WorldWideScience

Sample records for decidable ltl model

  1. Bringing LTL Model Checking to Biologists

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Z; Benque, D; Berezin, S; Dahl, ACE; Fisher, Jasmin; Hall, Benjamin Andrew; Ishtiaq, S; Nanavati, J; Piterman, N; Riechert, M; Skoblov, N

    2017-01-01

    The BioModelAnalyzer (BMA) is a web based tool for the development of discrete models of biological systems. Through a graphical user interface, it allows rapid development of complex models of gene and protein interaction networks and stability analysis without requiring users to be proficient computer programmers. Whilst stability is a useful specification for testing many systems, testing temporal specifications in BMA presently requires the user to perform simulations. Here we describe th...

  2. SEAPODYM-LTL: a parsimonious zooplankton dynamic biomass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchon, Anna; Lehodey, Patrick; Gehlen, Marion; Titaud, Olivier; Senina, Inna; Séférian, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Mesozooplankton organisms are of critical importance for the understanding of early life history of most fish stocks, as well as the nutrient cycles in the ocean. Ongoing climate change and the need for improved approaches to the management of living marine resources has driven recent advances in zooplankton modelling. The classical modeling approach tends to describe the whole biogeochemical and plankton cycle with increasing complexity. We propose here a different and parsimonious zooplankton dynamic biomass model (SEAPODYM-LTL) that is cost efficient and can be advantageously coupled with primary production estimated either from satellite derived ocean color data or biogeochemical models. In addition, the adjoint code of the model is developed allowing a robust optimization approach for estimating the few parameters of the model. In this study, we run the first optimization experiments using a global database of climatological zooplankton biomass data and we make a comparative analysis to assess the importance of resolution and primary production inputs on model fit to observations. We also compare SEAPODYM-LTL outputs to those produced by a more complex biogeochemical model (PISCES) but sharing the same physical forcings.

  3. DiVinE-CUDA - A Tool for GPU Accelerated LTL Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Barnat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a tool that performs CUDA accelerated LTL Model Checking. The tool exploits parallel algorithm MAP adjusted to the NVIDIA CUDA architecture in order to efficiently detect the presence of accepting cycles in a directed graph. Accepting cycle detection is the core algorithmic procedure in automata-based LTL Model Checking. We demonstrate that the tool outperforms non-accelerated version of the algorithm and we discuss where the limits of the tool are and what we intend to do in the future to avoid them.

  4. HyLTL: a temporal logic for model checking hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bresolin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The model-checking problem for hybrid systems is a well known challenge in the scientific community. Most of the existing approaches and tools are limited to safety properties only, or operates by transforming the hybrid system to be verified into a discrete one, thus loosing information on the continuous dynamics of the system. In this paper we present a logic for specifying complex properties of hybrid systems called HyLTL, and we show how it is possible to solve the model checking problem by translating the formula into an equivalent hybrid automaton. In this way the problem is reduced to a reachability problem on hybrid automata that can be solved by using existing tools.

  5. Distributed PROMPT-LTL Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen Jacobs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the synthesis of distributed implementations for specifications in Prompt Linear Temporal Logic (PROMPT-LTL, which extends LTL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. For single process synthesis it is well-established that such parametric extensions do not increase worst-case complexities. For synchronous systems, we show that, despite being more powerful, the distributed realizability problem for PROMPT-LTL is not harder than its LTL counterpart. For asynchronous systems we have to consider an assume-guarantee synthesis problem, as we have to express scheduling assumptions. As asynchronous distributed synthesis is already undecidable for LTL, we give a semi-decision procedure for the PROMPT-LTL assume-guarantee synthesis problem based on bounded synthesis.

  6. Efficient Multi-Valued Bounded Model Checking for LTL over Quasi-Boolean Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Jefferson O.; Kameyama, Yukiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Multi-valued Model Checking extends classical, two-valued model checking to multi-valued logic such as Quasi-Boolean logic. The added expressivity is useful in dealing with such concepts as incompleteness and uncertainty in target systems, while it comes with the cost of time and space. Chechik and others proposed an efficient reduction from multi-valued model checking problems to two-valued ones, but to the authors' knowledge, no study was done for multi-valued bounded model checking. In thi...

  7. Efficient Multi-Valued Bounded Model Checking for LTL over Quasi-Boolean Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jefferson O.; Kameyama, Yukiyoshi

    Multi-valued Model Checking extends classical, two-valued model checking to multi-valued logic such as Quasi-Boolean logic. The added expressivity is useful in dealing with such concepts as incompleteness and uncertainty in target systems, while it comes with the cost of time and space. Chechik and others proposed an efficient reduction from multi-valued model checking problems to two-valued ones, but to the authors' knowledge, no study was done for multi-valued bounded model checking. In this paper, we propose a novel, efficient algorithm for multi-valued bounded model checking. A notable feature of our algorithm is that it is not based on reduction of multi-values into two-values; instead, it generates a single formula which represents multi-valuedness by a suitable encoding, and asks a standard SAT solver to check its satisfiability. Our experimental results show a significant improvement in the number of variables and clauses and also in execution time compared with the reduction-based one.

  8. Optimal Bounds in Parametric LTL Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zimmermann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider graph games of infinite duration with winning conditions in parameterized linear temporal logic, where the temporal operators are equipped with variables for time bounds. In model checking such specifications were introduced as "PLTL" by Alur et al. and (in a different version called "PROMPT-LTL" by Kupferman et al.. We present an algorithm to determine optimal variable valuations that allow a player to win a game. Furthermore, we show how to determine whether a player wins a game with respect to some, infinitely many, or all valuations. All our algorithms run in doubly-exponential time; so, adding bounded temporal operators does not increase the complexity compared to solving plain LTL games.

  9. VOTERS DECIDE. CLASSICAL MODELS OF ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision to vote and choosing among the candidates is a extremely important one with repercussions on everyday life by determining, in global mode, its quality for the whole society. Therefore the whole process by which the voter decide becomes a central concern. In this paper we intend to locate the determinants of the vote decision in the electoral behavior classical theoretical models developed over time. After doing synthesis of classical schools of thought on electoral behavior we conclude that it has been made a journey through the mind, soul and cheek, as follows: the mind as reason in theory developed by Downs, soul as preferably for an actor in Campbell's theory, etc. and cheek as an expression of the impossibility of detachment from social groups to which we belong in Lazarsfeld's theory.

  10. Construction and Verification of PLC LD-programs by LTL-specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to construction and verification of PLC LD-programs for discrete problems is proposed. For the specification of the program behavior, we use the linear-time temporal logic LTL. Programming is carried out in the LD-language (Ladder Diagram according to an LTL-specification. The correctness analysis of an LTL-specification is carried out by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV. A new approach to programming and verification of PLC LD-programs is shown by an example. For a discrete problem, we give a LD-program, its LTL-specification and an SMV-model. The purpose of the article is to describe an approach to programming PLC, which would provide a possibility of LD-program correctness analysis by the model checking method. Under the proposed approach, the change of the value of each program variable is described by a pair of LTL-formulas. The first LTL-formula describes situations which increase the value of the corresponding variable, the second LTL-formula specifies conditions leading to a decrease of the variable value. The LTL-formulas (used for speci- fication of the corresponding variable behavior are constructive in the sense that they construct the PLC-program (LD-program, which satisfies temporal properties expressed by these formulas. Thus, the programming of PLC is reduced to the construction of LTLspecification of the behavior of each program variable. In addition, an SMV-model of a PLC LD-program is constructed according to LTL-specification. Then, the SMV-model is analysed by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV.

  11. Efficient Translation of LTL Formulae into Buchi Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Lerda, Flavio

    2001-01-01

    Model checking is a fully automated technique for checking that a system satisfies a set of required properties. With explicit-state model checkers, properties are typically defined in linear-time temporal logic (LTL), and are translated into B chi automata in order to be checked. This report presents how we have combined and improved existing techniques to obtain an efficient LTL to B chi automata translator. In particular, we optimize the core of existing tableau-based approaches to generate significantly smaller automata. Our approach has been implemented and is being released as part of the Java PathFinder software (JPF), an explicit state model checker under development at the NASA Ames Research Center.

  12. Parameterized Linear Temporal Logics Meet Costs: Still not Costlier than LTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zimmermann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We continue the investigation of parameterized extensions of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that retain the attractive algorithmic properties of LTL: a polynomial space model checking algorithm and a doubly-exponential time algorithm for solving games. Alur et al. and Kupferman et al. showed that this is the case for Parametric LTL (PLTL and PROMPT-LTL respectively, which have temporal operators equipped with variables that bound their scope in time. Later, this was also shown to be true for Parametric LDL (PLDL, which extends PLTL to be able to express all omega-regular properties. Here, we generalize PLTL to systems with costs, i.e., we do not bound the scope of operators in time, but bound the scope in terms of the cost accumulated during time. Again, we show that model checking and solving games for specifications in PLTL with costs is not harder than the corresponding problems for LTL. Finally, we discuss PLDL with costs and extensions to multiple cost functions.

  13. How to Decide on Modeling Details: Risk and Benefit Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özilgen, Mustafa

    Mathematical models based on thermodynamic, kinetic, heat, and mass transfer analysis are central to this chapter. Microbial growth, death, enzyme inactivation models, and the modeling of material properties, including those pertinent to conduction and convection heating, mass transfer, such as diffusion and convective mass transfer, and thermodynamic properties, such as specific heat, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of formation and specific chemical exergy are also needed in this task. The origins, simplifying assumptions, and uses of model equations are discussed in this chapter, together with their benefits. The simplified forms of these models are sometimes referred to as "laws," such as "the first law of thermodynamics" or "Fick's second law." Starting to modeling a study with such "laws" without considering the conditions under which they are valid runs the risk of ending up with erronous conclusions. On the other hand, models started with fundamental concepts and simplified with appropriate considerations may offer explanations for the phenomena which may not be obtained just with measurements or unprocessed experimental data. The discussion presented here is strengthened with case studies and references to the literature.

  14. On the relationship between LTL normal forms and Büchi automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jianwen; Pu, Geguang; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the problem of translating LTL formulas to Büchi automata. We first translate the given LTL formula into a special disjuctive-normal form (DNF). The formula will be part of the state, and its DNF normal form specifies the atomic properties that should hold immediately...

  15. decides

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Coronado Hijón

    2008-01-01

    El programa Tú decides, primera fase del proyecto PROA que tiene su continuación en el último curso de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, enlaza teóricamente con el “Modelo de Activación para el Desarrollo Vocacional y Personal”. La fundamentación teórica se circunscribe a la zona de intersección que delimitan los modelos de “Educación para la elección de la Carrera” (Career education) y de “Desarrollo de la Madurez Vocacional”, adoptando una concepción operatoria y evolutiva...

  16. Deciding between compensated volume balance and real time transient models for pipeline leak detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technical procedure to assess a software based leak detection system (LDS), by deciding between a simpler low cost, less effective product, having a fast installation and tuning, and a complex one with high cost and efficiency, which however takes a long time to be properly installed. This is a common decision among the pipeline operating companies, considering that the majority of the lines are short, with single phase liquid flow (which may include batches), basic communication system and instrumentation. Service companies offer realistic solutions for liquid flow, but usually designed to big pipeline networks, flowing multiple batches and allowing multiple fluid entrances and deliveries. Those solutions are sometimes impractical to short pipelines, due to its high cost, as well as long tuning procedures, complex instrumentation, communication and computer requirements. It is intended to approach here the best solution according to its cost. In a practical sense, it means to differentiate the various LDS techniques. Those techniques are available in a considerable number, and they are still spreading, according to the different scenarios. However, two most known and worldwide implemented techniques hold the majority of the market: the Compensated Volume Balance (CVB), which is less accurate, reliable and robust, but cheaper, simpler and faster to install, and the Real Time Transient Model (RTTM), which is very reliable, accurate and robust, but expensive and complex. This work will describe a way to define whether one can use or not a CVB in a pipeline. (author)

  17. Using Probabilistic Models to Appraise and Decide on Sovereign Disaster Risk Financing and Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Ley-Borrás, Roberto; Fox, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the structure of probabilistic catastrophe risk models, discusses their importance for appraising sovereign disaster risk financing and insurance instruments and strategy, and puts forward a model and a process for improving decision making on the linked disaster risk management strategy and sovereign disaster risk financing and insurance strategy. The pa...

  18. Using 3-color chromosome painting to decide between chromosome aberration models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.N.; Sachs, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation produces chromosome aberrations when DNA double strand breaks (DSB) interact pairwise. For more than 30 years there have been two main, competing theories of such binary DSB interactions. The classical theory asserts that an unrepaired DSB makes two ends which separate, with each end subsequently able to join any similar (non-telomeric) end. The exchange theory asserts that the two DSB ends remain associated until repair or a reciprocal chromosome exchange involving a second DSB occurs. The authors conducted an experiment to test these models, using 3-color chromosome painting. After in vitro irradiation of resting human lymphocytes, they observed cells with three-color triplets at first metaphase: three derivative chromosomes having permuted colors, as if three broken chromosomes had played musical chairs. On the exchange model in its standard form such 3-color triplets cannot occur. On the classical model the expected frequency can be calculated. They report data and computer calculations which exclude the exchange model and favor the classical model

  19. Deciding to Come Out to Parents: Toward a Model of Sexual Orientation Disclosure Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafsky, Erika L

    2017-08-16

    The purpose of this study was to conduct research to understand nonheterosexual youths' decision to disclose their sexual orientation information to their parents. The sample for this study includes 22 youth between the ages of 14 and 21. Constructivist grounded theory guided the qualitative methodology and data analysis. The findings from this study posit an emerging model of sexual orientation disclosure decisions comprised of four interrelated factors that influence the decision to disclose or not disclose, as well as a description of the mechanism through which disclosure either does or does not occur. Clinical implications and recommendations for further research are provided. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  20. I-DECIDE: An Online Intervention Drawing on the Psychosocial Readiness Model for Women Experiencing Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Laura; Murray, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Cathy; Glass, Nancy; Taft, Angela; Valpied, Jodie; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by men against women is a pervasive global problem with significant physical and emotional consequences. Although some face-to-face interventions in health care settings have shown promise, there are barriers to disclosure to health care practitioners and women may not be ready to access or accept help, reducing uptake. Similar to the mental health field, interventions from clinical practice can be adapted to be delivered by technology. This article outlines the theoretical and conceptual development of I-DECIDE, an online healthy relationship tool and safety decision aid for women experiencing DV. The article explores the use of the Psychosocial Readiness Model (PRM) as a theoretical framework for the intervention and evaluation. This is a theoretical article drawing on current theory and literature around health care and online interventions for DV. The article argues that the Internet as a method of intervention delivery for DV might overcome many of the barriers present in health care settings. Using the PRM as a framework for an online DV intervention may help women on a pathway to safety and well-being for themselves and their children. This hypothesis will be tested in a randomized, controlled trial in 2015/2016. This article highlights the importance of using a theoretical model in intervention development and evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Lily-type lectin ( SmLTL) in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, and its response to Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dandan; Ma, Aijun; Huang, Zhihui; Shang, Xiaomei; Cui, Wenxiao; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2018-03-01

    A full-length lily-type lectin ( SmLTL) was identified from turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) in this study. By searching database for protein identification and function prediction, SmLTL were confirmed. The full-length cDNA of SmLTL is composed of 569 bp and contains a 339 bp ORF that encodes 112 amino acid residues. The SmLTL peptide is characterized by a specific β-prism architecture and contains three mannose binding sites in a three-fold internal repeat between amino acids 30-99; two of the repeats share the classical mannose binding domain (QxDxNxVxY) while the third binding site was similar to other fish-specific binding motifs (TxTxGxRxV). The primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of SmLTL were predicted and analyzed, indicating that the SmLTL protein was hydrophilic, contained 5.36% α-helices, 39.29% extended strands, 16.07% β-folds, and 39.29% random coils, and three β-folds. Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed that the SmLTL mRNA was abundantly expressed in skin, gill, and intestine. Low levels of SmLTL expression were observed in other tissues. The expression of SmLTL in gill, skin and intestine increased at mRNA level after stimulation of Vibrio anguillarum, our results suggest that SmLTL serve as the first line of defence against microbial infections and play a pivotal role in the innate mucosal immune system. The current study indicates that SmLTL is a member of the lilytype lectin family and the information reported here will provide an important foundation for future research on the role of this protein.

  2. Parallel Algorithms for Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jaco; Mousavi, Mohammad Reza; Sgall, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Model checking is an automated verification procedure, which checks that a model of a system satisfies certain properties. These properties are typically expressed in some temporal logic, like LTL and CTL. Algorithms for LTL model checking (linear time logic) are based on automata theory and graph

  3. Deciding on Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse everyday reasoning in public administration. This is done by focusing on front line tax inspectors’ decisions about tax evasion. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents ethnography of bureaucracy and field audits. The material stems from...... fieldwork conducted in the Central Customs and Tax Administration. Findings – The paper shows that the tax inspectors reason about tax evasion in a casuistic manner. They pay attention to similar cases and to particular circumstances of the individual cases. In deciding on tax evasion, the inspectors do...

  4. Internal cycling, not external loading, decides the nutrient limitation in eutrophic lake: A dynamic model with temporal Bayesian hierarchical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Liu, Yong; Liang, Zhongyao; Wu, Sifeng; Guo, Huaicheng

    2017-06-01

    Lake eutrophication is associated with excessive anthropogenic nutrients (mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) and unobserved internal nutrient cycling. Despite the advances in understanding the role of external loadings, the contribution of internal nutrient cycling is still an open question. A dynamic mass-balance model was developed to simulate and measure the contributions of internal cycling and external loading. It was based on the temporal Bayesian Hierarchical Framework (BHM), where we explored the seasonal patterns in the dynamics of nutrient cycling processes and the limitation of N and P on phytoplankton growth in hyper-eutrophic Lake Dianchi, China. The dynamic patterns of the five state variables (Chla, TP, ammonia, nitrate and organic N) were simulated based on the model. Five parameters (algae growth rate, sediment exchange rate of N and P, nitrification rate and denitrification rate) were estimated based on BHM. The model provided a good fit to observations. Our model results highlighted the role of internal cycling of N and P in Lake Dianchi. The internal cycling processes contributed more than external loading to the N and P changes in the water column. Further insights into the nutrient limitation analysis indicated that the sediment exchange of P determined the P limitation. Allowing for the contribution of denitrification to N removal, N was the more limiting nutrient in most of the time, however, P was the more important nutrient for eutrophication management. For Lake Dianchi, it would not be possible to recover solely by reducing the external watershed nutrient load; the mechanisms of internal cycling should also be considered as an approach to inhibit the release of sediments and to enhance denitrification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On Decidability in Discourse Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten Hvidtfelt

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose 'decidability' as a new criterion for theories aiming at analysing empirical texts. Originally, 'decidability' was developed as a formal concept (Gödel 1931). In this paper, I show some of the consequences of applying the criterion of decidability to text ...... analyses as conducted within a cognitively motivated theory of discourse....

  6. The Origin of Sulfur Tolerance in Supported Platinum Catalysts: The Relationship between Structural and Catalytic Properties in Acidic and Alkaline Pt/LTL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Miller, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    The reactivity, structure, and sulfur tolerance is compared for platinum supported on acidic and alkaline LTL zeolite. In the absence of sulfur, EXAFS spectroscopy indicates that small metallic platinum particles of approximately 6 to 14 atoms/cluster are present. The TOF for neopentane

  7. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis; Lozin, Vadim V.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2013-04-05

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Efficient Semantics-Based Compliance Checking Using LTL Formulae and Unfolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Business process models are required to be in line with frequently changing regulations, policies, and environments. In the field of intelligent modeling, organisations concern automated business process compliance checking as the manual verification is a time-consuming and inefficient work. There exist two key issues for business process compliance checking. One is the definition of a business process retrieval language that can be employed to capture the compliance rules, the other concerns efficient evaluation of these rules. Traditional syntax-based retrieval approaches cannot deal with various important requirements of compliance checking in practice. Although a retrieval language that is based on semantics can overcome the drawback of syntax-based ones, it suffers from the well-known state space explosion. In this paper, we define a semantics-based process model query language through simplifying a property specification pattern system without affecting its expressiveness. We use this language to capture semantics-based compliance rules and constraints. We also propose a feasible approach in such a way that the compliance checking will not suffer from the state space explosion as much as possible. A tool is implemented to evaluate the efficiency. An experiment conducted on three model collections illustrates that our technology is very efficient.

  10. Deciding Security for a Fragment of ASLan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2012-01-01

    situations in security such as the interaction between the workflow of a system with its access control policies. While even the transition relation is undecidable for ASLan in general, we show the security problem is decidable for a large and useful fragment that we call TASLan, as long as we bound......ASLan is the input language of the verification tools of the AVANTSSAR platform, and an extension of the AVISPA Intermediate Format IF. One of ASLan's core features over IF is to integrate a transition system with Horn clauses that are evaluated at every state. This allows for modeling many common...... the number of steps of honest participants. The restriction of TASLan is that all messages and predicates must be in a certain sense unambiguous in their interpretation, excluding “type-confusions” similar to some tagging results for security protocols....

  11. Deciding as Intentional Action: Control over Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Common-sense folk psychology and mainstream philosophy of action agree about decisions: these are under an agent's direct control, and are thus intentional actions for which agents can be held responsible. I begin this paper by presenting a problem for this view. In short, since the content of the motivational attitudes that drive deliberation and decision remains open-ended until the moment of decision, it is unclear how agents can be thought to exercise control over what they decide at the moment of deciding. I note that this problem might motivate a non-actional view of deciding—a view that decisions are not actions, but are instead passive events of intention acquisition. For without an understanding of how an agent might exercise control over what is decided at the moment of deciding, we lack a good reason for maintaining commitment to an actional view of deciding. However, I then offer the required account of how agents exercise control over decisions at the moment of deciding. Crucial to this account is an understanding of the relation of practical deliberation to deciding, an understanding of skilled deliberative activity, and the role of attention in the mental action of deciding. PMID:26321765

  12. E-DECIDER Decision Support Gateway For Earthquake Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Stough, T. M.; Parker, J. W.; Burl, M. C.; Donnellan, A.; Blom, R. G.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Ma, Y.; Rundle, J. B.; Yoder, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) is a NASA-funded project developing capabilities for decision-making utilizing remote sensing data and modeling software in order to provide decision support for earthquake disaster management and response. E-DECIDER incorporates earthquake forecasting methodology and geophysical modeling tools developed through NASA's QuakeSim project in order to produce standards-compliant map data products to aid in decision-making following an earthquake. Remote sensing and geodetic data, in conjunction with modeling and forecasting tools, help provide both long-term planning information for disaster management decision makers as well as short-term information following earthquake events (i.e. identifying areas where the greatest deformation and damage has occurred and emergency services may need to be focused). E-DECIDER utilizes a service-based GIS model for its cyber-infrastructure in order to produce standards-compliant products for different user types with multiple service protocols (such as KML, WMS, WFS, and WCS). The goal is to make complex GIS processing and domain-specific analysis tools more accessible to general users through software services as well as provide system sustainability through infrastructure services. The system comprises several components, which include: a GeoServer for thematic mapping and data distribution, a geospatial database for storage and spatial analysis, web service APIs, including simple-to-use REST APIs for complex GIS functionalities, and geoprocessing tools including python scripts to produce standards-compliant data products. These are then served to the E-DECIDER decision support gateway (http://e-decider.org), the E-DECIDER mobile interface, and to the Department of Homeland Security decision support middleware UICDS (Unified Incident Command and Decision Support). The E-DECIDER decision support gateway features a web interface that

  13. Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent...... of processes between BPP and TCSP, not only are the two equivalences different, but one (locality) is decidable whereas the other (pomsets) is not. The decidability result for locality is proved by a reduction to the reachability problem for Petri nets....

  14. System of marketing deciding support based on game theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dukić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative methods and models can be applied in numerous spheres of marketing deciding. The choice of optimal strategy in product advertising is one of the problems that the marketing-management often meets. The use of models developed within the framework of game theory makes significantly easier to find out the solutions of conflict situations that appear herewith. The system of deciding support presented in this work is based on the supposition that two opposed sides take part in the game. With the aim of deciding process promotion, the starting model incorporates computer simulation of percentile changes in the market share that represent elements of payment matrix. The supposition is that the random variables that represent them follow the normal division. It is necessary to carry out the evaluation of their parameters because of relevant data. Information techniques, computer and the adequate program applications take the special position in solving and analysis of the suggested model. This kind of their application represents the basic characteristic of the deciding support system.

  15. PLQP & Company: Decidable Logics for Quantum Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Bergfeld, Jort; Kishida, Kohei; Sack, Joshua; Smets, Sonja; Zhong, Shengyang

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a probabilistic modal (dynamic-epistemic) quantum logic PLQP for reasoning about quantum algorithms. We illustrate its expressivity by using it to encode the correctness of the well-known quantum search algorithm, as well as of a quantum protocol known to solve one of the paradigmatic tasks from classical distributed computing (the leader election problem). We also provide a general method (extending an idea employed in the decidability proof in Dunn et al. (J. Symb. Log. 70:353-359, 2005)) for proving the decidability of a range of quantum logics, interpreted on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We give general conditions for the applicability of this method, and in particular we apply it to prove the decidability of PLQP.

  16. Criteria for deciding about forestry research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1981-01-01

    In early 1979, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, was required to decide several significant issues affecting its future research program. These decisions were in response to requirements of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA). The decisions required information that was not either available or assembled. Most...

  17. Helping Youth Decide: A Workshop Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Donna Marie; Boo, Katherine

    This guide was written to complement the publication "Helping Youth Decide," a manual designed to help parents develop effective parent-child communication and help their children make responsible decisions during the adolescent years. The workshop guide is intended to assist people who work with families to provide additional information and…

  18. Decidability of uniform recurrence of morphic sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Durand , Fabien

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the uniform recurrence of morphic sequences is decidable. For this we show that the number of derived sequences of uniformly recurrent morphic sequences is bounded. As a corollary we obtain that uniformly recurrent morphic sequences are primitive substitutive sequences.

  19. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both when choices involve losses and when they do not. A large-scale incentivized experiment with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population is conducted. We find that deciding for others reduces loss aversion. When choosing between risky prospects...... when losses loom. This finding is consistent with an interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision making driven by emotions and that these emotions are reduced when making decisions for others....... for which losses are ruled out by design, subjects make the same choices for themselves as for others. In contrast, when losses are possible, we find that the two types of choices differ. In particular, we find that subjects who make choices for themselves take less risk than those who decide for others...

  20. What Else Is Decidable about Integer Arrays?

    OpenAIRE

    Habermehl, Peter; Iosif, Radu; Vojnar, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a new decidable logic for reasoning about infinite arrays of integers. The logic is in the ∃ * ∀ * first-order fragment and allows (1) Presburger constraints on existentially quantified variables, (2) difference constraints as well as periodicity constraints on universally quantified indices, and (3) difference constraints on values. In particular, using our logic, one can express constraints on consecutive elements of arrays (e.g. ∀i. 0 ≤ i < n → a[i + 1]...

  1. WQO is Decidable for Factorial Languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2017-08-08

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors, i.e. contiguous subwords. Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. We also discuss possible ways to extend our solution to permutations and graphs.

  2. Deciding Security for a Fragment of ASLan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    situations in security such as the interaction between the work ow of a system with its access control policies. While even the transition relation is undecidable for ASLan in general, we show the security problem is decidable for a large and useful fragment that we call TASLan, as long as we bound...... the number of steps of honest participants. The restriction of TASLan is that all messages and predicates must be in a certain sense unambiguous in their interpretation, excluding \\type-confusions" similar to some tagging results for security protocols....

  3. Efficient Communication Protocols for Deciding Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jowhari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present two communication protocols on computing edit distance. In our first result, we give a one-way protocol for the following Document Exchange problem. Namely given x ∈ Σn to Alice and y ∈ Σn to Bob and integer k to both, Alice sends a message to Bob so that he learns x...... or truthfully reports that the edit distance between x and y is greater than k. For this problem, we give a randomized protocol in which Alice transmits at most O ˜ (klog 2 n) bits and each party’s time complexity is O ˜ (nlogn+k 2 log 2 n) . Our second result is a simultaneous protocol for edit distance over...... permutations. Here Alice and Bob both send a message to a third party (the referee) who does not have access to the input strings. Given the messages, the referee decides if the edit distance between x and y is at most k or not. For this problem we give a protocol in which Alice and Bob run a O...

  4. Patterns for a log-based strengthening of declarative compliance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schunselaar, Dennis M.M.; Maggi, Fabrizio M.; Sidorova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    LTL-based declarative process models are very effective when modelling loosely structured processes or working in environments with a lot of variability. A process model is represented by a set of constraints that must be satisfied during the process execution. An important application of such

  5. Research on vehicles and cargos matching model based on virtual logistics platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yufeng; Lu, Jiang; Su, Zhiyuan

    2018-04-01

    Highway less than truckload (LTL) transportation vehicles and cargos matching problem is a joint optimization problem of typical vehicle routing and loading, which is also a hot issue of operational research. This article based on the demand of virtual logistics platform, for the problem of the highway LTL transportation, the matching model of the idle vehicle and the transportation order is set up and the corresponding genetic algorithm is designed. Then the algorithm is implemented by Java. The simulation results show that the solution is satisfactory.

  6. Deciding about fast and slow decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat; Petrie, David A; Reilly, James B; Tait, Gordon

    2014-02-01

    Two reports in this issue address the important topic of clinical decision making. Dual process theory has emerged as the dominant model for understanding the complex processes that underlie human decision making. This theory distinguishes between the reflexive, autonomous processes that characterize intuitive decision making and the deliberate reasoning of an analytical approach. In this commentary, the authors address the polarization of viewpoints that has developed around the relative merits of the two systems. Although intuitive processes are typically fast and analytical processes slow, speed alone does not distinguish them. In any event, the majority of decisions in clinical medicine are not dependent on very short response times. What does appear relevant to diagnostic ease and accuracy is the degree to which the symptoms of the disease being diagnosed are characteristic ones. There are also concerns around some methodological issues related to research design in this area of enquiry. Reductionist approaches that attempt to isolate dependent variables may create such artificial experimental conditions that both external and ecological validity are sacrificed. Clinical decision making is a complex process with many independent (and interdependent) variables that need to be separated out in a discrete fashion and then reflected on in real time to preserve the fidelity of clinical practice. With these caveats in mind, the authors believe that research in this area should promote a better understanding of clinical practice and teaching by focusing less on the deficiencies of intuitive and analytical systems and more on their adaptive strengths.

  7. Propositional interval neighborhood logics: Expressiveness, decidability, and undecidable extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the expressiveness of the variety of propositional interval neighborhood logics (PNL), we establish their decidability on linearly ordered domains and some important subclasses, and we prove the undecidability of a number of extensions of PNL with additional modalities...... over interval relations. All together, we show that PNL form a quite expressive and nearly maximal decidable fragment of Halpern–Shoham’s interval logic HS....

  8. Pharmacy career deciding: making choice a "good fit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sarah Caroline; Shann, Phillip; Hassell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore factors influencing career deciding amongst pharmacy students and graduates in the U.K. Group interviews were used to devise a topic guide for five subsequent focus groups with pharmacy students and graduates. Focus groups were tape-recorded, recordings transcribed, and transcripts analysed. Key themes and interlinking factors relating to pharmacy career deciding were identified in the transcripts, following a constructivist approach. Participants' described making a "good fit" between themselves, their experiences, social networks etc. and pharmacy. Central to a coherent career deciding narrative were: having a job on graduation; and the instrumental advantage of studying a vocational course. Focusing on career deciding of UK pharmacy students and graduates may limit the study's generalisability to other countries. However, our findings are relevant to those interested in understanding students' motivations for healthcare careers, since our results suggest that making a "good fit" describes a general process of matching between a healthcare career and personal experience. As we have found that pharmacy career deciding was not, usually, a planned activity, career advisors and those involved in higher education recruitment should take into account the roles played by personal preferences and values in choosing a degree course. A qualitative study like this can illustrate how career deciding occurs and provide insight into the process from a student's perspective. This can help inform guidance processes, selection to healthcare professions courses within the higher education sector, and stimulate debate amongst those involved with recruitment of healthcare workers about desirable motivators for healthcare careers.

  9. Polynomial Time Decidability of Weighted Synchronization under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We consider weighted automata with both positive and negative integer weights on edges and study the problem of synchronization using adaptive strategies that may only observe whether the current weight-level is negative or nonnegative. We show that the synchronization problem is decidable...

  10. Decidable Fragments of a Higher Order Calculus with Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Mikkel; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Huttel, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Homer is a higher order process calculus with locations. In this paper we study Homer in the setting of the semantic finite control property, which is a finite reachability criterion that implies decidability of barbed bisimilarity. We show that strong and weak barbed bisimilarity are undecidable...

  11. Who Should Decide How Machines Make Morally Laden Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dominic

    2017-08-01

    Who should decide how a machine will decide what to do when it is driving a car, performing a medical procedure, or, more generally, when it is facing any kind of morally laden decision? More and more, machines are making complex decisions with a considerable level of autonomy. We should be much more preoccupied by this problem than we currently are. After a series of preliminary remarks, this paper will go over four possible answers to the question raised above. First, we may claim that it is the maker of a machine that gets to decide how it will behave in morally laden scenarios. Second, we may claim that the users of a machine should decide. Third, that decision may have to be made collectively or, fourth, by other machines built for this special purpose. The paper argues that each of these approaches suffers from its own shortcomings, and it concludes by showing, among other things, which approaches should be emphasized for different types of machines, situations, and/or morally laden decisions.

  12. BEHAVIOR QUALITY DECIDES OUR CONDITIONS OF SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Runsheng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background of the topic: The unusual significance of quality has been found, attribute quality concept (quality is the general nature of its supporter has been found, the quality exchange law and the standard to one's liking with quality have been advanced in the process that present wit research the connotation of quality and the value of quality. (2 Current issue: The theory of knowledge economy, the theory of quality first, the theory of distribution according to work and the subjective quality concept all have theirs aggravated limitation. (3 the purpose of this research: Propel the theory of quality forward strengthen the confidence of quality people, spur them to apply quality knowledge and improve their behavior quality in their work, quicken the tempo human to raise the living quality finally. (4 Research method and conclusion: The conclusion of "behavior quality decides resources created, owned and disposed and can further decide the living state and the developing state of personality, organization, nationality and county" has been epitomized out by analyzing the connotation of quality concept, the value of quality and society law; the theory of quality world have obtained. The main reasons that behavior quality decides resources appropriated and disposed are the action of natural law, society law, the system of society value. The specific important reasons still are: the consciousness of protecting good and punishing inferior, popular feeling is partial to the things of high quality; Behavior is controlled by the ideology (thinking of fair deal; Behavior quality decides the efficiency of work; Quality has value; the latent rule about mankind to continue and excellent.

  13. Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logics: Expressiveness, Decidability, and Undecidability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...... that MPNL is decidable in double exponential time and expressively complete with respect to a well-defined subfragment of the two-variable fragment FO2[N, =,...

  14. On Decidable Growth-Rate Properties of Imperative Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Ben-Amram

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, Ben-Amram, Jones and Kristiansen showed that for a simple "core" programming language - an imperative language with bounded loops, and arithmetics limited to addition and multiplication - it was possible to decide precisely whether a program had certain growth-rate properties, namely polynomial (or linear bounds on computed values, or on the running time. This work emphasized the role of the core language in mitigating the notorious undecidability of program properties, so that one deals with decidable problems. A natural and intriguing problem was whether more elements can be added to the core language, improving its utility, while keeping the growth-rate properties decidable. In particular, the method presented could not handle a command that resets a variable to zero. This paper shows how to handle resets. The analysis is given in a logical style (proof rules, and its complexity is shown to be PSPACE-complete (in contrast, without resets, the problem was PTIME. The analysis algorithm evolved from the previous solution in an interesting way: focus was shifted from proving a bound to disproving it, and the algorithm works top-down rather than bottom-up.

  15. 14 CFR 302.207 - Cases to be decided on written submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative law judge is otherwise required by the public interest. (b) The standards employed in deciding... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cases to be decided on written submissions....207 Cases to be decided on written submissions. (a) Applications under this subpart will be decided on...

  16. Momentum conservation decides Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelidis, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the light of Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas, the conditions necessary for the derivation of the quantitative statement or law of momentum conservation are considered. The result of such considerations is a contradiction between the formalism of quantum physics and the asserted consequences of Heisenberg's interpretation. This contradiction decides against Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas on upholding that the formalism of quantum physics is both consistent and complete, at least insofar as the statement of momentum conservation can be proved within this formalism. A few comments are also included on Bohr's complementarity interpretation of the formalism of quantum physics. A suggestion, based on a statistical mode of empirical testing of the uncertainty formulas, does not give rise to any such contradiction

  17. Review/decide and inquiry/decide. Two approaches to decision making. Report from a team syntegrity meeting. Project RISCOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    1998-01-01

    The meeting addressed the question how it is possible to make decision processes and risk assessment for deep repository development more transparent. The two dominant decision approaches used in Sweden and the UK, review/decide(r/d) and inquiry/decide(i/d), were discussed. The main conclusions from group discussions were: It was acknowledged that the concept of transparency includes three equally important aspects: factual issues, value issues, and stake holder's authenticity. There is a need in both countries to bring in the best aspects of both the r/d and the i/d approaches. Both approaches seem to offer possibilities and suffer limitations with respect to the segregation of facts, uncertainties and value judgements, and some sort of combination of the two may present a valuable development. However, neither the i/d nor the r/d approach seems to provide a good framework for clarification of the value issue. Experts have dominated the decision process in both countries. There is a need for a more genuine consultation process. The Swedish EIA is evolving in this direction. The regulator should take part in the process, also at an early stage. It is important that the integrity of the regulator is maintained. Rules and responsibilities of implementers, regulators, planning authorities and other decision-makers should be established early in the process. The public should know that they have access to a process that clarifies value judgements, facts, uncertainties and questions. It is necessary for the public to know what the technical issues are, and to have the means to evaluate the authenticity of the experts. It is important that political decisions are not taken without due consideration of scientific and technical arguments. There are factors beside safety assessments which are completely legitimate to consider. An approach with intense interaction between politicians, experts and the public is needed

  18. Review/decide and inquiry/decide. Two approaches to decision making. Report from a team syntegrity meeting. Project RISCOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [ed.] [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    The meeting addressed the question how it is possible to make decision processes and risk assessment for deep repository development more transparent. The two dominant decision approaches used in Sweden and the UK, review/decide(r/d) and inquiry/decide(i/d), were discussed. The main conclusions from group discussions were: It was acknowledged that the concept of transparency includes three equally important aspects: factual issues, value issues, and stake holder`s authenticity. There is a need in both countries to bring in the best aspects of both the r/d and the i/d approaches. Both approaches seem to offer possibilities and suffer limitations with respect to the segregation of facts, uncertainties and value judgements, and some sort of combination of the two may present a valuable development. However, neither the i/d nor the r/d approach seems to provide a good framework for clarification of the value issue. Experts have dominated the decision process in both countries. There is a need for a more genuine consultation process. The Swedish EIA is evolving in this direction. The regulator should take part in the process, also at an early stage. It is important that the integrity of the regulator is maintained. Rules and responsibilities of implementers, regulators, planning authorities and other decision-makers should be established early in the process. The public should know that they have access to a process that clarifies value judgements, facts, uncertainties and questions. It is necessary for the public to know what the technical issues are, and to have the means to evaluate the authenticity of the experts. It is important that political decisions are not taken without due consideration of scientific and technical arguments. There are factors beside safety assessments which are completely legitimate to consider. An approach with intense interaction between politicians, experts and the public is needed.

  19. Profiling biopharmaceutical deciding properties of absorption of lansoprazole enteric-coated tablets using gastrointestinal simulation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunnuan; Sun, Le; Sun, Jin; Yang, Yajun; Ren, Congcong; Ai, Xiaoyu; Lian, He; He, Zhonggui

    2013-09-10

    The aim of the present study was to correlate in vitro properties of drug formulation to its in vivo performance, and to elucidate the deciding properties of oral absorption. Gastrointestinal simulation technology (GST) was used to simulate the in vivo plasma concentration-time curve and was implemented by GastroPlus™ software. Lansoprazole, a typical BCS class II drug, was chosen as a model drug. Firstly, physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of lansoprazole were determined or collected from literature to construct the model. Validation of the developed model was performed by comparison of the predicted and the experimental plasma concentration data. We found that the predicted curve was in a good agreement with the experimental data. Then, parameter sensitivity analysis (PSA) was performed to find the key parameters of oral absorption. The absorption was particularly sensitive to dose, solubility and particle size for lansoprazole enteric-coated tablets. With a single dose of 30 mg and the solubility of 0.04 mg/ml, the absorption was complete. A good absorption could be achieved with lansoprazole particle radius down to about 25 μm. In summary, GST is a useful tool for profiling biopharmaceutical deciding properties of absorption of lansoprazole enteric-coated tablets and guiding the formulation optimization. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 20 CFR 405.340 - Deciding a claim without a hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....340 Deciding a claim without a hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Decision wholly... the decision is based. (b) You do not wish to appear. The administrative law judge may decide a claim... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deciding a claim without a hearing before an...

  1. How adolescents decide on bariatric surgery: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, J; Colville, S; Brown, P; Christie, D

    2018-04-01

    The National Institute of Clinical Excellence states that bariatric surgery may be considered for adolescents with severe obesity in 'exceptional circumstances'. However, it is not clear what is deemed to be exceptional, and there is a lack of long-term outcomes data or research, which would inform patient selection. This is an in-depth qualitative study involving five adolescents who had previously undergone bariatric surgery (between 1 and 3 years postoperatively) and four who were being assessed for the treatment. All patients were from one tertiary NHS weight management service offering bariatric surgery to adolescents. Participants were interviewed to explore how young people decide whether bariatric surgery is an appropriate intervention for them. Of the nine adolescents recruited, four were male and five female, aged between 17 and 20 years at the time of interview. Participants who had already undergone surgery did so between the ages of 16 and 18. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, and key themes were identified, such as (i) wanting a different future, (ii) experiences of uncertainty, (iii) managing the dilemmas and (iv) surgery as the last resort. The findings suggest that young people are prepared to accept a surgical solution for obesity despite numerous dilemmas. Young people choose this intervention as a way of 'normalizing' when they perceive there is nothing better available. It is argued that these findings may have implications for the counselling of young people living with overweight and obesity and for government policy. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Consent and assessment of capacity to decide or refuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Owena

    Consent protects the right of patients to decide what happens to them. Before any medical intervention, adults must give valid consent, which must be voluntary, informed and given free of undue influence. When consent is being obtained, patients must be informed about the intervention, why it is being done and its risks; information they are given must be recorded. Every effort should be made to explain the issues in terms that the patient can understand and by providing support and aids to communicate. Consent can be expressed, where patients say they consent or put it in writing, or implied, where a healthcare professional infers from their behaviour that they consent. While different types of consent are valid, some are evidence of stronger proof in court that valid consent has been given. Competent adults have the right to refuse treatment, regardless of the reasons they give for refusal and even if the refusal will result in death; clinicians must respect their decision. In some circumstances-such as when an unconscious person is admitted as an emergency-healthcare professionals can make decisions on behalf of patients, and must do so in patients' best interests.

  3. Sufficient and Necessary Condition to Decide Compatibility for a Class of Interorganizational Workflow Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanjun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interorganizational Workflow nets (IWF-nets can well model many concurrent systems such as web service composition, in which multiple processes interact via sending/receiving messages. Compatibility of IWF-nets is a crucial criterion for the correctness of these systems. It guarantees that a system has no deadlock, livelock, or dead tasks. In our previous work we proved that the compatibility problem is PSPACE-complete for safe IWF-nets. This paper defines a subclass of IWF-nets that can model many cases about interactions. Necessary and sufficient condition is presented to decide their compatibility, and it depends on the net structures only. Finally, an algorithm is developed based on the condition.

