-based (animali che usavano differenti aree di attività; stime delle core-area mono e multinucleari effettuate con la tecnica della Cluster Analysis 85%; sovrapposizione delle core-area. Nel 2001, all?inizio dell?estate, 4 maschi su 8 e 7 femmine su 8 sono emigrati nella valle adiacente o a quote più basse. Nel 2002, tutti gli individui sono rimasti residenti. La dimensione media degli home range stagionali nel 2001 è stata di 83,30 ± 48,72 ha (n = 30 contro 31,04 ± 16,65 ha (n = 19 nel 2002, la media delle core-area è stata 18,18 ± 17,74 ha nel 2001 e 9,36 ± 5,40 ha in 2002 (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA: home range H = 22,6; g.l. = 1, P < 0,0001; core-area H = 4,55, g.l. = 1, P = 0,033. La sovrapposizione delle core-area maschio/femmina e femmina/maschio

  4. The enigma of effective pathlength for 18O enrichment in leaf water of conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, J. S.; Kahmen, A.; Buchmann, N. C.; Siegwolf, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    The stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) in tree ring cellulose provide valuable proxy information about past environments and climate. Mechanistic models have been used to clarify the important drivers of isotope fractionation and help interpret δ18O variation in tree rings. A critical component to these models is an estimate of leaf water enrichment. However, standard models seldom accurately predict 18O enrichment in conifer needles and Péclet corrections often require effective pathlengths (L) that seem unreasonable from the perspective of needle morphology (>0.5 m). To analyze the potential role of path length on the Péclet effect in conifers we carried out experiments in controlled environment chambers. We exposed seedlings of six species of conifer (Abies alba, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, P. sylvestris, Taxus bacata), that differ in needle morphology, to four different vapor pressure deficits (VPD), in order to modify transpiration rates (E) and leaf water 18O enrichment. Environmental and δ18O data (leaf, stem and chamber water vapor) were collected to parameterize leaf water models. Cross-sections of needles were sampled for an analysis of needle anatomy. Conifer needles have a single strand of vascular tissue making pathlength determinations through anatomical assessments possible. The six species differed in mesophyll distance (measured from endodermis to epidermis) and cell number, with Pinus and Picea species having the shortest distance and Abies and Taxus the longest (flat needle morphology). Other anatomical measures (transfusion distance, cell size etc.) did not differ significantly. A suberized strip was apparent in the endodermis of all species except Taxus and Abies. Conifer needles have a large proportion (from 0.2 to 0.4) of needle cross-sectional area in vascular tissues that may not be subject to evaporative enrichment. As expected, leaf water δ18O and E responded strongly to VPD and standard models (Craig

  5. HCMV gB genotypes in cervical secretion and placenta tissues in the state of Espírito Santo, Southeastearn Brazil Genótipos gB de citomegalovírus humano em secreção cervical e placenta no Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil

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    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV displays genetic variability in several regions, supposed to be related with strain-specific tissue tropism and immunopathogenesis. Based on sequence variation in the UL55 gene that encodes gB glycoprotein, HCMV strains can be assigned to one of four genotypes. Previous studies have addressed gB genotyping mostly by investigating strains derived from immunosuppressed patients, sometimes without previous knowledge about genotype distribution in a geographic area. The present study verified the distribution of HCMV gB genotypes of strains obtained from immunocompetent women at Vitória City, Espírito Santo State, Southeastern, Brazil. The HCMV genome was extracted from their cervical secretion, fetal and maternal placenta tissues (chorionic villous and decidua from abortion cases and from white blood cells (WBCs. HCMV genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of amplified product from the high variability site of the UL55 gene. All four genotypes were observed in both cervical secretion and placenta, whereas in WBCs a single gB1 genotype was detected. HCMV gB1 and gB2 genotypes were detected, respectively, in nine and in six of the 23 studied samples, while gB3 and gB4 were each found in four separate samples of the total. The differences in genotype frequency were not considered statistically significant. No mixed genotype infection was observed. The results indicated that the four gB HCMV genotypes had no particular tropism for placenta tissues and that all genotypes circulated within immunocompetent women at the time and in the region of study.O citomegalovírus humano (HCMV apresenta variabilidade em diversas regiões do genoma, supostamente relacionada ao tropismo tecidual e imunopatogênese viral. Baseando-se na variação de seqüência do gene UL55 que codifica a glicoproteína gB, o HCMV pode ser classificado em um dos quatro genótipos. Estudos prévios têm investigado a

