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Sample records for deception examination bakeoff

  1. An examination of motor and perceptual contributions to the recognition of deception from others' actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; van der Kamp, J.; van Kesteren, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most empirical studies thus far have confounded motor and perceptual experience when examining their contributions to the recognition of deceptive and non-deceptive intentions from another person's movements. In the present study, we manipulated viewing perspective as an additional demarcation to

  2. An Examination of Behavioral Responses to Stereotypical Deceptive Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Bill M.

    A study investigated whether receivers who detect senders behaving deceitfully will automatically become more resistent to the message being presented. By developing predictions derived from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), the study hypothesized that only noninvolved receivers would respond negatively to deceptive nonverbal cues in a…

  3. Examining well-being, anxiety, and self-deception in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Sheridan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the combined influence of six positive psychology variables (optimism, hope, self-efficacy, grit, gratitude, and subjective life satisfaction, termed covitality, in relation to buffering individuals against anxiety symptoms. In addition, the influence of self-deception was examined to test whether this construct had an influence on the reporting of these positive psychology variables. A total of 268 individuals (203 females and 65 males with a mean age of 22.2 years (SD = 7.4 years from one Queensland university took part in the study. The participants completed an online questionnaire, which included a battery of positive psychological measures, plus a measure of anxiety and self-deception. The results indicated that the covitality constructs had a moderation effect on anxiety. In a regression analysis, the six covitality constructs explained an additional 24.5% of the variance in anxiety, after controlling for self-deception. Further analyses revealed that those higher in self-deception scored higher in self-efficacy and all positive covitality measures and lower in anxiety, than those lower in self-deception. These findings illustrate the importance of considering the role that self-deception might play in the reporting of positive psychology variables.

  4. The ethics of deception in cyberspace

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Neil C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper appeared in the Handbook of Research on Technoethics, ed. R. Luppicini, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2008. We examine the main ethical issues concerning deception in cyberspace. We first discuss the concept of deception and survey ethical theories applicable to cyberspace. We then examine deception for commercial gain such as spam, phishing, spyware, deceptive commercial software, and dishonest games. We next examine deception used in attacks on comput...

  5. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan P; Michaels, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001) self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001) numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers.

  6. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Walsh

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing.To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment.Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001 self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001 numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645 trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export.This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with

  7. Unobtrusive Deception Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkins, Aaron; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja; Burgoon, Judee; Calvo, Rafael; D' Mello, Sidney; Gratch, Jonathan; Kappas, Arvid

    In response to national security needs and human deception detection limitations paired with advances in sensor and computing technology research into automated deception detection has increased in recent years. These technologies rely on psychological and communication theories of deception to

  8. Web of Deception: Social Media and Implications for Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    additional deception and OPSEC concerns. 35 Beyond just the open source intelligence ( OSINT ) that can be collected by other entities, there is also a...witting participants, in an effort to mislead or confuse the enemy. Just as the United States would be monitoring social media for OSINT , the...deception. Exploiting adversary use of social media OSINT through DISO is another lower threat avenue to examine as a starting point. As previously

  9. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    In all wars, deception has been an important element for the military planners, on both the tactical level and the operational level. The good, effective deception operation is of great risk of conflicting with the current Laws of Armed Conflicts, which will be of great concern for the deception ......, the paper will discuss how the inclusion of mission specific rules of deception can greatly help define the boundaries, and give necessary guide lines for conducting deception operations within the laws of armed conflict....

  10. Deception in Advertising: A Receiver Oriented Approach to Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David M.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine deception in advertising from a behavioral perspective, and to attempt to formulate a definition that can guide both research and governmental regulation. Whether or not an advertisement is said to be "deceptive" depends on the definition of deception being used. The position advocated here is that…

  11. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  12. Deception: Counterdeception and Counterintelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    deception and support deception campaigns. While deception today relies on traditional basic principles, the authors recognize that it requires a fresh approach due to the roles played by information technologies such as social media. Their unique treatment of the perspectives of both the operations planner...... in deception for both both operational planners and intelligence analysts using a case-based approach. By reading and working through the exercises in this text, operations planners will learn how to build and conduct a deception campaign; and intelligence analysts will develop the ability to recognize...... when conducting intelligence analysis. Finally, it goes beyond existing books by dealing with multichannel deception across the political, military, economic, social, infrastructure, and information domains, with special emphasis on use of the rich modern environment for conveying information....

  13. You can’t kid a kidder: Association between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R.T. Wright

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the ability to deceive others, and the ability to detect deception, have long been proposed to confer an evolutionary advantage. Deception detection has been studied extensively, and the finding that typical individuals fare little better than chance in detecting deception is one of the more robust in the behavioral sciences. Surprisingly, little research has examined individual differences in lie-production ability. As a consequence, as far as we are aware, no previous study has investigated whether there exists an association between the ability to lie successfully and the ability to detect lies. Furthermore, only a minority of studies have examined deception as it naturally occurs; in a social, interactive setting. The present study therefore explored the relationship between these two facets of deceptive behavior by employing a novel competitive interactive deception task. For the first time, signal-detection theory was used to measure performance in both the detection and production of deception. A significant relationship was found between the deception-related abilities; those who could accurately detect a lie were able to produce statements that others found difficult to classify as deceptive or truthful. Furthermore, neither ability was related to measures of intelligence or emotional ability. We therefore suggest the existence of an underlying deception-general ability that varies across individuals.

  14. Markers of Deception in Italian Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn eSpence

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lying is a universal activity and the detection of lying a universal concern. Presently, there is great interest in determining objective measures of deception. The examination of speech, in particular, holds promise in this regard; yet, most of what we know about the relationship between speech and lying is based on the assessment of English-speaking participants. Few studies have examined indicators of deception in languages other than English. The world’s languages differ in significant ways, and cross-linguistic studies of deceptive communications are a research imperative. Here we review some of these differences amongst the world’s languages, and provide an overview of a number of recent studies demonstrating that cross-linguistic research is a worthwhile endeavour. In addition, we report the results of an empirical investigation of pitch, response latency, and speech rate as cues to deception in Italian speech. True and false opinions were elicited in an audio-taped interview. A within subjects analysis revealed no significant difference between the average pitch of the two conditions; however, speech rate was significantly slower, while response latency was longer, during deception compared with truth-telling. We explore the implications of these findings and propose directions for future research, with the aim of expanding the cross-linguistic branch of research on markers of deception.

  15. Military Deception Reconsidered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Charmaine L

    2008-01-01

    ...: focus, integration, timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage, consisting of surprise, information advantage and security, are essential elements of a successful military deception...

  16. Deception Detection in Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zhe; Singh, Bharat; Davis, Larry S.; Subrahmanian, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a system for covert automated deception detection in real-life courtroom trial videos. We study the importance of different modalities like vision, audio and text for this task. On the vision side, our system uses classifiers trained on low level video features which predict human micro-expressions. We show that predictions of high-level micro-expressions can be used as features for deception prediction. Surprisingly, IDT (Improved Dense Trajectory) features which have been widely ...

  17. Medicine, lies and deceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, P

    2001-04-01

    This article offers a qualified defence of the view that there is a moral difference between telling lies to one's patients, and deceiving them without lying. However, I take issue with certain arguments offered by Jennifer Jackson in support of the same conclusion. In particular, I challenge her claim that to deny that there is such a moral difference makes sense only within a utilitarian framework, and I cast doubt on the aptness of some of her examples of non-lying deception. But I argue that lies have a greater tendency to damage trust than does non-lying deception, and suggest that since many doctors do believe there is a moral boundary between the two types of deception, encouraging them to violate that boundary may have adverse general effects on their moral sensibilities.

  18. Response bias in judging deceptive movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; Schmidt, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two not mutually exclusive explanations, perceptual and motor expertise, account for the finding that experts outperform novices in recognizing deceptive actions from bodily (kinematic) cues. The aim of the present study was twofold: First, we sought to examine the impact of motor and perceptual

  19. Defining body deception and its role in peer based social comparison theories of body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Shiovitz, Rachel; Alfano, Lauren; Greif, Rebecca

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to operationalize the phenomenon of body deception, describe its theoretical importance, and validate its existence in an experimental paradigm. The definition of body deception includes the intentional misrepresentation of information about appearance to others. The present study examined body deception in a controlled experimental study of male and female same-sex peer groups using a series of hierarchical linear models. Ninety male and 90 female undergraduates were randomized to an experimental same-sex peer group or individual control condition. The results suggested that both men and women used body deception among peers, but men's body deception was muscularity driven whereas women's was thinness driven. Body dissatisfaction was significantly predictive of the degree of body deception used by both genders and it was significantly related to peer group membership. An integrated model for the role of body deception in body image disturbance is proposed.

  20. Deception in research: distinctions and solutions from the perspective of utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, David J

    2002-01-01

    The use of deception in psychological research continues to be a controversial topic. Using Rawls's explication of utilitarianism, I attempt to demonstrate how professional organizations, such as the American Psychological Association, can provide more specific standards that determine the permissibility of deception in research. Specifically, I argue that researchers should examine the costs and benefits of creating and applying specific rules governing deception. To that end, I offer 3 recommendations. First, that researchers who use deception provide detailed accounts of the procedures they used to minimize the harm created by deception in their research reports. Second, that the American Psychological Association offer a definition of deception that describes techniques commonly used in research. Finally, I recommend that the informed consent procedure be revised to indicate that the researcher may use deception as part of the study.