  4. When we decided to create the Revista Scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Antonio Martínez Molina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When we proposed to create the Revista Scientific, we had many doubts about what would be the treatment to be followed for the development of it? On the one hand, we needed to create a common basis for their more ethical and moral aspects so that the authors always applied the same criteria. This is not only to achieve an editorial unit, but to establish guidelines to follow throughout the publication, so as to facilitate the reading and understanding of the contents from the respect to the information, to the sources, but on all to the readers. The rules created are, therefore, the guidelines to be followed by the authors that appear in our publication, which must take into account these basic rules. Another point to be addressed was the selection of a disciplinary and multidisciplinary team at the international level that is in charge of the valuation of scientific productions, high invoice equipment of different Universities and Organizations recognized worldwide. On the basis of the above considerations, the question arises of deciding, what can or should be, and what can not or should not be counted, but rather how to explain and explain information in the most ethically correct way from the deontological perspective of the writer. It should be noted that Scientific tries to serve as a complement and informative tool for both teachers and the general public. We aim to disseminate scientific and technological knowledge, through the original results, the product of scientific research, which represent a contribution to the development of science and technology. It includes works, products of scientific research and theoretical reflections that, due to their relevance, merit publication, and in this way contribute to the visibility of intellectual production in the areas of education and social sciences. Scientific Magazine is aimed at the academic audience in its different levels (Initial, Basic, University as well as the scientific community

  5. Citizen Views on Punishment: the Difference between Talking and Deciding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Bergoglio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Province of Córdoba, Argentina implemented lay participation in criminal decisions by means of Law 9182. The law was passed within a context of national debate concerning efficient measures to fight against insecurity and crime. These debates were brought about by a social movement led by Juan Carlos Blumberg, which demanded harsher penalties and judicial reform as means to improve urban safety.Data obtained in two public opinions studies, conducted in 1993 and 2011, are used to analyze trends in attitudes towards criminal punishment, including issues such as the image of criminals or opinions on capital punishment. The revision also includes the influence of the fear of crime on attitudes towards punishment.The analysis of citizen views on punishment extends beyond public opinion data to the judicial field, reviewing how these views are expressed during jury service. Using a set of 213 sentences decided between 2005 and 2012, juror and judge decisions on the same cases are compared. En 2004, la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, estableció la participación ciudadana en las decisiones penales por medio de la ley 9182. La ley fue aprobada en el contexto de un debate nacional sobre las medidas más eficientes para luchar contra la inseguridad y el delito, impulsados por un movimiento social liderado por Juan Carlos Blumberg. Las demandas de este movimiento incluían endurecimiento penal y reforma judicial, entendidos como medios para mejorar la seguridad.Empleando datos de encuesta de población general recogidos en 1993 y 2011, el artículo analiza las tendencias en actitudes hacia el castigo penal, incluyendo temas como la imagen de los delincuentes y las opiniones sobre la pena de muerte. Se revisa especialmente la influencia de la sensación de inseguridad sobre las actitudes respecto del castigo.El análisis de las actitudes ciudadanas ante el castigo se extiende hacia el terreno judicial, revisando la dureza de las decisiones

  6. 43 CFR 30.239 - How will the judge decide a petition for rehearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will the judge decide a petition for... the judge decide a petition for rehearing? (a) If proper grounds are not shown, or if the petition is not timely filed, the judge will: (1) Issue an order denying the petition for rehearing and including...

  7. 43 CFR 30.243 - How will the judge decide my petition for reopening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will the judge decide my petition for... the judge decide my petition for reopening? (a) If the judge finds that proper grounds are not shown, the judge will issue an order denying the petition for reopening and giving the reasons for the denial...

  8. 25 CFR 39.133 - Who decides how Language Development funds can be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who decides how Language Development funds can be used... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.133 Who decides how Language Development funds can be used? Tribal governing bodies or local school...

  9. Deciding on PSS: A Framework for PSS Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, Line Maria; Mougaard, Krestine; Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro

    2013-01-01

    Product/Service-Systems (PSS) are a strategic approach wherein the value proposition covers the performance of a system throughout the whole life cycle. Many industrial companies are challenged on many levels in the transition process towards a PSS oriented approach. Much of the literature has...... until now focused on PSS from a design object perspective, and less focus has been on how the business model of the company must be designed simultaneously with the offering, covering topics as organisational restructuring, value chain collaboration plus a change management focus. This paper presents...

  10. Deciding Full Branching Time Logic by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, Alberto; Proietti, Maurizio; Senni, Valerio

    We present a method based on logic program transformation, for verifying Computation Tree Logic (CTL*) properties of finite state reactive systems. The finite state systems and the CTL* properties we want to verify, are encoded as logic programs on infinite lists. Our verification method consists of two steps. In the first step we transform the logic program that encodes the given system and the given property, into a monadic ω -program, that is, a stratified program defining nullary or unary predicates on infinite lists. This transformation is performed by applying unfold/fold rules that preserve the perfect model of the initial program. In the second step we verify the property of interest by using a proof method for monadic ω-programs.

  11. Modeling a Consistent Behavior of PLC-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article extends the cycle of papers dedicated to programming and verificatoin of PLC-programs by LTL-specification. This approach provides the availability of correctness analysis of PLC-programs by the model checking method.The model checking method needs to construct a finite model of a PLC program. For successful verification of required properties it is important to take into consideration that not all combinations of input signals from the sensors can occur while PLC works with a control object. This fact requires more advertence to the construction of the PLC-program model.In this paper we propose to describe a consistent behavior of sensors by three groups of LTL-formulas. They will affect the program model, approximating it to the actual behavior of the PLC program. The idea of LTL-requirements is shown by an example.A PLC program is a description of reactions on input signals from sensors, switches and buttons. In constructing a PLC-program model, the approach to modeling a consistent behavior of PLC sensors allows to focus on modeling precisely these reactions without an extension of the program model by additional structures for realization of a realistic behavior of sensors. The consistent behavior of sensors is taken into account only at the stage of checking a conformity of the programming model to required properties, i. e. a property satisfaction proof for the constructed model occurs with the condition that the model contains only such executions of the program that comply with the consistent behavior of sensors.

  12. Rational Probabilistic Deciders—Part I: Individual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Meerkov

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to model a decision maker as a rational probabilistic decider (RPD and to investigate its behavior in stationary and symmetric Markov switch environments. RPDs take their decisions based on penalty functions defined by the environment. The quality of decision making depends on a parameter referred to as level of rationality. The dynamic behavior of RPDs is described by an ergodic Markov chain. Two classes of RPDs are considered—local and global. The former take their decisions based on the penalty in the current state while the latter consider all states. It is shown that asymptotically (in time and in the level of rationality both classes behave quite similarly. However, the second largest eigenvalue of Markov transition matrices for global RPDs is smaller than that for local ones, indicating faster convergence to the optimal state. As an illustration, the behavior of a chief executive officer, modeled as a global RPD, is considered, and it is shown that the company performance may or may not be optimized—depending on the pay structure employed. While the current paper investigates individual RPDs, a companion paper will address collective behavior.

  13. 20 CFR 416.1448 - Deciding a case without an oral hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 416.1448 Deciding a case without an oral hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Decision... the decision is based. (b) Parties do not wish to appear. (1) The administrative law judge may decide... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deciding a case without an oral hearing...

  14. 20 CFR 404.948 - Deciding a case without an oral hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....948 Deciding a case without an oral hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Decision wholly... is based. (b) Parties do not wish to appear. (1) The administrative law judge may decide a case on... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deciding a case without an oral hearing...

  15. DECIDE: a Decision Support Tool to Facilitate Parents' Choices Regarding Genome-Wide Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Patricia; Adam, S; Bansback, N; Coe, R R; Hicklin, J; Lehman, A; Li, K C; Friedman, J M

    2016-12-01

    We describe the rationale, development, and usability testing for an integrated e-learning tool and decision aid for parents facing decisions about genome-wide sequencing (GWS) for their children with a suspected genetic condition. The online tool, DECIDE, is designed to provide decision-support and to promote high quality decisions about undergoing GWS with or without return of optional incidental finding results. DECIDE works by integrating educational material with decision aids. Users may tailor their learning by controlling both the amount of information and its format - text and diagrams and/or short videos. The decision aid guides users to weigh the importance of various relevant factors in their own lives and circumstances. After considering the pros and cons of GWS and return of incidental findings, DECIDE summarizes the user's responses and apparent preferred choices. In a usability study of 16 parents who had already chosen GWS after conventional genetic counselling, all participants found DECIDE to be helpful. Many would have been satisfied to use it alone to guide their GWS decisions, but most would prefer to have the option of consulting a health care professional as well to aid their decision. Further testing is necessary to establish the effectiveness of using DECIDE as an adjunct to or instead of conventional pre-test genetic counselling for clinical genome-wide sequencing.

  16. [A systematic review of decided litigated cases on adverse drug events in Japan: classification of decided cases appearing in law reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Kato, Masahisa; Kaneko, Erina; Kusaba, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Yamano, Toru; Seo, Takashi; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    Much of the damage to health caused by drugs could be prevented by appropriate care. A well-defined duty of care and further information are required for healthcare professionals. Although there are many litigation cases to use as references, neither the extent of the duty of care nor the obligation to explain medication according to the type of drug prescribed has yet been fully established. Thus, we systematically collected decided cases of adverse drug events, and assessed the degree of the duties of care and information. Specifically, we collected decided cases in which physicians, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, or hospitals had been sued. Data were derived from Bessatsu Jurist Iryo-kago Hanrei Hyakusen, Hanrei Jihou, and Hanrei Times from 1989 to November 2013, and information on precedents in the records of the Supreme Court of Japan from 2001 to November 2013. We analyzed the cases, and assessed the following according to the type of drug: (1) standards and explanations when dealing with drugs that were critical issues in litigation, and (2) the degree of the physician's or pharmacist's duties of care and information. In total, 126 cases were collected. The number of drug categories classified was 27, and 9 were considered of practical importance. After this systematic review, we found a trend in the degree of the required level of care and information on several drugs. With respect to duties of care and information, the gap between the required level and actual practice suggests that healthcare professionals must improve their care and explanations.

  17. College or Training Programs: How to Decide. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c115

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A high school diploma opens the door to many exciting new options. These might include a first full-time job, or part-time or full-time attendance at a technical school, community college, or university. Students might want to obtain a certificate, an associate degree, or a diploma. With so many choices, it can be a challenge to decide which path…

  18. Who should decide how much and what information is important in person-centred health care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    implicitly segues into the patient having made a 'good decision'. In person-centred health care, whether, in what form, and with what weight, 'information' is included as a criterion of decision quality is a matter for the person involved, to decide in the light of their own values, preferences, and time...

  19. Safety verification of non-linear hybrid systems is quasi-decidable

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratschan, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 71-90 ISSN 0925-9856 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP202/12/J060 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : hybrid system s * safety verification * decidability * robustness Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2014

  20. Re-Imagining Specialized STEM Academies: Igniting and Nurturing "Decidedly Different Minds", by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephanie Pace

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a personal vision and conceptual design for reimagining specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) academies designed to nurture "decidedly different" STEM minds and ignite a new generation of global STEM talent, innovation, and entrepreneurial leadership. This design enables students to engage…

  1. 20 CFR 670.200 - Who decides where Job Corps centers will be located?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for making decisions concerning the establishment, relocation, expansion, or closing of contract... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who decides where Job Corps centers will be located? 670.200 Section 670.200 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. What makes men and women with musculoskeletal complaints decide they are too sick to work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Westerman, M.J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine what makes men and women with musculoskeletal complaints decide to call in sick for work. Methods: Qualitative, face-to-face interviews were used with employees (16 men and 14 women) who had called in sick due to a musculoskeletal complaint and

  3. E-DECIDER Rapid Response to the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Eguchi, R. T.; Huyck, C. K.; Hu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    E-DECIDER initiated rapid response mode when the California Earthquake Clearinghouse was activated the morning following the M6 Napa earthquake. Data products, including: 1) rapid damage and loss estimates, 2) deformation magnitude and slope change maps, and 3) aftershock forecasts were provided to the Clearinghouse partners within 24 hours of the event via XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration sharing. NASA data products were provided to end-users via XchangeCore, EERI and Clearinghouse websites, and ArcGIS online for Napa response, reaching a wide response audience. The E-DECIDER team helped facilitate rapid delivery of NASA products to stakeholders and participated in Clearinghouse Napa earthquake briefings to update stakeholders on product information. Rapid response products from E-DECIDER can be used to help prioritize response efforts shortly after the event has occurred. InLET (Internet Loss Estimation Tool) post-event damage and casualty estimates were generated quickly after the Napa earthquake. InLET provides immediate post-event estimates of casualties and building damage by performing loss/impact simulations using USGS ground motion data and FEMA HAZUS damage estimation technology. These results were provided to E-DECIDER by their collaborators, ImageCat, Inc. and the Community Stakeholder Network (CSN). Strain magnitude and slope change maps were automatically generated when the Napa earthquake appeared on the USGS feed. These maps provide an early estimate of where the deformation has occurred and where damage may be localized. Using E-DECIDER critical infrastructure overlays with damage estimates, decision makers can direct response effort that can be verified later with field reconnaissance and remote sensing-based observations. Earthquake aftershock forecast maps were produced within hours of the event. These maps highlight areas where aftershocks are likely to occur and can also be coupled with infrastructure overlays to help direct response

  4. Deciding Not to Un-Do the "I Do:" Therapy Experiences of Women Who Consider Divorce But Decide to Remain Married.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanewischer, Erica J W; Harris, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    This study explores women's experience of marital therapy while they navigated decision making around divorce. A qualitative method was used to gain a deeper understanding of the participants' therapy and relationship decision-making experiences. How are women's decisions whether or not to exit their marriage affected by therapy? The researchers interviewed 15 women who had considered initiating divorce before they turned 40 and had attended at least five marital therapy sessions but ultimately decided not to divorce. In general, participants reported that the therapy was helpful to them, their decision-making process and their marriages. Five main themes emerged from the interviews: Women Initiated Therapy, Therapist Was Experienced as Unbiased, Therapy was Helpful, Importance of Extra-therapeutic Factors, and Gradual Process. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  5. 5 CFR 890.1069 - Information the debarring official must consider in deciding a provider's contest of proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... deciding a provider's contest of proposed penalties and assessments. (a) Documentary material and written...

  6. Robin Hood vs. King John Redistribution: How Do Local Judges Decide Cases In Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Ivan Cesar

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses two opposed hypotheses to predict the behavior of judges when they have to decide a claim between parties with asymmetrical eco- nomic and political power. The .rst, which has broad acceptance among policy makers in Brazil, is the jurisdictional uncertainty hypothesis (Arida et al, 2005) that suggests that Brazilian judges tend to favor the weak party in the claim as a form of social justice and redistribution of income in favor of the poor. Glaeser et al (2003) stated ...

  7. Why do some entrepreneurs decide to give up? Exploring the causes through cognitive maps

    OpenAIRE

    Khelil, N.; Hammer, M.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the contributions of previous studies, no satisfying answer has been provided to explain why some entrepreneurs decided to exit from entrepreneurship. This question will remain extremely complex and difficult to answer if researchers continue to study this phenomenon using uni-dimensional and/or binary approach. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding the complexity of entrepreneurial exit by proposing an integrative and typological framework. This study seeks...

  8. Research on Investment Estimation when Deciding to Start a new Business.

    OpenAIRE

    Guga, L.

    2014-01-01

    An entrepreneur has to follow several steps when deciding to start a new business. Starting a business involves planning, making key financial decisions, completing a series of legal activities, hiring reliable employees and after all of this the success of the new firm is determined by a few steps, which every manager must take into account. One of these steps is adopting a company name, the calling card of the business, taking into consideration the related tips regarding its selection....

  9. Quasi-Decidability of a Fragment of the First-Order Theory of Real Numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franek, Peter; Ratschan, Stefan; Zgliczynski, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2016), s. 157-185 ISSN 0168-7433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP202/12/J060; GA MŠk OC10048; GA ČR GA15-14484S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decidability * decision procedure * real numbers Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.636, year: 2016

  10. Flowchart Programs, Regular Expressions, and Decidability of Polynomial Growth-Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Amram, Amir M.; Pineles, Aviad

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for inferring complexity properties for a class of programs in the form of flowcharts annotated with loop information. Specifically, our method can (soundly and completely) decide if computed values are polynomially bounded as a function of the input; and similarly for the running time. Such complexity properties are undecidable for a Turing-complete programming language, and a common work-around in program analysis is to settle for sound but incomplete solutions. In ...

  11. How Nurses Decide to Ambulate Hospitalized Older Adults: Development of a Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-King, Barbara; Bowers, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Adults over the age of 65 years account for 60% of all hospital admissions and experience consequential negative outcomes directly related to hospitalization. Negative outcomes include falls, delirium, loss in ability to perform basic activities of daily living, and new walking dependence. New walking dependence, defined as the loss in ability to…

  12. Split views among parents regarding children's right to decide about participation in research: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartling, U; Helgesson, G; Hansson, M G; Ludvigsson, J

    2009-07-01

    Based on extensive questionnaire data, this paper focuses on parents' views about children's right to decide about participation in research. The data originates from 4000 families participating in a longitudinal prospective screening as 1997. Although current regulations and recommendations underline that children should have influence over their participation, many parents in this study disagree. Most (66%) were positive providing information to the child about relevant aspects of the study. However, responding parents were split about whether or not children should at some point be allowed decisional authority when participating in research: 41.6% of the parents reported being against or unsure. Those who responded positively believed that children should be allowed to decide about blood-sampling procedures (70%), but to a less extent about participation (48.5%), analyses of samples (19.7%) and biological bank storage (15.4%). That as many as possible should remain in the study, and that children do not have the competence to understand the consequences for research was strongly stressed by respondents who do not think children should have a right to decide. When asked what interests they consider most important in paediatric research, child autonomy and decision-making was ranked lowest. We discuss the implications of these findings.

  13. ¿Un fin o un medio?: Contexto en el que se decide la reproducción An end or means?: context where reproduction is decided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Estela Jaramillo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudio cualitativo que explora el proceso de toma de decisiones en la reproducción. Describe el contexto para dicha decisión. Se entrevistan 17 hombres y 23 mujeres, entre 20 y 35 años, de diferentes estratos sociales, procedencias y niveles educativos, con relación de pareja mayor a un año. Metodológicamente se apoya en la teoría fundada y el interaccionismo simbólico. Los hallazgos muestran diferentes significados de reproducirse y de interpretar las normas de género, los cuales guían las decisiones sobre la descendencia. Cuando las parejas entienden la reproducción como un fin, deciden prepararse y planear el número y el momento de realizarla. Son decisiones dialogadas y concertadas a la luz de sus planes de vida. Cuando entienden reproducirse como un medio para lograr fines individuales, como son, desde lo masculino obtener placer sexual o cuidados, y desde lo femenino, encontrar estabilidad afectiva, emocional y económica para tener unas determinadas condiciones de vida, las decisiones son individuales no negociadas. No se preparan, e interpretan rígidamente las normas de género, lo cual conduce a relaciones de inequidad. La reproducción no es motivo de preocupación y en consecuencia, los hijos aparecen inesperadamente, lo que se convierte en motivo permanente de conflicto entre la pareja.Qualitative study which explores the decision-making process in reproduction. This article describes the context to decide reproduction. Seventeen (17 men and 23 women, between 20 and 35 years old from different social strata and educational levels, with over one year of couple relationship were interviewed. This study is methodologically based on the funded theory and symbolic interactionism. The findings show different meanings of reproduction and interpretation of the principles of gender which guide the decisions regarding offspring. When a couple understands reproduction as an end, they decide to prepare themselves and to plan the

  14. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it must...

  15. 12 CFR 617.7615 - What should the System institution do when it decides to lease acquired agricultural real estate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to lease acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7615 Section 617.7615 Banks and Banking FARM... the System institution do when it decides to lease acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the... real estate at a rate equivalent to the appraised rental value of the property. (1) Within 15 days...

  16. 12 CFR 617.7620 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or a...

  17. 42 CFR 83.16 - How will the Secretary decide the outcome(s) of a petition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will the Secretary decide the outcome(s) of a... AS MEMBERS OF THE SPECIAL EXPOSURE COHORT UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS... Secretary decide the outcome(s) of a petition? (a) The Director of NIOSH will propose a decision to add or...

  18. How do local governments decide on public policy in fiscal federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature widely assumes that taxes are optimized in local public finance while expenditures adjust residually. This paper endogenizes the choice of the optimization variable. In particular, it analyzes how federal policy toward local governments influences the way local governments...... decide on public policy. Unlike the usual presumption, the paper shows that local governments may choose to optimize over expenditures. The result holds when federal policy subsidizes local taxation. The results offer a new perspective of the efficiency implications of federal policy toward local...

  19. How Do Local Governments Decide on Public Policy in Fiscal Federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Previous literature widely assumes that taxes are optimized in local public finance while expenditures adjust residually. This paper endogenizes the choice of the optimization variable. In particular, it analyzes how federal policy toward local governments influences the way local governments...... decide on public policy. Unlike the presumption, the paper shows that local governments may choose to optimize over expenditures. The result most notably prevails when federal policy subsidizes local fiscal effort. The results offer a new perspective of the efficiency implications of federal policy...

  20. Trends in Energy. 'The consumer decides'; Trends in Energy. 'De consument bepaalt'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezowsky-Ruys, Y.; Van der Zalm, M.; Van Zutphen, M. [eds.

    2012-03-15

    A report is given of the Capgemini organised congress 'Trends in Energy 2011' which has the Dutch subtitle 'De consument bepaalt' (The consumer decides'. The focus of the articles, interviews, debates and presentations is on the role of the consumer in the supply of and demand for energy. Parts of the report are in Dutch and English [Dutch] Dit rapport bestaat uit een verslag van het congres 'Trends in Energy 2011. De consument bepaalt' en een aantal artikelen met achtergrondinformatie over onder meer de rol van de consument in vraag en aanbod van energie.

  1. Improving Breast Cancer Surgical Treatment Decision Making: The iCanDecide Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Sarah T; Li, Yun; An, Lawrence C; Resnicow, Kenneth; Janz, Nancy K; Sabel, Michael S; Ward, Kevin C; Fagerlin, Angela; Morrow, Monica; Jagsi, Reshma; Hofer, Timothy P; Katz, Steven J

    2018-03-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine the effect of iCanDecide, an interactive and tailored breast cancer treatment decision tool, on the rate of high-quality patient decisions-both informed and values concordant-regarding locoregional breast cancer treatment and on patient appraisal of decision making. Methods We conducted a randomized clinical trial of newly diagnosed patients with early-stage breast cancer making locoregional treatment decisions. From 22 surgical practices, 537 patients were recruited and randomly assigned online to the iCanDecide interactive and tailored Web site (intervention) or the iCanDecide static Web site (control). Participants completed a baseline survey and were mailed a follow-up survey 4 to 5 weeks after enrollment to assess the primary outcome of a high-quality decision, which consisted of two components, high knowledge and values-concordant treatment, and secondary outcomes (decision preparation, deliberation, and subjective decision quality). Results Patients in the intervention arm had higher odds of making a high-quality decision than did those in the control arm (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.92; P = .0004), which was driven primarily by differences in the rates of high knowledge between groups. The majority of patients in both arms made values-concordant treatment decisions (78.6% in the intervention arm and 81.4% in the control arm). More patients in the intervention arm had high decision preparation (estimate, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.34; P = .027), but there were no significant differences in the other decision appraisal outcomes. The effect of the intervention was similar for women who were leaning strongly toward a treatment option at enrollment compared with those who were not. Conclusion The tailored and interactive iCanDecide Web site, which focused on knowledge building and values clarification, positively affected high-quality decisions largely by improving knowledge compared with static online

  2. How many invariant polynomials are needed to decide local unitary equivalence of qubit states?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciążek, Tomasz; Oszmaniec, Michał; Sawicki, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Given L-qubit states with the fixed spectra of reduced one-qubit density matrices, we find a formula for the minimal number of invariant polynomials needed for solving local unitary (LU) equivalence problem, that is, problem of deciding if two states can be connected by local unitary operations. Interestingly, this number is not the same for every collection of the spectra. Some spectra require less polynomials to solve LU equivalence problem than others. The result is obtained using geometric methods, i.e., by calculating the dimensions of reduced spaces, stemming from the symplectic reduction procedure

  3. Usefulness of 67Ga scintigraphy in deciding surgical indication in secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Mimura, Hiroaki; Sone, Teruki; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Fukunaga, Masao; Katagiri, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness in deciding surgical indication in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP), 67 Ga scintigraphy was performed in 37 patients of SHP before parathyroidectomy (PTx). The radionuclide accumulation in skull and submandible was classified into 4 patterns (skull-submandibular pattern, skull pattern, submandibular pattern and normal pattern). Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in patients of skull-submandibular pattern (13 cases) compared with skull pattern (6 cases), submandibular pattern (6 cases) and normal pattern (12 cases). Serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were significantly elevated in patients of skull-submandibular and skull patterns compared with normal pattern. No significant difference was observed among the weight of resected parathyroid glands. In 4 of 6 patients of normal pattern on 67 Ga scintigram, bone scintigraphy showed a characteristic pattern of SHP including an increased accumulation in the skull and submandible. Bone mineral density (BMD) in the distal radius was increased within six to twelve months after PTx in 10 of 11 patients of skull-submandibular pattern on 67 Ga scintigram, whereas only one patient showed an increase in BMD in 9 patients of normal pattern. In summary, it was concluded that 67 Ga scintigraphy could provide a useful information in deciding the indication for PTx in secondary hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  4. Flowchart Programs, Regular Expressions, and Decidability of Polynomial Growth-Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Ben-Amram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method for inferring complexity properties for a class of programs in the form of flowcharts annotated with loop information. Specifically, our method can (soundly and completely decide if computed values are polynomially bounded as a function of the input; and similarly for the running time. Such complexity properties are undecidable for a Turing-complete programming language, and a common work-around in program analysis is to settle for sound but incomplete solutions. In contrast, we consider a class of programs that is Turing-incomplete, but strong enough to include several challenges for this kind of analysis. For a related language that has well-structured syntax, similar to Meyer and Ritchie's LOOP programs, the problem has been previously proved to be decidable. The analysis relied on the compositionality of programs, hence the challenge in obtaining similar results for flowchart programs with arbitrary control-flow graphs. Our answer to the challenge is twofold: first, we propose a class of loop-annotated flowcharts, which is more general than the class of flowcharts that directly represent structured programs; secondly, we present a technique to reuse the ideas from the work on tructured programs and apply them to such flowcharts. The technique is inspired by the classic translation of non-deterministic automata to regular expressions, but we obviate the exponential cost of constructing such an expression, obtaining a polynomial-time analysis. These ideas may well be applicable to other analysis problems.

  5. Right to decide and self-determination in the Catalan case. Analysis and reflection according to the Spanish Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Marietta OLCESE SCHENONE

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the issue of the right to decide and self-determination in the current case of Catalonia from a legal point of view and within the Spanish constitutional framework. In particular, this analysis explores three aspects: a) The right to self-determination, general aspects and the Spanish Constitution; b) The right to decide as a regional consultation or referendum under Spanish law; c) Initiative of constitutional reform as a possible way to deal with the separatist aspiration...

  6. Involving Communities in Deciding What Benefits They Receive in Multinational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Shah, Seema

    2015-10-01

    There is wide agreement that communities in lower-income countries should benefit when they participate in multinational research. Debate now focuses on how and to what extent these communities should benefit. This debate has identified compelling reasons to reject the claim that whatever benefits a community agrees to accept are necessarily fair. Yet, those who conduct clinical research may conclude from this rejection that there is no reason to involve communities in the process of deciding how they benefit. Against this possibility, the present manuscript argues that involving host communities in this process helps to promote four important goals: (1) protecting host communities, (2) respecting host communities, (3) promoting transparency, and (4) enhancing social value. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Inc. 2015.

  7. Internal audit assurance or consulting services rendered on governance: How does one decide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Wilkinson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of organisational governance maturity and what exactly this entails is still perceived as somewhat of a mystery to most and, as a result, internal auditing find themselves in a dilemma when deciding which services to deliver in this regard. The objective of this article was to develop an organisational governance maturity framework that could be used as a measurement tool to assist internal auditing in this dilemma. A preliminary organisational governance maturity framework was developed based on the most relevant literature. A case study was conducted to obtain feedback on the preliminary framework from key stakeholders in the organisation. The results indicated that the framework significantly contributed to the determining and continuous monitoring of governance maturity; both for management and internal auditing.

  8. Research on Investment Estimation when Deciding to Start a new Business.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guga, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An entrepreneur has to follow several steps when deciding to start a new business. Starting a business involves planning, making key financial decisions, completing a series of legal activities, hiring reliable employees and after all of this the success of the new firm is determined by a few steps, which every manager must take into account. One of these steps is adopting a company name, the calling card of the business, taking into consideration the related tips regarding its selection. Entrepreneur must estimate the initial investment and the necessary financial resources. When talking about a company its mission must be clear and easy to understand. Thus, the description of the main activity and the general environment must be present in the business plan as well.

  9. PSI decides to write off most of its $2.7B Marble Hill investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    After the Indiana Supreme Court ruled last November that the utility may not recover its investment from the cancelled plant, Public Service Indiana (PSI) decided to write off a substantial portion of the $2.7 million already invested in the cancelled Marble Hill nuclear plant. The board will omit common stock dividends for three years and the preferred stock dividend for the first quarter. It will also accept a negotiated rate settlement of 8.2% increase. A 5% emergency surcharge will become permanent. The settlement calls for the utility to restrict capital expenditures over the next three years to the $285.1 million already budgeted for construction. Opposition from a consumers group argues that ratepayers should not be the risk bearers for PSI, but the utility argues that its long-term financial health depends on attracting and keeping investors

  10. Cerebral microdialysis and PtiO2 to decide unilateral decompressive craniectomy after brain gunshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boret Henry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decompressive craniectomy (DC following brain injury can induce complications (hemorrhage, infection, and hygroma. It is then considered as a last-tier therapy, and can be deleteriously delayed. Focal neuromonitoring (microdialysis and PtiO2 can help clinicians to decide bedside to perform DC in case of intracranial pressure (ICP around 20 to 25 mmHg despite maximal medical treatment. This was the case of a hunter, brain injured by gunshot. DC was performed at day 6, because of unstable ICP, ischemic trend of PtiO2, and decreased cerebral glucose but normal lactate/pyruvate ratio. His evolution was good despite left hemiplegia due to initial injury.

  11. Was R (Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union correctly decided?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Nolan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacob M. Nolan gives a timely examination of the case of R (on the application of Miller and Dos Santos v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union – arguably amongst the most important cases on constitutional law decided by the UK Supreme Court. In this landmark case the Supreme Court was required to rule on whether the UK Government (the executive could trigger Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union without the authorisation of an Act of Parliament, through the use of the Crown’s prerogative. On an 8 – 3 majority, with Lords Reed, Carnwath, and Hughes dissenting, the Supreme Court upheld the previous High Court ruling that an Act of Parliament was first required.

  12. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....

  13. Consideration on risk of drinking water. How was the regulation value in water decided?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami Michio

    2011-01-01

    This is an explanatory lecture record of the title subject, motivated by detection of radioactivity in tap water of Tokyo (I-131, 30 Bq/kg) in March 2011. The author explains the process of the detection in comparison with radioactivity in the vegetables and Fukushima spinach, and refers with temporary regulation values (March to April) of Cs-134, 137, U and Pu/transuranium elements as well as I-131 in drinking water and other foods. Also commented is that even water with satisfactorily less than the standard value cannot be said to be absolutely safe. Japan generally decides the standard value based on World Health Organization (WHO) guideline which assumes no threshold for radiation carcinogenesis. Relationship between low dose exposure in Hiroshima and carcinogenesis is obscure, of which situation is also similar in Chinese Guangdon where natural dose is always higher than other areas of the world. The regulation values above are derived from the index values decided by Nuclear Safety Committee of Japan (NSCJ) and Codex committee founded by FAO and WHO, and used at emergency, not at ordinary. Then explained are concept for calculation of regulation values, actual calculating equations of the value for water according to WHO, Codex and NSCJ, and of index values of I-131 and Cs by NSCJ. Exposure dose by I-131 in water and food in Tokyo is actually estimated in this paper to consider its risk (carcinogenic, 0.3/100 thousands people/year) by comparison with other matters like arsenic exposure (1.3) and traffic accident (deaths, 4.5). Lastly, the author warns with Sedgwick's words that Standards are devices to keep the lazy mind from thinking. (T.T.)

  14. Are women deciding against home births in low and middle income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Padmadas, Sabu S; Matthews, Zoë

    2013-01-01

    Although there is evidence to tracking progress towards facility births within the UN Millennium Development Goals framework, we do not know whether women are deciding against home birth over their reproductive lives. Using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data from 44 countries, this study aims to investigate the patterns and shifts in childbirth locations and to determine whether these shifts are in favour of home or health settings. The analyses considered 108,777 women who had at least two births in the five years preceding the most recent DHS over the period 2000-2010. The vast majority of women opted for the same place of childbirth for their successive births. However, about 14% did switch their place and not all these decisions favoured health facility over home setting. In 24 of the 44 countries analysed, a higher proportion of women switched from a health facility to home. Multilevel regression analyses show significantly higher odds of switching from home to a facility for high parity women, those with frequent antenatal visits and more wealth. However, in countries with high infant mortality rates, low parity women had an increased probability of switching from home to a health facility. There is clear evidence that women do change their childbirth locations over successive births in low and middle income countries. After two decades of efforts to improve maternal health, it might be expected that a higher proportion of women will be deciding against home births in favour of facility births. The results from this analysis show that is not the case.

  15. Are women deciding against home births in low and middle income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiifi Amoako Johnson

    Full Text Available Although there is evidence to tracking progress towards facility births within the UN Millennium Development Goals framework, we do not know whether women are deciding against home birth over their reproductive lives. Using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS data from 44 countries, this study aims to investigate the patterns and shifts in childbirth locations and to determine whether these shifts are in favour of home or health settings.The analyses considered 108,777 women who had at least two births in the five years preceding the most recent DHS over the period 2000-2010. The vast majority of women opted for the same place of childbirth for their successive births. However, about 14% did switch their place and not all these decisions favoured health facility over home setting. In 24 of the 44 countries analysed, a higher proportion of women switched from a health facility to home. Multilevel regression analyses show significantly higher odds of switching from home to a facility for high parity women, those with frequent antenatal visits and more wealth. However, in countries with high infant mortality rates, low parity women had an increased probability of switching from home to a health facility.There is clear evidence that women do change their childbirth locations over successive births in low and middle income countries. After two decades of efforts to improve maternal health, it might be expected that a higher proportion of women will be deciding against home births in favour of facility births. The results from this analysis show that is not the case.

  16. Deciding to work during the Ebola outbreak: The voices and experiences of nurses and midwives in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhuvwukorotu S. Kollie

    Full Text Available In this study we explored the experiences of nurses and midwives, including the process involved in deciding whether or not to render care to patients during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia, West Africa. Data were collected from 30 registered nurses and registered midwives through face-to-face, semi-structured, tape-recorded interviews. We combined both Corbin and Strauss (2015 and Charmaz (2014 grounded theory methods of data collection and analysis. The result is a description of the experiences and a conceptual model that describes the social process involved in the work decisions made by the study participants. The core category identified in the data is “living in fear and terror.” The work decisions of nurses and midwives were primarily influenced by family responsibilities and demands. The findings of this study could be applied to education, research, and working policies when planning for future disease outbreaks in Liberia and other regions in the world. Keywords: Grounded theory, Health care, Work environment, Midwifery, Nursing

  17. Discounted Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ody, Heinrich; Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2016-01-01

    To formally reason about the temporal quality of systems discounting was introduced to CTL and LTL. However, these logic are discrete and they cannot express duration properties. In this work we introduce discounting for a variant of Duration Calculus. We prove decidability of model checking...... for a useful fragment of discounted Duration Calculus formulas on timed automata under mild assumptions. Further, we provide an extensive example to show the usefulness of the fragment....

  18. Testing Linear Temporal Logic Formulae on Finite Execution Traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an algorithm for efficiently testing Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulae on finite execution traces. The standard models of LTL are infinite traces, reflecting the behavior of reactive and concurrent systems which conceptually may be continuously alive. In most past applications of LTL. theorem provers and model checkers have been used to formally prove that down-scaled models satisfy such LTL specifications. Our goal is instead to use LTL for up-scaled testing of real software applications. Such tests correspond to analyzing the conformance of finite traces against LTL formulae. We first describe what it means for a finite trace to satisfy an LTL property. We then suggest an optimized algorithm based on transforming LTL formulae. The work is done using the Maude rewriting system. which turns out to provide a perfect notation and an efficient rewriting engine for performing these experiments.

  19. 30 CFR 204.208 - May a State decide that it will or will not allow one or both of the relief options under this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.208 May a State decide that it will or will not allow one or both of the relief options under this subpart? (a) A State may decide in advance that it... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a State decide that it will or will not...

  20. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  1. How US institutional review boards decide when researchers need to translate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Informed consent is crucial in research, but potential participants may not all speak the same language, posing questions that have not been examined concerning decisions by institutional review boards (IRBs) and research ethics committees' (RECs) about the need for researchers to translate consent forms and other study materials. Sixty US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by The National Institutes of Health funding) were contacted, and leaders (eg, chairs) from 34 (response rate=57%) and an additional 12 members and administrators were interviewed. IRBs face a range of problems about translation of informed consent documents, questionnaires and manuals-what, when and how to translate (eg, for how many or what proportion of potential subjects), why to do so and how to decide. Difficulties can arise about translation of specific words and of broader cultural concepts regarding processes of informed consent and research, especially in the developing world. In these decisions, IRBs weigh the need for autonomy (through informed consent) and justice (to ensure fair distribution of benefits and burdens of research) against practical concerns about costs to researchers. At times IRBs may have to compromise between these competing goals. These data, the first to examine when and how IRBs/RECs require researchers to translate materials, thus highlight a range of problems with which these committees struggle, suggesting a need for further normative and empirical investigation of these domains, and consideration of guidelines to help IRBs deal with these tensions.

  2. Slime moulds use heuristics based on within-patch experience to decide when to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2015-04-15

    Animals foraging in patchy, non-renewing or slowly renewing environments must make decisions about how long to remain within a patch. Organisms can use heuristics ('rules of thumb') based on available information to decide when to leave the patch. Here, we investigated proximate patch-departure heuristics in two species of giant, brainless amoeba: the slime moulds Didymium bahiense and Physarum polycephalum. We explicitly tested the importance of information obtained through experience by eliminating chemosensory cues of patch quality. In P. polycephalum, patch departure was influenced by the consumption of high, and to a much lesser extent low, quality food items such that engulfing a food item increased patch-residency time. Physarum polycephalum also tended to forage for longer in darkened, 'safe' patches. In D. bahiense, engulfment of any food item increased patch residency irrespective of that food item's quality. Exposure to light had no effect on the patch-residency time of D. bahiense. Given that these organisms lack a brain, our results illustrate how the use of simple heuristics can give the impression that individuals make sophisticated foraging decisions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Sense, decide, act, communicate (SDAC): next generation of smart sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nina; Davis, Jesse; Ko, Teresa H.; Kyker, Ron; Pate, Ron; Stark, Doug; Stinnett, Regan; Baker, James; Cushner, Adam; Van Dyke, Colin; Kyckelhahn, Brian

    2004-09-01

    The recent war on terrorism and increased urban warfare has been a major catalysis for increased interest in the development of disposable unattended wireless ground sensors. While the application of these sensors to hostile domains has been generally governed by specific tasks, this research explores a unique paradigm capitalizing on the fundamental functionality related to sensor systems. This functionality includes a sensors ability to Sense - multi-modal sensing of environmental events, Decide - smart analysis of sensor data, Act - response to environmental events, and Communication - internal to system and external to humans (SDAC). The main concept behind SDAC sensor systems is to integrate the hardware, software, and networking to generate 'knowledge and not just data'. This research explores the usage of wireless SDAC units to collectively make up a sensor system capable of persistent, adaptive, and autonomous behavior. These systems are base on the evaluation of scenarios and existing systems covering various domains. This paper presents a promising view of sensor network characteristics, which will eventually yield smart (intelligent collectives) network arrays of SDAC sensing units generally applicable to multiple related domains. This paper will also discuss and evaluate the demonstration system developed to test the concepts related to SDAC systems.

  4. Adolescents with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa: parents' experience of recognition and deciding to seek help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Samuel; Marriott, Michael; Telford, Katherine; Law, Hou; McLaughlin, Jo; Sayal, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa rarely present themselves as having a problem and are usually reliant on parents to recognise the problem and facilitate help-seeking. This study aimed to investigate parents' experiences of recognising that their child had an eating problem and deciding to seek help. A qualitative study with interpretative phenomenological analysis applied to semi-structured interviews with eight parents of adolescents with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. Parents commonly attributed early signs of anorexia nervosa to normal adolescent development and they expected weight loss to be short-lived. As parents' suspicions grew, close monitoring exposing their child's secretive attempts to lose weight and the use of internet searches aided parental recognition of the problem. They avoided using the term anorexia as it made the problem seem 'real'. Following serial unsuccessful attempts to effect change, parental fear for their child's life triggered a desire for professional help. Parents require early advice and support to confirm their suspicions that their child might have anorexia nervosa. Since parents commonly approach the internet for guidance, improving awareness of useful and accurate websites could reduce delays in help-seeking.

  5. Deciding on gender in children with intersex conditions: considerations and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyen, Ute; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Wiesemann, Claudia; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Hiort, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    Biologic factors such as genetic and hormonal influences contribute to gender identity, gender role behavior, and sexual orientation in humans, but this relationship is considerably modified by psychologic, social, and cultural factors. The recognition of biologically determined conditions leading to incongruity of genetically determined sex, somatic phenotype, and gender identity has led to growing interest in gender role development and gender identity in individuals with intersex conditions. Sex assignment of children with ambiguous genitalia remains a difficult decision for the families involved and subject to controversial discussion among professionals and self-help groups. Although systematic empirical data on outcomes of functioning and health-related quality of life are sparse, anecdotal evidence from case series and individual patients about their experiences in healthcare suggests traumatic experiences in some. This article reviews the earlier 'optimal gender policy' as well as the more recent 'full consent policy' and reviews published data on both surgical and psychosocial outcomes. The professional debate on deciding on sex assignment in children with intersex conditions is embedded in a much wider public discourse on gender as a social construction. Given that the empirical basis of our knowledge of the causes, treatment options, long-term outcomes, and patient preferences is insufficient, we suggest preliminary recommendations based on clinical experience, study of the literature, and interviews with affected individuals.

  6. Function of One Regular Separable Relation Set Decided for the Minimal Covering in Multiple Valued Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-valued logic is an important branch of the computer science and technology. Multiple-valued logic studies the theory, multiple-valued circuit & multiple-valued system, and the applications of multiple-valued logic included.In the theory of multiple-valued logic, one primary and important problem is the completeness of function sets, which can be solved depending on the decision for all the precomplete sets(also called maximal closed sets of K-valued function sets noted by PK*, and another is the decision for Sheffer function, which can be totally solved by picking out all of the minimal covering of the precomplete sets. In the function structure theory of multi-logic, decision on Sheffer function is an important role. It contains structure and decision of full multi-logic and partial multi-logic. Its decision is closely related to decision of completeness of function which can be done by deciding the minimal covering of full multi-logic and partial-logic. By theory of completeness of partial multi-logic, we prove that function of one regular separable relation is not minimal covering of PK* under the condition of m = 2, σ = e.

  7. Application towards the Concept of Rechtsvinding and Rechtsschepping by the Judges in Deciding a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harifin A. Tumpa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The judge may not refuse to examine and to decide a case which has been submitted to the court despite having unclear or non-existent legal pretext. The judge are expected to be able to explore values and sense of justice that grows and embodies the community as the living law. The concept of justice here is not the outcome by the human intellectualism, but rather from his/her own spirit. A justice could not exist or be born from a mere theory, because justice is naturally born from the deepest conscience of a judge who is also a human being. A person’s conscience can not come in sudden, but was born through the process, practice or habit. Either legal finding (Rechtsvinding or the creation of law (rechtsschepping should be used in providing justice for litigants as follows: First, in absence of the relevant rules within the existing legislation. Second, regulated by the law but insufficiently clear and contain multi-interpretations. Third, regulated by the law but no longer meet the public sense of justice (out of date. Fourth, based on a jurisprudence or an expert opinion.

  8. Right to decide and self-determination in the Catalan case. Analysis and reflection according to the Spanish Constitutional Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Marietta OLCESE SCHENONE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the issue of the right to decide and self-determination in the current case of Catalonia from a legal point of view and within the Spanish constitutional framework. In particular, this analysis explores three aspects: a The right to self-determination, general aspects and the Spanish Constitution; b The right to decide as a regional consultation or referendum under Spanish law; c Initiative of constitutional reform as a possible way to deal with the separatist aspirations of Catalonia. 