  6. Trophoblast retrieval and isolation from the cervix: origins of cervical trophoblasts and their potential value for risk assessment of ongoing pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Gerit; Drewlo, Sascha; Huppertz, Berthold; Armant, D Randall

    2018-03-28

    Early during human development, the trophoblast lineage differentiates to commence placentation. Where the placenta contacts the uterine decidua, extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells differentiate and invade maternal tissues. EVT cells, identified by expression of HLA-G, invade into uterine blood vessels (endovascular EVT), as well as glands (endoglandular EVT), and open such luminal structures towards the intervillous space of the placenta. Endoglandular invasion diverts the contents of uterine glands to the intervillous space, while glands near the margin of the placenta that also contain endoglandular EVT cells open into the reproductive tract. Cells of the trophoblast lineage have thus been recovered from the uterine cavity and endocervical canal. An emerging non-invasive technology [trophoblast retrieval and isolation from the cervix (TRIC)] isolates and examines EVT cells residing in the cervix to explore their origin, biology and relationship to pregnancy and fetal status. This review explores the origins and possible uses of trophoblast cells obtained during ongoing pregnancies (weeks 5-20) by TRIC. We hypothesize that endoglandular EVT cells at the margins of the expanding placenta enter the uterine cavity and are carried together with uterine secretion products to the cervix where they can be retrieved from a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. The advantages of TRIC for investigation of human placentation and prenatal testing will be considered. Evidence from the literature, and from archived in utero placental histological sections, is presented to support these hypotheses. We used 52 out of 80 publications that appeared between 1966 and 2017 and were found by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. The studies described trophoblast invasion of uterine vessels and glands, as well as trophoblast cells residing in the reproductive tract. This was supplemented with literature on human placental health and disease. The literature describes a variety of

  7. population in Slovakia

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    Dravecký Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available V rokoch 2011 – 2014 sa realizoval monitoring hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého (Aquila pomarina v ôsmich chránených vtáčích územiach na Slovensku. U 149 hniezdnych párov z celkových 272 úspešných hniezdení počas 4 hniezdnych sezón vyletelo 277 mláďat. Priemerná reprodukčná úspešnosť predstavovala 0,51 juv./prítomný pár, 0,69 juv./hniezdiaci pár a 1,37 juv./100 km2. V uvedenom období bolo okolo hniezd orlov krikľavých ustanovených celkom 151 ochranných zón, ktoré zabezpečili ochranu 119 hniezdnych teritórií, čo predstavuje cca 17 % hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého na Slovensku. Testovaním účinnosti ochranných zón sa zistilo, že v hniezdach s vyhlásenou ochrannou zónou je vyššia pravdepodobnosť úspešného odchovania mláďat v porovnaní s hniezdami bez takejto zóny. Pravdepodobnosť, že hniezdenie bude úspešné v hniezdach hniezdiacich párov bez ochrannej zóny bola 48.1% (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 37.4–59.0%, v hniezdach s ochrannou zónou 64.8% (95% CIs: 59.8–69.6%. Medzi 5 najčastejšie využívaných hniezdnych stromov na hniezdenie A. pomarina na Slovensku patrí Picea abies 61× (28,4%, Pinus sylvestris 45× (20,9%, Quercus sp. 36× (16,7%, Fagus sylvatica 25× (11,6% a Abies alba 18× (8,4%. Medzi zriedkavejšie druhy hniezdnych stromov patrí Larix decidua 12× (5,6% a Alnus glutinosa 3× (1,4%, ďalších 11 druhov hniezdnych stromov nedosiahli 1 %. Najvyšší počet hniezdnych stromov (n = 215, tj. 34 hniezd (15,8% sa nachádzal v intervale nadmorskej výšky 401 – 450 m a 29 hniezd (13,5% v intervale 351 – 400 m n. m. Ostatné výškové pásma boli pod hranicou 10%. 54% zistených hniezd (116 hniezd sa nachádza vo výškovom pásme 301 – 600 m n. m., 71 hniezd (33% v pásme 600 – 900 m n. m. Najnižšie situované hniezdo bolo v nadmorskej výške 150 m a najvyššie 950 m, priemer bol 595,01 m. Najvyšší počet hniezd (n = 209 bol na strome

  8. nm23 regulates decidualization through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathways in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Fu, Li-Juan; Liu, Xue-Qing; Hu, Zhuo-Ying; Jiang, Yu; Gao, Ru-Fei; Feng, Qian; Lan, Xi; Geng, Yan-Qing; Chen, Xue-Mei; He, Jun-Lin; Wang, Ying-Xiong; Ding, Yu-Bin