  1. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  2. Deceptive Advertising: Unprotected and Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducoffe, Robert Hal

    The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…

  3. Statistical deception at work

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, John

    2013-01-01

    Written to reveal statistical deceptions often thrust upon unsuspecting journalists, this book views the use of numbers from a public perspective. Illustrating how the statistical naivete of journalists often nourishes quantitative misinformation, the author's intent is to make journalists more critical appraisers of numerical data so that in reporting them they do not deceive the public. The book frequently uses actual reported examples of misused statistical data reported by mass media and describes how journalists can avoid being taken in by them. Because reports of survey findings seldom g

  4. Information asymmetry and deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution.

  5. Information Asymmetry and Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eClots Figueras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project’s value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee. The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a nonbinding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution.

  6. IS SELF-DECEPTION PRETENSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EDUARDO PORCHER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I assess Tamar Gendler's (2007 account of self-deception according to which its characteristic state is not belief, but imaginative pretense. After giving an overview of the literature and presenting the conceptual puzzles engendered by the notion of self-deception, I introduce Gendler's account, which emerges as a rival to practically all extant accounts of self-deception. I object to it by first arguing that her argument for abandoning belief as the characteristic state of self-deception conflates the state of belief and the process of belief-formation when interpreting David Velleman's (2000 thesis that belief is an essentially truth-directed attitude. I then call attention to the fact that Velleman's argument for the identity of motivational role between belief and imagining, on which Gendler's argument for self-deception as pretense depends, conflates two senses of 'motivational role'-a stronger but implausible sense and a weaker but explanatorily irrelevant sense. Finally, I introduce Neil Van Leeuwen's (2009 argument to the effect that belief is the practical ground of all non-belief cognitive attitudes in circum-stances wherein the latter prompt action. I apply this framework to Gendler's account to ultimately show that imaginative pretense fails to explain the existence of voluntary actions which result from self-deception.

  7. An Analysis of Trust in Deception Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    presents an overview of deception, both from the military and academic perspectives. The importance of the adversarial mind to a successful deception is...to most literature on deception. This section will introduce both military and academic theories of deception and discuss their relevance to trust...claim, faking documentation, plagiarism , and purchasing one (p. 226). A doctorate is regarded as a valuable item for establishing reputational

  8. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles; Croson; Murnighan

    2000-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Anonymous dyads exchanged messages and offers in a series of four ultimatum bargaining games that had prospects for relatively large monetary outcomes. Variations in each party's knowledge of the other's resources and alternatives created opportunities for deception. Revelation of prior unknowns exposed deceptions and created opportunities for retribution in subsequent interactions. Results showed that although proposers and responders chose deceptive strategies almost equally, proposers told more outright lies. Both were more deceptive when their private information was never revealed, and proposers were most deceptive when their potential profits were largest. Revelation of proposers' lies had little effect on their subsequent behavior even though responders rejected their offers more than similar offers from truthful proposers or proposers whose prior deceit was never revealed. The discussion and conclusions address the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated bargaining interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Blair, J. Pete; Strom, Renee E.

    2008-01-01

    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases--truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias--were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal…

  11. Deceptive body movements reverse spatial cueing in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Wright

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (-160, -80, 0 or +80 ms to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS and lower-skilled (LS groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge.

  12. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  13. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R

    2014-07-01

    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance.

  14. Gotcha! Findings from an exploratory investigation on the dangers of using deceptive practices in the mail-order business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhamme, J.; Lindgreen, A.

    2001-01-01

    This exploratory investigation examines the impact of some Belgian mail-order companies' deceptive practices - specifically, the use of gifts - on long-term relationships with their customers. The results support the premise that the use of deceptive gifts first elicits negative surprise and,

  15. When Pinocchio’s nose does not grow: Belief regarding lie detectability modulates production of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Ewa Sip

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Does the brain activity underlying the production of deception differ depending on whether or not one believes their deception can be detected? To address this question, we had participants commit a mock theft in a laboratory setting, and then interrogated them while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI scanning. Crucially, during some parts of the interrogation participants believed a lie detector was activated, whereas in other parts they were told it was switched off. We were thus able to examine the neural activity associated with the contrast between producing true versus false claims, as well as the independent contrast between believing that deception could and could not be detected. We found increased activation in the right amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, as well as the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, during the production of false (compared to true claims. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between the effects of deception and belief in the left temporal pole and right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, where activity increased during the production of deception when participants believed their false claims could be detected, but not when they believed the lie detector was switched off. As these regions are associated with binding socially complex perceptual input and memory retrieval, we conclude that producing deceptive behavior in a context in which one believes this deception can be detected is associated with a cognitively taxing effort to reconcile contradictions between one’s actions and recollections.

  16. When Pinocchio's nose does not grow: belief regarding lie-detectability modulates production of deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sip, Kamila E.; Carmel, David; Marchant, Jennifer L.; Li, Jian; Petrovic, Predrag; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William B.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Does the brain activity underlying the production of deception differ depending on whether or not one believes their deception can be detected? To address this question, we had participants commit a mock theft in a laboratory setting, and then interrogated them while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Crucially, during some parts of the interrogation participants believed a lie-detector was activated, whereas in other parts they were told it was switched-off. We were thus able to examine the neural activity associated with the contrast between producing true vs. false claims, as well as the independent contrast between believing that deception could and could not be detected. We found increased activation in the right amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), during the production of false (compared to true) claims. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between the effects of deception and belief in the left temporal pole and right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, where activity increased during the production of deception when participants believed their false claims could be detected, but not when they believed the lie-detector was switched-off. As these regions are associated with binding socially complex perceptual input and memory retrieval, we conclude that producing deceptive behavior in a context in which one believes this deception can be detected is associated with a cognitively taxing effort to reconcile contradictions between one's actions and recollections. PMID:23382715

  17. Children's reasoning about deception and defiance as ways of resisting parents' and teachers' directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingo, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    This research presented 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (N = 120) with hypothetical situations depicting comparably aged children engaging in defiance and deception to circumvent authorities' directives that they disagreed with. The nature of the situations varied in terms of domain (personal, moral, or prudential) and type of authority figure (parent or teacher). Evaluations and justifications for the legitimacy of the directives, defiance, and deception were examined, as were general evaluations of deception. Across domains, increased age was associated with decreased acceptance of directives, and increased acceptance of defiance and deception. Participants judged that defiance and deception were legitimate ways to resist immoral directives. Directives about personal acts were also widely rejected, particularly teachers' directives. Defiance and deception were seen by some as legitimate ways to resist unwarranted control over children's personal choices. Prudential directives were widely accepted, whereas defiance and deception in those situations was generally rejected. Results indicate that children value honesty and authority but sometimes prioritize moral and personal considerations when deciding whether or not to lie. Findings are discussed in terms of the ways children coordinate multiple competing rules and motivations when making moral judgments about honesty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Determination of the Trainability of Deception Detection Cues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    .... The officers were tested to determine their baseline deception detection abilities, then trained on the deception cues, Arousal, Emotion, Cognitive Effort, Communicator Tactics, and Memory Processes...

  19. The Ethics of Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    comment directly on the moral dimensions of military deception is the great Roman orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.). Of paramount...action is to be commended, if what is 1 Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Officiis, I.xiii.40, trans. Walter Miller (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913... Aurelius Augustinus (A.D. 354-430), later known as Saint Augustine, the Catholic bishop of Hippo in North Africa, is in many ways the pivotal

  20. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  2. Online deception: prevalence, motivation, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avner; Gorsky, Paul

    2006-02-01

    This research has three goals: first, to find out how prevalent online deception is within a sample of Israeli users, second, to explore the underlying motivations to deceive online, and third, to discover the emotions that accompany online deception. A web-based survey was distributed in 14 discussion groups, and the answers of 257 respondents were analyzed. It was found that, while most of the respondents believe that online deception is very widespread, only about one-third of them reported engaging in online deception. Frequent users deceive online more than infrequent users, young users more than old, and competent users more than non-competent. The most common motivations to deceive online were "play" on the one hand and privacy concerns on the other. Most people felt a sense of enjoyment while engaging in online deception. The results are discussed in light of a possible mechanism for changing personal moral standards.

  3. Types of deception and underlying motivation: what people think

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.