  9. [Reasons for deciding to die in hospital or at home. The vision of professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Asensio-Pérez, Mª de Los Reyes; Palomo-Lara, Juan Carlos; Ramírez-López, Encarnación Bella; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2018-05-21

    To discover the reasons for deciding to die in hospital or at home, from the perspective of professionals involved. Qualitative phenomenological study. Intentional sample. Four multidisciplinary focus groups were held, two in hospitals and two in primary care centres in Seville (Spain). Twenty-nine professionals with at least two years experience in the care of people with a terminal disease participated, following the theoretical saturation of information criterion. Responses from the first script were gathered in three core categories: patient and the family, professionals and care process. Patients are generally not asked about their preferences as to where they wish to die, and if their family is not aware of their preference, it is not possible to carry out advanced planning of care. Families tend to choose the hospital because of the possibility of monitoring and resources in primary care. Professionals are trained in how to approach death, but they do not feel sufficiently prepared and focus on the clinical and administrative issues. The care process favours oncology patients because it is easier to identify their illness as terminal. Resources are not equal and interlevel communication needs to be improved. The family's involvement in the process is not facilitated, which impedes their decision-making. Advance care planning and use of the advance directive should be promoted, as well as, interlevel communication and coordination, supply resources, especially in primary care, and professionals should receive training on how to approach death.. The patient's family should be involved in the care process and provided the necessary support. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Deciding on Science: An Analysis of Higher Education Science Student Major Choice Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen Wilson

    The number of college students choosing to major in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in the United States affects the size and quality of the American workforce (Winters, 2009). The number of graduates in these academic fields has been on the decline in the United States since the 1960s, which, according to Lips and McNeil (2009), has resulted in a diminished ability of the United States to compete in science and engineering on the world stage. The purpose of this research was to learn why students chose a STEM major and determine what decision criteria influenced this decision. According to Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), the key components of decision-making can be quantified and used as predictors of behavior. In this study the STEM majors' decision criteria were compared between different institution types (two-year, public four-year, and private four-year), and between demographic groups (age and sex). Career, grade, intrinsic, self-efficacy, and self-determination were reported as motivational factors by a majority of science majors participating in this study. Few students reported being influenced by friends and family when deciding to major in science. Science students overwhelmingly attributed the desire to solve meaningful problems as central to their decision to major in science. A majority of students surveyed credited a teacher for influencing their desire to pursue science as a college major. This new information about the motivational construct of the studied group of science majors can be applied to the previously stated problem of not enough STEM majors in the American higher education system to provide workers required to fill the demand of a globally STEM-competitive United States (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine, 2010).

  11. Prioritizing treatment outcomes: How people with acne vulgaris decide if their treatment is working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Alison M; Whitehouse, Heather; Eady, E Anne; Cowdell, Fiona; Warburton, Katharine L; Fenton, Mark

    2017-08-01

    To collect information about how people with acne make day-to-day decisions concerning the effectiveness of their treatment. Between May and August 2013, an optional question was embedded in the James Lind Alliance Acne Priority Setting Partnership's online survey to collect treatment uncertainties. The question asked people with acne to "Tell us in your own words how you decide if your treatment has been effective." A total of 742 respondents specified at least one outcome or means of assessing change (outcome measure). Fewer spots were the most commonly cited outcome, identified by 272 respondents (36.7%). Other frequently mentioned outcomes were in descending order: less redness (19.4%), reduction in spot size (12.1%), and less pain/discomfort (11.4%). Signs were much more commonly used than symptoms and surrogate outcomes such as changes in aspects of life quality were infrequently mentioned. Visual inspection of the skin was the most widely adopted outcome measure (16.3%). Although the most frequently used methods map well onto the outcome measures adopted in the majority of acne trials, namely physician-assessed changes in lesion counts and global acne severity, people with acne often take into account several factors that cannot be assessed by a third party at a single point in time. The minimal use of changes in psychosocial wellbeing and mood may reflect that these are regarded as secondary consequences of improvements in appearance. The robustness of these findings now requires independent evaluation. If confirmed, they could form the basis of a new patient-reported outcome measure. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. [Prevention of drink driving at academic festivals: «Tú decides» project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malveiro, Jorge; de Jesus, Saul Neves; Viseo, Joao; Pechorro, Pedro; Pacheco, Eusébio; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among university students has reached worrying levels, its effects on driving being highly dangerous. This aspect emphasizes the need to develop prevention programs, intended to raise subjects' awareness about the effects of alcohol on driving. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention program «Tú decides», implemented at the Algarve University during several students festivals, between 2010-2014. Quasi-experimental study, pre-post test without control group. A total of 5,079 participants were inquired. They were asked, at two different moments, before and after the measurement of the blood alcohol level and giving an information session with technical recommendations to prevent driving under alcohol effects. One factor ANOVA test used, in order to perform a mean comparison, as well as the Chi-square statistics, to perform a proportion comparison (p<.05). It was found that the intention to drive was lower at the second moment (42.1%) (χ(2)=2078.71; p=.000). This intention was influenced by blood alcohol level different levels (χ(2)=338.252; p=.000), gender (χ(2)=35.718; p=.000), age (χ(2)=62.805; p=.000) and professional situation of the participants (χ(2)=27.397; p=.001). We can affirm that the main objective of this intervention was achieved, since the participants followed the technical recommendations based on the blood alcohol level results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Perinatal postmortems: what is important to parents and how do they decide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Andrew C G; Statham, Helen; Hackett, Gerald A; Jessop, Flora A; Lees, Christoph C

    2012-03-01

    Falling consent rates for postmortems, regardless of age of death, have been widely reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore parental attitudes to, and decision-making about, a perinatal postmortem after termination for fetal abnormality, late miscarriage, or stillbirth. A prospective self-completion questionnaire was given to 35 women and their partners. The participants had experienced second or third trimester pregnancy loss in a single fetal medicine and delivery unit in the United Kingdom and were making decisions about having a postmortem. They were asked to complete a questionnaire about their attitudes to, and expectations of, a perinatal postmortem. Thirty-one questionnaires were received from parents of 17 babies (49% of those asked; 16 from mothers, 15 from fathers). Parents of nine babies (53%) said they would agree to a full postmortem, of three babies to a limited postmortem, and of four babies to an external examination only; one couple were undecided. The most important issues for the parents in this study that related to their decisions about a postmortem centered on the need for information, both for future planning and about what had happened. Moderately important issues related to altruism, which is, improving medical knowledge and helping other parents experiencing similar bereavement. Among the lowest scoring issues were potential barriers, such as concerns about cultural or religious acceptability of a postmortem, funeral delays, and what would happen to the baby's body. Bereaved parents who participated in this study, where postmortem consent rates were relatively high, thought that their need for knowledge eclipsed assumed barriers when deciding whether or not to have a postmortem for their baby. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Beyond price: individuals' accounts of deciding to pay for private healthcare treatment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Catherine; Rousseau, Nikki; Donaldson, Cam; Steele, Jimmy G

    2012-03-07

    Delivering appropriate and affordable healthcare is a concern across the globe. As countries grapple with the issue of delivering healthcare with finite resources and populations continue to age, more health-related care services or treatments may become an optional 'extra' to be purchased privately. It is timely to consider how, and to what extent, the individual can act as both a 'patient' and a 'consumer'. In the UK the majority of healthcare treatments are free at the point of delivery. However, increasingly some healthcare treatments are being made available via the private healthcare market. Drawing from insights from healthcare policy and social sciences, this paper uses the exemplar of private dental implant treatment provision in the UK to examine what factors people considered when deciding whether or not to pay for a costly healthcare treatment for a non-fatal condition. Qualitative interviews with people (n = 27) who considered paying for dental implants treatments in the UK. Data collection and analysis processes followed the principles of the constant comparative methods, and thematic analysis was facilitated through the use of NVivo qualitative data software. Decisions to pay for private healthcare treatments are not simply determined by price. Decisions are mediated by: the perceived 'status' of the healthcare treatment as either functional or aesthetic; how the individual determines and values their 'need' for the treatment; and, the impact the expenditure may have on themselves and others. Choosing a private healthcare provider is sometimes determined simply by personal rapport or extant clinical relationship, or based on the recommendation of others. As private healthcare markets expand to provide more 'non-essential' services, patients need to develop new skills and to be supported in their new role as consumers.

  15. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  16. How orthodox protestant parents decide on the vaccination of their children: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijs Wilhelmina L M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high vaccination coverage, there have recently been epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases in the Netherlands, largely confined to an orthodox protestant minority with religious objections to vaccination. The orthodox protestant minority consists of various denominations with either low, intermediate or high vaccination coverage. All orthodox protestant denominations leave the final decision to vaccinate or not up to their individual members. Methods To gain insight into how orthodox protestant parents decide on vaccination, what arguments they use, and the consequences of their decisions, we conducted an in-depth interview study of both vaccinating and non-vaccinating orthodox protestant parents selected via purposeful sampling. The interviews were thematically coded by two analysts using the software program Atlas.ti. The initial coding results were reviewed, discussed, and refined by the analysts until consensus was reached. Emerging concepts were assessed for consistency using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. Results After 27 interviews, data saturation was reached. Based on characteristics of the decision-making process (tradition vs. deliberation and outcome (vaccinate or not, 4 subgroups of parents could be distinguished: traditionally non-vaccinating parents, deliberately non-vaccinating parents, deliberately vaccinating parents, and traditionally vaccinating parents. Except for the traditionally vaccinating parents, all used predominantly religious arguments to justify their vaccination decisions. Also with the exception of the traditionally vaccinating parents, all reported facing fears that they had made the wrong decision. This fear was most tangible among the deliberately vaccinating parents who thought they might be punished immediately by God for vaccinating their children and interpreted any side effects as a sign to stop vaccinating. Conclusions Policy makers and health care

  17. How orthodox protestant parents decide on the vaccination of their children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; van Ijzendoorn, Giovanna; van Ansem, Wilke J C; van der Velden, Koos; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2012-06-06

    Despite high vaccination coverage, there have recently been epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases in the Netherlands, largely confined to an orthodox protestant minority with religious objections to vaccination. The orthodox protestant minority consists of various denominations with either low, intermediate or high vaccination coverage. All orthodox protestant denominations leave the final decision to vaccinate or not up to their individual members. To gain insight into how orthodox protestant parents decide on vaccination, what arguments they use, and the consequences of their decisions, we conducted an in-depth interview study of both vaccinating and non-vaccinating orthodox protestant parents selected via purposeful sampling. The interviews were thematically coded by two analysts using the software program Atlas.ti. The initial coding results were reviewed, discussed, and refined by the analysts until consensus was reached. Emerging concepts were assessed for consistency using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. After 27 interviews, data saturation was reached. Based on characteristics of the decision-making process (tradition vs. deliberation) and outcome (vaccinate or not), 4 subgroups of parents could be distinguished: traditionally non-vaccinating parents, deliberately non-vaccinating parents, deliberately vaccinating parents, and traditionally vaccinating parents. Except for the traditionally vaccinating parents, all used predominantly religious arguments to justify their vaccination decisions. Also with the exception of the traditionally vaccinating parents, all reported facing fears that they had made the wrong decision. This fear was most tangible among the deliberately vaccinating parents who thought they might be punished immediately by God for vaccinating their children and interpreted any side effects as a sign to stop vaccinating. Policy makers and health care professionals should stimulate orthodox protestant parents to make a

  18. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1866 - Deciding whether you are a child: Are you the head of a household?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the head of a household. (b) If you share decision-making equally. If you live with one or more people and everyone has an equal voice in the decision-making (for example, a group of students who share off... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deciding whether you are a child: Are you the...

  20. How to decide on the scope, priorities and coordination of information society policy? Analytical framework and three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Kool, L.; Giessen, A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: ICT is everywhere, but information society policy cannot address all the sectors and policy issues in which ICT plays a role. This paper's aim is to develop an analytical framework to assist policy makers in deciding on the priorities and coordination of information society policy.

  1. 42 CFR 59.7 - What criteria will the Department of Health and Human Services use to decide which family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What criteria will the Department of Health and Human Services use to decide which family planning services projects to fund and in what amount? 59.7... FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.7 What criteria will the...

  2. Como o povo decide seu voto? Um estudo de caso do comportamento do eleitor [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.2013011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ferreira Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo tem por objetivo investigar o comportamento do eleitor na escolha do candidato e do partido. A revisão bibliográfica trata das abordagens sobre a formação do comportamento político e opções dos eleitores, segundo fatores econômicos, sociológicos e psicológicos, a partir dos quais se desenvolveu dois modelos conceituais para analise dos pesos dos fatores na escolha do eleitor pelo candidato e partido. Foi realizada uma pesquisa survey na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte em 2010, com 310 eleitores, logo após a eleição de Governador do Estado de Minas Gerais. Os modelos apresentaram pesos significativos na escolha do candidato, nos fatores: a opinião dos amigos/colegas, da família, os eventos correntes e a avaliação do corrente do governo em exercício. A pesquisa contribui para a compreensão dos fatores influentes na decisão pelo voto do eleitor e indica pontos de atenção para a sociedade, pesquisadores, políticos e estabelecimento de estratégicas eleitorais. Sugere-se a replicação dos modelos e métricas adotados em outros pleitos.   Palavras-chave: Comportamento do Eleitor. Voto democrático. Política. Marketing Politico. HOW THE PEOPLE DECIDE THEIR VOTE? A CASE STUDY OF THE VOTER BEHAVIOR Abstract This study has the objective of investigate the vote behavior when choosing candidate and party. The review of the bibliography discusses the approaches to the formation of political behavior and choices of voters, according to economic, sociological and psychological factors, from which it developed two conceptual models to analyze the weights of the factors in the choice of the voter by the candidate and party.  A survey research was conducted in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in 2010, with 310 voters, after the election of the Governor of the State of Minas Gerais. The models showed significant weights related to the selection of the candidate in the following factors: the opinion of friends

  3. Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Oxman, Andrew D; Alderson, Philip; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Brandt, Linn; Brożek, Jan; Davoli, Marina; Flottorp, Signe; Harbour, Robin; Hill, Suzanne; Liberati, Alessandro; Liira, Helena; Schünemann, Holger J; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Thornton, Judith; Vandvik, Per Olav; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2013-01-09

    Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally.

  4. How the Recession Affects the Expectations of Potential Acquirers of Real Estate Right in Deciding to Purchase Property?

    OpenAIRE

    Grum, Bojan; Grum, Darja Kobal

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to identify factors which are critical to potential acquirers of real estate right in deciding to purchase property. We analysed whether the recession is negatively associated with these expectations. The results of 1306 participant show that people generally expressed higher expectations in year 2009 than then in year 2011, as specially reflected by younger participants. Further analyses of the impact of statistically significant differences of potential acquirers of real e...

  5. We decide what we eat: Active involvement of students in developing school health policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Bruun

    2003-01-01

    The article explores different forms of participation related to youngs people's involvement in among other nutrition projects. Furthermore, the notion of action-oriented knowledge is discussed on the basis of a model....

  6. Smoking habits and leukocyte telomere length dynamics among older adults: Results from the ESTHER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Butterbach, Katja; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schick, Matthias; Stammer, Hermann; Boukamp, Petra; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age and short LTL has been associated with increased mortality and increased risk for some age-related outcomes. This study aims to analyse the associations of smoking habits with LTL and rate of LTL change per year in older adults. LTL was measured by quantitative PCR at baseline in 3600 older adults, who were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Germany. For longitudinal analyses, measurements were repeated in blood samples obtained at 8-year follow-up from 1000 participants. Terminal Restriction Fragment analysis was additionally performed in a sub-sample to obtain absolute LTL in base pairs. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate associations of smoking habits with baseline LTL and changes in LTL over time. LTL was inversely associated with age (r=-0.090, pSmoking was inversely associated with LTL. On average, current smokers had 73 base pairs (BP) shorter LTL compared to never smokers. Smoking intensity and pack-years of smoking were also inversely associated with LTL, and a positive association was observed with years since smoking cessation. Slower LTL attrition rates were observed in ever smokers over 8years of follow-up. Our cross-sectional analysis supports suggestions that smoking might contribute to shortening of LTL but this relationship could not be shown longitudinally. The overall rather small effect sizes observed for smoking-related variables suggest that LTL reflects smoking-related health hazards only to a very limited extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 32 CFR 37.1015 - How do I decide who must sign the TIA if the recipient is an unincorporated consortium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I decide who must sign the TIA if the recipient is an unincorporated consortium? 37.1015 Section 37.1015 National Defense Department of Defense... Executing the Award The Award Document § 37.1015 How do I decide who must sign the TIA if the recipient is...

  8. 14 CFR 11.87 - Are there circumstances in which FAA may decide not to publish a summary of my petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are there circumstances in which FAA may decide not to publish a summary of my petition for exemption? 11.87 Section 11.87 Aeronautics and Space... in which FAA may decide not to publish a summary of my petition for exemption? The FAA may not...

  9. 41 CFR 302-12.109 - What must we consider in deciding whether to use the fixed-fee or cost-reimbursable contracting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deciding whether to use the fixed-fee or cost-reimbursable contracting method? 302-12.109 Section 302-12... Services Company § 302-12.109 What must we consider in deciding whether to use the fixed-fee or cost...-fee or cost-reimbursable contracting method: (a) Risk of alternative methods. Under a fixed fee...

  10. USING DEMATEL-ANP INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR DECIDING PRODUCTION STRATEGY FOR A PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan APAK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Production planning includes push, pull and hybrid production systems that production firms determine their production strategies according to many variables before starting production. The administration of this process requires experience and time. The intensity of rivalry makes this kind of decision processes important, because no firm has the luxury to waste time and to make a wrong decision. In order to solve this problem, research proposes to use integrated decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL and analytic network process (ANP together which are methods of multi-criteria decision-making models. The process being used to establish which options are found to be most acceptable for operations managers has been demonstrated how applicable it is by using the generated model in automotive industry.

  11. A 100% renewable power system for Europe - Let the weather and physics decide!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Martin; Heide, Dominik; Rasmussen, Morten Grud

    The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modeling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system....... This approach is based on weather data with good spatio-temporal resolution, which is first converted into wind and solar power generation and then used to derive estimates on the optimal mix between the renewable resources and the storage needs.......The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modeling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system...

  12. How to decide the optimal scheme and the optimal time for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjermundsen, T.; Dalsnes, B.; Jensen, T.

    1991-01-01

    Since the development in Norway began some 105 years ago the mean annual generation has reached approximately 110 TWh. This means that there is a large potential for uprating and refurbishing (U/R). A project undertaken by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) has identified energy resources by means of U/R to about 10 TWh annual generation. One problem in harnessing the potential owned by small and medium sized electricity boards is the lack of simple tools to help us carry out the right decisions. The paper describes a simple model to find the best solution of scheme and the optimal time to start. The principle of present value is used. The main input is: production, price, annual costs of maintenance, the remaining lifetime and the social rate of return. The model calculates the present value of U/R/N for different points of time to start U/R/N. In addition the present value of the existing plant is calculated. Several alternatives can be considered. The best one will be the one which gives the highest present value according to the value of the existing plant. The internal rate of return is also calculated. To be aware of the sensitivity a star diagram is shown. The model gives the opportunity to include environmental charges and the value of effect (peak power). (Author)

  13. Trends in Energy. 'The consumer decides'; Trends in Energy. 'De consument bepaalt'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezowsky-Ruys, Y.; Van der Zalm, M.; Van Zutphen, M. (eds.)

    2012-03-15

    A report is given of the Capgemini organised congress 'Trends in Energy 2011' which has the Dutch subtitle 'De consument bepaalt' (The consumer decides'. The focus of the articles, interviews, debates and presentations is on the role of the consumer in the supply of and demand for energy. Parts of the report are in Dutch and English [Dutch] Dit rapport bestaat uit een verslag van het congres 'Trends in Energy 2011. De consument bepaalt' en een aantal artikelen met achtergrondinformatie over onder meer de rol van de consument in vraag en aanbod van energie.

  14. Deciding why and when to use CT in children: a radiologist's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frush, Donald P. [1905 McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Duke University Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Defining what is appropriate or inappropriate with respect to CT scanning is challenging. There are a variety of influences on scan utilization in children, some more widely recognized and acknowledged than others. It is important to understand the contribution of these elements as we move toward improved utilization. This must be through partnerships and shared efforts and accountability. These efforts include improved resources such as consensus appropriateness criteria and guidelines including decision rules and support. But there also need to be trench-based strategies on the part of practicing radiologists to model cooperative behavior rather than blame-centered behavior. (orig.)

  15. Deciding why and when to use CT in children: a radiologist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frush, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Defining what is appropriate or inappropriate with respect to CT scanning is challenging. There are a variety of influences on scan utilization in children, some more widely recognized and acknowledged than others. It is important to understand the contribution of these elements as we move toward improved utilization. This must be through partnerships and shared efforts and accountability. These efforts include improved resources such as consensus appropriateness criteria and guidelines including decision rules and support. But there also need to be trench-based strategies on the part of practicing radiologists to model cooperative behavior rather than blame-centered behavior. (orig.)

  16. Bell's theorem and the problem of decidability between the views of Einstein and Bohr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, K; Philipp, W

    2001-12-04

    Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) have designed a gedanken experiment that suggested a theory that was more complete than quantum mechanics. The EPR design was later realized in various forms, with experimental results close to the quantum mechanical prediction. The experimental results by themselves have no bearing on the EPR claim that quantum mechanics must be incomplete nor on the existence of hidden parameters. However, the well known inequalities of Bell are based on the assumption that local hidden parameters exist and, when combined with conflicting experimental results, do appear to prove that local hidden parameters cannot exist. This fact leaves only instantaneous actions at a distance (called "spooky" by Einstein) to explain the experiments. The Bell inequalities are based on a mathematical model of the EPR experiments. They have no experimental confirmation, because they contradict the results of all EPR experiments. In addition to the assumption that hidden parameters exist, Bell tacitly makes a variety of other assumptions; for instance, he assumes that the hidden parameters are governed by a single probability measure independent of the analyzer settings. We argue that the mathematical model of Bell excludes a large set of local hidden variables and a large variety of probability densities. Our set of local hidden variables includes time-like correlated parameters and a generalized probability density. We prove that our extended space of local hidden variables does permit derivation of the quantum result and is consistent with all known experiments.

  17. Treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusions: orthognathic surgery or orthodontic camouflage? How to decide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyahia, Hicham; Azaroual, Mohamed Faouzi; Garcia, Claude; Hamou, Edith; Abouqal, Redouane; Zaoui, Fatima

    2011-06-01

    The choice of treatment in adult skeletal Class III occlusions often poses a particularly tricky problem for the orthodontist. Faced with the option of either orthodontic camouflage or orthognathic surgery, the clinician's clinical experience is of paramount importance, especially in borderline cases. The aim of our study was to uncover a guide model enabling the practitioner to distinguish between skeletal Class III cases which can be suitably treated with orthodontics and those requiring orthognathic surgery. The lateral headfilms of 47 adult patients exhibiting skeletal Class III occlusions were analyzed. The orthodontic group comprised 22 patients and the surgical group 25. Twenty-seven linear, proportional and angular measurements were scrutinized. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify the dentoskeletal and esthetic variables which most distinguished the two groups. The Holdaway angle was chosen to differentiate between patients prior to treatment. This model enables us to classify 87.2% of patients correctly. Copyright © 2011 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Stakeholder engagement for comparative effectiveness research in cancer care: experience of the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Caprice C; Wind, Jennifer K; Chang, George J; Chen, Ronald C; Schrag, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    Stakeholder input is a critical component of comparative effectiveness research. To ensure that the research activities of the Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DEcIDE) Network, supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, translate into the greatest impact for everyday practice and policy-making in cancer, we were tasked with soliciting stakeholder input regarding priority areas in cancer-related comparative effectiveness research for the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium. Given the increasing emphasis on stakeholder engagement in research, many investigators are facing a similar task, yet there is limited literature to guide such efforts, particularly in cancer care. To help fill this gap, we present our approach to operationalizing stakeholder engagement and discuss it in the context of other recent developments in the area. We describe challenges encountered in convening stakeholders from multiple vantage points to prioritize topics and strategies used to mitigate these barriers. We offer several recommendations regarding how to best solicit stakeholder input to inform comparative effectiveness research in cancer care. These recommendations can inform other initiatives currently facing the challenges of engaging stakeholders in priority setting for cancer.

  19. Why (and how) they decide to leave: A grounded theory analysis of STEM attrition at a large public research university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutello, Michael F.

    A grounded theory investigation of STEM attrition was conducted that describes and explains why undergraduates at a large Mid-Atlantic research university decided to leave their initial STEM majors to pursue non-STEM courses of study. Participants ultimately decided to leave their initial STEM majors because they were able to locate preferable non-STEM courses of study that did not present the same kinds of obstacles they had encountered in their original STEM majors. Grounded theory data analysis revealed participants initially enrolled in STEM majors with tenuous motivation that did not withstand the various obstacles that were present in introductory STEM coursework. Obstacles that acted as demotivating influences and prompted participants to locate alternative academic pathways include the following: (1.) disengaging curricula; (2.) competitive culture; (3.) disappointing grades; (4.) demanding time commitments; and (5.) unappealing career options. Once discouraged from continuing along their initial STEM pathways, participants then employed various strategies to discover suitable non-STEM majors that would allow them to realize their intrinsic interests and extrinsic goals. Participants were largely satisfied with their decisions to leave STEM and have achieved measures of personal satisfaction and professional success.

  20. Tuning of electrostatic vs. depletion interaction in deciding the phase behavior of nanoparticle-polymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sugam, E-mail: sugam@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, H-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-06-24

    Nanoparticle-polymer system interestingly show a re-entrant phase behavior where charge stabilized silica nanoparticles (phase I) undergo particle clustering (phase II) and then back to individual particles (phase I) as a function of polymer concentration. Such phase behavior arises as a result of dominance of various interactions (i) nanoparticle-nanoparticle electrostatic repulsion (ii) polymer induced attractive depletion between nanoparticles and (iii) polymer-polymer repulsion, at different concentration regimes. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the evolution of interaction during this re-entrant phase behavior of nanoparticles by contrast-marching the polymer. The SANS data have been modeled using a two-Yukawa potential accounting for both attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction between nanoparticles. The degree of both of these parts has been separately tuned by varying the polymer concentration and ionic strength of the solution. Both of these parts are found to have long-range nature. At low polymer concentrations, the electrostatic repulsion dominates over the depletion attraction. The magnitude and the range of the depletion interaction increase with the polymer concentration leading to nanoparticle clustering. At higher polymer concentrations, the increased polymer-polymer repulsion reduces the strength of depletion leading to re-entrant phase behavior. The clusters formed under depletion attraction are found to have surface fractal morphology.

  1. Beyond Sexist Beliefs: How Do People Decide to Use Gender-Inclusive Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Moser, Franziska; Wood, Wendy

    2015-07-01

    When people use generic masculine language instead of more gender-inclusive forms, they communicate gender stereotypes and sometimes exclusion of women from certain social roles. Past research related gender-inclusive language use to sexist beliefs and attitudes. Given that this aspect of language use may be transparent to users, it is unclear whether people explicitly act on these beliefs when using gender-exclusive language forms or whether these are more implicit, habitual patterns. In two studies with German-speaking participants, we showed that spontaneous use of gender-inclusive personal nouns is guided by explicitly favorable intentions as well as habitual processes involving past use of such language. Further indicating the joint influence of deliberate and habitual processes, Study 2 revealed that language-use intentions are embedded in explicit sexist ideologies. As anticipated in our decision-making model, the effects of sexist beliefs on language emerged through deliberate mechanisms involving attitudes and intentions. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Tuning of electrostatic vs. depletion interaction in deciding the phase behavior of nanoparticle-polymer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-polymer system interestingly show a re-entrant phase behavior where charge stabilized silica nanoparticles (phase I) undergo particle clustering (phase II) and then back to individual particles (phase I) as a function of polymer concentration. Such phase behavior arises as a result of dominance of various interactions (i) nanoparticle-nanoparticle electrostatic repulsion (ii) polymer induced attractive depletion between nanoparticles and (iii) polymer-polymer repulsion, at different concentration regimes. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the evolution of interaction during this re-entrant phase behavior of nanoparticles by contrast-marching the polymer. The SANS data have been modeled using a two-Yukawa potential accounting for both attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction between nanoparticles. The degree of both of these parts has been separately tuned by varying the polymer concentration and ionic strength of the solution. Both of these parts are found to have long-range nature. At low polymer concentrations, the electrostatic repulsion dominates over the depletion attraction. The magnitude and the range of the depletion interaction increase with the polymer concentration leading to nanoparticle clustering. At higher polymer concentrations, the increased polymer-polymer repulsion reduces the strength of depletion leading to re-entrant phase behavior. The clusters formed under depletion attraction are found to have surface fractal morphology

  3. Who Decides: Me or We? Family Involvement in Medical Decision Making in Eastern and Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Lee, Ping Yein; Lee, Yew Kong; Trevena, Lyndal; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Lim Abdullah, Khatijah; Tanaka, Miho; Limpongsanurak, Supanida

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that desired family involvement (FI) in medical decision making may depend on cultural values. Unfortunately, the field lacks cross-cultural studies that test this assumption. As a result, providers may be guided by incomplete information or cultural biases rather than patient preferences. Researchers developed 6 culturally relevant disease scenarios varying from low to high medical seriousness. Quota samples of approximately 290 middle-aged urban residents in Australia, China, Malaysia, India, South Korea, Thailand, and the USA completed an online survey that examined desired levels of FI and identified individual difference predictors in each country. All reliability coefficients were acceptable. Regression models met standard assumptions. The strongest finding across all 7 countries was that those who desired higher self-involvement (SI) in medical decision making also wanted lower FI. On the other hand, respondents who valued relational-interdependence tended to want their families involved - a key finding in 5 of 7 countries. In addition, in 4 of 7 countries, respondents who valued social hierarchy desired higher FI. Other antecedents were less consistent. These results suggest that it is important for health providers to avoid East-West cultural stereotypes. There are meaningful numbers of patients in all 7 countries who want to be individually involved and those individuals tend to prefer lower FI. On the other hand, more interdependent patients are likely to want families involved in many of the countries studied. Thus, individual differences within culture appear to be important in predicting whether a patient desires FI. For this reason, avoiding culture-based assumptions about desired FI during medical decision making is central to providing more effective patient centered care.

  4. Teaching Computational Thinking: Deciding to Take Small Steps in a Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, R. D.; Putkonen, J.

    2016-12-01

    While computational thinking and reasoning are not necessarily the same as computer programming, programs such as MATLAB can provide the medium through which the logical and computational thinking at the foundation of science can be taught, learned, and experienced. And while math and computer anxiety are often discussed as critical obstacles to students' progress in their geoscience curriculum, it is here suggested that an unfamiliarity with the computational and logical reasoning is what poses a first stumbling block, in addition to the hurdle of expending the effort to learn how to translate a computational problem into the appropriate computer syntax in order to achieve the intended results. Because computational thinking is so vital for all fields, there is a need to initiate many and to build support in the curriculum for it. This presentation focuses on elements to bring into the teaching of computational thinking that are intended as additions to learning MATLAB programming as a basic tool. Such elements include: highlighting a key concept, discussing a basic geoscience problem where the concept would show up, having the student draw or outline a sketch of what they think an operation needs to do in order to perform a desired result, and then finding the relevant syntax to work with. This iterative pedagogy simulates what someone with more experience in programming does, so it discloses the thinking process in the black box of a result. Intended as only a very early stage introduction, advanced applications would need to be developed as students go through an academic program. The objective would be to expose and introduce computational thinking to majors and non-majors and to alleviate some of the math and computer anxiety so that students would choose to advance on with programming or modeling, whether it is built into a 4-year curriculum or not.

  5. What if consumers decided to all ‘go green’? Environmental rebound effects from consumption decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Cameron K.

    2013-01-01

    Shifting consumer preferences towards ‘green’ consumption is promoted by many governments and environmental groups. Rebound effects, which reduce the effectiveness of such actions, are estimated for cost-saving ‘green’ consumption choices using Australian data. Cases examined are: reduced vehicle use, reduced electricity use, changing to smaller passenger vehicles, and utilising fluorescent lighting. It is found that if rebound effects are ignored when evaluating ‘green’ consumption, environmental benefits will be overstated by around 20% for reduced vehicle use, and 7% for reduced electricity use. Rebound effects are higher, and environmental benefits lower, when more efficient vehicles or lighting are utilised rather than simple conservation actions of forgoing use. In addition, lower income households have higher rebound effects, suggesting that environmental policy directed at changing consumer behaviour is most effective when targeted at high income households. An inherent trade-off between economic and environmental benefits of ‘green’ consumption choices is demonstrated. The size of the rebound effect, and the observed variation with household income, is attributed to Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodologies associated with the calculation of embodied GHG emissions of consumption goods. These results should be therefore be interpreted as the minimum rebound effect to include in policy evaluation. - Highlights: ► Rebound effects are estimated for cost-saving ‘green’ consumption choices. ► Household demand model utilised with LCA embodied GHG emissions data. ► Rebound effects are 4–24% for electricity and motor fuel conservation. ► Rebound effect declines with household income, increases with more cost savings. ► Conservation choices better than replacing household capital

  6. HOMA-IR and QUICKI: decide on a general standard instead of making further comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, Sophia M; Neovius, Martin; Mattsson, Anna; Marcus, Claude; Norgren, Svante

    2010-11-01

    To limit further comparisons between the two fasting indices Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI), and to examine their robustness in assessing insulin sensitivity. A total of 191 obese children and adolescents (age 13.9 ± 2.9 years, BMI SDS 6.1 ± 1.6), who had undergone a Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIVGTT), were included. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to compare indices in detecting insulin resistance and Bland-Altman plots to investigate agreement between three consecutive fasting samples when compared to using single samples. ROC analysis showed that the diagnostic accuracy was identical for QUICKI and HOMA-IR [area under the curve (AUC) boys 0.80, 95%CI 0.70-0.89; girls 0.80, 0.71-0.88], while insulin had a nonsignificantly lower AUC (boys 0.76, 0.66-0.87; girls 0.75, 0.66-0.84). Glucose did not perform better than chance as a diagnostic test (boys 0.47, 0.34-0.60; girls 0.57, 0.46-0.68). Indices varied with consecutive sampling, mainly attributable to fasting insulin variations (mean maximum difference in HOMA-IR -0.8; -0.9 to -0.7). Using both HOMA-IR and QUICKI in further studies is superfluous as these indices function equally well as predictors of the FSIVGTT sensitivity index. Focus should be on establishing a general standard for research and clinical purposes. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Putting hydrological modelling practice to the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, Lieke Anna

    2017-01-01

    Six steps can be distinguished in the process of hydrological modelling: the perceptual model (deciding on the processes), the conceptual model (deciding on the equations), the procedural model (get the code to run on a computer), calibration (identify the parameters), evaluation (confronting

  8. How to Decide? Multi-Objective Early-Warning Monitoring Networks for Water Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Felix; Loschko, Matthias; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    sources and an extra category for the unknown ones. With that, early warning time and detection probability become individual objectives for each risk class. Thus, decision makers can identify monitoring networks valid for controlling the top risk sources, and evaluate the capabilities (or search for least-cost upgrades) to also cover moderate, tolerable and unknown risk sources. Monitoring networks, which are valid for the remaining risk also cover all other risk sources, but only with a relatively poor early-warning time. The data provided for the optimization algorithm are calculated in a preprocessing step by a flow and transport model. It simulates, which potential contaminant plumes from the risk sources would be detectable where and when by all possible candidate positions for monitoring wells. Uncertainties due to hydro(geo)logical phenomena are taken into account by Monte-Carlo simulations. These include uncertainty in ambient flow direction of the groundwater, uncertainty of the conductivity field, and different scenarios for the pumping rates of the production wells. To avoid numerical dispersion during the transport simulations, we use particle-tracking random walk methods when simulating transport.

  9. Serum Folate, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin A, γ-Tocopherol, α-Tocopherol, and Carotenoids Do Not Modify Associations between Cadmium Exposure and Leukocyte Telomere Length in the General US Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah Jo; Robien, Kim; Zota, Ami R

    2017-04-01

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of the aging process and is associated with the risk of chronic disease. Higher exposure to cadmium may be associated with shorter LTL, and adequate nutrient concentrations may be associated with longer LTL; however, the potential interaction between metals and nutrients on LTL has yet to be examined. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids were associated with LTL, and whether they modified the association between blood cadmium and LTL in the US NHANES (1999-2002). Methods: We evaluated cross-sectional associations between LTL and serum concentrations of vitamin A, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, folate, and vitamin B-12 (1999-2002; n = 7458) and α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene (2001-2002; n = 4018) in a nationally representative sample of US adults (≥20 y of age) with the use of multivariable linear regression. We further investigated whether vitamin and carotenoid concentrations modified associations between blood cadmium and LTL with models stratified by serum nutrient concentrations and the inclusion of an interaction term. Results: Blood cadmium was inversely associated with LTL (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = -3.74; 95% CI: -5.35, -2.10). Serum vitamin A was positively associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = 4.01; 95% CI: 0.26, 7.90) and γ-tocopherol was inversely associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/dL = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.21, -0.73) with LTL. Serum folate ( P -trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol ( P -trend = 0.10) were marginally positively associated with LTL, whereas vitamin B-12 ( P -trend = 0.78) was not associated with LTL. Serum carotenoids were generally positively associated with LTL. Serum vitamin and carotenoid concentrations did not modify blood cadmium and LTL associations ( P -interaction > 0.10). Conclusions: Results from this

  10. Serum Folate, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin A, γ-Tocopherol, α-Tocopherol, and Carotenoids Do Not Modify Associations between Cadmium Exposure and Leukocyte Telomere Length in the General US Adult Population123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of the aging process and is associated with the risk of chronic disease. Higher exposure to cadmium may be associated with shorter LTL, and adequate nutrient concentrations may be associated with longer LTL; however, the potential interaction between metals and nutrients on LTL has yet to be examined. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids were associated with LTL, and whether they modified the association between blood cadmium and LTL in the US NHANES (1999–2002). Methods: We evaluated cross-sectional associations between LTL and serum concentrations of vitamin A, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, folate, and vitamin B-12 (1999–2002; n = 7458) and α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene (2001–2002; n = 4018) in a nationally representative sample of US adults (≥20 y of age) with the use of multivariable linear regression. We further investigated whether vitamin and carotenoid concentrations modified associations between blood cadmium and LTL with models stratified by serum nutrient concentrations and the inclusion of an interaction term. Results: Blood cadmium was inversely associated with LTL (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = −3.74; 95% CI: −5.35, −2.10). Serum vitamin A was positively associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/L = 4.01; 95% CI: 0.26, 7.90) and γ-tocopherol was inversely associated (percentage of LTL difference per 1 μg/dL = −2.49; 95% CI: −4.21, −0.73) with LTL. Serum folate (P-trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (P-trend = 0.10) were marginally positively associated with LTL, whereas vitamin B-12 (P-trend = 0.78) was not associated with LTL. Serum carotenoids were generally positively associated with LTL. Serum vitamin and carotenoid concentrations did not modify blood cadmium and LTL associations (P-interaction > 0.10). Conclusions: Results from

  11. Student understanding of control of variables: Deciding whether or not a variable influences the behavior of a system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Andrew; Shaffer, Peter S.; Heron, Paula R. L.; McDermott, Lillian C.

    2008-02-01

    The ability of adult students to reason on the basis of the control of variables was the subject of an extended investigation. This paper describes the part of the study that focused on the reasoning required to decide whether or not a given variable influences the behavior of a system. The participants were undergraduates taking introductory Physics and K-8 teachers studying physics and physical science in inservice institutes and workshops. Although most of the students recognized the need to control variables, many had significant difficulty with the underlying reasoning. The results indicate serious shortcomings in the preparation of future scientists and in the education of a scientifically literate citizenry. There are also strong implications for the professional development of teachers, many of whom are expected to teach control of variables to young students.

  12. Deciding treatment for miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Graungaard, Anette H; Husted, Gitte R

    2015-01-01

    understanding of the women's reactions. In relation to theory about informed consent, our findings suggest that women need more understanding of the treatments before making a decision. This study is limited due to a small sample size, but it generates important findings that need to be examined in a larger...... to gain insight into this process and the circumstances that may affect it. METHOD: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with six women who had chosen and completed either surgical, medical or expectant treatment for miscarriage...... sample. CONCLUSION: Frequently, women did not use information provided about treatment pros and cons in their decision-making process. Because of unspoken thoughts, and women's needs being unexplored by healthcare professionals, information did not target women's needs and their reasoning remained...

  13. Dialysis: Deciding to Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names, addresses and telephone numbers of your attorney, accountant, family members and other loved ones, friends and ... Wise Giving Alliance Charity Seal provides the giving public with an easily recognizable symbol which certifies that ...

  14. Let the Experts Decide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    in information quality is large, we find that voting groups largely coordinate on the SVC equilibrium which is also Pareto Optimal. However, we find that when the asymmetry in information quality is not large and the Pareto Optimal equilibrium is for all to participate, significant numbers of voters with low...

  15. Deciding about an IUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2017 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Copper T IUD. Association of ... Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 134. Hormonal IUD. Association of ...

  16. Deciding Between Conflicting Influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates an approach of decision making internally in an agent in which a decision is based on both preference and expectation. The approach uses a logic for qualitative decision theory proposed by Boutilier in order to express such notions. To make readily use of this we describe ...

  17. How we decide

    CERN Document Server

    Lehrer, Jonah

    2009-01-01

    Since Plato, philosophers have described the decision-making process as either rational or emotional: we carefully deliberate, or we “blink” and go with our gut. But as scientists break open the mind’s black box with the latest tools of neuroscience, they’re discovering that this is not how the mind works. Our best decisions are a finely tuned blend of both feeling and reason—and the precise mix depends on the situation. When buying a house, for example, it’s best to let our unconscious mull over the many variables. But when we’re picking a stock, intuition often leads us astray. The trick is to determine when to use the different parts of the brain, and to do this, we need to think harder (and smarter) about how we think. Jonah Lehrer arms us with the tools we need, drawing on cutting-edge research as well as the real-world experiences of a wide range of “deciders”—from airplane pilots and hedge fund investors to serial killers and poker players. Lehrer shows how people are taking advan...

  18. Race, Ethnicity, Psychosocial Factors, and Telomere Length in a Multicenter Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Shannon M; Peek, M K; Mitra, Nandita; Ravichandran, Krithika; Branas, Charles; Spangler, Elaine; Zhou, Wenting; Paskett, Electra D; Gehlert, Sarah; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Riethman, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length(LTL) has been associated with age, self-reported race/ethnicity, gender, education, and psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, and depression. However, inconsistencies in associations of LTL with disease and other phenotypes exist across studies. Population characteristics, including race/ethnicity, laboratory methods, and statistical approaches in LTL have not been comprehensively studied and could explain inconsistent LTL associations. LTL was measured using Southern Blot in 1510 participants from a multi-ethnic, multi-center study combining data from 3 centers with different population characteristics and laboratory processing methods. Main associations between LTL and psychosocial factors and LTL and race/ethnicity were evaluated and then compared across generalized estimating equations(GEE) and linear regression models. Statistical models were adjusted for factors typically associated with LTL(age, gender, cancer status) and also accounted for factors related to center differences, including laboratory methods(i.e., DNA extraction). Associations between LTL and psychosocial factors were also evaluated within race/ethnicity subgroups (Non-hispanic Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics). Beyond adjustment for age, gender, and cancer status, additional adjustments for DNA extraction and clustering by center were needed given their effects on LTL measurements. In adjusted GEE models, longer LTL was associated with African American race (Beta(β)(standard error(SE)) = 0.09(0.04), p-value = 0.04) and Hispanic ethnicity (β(SE) = 0.06(0.01), p-value = 0.02) compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Longer LTL was also associated with less than a high school education compared to having greater than a high school education (β(SE) = 0.06(0.02), p-value = 0.04). LTL was inversely related to perceived stress (β(SE) = -0.02(0.003), pethnic circumstances and could impact future health disparity studies.