    2016-10-01

    during early pregnancy and in artificially induced deciduoma, and NM23-H1 was strongly expressed in human first trimester decidua. The expression of nm23 was upregulated by oestradiol and progesterone (P Technology Project of Chongqing Education Committee (KJ130309), open funding by the Chongqing Institute for Family Planning (1201) and the Excellent Young Scholars of Chongqing Medical University (CQYQ201302). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Características del establecimiento e historia de vida de Misodendrum punctulatum (Misodendraceae un muérdago de Sudamérica austral Establishment and life history characteristics of the southern South American mistletoe Misodendrum punctulatum (Misodendraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlan Tercero-Bucardo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aprovechando la formación de anillos anuales de crecimiento en los hospedadores y que el sistema haustorial de los muérdagos va quedando sincrónicamente embebido en el xilema del hospedador, analizamos características edad dependientes de la historia de vida y del establecimiento de Misodendrum punctulatum cuando infecta a dos especies deciduas de Nothofagus en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina. La determinación de la edad de establecimiento de las infecciones fue realizada examinando el número de anillos anuales de crecimiento del hospedador, en cortes transversales de ramas o troncos principales de Nothofagus, atravesados por el haustorio más profundo. Concomitantemente, se registró el número de eventos anuales de crecimiento (índice de edad aérea y el diámetro basal de los tallos de los muérdagos. Los anillos de crecimiento de los hospedadores precedentes al establecimiento de los muérdagos fueron usados para determinar la edad las ramas o troncos principales al ser infectados. La relación entre la edad haustorial y el índice de edad aérea indican que: (1 el recuento de los eventos de crecimiento de los tallos es un método no destructivo adecuado para estimar la edad de este muérdago mientras que el diámetro basal es un método menos eficiente, (2 al inicio del desarrollo M. punctulatum presenta un período de incubación holotrófico, de varios años, antes de producir estructuras aéreas, (3 la duración del período de incubación es sitio y/u hospedador dependiente siendo más extenso (4 a 6 años en bosques subalpinos de Nothofagus pumilio y más corto (2 años en matorrales de N. antarctica en bajas altitudes ,(4 cuando los muérdagos viven en bosques subalpinos de Nothofagus pumilio en sitios desfavorables crecen más lento y son más longevos que cuando están en matorrales de N. antarctica en bajas altitudes. Misodendrum punctulatum infecta principalmente ramas jóvenes (Taking advantage of host annual ring

  10. Triiodothyronine regulates angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion by isolated human decidual cells in a cell-type specific and gestational age-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulou, E; Loubière, L S; Lash, G E; Ohizua, O; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S Y

    2014-06-01

    Does triiodothyronine (T3) regulate the secretion of angiogenic growth factors and cytokines by human decidual cells isolated from early pregnancy? T3 modulates the secretion of specific angiogenic growth factors and cytokines, with different regulatory patterns observed amongst various isolated subpopulations of human decidual cells and with a distinct change between the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during early pregnancy is associated with complications of malplacentation including miscarriage and pre-eclampsia. T3 regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of fetal-derived trophoblasts, as well as promotes the invasive capability of extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). We hypothesize that T3 may also have a direct impact on human maternal-derived decidual cells, which are known to exert paracrine regulation upon trophoblast behaviour and vascular development at the uteroplacental interface. This laboratory-based study used human decidua from first (8-11 weeks; n = 18) and second (12-16 weeks; n = 12) trimester surgical terminations of apparently uncomplicated pregnancies. Primary cultures of total decidual cells, and immunomagnetic bead-isolated populations of stromal-enriched (CD10+) and stromal-depleted (CD10-) cells, uterine natural killer cells (uNK cells; CD56+) and macrophages (CD14+) were assessed for thyroid hormone receptors and transporters by immunocytochemistry. Each cell population was treated with T3 (0, 1, 10, 100 nM) and assessments were made of cell viability (MTT assay) and angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion (immunomediated assay). The effect of decidual cell-conditioned media on EVT invasion through Matrigel(®) was evaluated. Immunocytochemistry showed the expression of thyroid hormone transporters (MCT8, MCT10) and receptors (TRα1, TRβ1) required for thyroid hormone-responsiveness in uNK cells and macrophages from the first trimester. The viability of total decidual cells and the different