    2005-01-01

    In computer-mediated communication, there are various types of possible deception such as category deception (gender switching), attractiveness deception, or identity concealment. The present article argues that it is meaningful to differentiate among these types of deception. More specifically, it

  4. Temporal view of the costs and benefits of self-deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Zoë; Norton, Michael I.; Gino, Francesca; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have documented many cases in which individuals rationalize their regrettable actions. Four experiments examine situations in which people go beyond merely explaining away their misconduct to actively deceiving themselves. We find that those who exploit opportunities to cheat on tests are likely to engage in self-deception, inferring that their elevated performance is a sign of intelligence. This short-term psychological benefit of self-deception, however, can come with longer-term costs: when predicting future performance, participants expect to perform equally well—a lack of awareness that persists even when these inflated expectations prove costly. We show that although people expect to cheat, they do not foresee self-deception, and that factors that reinforce the benefits of cheating enhance self-deception. More broadly, the findings of these experiments offer evidence that debates about the relative costs and benefits of self-deception are informed by adopting a temporal view that assesses the cumulative impact of self-deception over time. PMID:21383150

  5. The Use of Deception in Public Health Behavioral Intervention Trials: A Case Study of Three Online Alcohol Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; Bendtsen, Preben; Porter, John

    2013-01-01

    Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for examining these kinds of ethical issues that can arise in research on public health interventions. PMID:24161181

  6. The Role of Power and Negotiation in Online Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Albrecht

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to advance theoretical understanding of the important role of both power and negotiation during online deception.  By so doing, the paper provides insight into the relationship between perpetrator and victim in Internet fraud. The growing prevalence of Internet Fraud continues to be a burden to both society and individuals. In an attempt to better understand Internet fraud and online deception, this article attempts to build an interactive model, based upon the dimensions of power and negotiation from the management and psychology literature. Using the model presented, the article examines the effects of the Internet on the communication process that takes place between perpetrator and victim. Finally, the article discusses some of the major tactics employed to appeal to each power type in predominant fraud forms, as well exploring future types of fraud.

  7. Cortical network during deception detection by functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    We examined the coherence of cortical network during deception detection. First, we performed combined EEG-MRI experiments during the Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) using number cards which has been used to model deception and 5 right-handed healthy participants performed the experiment. The superior frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex and the inferior parietal lobule were activated and the P 300 event-related brain potential (300-450 ms) was detected at only 'Lie' card. Secondary, we measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) data during GKT and the other 5 right-handed healthy subjects participated in the next experiment. The coherence between the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule showed significant differences between 'Lie' card and 'truth' cards during P 300 emerging. This results indicates that the coherence of cortical network is useful for GKT. (author)

  8. Orchid pollination by sexual deception: pollinator perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskett, A C

    2011-02-01

    The extraordinary taxonomic and morphological diversity of orchids is accompanied by a remarkable range of pollinators and pollination systems. Sexually deceptive orchids are adapted to attract specific male insects that are fooled into attempting to mate with orchid flowers and inadvertently acting as pollinators. This review summarises current knowledge, explores new hypotheses in the literature, and introduces some new approaches to understanding sexual deception from the perspective of the duped pollinator. Four main topics are addressed: (1) global patterns in sexual deception, (2) pollinator identities, mating systems and behaviours, (3) pollinator perception of orchid deceptive signals, and (4) the evolutionary implications of pollinator responses to orchid deception, including potential costs imposed on pollinators by orchids. A global list of known and putative sexually deceptive orchids and their pollinators is provided and methods for incorporating pollinator perspectives into sexual deception research are provided and reviewed. At present, almost all known sexually deceptive orchid taxa are from Australia or Europe. A few sexually deceptive species and genera are reported for New Zealand and South Africa. In Central and Southern America, Asia, and the Pacific many more species are likely to be identified in the future. Despite the great diversity of sexually deceptive orchid genera in Australia, pollination rates reported in the literature are similar between Australian and European species. The typical pollinator of a sexually deceptive orchid is a male insect of a species that is polygynous, monandrous, haplodiploid, and solitary rather than social. Insect behaviours involved in the pollination of sexually deceptive orchids include pre-copulatory gripping of flowers, brief entrapment, mating, and very rarely, ejaculation. Pollinator behaviour varies within and among pollinator species. Deception involving orchid mimicry of insect scent signals is

  9. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only informed consumers are protected from potential violation of their consumer rights. Advertising represents one of the main ways of informing consumers, so it is of crutial importance for it to include adequate information that can facilitate decision making proces regarding the purchase. With aim of preventing violation of basic consumer rights, advertising is regulated by legislation, both on EU level and on national level in Republic of Serbia, and while so special attention is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising. Results of the research regarding advertising in Serbia and ability of consumers to protect themselves from deceptive advertising are presented. The main aim of the authors is to contribute to increasing level of consumers' self-protection through increasing level of their counciousness on deceptive advertising and its concequences.

  10. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed

  11. The Utility of Military Deception During Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-29

    ZAPU constituency was part of the Matabeles ( Zulu ) warrior class ( tribe ) that dominated the Shona tribes in pre-colonial times. Thus their...MILDEC is useful to counterinsurgents. In particular, the most effective deceptions in counterinsurgent history involve the prudent use of pseudo...In particular, the most effective deceptions in counterinsurgent history involve the prudent use of pseudo operators who are able to generate

  12. DOES THE INFERIOR FRONTAL SULCUS PLAY A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN DECEPTION? A NEURONAVIGATED THETA-BURST TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eVerschuere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  13. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Saeb

    Full Text Available Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals.

  14. Group Performance in Military Scenarios Under Deceptive Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hass, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ... (warnings of player deception) relate to perceptions of deception and task difficulty and in turn how these perceptions relate to the final group game scores in a cooperative effort with conflicting goals...

  15. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  16. Authority, Autonomy, and Deception: Evaluating the Legitimacy of Parental Authority and Adolescent Deceit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingo, Matthew; Roded, Alona D; Turiel, Elliot

    2017-12-01

    This research examined adolescents' judgments about lying to avoid parental control over different types of activities. Participants (N = 66, M age  = 16.38, 73% European American) were interviewed about hypothetical situations describing adolescents who defied parental directives and lied about their defiance. Judgments about the legitimacy of parents' directives and protagonists' deception differed by types of parent relationship with adolescents (mutual or unilateral). Directives were least accepted, and deception was most accepted, in the context of unilateral relationships. Judgments also differed by domain of the action (personal, prudential, or conventional). Participants were least accepting of parental directives, and most accepting of deception about personal activities. Findings indicate that adolescents value honesty and parental authority, but sometimes give priority to concerns with autonomy and mutuality. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  17. Perceptual training effects on anticipation of direct and deceptive 7-m throws in handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharji, Khaled E; Wade, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of perceptual training on the performance of handball goalkeepers when anticipating the direction of both direct and deceptive 7-m throws. Skilled goalkeepers were assigned equally to three matched-ability groups based on their pre-test performance: a perceptual training group (n = 14) received video-based perceptual training, a placebo training group (n = 14) received video-based regular training and a control group received no training. Participants in the perceptual training group significantly improved their performance compared to both placebo and control groups; however, anticipation of deceptive throws improved less than for direct throws. The results confirm that although anticipating deception in handball is a challenging task for goalkeepers, task-specific perceptual training can minimise its effect and improve performance.

  18. Trust and Deception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Social Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiying; Tian, Yuan; Fang, Jing; Lu, Haoyang; Wei, Kunlin; Yi, Li

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abnormal trust and deception behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and we aimed to examine whether these abnormalities were primarily due to their specific deficits in social learning. We tested 42 high-functioning children with ASD and 38 age- and ability-matched typically developing (TD)…

  19. Prokaryotic communities and operating metabolisms in the surface and the permafrost of Deception Island (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Yolanda; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez, Manuel J.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Rivas, Luis A.; Parro, Victor

    In this study we examined the microbial community composition and operating metabolisms on the surface and in the permafrost of Deception Island, (Antarctica) with an on site antibody microarray biosensor. Samples (down to a depth of 4.2m) were analysed with LDChip300 (Life Detector Chip), an

  20. Catching a Deceiver in the Act: Processes Underlying Deception in an Interactive Interview Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ströfer, Sabine; Ufkes, Elze Gooitzen; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Giebels, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Lying is known to evoke stress and cognitive load. Both form cues to deception and lead to an increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. But in reality, deceivers stick to the truth most the time and only lie occasionally. The present study therefore examined in an interactive suspect

  1. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misrepresent the type, kind, grade, quality, quantity, metallic content, size, weight, cut, color, character..., distribution, or any other material aspect of an industry product. Note 1 to § 23.1: If, in the sale or..., the identity of the grading system used should be disclosed. Note 2 to § 23.1: To prevent deception...

  2. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-12-01

    Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p shoes. This is the first report to suggest: (1) deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices.