  19. The Nordic Maintenance Care Program - Time intervals between treatments of patients with low back pain: how close and who decides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leboeuf-Yde Charlotte

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of chiropractic patients with acute and chronic/persistent conditions probably differs. However, little is known on this subject. There is, for example, a dearth of information on maintenance care (MC. Thus it is not known if patients on MC are coerced to partake in a program of frequent treatments over a long period of time, or if they are actively involved in designing their own individualized treatment program. Objectives It was the purpose of this study to investigate how chiropractic patients with low back pain were scheduled for treatment, with special emphasis on MC. The specific research questions were: 1. How many patients are on maintenance care? 2 Are there specific patterns of intervals between treatments for patients and, if so, do they differ between MC patients and non-MC patients? 3. Who decides on the next treatment, the patient, the chiropractor or both, and are there any differences between MC patients and non-MC patients? Methods Chiropractic students, who during their summer holidays were observers in chiropractic clinics in Norway and Denmark, recorded whether patients were classified by the treating chiropractor as a MC-patient or not, dates for last and subsequent visits, and made a judgement on whether the patient or the chiropractor decided on the next appointment. Results Observers in the study were 16 out of 30 available students. They collected data on 868 patients from 15 Danish and 13 Norwegian chiropractors. Twenty-two percent and 26%, respectively, were classified as MC patients. Non-MC patients were most frequently seen within 1 week. For MC patients, the previous visit was most often 2-4 weeks prior to the actual visit, and the next appointment between 1 and 3 months. This indicates a gradual increase in intervals. The decision of the next visit was mainly made by the chiropractor, also for MC patients. However, the study samples of chiropractors appear not to be

  20. A quick and easy test for deciding entanglement status of an N-qubit pure quantum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehendale, D.P.; Joag, P.S.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a simple criterion in terms of a necessary-sufficient condition (NS condition) for deciding separability of an arbitrary n-qubit pure quantum state. This NS condition provides a quick and easy test procedure to determine the entanglement status of a pure quantum state. We normalize the given quantum state and using this normalized state we can easily build a simplest system of equations containing trigonometric functions by making use of the well known Bloch Sphere representation for single qubit states and check whether or not this system of equations is consistent. According to proposed NS condition the given pure quantum state is separable (entangled) if and only if the above mentioned system of equations is consistent (inconsistent). We build this system of equations by equating the coefficients of computational basis states in the superposition representing the given pure quantum state with certain products of trigonometric functions obtained using standard Bloch Sphere representation for single qubit states. To establish separability of given state one requires to find a valid solution of the above mentioned system of equations but entanglement on the other hand follows when any two equations in this system of equations are mutually inconsistent. Thus, entanglement of the state can follow easily if one succeeds in finding any two mutually inconsistent equations in the above mentioned system of equations.

  1. How Do Patients and Parents Decide for Orthodontic Treatment-Effects of Malocclusion, Personal Expectations, Education and Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, C; Canigur Bavbek, N; Balos Tuncer, B; Ayhan Bani, A; Çelik, B

    2015-01-01

    To examine patients' and parents' perceptions and expectations from orthodontic treatment. 491 patients (274 female, 217 male) aged 14-22 years, and 399 parents (245 female, 154 male) completed a questionnaire about preferences, needs and expectations about orthodontic treatment, and scored the present problem. Continuous variables were compared by Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, whereas Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. Patients'(77.1%) and parents'(84.6%), decision about orthodontic treatments were influenced by suggestion of dentists. Patients who decided to attend to clinic by themselves were higher than parents (p=0.006). Dental aesthetics was the determinant factor for treatment demand for patients(61.0%) and parents(57.3%). Improvement in oral functions was more important for Class III patients than Class I patients (p=0.040). Adult patients/parents with higher education gave more importance to oral functions as well as dental aesthetics (p=0.031). There was no difference among Angle classifications regarding orthodontic problem scores. Parents found media sources valuable (p=0.018) but majority expected dentists for information about orthodontic treatments. Education degree of adult patients/parents effected this decision(p=0.002). Desire to have better dental aesthetics was the primary motivating factor for all participants. Clinicians should consider concerns of Class III patients about oral functions during treatment planning.

  2. Qualitative analysis of how patients decide that they want risk-reducing mastectomy, and the implications for surgeons in responding to emotionally-motivated patient requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L; Whiting, Demian; Fielden, Hannah G; Saini, Pooja; Beesley, Helen; Holcombe, Christopher; Holcombe, Susan; Greenhalgh, Lyn; Fairburn, Louise; Salmon, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary approaches to medical decision-making advise that clinicians should respect patients' decisions. However, patients' decisions are often shaped by heuristics, such as being guided by emotion, rather than by objective risk and benefit. Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) decisions focus this dilemma sharply. RRM reduces breast cancer (BC) risk, but is invasive and can have iatrogenic consequences. Previous evidence suggests that emotion guides patients' decision-making about RRM. We interviewed patients to better understand how they made decisions about RRM, using findings to consider how clinicians could ethically respond to their decisions. Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 34 patients listed for RRM surgery and two who had decided against RRM. Patients generally did not use objective risk estimates or, indeed, consider risks and benefits of RRM. Instead emotions guided their decisions: they chose RRM because they feared BC and wanted to do 'all they could' to prevent it. Most therefore perceived RRM to be the 'obvious' option and made the decision easily. However, many recounted extensive post-decisional deliberation, generally directed towards justifying the original decision. A few patients deliberated before the decision because fears of surgery counterbalanced those of BC. Patients seeking RRM were motivated by fear of BC, and the need to avoid potential regret for not doing all they could to prevent it. We suggest that choices such as that for RRM, which are made emotionally, can be respected as autonomous decisions, provided patients have considered risks and benefits. Drawing on psychological theory about how people do make decisions, as well as normative views of how they should, we propose that practitioners can guide consideration of risks and benefits even, where necessary, after patients have opted for surgery. This model of practice could be extended to other medical decisions that are influenced by patients' emotions.

  3. Qualitative analysis of how patients decide that they want risk-reducing mastectomy, and the implications for surgeons in responding to emotionally-motivated patient requests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Brown

    Full Text Available Contemporary approaches to medical decision-making advise that clinicians should respect patients' decisions. However, patients' decisions are often shaped by heuristics, such as being guided by emotion, rather than by objective risk and benefit. Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM decisions focus this dilemma sharply. RRM reduces breast cancer (BC risk, but is invasive and can have iatrogenic consequences. Previous evidence suggests that emotion guides patients' decision-making about RRM. We interviewed patients to better understand how they made decisions about RRM, using findings to consider how clinicians could ethically respond to their decisions.Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 34 patients listed for RRM surgery and two who had decided against RRM.Patients generally did not use objective risk estimates or, indeed, consider risks and benefits of RRM. Instead emotions guided their decisions: they chose RRM because they feared BC and wanted to do 'all they could' to prevent it. Most therefore perceived RRM to be the 'obvious' option and made the decision easily. However, many recounted extensive post-decisional deliberation, generally directed towards justifying the original decision. A few patients deliberated before the decision because fears of surgery counterbalanced those of BC.Patients seeking RRM were motivated by fear of BC, and the need to avoid potential regret for not doing all they could to prevent it. We suggest that choices such as that for RRM, which are made emotionally, can be respected as autonomous decisions, provided patients have considered risks and benefits. Drawing on psychological theory about how people do make decisions, as well as normative views of how they should, we propose that practitioners can guide consideration of risks and benefits even, where necessary, after patients have opted for surgery. This model of practice could be extended to other medical decisions that are influenced by patients' emotions.

  4. Quality control of Photosystem II: reversible and irreversible protein aggregation decides the fate of Photosystem II under excessive illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi eYamamoto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to excessive light, the thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts show dynamic changes including the degradation and reassembly of proteins, a change in the distribution of proteins, and large-scale structural changes such as unstacking of the grana. Here, we examined the aggregation of light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complexes and Photosystem II core subunits of spinach thylakoid membranes under light stress with 77K chlorophyll fluorescence; aggregation of these proteins was found to proceed with increasing light intensity. Measurement of changes in the fluidity of thylakoid membranes with fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene showed that membrane fluidity increased at a light intensity of 500–1,000 µmol photons m-2 s-1, and decreased at very high light intensity (1,500 µmol photons m-2 s-1. The aggregation of light-harvesting complexes at moderately high light intensity is known to be reversible, while that of Photosystem II core subunits at extremely high light intensity is irreversible. It is likely that the reversibility of protein aggregation is closely related to membrane fluidity: increases in fluidity should stimulate reversible protein aggregation, whereas irreversible protein aggregation might decrease membrane fluidity. When spinach leaves were pre-illuminated with moderately high light intensity, the qE component of non-photochemical quenching and the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II increased, indicating that Photosystem II/ light-harvesting complexes rearranged in the thylakoid membranes to optimize Photosystem II activity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the thylakoids underwent partial unstacking under these light stress conditions. Thus, protein aggregation is involved in thylakoid dynamics and regulates photochemical reactions, thereby deciding the fate of Photosystem II.

  5. How do clinicians practise the principles of beneficence when deciding to allow or deny family presence during resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Tracey; de Lacey, Sheryl; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2018-03-01

    To examine how clinicians practise the principles of beneficence when deciding to allow or deny family presence during resuscitation. Family presence during resuscitation has important benefits for family and is supported by professional bodies and the public. Yet, many clinicians restrict family access to patients during resuscitation, and rationales for decision-making are unclear. Secondary analysis of an existing qualitative data set using deductive category application of content analysis. We analysed 20 interview transcripts from 15 registered nurses, two doctors and three paramedics who had experienced family presence during resuscitation in an Australian hospital. The transcripts were analysed for incidents of beneficent decision-making when allowing or denying family presence during resuscitation. Decision-making around family presence during resuscitation occurred in time poor environments and in the absence of local institutional guidelines. Clinicians appeared to be motivated by doing "what's best" for patients and families when allowing or denying family presence during resuscitation. However, their individual interpretations of "what's best" was subjective and did not always coincide with family preferences or with current evidence that promotes family presence during resuscitation as beneficial. The decision to allow or deny family presence during resuscitation is complex, and often impacted by personal preferences and beliefs, setting norms and tensions between clinicians and consumers. As a result, many families are missing the chance to be with their loved ones at the end of life. The introduction of institutional guidelines and policies would help to establish what safe and effective practice consists of, reduce value-laden decision-making and guide beneficent decision-making. These findings highlight current deficits in decision-making around FPDR and could prompt the introduction of clinical guidelines and policies and in turn promote the

  6. Protocol for the Delirium and Cognitive Impact in Dementia (DECIDE) study: A nested prospective longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah J; Davis, Daniel H J; Stephan, Blossom; Robinson, Louise; Brayne, Carol; Barnes, Linda; Parker, Stuart; Allan, Louise M

    2017-04-28

    Delirium is common, affecting at least 20% of older hospital inpatients. It is widely accepted that delirium is associated with dementia but the degree of causation within this relationship is unclear. Previous studies have been limited by incomplete ascertainment of baseline cognition or a lack of prospective delirium assessments. There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the relationship between delirium and dementia given that delirium prevention may plausibly impact upon dementia prevention. A well-designed, observational study could also answer fundamental questions of major importance to patients and their families regarding outcomes after delirium. The Delirium and Cognitive Impact in Dementia (DECIDE) study aims to explore the association between delirium and cognitive function over time in older participants. In an existing population based cohort aged 65 years and older, the effect on cognition of an episode of delirium will be measured, independent of baseline cognition and illness severity. The predictive value of clinical parameters including delirium severity, baseline cognition and delirium subtype on cognitive outcomes following an episode of delirium will also be explored. Over a 12 month period, surviving participants from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II-Newcastle will be screened for delirium on admission to hospital. At the point of presentation, baseline characteristics along with a number of disease relevant clinical parameters will be recorded. The progression/resolution of delirium will be monitored. In those with and without delirium, cognitive decline and dementia will be assessed at one year follow-up. We will evaluate the effect of delirium on cognitive function over time along with the predictive value of clinical parameters. This study will be the first to prospectively elucidate the size of the effect of delirium upon cognitive decline and incident dementia. The results will be used to inform future

  7. No Bridge Too High: Infants Decide Whether to Cross Based on the Probability of Falling not the Severity of the Potential Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretch, Kari S.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Do infants, like adults, consider both the probability of falling and the severity of a potential fall when deciding whether to cross a bridge? Crawling and walking infants were encouraged to cross bridges varying in width over a small drop-off, a large drop-off, or no drop-off. Bridge width affects the probability of falling, whereas drop-off…

  8. 25 CFR 12.62 - Who decides what uniform an Indian country law enforcement officer can wear and who pays for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who decides what uniform an Indian country law... what uniform an Indian country law enforcement officer can wear and who pays for it? Each local law... provide uniforms and related equipment to officers in lieu of this payment. All law enforcement officers...

  9. Samba for solar modules. Brazil decides reimbursement strategy and starts pilot projects; Samba fuer Solarmodule. Brasilien macht den Weg fuer die Einspeisung von Solarstrom frei und startet Pilotprojekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego

    2012-06-15

    Better late than never: After long years of discussion, Brazil recently decided on a reimbursement strategy. Further, pilot projects with a total of 24 MW are in te planning stage. While some expect a major invitation for tender, local experts warn of rough times ahead.

  10. The reliability of pre-travel history to decide on appropriate counseling and vaccinations: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Isabelle A; Genton, Blaise

    2012-01-01

    Although medical and travel plans gathered from pre-travel interviews are used to decide the provision of specific pre-travel health advice and vaccinations, there has been no evaluation of the relevance of this strategy. In a prospective study, we assessed the agreement between pre-travel plans and post-travel history and the effect on advice regarding the administration of vaccines and recommendations for malaria prevention. We included prospectively all consenting adults who had not planned an organized tour. Pre- and post-travel information included questions on destination, itineraries, departure and return dates, access to bottled water, plan of bicycle ride, stays in a rural zone, and close contact with animals. The outcomes measured included: agreement between pre- and post-travel itineraries and activities; and the effect of these differences on pre-travel health recommendations, had the traveler gone to the actual versus intended destinations for actual versus intended duration and activities. Three hundred and sixty-five travelers were included in the survey, where 188 (52%) were males (median age 38 years). In 81(23%) travelers, there was no difference between pre- and post-travel history. Disagreement between pre- and post-travel history were the highest for stays in rural zones or with local people (66% of travelers), close contact with animals (33%), and bicycle riding (21%). According to post-travel history, 125 (35%) travelers would have needed rabies vaccine and 9 (3%) typhoid fever vaccine. Potential overprovision of vaccine was found in travelers. A change in the malaria prescription would have been recommended in 18 (5%) travelers. Pre-travel history does not adequately reflect what travelers do. However, difference between recommendations for the actual versus intended travel plans was only clinically significant for the need for rabies vaccine. Particular attention during pre-travel health counseling should focus on the risk of rabies, the

  11. Diagnosis and management of people with venous thromboembolism and advanced cancer: how do doctors decide? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam J; Sheard, Laura; Maraveyas, Anthony; Noble, Simon; Prout, Hayley; Watt, Ian; Dowding, Dawn

    2012-07-20

    The treatment of cancer associated thrombosis (CAT) is well established, with level 1A evidence to support the recommendation of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) by daily injection for 3-6 months. However, registry data suggest compliance to clinical guidelines is poor. Clinicians face particular challenges in treating CAT in advanced cancer patients due to shorter life expectancy, increased bleeding risk and concerns that self injection may be too burdensome. For these reasons decision making around the diagnosis and management of CAT in people with advanced cancer, can be complex, and should focus on its likely net benefit for the patient. We explored factors that influence doctors' decision making in this situation and sought to gain an understanding of the barriers and facilitators to the application of best practice. Think aloud exercises using standardised case scenarios, and individual in depth interviews were conducted. All were transcribed. The think aloud exercises were analysed using Protocol Analysis and the interviews using Framework Analysis. 46 participants took part in the think aloud exercises and 45 participants were interviewed in depth. Each group included oncologists, palliative physicians and general practitioners and included both senior doctors and those in training. Two Strategic Health Authority regions, one in the north of England and one in Wales. The following key issues arose from the data synthesis: the importance of patient prognosis; the concept of "appropriateness"; "benefits and burdens" of diagnosis and treatment; LMWH or warfarin for treatment and sources of information which changed practice. Although interlinked, they do describe distinct aspects of the factors that influence doctors in their decisions in this area. The above factors are issues doctors take into account when deciding whether to send a patient to hospital for investigation or to anticoagulate a patient with confirmed or suspected VTE. Many factors

  12. Diagnosis and management of people with venous thromboembolism and advanced cancer: how do doctors decide? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Miriam J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of cancer associated thrombosis (CAT is well established, with level 1A evidence to support the recommendation of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH by daily injection for 3–6 months. However, registry data suggest compliance to clinical guidelines is poor. Clinicians face particular challenges in treating CAT in advanced cancer patients due to shorter life expectancy, increased bleeding risk and concerns that self injection may be too burdensome. For these reasons decision making around the diagnosis and management of CAT in people with advanced cancer, can be complex, and should focus on its likely net benefit for the patient. We explored factors that influence doctors’ decision making in this situation and sought to gain an understanding of the barriers and facilitators to the application of best practice. Methods Think aloud exercises using standardised case scenarios, and individual in depth interviews were conducted. All were transcribed. The think aloud exercises were analysed using Protocol Analysis and the interviews using Framework Analysis. Participants: 46 participants took part in the think aloud exercises and 45 participants were interviewed in depth. Each group included oncologists, palliative physicians and general practitioners and included both senior doctors and those in training. Setting: Two Strategic Health Authority regions, one in the north of England and one in Wales. Results The following key issues arose from the data synthesis: the importance of patient prognosis; the concept of “appropriateness”; “benefits and burdens” of diagnosis and treatment; LMWH or warfarin for treatment and sources of information which changed practice. Although interlinked, they do describe distinct aspects of the factors that influence doctors in their decisions in this area. Conclusions The above factors are issues doctors take into account when deciding whether to send a patient to hospital

  13. Single fathers by choice using surrogacy: why men decide to have a child as a single parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Nicola; Baiocco, Roberto; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2017-09-01

    Why do men decide to have a child by surrogacy as a single parent? Reasons included feeling that it was the right time (i.e. having 'worked through' concerns about single parenthood; career and financial stability; a fear of getting older; no longer wanting to wait for the 'right' relationship), external encouragement, a desire to reproduce and a fear of separation/divorce. Because no research has been conducted on single fathers who used surrogacy, their characteristics, motivations and experiences are unknown. This study used a cross-sectional design as part of a larger, multi-method, multi-informant investigation of single father families created by surrogacy. Multiple strategies were used to recruit participants (i.e. from an association of gay parents, Facebook groups of single parents and snowballing) between November 2016 and April 2017. Data were obtained from 33 Italian single fathers (Meanage = 47.33 years, SD = 4.63), most of whom self-identified as gay (n = 24, 72.7%). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in family homes (n = 20, 60.6%) or over Skype (n = 13, 39.4%). Each interview lasted approximately 40 min and was audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic and qualitative content analysis, with the aid of the software package MAXQDA. Where appropriate, a two-sided Fisher's exact test was used to compare the gay and heterosexual fathers, and illustrative quotations were reported. Although all of the single men had experienced mature relationships, about one-third of the fathers (n = 10, 30.3%) had never thought of having a child and the majority of the heterosexual men (n = 7, 77.8%, P = 0.05) had tried to conceive in previous relationships. The gay and heterosexual men differed in their preferred path to parenthood (P = 0.01), with the former (n = 17, 70.8%) having always preferred surrogacy and the latter (n = 6, 66.7%) having considered or attempted conception via casual sex with women. Irrespective of their

  14. Race, Ethnicity, Psychosocial Factors, and Telomere Length in a Multicenter Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Lynch

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length(LTL has been associated with age, self-reported race/ethnicity, gender, education, and psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, and depression. However, inconsistencies in associations of LTL with disease and other phenotypes exist across studies. Population characteristics, including race/ethnicity, laboratory methods, and statistical approaches in LTL have not been comprehensively studied and could explain inconsistent LTL associations.LTL was measured using Southern Blot in 1510 participants from a multi-ethnic, multi-center study combining data from 3 centers with different population characteristics and laboratory processing methods. Main associations between LTL and psychosocial factors and LTL and race/ethnicity were evaluated and then compared across generalized estimating equations(GEE and linear regression models. Statistical models were adjusted for factors typically associated with LTL(age, gender, cancer status and also accounted for factors related to center differences, including laboratory methods(i.e., DNA extraction. Associations between LTL and psychosocial factors were also evaluated within race/ethnicity subgroups (Non-hispanic Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics.Beyond adjustment for age, gender, and cancer status, additional adjustments for DNA extraction and clustering by center were needed given their effects on LTL measurements. In adjusted GEE models, longer LTL was associated with African American race (Beta(β(standard error(SE = 0.09(0.04, p-value = 0.04 and Hispanic ethnicity (β(SE = 0.06(0.01, p-value = 0.02 compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Longer LTL was also associated with less than a high school education compared to having greater than a high school education (β(SE = 0.06(0.02, p-value = 0.04. LTL was inversely related to perceived stress (β(SE = -0.02(0.003, p<0.001. In subgroup analyses, there was a negative association with LTL in African Americans with a high

  15. Parents' accounts : factors considered when deciding how far to involve their son/daughter with learning disabilities in choice-making

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Wendy Ann

    2012-01-01

    There is limited literature on the processes of choice-making in families of young people with learning disabilities. This paper examines the factors considered by parents of young people with learning disabilities when deciding their own and their child's role in a range of significant choices (health, social care and education) about their child's life. The paper reports data collected from a sub-sample of 14 parents recruited from 11 families participating in a longitudinal (2007-2010) qua...

  16. Efficient Parallel Statistical Model Checking of Biochemical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ballarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of verifying stochastic models of biochemical networks against behavioral properties expressed in temporal logic terms. Exact probabilistic verification approaches such as, for example, CSL/PCTL model checking, are undermined by a huge computational demand which rule them out for most real case studies. Less demanding approaches, such as statistical model checking, estimate the likelihood that a property is satisfied by sampling executions out of the stochastic model. We propose a methodology for efficiently estimating the likelihood that a LTL property P holds of a stochastic model of a biochemical network. As with other statistical verification techniques, the methodology we propose uses a stochastic simulation algorithm for generating execution samples, however there are three key aspects that improve the efficiency: first, the sample generation is driven by on-the-fly verification of P which results in optimal overall simulation time. Second, the confidence interval estimation for the probability of P to hold is based on an efficient variant of the Wilson method which ensures a faster convergence. Third, the whole methodology is designed according to a parallel fashion and a prototype software tool has been implemented that performs the sampling/verification process in parallel over an HPC architecture.

  17. Evaluating the systematic implementation of the 'Let Me Decide' advance care planning programme in long term care through focus groups: staff perspectives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cornally, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    The \\'Let Me Decide\\' Advance Care Planning (LMD-ACP) programme offers a structured approach to End-of-Life (EoL) care planning in long-term care for residents with and without capacity to complete an advance care directive\\/plan. The programme was implemented in three homes in the South of Ireland, with a view to improving quality of care at end of life. This paper will present an evaluation of the systematic implementation of the LMD-ACP programme in the homes.

  18. Deciding between carbon trading and carbon capture and sequestration: an optimisation-based case study for methanol synthesis from syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçtuğ, Fehmi Görkem; Ağralı, Semra; Arıkan, Yıldız; Avcıoğlu, Eray

    2014-01-01

    The economic and technical feasibility of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems are gaining importance as CO2 emission reduction is becoming a more pressing issue for parties from production sectors. Public and private entities have to comply with national schemes imposing tighter limits on their emission allowances. Often these parties face two options as whether to invest in CCS or buy carbon credits for the excess emissions above their limits. CCS is an expensive system to invest in and to operate. Therefore, its feasibility depends on the carbon credit prices prevailing in the markets now and in the future. In this paper we consider the problem of installing a CCS unit in order to ensure that the amount of CO2 emissions is within its allowable limits. We formulate this problem as a non-linear optimisation problem where the objective is to maximise the net returns from pursuing an optimal mix of the two options described above. General Algebraic Modelling Systems (GAMS) software was used to solve the model. The results were found to be sensitive to carbon credit prices and the discount rate, which determines the choices with respect to the future and the present. The model was applied to a methanol synthesis plant as an example. However, the formulation can easily be extended to any production process if the CO2 emissions level per unit of physical production is known. The results showed that for CCS to be feasible, carbon credit prices must be above 15 Euros per ton. This value, naturally, depends on the plant-specific data, and the costs we have employed for CCS. The actual prices (≈5 Euros/ton CO2) at present are far from encouraging the investors into CCS technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Methodology for Using Workforce Data to Decide Which Specialties and States to Target for Graduate Medical Education Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraher, Erin P; Knapton, Andy; Holmes, George M

    2017-02-01

    To outline a methodology for allocating graduate medical education (GME) training positions based on data from a workforce projection model. Demand for visits is derived from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and Census data. Physician supply, retirements, and geographic mobility are estimated using concatenated AMA Masterfiles and ABMS certification data. The number and specialization behaviors of residents are derived from the AAMC's GMETrack survey. We show how the methodology could be used to allocate 3,000 new GME slots over 5 years-15,000 total positions-by state and specialty to address workforce shortages in 2026. We use the model to identify shortages for 19 types of health care services provided by 35 specialties in 50 states. The new GME slots are allocated to nearly all specialties, but nine states and the District of Columbia do not receive any new positions. This analysis illustrates an objective, evidence-based methodology for allocating GME positions that could be used as the starting point for discussions about GME expansion or redistribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Distributed Cognition in Cancer Treatment Decision Making: An Application of the DECIDE Decision-Making Styles Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Dailey, Phokeng M; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Schoenberg, Nancy; Paskett, Electra D; Dignan, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Distributed cognition occurs when cognitive and affective schemas are shared between two or more people during interpersonal discussion. Although extant research focuses on distributed cognition in decision making between health care providers and patients, studies show that caregivers are also highly influential in the treatment decisions of patients. However, there are little empirical data describing how and when families exert influence. The current article addresses this gap by examining decisional support in the context of cancer randomized clinical trial (RCT) decision making. Data are drawn from in-depth interviews with rural, Appalachian cancer patients ( N = 46). Analysis of transcript data yielded empirical support for four distinct models of health decision making. The implications of these findings for developing interventions to improve the quality of treatment decision making and overall well-being are discussed.

  1. Leukocyte telomere dynamics in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Mortensen, Laust H

    2013-01-01

    Limited data suggest that leukocytes of the elderly display ultra-short telomeres. It was reported that in some elderly persons leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shows age-dependent elongation. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal models, we characterized LTL dynamics in participants...

  2. Use of Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agents (ESA) in Patients With End-Stage Renal Failure Decided to Forego Dialysis: Palliative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hon Wai Benjamin; Chan, Kwok Ying; Lau, Hoi To; Man, Ching Wah; Cheng, Suk Ching; Lam, Carman

    2017-05-01

    Normochromic normocytic anemia is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with many adverse clinical consequences. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) act to replace endogenous erythropoietin for patients with end-stage renal disease having anemia. Today, ESAs remain the main tool for treating anemia associated with CKD. In current practice, the use of ESA is not limited to the patients on renal replacement therapy but has extended to nondialysis patients under palliative care (PC). Current evidence on ESA usage in patients with CKD decided to forego dialysis often have to take reference from studies conducted in other groups of patients with CKD, including pre-dialysis patients and those on renal replacement therapy. There is paucity of studies targeting use of ESAs in renal PC patients. Small-scale retrospective study in renal PC patients had suggested clinical advantage of ESAs in terms of hemoglobin improvement, reduction in fatigue, and hospitalization rate. With the expected growth in elderly patients with CKD decided to forego dialysis and manage conservatively, there remains an urgent need to call for large-scale prospective trial in exploring efficacy of ESAs in this population, targeting on quality of life and symptoms improvement outcome. This article also reviews the mechanism of action, pharmacology, adverse effects, and clinical trial evidence for ESA in patients with CKD under renal PC.

  3. Perspectives of young Chinese Singaporean women on seeking and processing information to decide about vaccinating against human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnyat, Iccha; Lim, Cheryl

    2017-07-06

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake in Singapore is low among young women. Low uptake has been found to be linked to low awareness. Thus, this study aimed to understand active and passive vaccine information-seeking behavior. Furthermore, guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), this study examined young women's (aged 21-26 years) processing of information they acquired in their decision to get vaccinated. ELM postulates that information processing could be through the central (i.e., logic-based) or peripheral (i.e., heuristic-based) route. Twenty-six in-depth interviews were conducted from January to March 2016. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two meta-themes-information acquisition and vaccination decision-revealed the heuristic-based information processing was employed. These young women acquired information passively within their social network and actively in healthcare settings. However, they used heuristic cues, such as closeness and trust, to process the information. Similarly, vaccination decisions revealed that women relied on heuristic cues, such as sense of belonging and validation among peers and source credibility and likability in medical settings, in their decision to get vaccinated. The findings of this study highlight that intervention efforts should focus on strengthening social support among personal networks to increase the uptake of the vaccine.

  4. Deciding on the mode of birth after a previous caesarean section - An online survey investigating women's preferences in Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzon, Magali; Gross, Mechthild M; Karch, André; Grylka-Baeschlin, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    promoting vaginal births after caesarean section (VBAC) for eligible women and increasing rates of successful VBACs are the best strategies to reduce the number of repeat caesarean sections (CS). Knowledge of factors that are associated with women's decision-making around mode of birth after CS is important when developing strategies to promote VBAC. This study assessed which factors are associated with women's preferences for VBAC versus elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) in a new pregnancy after one previous caesarean in Switzerland. cross-sectional web-survey. Western Switzerland. French-speaking women living in Western Switzerland, with one previous CS who gave birth subsequently to a child after a complication-free pregnancy were eligible to participate in the survey. Of 393 women who started the survey in November/December 2014, 349 were included: 227 who planned a VBAC and 122 who planned an ERCS at term. univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to describe and compare women who had planned a VBAC with women who had planned an ERCS in a pregnancy following a CS. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate predictors that were associated with a preference for a VBAC at term. Analyses were performed with SPSS 22 and Stata 13. of the women planning a VBAC, 62.6% VBAC gave birth vaginally. Predictors which were significantly associated with increased odds of women choosing a VBAC: duration since previous birth in years (OR=1.11 95% CI [1.03-1.20], p=0.010), having had midwifery care during pregnancy (OR=2.09, 95% CI [1.08-4.05], p=0.029), being advised by their healthcare provider to attempt a VBAC (OR=4.20, 95% CI [1.75-10.09], p=0.001), preference for VBAC during the third trimester of their pregnancy (OR=3.98, 95% CI [1.77-8.93], p=0.001), and wishing to let the child choose the moment of birth (OR=1.46, 95% CI[1.22-1.74], p<0.001). The importance of safety for the mother decreased the odds of women preferring a VBAC (OR=0.74, 95

  5. Factors associated with utilization of long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods among women who have decided not to have more children in Gondar city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Chernet Baye; Adefris, Mulat; Yenit, Melaku Kindie; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa

    2017-09-06

    Despite the fact that long acting family planning methods reduce population growth and improve maternal health, their utilization remains poor. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of long acting and permanent family planning method utilization and associated factors among women in reproductive age groups who have decided not to have more children in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2015. Three hundred seventeen women who have decided not to have more children were selected consecutively into the study. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. Both bivariate and multi-variable logistic regressions analyses were used to identify factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent family planning methods. The multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with the utilization of long acting and permanent family planning methods. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used to show the strength of associations, and variables with a P-value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. In this study, the overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive (LAPCM) method utilization was 34.7% (95% CI: 29.5-39.9). According to the multi-variable logistic regression analysis, utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods was significantly associated with women who had secondary school, (AOR: 2279, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.44), college, and above education (AOR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.36, 6.24), history of previous utilization (AOR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.69, 5.38), and information about LAPCM (AOR: 8.85, 95% CI: 2.04, 38.41). In this study the prevalence of long acting and permanent family planning method utilization among women who have decided not to have more children was high compared with previous studies conducted elsewhere. Advanced educational

  6. Who decides what, when, how?; Qui decide quoi, quand, comment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Marseille. The main discussions of this session concerns the decision making in nuclear wastes management and the use of public funds for the management of radioactive wastes today and tomorrow. (J.S.)

  7. On Deciding How to Decide: To Centralize or Decentralize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Issues concerning whether to centralize or decentralize decision-making are addressed, with applications for colleges. Centralization/decentralization (C/D) must be analyzed with reference to a particular decision. Three components of C/D are locus of authority, breadth of participation, and relative contribution by the decision-maker's staff. C/D…

  8. Desenredando las identidades soberanistas vasca y catalana: un Análisis de Redes Sociales de las etiquetas de Twitter #BasquesDecide y #Up4Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Morales i Gras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La intención de este artículo es identificar y comparar mediante técnicas de Análisis de Redes Sociales algunos de los agentes que contribuyen de manera relevante al proceso de configuración de identidades políticas soberanistas en el País Vasco y en Cataluña, así como atender a las relaciones establecidas entre los participantes de los debates bajo las etiquetas #BasquesDecide y #Up4Freedom. El artículo muestra que existen diferencias sustanciales entre las comunicaciones establecidas en Twitter bajo ambas etiquetas tanto por lo que respecta a la participación de sus usuarios como por el tipo de usuarios que gozan de mayor influencia o poder en las redes y las dinámicas que configuran sus comunidades.

  9. Deciding between Mastectomy and Lumpectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Médico Datos Para la Vida Komen Guía de herramientas de educación sobre el cancer de seno para ... you choose [ 2 ]. Neoadjuvant (preoperative) therapy In some cases, neoadjuvant therapy (with chemotherapy, hormone therapy and/or ...

  10. Decide Now - Ditch Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campion, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The separation of psychology into sub-disciplines or paradigms that don't talk to one another. 3. The failure to distinguish between technical and common language usage when dealing with concepts such as decision making and command...

  11. Angels or demons? You decide!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The new film Angels & Demons starring Tom Hanks and directed by Ron Howard is being premiered worldwide on 15 May, but you could see it 10 days earlier at a special preview screening as the CERN Press Office has a limited number of tickets to give away. Preview of the new CERN website to be published on 5 May. Opinion is split among CERNois when talking about Dan Brown’s book Angels & Demons. Should he be praised for bringing particle physics into the spotlight or should he be demonised for the ‘creative liberties’ he took - for example, although it would be useful for the international collaborations, CERN doesn’t actually have its own private airport and supersonic jet. But love it or hate it, with the upcoming release of the multi-million dollar Hollywood film adaptation, Angels & Demons will introduce a huge new audience to CERN. "Guess what? – CERN really exists!" said...

  12. Who decides what, when, how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Marseille. The main discussions of this session concerns the decision making in nuclear wastes management and the use of public funds for the management of radioactive wastes today and tomorrow. (J.S.)

  13. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  14. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  15. Deliberating Tarceva: A case study of how British NHS managers decide whether to purchase a high-cost drug in the shadow of NICE guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David; Doheny, Shane

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines audio-recorded data from meetings in which NHS managers decide whether to fund high-cost drugs for individual patients. It investigates the work of a Welsh individual patient commissioning (IPC) panel responsible for sanctioning the purchase of 'un-commissioned' treatments for exceptional cases. The case study presented highlights the changing rationales used for approving or denying a cancer drug, Tarceva, during a period when NICE first suggested it was not cost effective, but then changed its position in a final technology appraisal recommending use when the cost did not exceed that of an alternative product. Our data show how decisions taken in the shadow of NICE guidance remain complex and subject to local discretion. Guidance that takes time to prepare, is released in stages, and relates to particular disease stages, must be interpreted in the context of particular cases. The case-based IPC panel discourse stands in tension with the standardised population-based recommendations in guidance. Panel members, who based their decisions on the central notions of 'efficacy' and 'exceptionality', often struggled to apply NICE information on cost-effectiveness to their deliberations on efficacy (clinical effectiveness). The case study suggests that the complex nature of decision making makes standardization of outcomes very difficult to achieve, so that local professional judgement is likely to remain central to health care rationing at this level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How do women at increased breast cancer risk perceive and decide between risks of cancer and risk-reducing treatments? A synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Hannah G; Brown, Stephen L; Saini, Pooja; Beesley, Helen; Salmon, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Risk-reducing procedures can be offered to people at increased cancer risk, but many procedures can have iatrogenic effects. People therefore need to weigh risks associated with both cancer and the risk-reduction procedure in their decisions. By reviewing relevant literature on breast cancer (BC) risk reduction, we aimed to understand how women at relatively high risk of BC perceive their risk and how their risk perceptions influence their decisions about risk reduction. Synthesis of 15 qualitative studies obtained from systematic searches of SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge, PsychINFO, and Medline electronic databases (inception-June 2015). Women did not think about risk probabilistically. Instead, they allocated themselves to broad risk categories, typically influenced by their own or familial experiences of BC. In deciding about risk-reduction procedures, some women reported weighing the risks and benefits, but papers did not describe how they did so. For many women, however, an overriding wish to reduce intense worry about BC led them to choose aggressive risk-reducing procedures without such deliberation. Reasoning that categorisation is a fundamental aspect of risk perception, we argue that patients can be encouraged to develop more nuanced and accurate categorisations of their own risk through their interactions with clinicians. Empirically-based ethical reflection is required to determine whether and when it is appropriate to provide risk-reduction procedures to alleviate worry. © 2016 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. a metabolic wastage model for the rate-yield trade off

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A METABOLIC WASTAGE MODEL FOR THE RATE-YIELD TRADE OFF. There is a growth limiting step in which an intermediate metabolite (m) has to hit a target molecule (t). ... D= rate of diffusing out. S= the rate of formation of the metabolite. The equilibrium loss decides the yield. The no. of activated targets decide the rate ...

  18. Testing Parametric versus Semiparametric Modelling in Generalized Linear Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härdle, W.K.; Mammen, E.; Müller, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a generalized partially linear model E(Y|X,T) = G{X'b + m(T)} where G is a known function, b is an unknown parameter vector, and m is an unknown function.The paper introduces a test statistic which allows to decide between a parametric and a semiparametric model: (i) m is linear, i.e.

  19. Mapping infectious disease hospital surge threats to lessons learnt in Singapore: a systems analysis and development of a framework to inform how to DECIDE on planning and response strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta R; Coker, Richard; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J-M; Leo, Yee Sin; Chow, Angela; Lim, Poh Lian; Tan, Qinghui; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Hildon, Zoe Jane-Lara

    2017-09-04

    Hospital usage and service demand during an Infectious Disease (ID) outbreak can tax the health system in different ways. Herein we conceptualize hospital surge elements, and lessons learnt from such events, to help build appropriately matched responses to future ID surge threats. We used the Interpretive Descriptive qualitative approach. Interviews (n = 35) were conducted with governance and public health specialists; hospital based staff; and General Practitioners. Key policy literature in tandem with the interview data were used to iteratively generate a Hospital ID Surge framework. We anchored our narrative account within this framework, which is used to structure our analysis. A spectrum of surge threats from combinations of capacity (for crowding) and capability (for treatment complexity) demands were identified. Starting with the Pyramid scenario, or an influx of high screening rates flooding Emergency Departments, alongside fewer and manageable admissions; the Reverse-Pyramid occurs when few cases are screened and admitted but those that are, are complex; during a 'Black' scenario, the system is overburdened by both crowding and complexity. The Singapore hospital system is highly adapted to crowding, functioning remarkably well at constant near-full capacity in Peacetime and resilient to Endemic surges. We catalogue 26 strategies from lessons learnt relating to staffing, space, supplies and systems, crystalizing institutional memory. The DECIDE model advocates linking these strategies to types of surge threats and offers a step-by-step guide for coordinating outbreak planning and response. Lack of a shared definition and decision making of surge threats had rendered the procedures somewhat duplicative. This burden was paradoxically exacerbated by a health system that highly prizes planning and forward thinking, but worked largely in silo until an ID crisis hit. Many such lessons can be put into play to further strengthen our current hospital governance

  20. 'I want a choice, but I don't want to decide'--a qualitative study of pregnant women's experiences regarding early ultrasound risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Ingvild; Möller, Anders

    2012-02-01

    To increase our understanding of how pregnant women experience early ultrasound examination that includes a risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies and how such women perceive the test results. Qualitative study at St. Olavs Hospital in Norway. Both pre- and post-examination interviews were conducted with ten pregnant women who underwent risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies. Grounded theory was used to analyse the results. The study generated a core category (I want a choice, but I don't want to decide), which related to the conflict between choice and decision making. There were also five main categories (existential choices, search for knowledge, anxiety, feeling of guilt and counselling and care). The main categories describe the complex feelings experienced by the women regarding the risk assessment. Factors contributing to the difficulty of choice included loss of control and coping, emotional connection to the fetus and social pressure. As the women sought independent choices without any external influence, they also felt greater responsibility. The women's understanding of the actual risk varied, and they used different types of logic and methods to evaluate the risk and reach a decision. The pregnant women in this study wanted prenatal diagnostic information and easy access to specialty services. Stress-related feelings and non-transparent information about the actual and perceived risks as well as personal moral judgments made the decision-making process complicated. Improved distribution of information and frequent contact with health professionals may help such women to make informed choices in accordance with their values and beliefs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-clinicians' judgments about asylum seekers' mental health: how do legal representatives of asylum seekers decide when to request medico-legal reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Shaw, Lucy; Pistrang, Nancy; Herlihy, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Procedures for determining refugee status across Europe are being speeded up, despite the high prevalence of mental health difficulties among asylum seekers. An assurance given is that ''vulnerable applicants'' will be identified and excluded from accelerated procedures. Although experts have recommended assessments to be undertaken by experienced clinicians, this is unlikely to happen for political and financial reasons. Understanding how non-clinically qualified personnel perform assessments of mental health issues is timely and crucial. Misrecognition of refugees due to the inappropriate use of accelerated procedures involves the risk of returning the very people who have the right to protection from further persecution. To examine the decision making of immigration lawyers, who are an example of a group of nonclinicians who decide when and whether to refer asylum-seekers for psychiatric assessment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 legal representatives working with people seeking refugee or human rights protection in the United Kingdom. The resultant material was analysed using Framework Analysis. Themes clustered around the legal case, the client, the representative and the systems, all with sub-themes. A mapping exercise integrated these themes to show how representatives brought together questions of (1) evidential reasons for a report, influenced by their legal, psychological and case law knowledge, and (2) perceived evidence of mental distress, influenced by professional and personal experiences and expectations. The legal representatives interviewed were well-informed and trained in psychological issues as well as clearly dedicated to their clients. This helped them to attempt quasi-diagnoses of common mental health problems. They nonetheless demonstrated stereotypical understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder and other possible diagnoses and the role of subjectivity. The study has implications for other groups - particularly those

  2. Primary care physicians' perceptions about and confidence in deciding which patients to refer for total joint arthroplasty of the hip and knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, E J; Badley, E M; Borkhoff, C M; Croxford, R; Davis, A M; Dunn, S; Gignac, M A; Jaglal, S B; Sale, J; Hawker, G A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of primary care physicians (PCPs) regarding indications, contraindications, risks and benefits of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and their confidence in selecting patients for referral for TJA. PCPs recruited from among those providing care to participants in an established community cohort with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Self-completed questionnaires were used to collect demographic and practice characteristics and perceptions about TJA. Confidence in referring appropriate patients for TJA was measured on a scale from 1 to 10; respondents scoring in the lowest tertile were considered to have 'low confidence'. Descriptive analyses were conducted and multiple logistic regression was used to determine key predictors of low confidence. 212 PCPs participated (58% response rate) (65% aged 50+ years, 45% female, 77% >15 years of practice). Perceptions about TJA were highly variable but on average, PCPs perceived that a typical surgical candidate would have moderate pain and disability, identified few absolute contraindications to TJA, and overestimated both the effectiveness and risks of TJA. On average, PCPs indicated moderate confidence in deciding who to refer. Independent predictors of low confidence were female physicians (OR = 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-4.46) and reporting a 'lack of clarity about surgical indications' (OR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.87-6.66). Variability in perceptions and lack of clarity about surgical indications underscore the need for decision support tools to inform PCP - patient decision making regarding referral for TJA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-clinicians’ judgments about asylum seekers’ mental health: how do legal representatives of asylum seekers decide when to request medico-legal reports?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Wilson-Shaw

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Procedures for determining refugee status across Europe are being speeded up, despite the high prevalence of mental health difficulties among asylum seekers. An assurance given is that ‘‘vulnerable applicants’’ will be identified and excluded from accelerated procedures. Although experts have recommended assessments to be undertaken by experienced clinicians, this is unlikely to happen for political and financial reasons. Understanding how non-clinically qualified personnel perform assessments of mental health issues is timely and crucial. Misrecognition of refugees due to the inappropriate use of accelerated procedures involves the risk of returning the very people who have the right to protection from further persecution. Objective : To examine the decision making of immigration lawyers, who are an example of a group of nonclinicians who decide when and whether to refer asylum-seekers for psychiatric assessment. Method : Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 legal representatives working with people seeking refugee or human rights protection in the United Kingdom. The resultant material was analysed using Framework Analysis. Results : Themes clustered around the legal case, the client, the representative and the systems, all with sub-themes. A mapping exercise integrated these themes to show how representatives brought together questions of (1 evidential reasons for a report, influenced by their legal, psychological and case law knowledge, and (2 perceived evidence of mental distress, influenced by professional and personal experiences and expectations. Conclusions : The legal representatives interviewed were well-informed and trained in psychological issues as well as clearly dedicated to their clients. This helped them to attempt quasi-diagnoses of common mental health problems. They nonetheless demonstrated stereotypical understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder and other possible diagnoses and the

  4. Model Checking the Logic of Allen's Relations Meets and Started-by is P^NP-Complete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bozzelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the plethora of fragments of Halpern and Shoham's modal logic of time intervals (HS, the logic AB of Allen's relations Meets and Started-by is at a central position. Statements that may be true at certain intervals, but at no sub-interval of them, such as accomplishments, as well as metric constraints about the length of intervals, that force, for instance, an interval to be at least (resp., at most, exactly k points long, can be expressed in AB. Moreover, over the linear order of the natural numbers N, it subsumes the (point-based logic LTL, as it can easily encode the next and until modalities. Finally, it is expressive enough to capture the ω-regular languages, that is, for each ω-regular expression R there exists an AB formula Φ such that the language defined by R coincides with the set of models of Φ over N. It has been shown that the satisfiability problem for AB over N is EXPSPACE-complete. Here we prove that, under the homogeneity assumption, its model checking problem is Δ^p_2 = P^NP-complete (for the sake of comparison, the model checking problem for full HS is EXPSPACE-hard, and the only known decision procedure is nonelementary. Moreover, we show that the modality for the Allen relation Met-by can be added to AB at no extra cost (AA'B is P^NP-complete as well.

  5. İlişkide Karar Verme Ölçeğinin Türk Kültürüne Uyarlanması / The Turkish Adaptation of Relationship Deciding Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Tosun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of Relationship Deciding Scale (Vennum & Fincham, 2011 for Turkish culture. The sample of the study consisted of 880 students (EFA=439, CFA=441 studying at Karadeniz Technical University. Criterion-related validity, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for the validity of RDS while internal consistency, split half and test-retest techniques were performed to examine the reliability of RDS. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA revealed that the scale had two-factor structures. However, two items were removed from the scale because they didn't have appropriate factor loadings. The scale consisting of 10 items explained 58.97% of the total variance. The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that the model was compatible with the data. In the reliability analysis for EFA and CFA samples, Cronbach alpha coefficients were found as .87 and .86 respectively. Internal consistency coefficients of subscales were found as .83 and .80 for “Relationship Confidence”, .82 and .84 for “Directing Relationship”. According to test-retest reliability analysis results, the whole scale’s coefficient was r= .67. In addition, as a result of criterion validity analysis, correlations (r= .33 between Self-Control Scale (Duyan, Gülden & Gelbal, 2012 and Relationship Deciding Scale (RDS were found to be statistically significant. In conclusion, these findings suggest that RDS, which has two-factor structures with 10 items, can be suggested as a valid and reliable instrument in Turkish culture. Öz Bu araştırmanın amacı, Vennum ve Fincham (2011 tarafından geliştirilen İlişkide Karar Verme Ölçeği’nin (Relationship Deciding Scale Türk kültürüne uyarlanması ile ilgili geçerlik ve güvenirlik işlemlerini yapmaktır. Araştırma grubu Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi’nde öğrenim gören 880 öğrenciden (AFA=439, DFA=441 olu

  6. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary...... of this logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  7. Delivering early care in diabetes evaluation (DECIDE: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial to assess hospital versus home management at diagnosis in childhood diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robling Michael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased incidence of new cases of type 1 diabetes in children younger than 15 years. The debate concerning where best to manage newly diagnosed children continues. Some units routinely admit children to hospital whilst others routinely manage children at home. A Cochrane review identified the need for a large well-designed randomised controlled trial to investigate any significant differences in comprehensive short and long-term outcomes between the two approaches. The DECIDE study will address these knowledge gaps, providing high quality evidence to inform national and international policy and practice. Methods/Design This is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial across eight UK paediatric diabetes centres. The study aims to recruit 240 children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and their parents/carers. Eligible patients (aged 0-17 years will be remotely randomised to either 'hospital' or 'home' management. Parents/carers of patients will also be recruited. Nursing management of participants and data collection will be co-ordinated by a project nurse at each centre. Data will be collected for 24 months after diagnosis; at follow up appointments at 3, 12 and 24 months and every 3-4 months at routine clinic visits. The primary outcome measure is patients' glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c at 24 months after diagnosis. Additional measurements of HbA1c will be made at diagnosis and 3 and 12 months later. HbA1c concentrations will be analysed at a central laboratory. Secondary outcome measures include length of stay at diagnosis, growth, adverse events, quality of life, anxiety, coping with diabetes, diabetes knowledge, home/clinic visits, self-care activity, satisfaction and time off school/work. Questionnaires will be sent to participants at 1, 12 and 24 months and will include a questionnaire, developed and validated to measure impact of the diagnosis on social activity and independence. Additional

  8. Why and How Do Parents Decide to Send Their Children to the Interdistrict School Choice Program at the Magnet Program for Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kevin S.

    The New Jersey Interdistrict School Choice Program allows parents to send their students to schools outside of their local school district. Determining why parents send their students to choice schools is important to school leaders who are trying to attract new students, as well as those who are trying to retain their current students. This study examined the reasons why parents decided to send their students to the Magnet Program for Math and Science (MP4M&S), a school choice program in a suburban school district in northwest New Jersey, during the 2015- 2016 school year. A large volume of research has focused on school choice programs in urban and poor communities. This study addressed the gap in the research by focusing on an affluent suburban school district. This mixed methods study focused on three areas, why parents choose to send their students to the MP4M&S, what criteria they used to make their decision, and where they got their information. Research shows that these three areas of focus can be influenced by parental level of education, socioeconomic status, geographic location, academic rigor, school quality, and school environment. Parents from different groups, based upon their out-of-district status, were interviewed. The information from the interviews was used to focus a survey that was given to the families of all 137 students in the MP4M&S during the 2015-2016 school year. The results of this study show that parents found the academic focus, academic rigor, the school environment, the original research project, the activity offerings, and the economics involved in attending the program to be important attractors. The study also found that the Information Nights, the school website, and interactions with members of the MP4M&S community to be important sources of information. Finally, the study found that there were few differences between in and out-of-district parents when assigning importance to both the attractors and the sources in the study

  9. Model visionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Graham

    2011-03-15

    Ken Dedeluk is the president and CEO of Computer Modeling Group (CMG). Dedeluk started his career with Gulf Oil in 1972, worked in computer assisted design; then joined Imperial Esso and Shell, where he became international operations' VP; and finally joined CMG in 1998. CMG made a decision that turned out to be the company's turning point: they decided to provide intensive support and service to their customer to better use their technology. Thanks to this service, their customers' satisfaction grew as well as their revenues.

  10. Genetic determinants of leucocyte telomere length in children: a neglected and challenging field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Maria G; Petrelis, Alexandros M; Buxton, Jessica L; Froguel, Philippe; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    Telomere length is associated with a large range of human diseases. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants that are associated with leucocyte telomere length (LTL). However, these studies are limited to adult populations. Nevertheless, childhood is a crucial period for the determination of LTL, and the assessment of age-specific genetic determinants, although neglected, could be of great importance. Our aim was to provide insights and preliminary results on genetic determinants of LTL in children. Healthy children (n = 322, age range = 6.75-17 years) with available GWAS data (Illumina Human CNV370-Duo array) were included. The LTL was measured using multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Linear regression models adjusted for age, gender, parental age at child's birth, and body mass index were used to test the associations of LTL with polymorphisms identified in adult GWAS and to perform a discovery-only GWAS. The previously GWAS-identified variants in adults were not associated with LTL in our paediatric sample. This lack of association was not due to possible interactions with age or gene × gene interactions. Furthermore, a discovery-only GWAS approach demonstrated six novel variants that reached the level of suggestive association (P ≤ 5 × 10(-5)) and explain a high percentage of children's LTL. The study of genetic determinants of LTL in children may identify novel variants not previously identified in adults. Studies in large-scale children populations are needed for the confirmation of these results, possibly through a childhood consortium that could better handle the methodological challenges of LTL genetic epidemiology field. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Modeling Human Information Acquisition Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, Annerieke; Klein, Michel C. A.; van Lambalgen, Rianne; Taatgen, Niels A.; Rijn, Hedderik van

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the development of a computational model for intelligent agents that decides on whether to acquire required information by retrieving it from memory or by interacting with the world. First, we present a task for which such decisions have to be made. Next, we discuss an

  12. A Model of Student Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Student workload is a contributing factor to students deciding to withdraw from their study before completion of the course, at significant cost to students, institutions and society. The aim of this paper is to create a basic workload model for a group of undergraduate students studying business law units at Curtin University in Western…

  13. Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Oualhadj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.

  14. Mathematical Modeling in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling occupies an unusual space in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum: typically an "advanced" course, it nonetheless has little to do with formal proof, the usual hallmark of advanced mathematics. Mathematics departments are thus forced to decide what role they want the modeling course to play, both as a component of the…

  15. A Finite Model Property for Intersection Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Statman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that the relational theory of intersection types known as BCD has the finite model property; that is, BCD is complete for its finite models. Our proof uses rewriting techniques which have as an immediate by-product the polynomial time decidability of the preorder <= (although this also follows from the so called beta soundness of BCD.

  16. Research design models: a new category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgeson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a research design model and how it differs from an engineering design model. Essentially, the research design model draws on the methods, materials and processes of engineering design models but more emphasis is placed on conceptualization in 3-D. Typically, equipment and processes in research are unique. Often, there are competing concepts from which to decide. The approach which is evolving at Sandia National Laboratories mixes preliminary, engineering and research design on the same model

  17. Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Faymonville

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.

  18. Characterizing economic trends by Bayesian stochastic model specification search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Proietti, Tommaso

    We extend a recently proposed Bayesian model selection technique, known as stochastic model specification search, for characterising the nature of the trend in macroeconomic time series. In particular, we focus on autoregressive models with possibly time-varying intercept and slope and decide on ...

  19. Sports and Exercise at Different Ages and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Later Life--Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saßenroth, Denise; Meyer, Antje; Salewsky, Bastian; Kroh, Martin; Norman, Kristina; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and sports have repeatedly been reported to be associated with telomere length. We studied the association of different types of sports across different stages of life on relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) in advanced age.815 participants (397 men) from the Berlin Aging Study II aged over 61 years were included in the analysis. rLTL was measured by real time PCR and physical activity was determined retrospectively by questionnaire, assessing type and duration of sports in the past as well as currently. Five separate multiple linear regression models adjusted for various control variables were performed. 67.3% of participants exercised currently, whereas 19.4% performed sports only between the age of 20 and 30. rLTL was higher in subjects who stated to exercise currently (N = 456), and in subjects who engaged in endurance (N = 138) or intensive activity sports (N = 32). Current physical activity was positively associated with rLTL in the risk factor adjusted regression model (β = 0.26, p sports for a minimum of 10 years preceding the assessment had a significant effect on rLTL (β = 0.39, p = 0.011). The highest impact was seen for intensive activity sports (β = 0.79, p sports at all (β = -0.16, p = 0.21). Physical activity is clearly associated with longer rLTL. The effect is seen with longer periods of physical activity (at least 10 years), with intensive sports activities having the greatest impact on rLTL. Our data suggest that regular physical activity for at least 10 years is necessary to achieve a sustained effect on rLTL.

  20. How does interhemispheric communication in visual word recognition work? Deciding between early and late integration accounts of the split fovea theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc; Davis, Colin J

    2009-02-01

    It has recently been shown that interhemispheric communication is needed for the processing of foveally presented words. In this study, we examine whether the integration of information happens at an early stage, before word recognition proper starts, or whether the integration is part of the recognition process itself. Two lexical decision experiments are reported in which words were presented at different fixation positions. In Experiment 1, a masked form priming task was used with primes that had two adjacent letters transposed. The results showed that although the fixation position had a substantial influence on the transposed letter priming effect, the priming was not smaller when the transposed letters were sent to different hemispheres than when they were projected to the same hemisphere. In Experiment 2, stimuli were presented that either had high frequency hemifield competitors or could be identified unambiguously on the basis of the information in one hemifield. Again, the lexical decision times did not vary as a function of hemifield competitors. These results are consistent with the early integration account, as presented in the SERIOL model of visual word recognition.

  1. The role of board independence on R&D investment’ choice decided by committed managers: The cognitive management of executives’ discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhila Hamza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with appreciating the role of both governance system and executives cognitive and attitudinal aspects in the innovation decision-making. After discussing the theoretical relationship between board independence and CEOs attitude and behavior, we are advancing an empirical model testing the correlation between the managers’ attitude and behavior towards innovation and his psychological commitment level. The CEOs commitment bias and attitude constituent were measured using questionnaire. The data analysis was performed using the Bayesian network method on 220 Tunisian executives. Empirical results confirm the theoretical prediction and shows that processing with persuasive mechanism does not have an effective role on the alignment of the manager’s attitude and behavior in key tasks such innovation decision. CEOs authentic behavior was more related to an important manager involvement in this behavior rather than to persuasive effort committed by outside directors to make him contract this action. CEOs attitude and behavior towards innovation are shown related to commitment link “manager-task” and suggests that the board of directors plays no role in the CEOs discretion management. We argue that persuasive approach is not a sufficient path in behavior and interests alignment; yet, it should be applied with the commitment approach for understanding manager decision-making.

  2. What you find is not always what you fix--how other aspects than causes of accidents decide recommendations for remedial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik

    2010-11-01

    In accident investigation, the ideal is often to follow the principle "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix", an ideal reflecting that the investigation should be a rational process of first identifying causes, and then implement remedial actions to fix them. Previous research has however identified cognitive and political biases leading away from this ideal. Somewhat surprisingly, however, the same factors that often are highlighted in modern accident models are not perceived in a recursive manner to reflect how they influence the process of accident investigation in itself. Those factors are more extensive than the cognitive and political biases that are often highlighted in theory. Our purpose in this study was to reveal constraints affecting accident investigation practices that lead the investigation towards or away from the ideal of "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix". We conducted a qualitative interview study with 22 accident investigators from different domains in Sweden. We found a wide range of factors that led investigations away from the ideal, most which more resembled factors involved in organizational accidents, rather than reflecting flawed thinking. One particular limitation of investigation was that many investigations stop the analysis at the level of "preventable causes", the level where remedies that were currently practical to implement could be found. This could potentially limit the usefulness of using investigations to get a view on the "big picture" of causes of accidents as a basis for further remedial actions. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Luteolin Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Induces Apoptosis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells via Regulation of MicroRNA-34a-5p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Qun Jiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin (LTL exerts remarkable tumor suppressive activity on various types of cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, it is not completely understood whether the mechanism of its action against NSCLC is related to microRNAs (miRNAs. In the present study, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of LTL on NSCLC in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that LTL could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in both A549 and H460 cells. In a H460 xenograft tumor model of nude mice, LTL significantly suppressed tumor growth, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis. miRNA microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis indicated that miR-34a-5p was dramatically upregulated upon LTL treatment in tumor tissues. Furthermore, MDM4 was proved to be a direct target of miR-34a-5p by luciferase reporter gene assay. LTL treatment was associated with increased p53 and p21 protein expressions and decreased MDM4 protein expression in both NSCLC cells and tumor tissues. When miR-34a-5p was inhibited in vitro, the protein expressions of Bcl-2 and MDM4 were recovered, while that of p53, p21, and Bax were attenuated. Moreover, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation induced by LHL treatment in vitro were also suppressed by miR-34a-5p inhibition. Overall, LTL could inhibit tumorigenesis and induce apoptosis of NSCLC cells by upregulation of miR-34a-5p via targeting MDM4. These findings provide novel insight into the molecular functions of LTL that suggest its potential as a therapeutic agent for human NSCLC.

  4. Exploring Yellowstone National Park with Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Megan H.; Carr, Ruth; Lackey, Dacia

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical modeling, a practice standard in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010), is a process by which students develop and use mathematics as a tool to make sense of the world around them. Students investigate a real-world situation by asking mathematical questions; along the way, they need to decide how to use…

  5. On a Stochastic Model in Insurance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Insurance mathematics today is considered a part of applied probability theory. Main objectives are modelling of claims that arrive in an insurance business, and decide how premiums are to be charged to avoid ruin of the insurance company. GENERAL I ARTICLE various results and the heuristics can be appreciated.

  6. Short leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shufeng; Yeh, Fawn; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-05-01

    Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with a wide range of age-related disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Obesity is an important risk factor for CVD and diabetes. The association of LTL with obesity is not well understood. This study for the first time examines the association of LTL with obesity indices including body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio in 3,256 American Indians (14-93 years old, 60% women) participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Association of LTL with each adiposity index was examined using multivariate generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for chronological age, sex, study center, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hypertension and diabetes. Results show that obese participants had significantly shorter LTL than non-obese individuals (age-adjusted P=0.0002). Multivariate analyses demonstrate that LTL was significantly and inversely associated with all of the studied obesity parameters. Our results may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in pathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities.

  7. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  8. Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Spädtke, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of technical machines became a standard technique since computer became powerful enough to handle the amount of data relevant to the specific system. Simulation of an existing physical device requires the knowledge of all relevant quantities. Electric fields given by the surrounding boundary as well as magnetic fields caused by coils or permanent magnets have to be known. Internal sources for both fields are sometimes taken into account, such as space charge forces or the internal magnetic field of a moving bunch of charged particles. Used solver routines are briefly described and some bench-marking is shown to estimate necessary computing times for different problems. Different types of charged particle sources will be shown together with a suitable model to describe the physical model. Electron guns are covered as well as different ion sources (volume ion sources, laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron resonance ion sources, and H$^-$-sources) together with some remarks on beam transport.

  9. [How to decide with precision, justice, and equity? Reflections on decision-making in the context of extreme prematurity. Part two: moving toward making the best possible decision: defining conditions for putting decisions into practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azria, E; Tsatsaris, V; Moriette, G; Hirsch, E; Schmitz, T; Cabrol, D; Goffinet, F

    2007-05-01

    Extreme premature child's long-term prognostic is getting better and better known, and if a resuscitation procedure is possible at birth, it won't guarantee survival or a survival free of disability. Incertitude toward individual prognosis and outcome for those children remains considerable. In this field, we are at the frontier of medical knowledge and the answer to the question, "how to decide the ante and postnatal care" is crucial. This work is focused on this problematic of decision-making in the context of extreme prematurity. It attempts to deconstruct this concept and to explicit its stakes. Thus, with the support of the medical sources and of philosophical debates, we tried to build a decision-making procedure that complies with the ethical requirements of medical care, accuracy, justice and equity. This decision-making procedure is primarily concerned with the singularity of each decision situation and it intends to link it closely to the notions of rationality and responsibility.

  10. [How to decide with precision, justice, and equity? Reflections on decision-making in the context of extreme prematurity. Part one: the problematics of decision-making in the context of extreme prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azria, E; Tsatsaris, V; Moriette, G; Hirsch, E; Schmitz, T; Cabrol, D; Goffinet, F

    2007-05-01

    Extreme premature child's long-term prognostic is getting better and better known, and if a resuscitation procedure is possible at birth, it won't guarantee survival or a survival free of disability. Incertitude toward individual prognosis and outcome for those childs remains considerable. In this field, we are at the frontier of medical knowledge and the answer to the question, "how to decide the ante and postnatal care?" is crucial. This work is focused on this problematic of decision making in the context of extreme prematurity. It attempts to deconstruct this concept and to explicit its stakes. Thus, with the support of the medical sources and of philosophical debates, we tried to build a decision-making procedure that complies with the ethical requirements of medical care, accuracy, justice and equity. This decision-making procedure is primarily concerned with the singularity of each decision situation and it intends to link it closely to the notions of rationality and responsibility.

  11. An evolutionary behavioral model for decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Lopez, Dr Oscar Javier

    2011-01-01

    For autonomous agents the problem of deciding what to do next becomes increasingly complex when acting in unpredictable and dynamic environments pursuing multiple and possibly conflicting goals. One of the most relevant behavior-based model that tries to deal with this problem is the one proposed by Maes, the Bbehavior Network model. This model proposes a set of behaviors as purposive perception-action units which are linked in a nonhierarchical network, and whose behavior selection process i...

  12. Temporal Aggregation in First Order Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; la Cour, Lisbeth Funding

    2011-01-01

    with the frequency of the data. We also introduce a graphical representation that will prove useful as an additional informational tool for deciding the appropriate cointegration rank of a model. In two examples based on models of time series of different grades of gasoline, we demonstrate the usefulness of our...

  13. Constructing decidable hybrid systems with velocity bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belta, C.; Habets, L.C.G.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the question of bi-similarity between hybrid systems and their discrete quotients is studied from a new point of view. We consider two classes of hybrid systems: piecewise affine hybrid systems on simplices and piecewise multi-affine systems on multi-dimensional rectangles. Given a

  14. The ABA receptors -- we report you decide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Peter; Creelman, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated in a variety of physiological responses ranging from seed dormancy to stomatal conductance. Recently, three groups have reported the molecular identification of three disparate ABA receptors. Unlike the identification of other hormone receptors, in these three cases high affinity binding to ABA rather than the isolation of ABA insensitive mutants led to these receptor genes. Interestingly, two of the receptors encode genes involved in floral timing and chlorophyll biosynthesis, which are not considered traditional ABA responses. And the third receptor has been clouded in issues of its molecular identity. To clearly determine the roles of these genes in ABA perception it will require placing of these ABA-binding proteins into the rich ABA physiological context that has built up over the years.

  15. Is Unemployment Always Higher when Insiders Decide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper challenges the traditional view that unemployment is high because insiders determine the union wage. The insiders in this paper are characterised by being more efficient when they search for a job than the outsiders, implying that they experience relatively less unemployment. We assume...... that wages are determined by a monopoly union and further that a union leader is elected by a majority voting rule. Insiders may prefer a lower wage that outsiders, implying the possibility of lower unemployment when insiders are decisive in the union than if outsiders were decisive in the union....

  16. Propaganda: Can a Word Decide a War?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Dennis M; White, James F

    2007-01-01

    .... The mainstream American press, members of Congress, and other government leaders immediately and loudly condemned these actions as "propaganda" and contrary to the democratic ideals of a free press...

  17. Consumer protection: how much and who decides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are: safety characteristics of electronic products such as color television sets and microwave ovens; impossibility of lay consumer determining frequency, severity, and probability of injury from radiation emissions; leakage of x radiation from color television sets; costs of safety standards to consumer; user habits and attitudes such as ignoring directions in instruction booklets; and consumer participation such as Consumers Union petition to amend the federal microwave standard and meetings of the technical electronic products radiation safety standards committee

  18. How do the Constitutional Courts decide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Pasquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the mode of production of judicial sentences drafted by constitutional courts in Europe. The natural object of study of the constitutional theory is the analysis of this final product of judicial creation of Law by Constitutional Courts. However, the doctrine has not given sufficient attention –from a comparative law perspective– to the mechanisms and procedures that lead to the decisions of these institutions. Thus, this document will classify the different types of decision-making processes in the courts, analyzing the stages that make up the «mode of production», from the study of the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, the Constitutional Council of the French Republic, The Constitutional Court of Italy and the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. At the end of the paper, some conclusions are made about the period of the magistrates, their party affiliation, the temporary restrictions of deliberation and institutional factors such as the number of attendees or the personalization of its members.

  19. Judicial Review--How Judges Decide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a role play that involves students in applying the U.S. Constitution to a case in which a school is accused of violating civil rights. Gives the facts and the issues of the case, as well as precedents of Supreme Court decisions. Encourages the students to make decisions based on legal principles. (NL)

  20. The State Decides Who You Can Be

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Lea; Herold, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this article I aim to draw out how gender has been done and is currently being done in Denmark. I do this by applying Judith Butler ́s interpretation of sex/gender as interpolative speech acts and performances, which aim to congeal certain ontological grounds for interpretations of sex/gender....... In the case study of Vera, who is a Danish transgender woman, I explore how political agencies are expressed. The exploration of sites of expressed gender agencies in this article cover names, pronouns, Danish national law, as well as Human Rights Law....

  1. Deciding to Adopt Requirements Traceability in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, F.A.; Blaauboer, Floris; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Aydin, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The use of requirements traceability for information systems development (ISD) projects is not very common in practice despite its often mentioned advantages in the literature. We conducted a case study in a large IT company to identify the factors that are relevant for the decision whether or not

  2. Deciding the Fate of Local Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    1992-01-01

    The fundamental job of school board members is to view themselves as moral and cultural leaders and to transform the needs of groups to a higher and more noble framework. Lists the National School Boards Association's statement on the governance role of the local school board. (MLF)

  3. Decidability and Expressiveness of Recursive Weighted Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Labelled weighted transition systems (LWSs) are transition systems labelled with actions and real numbers. The numbers represent the costs of the corresponding actions in terms of resources. RecursiveWeighted Logic (RWL) is a multimodal logic that expresses qualitative and quantitative properties...

  4. Nuclear: time to decide. Report June 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Albernhe, Stephane; Therond Koos, Corinne; Castel, Charles; Fouco, Laurent; Martiniere, Raphaele de la; Aubouin, Pierre; Chaudat, David; Fremaux, Benjamin; Geoffron, Patrice; Jaouen, Claude; Kottmann, Gerard; Puyfaucher, Laetitia; Stricker, Laurent; Authier, Marc-Antoine; Gerault, Jacques; Maignant, Anne-Sophie

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes reflections and thoughts about the future of nuclear energy in a changing context, notably in terms of climate challenges and of restructuring of the nuclear sector. The authors first outline and discusses that nuclear energy is today indispensable to face climate challenge, but must still overcome many difficulties regarding cooperation, standards and waste management. They outline that the European Union must integrate nuclear energy into a more ambitious energetic strategy aimed at securing energy supply, economic competitiveness and its contribution to the struggle against climate change, and should be based on an actual value of carbon, and an easier financing of low carbon energy production infrastructures, whatever the chosen technology be. In a third part, the authors outline that the French State must take its responsibilities in order nuclear industry to remain an asset for France: the nuclear fleet renewal must be prepared (renovation of existing reactors and construction of new ones), renewable energies must be developed to reach an energy mix which would be one of the lowest carbonated one. In this respect, objectives defined by the law on energy transition should be reviewed to optimize economic and environmental costs. Finally, the authors state that the French nuclear industry should perform a competitiveness leap at the occasion of the current restructuring of activities between EDF and Areva. A set of recommendations is proposed to address these issues

  5. WQO is Decidable for Factorial Languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis; Lozin, Vadim; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. We also discuss possible ways to extend our solution to permutations and graphs.

  6. Deciding about treatments that prolong life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are receiving or may need in the future. Learn about the treatments and how they would ... patients and their families. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Deciding to have knee or hip replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommend surgery if deformity or extreme wear and tear on the joint affects other parts of your body. Also, if pain is preventing you from moving around well, the muscles around your joints may become weaker and your ...

  8. Humans and insects decide in similar ways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louâpre, P.; van Alphen, J.J.M.; Pierre, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral ecologists assume that animals use a motivational mechanism for decisions such as action selection and time allocation, allowing the maximization of their fitness. They consider both the proximate and ultimate causes of behavior in order to understand this type of decision-making in

  9. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both with and without potential losses. A large-scale incentivized experiment is conducted with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population. On average, decision makers take the same risks for other people as for themselves when losses are excluded....... In contrast, when losses are possible, decisions on behalf of others are more risky. Using structural estimation, we show that this increase in risk stems from a decrease in loss aversion when others are affected by their choices.......We study risk taking on behalf of others, both with and without potential losses. A large-scale incentivized experiment is conducted with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population. On average, decision makers take the same risks for other people as for themselves when losses are excluded...

  10. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  11. Childbirth -- a question for couples to decide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The decrease in Japan's total fertility rate (TFR) to a new low of 1.46 in 1993 may reinforce concern about the rapid aging of Japanese society and strengthen government and business pronatalist attitudes, says Yuriko Ashino, deputy executive director, Family Planning Federation of Japan. Ashino calls for fully paid child-care leave as well as a change in the value system that women should raise children. According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the TFR dropped 0.4 points from 1.50 in 1992 to reach the 1.46 mark, the second-lowest TFR in the industrialized world, after Italy's 1.26. The Ministry also reported that the number of babies born in Japan fell by 20,672 from 1992 to 1.18 million in 1993. At the peak in 1973, 2.9 million babies were born. The decline in fertility is attributed to the growing trend for women to marry later and bear children later. The average age at first marriage for women rose from 26 in 1992 to 26.1 years in 1993, while the average age at first birth rose to a record 27.2 years in 1993. However, advances in medical technologies allow women to bear children much later, boosting a woman's ability to have more than 1.46 children. Arguments from the government that the higher education of women in Japan is affecting the birthrate are incorrect, since women of all educational backgrounds are having fewer children. The government might like women to stay home not only to rear children, but to care for the increasing number of elderly. The government should place more emphasis on men's responsibility for contraception, child-rearing, and household work. The 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development in September, should consider Japan's fertility issues in relation to other countries'. Japan is encouraging smaller, happier families in developing countries, but it is urging Japanese women to bear more children.

  12. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiqi; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  13. The LifeCycle model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Løvbjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    genetic algorithms (GAs), particle swarm optimisation (PSOs), and stochastic hill climbing to create a generally well-performing search heuristics. In the LifeCycle model, we consider candidate solutions and their fitness as individuals, which, based on their recent search progress, can decide to become...... either a GA individual, a particle of a PSO, or a single stochastic hill climber. First results from a comparison of our new approach with the single search algorithms indicate a generally good performance in numerical optimization....

  14. The Business Emergency Operations Center (BEOC) - A Model for Inter-Agency and Inter-Sector Communication and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    of Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) and Sense, Interpret, Decide, Act ( SIDA ) loops is important to understand and research as part of this...C2 process loops, OODA, developed by John Boyd, (Coram 2002, Lind 1985) and/or SIDA , (Haeckel 2001) are functioning at multiple levels and the...model of C2 is grounded in OODA and SIDA loops addressed earlier in this paper. During exercises, the salient activity of moving through the process

  15. Bisimulation for Single-Agent Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.

    2013-01-01

    define a proper notion of bisimulation, and prove that bisimulation corresponds to logical equivalence on image-finite models. We relate our results to other epistemic notions, such as safe belief and degrees of belief. Our results imply that there are only finitely many non-bisimilar single......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....

  16. Percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful method in deciding to perform prostate biopsy with higher core numbers in patients with low PSA cut-off values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Ciftci, Seyfettin; Yavuz, Ufuk; Ustuner, Murat; Saribacak, Ali; Dillioglugil, Ozdal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive role of percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) cut-points in prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with total PSA (tPSA) levels between 2.5 ng/mL and 10.0 ng/mL. In total, 1321 consecutive initial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided 12-core biopsies performed between 2005 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Benign pathologies, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and atypical small acinary proliferations were categorized as noncancerous (benign), and prostate adenocarcinomas were categorized as cancerous (malignant). The patients were categorized according to: Catalona's published %fPSA categories ( 25%); digital rectal examination (DRE) results [benign (negative) or suspicious of malignancy (positive)]. There was a significant relationship between the %fPSA cut-points and detection of PCa in DRE-negative patients. The presence of a 10% cut-point increased the probability of PCa threefold. The %fPSA was significantly more related to PCa than the tPSA value in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses (p = 0.001). Based on our findings, a lower %fPSA, especially <10%, is an important parameter when deciding whether to perform a biopsy on patients with a tPSA between 2.5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Why did you decide to become a Geoscience Major: A Critical Incident Study for the Development of Recruiting Programs for Inspiring Interests in the Geosciences Amongst Pre-College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Levine, R.; Martinez-Sussmann, C.; Velasco, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Anecdotally, it is often stated that the majority of students that enter the geosciences usually do so sometime after their initial entrance into college. With the objective of providing concrete and useful information for individuals developing programs for inspiring interest in the Geosciences amongst pre-college students and trying to increase the number of freshman Geoscience majors, we conducted a critical incident study. Twenty-two students, who were undergraduate or graduate Geoscience majors, were asked, "Why did you decide to major in the Geosciences?" in a series of interviews. Their responses were then used to identify over 100 critical incidents, each of which described a specific behavior that was causally responsible for a student's choice to major in Geoscience. Using these critical incidents, we developed a preliminary taxonomy that is comprised of three major categories: Informal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., outdoor experiences, family involvement), Formal Exposure to the Geosciences (e.g., academic experiences, program participation) and a Combined Informal and Formal Exposure (e.g., media exposure). Within these three main categories we identified thirteen subcategories. These categories and subcategories, describe, classify, and provide concrete examples of strategies that were responsible for geosciences career choices. As a whole, the taxonomy is valuable as a new, data-based guide for designing geosciences recruitment programs for the pre-college student population.

  18. A Model of Feeding Readiness for Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Pickler, Rita H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of bottle feeding readiness in preterm infants, which hypothesizes relationships between bottle feeding readiness, experience, and outcomes. The synactive theory of development provided the conceptual foundation for the model. The model, which is currently being tested, is designed to establish bottle feeding readiness criteria that will help nurses decide when to offer a bottle to a preterm infant The model may also provide a useful framework for deter...

  19. A Problem-Solving Model for Literacy Coaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Cathy A.

    2017-01-01

    Literacy coaches are more effective when they have a clear plan for their collaborations with teachers. This article provides details of such a plan, which involves identifying a problem, understanding the problem, deciding what to do differently, and trying something different. For each phase of the problem-solving model, there are key tasks for…

  20. A Behavioral Decision Making Modeling Approach Towards Hedging Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Egelkraut, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper takes a behavioral approach toward the market for hedging services. A behavioral decision-making model is developed that provides insight into how and why owner-managers decide the way they do regarding hedging services. Insight into those choice processes reveals information needed by

  1. Formal verification of automated teller machine systems using SPIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Ikhwan Mohammad; Adzkiya, Dieky; Mukhlash, Imam

    2017-08-01

    Formal verification is a technique for ensuring the correctness of systems. This work focuses on verifying a model of the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) system against some specifications. We construct the model as a state transition diagram that is suitable for verification. The specifications are expressed as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulas. We use Simple Promela Interpreter (SPIN) model checker to check whether the model satisfies the formula. This model checker accepts models written in Process Meta Language (PROMELA), and its specifications are specified in LTL formulas.

  2. Domain-Specific Modelling Languages in Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David

    " of models, in order to improve the utility of the models we build, and to ease the process of model construction by moving the languages we use to express such models closer to their respective domains. This thesis is concerned with the study of bigraphical reactive systems as a host for domain...... for deciding reaction rule causation. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the modular construction of domain-specic modelling languages as bigraphical reactive systems, exploring the relationship between vertical renement and language specialisation in this setting. The thesis is composed of several...

  3. An expert system for dispersion model interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyllingstad, E.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-10-01

    A prototype expert system designed to diagnose dispersion model uncertainty is described in this paper with application to a puff transport model. The system obtains qualitative information from the model user and through an expert-derived knowledge base, performs a rating of the current simulation. These results can then be used in combination with dispersion model output for deciding appropriate evacuation measures. Ultimately, the goal of this work is to develop an expert system that may be operated accurately by an individual uneducated in meteorology or dispersion modeling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  4. Nutrition pathways in consequence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1982-01-01

    During 1979-1980 calculations of risk from waste transportation by truck (fire following collision) and fire in temporary storage for waste were performed. A modified version of the consequence model of WASH-1400 (CRAC) was used. Two exposure pathways dominated the results: external exposure from material on the ground and exposure via nutrition. Many of the parameters entering into the nutrition calculations will depend upon local conditions, like soil composition, crop yield, etc. It was decided to collect detailed comments upon the CRAC nutritions model and parameter values from radioecologists in the four Nordic countries. Four alternate sets of parameter values were derived from these comments, and new risk calculations were performed

  5. Characterizing economic trends by Bayesian stochastic model specifi cation search

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Stefano; Proietti, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    We apply a recently proposed Bayesian model selection technique, known as stochastic model specification search, for characterising the nature of the trend in macroeconomic time series. We illustrate that the methodology can be quite successfully applied to discriminate between stochastic and deterministic trends. In particular, we formulate autoregressive models with stochastic trends components and decide on whether a specific feature of the series, i.e. the underlying level and/or the rate...

  6. Tutorial on Modeling VAT Rules Using OWL-DL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    . In an ERP setting such a model could reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and increase the quality of the system. We have selected OWL-DL because we believe that description logic is suited for modeling VAT rules due to the decidability of important inference problems that are key to the way we plan...... to use the model and because OWL-DL is relatively intuitive to use....

  7. We Decide, They Decide For Us: Popular Participation as an Issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the success of the non-governmental organization far outweighed the government-sponsored one because of its basic belief in popular participation. BLP was more likely to encourage bureaucratic and individual politically motivated ...

  8. We Decide, They Decide For Us: Popular Participation as an Issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation at all levels of organizing, programme development, and implementation is critical if development programmes are to meet a minimum level of success. An examination of the organizational decision-making structure of two Nigerian women's development organizations, Better Life for Rural Women (BLP), ...

  9. Big Data and Consumer Participation in Privacy Contracts: Deciding who Decides on Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Rhoen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Big data puts data protection to the test. Consumers granting permission to process their personal data are increasingly opening up their personal lives, thanks to the “datafication” of everyday life, indefinite data retention and the increasing sophistication of algorithms for analysis.The privacy implications of big data call for serious consideration of consumers’ opportunities to participate in decision-making processes about their contracts. If these opportunities are insufficient, the resulting rules may represent special interests rather than consumers’ needs. This may undermine the legitimacy of big data applications.This article argues that providing sufficient consumer participation in privacy matters requires choosing the best available decision making mechanism. Is a consumer to negotiate his own privacy terms in the market, will lawmakers step in on his behalf, or is he to seek protection through courts? Furthermore is this a matter of national law or European law? These choices will affect the opportunities for achieving different policy goals associated with the possible benefits of the “big data revolution”.

  10. Licensing method for new nuclear power plant: A study on decision making modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, N; Ohaga, E. O.; Jung, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a study on decision making modeling for a licensing method of a new nuclear power plant. SWOT analysis provides the licensing alternatives attributes, then the expectation from either COL or two step licensing method is decided by inputting the output from the Hurwitz mathematical model. From the analysis, COL shows the best candidate for both optimistic and pessimistic conditions

  11. Licensing method for new nuclear power plant: A study on decision making modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N; Ohaga, E. O.; Jung, J. C. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This work provides a study on decision making modeling for a licensing method of a new nuclear power plant. SWOT analysis provides the licensing alternatives attributes, then the expectation from either COL or two step licensing method is decided by inputting the output from the Hurwitz mathematical model. From the analysis, COL shows the best candidate for both optimistic and pessimistic conditions.

  12. Estar críticamente enfermo significa no ser capaz y no poder decidir Undergoing a critical sickness means not to be capable and not to be able to decide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Beltrán Salazar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el significado para los pacientes críticamente enfermos hospitalizados en UCI de la experiencia de ser dependientes de los enfermeros para la satisfacción de las necesidades. Metodología: Investigación con enfoque fenomenológico realizada en Medellín en 2006; incluyó a nueve personas adultas entre 24 y 80 años que estuvieron críticamente enfermos y hospitalizados en UCI. La entrevista en profundidad se utilizó para la recolección de información. Los datos se analizaron según el esquema propuesto por Cohen, Kahan y Steeves. Resultados: Depender de otras personas para actuar y para decidir, el sufrimiento y el dolor influyen en la dureza de la experiencia de padecer una enfermedad grave. Discusión: No ser capaz de autosatisfacer las necesidades propias y no poder tomar decisiones contribuyen para que la experiencia de padecer una enfermedad grave sea "dura y difícil". Conclusión: la dependencia de los pacientes que padecen una enfermedad grave no debe ser asumida por los enfermeros sino que debe evaluarse en cada caso, lo mismo que las respuestas a dicha dependencia para asegurar el respeto por los derechos de las personas enfermas.Objective: To describe the meaning for the critically sick patients hospitalized in ICU of the experience of being dependent of nurses for meting needs. Methodology: Phenomenological focused research carried out in Medellín in 2006; it included nine adults among 24 and 80 years who were critically sick and hospitalized in ICU. The interview in depth was used for gathering information. The data were analyzed according to the outline proposed by Cohen, Kahan and Steeves. Results: The dependency on other people to act and decide, the suffering and the pain influence in the hardness of the experience of suffering a serious illness. Discussion: Not to be capable of meeting the own necessities and making decisions make the experience of suffering a serious illness "hard and difficult

  13. A Model of Boundedly Rational Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Riechmann

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an extended version of the standard textbook problem of consumer choice. As usual, agents have to decide about their desired quatities of various consumption goods, at the same time taking into account their limited budget. Prices for the goods are not fixed but arise from a Walrasian interaction of total demand and a stilized supply function for each of the goods. After showing that this type of model cannot be solved analytically, three different types of evolutionary alg...

  14. On quantum models of the human mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Sun, Yanlong

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed rapidly increasing interests in developing quantum theoretical models of human cognition. Quantum mechanisms have been taken seriously to describe how the mind reasons and decides. Papers in this special issue report the newest results in the field. Here we discuss why the two levels of commitment, treating the human brain as a quantum computer and merely adopting abstract quantum probability principles to model human cognition, should be integrated. We speculate that quantum cognition models gain greater modeling power due to a richer representation scheme. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs.

  16. Trade and Variety in a Model of Endogenous Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Lorz; Matthias Wrede

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets up a model of endogenous product differentiation to analyze the variety effects of international trade. In our model multi-product firms decide not only about the number of varieties they supply but also about the degree of horizontal differentiation between these varieties. Firms can raise the degree of differentiation by investing variety-specific fixed costs. In this setting, we analyze how trade integration, i.e. an increase in market size, influences the number of firms i...

  17. MODELS OF PROJECT REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Володимирович ІВАНОВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering decided important scientific and technical problems of increasing the cost of the existing technical product by transforming it into a product with other features or design. Search ideas of the new application of existing products on the base of heuristic analysis were created. The concept of reverse engineering and its division into three types: conceptual, aggregate and complete was expanded. The use of heuristic methods for reverse engineering concept was showed. The modification model of Reverse engineering based on the model of РМВОК was developed. Our model includes two new phases: identification and transformation. At the identification phase, technical control is made. At the transformation phase, search heuristic idea of the new applied existing technical product was made. The model of execution phase that included heuristic methods, metrological equipment, and CAD/CAM/CAE program complex was created. The model that connected economic indicators of reverse engineering project was developed.

  18. Using the supply-chain operations reference model (SCOR) to model the production of nautical charts by the SA navy hydrographic office

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available as the Centre of Hydrographic Excellence in Africa by the International Hydrographic Community through its proven professional conduct, products, innovation and supreme service. Since chart production can be seen as a supply chain, it was decided to model...

  19. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Bergami, Leonardo; Andersen, Peter Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model...

  20. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model...