  3. A functional MRI study of deception among offenders with antisocial personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W; Liu, H; Liao, J; Ma, X; Rong, P; Tang, Y; Wang, W

    2013-08-06

    Deceit is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and the study of deception in ASPD has important implications for identifying the underlying mechanism of ASPD. A great deal of functional neuroimaging literature has described the neural correlates of deception in healthy volunteers, but there have been few imaging studies examining people with ASPD. The neural correlates of lie-telling in ASPD, and which specific brain activities are related to the capacity to lie, are unclear. In this study, 32 offenders who satisfied the Personality Diagnostic Questionaire-4 and PDI-IV (Personality Disorder Interview) criteria for ASPD were divided into three groups based on their capacity for deception, which was evaluated based on the deceitfulness criterion of the PDI-IV ASPD. All offenders underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while responding to questions in a truthful, inverse, or deceitful manner. We primarily created contrasts in the brain activities between truth-telling and lie-telling, and then computed the Pearson's correlation coefficients between activities contrasts of individual, i.e. BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) strength during deception minus that during truth-telling, and the capacity for deception. Our results indicated that the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex extending to the middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus/medial superior frontal gyrus were associated with deception among people with ASPD. As the capacity for deception increased, the contrasted brain activities of the above regions decreased. This study found that truthful and untruthful communications of ASPD subjects can be differentiated in terms of brain BOLD activities, and more importantly, this study is the first to use fMRI to discover that BOLD activities during deception are correlated with the capacity to lie. The latter finding might challenge the diagnostic accuracy of lie

  4. Exploring the movement dynamics of deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Duran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Both the science and the everyday practice of detecting a lie rest on the same assumption: hidden cognitive states that the liar would like to remain hidden nevertheless influence observable behavior. This assumption has good evidence. The insights of professional interrogators, anecdotal evidence, and body language textbooks have all built up a sizeable catalogue of nonverbal cues that have been claimed to distinguish deceptive and truthful behavior. Typically, these cues are discrete, individual behaviors - a hand touching a mouth, the rise of a brow - that distinguish lies from truths solely in terms of their frequency or duration. Research to date has failed to establish any of these nonverbal cues as a reliable marker of deception. Here we argue that perhaps this is because simple tallies of behavior can miss out on the rich but subtle organization of behavior as it unfolds over time. Research in cognitive science from a dynamical systems perspective has shown that behavior is structured across multiple timescales, with more or less regularity and structure. Using tools that are sensitive to these dynamics, we analyzed body motion data from an experiment that put participants in a realistic situation of choosing, or not, to lie to an experimenter. Our analyses indicate that when being deceptive, continuous fluctuations of movement in the upper face, and somewhat in the arms, are characterized by dynamical properties of less stability, but greater complexity. For the upper face, these distinctions are present despite no apparent differences in the overall amount of movement between deception and truth. We suggest that these unique dynamical signatures of motion are indicative of both the cognitive demands inherent to deception and the need to respond adaptively in a social context.

  5. The Art of Deception and the Role of Intelligence Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.

    2016-01-01

    Is deception an art? And if so, what role might it have in military intelligence education? To offer some answers to the these questions, the paper draws upon the discovery phase of efforts to synchronize deception theory, research, practice, in order to develop a post-graduate military deception...... course for a military intelligence studies. In doing so, it reflects upon the recognition afforded from discovery to creativity, innovation, science, doctrine, and ethics, within the studies of deception and the construct of military deception itself. It follows with bridge building between theory...... and practice through the adaptive use of Boyds Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) and a target centric intelligence approach to explain the dynamics concerning military intelligence in warfighting. These initial findings suggest that deception, as part of a post-graduate military intelligence education, not only...

  6. Deception in medical and behavioral research: is it ever acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, D

    1996-01-01

    Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.

  7. Overcoming Deception in Evolution of Cognitive Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    When scaling neuroevolution to complex behaviors, cognitive capabilities such as learning, communication, and memory become increasingly important. However, successfully evolving such cognitive abilities remains difficult. This paper argues that a main cause for such difficulty is deception, i.......e. evolution converges to a behavior unrelated to the desired solution. More specifically, cognitive behaviors often require accumulating neural structure that provides no immediate fitness benefit, and evolution often thus converges to non-cognitive solutions. To investigate this hypothesis, a common...... evolutionary robotics T-Maze domain is adapted in three separate ways to require agents to communicate, remember, and learn. Indicative of deception, evolution driven by objective-based fitness often converges upon simple non- cognitive behaviors. In contrast, evolution driven to explore novel behaviors, i...

  8. Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Life history strategy (LHS and life history contingencies (LHCs should theoretically influence the use of exploitative and deceptive resource acquisition strategies. However, little research has been done in this area. The purpose of the present work was to create measures of exploitative strategies and test the predictions of life history theory. Pilot studies developed and validated a behavioral measure of cheating called the Dot Game. The role of individual LHS and LHCs (manipulated via validated story primes on cheating was investigated in Study 1. Studies 2a through 2c were conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure called the Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategy Scale (EDRASS. Finally, Study 3 investigated life history and EDRASS. Results indicated that while LHS influences exploitative strategies, life history contingences had little effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. The effect of Linkedin on deception in resumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how Linkedin shapes patterns of deception in resumes. The general self-presentation goal to appear favorably to others motivates deception when one's true characteristics are inconsistent with their desired impression. Because Linkedin makes resume claims public, deception patterns should be altered relative to traditional resumes. Participants (n=119) in a between-subjects experiment created resumes in one of three resume settings: a traditional (offline) resume, private Linkedin profiles, or publicly available Linkedin profiles. Findings suggest that the public nature of Linkedin resume claims affected the kinds of deception used to create positive impressions, but did not affect the overall frequency of deception. Compared with traditional resumes, Linkedin resumes were less deceptive about the kinds of information that count most to employers, namely an applicant's prior work experience and responsibilities, but more deceptive about interests and hobbies. The results stand in contrast to assumptions that Internet-based communication is more deceptive than traditional formats, and suggests that a framework that considers deception as a resource for self-presentation can account for the findings.

  10. 14 CFR 399.81 - Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. 399.81... Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. (a) It is the policy of the Board to consider unrealistic scheduling of... to the advertising of scheduled performance, it is the policy of the Board to regard as an unfair or...

  11. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Ströfer

    Full Text Available Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie.

  12. Nuclear deception: soviet information policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor on information policies in the USSR is examined. The lack of an agreed-upon information policy and intraparty disagreement over domestic and foreign policy help to explain the delay in disclosure of the accident and conflicting statements concerning long-term health effects. A modest change in policy since Chernobyl has been noted: the willingness of Soviet spokespersons to discuss and debate issues with foreign correspondents, to publish sharply critical letters from citizens and a few foreign officials, and to provide many details about the nature and consequences of the accident

  13. Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression and Deception during Early Childhood: A Multimethod, Multi-Informant Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Ries, Emily E.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2008-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study examined relational and physical aggression and deceptive behavior among 120 preschool-aged children (M = 44.36 months old, SD = 11.07). Multiple informants and methods (i.e., observational, teacher reports) were used. Evidence for discriminant validity of the observations of aggression subtypes was found. For…

  14. Effects of deception in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A

    2014-09-07

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies ('white' lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. The biology of deception: emotion and morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, G B; Fricchione, G L

    1995-01-01

    The biology of deception suggests that denial-like processes are at the core of the cognitive coping. In this regard, with cognitive ability, one associates or assumes that this process occurs by way of a 'rational' mind. Such a detailed cognitive process as being rational would also lead, counter intuitively, to inactivity and or major delays in conclusion reaching. Thus, our perceived rationality may also be a deceptive behavioral response. Of equal noteworthyness, man is also 'emotional'. We surmise that emotion represents the pre-cognitive short-cut to overcome this potential for excessive rationality. In this light, we may explain certain psychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive behavior as emotional extremes dealing with cognitive habits used to bind anxiety operating most probably at the pre-cognitive level. Given recent discoveries in neuroimmunology and an understanding of naturally occurring morphine as both an immune and neurological down-regulatory substance we hypothesize that abnormalities associated with emotional extremes may be due, in part, to morphinergic imbalances.

  16. The fundamental attribution error in detecting deception: the boy-who-cried-wolf effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maureen

    2003-10-01

    Most people are unable to detect accurately when others are lying. Many explanations for this inability have been suggested but the cognitive heuristics involved in lie detection have received little attention. The present study offers evidence from two experiments, based on two different groups of observers, judging two different kinds of lies, presented in two different testing situations, that the fundamental attribution error significantly undermines the ability to detect honesty and deception accurately. Trait judgments of trustworthiness were highly correlated with state judgments of truthfulness, leading, as predicted, to positive correlations with honest detection accuracy and negative correlations with deception detection accuracy. More accurate lie detectors were significantly more likely than less accurate lie detectors to separate state and trait judgments of honesty. The effect of other biases, such as the halo effect and the truthfulness bias, also are examined. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  17. The slow decay and quick revival of self-deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Zoë; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1); this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2). PMID:26347666

  18. The Slow Decay and Quick Revival of Self-Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eChance

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1; this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2.

  19. 14 CFR 257.4 - Unfair and deceptive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... violation of 49 U.S.C. 41712 unless, in conjunction with such holding out or sale, carriers and ticket... Unfair and deceptive practice. The holding out or sale of scheduled passenger air transportation...

  20. 75 FR 23565 - Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... are subsumed within, though not identical to, the protections of the Credit CARD Act and the Board's... protection, Credit, Credit cards, Deception, Intergovernmental relations, Savings associations, Trade... ``Prohibited Consumer Credit Practices'' to avoid duplication and inconsistency with the Credit Card...

  1. Assessment of Psychophysiological Detection of Deception (PDD) Pretest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The Defense Academy for Credibility Assessment (DACA) Research Division contracted with Battelle to conduct scientific research to determine the relationship between the content of the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception (PDD...

  2. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  3. The Art of Darkness Deception and Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerwehr, Scott

    2000-01-01

    .... Both the battle on friendly urban terrain and the employment of deception might be fairly characterized as asymmetric strategies, aimed at reducing an opponent's strengths and exposing his weaknesses...

  4. Web Of Deception: Misinformation On The Internet | Chete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Web Of Deception: Misinformation On The Internet. ... Parodies/spoofs, malicious misinformation, promotion of false products on commercial sites, ... greatly reduced since most people do not believe every information they read on the internet, ...

  5. Second thoughts about privacy, safety and deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorell, Tom; Draper, Heather

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we point out some difficulties with interpreting three of five principles formulated at a retreat on robot ethics sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. We also attempt to iron out some conflicts between the principles. Some of the difficulties arise from the way that the autonomy of robot users - their capacity to live by their own choices - can be a goal in the design of care robots. We discuss (a) problems for Principle 2 that arise from competing legal and philosophical understandings of privacy; (b) a tension between privacy and safety (Principles 2 and 3) and (c) some scepticism about the application of Principle 4, which addresses robot design that might result in the deception of vulnerable users.

  6. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  7. Human Deception Detection from Whole Body Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    associated with incentivized deception, an initial reward /punishment protocol was designed to apply a level of stakes/significance to the checkpoint...questionnaire asking them about their emotions and deception strategy . Once completed, the participants removed all the markers and changed into their... Sony MiniDV Handycam® Camcorder, Model # DCR-HC38. All camera footage were saved to MiniDV tape and then transferred to a PC for processing. Once

  8. The Makara of Hizballah: Deception in the 2006 Summer War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    another example of the interaction between information activities. The use of the internet covers over into the realm of computer network operations...the Internet and home computers . Furthermore, the individual can use technology to network with others to counter deceptive acts by an opponent...use of information technologies greatly enhanced their ability to wield deception. Finally, this paper will address the interrelation of various

  9. Self-deception as pseudo-rational regulation of belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Christoph; Newen, Albert

    2010-09-01

    Self-deception is a special kind of motivational dominance in belief-formation. We develop criteria which set paradigmatic self-deception apart from related phenomena of auto-manipulation such as pretense and motivational bias. In self-deception rational subjects defend or develop beliefs of high subjective importance in response to strong counter-evidence. Self-deceivers make or keep these beliefs tenable by putting prima-facie rational defense-strategies to work against their established standards of rational evaluation. In paradigmatic self-deception, target-beliefs are made tenable via reorganizations of those belief-sets that relate relevant data to target-beliefs. This manipulation of the evidential value of relevant data goes beyond phenomena of motivated perception of data. In self-deception belief-defense is pseudo-rational. Self-deceivers will typically apply a dual standard of evaluation that remains intransparent to the subject. The developed model of self-deception as pseudo-rational belief-defense is empirically anchored. So, we hope to put forward a promising candidate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. From Tactical to Strategic Deception Detection: Application of Psychological Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Reid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deception detection has ubiquitously focussed upon detecting deceit in the individual, whether in national security, forensic or business-related environments. In contrast an understanding of how to identify deception committed by multiple individuals or groups challenging strategic interests has been neglected. In this article - to enhance understanding of practitioners working across security, intelligence and forensic areas - a process of psychological synthesis is advocated. Psychological synthesis incorporates a multitude of approaches reflecting contextual requirements towards deception detection across verbal/linguistic behavior, non-verbal behavior, online interactions and intelligence analysis approaches. These combined with in-depth understanding of individuals’ cultures, personality and manner of presentation can be understood in challenging environments. Juxtaposed to these factors psychological synthesis considers how intelligence, surveillance and evidence may be used in detecting deception and identifying links between individuals engaging in deception and related activities. An illustration of how such an approach may work is provided through a scenario of a terrorist incident and how a tailored deception detection approach may seek to counter such a threat.

  11. Neural correlates of self-deception and impression-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Tom F D; Burgess, Jenny; Wilkinson, Iain D; Hunter, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Self-deception and impression-management comprise two types of deceptive, but generally socially acceptable behaviours, which are common in everyday life as well as being present in a number of psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish and dissociate the 'normal' brain substrates of self-deception and impression-management. Twenty healthy participants underwent fMRI scanning at 3T whilst completing the 'Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding' test under two conditions: 'fake good', giving the most desirable impression possible and 'fake bad' giving an undesirable impression. Impression-management scores were more malleable to manipulation via 'faking' than self-deception scores. Response times to self-deception questions and 'fake bad' instructions were significantly longer than to impression-management questions and 'fake good' instructions respectively. Self-deception and impression-management manipulation and 'faking bad' were associated with activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Impression-management manipulation was additionally associated with activation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left posterior middle temporal gyrus. 'Faking bad' was additionally associated with activation of right vlPFC, left temporo-parietal junction and right cerebellum. There were no supra-threshold activations associated with 'faking good'. Our neuroimaging data suggest that manipulating self-deception and impression-management and more specifically 'faking bad' engages a common network comprising mPFC and left vlPFC. Shorter response times and lack of dissociable neural activations suggests that 'faking good', particularly when it comes to impression-management, may be our most practiced 'default' mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NEW APPROACHES IN DECEPTION DETECTION II. ACTIVE INTERVIEWING STRATEGIES AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analytical evidence shows that behavioural indicators of deception are scant, poorly diagnostic and inconsistent. This has yielded a shift in deception detection research. Rather than passively scrutinising the communication sender to find tell-tale behavioural indicators of deception, the deception judge needs to (a adopt an active role by using interviewing techniques specifically designed to detect deception, or (b focus on contextual (rather than behavioural deception cues. In the previous paper (Masip & Herrero, 2015a, we reviewed the antecedents of this change in focus, as well as the theoretical grounding of the new approaches. Here we describe specific interviewing strategies for detecting deception, as well as the (still scant research on contextual deception indicia. In doing this, we hope to offer the reader a detailed perspective on the recent developments in this specific area of psychology and law.

  13. Deception Detection in a Computer-Mediated Environment: Gender, Trust, and Training Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dziubinski, Monica

    2003-01-01

    .... This research draws on communication and deception literature to develop a conceptual model proposing relationships between deception detection abilities in a computer-mediated environment, gender, trust, and training...

  14. New sophistry: self-deception in the nursing academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bernard M

    2016-07-01

    In this essay, I advance an argument against the expansion and acceptance of postmodern metaphysical antirealist ideologies in the development of nursing theory in North America. I suggest mystical theoretical explanations of care, the rejection of empirical epistemology, and a return to divinity in nursing represent an intellectual dead end, as these ideas do little to help resolve real-world health issues and also negate the need for the academic discrimination of bad ideas. I examine some of the philosophical foundations of nursing theory and deconstruct some of the more preternatural theories that have become established as the dominant conventional wisdom in the academy. It is argued that this can be characterized as a form of self-deception, and overall has had a negative impact on advancement of the nursing profession and public health care. Reasons behind the widespread acceptance of these irrational theoretical stances in nursing and the ongoing support for mystical therapeutic interventions are explored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of Disfluency in Online Interpretation of Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Jia E; Rohde, Hannah; Corley, Martin

    2017-05-01

    A speaker's manner of delivery of an utterance can affect a listener's pragmatic interpretation of the message. Disfluencies (such as filled pauses) influence a listener's off-line assessment of whether the speaker is truthful or deceptive. Do listeners also form this assessment during the moment-by-moment processing of the linguistic message? Here we present two experiments that examined listeners' judgments of whether a speaker was indicating the true location of the prize in a game during fluent and disfluent utterances. Participants' eye and mouse movements were biased toward the location named by the speaker during fluent utterances, whereas the opposite bias was observed during disfluent utterances. This difference emerged rapidly after the onset of the critical noun. Participants were similarly sensitive to disfluencies at the start of the utterance (Experiment 1) and in the middle (Experiment 2). Our findings support recent research showing that listeners integrate pragmatic information alongside semantic content during the earliest moments of language processing. Unlike prior work which has focused on pragmatic effects in the interpretation of the literal message, here we highlight disfluency's role in guiding a listener to an alternative non-literal message. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Quantitative Models of Imperfect Deception in Network Security using Signaling Games with Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlick, Jeffrey; Zhu, Quanyan

    2017-01-01

    Deception plays a critical role in many interactions in communication and network security. Game-theoretic models called "cheap talk signaling games" capture the dynamic and information asymmetric nature of deceptive interactions. But signaling games inherently model undetectable deception. In this paper, we investigate a model of signaling games in which the receiver can detect deception with some probability. This model nests traditional signaling games and complete information Stackelberg ...

  17. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  18. When deception influences memory: the implication of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2017-07-01

    When deceiving, one should remember to whom a falsified story was previously told; otherwise he or she may include inconsistencies, and the deception will probably be discovered. Bearing this in mind, we investigated the potential relationship between deception and the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously told (i.e., destination memory). Forty-one adults were given a destination memory task in which they had to decide to whom proverbs had previously been told. They were also given a questionnaire about deception (e.g., "I sometimes tell lies if I have to) and a cognitive theory of mind task in which they had to predict the behaviour of protagonists who hold a mistaken belief about the state of the world. Results showed a positive correlation between deception and destination memory (p theory of mind ability (p theory of mind) results in better processing of the target and consequently better destination memory. By showing the involvement of deception and theory of mind in destination memory, our findings emphasize the memory variations in social and interpersonal interactions.

  19. 75 FR 68560 - Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... 3235-AK77 Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based... fraud, manipulation, and deception in connection with the offer, purchase or sale of any security-based... measured and reasonable means to prevent fraud, manipulation, and deception in connection with security...