  1. MODELS CONCERNING PREVENTIVE VERIFICATION OF TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÂRLAN M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents three operative models whose purpose is to improve the practice of preventive maintenance to a wide range of technical installations. Although the calculation criteria are different, the goal is the same: to determine the optimum time between two consecutive preventive interventions. The optimum criteria of these models are: - the maximum share of technical entity operating probabilities, in the case of the Ackoff - Sasieni [1] method; -the optimum time interval for preventive verification depending on the preventive-corrective maintenance costs imposed by the deciding factor, for the AsturioBaldin [2] model; - the minimum number of renewals – preventive and/or corrective maintenance operations [3

  2. Modelling Preference Heterogeneity for Theatre Tickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea; Bille, Trine

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the behavioural choice for theatre tickets using a rich data set for 2010–2013 from the sale system of the Royal Danish National Theatre. A consumer who decides to attend a theatre production faces multiple sources of price variation that involves a choice by the consumer...... among different ticket alternatives. Three modelling approaches are proposed in order to model ticket purchases: conditional logit with socio-demographic characteristics, nested logit and latent class. These models allow us explicitly to take into account consumers’ preference heterogeneity with respect...... of behaviour in the choice of theatre ticket....

  3. Optimization model of energy mix taking into account the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, O.; Oprea, D.

    2012-01-01

    At present, the energy system in the Czech Republic needs to decide some important issues regarding limited fossil resources, greater efficiency in producing of electrical energy and reducing emission levels of pollutants. These problems can be decided only by formulating and implementing an energy mix that will meet these conditions: rational, reliable, sustainable and competitive. The aim of this article is to find a new way of determining an optimal mix for the energy system in the Czech Republic. To achieve the aim, the linear optimization model comprising several economics, environmental and technical aspects will be applied. (Authors)

  4. On competition in a Stackelberg location-design model with deterministic supplier choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    We study a market situation where two firms maximize market capture by deciding on the location in the plane and investing in a competing quality against investment cost. Clients choose one of the suppliers; i.e. deterministic supplier choice. To study this situation, a game theoretic model is

  5. Household Labour Supply in Britain and Denmark: Some Interpretations Using a Model of Pareto Optimal Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barmby, Tim; Smith, Nina

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the labour supply behaviour of households in Denmark and Britain. It employs models in which the preferences of individuals within the household are explicitly represented. The households are then assumed to decide on their labour supply in a Pareto-Optimal fashion. Describing...

  6. A two-factor, stochastic programming model of Danish mortgage-backed securities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren S.; Poulsen, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    -trivial, both in terms of deciding on an initial mortgage, and in terms of managing (rebalancing) it optimally.We propose a two-factor, arbitrage-free interest-rate model, calibrated to observable security prices, and implement on top of it a multi-stage, stochastic optimization program with the purpose...

  7. Adapting the SCOR model to suit the military: A South African example

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bean, WL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available of military supply chains, therefore it was decided that supply chain management in conjunction with the SCOR model should be used during a logistics and supply chain improvement project for the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). Three case studies...

  8. Efficient model checking for duration calculus based on branching-time approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2008-01-01

    Duration Calculus (abbreviated to DC) is an interval-based, metric-time temporal logic designed for reasoning about embedded real-time systems at a high level of abstraction. But the complexity of model checking any decidable fragment featuring both negation and chop, DC's only modality, is non...

  9. A large-scale multi-species spatial depletion model for overwintering waterfowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baveco, J.M.; Kuipers, H.; Nolet, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model to evaluate the capacity of accommodation areas for overwintering waterfowl, at a large spatial scale. Each day geese are distributed over roosting sites. Based on the energy minimization principle, the birds daily decide which surrounding fields to exploit within

  10. Kalman-filter model for determining block and trickle SNM losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Durst, M.J.; Smiriga, N.G.

    1982-07-01

    This paper describes an integrated decision procedure for deciding whether a diversion of SNM has occurred. Two possible types of diversion are considered: a block loss during a single time period and a cumulative trickle loss over several time periods. The methodology used is based on a compound Kalman filter model. Numerical examples illustrate our approach

  11. Depressive and anxiety disorders and short leukocyte telomere length: mediating effects of metabolic stress and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, D; Verhoeven, J E; Milaneschi, Y; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-08-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), an indicator of cellular aging. It is, however, unknown which pathways underlie this association. This study examined the extent to which lifestyle factors and physiological changes such as inflammatory or metabolic alterations mediate the relationship. We applied mediation analysis techniques to data from 2750 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. LTL was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Independent variables were current depressive (30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptoms - Self Report) and anxiety (21-item Beck's Anxiety Inventory) symptoms and presence of a depressive or anxiety disorder diagnosis based on DSM-IV; mediator variables included physiological stress systems, metabolic syndrome components and lifestyle factors. Short LTL was associated with higher symptom severity (B = -2.4, p = 0.002) and current psychiatric diagnosis (B = -63.3, p = 0.024). C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cigarette smoking were significant mediators in the relationship between psychopathology and LTL. When all significant mediators were included in one model, the effect sizes of the relationships between LTL and symptom severity and current diagnosis were reduced by 36.7 and 32.7%, respectively, and the remaining direct effects were no longer significant. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic alterations and cigarette smoking are important mediators of the association between depressive and anxiety disorders and LTL. This calls for future research on intervention programs that take into account lifestyle changes in mental health care settings.

  12. Ranked retrieval of Computational Biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ron; Endler, Lukas; Peters, Andre; Le Novère, Nicolas; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2010-08-11

    The study of biological systems demands computational support. If targeting a biological problem, the reuse of existing computational models can save time and effort. Deciding for potentially suitable models, however, becomes more challenging with the increasing number of computational models available, and even more when considering the models' growing complexity. Firstly, among a set of potential model candidates it is difficult to decide for the model that best suits ones needs. Secondly, it is hard to grasp the nature of an unknown model listed in a search result set, and to judge how well it fits for the particular problem one has in mind. Here we present an improved search approach for computational models of biological processes. It is based on existing retrieval and ranking methods from Information Retrieval. The approach incorporates annotations suggested by MIRIAM, and additional meta-information. It is now part of the search engine of BioModels Database, a standard repository for computational models. The introduced concept and implementation are, to our knowledge, the first application of Information Retrieval techniques on model search in Computational Systems Biology. Using the example of BioModels Database, it was shown that the approach is feasible and extends the current possibilities to search for relevant models. The advantages of our system over existing solutions are that we incorporate a rich set of meta-information, and that we provide the user with a relevance ranking of the models found for a query. Better search capabilities in model databases are expected to have a positive effect on the reuse of existing models.

  13. Automata-Based CSL Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996. The presented decision procedure, however, has exponential complexity. In this paper, we...... probability can then be approximated in polynomial time (using uniformization). This makes the present work the centerpiece of a broadly applicable full CSL model checker. Recently, the decision algorithm by Aziz et al. was shown to be incorrect in general. In fact, it works only for stratified CTMCs...

  14. p-values for model evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaujean, F.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Kroeninger, K.

    2011-01-01

    Deciding whether a model provides a good description of data is often based on a goodness-of-fit criterion summarized by a p-value. Although there is considerable confusion concerning the meaning of p-values, leading to their misuse, they are nevertheless of practical importance in common data analysis tasks. We motivate their application using a Bayesian argumentation. We then describe commonly and less commonly known discrepancy variables and how they are used to define p-values. The distribution of these are then extracted for examples modeled on typical data analysis tasks, and comments on their usefulness for determining goodness-of-fit are given.

  15. Model for Refurbishment of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    the Heritage Agency, the Danish Working Environment Authority and the owner as a team cooperated in identifying feasible refurbishments. In this case, the focus centered on restoring and identifying potential energy savings and deciding on energy upgrading measures for the listed complex. The refurbished...... with the requirements for the use of the building. The model focuses on the cooperation and dialogue between authorities and owners, who refurbish heritage buildings. The developed model was used for the refurbishment of the listed complex, Fæstningens Materialgård. Fæstningens Materialgård is a case study where...

  16. COMPARING OF DEPOSIT MODEL AND LIFE INSURANCE MODEL IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA ATANASOVA-PACHEMSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of the continuous decline of the interest rates for bank deposits, and at a time when uncertainty about the future is increasing, physical and legal persons have doubts how to secure their future or how and where to invest their funds and thus to “fertilize” and increase their savings. Individuals usually choose to put their savings in the bank for a certain period, and for that period to receive certain interest, or decide to invest their savings in different types of life insurance and thus to "take care" of their life, their future and the future of their families. In mathematics are developed many models that relate to the compounding and the insurance. This paper is a comparison of the deposit model and the model of life insurance

  17. Adoption of open source software in business models: a Red Hat and IBM case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munga, N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available and its position in the market identified [15]. Various types of business models are discussed in the literature. Rappa [16], using the customer relationship as the primary dimension, defines the brokerage model, information intermediary model... is growing at twice the rate of the platform business [29]. The Market After years of trying to sell to the individual consumer market, Red Hat decided to follow the money and focus its efforts on the enterprise market. The enterprise business customers...

  18. Business models in commercial media markets: Bargaining, advertising, and mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Thöne, Miriam; Rasch, Alexander; Wenzel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We consider a product and a media market and show how a change in the business model employed by the media platforms affects consumers, producers (or advertisers), and price negotiations for advertisements. On both markets, two firms differentiated á la Hotelling compete for consumers. On the media market, consumers can mix between the two outlets whereas on the product market, consumers have to decide for one supplier. With pay-tv, as opposed to free-to-air, mixing by consumers disappears, p...

  19. A Model for the Growth of Network Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Service Provider O-D Origin-Destination POP Point of Presence UCG Unilateral Connection Game xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv EXECUTIVE...xvi We make use of the Abilene dataset as input to the network provisioning model and assume that the NSP is new to the market and is building an...has to decide on the connections to build and the markets to serve in order to maximize its profits. The NSP makes these decisions based on the market

  20. A Knowledge base representing Porter's Five Forces Model

    OpenAIRE

    Swaan Arons, H.; Waalewijn, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    textabstractStrategic Analysis and Planning is a field in which expertise and experience are key factors. In order to decide on strategic matters such as the competitive position of a company experts heavily lean on their ability to reason with uncertain or incomplete knowledge, or in other words on their experience and expertise. An important aspect is to assess a company's profit potential in the industry for which Porter's Competitive Forces Model is by far the most widely used framework. ...

  1. A dynamic marketing model with best reply and inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischi, Gian Italo; Cerboni Baiardi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider a nonlinear discrete-time dynamic model proposed by Farris et al. (2005) as a market share attraction model with two firms that decide marketing efforts over time according to best reply strategies with naïve expectations. The model also considers an adaptive adjustment toward best reply, a form of inertia or anchoring attitude, and we investigate the effects of heterogeneities among firms. A rich scenario of local and global bifurcations is obtained even with just two competing firms, and a comparison is proposed with apparently similar duopoly models based on repeated best reply dynamics with naïve expectations and adaptive adjustment.

  2. Assessing Mental Models of Emergencies Through Two Knowledge Elicitation Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Daphne E; Sims, Valerie K; Torres, Michael E

    2017-05-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university. In Study 2, participants listed emergencies in a thought-listing task. Study 3 measured participants' time to decide if a situation was an emergency. The university distributed the most alerts about an armed person, theft, and fire. In Study 2, participants most frequently listed fire, car accident, heart attack, and theft. In Study 3, participants quickly decided a bomb, murder, fire, tornado, and rape were emergencies. They most slowly decided that a suspicious package and identify theft were emergencies. Recent interaction with warnings was only somewhat related to participants' mental models of emergencies. Risk identification precedes decision-making and applying protective actions. Examining these characteristics of people's mental representations of emergencies is fundamental to further understand why some emergency warnings go ignored. Someone must believe a situation is serious to categorize it as an emergency before taking the protective action recommendations in an emergency warning. Present-day research must continue to examine the problem of people ignoring warning communication, as there are important cognitive factors that have not yet been explored until the present research.

  3. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes

  4. Power supply-demand balance in a Smart Grid : An information sharing model for a market mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Gunn K. H.; van Foreest, Nicky D.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    2014-01-01

    In the future, global energy balance of a Smart Grid system can be achieved by its agents deciding on their own power demand and production (locally) and the exchange of these decisions. In this paper, we develop a network model that describes how the information of power imbalance of individual

  5. The Case for Using the Spherical Model to Calculate the Interpolated Points in the Connectivity Software Deployment Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Still, G. W; Nealon, James F

    2008-01-01

    .... The developers must decide which model of the earth to use as the basis of the calculations. Thus, a comparison was made between the National Geodetic Survey-provided computer programs Forward an Inverse based on the WGS84 Oblate Spheroid (OS...

  6. Paving the road from transport models to “new mobilities” models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon; Jensen, Ole B.; Kaplan, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    For half a century, tremendous efforts have been invested in developing transport models as a decision aid for policy makers in designing effective policy interventions and deciding among costly public projects for the benefit of the population. Transport and activity-based models are often...... criticized for neglecting the “new mobilities” turn (Urry 2007, Cresswell 2006), namely multiple mobility aspects and rationales, including social, cultural, material, aesthetic and affective, in analyzing travel behavior. This paper aims at taking a tentative first step in bridging the gap between...

  7. Polymorphisms in Telomere Length Associated TERC and TERT predispose for Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Ji, Guofa; Liang, Yiqian; Zhang, Rui; Shi, Puyu; Guo, Dangshe; Li, Chunqi; Feng, Jing; Liu, Feng; Peng, Rong; Chen, Mingwei

    2017-01-06

    The role of telomere in genomic stability is an established fact. Variation in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been considered a crucial factor that associated with age-associated diseases. To elucidate the association between LTL variation and ischemic stroke (IS) risk, we selected ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three genes (TERC, TERT and RTEL1) that previously reported link to LTL, and genotyped SNPs of these genes in a case-control study. The association between polymorphisms and IS risk were tested by Chi squared test and haplotype analysis. In allele association analysis, allele "C" in rs10936599 of TERC gene and allele "G" in rs2853677 of TERT gene were found to have an increased risk of IS when compared with allele "T" and "A", respectively. Model association analysis showed that genotype "G/A" in the overdominant model and genotypes "G/A" and "A/A" in the dominant model of rs2242652 presented a more likelihood to have IS. Another TERT locus (rs2853677) with genotype "G" was also found IS-related risky in the log-additive model. Taken together, our results suggest a potential association between LTL related TERC, TERT gene variants and ischemic stroke risk.

  8. Laser shaft alignment measurement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chang-tao; Chen, Changzheng; Hou, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    Laser beam's track which is on photosensitive surface of the a receiver will be closed curve, when driving shaft and the driven shaft rotate with same angular velocity and rotation direction. The coordinate of arbitrary point which is on the curve is decided by the relative position of two shafts. Basing on the viewpoint, a mathematic model of laser alignment is set up. By using a data acquisition system and a data processing model of laser alignment meter with single laser beam and a detector, and basing on the installation parameter of computer, the state parameter between two shafts can be obtained by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  9. Component Composition Using Feature Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Klose, Karl; Mitschke, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    interface description languages. If this variability is relevant when selecting a matching component then human interaction is required to decide which components can be bound. We propose to use feature models for making this variability explicit and (re-)enabling automatic component binding. In our...... approach, feature models are one part of service specifications. This enables to declaratively specify which service variant is provided by a component. By referring to a service's variation points, a component that requires a specific service can list the requirements on the desired variant. Using...... these specifications, a component environment can then determine if a binding of the components exists that satisfies all requirements. The prototypical environment Columbus demonstrates the feasibility of the approach....

  10. Do leukocyte telomere length dynamics depend on baseline telomere length? An analysis that corrects for ‘regression to the mean’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhulst, Simon; Aviv, Abraham; Benetos, Athanase; Berenson, Gerald S.; Kark, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age. Longitudinal studies have reported accelerated LTL attrition when baseline LTL is longer. However, the dependency of LTL attrition on baseline LTL might stem from a statistical artifact known as regression to the mean (RTM). To our knowledge no published study of LTL dynamics (LTL and its attrition rate) has corrected for this phenomenon. We illustrate the RTM effect using replicate LTL measurements, and show, using simulated data, how the RTM effect increases with a rise in stochastic measurement variation (representing LTL measurement error), resulting in spurious increasingly elevated dependencies of attrition on baseline values. In addition, we re-analyzed longitudinal LTL data collected from four study populations to test the hypothesis that LTL attrition depends on baseline LTL. We observed that the rate of LTL attrition was proportional to baseline LTL, but correction for the RTM effect reduced the slope of the relationship by 57 % when measurement error was low (coefficient of variation ∼2 %). A modest but statistically significant effect remained however, indicating that high baseline LTL is associated with higher LTL attrition even when correcting for the RTM effect. Baseline LTL explained 1.3 % of the variation in LTL attrition, but this effect, which differed significantly between the study samples, appeared to be primarily attributable to the association in men (3.7 %)

  11. CMS announces new payment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. On Tuesday, 1/9/18, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS announced a new voluntary bundled-payment model that will be considered an advanced alternative payment model under Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA (1. The new model is the first advanced Alternative Payment Model (APM to be introduced by the Trump administration. The Trump administration has been a vocal advocate of reducing administrative burden for clinicians and has touted voluntary models as a solution (2. The new, voluntary model comes less than two months after the CMS officially decided to eliminate two mandatory bundled-payment models created during the Obama administration. Under the model, clinician payment will be based on quality measures during a 90-day episode of care. Participants must select at least one of the 32 clinical episodes to apply to the model. The inpatient clinical episodes are listed in Table 1 (3. Table 1. Clinical inpatient episodes under …

  12. Enterprise Networks for Competences Exchange: A Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remondino, Marco; Pironti, Marco; Pisano, Paola

    A business process is a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business and related to improving organizational processes. Process innovation can happen at various levels: incrementally, redesign of existing processes, new processes. The knowledge behind process innovation can be shared, acquired, changed and increased by the enterprises inside a network. An enterprise can decide to exploit innovative processes it owns, thus potentially gaining competitive advantage, but risking, in turn, that other players could reach the same technological levels. Or it could decide to share it, in exchange for other competencies or money. These activities could be the basis for a network formation and/or impact the topology of an existing network. In this work an agent based model is introduced (E3), aiming to explore how a process innovation can facilitate network formation, affect its topology, induce new players to enter the market and spread onto the network by being shared or developed by new players.

  13. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    Wind turbines play a major role in the transformation from a fossil fuel based energy production to a more sustainable production of energy. Total-cost-of-ownership is an important parameter when investors decide in which energy technology they should place their capital. Modern wind turbines...... the need for maintenance of the wind turbine. Either way, better total-cost-of-ownership for wind turbine operators can be achieved by improved control of the wind turbines. Wind turbine control can be improved in two ways, by improving the model on which the controller bases its design or by improving...

  14. Encouraging workplace innovation using 'World Cafe' model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Cathy; Sheldon, Keeley

    2010-11-01

    To ensure that community health services are as good as they can be, professional leaders in Bassetlaw, Nottinghamshire, decided to engage staff using a method attributed to the World Café movement. The adopted model gives staff an opportunity to influence the development of services, and focuses on six areas: end of life care; health and wellbeing and reducing inequalities; children, young people and families; rehabilitation; acute care closer to home; and long-term conditions. Staff have appreciated being involved and there is now an action plan for each service area to continue its improvement.

  15. Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2001-01-01

    We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication...... of a subclass of parametric timed automata (L/U automata), for which the emptiness problem is decidable, contrary to the full class where it is know to be undecidable. Also we present a number of lemmas enabling the verication eort to be reduced for L/U automata in some cases. We illustrate our approach...

  16. Required experimental accuracy to select between supersymmetrical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellscheid, David

    2004-03-01

    We will present a method to decide a priori whether various supersymmetrical scenarios can be distinguished based on sparticle mass data alone. For each model, a scan over all free SUSY breaking parameters reveals the extent of that model's physically allowed region of sparticle-mass-space. Based on the geometrical configuration of these regions in mass-space, it is possible to obtain an estimate of the required accuracy of future sparticle mass measurements to distinguish between the models. We will illustrate this algorithm with an example. This talk is based on work done in collaboration with B C Allanach (LAPTH, Annecy) and F Quevedo (DAMTP, Cambridge).

  17. Tinjauan terhadap Model Bisnis Penyelenggaraan Penyiaran Tv Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hutabarat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available TV broadcast systems are migrating from analogue to digital broadcasting system. Some countries in the world have completed this migration since a few years ago. America decided to stop broadcasting analog television in 2009. In Asia, Singapore launched this technology in 2004 and Malaysia implemented in 2006 (Depkominfo, 2009. With so many countries are migrating to digital broadcasting system, there are many business models that can be referred for organizing digital television broadcasts. In this writing, several business models that are used in the world will be reviewed and analyzed and the results can be a reference to determine the appropriate business model according to the organizers.

  18. Conservación de la biodiversidad en Chile, ¿legalmente suficiente?: La necesidad de cartografiar la ley antes de decidir Biodiversity conservation in Chile, legally enough?: The need for mapping the law before deciding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO F. PELLET

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El 99,8 % del territorio donde se sustenta la biodiversidad es rural y ha estado tradicionalmente regulado por legislación dispersa, sectorial e inorgánica. La legislación moderna, más holística, como la Ley de Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente adolece de imperfecciones relacionadas con la vigencia, la interpretación y, sobre todo, el que la ley se haga cumplir. En este trabajo argumentamos que la aplicación de modelos tomados de la literatura ecológica buscando apoyar la biología de conservación puede ser complementada fuertemente si es acompañada de una medición de la superficie territorial (cantidad y distribución en el espacio efectivamente afectada por la legislación vigente de protección ambiental. Nuestro trabajo intenta dar respuesta a la pregunta ¿cuánto es lo que efectivamente, en superficie, queda protegido si se hace cumplir la ley? Para esto hemos expresado cartográficamente textos legales relacionados con el bosque nativo, analizamos la complejidad y los efectos de su aplicación y demostramos que basta hacer cumplir la ley para asegurar un mínimo en que, además de aumentar la superficie protegida, aumenta la conectividad y cambian los patrones de fragmentación. La metodología muestra claras ventajas relacionadas con su aplicación para el monitoreo, planificación y control de efectividad de programas socialesAbout 99.8 % of the land sustaining biodiversity in Chile is rural and regulated by legislation, which has been qualified as disperse, too specific or inorganic. Even though modern legislation like (Chilean Law of Environmental Basis tends to be more holistic in nature, serious imperfections connected with applicability, interpretation and, mainly enforcement still prevails. We argue here that any search for, or application of, ecological models as a support for conservation biology could be strongly complemented by a measurement of the land surface (amount and spatial distribution effectively affected

  19. Characteristics of the large corporation-based, bureaucratic model among oecd countries - an foi model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartha Zoltán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deciding on the development path of the economy has been a delicate question in economic policy, not least because of the trade-off effects which immediately worsen certain economic indicators as steps are taken to improve others. The aim of the paper is to present a framework that helps decide on such policy dilemmas. This framework is based on an analysis conducted among OECD countries with the FOI model (focusing on future, outside and inside potentials. Several development models can be deduced by this method, out of which only the large corporation-based, bureaucratic model is discussed in detail. The large corporation-based, bureaucratic model implies a development strategy focused on the creation of domestic safe havens. Based on country studies, it is concluded that well-performing safe havens require the active participation of the state. We find that, in countries adhering to this model, business competitiveness is sustained through intensive public support, and an active role taken by the government in education, research and development, in detecting and exploiting special market niches, and in encouraging sectorial cooperation.

  20. Emotions and family interactions in childhood: Associations with leukocyte telomere length emotions, family interactions, and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F; Carroll, Judith E; Bai, Sunhye; Reynolds, Bridget M; Esquivel, Stephanie; Repetti, Rena L

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualizations of links between stress and cellular aging in childhood suggest that accumulating stress predicts shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). At the same time, several models suggest that emotional reactivity to stressors may play a key role in predicting cellular aging. Using intensive repeated measures, we tested whether exposure or emotional "reactivity" to conflict and warmth in the family were related to LTL. Children (N=39; 30 target children and 9 siblings) between 8 and 13 years of age completed daily diary questionnaires for 56 consecutive days assessing daily warmth and conflict in the marital and the parent-child dyad, and daily positive and negative mood. To assess exposure to conflict and warmth, diary scale scores were averaged over the 56 days. Mood "reactivity" was operationalized by using multilevel modeling to generate estimates of the slope of warmth or conflict scores (marital and parent-child, separately) predicting same-day mood for each individual child. After diary collection, a blood sample was collected to determine LTL. Among children aged 8-13 years, a stronger association between negative mood and marital conflict, suggesting greater negative mood reactivity to marital conflict, was related to shorter LTL (B=-1.51, pfamily and marital conflict and warmth, and positive and negative mood over a two-month period. To our knowledge, these findings, although cross-sectional, represent the first evidence showing that link between children's affective responses and daily family interactions may have implications for telomere length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accurate lithography simulation model based on convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuki; Kimura, Taiki; Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Nojima, Shigeki

    2017-07-01

    Lithography simulation is an essential technique for today's semiconductor manufacturing process. In order to calculate an entire chip in realistic time, compact resist model is commonly used. The model is established for faster calculation. To have accurate compact resist model, it is necessary to fix a complicated non-linear model function. However, it is difficult to decide an appropriate function manually because there are many options. This paper proposes a new compact resist model using CNN (Convolutional Neural Networks) which is one of deep learning techniques. CNN model makes it possible to determine an appropriate model function and achieve accurate simulation. Experimental results show CNN model can reduce CD prediction errors by 70% compared with the conventional model.

  2. Surface-based geometric modelling using teaching trees for advanced robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Tsukune, Hideo; Oshima, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    Geometric modelling of the environment is important in robot motion planning. Generally, shapes can be stored in a data base, so the elements that need to be decided are positions and orientations. In this paper, surface-based geometric modelling using a teaching tree is proposed. In this modelling, combinations of surfaces are considered in order to decide positions and orientations of objects. The combinations are represented by a depth-first tree, which makes it easy for the operator to select one combination out of several. This method is effective not only in the case when perfect data can be obtained, but also when conditions for measurement of three-dimensional data are unfavorable, which often occur in the environment of a working robot. (author)

  3. Modelling Preference Heterogeneity for Theatre Tickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea; Bille, Trine

    This paper analyzes the behavioural choice for theatre tickets using a rich dataset for 2010-2013 from the sale system of the Royal Danish National Theatre. A consumer who decides to attend a theater production faces multiple sources of price variation that depends on: socio-economic characterist......This paper analyzes the behavioural choice for theatre tickets using a rich dataset for 2010-2013 from the sale system of the Royal Danish National Theatre. A consumer who decides to attend a theater production faces multiple sources of price variation that depends on: socio......-economic characteristics, quality of the seat, day of the performance and timing of purchase. Except for the first case, factors of price differentiation involves a choice by the consumer among different ticket alternatives. Two modelling approaches, namely multinomial logit (with socio-demographic characteristics......) and latent class are proposed in order to model ticket purchase behaviour. These models allow us explicitly to take into account consumers' preference heterogeneity with respect to the attributes associated to each ticket alternative In addition, the distribution of the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of choice...

  4. A Test of the Integrity of the Components of Baddeley's Model of Working Memory in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Canan

    2004-01-01

    Background: The integrity of working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was tested within the framework of Baddeley's model. Methods-1: Buffers and rehearsal mechanisms were assessed by presenting children with or without ADHD (ages 8 to 15) with 1-7 target letters and a probe after 2-10 s. They decided if the probe was the…

  5. Relationships between road safety, safety measures and external factors : a scan of the literature in view of model development and topics for further research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchill, T. & Norden, Y. van

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature scan is to examine where literature on the effect of external factors and road safety measures on road safety exists and where it is lacking. This scan will help us to decide which factors to include in a comprehensive road safety model as SWOV is working on, and at

  6. Agent-Based Models in Social Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Le Anh; Jung, Nam; Cho, Eun Sung; Choi, Jae Han; Lee, Jae Woo

    2018-06-01

    We review the agent-based models (ABM) on social physics including econophysics. The ABM consists of agent, system space, and external environment. The agent is autonomous and decides his/her behavior by interacting with the neighbors or the external environment with the rules of behavior. Agents are irrational because they have only limited information when they make decisions. They adapt using learning from past memories. Agents have various attributes and are heterogeneous. ABM is a non-equilibrium complex system that exhibits various emergence phenomena. The social complexity ABM describes human behavioral characteristics. In ABMs of econophysics, we introduce the Sugarscape model and the artificial market models. We review minority games and majority games in ABMs of game theory. Social flow ABM introduces crowding, evacuation, traffic congestion, and pedestrian dynamics. We also review ABM for opinion dynamics and voter model. We discuss features and advantages and disadvantages of Netlogo, Repast, Swarm, and Mason, which are representative platforms for implementing ABM.

  7. La juridificación del derecho a decidir en España. La STC 42/2014 y el derecho a aspirar a un proceso de cambio político del orden constitucional. // The juridification of the right to decide in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Ridao i Martín

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: 1. The Sentence 42/2014, of the Constitutional Court of Spain, about the «Declaration of sovereignty and the right to decide of the people in Catalonia». 2. The right to self-determination and the juridification of the right to decide in the international context. 3 The fitting of the right to decide in the Spanish domestic constitutional order. Background. 3.1. The so-called «Ibarretxe Plan». 3.2. The Catalan case: the so-called «National Transition». 4. Query tools that do not involve the exercise of the right to self-determination. 4.1. Consequences of the weak standardization of referendums in Spain. 4.2. The potential territorialisation of referendums of Article 92 Spanish Constitution (CE. The eventual delegation of state power to authorize referendums of Article 150.2 CE. 5. Referendums and consultations at the regional level. 5.1. The Catalan legislation regarding referendums. 5.2. The non-referendum consultation: a hybrid not-called referendum. Conclusions. Bibliography. RESUMEN La STC 42/2014, de 25 de marzo, estimó parcialmente, por unanimidad, el recurso del Gobierno contra la «Resolución 5/X del Parlamento de Cataluña, por la que se aprueba la Declaración soberanista y del derecho a decidir del pueblo de Cataluña», declarando «inconstitucional y nulo» el principio primero, según el cual, «el pueblo de Cataluña tiene, por razones de legitimidad democrática, el carácter de sujeto político y jurídico soberano». No obstante, el alto Tribunal declaró constitucionales las referencias al «derecho a decidir de los ciudadanos de Cataluña» al no consagrar, a su juicio, un derecho de autodeterminación no reconocido constitucionalmente sino una aspiración política a concretar mediante un proceso ajustado a la legalidad constitucional, con respeto a los principios de «legitimidad democrática», «pluralismo» y «legalidad». La argumentación del Tribunal no sólo desestimó el argumento de que el

  8. Mission accomplished? It's up to you to decide.

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2006-01-01

    The five-yearly review is coming to an end. In particular, the phase of introducing the Council decisions into the next edition of the « Staff Rules and Regulations », which needs to enter into force on 1st January 2007, has just finished.

  9. California decides that medical staff bylaws are not contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Michael A

    2002-03-01

    The point of conflict between the majority and minority views is the existence of consideration. There is no question that hospitals are required to adopt medical staff bylaws, nor is there any doubt hornbook law states the performance of a pre-existing duty does not constitute consideration. Therefore, the issue of law is whether the hospital's grant of privileges and the physician's agreement to abide by the bylaws is separate or different "consideration" sufficient to justify the creation of a contract.

  10. Giving girls and women the power to decide | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-28

    Mar 28, 2018 ... ... half of the continent's population — some 550 million people — are under ... on what local populations and other stakeholders think causes kunika. ... to providing them with equal opportunities to lead a more successful life.

  11. Deciding Type Equivalence in a Language with Singleton Kinds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stone, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    ...: S(A) is the kind of all types provably equivalent to the type A. Singletons are interesting because they provide a very general form of definitions for type variables and allow fine-grained control of type computations...

  12. Deciding to Help : Effects of Risk and Crisis Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.H.; Kerstholt, J.H.; Giebels, E.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in

  13. Deciding to help : effects of risk and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Marije; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena; Giebels, Ellen

    This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in

  14. Decidability Issues for Extended Ping-Pong Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We use some recent techniques from process algebra to draw several conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek...

  15. Judging Money: When Courts Decide How to Spend Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Josh; Derthick, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, proponents of greater spending in disadvantaged school districts have pursued their goal through litigation in state courts. They have brought suits in 45 of the 50 states. These suits began with claims of equity, which sought to redistribute revenues from rich to poor districts. Disappointed with the results, within a decade the…

  16. Beyond New and Appropriate: Who Decides What Is Creative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, James C.; Baer, John

    2012-01-01

    The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) is a common creativity assessment. According to this technique, the best judges of creativity are qualified experts. Yet what does it mean to be an expert in a domain? What level of expertise is needed to rate creativity? This article reviews the literature on novice, expert, and quasi-expert creativity…

  17. Safety - thanks to the freedom to decide; Sicherheit durch Entscheidungsfreiheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, B. [Brandes GmbH, Eutin (Germany)

    1994-12-01

    The pipe manufacturers who are grouped together in the EuHP have reached agreement on offering bare copper wire as `their` compatible standard sensor. This is not a new decision: This always was the case, and was always sold as such if the customer did not express any particular wishes of their own in this respect when placing the order. The inspiration for this action is, rather, concern with some monitoring systems. These have become the subject of gossip over the past few years, and we too view this development with concern. Only the `Nordic system` and the resistance comparison measuring system process are unaffected by this. Against this background, attempts are also being made to have copper declared as the sole standard. This decision is in fact only a logical defence of interests, because compatibility between not only the pipe manufacturers but also between the laying processes is only available with the resistance wire - and that has always been the case. It is important not to treat the topic as an `article of faith`, but in such a way that the way is open to solutions which really are acceptable to all parties. (orig./KO) [Deutsch] Die im EuHP zusammengefassten Rohrhersteller haben sich nun darauf verstaendigt, kuenftig zwei Kupferadern als `ihren` Standardsensor anzubieten. Das ist keine neue Entscheidung, denn das war schon immer so und wurde immer dann verkauft, wenn der Kunde keine feste eigene Meinung in die Auftragsvergabe einbrachte. Neu ist, dass man kuenftig `keine stoerenden Komponenten` in den Rohren mehr will und dass man das `Kupfersystem` offensiv nach aussen traegt. Mit diesem Hintergrund ist es verstaendlich, dass manche bei dieser Gelegenheit gleich den Sensor, der ihnen als Rohrhersteller am angenehmsten ist, zum Standard erklaeren moechten. Dieser Beschluss ist konsequente Interessenwahrnehmung. Denn: Wirkliche Kompatibilitaet nicht nur zwischen den Verlegeverfahren, gibt es mit dem Widerstandsdraht schon seit ueber 20 Jahren. Ob der Vorstoss mehr Vor- als Nachteile bringt, muessen daher die entscheiden, die als Auftraggeber Nutzen aus der Fernheizleitung und Sicherheit fuer das investierte Geld aus dem Sicherheitssystem ziehen wollen. Eine Fehlentscheidung waere endgueltig und kritisch fuer die Fernwaerme. (orig./KO)

  18. Complexity of deciding detectability in discrete event systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masopust, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 93, July (2018), s. 257-261 ISSN 0005-1098 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete event systems * finite automata * detectability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer science s, information science , bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 5.451, year: 2016 https://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0005109818301730

  19. Real-Time Forecasting Revisited: Letting the Data Decide

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Kitchen; John Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Real-time GDP forecasting, also often known as “nowcasting,” produces estimates for current-quarter real GDP growth, typically based on a centered value from a set of estimates from incoming indicators. These real-time measures are usually intended to be data-based and to not be based on forecaster judgment or add factors. Even so, estimation methodologies in this research area—and prior versions of the system we use—typically have been constrained by using various “fixed” relationships, such...

  20. Is raised helicobacter pylori antibody titre enough to decide retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, S.; Ahmed, W.; Arif, A.; Alam, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should be checked on regular basis to diagnose new cases but it should not be used in previously treated patients to retreat. (author)

  1. FOREIGN TRADE TEACHING ACTIVITY: DECIDING BETWEEN COST AND SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Henrique Antonelli da Veiga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The world debate focused on preserving the environment, such a s that held during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio +20, in conjunction with Brazil’s growing foreign trade requires a study of all these topics in management courses. The central premise of this paper is to investigate the systematization of trade concepts through the use of business games. Two asymmetric scenarios for exporting and importing teams were developed using action research and qualitative data analysis. The longitudinal study was conducted on four separate, sequential classes from the Foreign Trade discipline of two universities from southern Brazilian. The students were able to discuss a variety of foreign trade topics and interact autonomously among themselves using business games that stimulate business negotiations through role playing dynamics, demonstrating that this teaching strategy can be used as a foreign trade teaching support tool. The final proposal was to change the game scenarios to focus on the decision between lowest costs and sustainable manufacturing processes without losing the aspects developed previously. The results showed that students’ decisions are more linked to their prior personal environmental concepts than to competition strategies developed for the company.

  2. Coalition decides to pull declaration from border treaty

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Läti valitsuskoalitsioon tegi seimile ettepaneku sõlmida piirilepe Venemaaga lähimas tulevikus, jättes lepingust välja deklaratsiooni, mis viitab Läti ja Venemaa vahel 1920. aastal sõlmitud rahuleppele

  3. PGE decides to close plant now, not in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    On January 4, two months and a day after the Trojan nuclear power reactor survived two ballot initiatives that sought to have the 1095-MWe pressurized water reactor closed immediately, the board of directors of Portland General Electric Company voted to do what those initiatives had wanted done. Trojan went off line on November 9 because of a leak in a steam generator tube. It will not return to service ever again, even though PGE had originally planned to keep running the plant until 1996. The utility announced that immediate closure was now the least-cost choice for ratepayers, mainly because of uncertainty over what would have to be done at the plant to satisfy the Nuclear Regulatory Commission - within which, according to PGE, there was a scientific disagreement over the adequacy of the plant's steam generators to support operation until 1996. PGE has not yet firmed up its decommissioning plan for Trojan. Also, at this writing, there had been no indication whether the absence of Trojan might improve the chances for completion of the region's two mothballed nuclear projects, Washington Public Power Supply System's WNP-1 and -3

  4. Deciding on Family Holidays - Role Distribution and Strategies in Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette

    2010-01-01

    this complexity in role distribution. Likewise in relation to decision-making strategies, contextual factors are helpful in explaining the strategies used, in particular the convention that holidays are an extraordinary “free space” which allows for more negotiation power being bestowed on children than...

  5. A Simple Approach for Deciding When to Invest

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1998-01-01

    A straightforward generalization of the simple net present value rule that correctly predicts when to invest in two classes of projects that can be delayed is derived. The first class consists of projects for which the option to delay derives its value exclusively from uncertainty about interest rates. It is shown that the optimal rule for investing in such projects is to simply multiply the discount rate of the project by the ratio of the mortgage rate to the riskless rate and then use this ...

  6. Why Do Primary School English Teachers Decide to Teach English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual-Pizarro, Marian; Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to explore the nature of L2 teachers' motivation towards English language learning and their decision to become English teachers. A total of 45 third-year prospective Primary school English teachers at the University of the Balearic Islands completed a small-scale survey adapted from Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test…

  7. Criteria used when deciding on eligibility for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Søren Thorgaard; Ross, Ewa M.; Laursen, Mogens Berg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical decision-making in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex process needing further clarification. The aim of this study was to compare TKA eligibility criteria considered most important by orthopedic surgeons (OSs) to characteristics of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA....... CONCLUSION: Radiographic severity and functional limitations were confirmed as drivers for TKA eligibility, while pain was not. Not responding to non-surgical treatment was not included in the decision-making, suggesting low uptake of clinical guidelines in clinical practice. This study highlights...

  8. Emory University Decides How to Allot $100,000,000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Leonard Ray

    1981-01-01

    In 1979 Emory University became the recipient of the largest single endowment gift (from Coca-Cola's Robert Woodruff) to a college or university. Self-studies have been initiated to recommend improvements that will guide the allocation of the uncommitted funds. (MLW)

  9. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving, extreme loading, chronic unloading and high altitude. Ramifications include factors such as health and safety, productivity, enjoyment and autonomy, acute and chronic protection and optimising adaptation.

  10. Deciding the Future: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This WEC study is bottom-up regional view of our energy future focusing on policies to ensure energy sustainability. Experts from five regions and all energy domains worked together to produce four different scenarios to predict how differing levels of cooperation and government involvement would affect the energy future of the world.

  11. Decide, design, and dewater de waste: A blueprint from Fitzpatrick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Using a different process to clean concentrated waste tanks at the James A. FitzPatrick nuclear power plant in New York saved nearly half million dollars. The plan essentially allowed processing concentrator bottoms as waste sludge (solidification versus dewatering) that could still meet burial ground requirements. The process reduced the volume from 802.2 to 55 cubic feet. This resin throwaway system eliminated chemicals in the radwaste systems and was designed to ease pressure on the pradwaste processing system, reduce waste and improve plant chemistry. This article discusses general aspects of the process

  12. Minor's healthcare: who decides? | Osime | Port Harcourt Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Virtually all legal authorities are in agreement that minors can indeed give valid informed consent for treatment (or make informed refusal) provided the minor is mature or emancipated. And for minors indeed, the overall best interest of the child should be taken into consideration with respect to parents or guardians ...

  13. Netherlands Government decides on additional measures to achieve target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkus, H.; Dijk, D. van

    1996-01-01

    The Government of the Netherlands recently informed Parliament about a set of additional measured aimed at achieving the Netherlands' climate targets, set in the Second National Environmental Policy Plan of December 1993. These additional measures should be a further guarantee that 3% reduction in CO 2 emissions will be achieved in 2000 compared to 1990 levels. Energy saving in offices and small companies will be further encouraged. Furthermore, two coal-fired power stations will switch fuels to 10% wood. At present the Netherlands has an installed capacity of about 14,000 MW, about one third of which is coal fired. The Netherlands emission inventory will now be created according to the IPCC methodology, except for temperature correction. 3 tabs

  14. Cost and availability are deciding factors for new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    Higher gas turbine efficiencies, more gasification plants and an ever-increasing focus on the environment worldwide are among the issues that will shape the power generation industry in the next few years and into the next century. For fossil energy systems, gas turbines have emerged as the technology of choice because of their high efficiencies, Already, operating efficiencies of 55% and above in combined-cycle, advanced gas turbines will be achieving 60% thermal efficiency by the end of this decade. With the next generation of gas turbines, there could be combined-cycle efficiencies a few points higher by the year 2010

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and assisted ventilation: how patients decide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoignan, Josée; Ells, Carolyn

    2010-06-01

    Throughout the course of their illness, people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) must make many treatment decisions; however, none has such a significant impact on quality of life and survival as decisions about assisted ventilation. The purpose of this study was to better understand the experience of decision-making about assisted ventilation for ALS patients. Using qualitative phenomenology methodology, 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted with persons with ALS and their caregivers to elicit factors that are pertinent to their decision-making process about assisted ventilation. Six main themes emerged from the interviews. (1) the meaning of the intervention - participants made a sharp distinction between non-invasive ventilation, which they viewed as a means to relieve symptoms of respiratory failure, and invasive ventilation, which they viewed as taking over their breathing and thereby saving their life when they otherwise would die, (2) the importance of context - including functional status, available supports, and financial implications, (3) the importance of values - with respect to communication, relationships, autonomy, life, and quality of life, (4) the effect of fears - particularly respiratory distress, chocking, running out of air, and the process of death itself, (5) the need for information - how use of assisted ventilation would impact daily life, how death from respiratory failure would occur, how caregivers and persons with ALS differ in their information needs and common misconceptions, and (6) adaptation to or acceptance of the intervention - a lengthy process that involved gradual familiarization with the equipment and its benefits. People with ALS and caregivers value autonomy in decision-making about assisted ventilation. Their decision-making process is neither wholly rational nor self-interested, and includes factors that health professionals should anticipate and address. Discussions about assisted ventilation and timing should be tailored to each individual and undertaken periodically.