  20. Executive Function and Temperamental Fear Concurrently Predict Deception in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkirk, Sarah; Saunders, Lauren V.; Solomon, Beylul; Kessel, Ellen M.; Crossman, Angela; Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function (EF) and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to…

  1. Are Eyes Windows to a Deceiver's Soul? Children's Use of Another's Eye Gaze Cues in a Deceptive Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Alejo; Eskritt, Michelle; Lee, Kang

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- to 5-year-olds' use of eye gaze cues to infer truth in a deceptive situation. Children watched a video of an actor who hid a toy in 1 of 3 cups. In Experiments 1 and 2, the actor claimed ignorance about the toy's location but looked toward 1 of the cups, without (Experiment 1) and with (Experiment 2) head movement. In…

  2. Positive Response Distortion by Police Officer Applicants: Association of Paulhus Deception Scales with MMPI-2 and Inwald Personality Inventory Validity Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of positive response distortion (socially desirable responding) in employment evaluations is an important validity issue. This study of police officer applicants examined the construct validity of the Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS)--Moralistic Bias (MB; exaggerated adjustment/agreeableness) and Egoistic Bias (EB; exaggerated…

  3. "Playing Hooky" Health Messages: Apprehension, Impression Management, and Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ashley; Murphy, Melissa; Blackburn, Kate

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates playing hooky in higher education classrooms and associates this behavior with students' communicative dispositions, instructor perceptions, and language use. We define "playing hooky" as students skipping class and explaining their absence to their instructor with deceptive health messages. The purpose of Study 1, an online survey (N = 177), is to further understand the characteristics of students who engage in this type of deceptive health communication. Study 1 measures communication apprehension and perceived instructor credibility in students who had played hooky from class and those who had not. Findings reveal that students who communicate playing hooky health messages (a) reported more instructor communication apprehension and (b) perceived the instructors with whom they had played hooky to be less credible. Study 2 uses facework theory and MEH analysis to reveal the different linguistic strategies students use to communicate (a) truthful health messages (N = 165) and (b) deceptive heath messages (N = 82) to their instructor following an absence. Results demonstrate that students' facework strategies are more geared toward saving instructors' negative face in the deceptive health message condition. Implications of both studies are offered.

  4. Group Performance in Military Scenarios Under Deceptive Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hass, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... The analysis of the post-game surveys showed support for participants in games using a face-to-face communication method to have lower perceptions of deception and task difficulty when compared to games using real-time plain text chat.

  5. A Cognitive Model for Exposition of Human Deception and Counterdeception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    sampled from 160 documents representing over 40 disciplines. The areas of magic, mentalism, paranormal phenomena, and confidence games are particularly...Skeptical Inquirer, the (formerly the Zetetic) ( Paranormal phenomena); P.O. Box 29, Kensington Station, Buffalo, NY. . . Military Deception...happening, is perceived as unlikely (and perhaps paranormal ) because of a failure to realize the very large . number of opportunities for matches. A

  6. The neural basis of deception in strategic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kirsten G; Vogeley, Kai; Tittgemeyer, Marc; von Cramon, D Yves; Sutter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the (pre)cuneus (CUN), and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG) when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth-when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true) message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender's veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

  7. The Neural Basis of Deception in Strategic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten G Volz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, the (precuneus (CUN, and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth—when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender’s veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

  8. Action Simulation Plays a Critical Role in Deceptive Action Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; Di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in

  9. Plagiarism and Source Deception Detection Based on Syntax Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Salih Al-Shamery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the shingle algorithm with Jaccard method are employed as a new approach to detect deception in sources in addition to detect plagiarism . Source deception occurs as a result of taking a particular text from a source and relative it to another source, while plagiarism occurs in the documents as a result of taking part or all of the text belong to another research, this approach is based on Shingle algorithm with Jaccard coefficient , Shingling is an efficient way to compare the set of shingle in the files that contain text which are used as a feature to measure the syntactic similarity of the documents and it will work with Jaccard coefficient that measures similarity between sample sets . In this proposed system, text will be checked whether it contains syntax plagiarism or not and gives a percentage of similarity with other documents , As well as research sources will be checked to detect deception in source , by matching it with available sources from Turnitin report of the same research by using shingle algorithm with Jaccard coefficient. The motivations of this work is to discovery of literary thefts that occur on the researches , especially what students are doing in their researches , also discover the deception that occurs in the sources.

  10. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  11. Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, S.D.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 81, - (2006), s. 219-235 ISSN 1464-7931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : cross-pollination * floral deception * geitonogamy * inbreeding * nectar * Orchidaceae * pollinaria * reward * self-pollination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.565, year: 2006

  12. Deception in experiments: revisiting the arguments in its defense

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hertwig, R.; Ortmann, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2008), s. 59-92 ISSN 1050-8422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : deception * experimental control * research ethics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2008

  13. Historic hydrovolcanism at Deception Island (Antarctica): implications for eruption hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Németh, Károly; Geyer, Adelina; Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Bartolini, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Deception Island (Antarctica) is the southernmost island of the South Shetland Archipelago in the South Atlantic. Volcanic activity since the eighteenth century, along with the latest volcanic unrest episodes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, demonstrates that the volcanic system is still active and that future eruptions are likely. Despite its remote location, the South Shetland Islands are an important touristic destination during the austral summer. In addition, they host several research stations and three summer field camps. Deception Island is characterised by a Quaternary caldera system with a post-caldera succession and is considered to be part of an active, dispersed (monogenetic), volcanic field. Historical post-caldera volcanism on Deception Island involves monogenetic small-volume (VEI 2-3) eruptions such forming cones and various types of hydrovolcanic edifices. The scientific stations on the island were destroyed, or severely damaged, during the eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 mainly due to explosive activity triggered by the interaction of rising (or erupting) magma with surface water, shallow groundwater, and ice. We conducted a detailed revision (field petrology and geochemistry) of the historical hydrovolcanic post-caldera eruptions of Deception Island with the aim to understand the dynamics of magma-water interaction, as well as characterise the most likely eruptive scenarios from future eruptions. We specifically focused on the Crimson Hill (estimated age between 1825 and 1829), and Kroner Lake (estimated age between 1829 and 1912) eruptions and 1967, 1969, and 1970 events by describing the eruption mechanisms related to the island's hydrovolcanic activity. Data suggest that the main hazards posed by volcanism on the island are due to fallout, ballistic blocks and bombs, and subordinate, dilute PDCs. In addition, Deception Island can be divided into five areas of expected activity due to magma-water interaction, providing additional

  14. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Osvath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes. As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  15. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Karvonen, Elin

    2012-01-01

    The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  16. Once an Impression Manager, Always an Impression Manager? Antecedents of Honest and Deceptive Impression Management Use and Variability across Multiple Job Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bourdage, Joshua S

    2017-01-01

    Research has examined the antecedents of applicants' use of impression management (IM) tactics in employment interviews. All existing empirical studies have measured IM in one particular interview. Yet, applicants generally interview multiple times for different positions, and thus have multiple opportunities to engage in IM, before they can secure a job. Similarly, recent theoretical advances in personnel selection and IM research have suggested that applicant behaviors should be considered as dynamic and adaptive in nature. In line with this perspective, the present study is the first to examine the role of individual differences in both applicants' use of IM tactics and the variability in IM use across multiple interviews. It also highlights which honest and deceptive IM tactics remain stable vs. vary in consecutive interviews with different interviewers and organizations. Results suggest that applicants high in Extraversion or core self-evaluations tend to engage in more honest self-promotion but do not adapt their IM approach across interviews. In contrast, applicants who possess more undesirable personality traits (i.e., low on Honesty-Humility and Conscientiousness, but high on Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, or Competitive Worldviews) tend to use more deceptive IM (and especially image creation tactics) and are also more likely to adapt their IM strategy across interviews. Because deceptive IM users can obtain better evaluations from interviewers and the personality profile of those users is often associated with undesirable workplace outcomes, this study provides additional evidence for the claim that deceptive IM (or faking) is a potential threat for organizations.

  17. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and...; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. The Commissioner shall refuse to issue... regulation for a color additive authorizing its use generally in or on a food, drug, or cosmetic shall not be...

  18. Use of Deception to Improve Client Honeypot Detection of Drive-by-Download Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovsky, Barbara; Narvaez Suarez, Julia F.; Seifert, Christian; Frincke, Deborah A.; O' Neil, Lori R.; Aval, Chiraag U.

    2009-07-24

    This paper presents the application of deception theory to improve the success of client honeypots at detecting malicious web page attacks from infected servers programmed by online criminals to launch drive-by-download attacks. The design of honeypots faces three main challenges: deception, how to design honeypots that seem real systems; counter-deception, techniques used to identify honeypots and hence defeating their deceiving nature; and counter counter-deception, how to design honeypots that deceive attackers. The authors propose the application of a deception model known as the deception planning loop to identify the current status on honeypot research, development and deployment. The analysis leads to a proposal to formulate a landscape of the honeypot research and planning of steps ahead.