  16. Comparing and Deciding: A Historical Note on Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Justino

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a "lineage" of decisions related to education policy which takes comparison as its motive, knowledge and method. A conceptual chain of world system, internationalization, convergence in education and globalization is briefly outlined. The paper examines decision-making in education policy according to agreement,…

  17. Who Decides? Tanzanian Women's Narratives on Educational Advancement and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkolin, Mari-Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the critical issues deliberated amongst researchers on gender and education is that of choosing and decision-making. Often, the focus of analysis is framed through the concept of agency. In this paper, the analytical focus is on educational advancement and agency. The paper is based on narratives of 10 highly educated Tanzanian women.…

  18. Struggling to decide : Competition in group decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, T.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, it is examined how cooperation and competition affect the way groups exchange and process information, and how this – in turn – affects groups’ decision-making quality. Answering this question is important because competition is ubiquitous in group interactions and such

  19. Compassionate use of experimental therapies: who should decide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Patricia J

    2015-01-01

    In addition to being an example of unsubstantiated hype about regenerative medicine, the controversy around the Italy-based Stamina Foundation's unproven stem cell therapy represents another chapter in a continuing debate about how to balance patients' requests for early access to experimental medicines with requirements for demonstrating safety and effectiveness. Compassionate use of the Stamina therapy arguably should not have been permitted under Italy's laws, but public pressure was intense and judges ultimately granted access. One lesson from these events is that expert regulatory agencies may be the institutions most competent to make compassionate use decisions and that policies should include more specific criteria for authorizing compassionate use. But even where regulatory agencies make decisions based on clear rules, difficult questions will arise. PMID:26202382

  20. Electricity producer SE decided to solve crisis through offensive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Instalment payments in this and the coming two years amount to 32 billion Sk (762.8 mn Euro) - that is about 60 percent of the overall credit burden of the electricity producer Slovenske elektrarne (SE). And so the situation from three years ago is repeating itself - a new financial department of the company is expected to lead the company out of the substantial cash-flow crisis caused by credit burden. This difficulties have been caused by decisions taken by state like building of power plant in Mochovce. Minister Nemcsics will not be in the position to complete his ambition to direct the activities of SE, his successor will need time to find his way and so the solution stays in hands of the company management. Where will they look for the necessary recourses? The operation generates virtually no cash-flow increase - reminds General Manager for Economy and Finances, Milos Sujansky. What the manager considers a possible solution is loan restructuring. 'We have to review the whole loan portfolio in order to eliminate the pressure caused by the necessity to repay the debts in 2004 and the beginning of 2005 and that would allow as to survive in a relatively normal state,' unveils the company plans M. Sujansky. That would mean postponing the instalment payments until 2007. Before this strategy was prepared the existing debts had to be analysed. The results of this analysis showed 'an inconsistent debt portfolio with many non-standard elements anchored in relevant contracts'. In the opinion of Director for External Financing this fact makes the loan management and decision making in regards to assets/liabilities structure difficult. 'When you have 35 different loans and every contract is different - communication and monitoring costs much effort,' he adds. According to an Auditors Report for 2002 prepared according to ISA standards even the share of third-party capital is high and inhomogeneous. The previous financial management managed to minimize the deficit. The fact that for SE a state guarantee became unreachable, the legislation did not allow any increase of energy prices and SE were not allowed to claim penalty payments from privatised power distribution companies in the past - that all deprived the SE from funds that could have been used for refinancing. But, according to I. Lovisek, even if we did not take into account the objective factors, we had to admit that the financing of SE was lacking a systemic approach. Financial managers of SE want to create a new approach towards the banks. 'In August and September we want to initiate 30 meetings in order to set up a bank-club,' unveils I. Lovisek. SE plans to ask them to play an active role in the restructuring process. Depending on attitude of the banks SE plans to select a group of five to six foreign and two to three local banks. But the credit conditions will not be dictated by the banks. The Manager for External Financing of SE stresses that the banks will be preparing their offers based on a detailed plan prepared by SE and SE will then select the best offers. I. Lovisek is positive that this will create a competition between the banks in the club. Banks orientated on commercial risk will be preferred as these will not require state guarantees. But during the time SE will need to build the club it will have to solve its this-year's deficit. Even if this may mean more expensive short-time solutions. 'The simpler the loan structure the better,' he adds. But what will motivate the banks participating in the club? 'All attractive transactions like realization of syndicate, swaps and hedging would be done through these banks,' answers I. Lovisek. Previous management did not succeed in securing a financing that would be advantageous for SE in a long-term run. How can the new management be so sure? 'What the banks expect is an open dialogue about the company's internal problems. We are prepared to lead such a dialogue.' 'And what is more, if you have a strategy prepared the banks are willing to listen,' continues I. Lovisek. In his opinion it is well possible to make the banks to change their attitude towards SE: 'A debtor will be replaced by a partner.' But even this management appeals to the state to solve the SE's claims towards the state and other public entities. (Author)

  1. Deciding upon a career within the medical field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guntern, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The admission procedure for medical programs is a challenging topic. The challenge for universities is to accept those applicants who have the best chances of successfully completing the medical studies and who will also enter the advanced training programs after graduation. The overall goal of this

  2. Decidable and undecidable arithmetic functions in actin filament networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is very sensitive to its environment, and reacts to stimuli with appropriate motions. Both the sensory and motor stages of these reactions are explained by hydrodynamic processes, based on fluid dynamics, with the participation of actin filament networks. This paper is devoted to actin filament networks as a computational medium. The point is that actin filaments, with contributions from many other proteins like myosin, are sensitive to extracellular stimuli (attractants as well as repellents), and appear and disappear at different places in the cell to change aspects of the cell structure—e.g. its shape. By assembling and disassembling actin filaments, some unicellular organisms, like Amoeba proteus, can move in response to various stimuli. As a result, these organisms can be considered a simple reversible logic gate—extracellular signals being its inputs and motions its outputs. In this way, we can implement various logic gates on amoeboid behaviours. These networks can embody arithmetic functions within p-adic valued logic. Furthermore, within these networks we can define the so-called diagonalization for deducing undecidable arithmetic functions.

  3. Is it economically justifiable to decide on nuclear power phaseout?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, L.

    1988-01-01

    The author critically comments on the various expert opinions describing and assessing the economic and other impacts of a nuclear power phaseout. One of his conclusions is that the complexity of the problems involved may lead astray in the public controversy about the nuclear issue, inducing irrational speculations on the one hand, and blue-eyed hopes on the other. This may lead to the dangerous situation that speculations or arbitrary information may be clad with the cloak of (unjustified) assumptions made to look like scientific information. (orig.) [de

  4. Deciding over nature: Corruption and environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Aled; Dupuy, Kendra

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are an important analytic tool for identifying and potentially mitigating project risks and negative environmental and societal impacts. Their usefulness, however, depends on how they are implemented and on whether findings are used in public decision-making. Given the notorious vulnerability of public-private interactions to corrupt practices, we examine potential and actual corruption risks across four stages of a generic EIA process. Combined with case analysis of the EIA process in Albania, a Southeastern European context experiencing serious governance challenges, we reflect on the vulnerabilities of EIAs to various forms of corruption from a principal-agent perspective. We concur with earlier research suggesting that the fundamentally rationalist approach behind EIAs do not necessarily match the empirical realities of public environmental decision-making, particularly in less mature EIA systems. We conclude with suggestions for framing a future research agenda in this area and touch on tentative policy remedies.

  5. Comparing and deciding: a historical note on education policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Magalhães

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a ‘lineage’ of decisions related to education policy which takes comparison as its motive, knowledge and method. A conceptual chain of world system, internationalization, convergence in education and globalization is briefly outlined. The paper examines decision-making in education policy according to agreement, mainstreaming and production criteria, taking Latin America as the linkage and the European Community as the construction. Reasoning and enlightenment are gathered in different fields of history: culture, economics, politics and education. The present paper applies a core structuring epistemology –culled from a variety of academic domains– with comparison and decision underpinning a complex rationale where time, space, materiality, knowledge, ideas, action, and evaluation all intersect. 

  6. Positioning and deciding : key factors for talent development in soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannekens, R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Visscher, C.

    2011-01-01

    Talent identification and development implicate recognizing youth players who will be successful in the future and guiding them to the top. A major determinant of this success is tactical skills. To identify possible key factors that help in predicting success over time, this study assesses the

  7. Who Decides Higher Education Policy? MPS, VCS, STEM and HASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, and in many other countries, policy makers and funding bodies emphasise the importance of the STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering and mathematics), as opposed to the HASS disciplines (humanities, arts and social sciences), in higher education. Yet an examination of the biographies of UK members of parliament (MPs)…

  8. Deciding the way. Comparing energy risks: methodologies and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Yoshio; Lee, R.

    1999-01-01

    The following major issues in comparative assessment of energy systems are discussed: target users; decision making process; subject policy-making; setting boundaries; aggregated health indicators; monetary valuation; long-term health effects; global warming; methods to reflect uncertainties. Suggestions for study approaches of the mentioned issues are proposed

  9. Family counts: deciding when to murder among the Icelandic Vikings

    OpenAIRE

    Palmstierna, Markel; Frangou, Anna; Wallette, Anna; Dunbar, Robin

    2017-01-01

    In small scale societies, lethal attacks on another individual usually invite revenge by the victim's family. We might expect those who perpetrate such attacks to do so only when their own support network (mainly family) is larger than that of the potential victim so as to minimise the risk of retaliation. Using data from Icelandic family sagas, we show that this prediction holds whether we consider biological kin or affinal kin (in-laws): on average, killers had twice as many relatives as th...

  10. A Decidable Recursive Logic for Weighted Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop and study the Recursive Weighted Logic (RWL), a multi-modal logic that expresses qualitative and quantitative properties of labelled weighted transition systems (LWSs). LWSs are transition systems labelled with actions and real-valued quantities representing the costs of ...... extends previous results that we have demonstrated for a similar but much more restrictive logic that can only use one variable for each type of resource to encode logical properties....

  11. Complexity of deciding detectability in discrete event systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masopust, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 93, July (2018), s. 257-261 ISSN 0005-1098 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete event systems * finite automata * detectability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 5.451, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005109818301730

  12. Automatic Generation of 3D Building Models with Multiple Roofs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi Sugihara; Yoshitugu Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    Based on building footprints (building polygons) on digital maps, we are proposing the GIS and CG integrated system that automatically generates 3D building models with multiple roofs. Most building polygons' edges meet at right angles (orthogonal polygon). The integrated system partitions orthogonal building polygons into a set of rectangles and places rectangular roofs and box-shaped building bodies on these rectangles. In order to partition an orthogonal polygon, we proposed a useful polygon expression in deciding from which vertex a dividing line is drawn. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for partitioning building polygons and show the process of creating 3D roof models.

  13. Modeling irradiation embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. In chapter 10, numerical modeling of irradiation embrittlement in reactor vessel steels are introduced. Physically-based models are developed and their role in advancing the state-of-the-art of predicting irradiation embrittlement of RPV steels is stressed

  14. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  15. A model of the precaution adoption process: evidence from home radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, N.D.; Sandman, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present the precaution adoption process model--a stage theory consisting of seven distinct states between ignorance and completed preventive action. The stages are 'unaware of the issue,' 'aware of the issue but not personally engaged,' 'engaged and deciding what to do,' 'planning to act but not yet having acted,' 'having decided not to act,' 'acting,' and 'maintenance.' The theory asserts that these stages represent qualitatively different patterns of behavior, beliefs, and experience and that the factors that produce transitions between stages vary depending on the specific transition being considered. Data from seven studies of home radon testing are examined to test some of the claims made by this model. Stage theories of protective behavior are contrasted with theories that see precaution adoption in terms of movement along a single continuum of action likelihood.32 references

  16. MTL-Model Checking of One-Clock Parametric Timed Automata is Undecidable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Quaas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parametric timed automata extend timed automata (Alur and Dill, 1991 in that they allow the specification of parametric bounds on the clock values. Since their introduction in 1993 by Alur, Henzinger, and Vardi, it is known that the emptiness problem for parametric timed automata with one clock is decidable, whereas it is undecidable if the automaton uses three or more parametric clocks. The problem is open for parametric timed automata with two parametric clocks. Metric temporal logic, MTL for short, is a widely used specification language for real-time systems. MTL-model checking of timed automata is decidable, no matter how many clocks are used in the timed automaton. In this paper, we prove that MTL-model checking for parametric timed automata is undecidable, even if the automaton uses only one clock and one parameter and is deterministic.

  17. Analytic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models with input correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yueying; Wang, Qiuping A.; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2018-03-01

    Probabilistic uncertainty analysis is a common means of evaluating mathematical models. In mathematical modeling, the uncertainty in input variables is specified through distribution laws. Its contribution to the uncertainty in model response is usually analyzed by assuming that input variables are independent of each other. However, correlated parameters are often happened in practical applications. In the present paper, an analytic method is built for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models in the presence of input correlations. With the method, it is straightforward to identify the importance of the independence and correlations of input variables in determining the model response. This allows one to decide whether or not the input correlations should be considered in practice. Numerical examples suggest the effectiveness and validation of our analytic method in the analysis of general models. A practical application of the method is also proposed to the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a deterministic HIV model.

  18. The Fermilab central computing facility architectural model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.

    1989-01-01

    The goal of the current Central Computing Upgrade at Fermilab is to create a computing environment that maximizes total productivity, particularly for high energy physics analysis. The Computing Department and the Next Computer Acquisition Committee decided upon a model which includes five components: an interactive front-end, a Large-Scale Scientific Computer (LSSC, a mainframe computing engine), a microprocessor farm system, a file server, and workstations. With the exception of the file server, all segments of this model are currently in production: a VAX/VMS cluster interactive front-end, an Amdahl VM Computing engine, ACP farms, and (primarily) VMS workstations. This paper will discuss the implementation of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Architectural Model. Implications for Code Management in such a heterogeneous environment, including issues such as modularity and centrality, will be considered. Special emphasis will be placed on connectivity and communications between the front-end, LSSC, and workstations, as practiced at Fermilab. (orig.)

  19. The Fermilab Central Computing Facility architectural model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.

    1989-05-01

    The goal of the current Central Computing Upgrade at Fermilab is to create a computing environment that maximizes total productivity, particularly for high energy physics analysis. The Computing Department and the Next Computer Acquisition Committee decided upon a model which includes five components: an interactive front end, a Large-Scale Scientific Computer (LSSC, a mainframe computing engine), a microprocessor farm system, a file server, and workstations. With the exception of the file server, all segments of this model are currently in production: a VAX/VMS Cluster interactive front end, an Amdahl VM computing engine, ACP farms, and (primarily) VMS workstations. This presentation will discuss the implementation of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Architectural Model. Implications for Code Management in such a heterogeneous environment, including issues such as modularity and centrality, will be considered. Special emphasis will be placed on connectivity and communications between the front-end, LSSC, and workstations, as practiced at Fermilab. 2 figs

  20. The Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM; Das Karlsruher Atmosphaerische Mesoskalige Modell KAMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Umwelt und Technik (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung]|[Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.). (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1998-01-01

    The applications of the KAMM model range from real-time simulations over the analysis of mesoscale phenomena and the development of parametrizations to describing climatology. In the course of time, wishes emerged to change essential parts of the original model concept, calling for substantial reprogramming; so it was decided to entirely redraft the dynamic core of KAMM and to program it from the beginning including the parallelization of the code. The paper describes the basics of the new model core. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Der Anwendungsbereich des KAMM-Modells erstreckt sich von Echtzeitsimulationen, ueber Analyse mesoskaliger Phaenomene, Entwicklung von Parametrisierungen bis hin zur beschreibenden Klimatologie. Weil im Laufe der Entstehungszeit wesentliche Aenderungswuensche des urspruenglichen Konzeptes entstanden sind, die eine Neuprogrammierung in wesentlichen Teilen erforderlich erscheinen lassen, wurde entschieden, den dynamischen Kern von KAMM voellig neu zu gestalten und bei der Programmierung eine Parallelisierung des Codes von Anfang an mit einzubeziehen. Die Grundlagen dieses neuen Modellkernes werden vorgestellt. (orig./KW)

  1. A Model of Bus Bunching under Reliability-based Passenger Arrival Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzone, Achille; Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk; Liu, Ronghui

    2015-01-01

    If bus service departure times are not completely unknown to the passengers, non-uniform passenger arrival patterns can be expected. We propose that passengers decide their arrival time at stops based on a continuous logit model that considers the risk of missing services. Expected passenger waiting times are derived in a bus system that allows also for overtaking between bus services. We then propose an algorithm to derive the dwell time of subsequent buses serving a stop in order to illustr...

  2. A decision support model for identification and prioritization of key performance indicators in the logistics industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukaltan, Berk; Irani, Zahir; Aktas, Emel

    2016-01-01

    Performance measurement of logistics companies is based upon various performance indicators. Yet, in the logistics industry, there are several vaguenesses, such as deciding on key indicators and determining interrelationships between performance indicators. In order to resolve these vaguenesses, this paper first presents the stakeholder-informed Balanced Scorecard (BSC) model, by incorporating financial (e.g. cost) and non-financial (e.g. social media) performance indicators, with a comprehen...

  3. Which model of capitalism best delivers both wealth and equality?

    OpenAIRE

    William Q Judge; Stav Fainshmidt; J Lee Brown III

    2014-01-01

    Capitalism is the dominant economic system adopted throughout the global economy, but there are many different models of capitalism practiced depending on what the society decides “economic effectiveness” is. In this study, we assert that an effective economy simultaneously achieves two seemingly divergent outcomes: it (1) creates economic wealth efficiently, and (2) shares that wealth equitably. Employing insights from Whitley’s national business systems framework and fuzzy set analysis, we ...

  4. Approaches in Modeling the Impact of Air Pollution-Induced Material Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Boden, H.

    1989-01-01

    Damage to materials from air pollution is considered to be an important economic factor in society. For this reason, it was decided as part of the 1988 Young Scientists Summer Program at IIASA to explore the possibility of including a submodel for materials damage in IIASA's Regional Acidification INformation and Simulation (RAINS) model. This Working Paper is the result of this investigation. Although the conclusion of the author is that it is at the present time premature to include materia...

  5. Dynamics of synthetic drugs transmission model with psychological addicts and general incidence rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingju; Liu, Sanyang; Xiang, Hong; Li, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic drugs are replacing traditional ones and becoming the main popular ones gradually, which have given rise to serious social issues in recent years. In this paper, a synthetic drugs transmission model with psychological addicts and general contact rate is proposed. The local and global stabilities are decided by the basic reproduction number R0. By analyzing the sensitivity of parameters, we obtain that controlling psychological addiction is better than drugs treatment. These results are verified by numerical simulations.

  6. System modelling and energy management for grid connected PV systems associated with storage

    OpenAIRE

    Riffonneau , Yann; DELAILLE , Arnaud; Barruel , Franck; Bacha , Seddik

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the modelling and energy management of a grid connected PV system associatedwith storage. Within the economic, energetic and environmental context, objective of the system is to ensure loadssupply at the least cost by optimising the use of solar power. Therefore, due to the complicated operating patterns, anenergy management system which decides on energy flow for any moment is necessary. First, we present the systemstudied. Based on an AC bus typol...

  7. When fast logic meets slow belief: Evidence for a parallel-processing model of belief bias

    OpenAIRE

    Trippas, Dries; Thompson, Valerie A.; Handley, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments pitted the default-interventionist account of belief bias against a parallel-processing model. According to the former, belief bias occurs because a fast, belief-based evaluation of the conclusion pre-empts a working-memory demanding logical analysis. In contrast, according to the latter both belief-based and logic-based responding occur in parallel. Participants were given deductive reasoning problems of variable complexity and instructed to decide whether the conclusion was ...

  8. Advanced oxidation processes: overall models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. [Univ. de los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Curco, D.; Addardak, A.; Gimenez, J.; Esplugas, S. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica. Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Modelling AOPs implies to consider all the steps included in the process, that means, mass transfer, kinetic (reaction) and luminic steps. In this way, recent works develop models which relate the global reaction rate to catalyst concentration and radiation absorption. However, the application of such models requires to know what is the controlling step for the overall process. In this paper, a simple method is explained which allows to determine the controlling step. Thus, it is assumed that reactor is divided in two hypothetical zones (dark and illuminated), and according to the experimental results, obtained by varying only the reaction volume, it can be decided if reaction occurs only in the illuminated zone or in the all reactor, including dark zone. The photocatalytic degradation of phenol, by using titania degussa P-25 as catalyst, is studied as reaction model. The preliminary results obtained are presented here, showing that it seems that, in this case, reaction only occurs in the illuminated zone of photoreactor. A model is developed to explain this behaviour. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of the autoregression time-series model for analysis of a noisy signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The autoregression (AR) time-series model of a continuous noisy signal was statistically evaluated to determine quantitatively the uncertainties of the model order, the model parameters, and the model's power spectral density (PSD). The result of such a statistical evaluation enables an experimenter to decide whether an AR model can adequately represent a continuous noisy signal and be consistent with the signal's frequency spectrum, and whether it can be used for on-line monitoring. Although evaluations of other types of signals have been reported in the literature, no direct reference has been found to AR model's uncertainties for continuous noisy signals; yet the evaluation is necessary to decide the usefulness of AR models of typical reactor signals (e.g., neutron detector output or thermocouple output) and the potential of AR models for on-line monitoring applications. AR and other time-series models for noisy data representation are being investigated by others since such models require fewer parameters than the traditional PSD model. For this study, the AR model was selected for its simplicity and conduciveness to uncertainty analysis, and controlled laboratory bench signals were used for continuous noisy data. (author)

  10. Neuro-fuzzy system modeling based on automatic fuzzy clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuangang TANG; Fuchun SUN; Zengqi SUN

    2005-01-01

    A neuro-fuzzy system model based on automatic fuzzy clustering is proposed.A hybrid model identification algorithm is also developed to decide the model structure and model parameters.The algorithm mainly includes three parts:1) Automatic fuzzy C-means (AFCM),which is applied to generate fuzzy rules automatically,and then fix on the size of the neuro-fuzzy network,by which the complexity of system design is reducesd greatly at the price of the fitting capability;2) Recursive least square estimation (RLSE).It is used to update the parameters of Takagi-Sugeno model,which is employed to describe the behavior of the system;3) Gradient descent algorithm is also proposed for the fuzzy values according to the back propagation algorithm of neural network.Finally,modeling the dynamical equation of the two-link manipulator with the proposed approach is illustrated to validate the feasibility of the method.

  11. Architecting the cloud design decisions for cloud computing service models (SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS)

    CERN Document Server

    Kavis, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    An expert guide to selecting the right cloud service model for your business Cloud computing is all the rage, allowing for the delivery of computing and storage capacity to a diverse community of end-recipients. However, before you can decide on a cloud model, you need to determine what the ideal cloud service model is for your business. Helping you cut through all the haze, Architecting the Cloud is vendor neutral and guides you in making one of the most critical technology decisions that you will face: selecting the right cloud service model(s) based on a combination of both business and tec

  12. A Heat Transfer Model for a Stratified Corium-Metal Pool in the Lower Plenum of a Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohal, M.S.; Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary design report describes a model for heat transfer in a corium-metal stratified pool. It was decided to make use of the existing COUPLE model. Currently available correlations for natural convection heat transfer in a pool with and without internal heat generation were obtained. The appropriate correlations will be incorporated in the existing COUPLE model. Heat conduction and solidification modeling will be done with existing algorithms in the COUPLE. Assessment of the new model will be done by simple energy conservation problems

  13. Mathematical modeling of a thermovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ralph E.; Kawanami, Makoto

    1992-01-01

    A new type of battery named 'Vaporvolt' cell is in the early stage of its development. A mathematical model of a CuO/Cu 'Vaporvolt' cell is presented that can be used to predict the potential and the transport behavior of the cell during discharge. A sensitivity analysis of the various transport and electrokinetic parameters indicates which parameters have the most influence on the predicted energy and power density of the 'Vaporvolt' cell. This information can be used to decide which parameters should be optimized or determined more accurately through further modeling or experimental studies. The optimal thicknesses of electrodes and separator, the concentration of the electrolyte, and the current density are determined by maximizing the power density. These parameter sensitivities and optimal design parameter values will help in the development of a better CuO/Cu 'Vaporvolt' cell.

  14. Model of Advertising Communication in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study represent the advertising communication, while the main goal will be directional to creating of advertising model with specific retrospection in sport. The main tasks of this study are, the first conducting a situational analysis, then setting objectives for advertising, deciding on the budget funds, choosing the target market, creation of the advertising messages, selection of appropriate media, as well as evaluating effectiveness of advertising. During the making of this study, the author used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous author’ experience in this field was also so useful. Moreover, the author used the analytic method and parallel method that is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance. Consequently, the main outcome of this study was creation of conceptual model of advertising communication with special application in sport industry.

  15. A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-07-01

    Our interaction with complex computing machines is mediated by programming languages (PLs), which constitute one of the major innovations in the evolution of technology. PLs allow flexible, scalable, and fast use of hardware and are largely responsible for shaping the history of information technology since the rise of computers in the 1950s. The rapid growth and impact of computers were followed closely by the development of PLs. As occurs with natural, human languages, PLs have emerged and gone extinct. There has been always a diversity of coexisting PLs that compete somewhat while occupying special niches. Here we show that the statistical patterns of language adoption, rise, and fall can be accounted for by a simple model in which a set of programmers can use several PLs, decide to use existing PLs used by other programmers, or decide not to use them. Our results highlight the influence of strong communities of practice in the diffusion of PL innovations.

  16. Fault Tolerant Control Using Gaussian Processes and Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaoke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential ingredients for fault-tolerant control are the ability to represent system behaviour following the occurrence of a fault, and the ability to exploit this representation for deciding control actions. Gaussian processes seem to be very promising candidates for the first of these, and model predictive control has a proven capability for the second. We therefore propose to use the two together to obtain fault-tolerant control functionality. Our proposal is illustrated by several reasonably realistic examples drawn from flight control.

  17. On Transaction-Cost Models in Continuous-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poufinas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction-cost models in continuous-time markets are considered. Given that investors decide to buy or sell at certain time instants, we study the existence of trading strategies that reach a certain final wealth level in continuous-time markets, under the assumption that transaction costs, built in certain recommended ways, have to be paid. Markets prove to behave in manners that resemble those of complete ones for a wide variety of transaction-cost types. The results are important, but not exclusively, for the pricing of options with transaction costs.

  18. The Aalborg Model and management by objectives and resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle; Spliid, Claus Monrad

    2010-01-01

    Model is successful has never been subject to a scientific study. An educational program in an HEI (Higher Education Institution) can be seen and understood as a system managed by objectives (MBO)5 within a given resource frame and based on an “agreement” between the student and the study board....... The student must achieve the objectives decided by the study board and that achievement is then documented with an exam. The study board supports the student with resources which helps them to fulfill the objectives. When the resources are divided into human, material and methodological resources...

  19. MOTORCYCLE CRASH PREDICTION MODEL FOR NON-SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HARNEN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to develop a prediction model for motorcycle crashes at non-signalized intersections on urban roads in Malaysia. The Generalized Linear Modeling approach was used to develop the model. The final model revealed that an increase in motorcycle and non-motorcycle flows entering an intersection is associated with an increase in motorcycle crashes. Non-motorcycle flow on major road had the greatest effect on the probability of motorcycle crashes. Approach speed, lane width, number of lanes, shoulder width and land use were also found to be significant in explaining motorcycle crashes. The model should assist traffic engineers to decide the need for appropriate intersection treatment that specifically designed for non-exclusive motorcycle lane facilities.

  20. Selection of the ''best'' model for converting beta backscatter count readings into thickness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiriga, N.G.

    1976-01-01

    This report compares two models for converting beta backscatter count readings into thickness measurements. The necessary formulas to be used in an unweighted and weighted regression analysis are listed. The question of whether one should perform a regression analysis using the five available standard thicknesses or whether one should, in addition to these standard thicknesses, use zero as a standard thickness is decided. A weighted regression analysis is compared with an unweighted one for each model. The ''best'' model is selected, and the conclusions of the analysis are presented

  1. A Simulation Platform To Model, Optimize And Design Wind Turbines. The Matlab/Simulink Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Daniela HANSEN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years Matlab / Simulink® has become the most used software for modeling and simulation of dynamic systems. Wind energy conversion systems are for example such systems, containing subsystems with different ranges of the time constants: wind, turbine, generator, power electronics, transformer and grid. The electrical generator and the power converter need the smallest simulation step and therefore, these blocks decide the simulation speed. This paper presents a new and integrated simulation platform for modeling, optimizing and designing wind turbines. The platform contains different simulation tools: Matlab / Simulink - used as basic modeling tool, HAWC, DIgSilent and Saber.

  2. Towards the Formal Verification of a Distributed Real-Time Automotive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Erik; Mueller, Christian; Shadrin, Andrey; Tverdyshev, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    We present the status of a project which aims at building, formally and pervasively verifying a distributed automotive system. The target system is a gate-level model which consists of several interconnected electronic control units with independent clocks. This model is verified against the specification as seen by a system programmer. The automotive system is implemented on several FPGA boards. The pervasive verification is carried out using combination of interactive theorem proving (Isabelle/HOL) and model checking (LTL).

  3. Chaotic Lagrangian models for turbulent relative dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacorata, Guglielmo; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2017-04-01

    A deterministic multiscale dynamical system is introduced and discussed as a prototype model for relative dispersion in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence. Unlike stochastic diffusion models, here trajectory transport and mixing properties are entirely controlled by Lagrangian chaos. The anomalous "sweeping effect," a known drawback common to kinematic simulations, is removed through the use of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates. Lagrangian dispersion statistics of the model are accurately analyzed by computing the finite-scale Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), which is the optimal measure of the scaling properties of dispersion. FSLE scaling exponents provide a severe test to decide whether model simulations are in agreement with theoretical expectations and/or observation. The results of our numerical experiments cover a wide range of "Reynolds numbers" and show that chaotic deterministic flows can be very efficient, and numerically low-cost, models of turbulent trajectories in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic conditions. The mathematics of the model is relatively simple, and, in a geophysical context, potential applications may regard small-scale parametrization issues in general circulation models, mixed layer, and/or boundary layer turbulence models as well as Lagrangian predictability studies.

  4. A Data-Driven Air Transportation Delay Propagation Model Using Epidemic Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baspinar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In air transport network management, in addition to defining the performance behavior of the system’s components, identification of their interaction dynamics is a delicate issue in both strategic and tactical decision-making process so as to decide which elements of the system are “controlled” and how. This paper introduces a novel delay propagation model utilizing epidemic spreading process, which enables the definition of novel performance indicators and interaction rates of the elements of the air transportation network. In order to understand the behavior of the delay propagation over the network at different levels, we have constructed two different data-driven epidemic models approximating the dynamics of the system: (a flight-based epidemic model and (b airport-based epidemic model. The flight-based epidemic model utilizing SIS epidemic model focuses on the individual flights where each flight can be in susceptible or infected states. The airport-centric epidemic model, in addition to the flight-to-flight interactions, allows us to define the collective behavior of the airports, which are modeled as metapopulations. In network model construction, we have utilized historical flight-track data of Europe and performed analysis for certain days involving certain disturbances. Through this effort, we have validated the proposed delay propagation models under disruptive events.

  5. A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2008-10-01

    System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.

  6. Efficient Synthesis of Network Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-17

    mal Languages ]: Mathematical Logic—Temporal logic; C.2.3 [Computer-communication Networks]: Network Operations— Network Management Keywords synthesis...problem, and prove this algorithm to be correct (§4). • We present an incremental LTL model checker for loop-free models (§5). • We describe an OCaml ...canned” properties, we use a specification language that is expressive enough to encode these properties and others, as well as conjunctions

  7. On Verification of PLC-Programs Written in the LD-Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some questions connected with the construction of a technology of analysing correctness of Programmable Logic Controller programs. We consider an example of modeling and automated verification of PLC-programs written in the Ladder Diagram language (including timed function blocks of the IEC 61131-3 standard. We use the Cadence SMV for symbolic model checking. Program properties are written in the linear-time temporal logic LTL.

  8. Supply chain modeling of forest fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Helene; Lundgren, Jan T.; Roennqvist, Mikael

    2001-04-01

    We study the problem of deciding when and where forest residues are to be converted into forest fuel, and how the residues are to be transported and stored in order to satisfy demand at heating plants. Decisions also include whether or not additional harvest areas and saw-mills are to be contracted. In addition, we consider the flow of products from saw-mills and import harbors, and address the question about which terminals to use. The planning horizon is one year and monthly time periods are considered. The supply chain problem is formulated as a large mixed integer linear programming model. In order to obtain solutions within reasonable time we have developed a heuristic solution approach. Computational results from a large Swedish supplying entrepreneur are reported.

  9. Supply chain modeling of forest fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, Helene; Lundgren, Jan T.; Roennqvist, Mikael

    2001-04-01

    We study the problem of deciding when and where forest residues are to be converted into forest fuel, and how the residues are to be transported and stored in order to satisfy demand at heating plants. Decisions also include whether or not additional harvest areas and saw-mills are to be contracted. In addition, we consider the flow of products from saw-mills and import harbors, and address the question about which terminals to use. The planning horizon is one year and monthly time periods are considered. The supply chain problem is formulated as a large mixed integer linear programming model. In order to obtain solutions within reasonable time we have developed a heuristic solution approach. Computational results from a large Swedish supplying entrepreneur are reported

  10. DECIDER: prospective randomized multicenter phase II trial of low-dose decitabine (DAC) administered alone or in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in patients >60 years with acute myeloid leukemia who are ineligible for induction chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishina, Olga; Schmoor, Claudia; Döhner, Konstanze; Hackanson, Björn; Lubrich, Beate; May, Annette M.; Cieslik, Caroline; Müller, Michael J.; Lübbert, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is predominantly a disease of older patients with a poor long-term survival. Approval of decitabine (DAC) in the European Union (EU) in 2012 for the treatment of patients with AML ≥65 years marks the potential for hypomethylating agents in elderly AML. Nevertheless the situation is dissatisfactory and the quest for novel treatment approaches, including combination epigenetic therapy is actively ongoing. The given randomized trial should be helpful in investigating the question whether combinations of DAC with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) and/or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which in vitro show a very promising synergism, are superior to the DAC monotherapy. The accompanying translational research project will contribute to find surrogate molecular end points for drug efficacy and better tailor epigenetic therapy. An additional aim of the study is to investigate the prognostic value of geriatric assessments for elderly AML patients treated non-intensively. DECIDER is a prospective, randomized, observer blind, parallel group, multicenter, Phase II study with a 2x2 factorial design. The primary endpoint is objective best overall response (complete remission (CR) and partial remission (PR)). The target population is AML patients aged 60 years or older and unfit for standard induction chemotherapy. Patients are randomized to one of the four treatment groups: DAC alone or in combination with VPA or ATRA or with both add-on drugs. One interim safety analysis was planned and carried out with the objective to stop early one or more of the treatment arms in case of an unacceptable death rate. This analysis showed that in all treatment arms the critical stopping rule was not reached. No important safety issues were observed. The Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) recommended continuing the study as planned. The first patient was included in December 2011. A total of 189 out of 200 planned patients were randomized

  11. Proposal of a theoretical model for the practical nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Abril Sabater

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine which model of nursing is proposed by care professionals and the reason for their choice. METHOD: cross-sectional, descriptive study design. The main variable: Nursing Models and Theories. As secondary variables were collected: age, gender, years of work experience, nursing model of basic training, and course/s related. We used a self-elaborated, anonymous questionnaire, passed between April - May, 2006. Not random sample.RESULTS: 546 nurses were invited, answered 205. 38 % response rate. Virginia Henderson was the more selected model (33%, however, 42% left the question blank, 12% indicated that they wanted to work under the guidance of a model. They selected a specifically model: Knowledge of the model to their training, standardization in other centers, the characteristics of the model itself and identification with its philosophy. They are not decided by a model by ignorance, lack of time and usefulness. CONCLUSIONS: The model chosen mostly for their daily work was Virginia Henderson model, so that knowledge of a model is the main reason for their election. Professionals who choose not to use the model in their practice realize offers and calling for resources, besides to explain the lack of knowledge on this topic. To advance the nursing profession is necessary that nurse is thought over widely on the abstract concepts of the theory in our context.

  12. Canonical vs. micro-canonical sampling methods in a 2D Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepner, J.

    1990-12-01

    Canonical and micro-canonical Monte Carlo algorithms were implemented on a 2D Ising model. Expressions for the internal energy, U, inverse temperature, Z, and specific heat, C, are given. These quantities were calculated over a range of temperature, lattice sizes, and time steps. Both algorithms accurately simulate the Ising model. To obtain greater than three decimal accuracy from the micro-canonical method requires that the more complicated expression for Z be used. The overall difference between the algorithms is small. The physics of the problem under study should be the deciding factor in determining which algorithm to use. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Initial computer modeling of WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] underground ventilation system, September 1985--March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, S.

    1986-11-01

    Provision of a good ventilation system has been and continues to be a major priority here of those responsible for its design, management, and operation. As an ongoing effort in this direction, development of computer simulated models for the system was initiated in September, 1985. It was decided to utilize Dravo's 'MINEVENT' computer program for this purpose. Accordingly, initial computer models of the mine's ventilation system have been developed for various modes of operation. Specifically, they include: Simulation of the current ventilation system, and Simulation of the designed ventilation system for modes: mine construction mode/shift, waste storage mode/shift, and air reversal mode. 5 figs

  14. Perspective in site-suitability modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy of the OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency decided in April 1981 to set up a Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme relevant to sea disposal of radioactive waste (CRESP) with the objective of reinforcing the scientific basis of future assessments of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site to be made under the NEA Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism. A major component of the initial CRESP plan was the development of a site-specific model to predict radionuclide transfer rates and patterns in the marine environment. A new general approach to the design of such a site-specific model is discussed.Although this approach originates partly from methodologies presented in GESAMP partly from an approach put forward within the NEA Seabed Working Group/Geochemical and Physical Oceanography Task Group and partly from methods previously agreed by the CRESP Modelling Task Group, the modelling philosophy developed in the text expressed the personal viewpoint of the author. This text aims to state the present methods of modelling the marine transfer of radionuclides and to anticipate modelling strategies which may be adopted in the future (in France for example), but it does not necessarily meet present NEA viewpoints and the philosophy of other CRESP participating countries

  15. Assessing The Performance of Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knijff, Johan

    The performance of hydrological models is often characterized using the coefficient of efficiency, E. The sensitivity of E to extreme streamflow values, and the difficulty of deciding what value of E should be used as a threshold to identify 'good' models or model parameterizations, have proven to be serious shortcomings of this index. This paper reviews some alternative performance indices that have appeared in the litera- ture. Legates and McCabe (1999) suggested a more generalized form of E, E'(j,B). Here, j is a parameter that controls how much emphasis is put on extreme streamflow values, and B defines a benchmark or 'null hypothesis' against which the results of the model are tested. E'(j,B) was used to evaluate a large number of parameterizations of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, using 6 different combinations of j and B. First, the effect of j and B is explained. Second, it is demonstrated how the index can be used to explicitly test hypotheses about the model and the data. This approach appears to be particularly attractive if the index is used as a likelihood measure within a GLUE-type analysis.

  16. Mesh refinement for uncertainty quantification through model reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Stinis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel way of deciding when and where to refine a mesh in probability space in order to facilitate uncertainty quantification in the presence of discontinuities in random space. A discontinuity in random space makes the application of generalized polynomial chaos expansion techniques prohibitively expensive. The reason is that for discontinuous problems, the expansion converges very slowly. An alternative to using higher terms in the expansion is to divide the random space in smaller elements where a lower degree polynomial is adequate to describe the randomness. In general, the partition of the random space is a dynamic process since some areas of the random space, particularly around the discontinuity, need more refinement than others as time evolves. In the current work we propose a way to decide when and where to refine the random space mesh based on the use of a reduced model. The idea is that a good reduced model can monitor accurately, within a random space element, the cascade of activity to higher degree terms in the chaos expansion. In turn, this facilitates the efficient allocation of computational sources to the areas of random space where they are more needed. For the Kraichnan–Orszag system, the prototypical system to study discontinuities in random space, we present theoretical results which show why the proposed method is sound and numerical results which corroborate the theory

  17. The value of models in informing resource allocation in colorectal cancer screening – 1 the case of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Frank; Zauber, Ann G.; van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Heijnen, Marie-Louise A.; Penning, Corine; de Koning, Harry J.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-01-01

    In May 2011, the Dutch government decided to implement a national programme for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using biennial faecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening between ages 55 and 75.[1] Decision modelling played an important role in informing this decision, as well as in the planning and implementation of the programme afterwards. In this overview, we illustrate the value of models in informing resource allocation in CRC screening, using the role that decision modelling has played in the Dutch CRC screening programme as an example. PMID:26063755

  18. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...

  19. Parametric, nonparametric and parametric modelling of a chaotic circuit time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, J.; Rust, H.; Horbelt, W.; Voss, H. U.

    2000-09-01

    The determination of a differential equation underlying a measured time series is a frequently arising task in nonlinear time series analysis. In the validation of a proposed model one often faces the dilemma that it is hard to decide whether possible discrepancies between the time series and model output are caused by an inappropriate model or by bad estimates of parameters in a correct type of model, or both. We propose a combination of parametric modelling based on Bock's multiple shooting algorithm and nonparametric modelling based on optimal transformations as a strategy to test proposed models and if rejected suggest and test new ones. We exemplify this strategy on an experimental time series from a chaotic circuit where we obtain an extremely accurate reconstruction of the observed attractor.

  20. Can a model of study activity increase didactic dialogue and students' understanding of learning in IPE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    at Metropolitan University College. Since 2013 all UCS have worked with a nationally decided study activity model. The model outlines four different types of learning activities. Students are introduced to courses via the model to heighten their understanding of course design and the expectations...... combining quantitative surveys, interviews, observation and focus groups. Comparisonldiscussion: The presentation will discuss the ambition to optimize dialogue about learning between lecturers and students by using a model of study activity. Results related to the value and potential of the model as seen...... by both lecturers and students will be presented. Findings/results/outcomes/effects: Students point out that the model can be a useful tool to gain an overview of learning activities and the amount of time they are expected to spend in courses. When lecturers introduce courses via the model it deepens...

  1. Development of a career coaching model for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera

    2016-03-01

    Deciding on a future career path or choosing a career specialty is an important academic decision for medical students. The purpose of this study is to develop a career coaching model for medical students. This research was carried out in three steps. The first step was systematic review of previous studies. The second step was a need assessment of medical students. The third step was a career coaching model using the results acquired from the researched literature and the survey. The career coaching stages were defined as three big phases: The career coaching stages were defined as the "crystallization" period (Pre-medical year 1 and 2), "specification" period (medical year 1 and 2), and "implementation" period (medical year 3 and 4). The career coaching model for medical students can be used in programming career coaching contents and also in identifying the outcomes of career coaching programs at an institutional level.

  2. Lifetime-Aware Cloud Data Centers: Models and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Chiaraviglio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a model to evaluate the server lifetime in cloud data centers (DCs. In particular, when the server power level is decreased, the failure rate tends to be reduced as a consequence of the limited number of components powered on. However, the variation between the different power states triggers a failure rate increase. We therefore consider these two effects in a server lifetime model, subject to an energy-aware management policy. We then evaluate our model in a realistic case study. Our results show that the impact on the server lifetime is far from negligible. As a consequence, we argue that a lifetime-aware approach should be pursued to decide how and when to apply a power state change to a server.

  3. The Logistic Maturity Model: Application to a Fashion Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battista

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the structure of the logistic maturity model (LMM in detail and shows the possible improvements that can be achieved by using this model in terms of the identification of the most appropriate actions to be taken in order to increase the performance of the logistics processes in industrial companies. The paper also gives an example of the LMM’s application to a famous Italian female fashion firm, which decided to use the model as a guideline for the optimization of its supply chain. Relying on a 5-level maturity staircase, specific achievement indicators as well as key performance indicators and best practices are defined and related to each logistics area/process/sub-process, allowing any user to easily and rapidly understand the more critical logistical issues in terms of process immaturity.

  4. Research on JD e-commerce's delivery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiguo; Ma, Mengkun; Feng, Chaoying

    2017-03-01

    E-commerce enterprises represented by JD have made a great contribution to the economic growth and economic development of our country. Delivery, as an important part of logistics, has self-evident importance. By establishing efficient and perfect self-built logistics systems and building good cooperation models with third-party logistics enterprises, e-commerce enterprises have created their own logistics advantages. Characterized by multi-batch and small-batch, e-commerce is much more complicated than traditional transaction. It's not easy to decide which delivery model e-commerce enterprises should adopt. Having e-commerce's logistics delivery as the main research object, this essay aims to find a more suitable logistics delivery model for JD's development.

  5. The Dominance of the Agency Model on Financing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramantyo Djohanputro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are some issues about how companies consider their financing. These issues are related to the amount, source, type, and the structure of such financing. So far, there is no uniform model that is able to explain how companies deal with these issues. There are three competing, dominant theories of financing decision making, i.e. the Pecking Order Theory, the Static Trade-off Theory, and the Agency Model Theory. This study attempts to explore which theory explains the best way for companies in the consumer industry to decide their financing method. There are five hypotheses to be tested in this study. Using data from public listed companies on the Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2008 to 2011, it seems that the Agency Model Theory is more dominant than the other two theories in explaining the way companies fulfill their financing needs.