  19. Strategic Interviewing to Detect Deception: Cues to Deception across Repeated Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous deception research on repeated interviews found that liars are not less consistent than truth tellers, presumably because liars use a repeat strategy to be consistent across interviews. The goal of this study was to design an interview procedure to overcome this strategy. Innocent participants (truth tellers and guilty participants (liars had to convince an interviewer that they had performed several innocent activities rather than committing a mock crime. The interview focused on the innocent activities (alibi, contained specific central and peripheral questions, and was repeated after one week without forewarning. Cognitive load was increased by asking participants to reply quickly. The liars’ answers in replying to both central and peripheral questions were significantly less accurate, less consistent, and more evasive than the truth tellers’ answers. Logistic regression analyses yielded classification rates ranging from around 70% (with consistency as the predictor variable, 85% (with evasive answers as the predictor variable, to over 90% (with an improved measure of consistency that incorporated evasive answers as the predictor variable, as well as with response accuracy as the predictor variable. These classification rates were higher than the interviewers’ accuracy rate (54%.

  20. Cognitive simplicity and self-deception are crucial in martyrdom and suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Trivers, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Suicide attacks and terrorism are characterized by cognitive simplicity, which is related to self-deception. In justifying violence in pursuit of ideologically and/or politically driven commitment, people with high religious commitment may be particularly prone to mechanisms of self-deception. Related megalomania and glorious self-perception are typical of self-deception, and are thus crucial in the emergence and expression of (suicide) terrorism.

  1. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding Our Horizon with a Working Memory Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sporer, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory ModelAbstractRecently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the cognitive load approach as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes). Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies...

  2. Misleading or Falsification? Inferring Deceptive Strategies and Types in Online News and Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Jang, Jin Yea

    2018-04-27

    Deceptive information in online news and social media has had dramatic effect on our society in recent years. This study is the first to gain deeper insights into writers' intent behind digital misinformation by analyzing psycholinguistic signals: moral foundations and connotations extracted from different types of deceptive news ranging from strategic disinformation to propaganda and hoaxes. To ensure consistency of our findings and generalizability across domains, we experiment with data from: (1) confirmed cases of disinformation in news summaries, (2) {propaganda}, hoax, and disinformation news pages, and (3) social media news. We first contrast lexical markers of biased language, syntactic and stylistic signals, and connotations across deceptive news types including disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes, and {deceptive} strategies including misleading or falsification. We then incorporate these insights to build machine learning and deep learning predictive models to infer deception strategies and deceptive news types. Our experimental results demonstrate that unlike earlier work on deception detection, content combined with biased language markers, moral foundations, and connotations leads to better predictive performance of deception strategies compared to syntactic and stylistic signals (as reported in earlier work on deceptive reviews). Falsification strategy is easier to identify than misleading strategy. Disinformation is more difficult to predict than to propaganda or hoaxes. Deceptive news types (disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes), unlike deceptive strategies (falsification and misleading), are more salient, and thus easier to identify in tweets than in news reports. Finally, our novel connotation analysis across deception types provides deeper understanding of writers' perspectives and therefore reveals the intentions behind digital misinformation.

  3. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  4. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  5. Communication, compassion, and computers: Adolescents' and adults' evaluations of online and face-to-face deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Sean; Eskritt, Michelle; Bosacki, Sandra

    2018-06-01

    We explored Canadian adolescents', emergent adults', and adults' understandings of deception in computer mediated communication (CMC) compared to face to face (FtF). Participants between 13 and 50 years read vignettes of different types of questionable behaviour that occurred online or in real life, and were asked to judge whether deception was involved, and the acceptability of the behaviour. Age groups evaluated deception similarly; however, adolescents held slightly different views from adults about what constitutes deception, suggesting that the understanding of deception continues to develop into adulthood. Furthermore, CMC behaviour was rated as more deceptive than FtF in general, and participants scoring higher on compassion perceived vignettes to be more deceptive. This study is a step towards better understanding the relationships between perceptions of deception across adolescence into adulthood, mode of communication, and compassion, and may have implications for how adults communicate with youth about deception in CMC and FtF contexts. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deception Recognition: Rethinking the Operational Commander’s Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    Understanding this cultural relativism gives us insight into intent. Social norms tend to be tacitly established and maintained through body...the concept of ―face‖ in dealing with people in a personal or professional relationship is first and foremost in the Chinese culture . The western... morality ,‖5 the operational commander can be and usually is directly affected by both political deception and MILDEC and must be able to recognize and

  7. Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Giusberti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.

  8. Deception and price in a market with asymmetric information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In markets with asymmetric information, only sellers have knowledge about the quality of goods. Sellers may of course make a declaration of the quality, but unless there are sanctions imposed on false declarations or reputations are at stake, such declarations are tantamount to cheap talk. Nonetheless, in an experimental study we find that most people make honest declarations, which is in line with recent findings that lies damaging another party are costly in terms of the liar's utility. Moreover, we find in this experimental market that deceptive sellers offer lower prices than honest sellers, which could possibly be explained by the same wish to limit the damage to the other party. However, when the recipient of the offer is a social tie we find no evidence for lower prices of deceptive offers, which seems to indicate that the rationale for the lower price in deceptive offers to strangers is in fact profit-seeking (by making the deal more attractive rather than moral.

  9. Subarray-based FDA radar to counteract deceptive ECM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed; Wang, Wen-Qin; Yuan, Zhao; Mohamed, Suhad; Bin, Tang

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency diverse array (FDA) radar concept has attracted extensive attention, as it may benefit from a small frequency increment, compared to the carrier frequency across the array elements and thereby achieve an array factor that is a function of the angle, the time, and the range which is superior to the conventional phase array radar (PAR). However, limited effort on the subject of FDA in electronic countermeasure scenarios, especially in the presence of mainbeam deceptive jamming, has been published. Basic FDA is not desirable for anti-jamming applications, due to the range-angle coupling response of targets. In this paper, a novel method based on subarrayed FDA signal processing is proposed to counteract deceptive ECM signals. We divide the FDA array into multiple subarrays, each of which employs a distinct frequency increment. As a result, in the subarray-based FDA, the desired target can be distinguished at subarray level in joint range-angle-Doppler domain by utilizing the fact that the jammer generates false targets with the same ranges to each subarray without reparations. The performance assessment shows that the proposed solution is effective for deceptive ECM targets suppression. The effectiveness is verified by simulation results.

  10. Modulation of financial deprivation on deception and its neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Ling, Xiaoli; Zheng, Li; Chen, Jia; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Xuemei; Guo, Xiuyan

    2017-11-01

    Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision. Twenty-one participants were scanned when they played a series of adapted Dictator Game with different partners after a ball-guess game. Specifically, participants gained or lost money in the ball-guess game, and had opportunities to get more financial gains through cheating in the following adapted Dictator Game. Behavioral results indicated that participants did not cheat to the full extent; instead they were more likely to lie after losing money compared with gaining money. At the neural level, weaker activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices were observed when participants lied after losing money than gaining money. Together, our data indicated that, people really had an internalized norm of keeping honest, but it would be lenient when people feel financial deprivation. And suppressing the truthful response originating from moral norm of keeping honest was associated with increased level of activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, but this association became weaker when people were under financial deprivation.

  11. Pollinator-Driven Speciation in Sexually Deceptive Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator-mediated selection has been suggested to play a major role for the origin and maintenance of the species diversity in orchids. Sexually deceptive orchids are one of the prime examples for rapid, pollinator-mediated plant radiations, with many species showing little genetic differentiation, lack of postzygotic barriers, but strong prezygotic reproductive isolation. These orchids mimic mating signals of female insects and employ male insects as pollinators. This kind of sexual mimicry leads to highly specialised pollination and provides a good system for investigating the process of pollinator-driven speciation. Here, we summarise the knowledge of key processes of speciation in this group of orchids and conduct a meta-analysis on traits that contribute to species differentiation, and thus potentially to speciation. Our study suggests that pollinator shift through changes in floral scent is predominant among closely related species in sexually deceptive orchids. Such shifts can provide a mechanism for pollinator-driven speciation in plants, if the resulting floral isolation is strong. Furthermore, changes in floral scent in these orchids are likely controlled by few genes. Together these factors suggest speciation in sexually deceptive orchids may happen rapidly and even in sympatry, which may explain the remarkable species diversity observed in this plant group.

  12. Consumers' behavioural intentions after experiencing deception or cognitive disonance caused by deceptive packaging, package downsizing or slack filling

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, SJK; Beckenuyte, C; Butt, MM

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to discover the extent to which consumers are aware of air filling in food packaging, the extent to which deceptive packaging and slack filling – which often result from package downsizing – lead to cognitive dissonance, and the extent to which feelings of cognitive dissonance and being deceived lead consumers to engage in negative post purchase behaviours. Design/methodology/approach – The study analysed respondents’ reactions to a series of images of a...