  6. Development of a finite element model of decompressive craniectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim L Fletcher

    Full Text Available Decompressive craniectomy (DC, an operation whereby part of the skull is removed, is used in the management of patients with brain swelling. While the aim of DC is to reduce intracranial pressure, there is the risk that brain deformation and mechanical strain associated with the operation could damage the brain tissue. The nature and extent of the resulting strain regime is poorly understood at present. Finite element (FE models of DC can provide insight into this applied strain and hence assist in deciding on the best surgical procedures. However there is uncertainty about how well these models match experimental data, which are difficult to obtain clinically. Hence there is a need to validate any modelling approach outside the clinical setting. This paper develops an axisymmetric FE model of an idealised DC to assess the key features of such an FE model which are needed for an accurate simulation of DC. The FE models are compared with an experimental model using gelatin hydrogel, which has similar poro-viscoelastic material property characteristics to brain tissue. Strain on a central plane of the FE model and the front face of the experimental model, deformation and load relaxation curves are compared between experiment and FE. Results show good agreement between the FE and experimental models, providing confidence in applying the proposed FE modelling approach to DC. Such a model should use material properties appropriate for brain tissue and include a more realistic whole head geometry.

  7. Leadership Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    This paper discusses six different models of organizational structure and leadership, including the scalar chain or pyramid model, the continuum model, the grid model, the linking pin model, the contingency model, and the circle or democratic model. Each model is examined in a separate section that describes the model and its development, lists…

  8. Models and role models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. SYSTEM-COGNITIVE MODEL OF FORECASTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIVERSIFIED AGRO-INDUSTRIAL CORPORATIONS. PART I. COGNITIVE STRUCTURING AND FORMALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsenko Y. V.; Loyko V. I.; Baranovskaya T. P.; Makarevich O. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, in accordance with the methodology of the Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis), we examine the implementation of the 1st and 2nd stages of ASC-analysis: cognitive structuring and formalization of the subject area. At the stage of cognitive structurization of subject area, researchers decide what to consider as the object of modeling, the factors affecting it and the results of their actions. In accordance with the results of the cognitive structurization, we prep...

  10. Modeling of petroleum products demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, A.; Jamin, F.; Cholet, G.

    1995-01-01

    This project was carried out under the responsibility of the Strategy-Economics-Program Division of the ''Institut Francais du Petrole''. The goal was the short-term (12 months) forecasting of the demand with regard to the four leading petroleum products in France - gas oil (GO), automotive (CA), home heating oil (FOD) and heavy fuel oil (FL). It was decided to test an original method (1) and to compare it with the widely used Box and Jenkins method (2), which gives good results for the GO and CA series but which proves disappointing for the FOD and FL series. This study is in two parts: (1) the first part describes the original method by breaking it down into trends and seasonality, with the model being additive or multiplicative. We improved its performances by using the theory of the Weiner filter; (2) the second part concerns Box an Jenkins modeling. This model was used on the unprocessed series and then on the series corrected for the influence of working days with the help of the ''Census-X11'' deseasonalization program. For each method, the principal phases are described for the modeling of gas oil on the French domestic market. For the other products, only the principal results are given, i.e. structure of the model retained, matching with reality, reliability of forecasts. (authors). 5 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Atmospheric dispersion models of radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the rapid industrialization in recent time, atmospheric dispersion models have become indispensible 'tools' to ensure that the effects of releases are well within the acceptable limits set by the regulatory authority. In the case of radioactive releases from the nuclear facility, though negligible in quantity and many a times not even measurable, it is required to demonstrate the compliance of these releases to the regulatory limits set by the regulatory authority by carrying out radiological impact assessment. During routine operations of nuclear facility, the releases are so low that environmental impact is usually assessed with the help of atmospheric dispersion models as it is difficult to distinguish negligible contribution of nuclear facility to relatively high natural background radiation. The accidental releases from nuclear facility, though with negligible probability of occurrence, cannot be ruled out. In such cases, the atmospheric dispersion models are of great help to emergency planners for deciding the intervention actions to minimize the consequences in public domain and also to workout strategies for the management of situation. In case of accidental conditions, the atmospheric dispersion models are also utilized for the estimation of probable quantities of radionuclides which might have got released to the atmosphere. Thus, atmospheric dispersion models are an essential tool for nuclear facility during routine operation as well as in the case of accidental conditions

  12. Mars Propellant Liquefaction Modeling in Thermal Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pooja; Hauser, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    NASAs current Mars architectures are assuming the production and storage of 23 tons of liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars over a duration of 500+ days. In order to do this in a mass efficient manner, an energy efficient refrigeration system will be required. Based on previous analysis NASA has decided to do all liquefaction in the propulsion vehicle storage tanks. In order to allow for transient Martian environmental effects, a propellant liquefaction and storage system for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) was modeled using Thermal Desktop. The model consisted of a propellant tank containing a broad area cooling loop heat exchanger integrated with a reverse turbo Brayton cryocooler. Cryocooler sizing and performance modeling was conducted using MAV diurnal heat loads and radiator rejection temperatures predicted from a previous thermal model of the MAV. A system was also sized and modeled using an alternative heat rejection system that relies on a forced convection heat exchanger. Cryocooler mass, input power, and heat rejection for both systems were estimated and compared against sizing based on non-transient sizing estimates.

  13. Ideal Experimental Rat Models for Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2011-05-01

    There are many limitations for conducting liver disease research in human beings due to the high cost and potential ethical issues. For this reason, conducting a study that is difficult to perform in humans using appropriate animal models, can be beneficial in ascertaining the pathological physiology, and in developing new treatment modalities. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate animal model which is suitable for research purposes, since every patient has different and diverse clinical symptoms, adverse reactions, and complications due to the pathological physiology. Also, it is not easy to reproduce identically various clinical situations in animal models. Recently, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has tightened up the regulations, and therefore it is advisable to select the appropriate animals and decide upon the appropriate quantities through scientific and systemic considerations before conducting animal testing. Therefore, in this review article the authors examined various white rat animal testing models and determined the appropriate usable rat model, and the pros and cons of its application in liver disease research. The authors believe that this review will be beneficial in selecting proper laboratory animals for research purposes.

  14. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  15. Models and role models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of

  16. Bootstrapping a time series model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The bootstrap is a methodology for estimating standard errors. The idea is to use a Monte Carlo simulation experiment based on a nonparametric estimate of the error distribution. The main objective of this dissertation was to demonstrate the use of the bootstrap to attach standard errors to coefficient estimates and multi-period forecasts in a second-order autoregressive model fitted by least squares and maximum likelihood estimation. A secondary objective of this article was to present the bootstrap in the context of two econometric equations describing the unemployment rate and individual income tax in the state of Oklahoma. As it turns out, the conventional asymptotic formulae (both the least squares and maximum likelihood estimates) for estimating standard errors appear to overestimate the true standard errors. But there are two problems: 1) the first two observations y 1 and y 2 have been fixed, and 2) the residuals have not been inflated. After these two factors are considered in the trial and bootstrap experiment, both the conventional maximum likelihood and bootstrap estimates of the standard errors appear to be performing quite well. At present, there does not seem to be a good rule of thumb for deciding when the conventional asymptotic formulae will give acceptable results

  17. A precise electromagnetic field model useful for development of microwave imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaber, Bartosz; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    was created in an iterative fashion in order to determine how much details are needed to make it reliable, while keeping it efficient.Findings - The authors found that the commercial software seems like a viable platform for developing electromagnetic solvers. The resulting computer model is easy to prepare......Purpose - The paper describes a fast forward electromagnetic model built with help of commercial software. The purpose of this paper is to create an efficient and robust electromagnetic field model that could be easily plugged into a working microwave imaging system. The secondary purpose...... is to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of such a commercial packages for creating such a model.Design/methodology/approach - In this paper the authors decided to build the model using COMSOL Multiphysics software suite, ultimately comparing its result to measurements of a real device. The numerical model...

  18. The role of models in managing the uncertainty of software-intensive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlewood, Bev; Neil, Martin; Ostrolenk, Gary

    1995-01-01

    It is increasingly argued that uncertainty is an inescapable feature of the design and operational behaviour of software-intensive systems. This paper elaborates the role of models in managing such uncertainty, in relation to evidence and claims for dependability. Personal and group models are considered with regard to abstraction, consensus and corroboration. The paper focuses on the predictive property of models, arguing for the need for empirical validation of their trustworthiness through experimentation and observation. The impact on trustworthiness of human fallibility, formality of expression and expressiveness is discussed. The paper identifies two criteria for deciding the degree of trust to be placed in a model, and hence also for choosing between models, namely accuracy and informativeness. Finally, analogy and reuse are proposed as the only means by which empirical evidence can be established for models in software engineering

  19. Why Is Improvement of Earth System Models So Elusive? Challenges and Strategies From Dust Aerosol Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Perlwitz, J. P.; Ginoux, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Past decades have seen an accelerating increase in computing efficiency,while climate models are representing a rapidly widening set ofphysical processes. Yet simulations of some fundamental aspects ofclimate like precipitation or aerosol forcing remain highly uncertainand resistent to progress. Dust aerosol modeling of soil particleslofted by wind erosion has seen a similar conflict between increasingmodel sophistication and remaining uncertainty. Dust aerosols perturbthe energy and water cycles by scattering radiation and acting as icenuclei, while mediating atmospheric chemistry and marinephotosynthesis (and thus the carbon cycle). These effects take placeacross scales from the dimensions of an ice crystal to theplanetary-scale circulation that disperses dust far downwind of itsparent soil. Representing this range leads to several modelingchallenges. Should we limit complexity in our model, which consumescomputer resources and inhibits interpretation? How do we decide if aprocess involving dust is worthy of inclusion within our model? Canwe identify a minimal representation of a complex process that isefficient yet retains the physics relevant to climate? Answeringthese questions about the appropriate degree of representation isguided by model evaluation, which presents several more challenges.How do we proceed if the available observations do not directlyconstrain our process of interest? (This could result from competingprocesses that influence the observed variable and obscure thesignature of our process of interest.) Examples will be presentedfrom dust modeling, with lessons that might be more broadlyapplicable. The end result will either be clinical depression or thereassuring promise of continued gainful employment as the communityconfronts these challenges.

  20. Modeling of Construction Cost of Villas in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Al-Mohsin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a model for estimating construction cost of villas is presented. The model takes into account four major factors affecting villa's cost, namely: built up area, number of toilets, number of bedrooms and the number of stories. A field survey was conducted to collect information required for such model using data collection form designed by the researchers. Information about 150 villas was collected from six well experienced consultants in the field of villa design and supervision in Oman. Collected data was analyzed to develop suggested model which consists of two main levels of estimate. The first level is at the conceptual design stage where the client presents his/her need of space and basic information about the available plot for construction. The second level of cost estimation is carried out after the preliminary design stage where the client has to decide on the finishes and type of structure. At the second level of estimation, the client should be able to decide whether to precede for construction or not, according to his/her budget. The model is general and can be used anywhere and was validated for accepted degree of confidence using the actual cost of the 112 executed villa projects in Oman. The villas included in this study were owned by clients from both high and low income brackets and had different types of finishing material. The developed equations showed good correlation between the selected variables and the actual cost with R2  = 0.79 in the case of conceptual estimate and R2  = 0.601 for preliminary estimate.

  1. Modelling of multi-block data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Svinning, K.

    2006-01-01

    Here is presented a unified approach to modelling multi-block regression data. The starting point is a partition of the data X into L data blocks, X = (X-1, X-2,...X-L), and the data Y into M data-blocks, Y = (Y-1, Y-2,...,Y-M). The methods of linear regression, X -> Y, are extended to the case...... of a linear relationship between each X-i and Y-j. X-i -> Y-j. A modelling strategy is used to decide if the residual X-i should take part in the modelling of one or more Y(j)s. At each step the procedure of finding score vectors is based on well-defined optimisation procedures. The principle of optimisation...... is based on that the score vectors should give the sizes of the resulting Y(j)s loading vectors as large as possible. The partition of X and Y are independent of each other. The choice of Y-j can be X-j, Y-i = X-i, thus including the possibility of modelling X -> X-i,i=1,...,L. It is shown how...

  2. Parameter optimization for surface flux transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbread, T.; Yeates, A. R.; Muñoz-Jaramillo, A.; Petrie, G. J. D.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate prediction of solar activity calls for precise calibration of solar cycle models. Consequently we aim to find optimal parameters for models which describe the physical processes on the solar surface, which in turn act as proxies for what occurs in the interior and provide source terms for coronal models. We use a genetic algorithm to optimize surface flux transport models using National Solar Observatory (NSO) magnetogram data for Solar Cycle 23. This is applied to both a 1D model that inserts new magnetic flux in the form of idealized bipolar magnetic regions, and also to a 2D model that assimilates specific shapes of real active regions. The genetic algorithm searches for parameter sets (meridional flow speed and profile, supergranular diffusivity, initial magnetic field, and radial decay time) that produce the best fit between observed and simulated butterfly diagrams, weighted by a latitude-dependent error structure which reflects uncertainty in observations. Due to the easily adaptable nature of the 2D model, the optimization process is repeated for Cycles 21, 22, and 24 in order to analyse cycle-to-cycle variation of the optimal solution. We find that the ranges and optimal solutions for the various regimes are in reasonable agreement with results from the literature, both theoretical and observational. The optimal meridional flow profiles for each regime are almost entirely within observational bounds determined by magnetic feature tracking, with the 2D model being able to accommodate the mean observed profile more successfully. Differences between models appear to be important in deciding values for the diffusive and decay terms. In like fashion, differences in the behaviours of different solar cycles lead to contrasts in parameters defining the meridional flow and initial field strength.

  3. Constrained optimization via simulation models for new product innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujowidianto, Nugroho A.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of constrained optimization where the decision makers aim to optimize the primary performance measure while constraining the secondary performance measures. This paper provides a brief overview of stochastically constrained optimization via discrete event simulation. Most review papers tend to be methodology-based. This review attempts to be problem-based as decision makers may have already decided on the problem formulation. We consider constrained optimization models as there are usually constraints on secondary performance measures as trade-off in new product development. It starts by laying out different possible methods and the reasons using constrained optimization via simulation models. It is then followed by the review of different simulation optimization approach to address constrained optimization depending on the number of decision variables, the type of constraints, and the risk preferences of the decision makers in handling uncertainties.

  4. Transmission Delay Modeling of Packet Communication over Digital Subscriber Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain multimedia and voice services, such as VoIP, IPTV, etc., are significantly delay sensitive and their performance is influenced by the overall transmission delay and its variance. One of the most common solutions used in access networks are xDSL lines, especially ADSL2+ or VDSL2. Although these subscriber lines also use packet communication, there are several differences and mechanisms, which influence their resulting delay. Their delay characteristics are also dependent on the individual settings of each xDSL provider, therefore we decided to investigate this area for typical commercially available lines in Czech Republic. Based on the measured values and experiments with real ADSL2+ lines we also developed a potential modeling method, which is presented in this article as well. The parameters for packet jitter based on the generalized Pareto distribution were modeled.

  5. Model Penentuan Nilai Target Functional Requirement Berbasis Utilitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucuk Nur Rosyidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a product design and development process, a designer faces a problem to decide functional requirement (FR target values. That decision is made under a risk since it is conducted in the early design phase using incomplete information. Utility function can be used to reflect the decision maker attitude towards the risk in making such decision. In this research, we develop a utility-based model to determine FR target values using quadratic utility function and information from Quality Function Deployment (QFD. A pencil design is used as a numerical example using quadratic utility function for each FR. The model can be applied for balancing customer and designer interest in determining FR target values.

  6. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  7. Integer Optimization Model for a Logistic System based on Location-Routing Considering Distance and Chosen Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyasari, Joni; Mawengkang, Herman; Efendi, Syahril

    2018-02-01

    In a distribution network it is important to decide the locations of facilities that impacts not only the profitability of an organization but the ability to serve customers.Generally the location-routing problem is to minimize the overall cost by simultaneously selecting a subset of candidate facilities and constructing a set of delivery routes that satisfy some restrictions. In this paper we impose restriction on the route that should be passed for delivery. We use integer programming model to describe the problem. A feasible neighbourhood search is proposed to solve the result model.

  8. Environmental optimal control strategies based on plant canopy photosynthesis responses and greenhouse climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lujuan; Xie, Songhe; Cui, Jiantao; Liu, Tao

    2006-11-01

    It is the essential goal of intelligent greenhouse environment optimal control to enhance income of cropper and energy save. There were some characteristics such as uncertainty, imprecision, nonlinear, strong coupling, bigger inertia and different time scale in greenhouse environment control system. So greenhouse environment optimal control was not easy and especially model-based optimal control method was more difficult. So the optimal control problem of plant environment in intelligent greenhouse was researched. Hierarchical greenhouse environment control system was constructed. In the first level data measuring was carried out and executive machine was controlled. Optimal setting points of climate controlled variable in greenhouse was calculated and chosen in the second level. Market analysis and planning were completed in third level. The problem of the optimal setting point was discussed in this paper. Firstly the model of plant canopy photosynthesis responses and the model of greenhouse climate model were constructed. Afterwards according to experience of the planting expert, in daytime the optimal goals were decided according to the most maximal photosynthesis rate principle. In nighttime on plant better growth conditions the optimal goals were decided by energy saving principle. Whereafter environment optimal control setting points were computed by GA. Compared the optimal result and recording data in real system, the method is reasonable and can achieve energy saving and the maximal photosynthesis rate in intelligent greenhouse

  9. Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and screw displacement piles (SDP). The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.

  10. Assessment of anti-arrhythmic activity of antipsychotic drugs in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mow, Tomas; Frederiksen, Kristen; Thomsen, Morten B.

    2015-01-01

    limited experimental information exists about the effects of α1-adrenergic receptor activity of antipsychotic drugs in pro-arrhythmic models, we have decided to investigate this. In this study we show that four antipsychotic drugs all have high affinity for α1-adrenergic receptor (sertindole>risperidone>haloperidol......>olanzapine) and all block IKr (sertindole>haloperidol>risperidone>olanzapine). In canine Purkinje fibres, α1-adrenergic stimulation prolonged action potential duration; however, the stimulation does not cause afterdepolarizations, even in the presence of dofetilide-induced delayed repolarization. We showed...

  11. Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasiński Adam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA piles and screw displacement piles (SDP. The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.

  12. A Numerical Procedure for Model Identifiability Analysis Applied to Enzyme Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daele, Timothy, Van; Van Hoey, Stijn; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    The proper calibration of models describing enzyme kinetics can be quite challenging. In the literature, different procedures are available to calibrate these enzymatic models in an efficient way. However, in most cases the model structure is already decided on prior to the actual calibration...... and Pronzato (1997) and which can be easily set up for any type of model. In this paper the proposed approach is applied to the forward reaction rate of the enzyme kinetics proposed by Shin and Kim(1998). Structural identifiability analysis showed that no local structural model problems were occurring......) identifiability problems. By using the presented approach it is possible to detect potential identifiability problems and avoid pointless calibration (and experimental!) effort....

  13. Expert System Models for Forecasting Forklifts Engagement in a Warehouse Loading Operation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Mirčetić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of forklifts engagement in warehouse loading operations. Two expert system (ES models are created using several machine learning (ML models. Models try to mimic expert decisions while determining the forklifts engagement in the loading operation. Different ML models are evaluated and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and classification and regression trees (CART are chosen as the ones which have shown best results for the research purpose. As a case study, a central warehouse of a beverage company was used. In a beverage distribution chain, the proper engagement of forklifts in a loading operation is crucial for maintaining the defined customer service level. The created ES models represent a new approach for the rationalization of the forklifts usage, particularly for solving the problem of the forklifts engagement incargo loading. They are simple, easy to understand, reliable, and practically applicable tool for deciding on the engagement of the forklifts in a loading operation.

  14. Comparison of elastic-viscous-plastic and viscous-plastic dynamics models using a high resolution Arctic sea ice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, E.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Zhang, Y. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A nonlinear viscous-plastic (VP) rheology proposed by Hibler (1979) has been demonstrated to be the most suitable of the rheologies commonly used for modeling sea ice dynamics. However, the presence of a huge range of effective viscosities hinders numerical implementations of this model, particularly on high resolution grids or when the ice model is coupled to an ocean or atmosphere model. Hunke and Dukowicz (1997) have modified the VP model by including elastic waves as a numerical regularization in the case of zero strain rate. This modification (EVP) allows an efficient, fully explicit discretization that adapts well to parallel architectures. The authors present a comparison of EVP and VP dynamics model results from two 5-year simulations of Arctic sea ice, obtained with a high resolution sea ice model. The purpose of the comparison is to determine how differently the two dynamics models behave, and to decide whether the elastic-viscous-plastic model is preferable for high resolution climate simulations, considering its high efficiency in parallel computation. Results from the first year of this experiment (1990) are discussed in detail in Hunke and Zhang (1997).

  15. Electricity Price Forecast Using Combined Models with Adaptive Weights Selected and Errors Calibrated by Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined forecast with weights adaptively selected and errors calibrated by Hidden Markov model (HMM is proposed to model the day-ahead electricity price. Firstly several single models were built to forecast the electricity price separately. Then the validation errors from every individual model were transformed into two discrete sequences: an emission sequence and a state sequence to build the HMM, obtaining a transmission matrix and an emission matrix, representing the forecasting ability state of the individual models. The combining weights of the individual models were decided by the state transmission matrixes in HMM and the best predict sample ratio of each individual among all the models in the validation set. The individual forecasts were averaged to get the combining forecast with the weights obtained above. The residuals of combining forecast were calibrated by the possible error calculated by the emission matrix of HMM. A case study of day-ahead electricity market of Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM, USA, suggests that the proposed method outperforms individual techniques of price forecasting, such as support vector machine (SVM, generalized regression neural networks (GRNN, day-ahead modeling, and self-organized map (SOM similar days modeling.

  16. Modelling the models

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the production of mesons in the forward region of LHC proton-proton collisions, the LHCf collaboration has provided key information needed to calibrate extremely high-energy cosmic ray models.   Average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of rapidity loss ∆y. Black dots represent LHCf data and the red diamonds represent SPS experiment UA7 results. The predictions of hadronic interaction models are shown by open boxes (sibyll 2.1), open circles (qgsjet II-03) and open triangles (epos 1.99). Among these models, epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCf data. LHCf is dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted at extremely small angles in the very forward region of LHC collisions. Two imaging calorimeters – Arm1 and Arm2 – take data 140 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point. “The physics goal of this type of analysis is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models – the well-known &...

  17. Planning model of purchasing logistics in outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor JAKOMIN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is often the case that when preparing their offers, potential outsourcers of logistic activities do not thoroughly research all the activities that have an influence on the process of logistics. Consequently, they prepare relatively expensive offers (that can later lead to greater unexpected costs which, in many cases, business partners decide against and persist with their own existing methods of doing business. The original contribution to science in this article is a model that will aid better understanding of dealing with problems and will, in practice, serve as a tool for the successful execution of business offers by outsourcers. Following research we have discovered, and are able to confirm, that despite the high start-up costs of the outsourcing, in the long term the company can reduce logistic costs. The model presented serves as an in-depth analysis of the company which enables the definition of favourable and optimal offers for outsourcing. The model shown helps to minimise the influence of mistrust and emphasises the importance of reducing the logistic costs with outsourcing.

  18. Context Sensitive Modeling of Cancer Drug Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Juen Chen

    Full Text Available Recent screening of drug sensitivity in large panels of cancer cell lines provides a valuable resource towards developing algorithms that predict drug response. Since more samples provide increased statistical power, most approaches to prediction of drug sensitivity pool multiple cancer types together without distinction. However, pan-cancer results can be misleading due to the confounding effects of tissues or cancer subtypes. On the other hand, independent analysis for each cancer-type is hampered by small sample size. To balance this trade-off, we present CHER (Contextual Heterogeneity Enabled Regression, an algorithm that builds predictive models for drug sensitivity by selecting predictive genomic features and deciding which ones should-and should not-be shared across different cancers, tissues and drugs. CHER provides significantly more accurate models of drug sensitivity than comparable elastic-net-based models. Moreover, CHER provides better insight into the underlying biological processes by finding a sparse set of shared and type-specific genomic features.

  19. A multi-paradigm language for reactive synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Filippidis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a language for describing reactive synthesis problems that integrates imperative and declarative elements. The semantics is defined in terms of two-player turn-based infinite games with full information. Currently, synthesis tools accept linear temporal logic (LTL as input, but this description is less structured and does not facilitate the expression of sequential constraints. This motivates the use of a structured programming language to specify synthesis problems. Transition systems and guarded commands serve as imperative constructs, expressed in a syntax based on that of the modeling language Promela. The syntax allows defining which player controls data and control flow, and separating a program into assumptions and guarantees. These notions are necessary for input to game solvers. The integration of imperative and declarative paradigms allows using the paradigm that is most appropriate for expressing each requirement. The declarative part is expressed in the LTL fragment of generalized reactivity(1, which admits efficient synthesis algorithms, extended with past LTL. The implementation translates Promela to input for the Slugs synthesizer and is written in Python. The AMBA AHB bus case study is revisited and synthesized efficiently, identifying the need to reorder binary decision diagrams during strategy construction, in order to prevent the exponential blowup observed in previous work.

  20. The models of internal dose calculation in ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    There are a lot discussions about internal dose calculation in ICRP. Many efforts are devoted to improvement in models and parameters. In this report, we discuss what kind of models and parameters are used in ICRP. Models are divided into two parts, the dosimetric model and biokinetic model. The former is a mathematical phantom model, and it is mainly developed in ORNL. The results are used in many researchers. The latter is a compartment model and it has a difficulty to decide the parameter values. They are not easy to estimate because of their age dependency. ICRP officially sets values at ages of 3 month, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, 15 year and adult, and recommends to get values among ages by linear age interpolate. But it is very difficult to solve the basic equation with these values, so we calculate by use of computers. However, it has complex shame and needs long CPU time. We should make approximated equations. The parameter values include much uncertainty because of less experimental data, especially for a child. And these models and parameter values are for Caucasian. We should inquire whether they could correctly describe other than Caucasian. The body size affects the values of calculated SAF, and the differences of metabolism change the biokinetic pattern. (author)

  1. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  2. Experimental Fracture Model versus Osteotomy Model in Metacarpal Bone Plate Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ochman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteotomy or fracture models can be used to evaluate mechanical properties of fixation techniques of the hand skeleton in vitro. Although many studies make use of osteotomy models, fracture models simulate the clinical situation more realistically. This study investigates monocortical and bicortical plate fixation on metacarpal bones considering both aforementioned models to decide which method is best suited to test fixation techniques. Methods. Porcine metacarpal bones (=40 were randomized into 4 groups. In groups I and II bones were fractured with a modified 3-point bending test. The intact bones represented a further control group to which the other groups after fixation were compared. In groups III and IV a standard osteotomy was carried out. Bones were fixated with plates monocortically (group I, III and bicortically (group II, IV and tested for failure. Results. Bones fractured at a mean maximum load of 482.8 N ± 104.8 N with a relative standard deviation (RSD of 21.7%, mean stiffness was 122.3 ± 35 N/mm. In the fracture model, there was a significant difference (=0.01 for maximum load of monocortically and bicortically fixed bones in contrast to the osteotomy model (=0.9. Discussion. In the fracture model, because one can use the same bone for both measurements in the intact state and the bone-plate construct states, the impact of inter-individual differences is reduced. In contrast to the osteotomy model there are differences between monocortical and bicortical fixations in the fracture model. Thus simulation of the in vivo situation is better and seems to be suitable for the evaluation of mechanical properties of fixation techniques on metacarpals.

  3. [Effect of sucralfate on cytokines in rat with paraquat poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junbo; Yu, Yongtao; Li, Hongbo; Zheng, Fenshuang; Lin, Ruyun; Yang, Chun'ai

    2018-03-01

    To explore the effect of sucralfate on cytokines in rats with paraquat (PQ) poisoning. Seventy-two healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into PQ model group, sodium bicarbonate intervention group (SB group) and sucralfate suspension gel group (LTL group), with 24 rats in each group. The rat model of PQ poisoning was reproduced by one-time intragastric administration of PQ solution 25 mg/kg. The rats in SB group and LTL group were intragastricly administrated with 5 mL×kg -1 ×d -1 of 100 g/L sodium bicarbonate or 200 g/L sucralfate at 2 hours after exposing to PQ, and the rats in PQ model group were given the same amount of sterile saline. The abdominal aortic blood of rats was collected at 1, 3, 6, and 10 days after PQ poisoning, and the levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The left lung tissue was harvested, and lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio was assessed. With prolonged exposure, lung W/D ratios in all the groups were increased gradually, reached the peak at 10 days, but in the SB group and LTL group, the amplitude of increase was obviously reduced, the ratios were significantly decreased at 6 days and 10 days as compared with those in PQ model group (SB group vs. PQ model group: 4.99±0.79 vs. 6.98±0.86 at 6 days, 5.61±0.36 vs. 7.36±0.95 at 10 days; LTL group vs. PQ model group: 4.61±0.24 vs. 6.98±0.86 at 6 days, 4.24±0.20 vs. 7.36±0.95 at 10 days, all P 0.05). After PQ poisoning, the levels of TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1 were elevated, and reached the peak at 3 days and then decreased gradually. Compared with the PQ model group, serum TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels in SB group and LTL group were decreased significantly [SB group vs. PQ model group: 3-day TNF-α (ng/L) was 147.6±12.3 vs. 168.2±11.3, 3-day IL-10 (ng/L) was 65.4±3.2 vs. 115.1±9.2, 3-day TGF-β1 (ng/L) was 356.3±50.3 vs

  4. A contact angle hysteresis model based on the fractal structure of contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuai; Ma, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Contact angle is one of the most popular concept used in fields such as wetting, transport and microfludics. In practice, different contact angles such as equilibrium, receding and advancing contact angles are observed due to hysteresis. The connection among these contact angles is important in revealing the chemical and physical properties of surfaces related to wetting. Inspired by the fractal structure of contact line, we propose a single parameter model depicting the connection of the three angles. This parameter is decided by the fractal structure of the contact line. The results of this model agree with experimental observations. In certain cases, it can be reduced to other existing models. It also provides a new point of view in understanding the physical nature of the contact angle hysteresis. Interestingly, some counter-intuitive phenomena, such as the binary receding angles, are indicated in this model, which are waited to be validated by experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. System dynamics model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A model of Suzhou water resources carrying capacity (WRCC was set up using the method of system dynamics (SD. In the model, three different water resources utilization programs were adopted: (1 continuity of existing water utilization, (2 water conservation/saving, and (3 water exploitation. The dynamic variation of the Suzhou WRCC was simulated with the supply-decided principle for the time period of 2001 to 2030, and the results were characterized based on socio-economic factors. The corresponding Suzhou WRCC values for several target years were calculated by the model. Based on these results, proper ways to improve the Suzhou WRCC are proposed. The model also produced an optimized plan, which can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable utilization of Suzhou water resources and for the coordinated development of the society, economy, and water resources.

  6. Generic precise augmented reality guiding system and its calibration method based on 3D virtual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Shourui; Wang, Zhangying; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Niu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-05-30

    Augmented reality system can be applied to provide precise guidance for various kinds of manual works. The adaptability and guiding accuracy of such systems are decided by the computational model and the corresponding calibration method. In this paper, a novel type of augmented reality guiding system and the corresponding designing scheme are proposed. Guided by external positioning equipment, the proposed system can achieve high relative indication accuracy in a large working space. Meanwhile, the proposed system is realized with a digital projector and the general back projection model is derived with geometry relationship between digitized 3D model and the projector in free space. The corresponding calibration method is also designed for the proposed system to obtain the parameters of projector. To validate the proposed back projection model, the coordinate data collected by a 3D positioning equipment is used to calculate and optimize the extrinsic parameters. The final projecting indication accuracy of the system is verified with subpixel pattern projecting technique.

  7. Analysis of credit linked demand in an inventory model with varying ordering cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Ateka; Mondal, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered an economic order quantity model for deteriorating items with two-level trade credit policy in which a delay in payment is offered by a supplier to a retailer and also an another delay in payment is offered by the retailer to his/her all customers. Here, it is proposed that the demand function is dependent on the length of the customer's credit period and also the duration of offering the credit period. In this article, it is considered that the retailer's ordering cost per order depends on the number of replenishment cycles. The objective of this model is to establish a deterministic EOQ model of deteriorating items for the retailer to decide the position of customers credit period and the number of replenishment cycles in finite time horizon such that the retailer gets the maximum profit. Also, the model is explained with the help of some numerical examples.

  8. Fuzzy rule-based model for hydropower reservoirs operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini, R.; Afshar, A.; Afshar, M.H. [School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Real-time hydropower reservoir operation is a continuous decision-making process of determining the water level of a reservoir or the volume of water released from it. The hydropower operation is usually based on operating policies and rules defined and decided upon in strategic planning. This paper presents a fuzzy rule-based model for the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The proposed fuzzy rule-based model presents a set of suitable operating rules for release from the reservoir based on ideal or target storage levels. The model operates on an 'if-then' principle, in which the 'if' is a vector of fuzzy premises and the 'then' is a vector of fuzzy consequences. In this paper, reservoir storage, inflow, and period are used as premises and the release as the consequence. The steps involved in the development of the model include, construction of membership functions for the inflow, storage and the release, formulation of fuzzy rules, implication, aggregation and defuzzification. The required knowledge bases for the formulation of the fuzzy rules is obtained form a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model with a steady state policy. The proposed model is applied to the hydropower operation of ''Dez'' reservoir in Iran and the results are presented and compared with those of the SDP model. The results indicate the ability of the method to solve hydropower reservoir operation problems. (author)

  9. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SIMULATION MODELS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ian; Kossik, Rick; Voss, Charlie

    2003-01-01

    Most waste management activities are decided upon and carried out in a public or semi-public arena, typically involving the waste management organization, one or more regulators, and often other stakeholders and members of the public. In these environments, simulation modeling can be a powerful tool in reaching a consensus on the best path forward, but only if the models that are developed are understood and accepted by all of the parties involved. These requirements for understanding and acceptance of the models constrain the appropriate software and model development procedures that are employed. This paper discusses requirements for both simulation software and for the models that are developed using the software. Requirements for the software include transparency, accessibility, flexibility, extensibility, quality assurance, ability to do discrete and/or continuous simulation, and efficiency. Requirements for the models that are developed include traceability, transparency, credibility/validity, and quality control. The paper discusses these requirements with specific reference to the requirements for performance assessment models that are used for predicting the long-term safety of waste disposal facilities, such as the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

  10. Why Is Improvement of Earth System Models so Elusive? Challenges and Strategies from Dust Aerosol Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Perlwitz, Jan; Ginoux, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Past decades have seen an accelerating increase in computing efficiency, while climate models are representing a rapidly widening set of physical processes. Yet simulations of some fundamental aspects of climate like precipitation or aerosol forcing remain highly uncertain and resistant to progress. Dust aerosol modeling of soil particles lofted by wind erosion has seen a similar conflict between increasing model sophistication and remaining uncertainty. Dust aerosols perturb the energy and water cycles by scattering radiation and acting as ice nuclei, while mediating atmospheric chemistry and marine photosynthesis (and thus the carbon cycle). These effects take place across scales from the dimensions of an ice crystal to the planetary-scale circulation that disperses dust far downwind of its parent soil. Representing this range leads to several modeling challenges. Should we limit complexity in our model, which consumes computer resources and inhibits interpretation? How do we decide if a process involving dust is worthy of inclusion within our model? Can we identify a minimal representation of a complex process that is efficient yet retains the physics relevant to climate? Answering these questions about the appropriate degree of representation is guided by model evaluation, which presents several more challenges. How do we proceed if the available observations do not directly constrain our process of interest? (This could result from competing processes that influence the observed variable and obscure the signature of our process of interest.) Examples will be presented from dust modeling, with lessons that might be more broadly applicable. The end result will either be clinical depression or there assuring promise of continued gainful employment as the community confronts these challenges.

  11. Model of Decision Making through Consensus in Ranking Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Gim; Darnius, Open

    2018-01-01

    The basic problem to determine ranking consensus is a problem to combine some rankings those are decided by two or more Decision Maker (DM) into ranking consensus. DM is frequently asked to present their preferences over a group of objects in terms of ranks, for example to determine a new project, new product, a candidate in a election, and so on. The problem in ranking can be classified into two major categories; namely, cardinal and ordinal rankings. The objective of the study is to obtin the ranking consensus by appying some algorithms and methods. The algorithms and methods used in this study were partial algorithm, optimal ranking consensus, BAK (Borde-Kendal)Model. A method proposed as an alternative in ranking conssensus is a Weighted Distance Forward-Backward (WDFB) method, which gave a little difference i ranking consensus result compare to the result oethe example solved by Cook, et.al (2005).

  12. Micromechanical modelling of quasi-brittle materials behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, V.C.

    1992-01-01

    This special issues on Micromechanical modelling of quasi-brittle materials behavior represents an outgrowth of presentations given at a symposium of the same title held at the 1991 ASME Applied Mechanics and Biomechanics Summer Conference at the Ohio State University. The symposium was organized to promote communication between researchers in three materials groups: rock, cementitious materials, ceramics and related composites. The enthusiastic response of both speakers and attendants at the ASME symposium convinced the organizer that it would be useful to put together a coherent volume which can reach a larger audience. It was decided that the papers individually and as a volume ought to provide a broader view, so that as much as possible, the work contained in each paper would be accessible to readers working in any of the three materials groups. Applied Mechanics Reviews presents an appropriate platform for achieving these objectives

  13. A neural network model for credit risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashman, Adnan

    2009-08-01

    Credit scoring is one of the key analytical techniques in credit risk evaluation which has been an active research area in financial risk management. This paper presents a credit risk evaluation system that uses a neural network model based on the back propagation learning algorithm. We train and implement the neural network to decide whether to approve or reject a credit application, using seven learning schemes and real world credit applications from the Australian credit approval datasets. A comparison of the system performance under the different learning schemes is provided, furthermore, we compare the performance of two neural networks; with one and two hidden layers following the ideal learning scheme. Experimental results suggest that neural networks can be effectively used in automatic processing of credit applications.

  14. NUMERICAL MODEL APPLICATION IN ROWING SIMULATOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chmátal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to carry out a hydraulic design of rowing/sculling and paddling simulator. Nowadays there are two main approaches in the simulator design. The first one includes a static water with no artificial movement and counts on specially cut oars to provide the same resistance in the water. The second approach, on the other hand uses pumps or similar devices to force the water to circulate but both of the designs share many problems. Such problems are affecting already built facilities and can be summarized as unrealistic feeling, unwanted turbulent flow and bad velocity profile. Therefore, the goal was to design a new rowing simulator that would provide nature-like conditions for the racers and provide an unmatched experience. In order to accomplish this challenge, it was decided to use in-depth numerical modeling to solve the hydraulic problems. The general measures for the design were taken in accordance with space availability of the simulator ́s housing. The entire research was coordinated with other stages of the construction using BIM. The detailed geometry was designed using a numerical model in Ansys Fluent and parametric auto-optimization tools which led to minimum negative hydraulic phenomena and decreased investment and operational costs due to the decreased hydraulic losses in the system.

  15. Modeling and Verification of the Bitcoin Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylash Chaudhary

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bitcoin is a popular digital currency for online payments, realized as a decentralized peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Bitcoin keeps a ledger of all transactions; the majority of the participants decides on the correct ledger. Since there is no trusted third party to guard against double spending, and inspired by its popularity, we would like to investigate the correctness of the Bitcoin protocol. Double spending is an important threat to electronic payment systems. Double spending would happen if one user could force a majority to believe that a ledger without his previous payment is the correct one. We are interested in the probability of success of such a double spending attack, which is linked to the computational power of the attacker. This paper examines the Bitcoin protocol and provides its formalization as an UPPAAL model. The model will be used to show how double spending can be done if the parties in the Bitcoin protocol behave maliciously, and with what probability double spending occurs.

  16. Implementing Problem Resolution Models in Remedy

    CERN Document Server

    Marquina, M A; Ramos, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of Problem Resolution Model (PRM) and describes the current implementation made by the User Support unit at CERN. One of the main challenges of User Support services in any High Energy Physics institute/organization is to address solving of the computing-relatedproblems faced by their researchers. The User Support group at CERN is the IT unit in charge of modeling the operations of the Help Desk and acts as asecond level support to some of the support lines whose problems are receptioned at the Help Desk. The motivation behind the use of a PRM is to provide well defined procedures and methods to react in an efficient way to a request for solving a problem,providing advice, information etc. A PRM is materialized on a workflow which has a set of defined states in which a problem can be. Problems move from onestate to another according to actions as decided by the person who is handling them. A PRM can be implemented by a computer application, generallyreferred to as Problem Report...

  17. Modelling contractor’s bidding decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to provide a set of tools to facilitate the main stages of the competitive bidding process for construction contractors. These involve 1 deciding whether to bid, 2 calculating the total price, and 3 breaking down the total price into the items of the bill of quantities or the schedule of payments to optimise contractor cash flows. To define factors that affect the decision to bid, the authors rely upon literature on the subject and put forward that multi-criteria methods are applied to calculate a single measure of contract attractiveness (utility value. An attractive contract implies that the contractor is likely to offer a lower price to increase chances of winning the competition. The total bid price is thus to be interpolated between the lowest acceptable and the highest justifiable price based on the contract attractiveness. With the total bid price established, the next step is to split it between the items of the schedule of payments. A linear programming model is proposed for this purpose. The application of the models is illustrated with a numerical example.

  18. PENDEKATAN MODEL MATEMATIS UNTUK MENENTUKAN PERSENTASE MARKUP HARGA JUAL PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviliani Yenty Yuliana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design Mathematical models that can determine the selling volume as an alternative to improve the markup percentage. Mathematical models was designed with double regression statistic. Selling volume is a function of markup, market condition, and substitute condition variables. The designed Mathematical model has fulfilled by the test of: error upon assumption, accurate model, validation model, and multi collinear problem. The Mathematical model has applied in application program with expectation that the application program can give: (1 alternative to decide percentage markup for user, (2 Illustration of gross profit estimation that will be achieve for selected percentage markup, (3 Illustration of estimation percentage of the units sold that will be achieve for selected percentage markup, and (4 Illustration of total net income before tax will get for specific period. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang model Matematis guna menetapkan volume penjualan, sebagai alternatif untuk menentukan persentase markup harga jual produk. Model Matematis dirancang menggunakan Statistik Regresi Berganda. Volume penjualan merupakan fungsi dari variabel markup, kondisi pasar, dan kondisi pengganti. Model Matematis yang dirancang sudah memenuhi uji: asumsi atas error, akurasi model, validasi model, dan masalah multikolinearitas. Rancangan model Matematis tersebut diterapkan dalam program aplikasi dengan harapan dapat memberi: (1 alternatif bagi pengguna mengenai berapa besar markup yang sebaiknya ditetapkan, (2 gambaran perkiraan laba kotor yang akan diperoleh setiap pemilihan markup, (3 gambaran perkiraan persentase unit yang terjual setiap pemilihan markup, dan (4 gambaran total laba kotor sebelum pajak yang dapat diperoleh pada periode yang bersangkutan. Kata kunci: model Matematis, aplikasi program, volume penjualan, markup, laba kotor.

  19. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise s...

  20. A Study On Traditional And Evolutionary Software Development Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rasheed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Today Computing technologies are becoming the pioneers of the organizations and helpful in individual functionality i.e. added to computing device we need to add softwares. Set of instruction or computer program is known as software. The development of software is done through some traditional or some new or evolutionary models. Software development is becoming a key and a successful business nowadays. Without software all hardware is useless. Some collective steps that are performed in the development of these are known as Software development life cycle SDLC. There are some adaptive and predictive models for developing software. Predictive mean already known like WATERFALL Spiral Prototype and V-shaped models while Adaptive model include agile Scrum. All methodologies of both adaptive and predictive have their own procedure and steps. Predictive are Static and Adaptive are dynamic mean change cannot be made to the predictive while adaptive have the capability of changing. The purpose of this study is to get familiar with all these and discuss their uses and steps of development. This discussion will be helpful in deciding which model they should use in which circumstance and what are the development step including in each model.