  13. Explicit instructions increase cognitive costs of deception in predictable social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eFalkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT, which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e. atheist or conservative. In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue. In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue. With internal cues, reaction times are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues, reaction times are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when external cues were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only

  14. Detection of deception based on fMRI activation patterns underlying the production of a deceptive response and receiving feedback about the success of the deception after a mock murder crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qian; Vanman, Eric J.; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Jia, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The ability of a deceiver to track a victim’s ongoing judgments about the truthfulness of the deceit can be critical for successful deception. However, no study has yet investigated the neural circuits underlying receiving a judgment about one’s lie. To explore this issue, we used a modified Guilty Knowledge Test in a mock murder situation to simultaneously record the neural responses involved in producing deception and later when judgments of that deception were made. Producing deception recruited the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), right ventral lateral prefrontal (VLPF) areas and right striatum, among which the activation of the right VLPF contributed mostly to diagnosing the identities of the participants, correctly diagnosing 81.25% of ‘murderers’ and 81.25% of ‘innocents’. Moreover, the participant’s response when their deception was successful uniquely recruited the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral IPLs, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum, among which the right IPL contributed mostly to diagnosing participants’ identities, correctly diagnosing 93.75% of murderers and 87.5% of innocents. This study shows that neural activity associated with being a successful liar (or not) is a feasible indicator for detecting lies and may be more valid than neural activity associated with producing deception. PMID:23946002

  15. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  16. Teachers' Beliefs about Cues to Deception and the Ability to Detect Deceit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulatowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test beliefs about cues to deception and the ability to detect lies in a group of teachers with different teaching experience. Their results were compared with the results of non-teachers matched in age and with the results of educational studies and psychology students. Both the beliefs of deception indicators and overall…

  17. In Defense of Children's Lies: On Ethics and Methods of Studying Children's Communication of Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    Studies of children's deceptive behavior have scientific merit and can be carried out in an ethically defensible manner. Many arguments against studies requiring children to deceive others in an experimental context are relatively easy to refute. It is true, though, that the debriefing phase of deception studies presents ethical problems,…

  18. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  19. Radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dating of quaternary sediments in Deception Bay, southeast Queensland: some problems encountered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Radiocarbon and Thermoluminescence dating of sediment facies were utilised to develop a chronometric framework for the quaternary coastal evolution of Deception Bay southeast Queensland (Cotter 1996). This chronometric framework was developed in the context of a broader geoarchaeological and palaeogeographical investigation of the indigenous cultural landscape of the area. The TL analysis confirmed the presence of previously undated Pleistocene sands within the study area. However in the course of dating one sedimentary sequence, conventional radiocarbon analysis of Notispisula sheldls produced an age of 5190± 90 years BP (Beta-85415) whilst an overlying sandy unit (shown by particle size analysis and SEM surface textural analysis to be aeolian transported) subject to TL-dating produced an age of 14,900 ± 3300 years BP (W1942). This poster highlights the considerations made in order to reconcile this obvious anomaly. In effect, previously obtained radiometric data within the study area (Flood 1981; Hall 1996), in conjunction with an examination of the adequacy of the sampled materials for radiocarbon and TL age determinations point to the TL determination being in error. Similar anomalies have been shown to occur elsewhere in southeast Queensland (Tejan-Kella et al. 1990) explanations for which have been related to selective rather than total bleaching of Holocene sands (Prescott personal communication). Re-dating of the sand sequence using the selective bleach method is required to examine whether the dating anomaly shown for Deception Bay parallels selective bleaching effects determined for other sequences within southeast Queensland. Unfortunately this is beyond the scope and funds of this geoarchaeological study

  20. How to Trick Your Opponent: A Review Article on Deceptive Actions in Interactive Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Güldenpenning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents’ performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades. Three main topics of the detected literature were discussed here: (1 the role of expertise for the recognition of deceptive actions, (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of deceptive actions, and (3 the pros and cons of in situ research designs. None of these themes seems to be settled and therefore, they should be considered in future research agendas.

  1. The Deceptive Resilience of Fixed Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mushin, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an examination of the experience of exchange-rate systems since 1978. Despite the accelerating trend in favour of floating exchange rates, a substantial minority of IMF members have continued to fix the value of their currencies. The recent incidence of each of the principal types of exchange-rate peg is described.

  2. Presence of Spotters Improves Bench Press Performance: A Deception Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Andrew; Marchant, David C; Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Hewitt, Phil A; Sparks, S Andy

    2017-10-24

    Sheridan, A, Marchant, DC, Williams, EL, Jones, HS, Hewitt, PA, and Sparks, SA. Presence of spotters improves bench press performance: a deception study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Resistance exercise is a widely used method of physical training in both recreational exercise and athletic populations. The use of training partners and spotters during resistance exercise is widespread, but little is known about the effect of the presence of these individuals on exercise performance. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of spotter presence on bench press performance. Twelve recreationally trained participants (age, 21.3 ± 0.8 years, height, 1.82 ± 0.1 m, and weight, 84.8 ± 11.1 kg) performed 2 trials of 3 sets to failure at 60% of 1 repetition maximum on separate occasions. The 2 trials consisted of spotters being explicitly present or hidden from view (deception). During the trials, total repetitions (reps), total weight lifted, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and self-efficacy were measured. Total reps and weight lifted were significantly greater with spotters (difference = 4.5 reps, t = 5.68, p < 0.001 and difference = 209.6 kg, t = 5.65, p < 0.001, respectively). Although RPE and local RPE were significantly elevated in the deception trials (difference = 0.78, f = 6.16, p = 0.030 and difference = 0.81, f = 5.89, p = 0.034, respectively), self-efficacy was significantly reduced (difference = 1.58, f = 26.90, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that resistance exercise is improved by the presence of spotters, which is facilitated by reduced RPE and increased self-efficacy. This has important implications for athletes and clients, who should perform resistance exercise in the proximity of others, to maximize total work performed.

  3. Between reality and deception: the anamorphosis in visual communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the use of anamorphosis in the context of the graphic and visual communication by presenting a brief evolution of anamorphosis in visual communication, from its origin to the present time, through the analysis of historical and contemporary examples of anamorphic representations used in art and design. This is a reflection on the potential of the mechanism of anamorphosis as a vehicle of visual communication based on perceptive game between reality and deception. Thus, we propose the possibility of this perceptual mechanism to fit in a more comprehensive history, the history of visuality.

  4. Multifrequency OFDM SAR in Presence of Deception Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuerger Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM is considered in this paper from the perspective of usage in imaging radar scenarios with deception jamming. OFDM radar signals are inherently multifrequency waveforms, composed of a number of subbands which are orthogonal to each other. While being employed extensively in communications, OFDM has not found comparatively wide use in radar, and, particularly, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR applications. In this paper, we aim to show the advantages of OFDM-coded radar signals with random subband composition when used in deception jamming scenarios. Two approaches to create a radar signal by the jammer are considered: instantaneous frequency (IF estimator and digital-RF-memory- (DRFM- based reproducer. In both cases, the jammer aims to create a copy of a valid target image via resending the radar signal at prescribed time intervals. Jammer signals are derived and used in SAR simulations with three types of signal models: OFDM, linear frequency modulated (LFM, and frequency-hopped (FH. Presented results include simulated peak side lobe (PSL and peak cross-correlation values for random OFDM signals, as well as simulated SAR imagery with IF and DRFM jammers'-induced false targets.

  5. Self-deception in terminal patients: belief system at stake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Echarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes –deep seated beliefs– intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  6. Registered Report: Measuring Unconscious Deception Detection by Skin Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth Van 't Veer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers. To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments.

  7. Digging in the Dark Triad: A Replication of ``Machiavellianism and Dating: Deception and Intimacy''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a replication and an extension of Dussault, Hojjat, and Boone (2013. Machiavellianism and dating: Deception and intimacy. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 41(2, 283-294. The results support the positive association between Machiavellianism and the use of deceptive dating strategies, but fail to detect a correlation between Machiavellianism and perceived intimacy. The extension to the Dark Triad reveals that psychopathy is a stronger predictor than Machiavellianism to assess deceptive dating strategies, and supports a relationship between higher degrees of narcissism and history of intimate behaviors.

  8. What if I get busted? Deception, choice and decision-making in social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sip, Kamila Ewa; Skewes, Joshua; Agustus, Jennifer L Marchant

    2012-01-01

    Deception is an essentially social act, yet little is known about how social consequences affect the decision to deceive. In this study, participants played a computerized game of deception without constraints on whether or when to attempt to deceive their opponent. Participants were questioned...... by an opponent outside the scanner about their knowledge of the content of a display. Importantly, questions were posed so that, in some conditions, it was possible to be deceptive, while in other conditions it was not. To simulate a realistic interaction, participants could be confronted about their claims...... findings suggest the decision to deceive is affected by the potential risk of social confrontation rather than the claim itself....

  9. The contribution of self-deceptive enhancement to display rules in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joanne M

    2012-03-01

    Socially desirable responding was tested as a mediator of American and Japanese college student differences in display rules. Americans endorsed the expression of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and surprise more than the Japanese. Americans also exhibited more self-deceptive enhancement than the Japanese, and self-deceptive enhancement partially mediated country differences on the endorsement of anger, disgust, happiness, and surprise, but not contempt and fear. These findings highlight the role of self-deceptive enhancement in contributing to expressive display rules and support the point of view that socially desirable responding is a reflection of one's personality and culture rather than a statistical nuisance.

  10. 16 CFR 424.1 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PRACTICES § 424.1 Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In connection with the sale... advertisement, if those stores do not have the advertised products in stock and readily available to customers...

  11. Theodramatic Rehearsal: Fighting Self-Deception through the Dramatic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Vaden

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to appropriate the insights of dramatic theology for Christian psychology and soul care. According to Kevin Vanhoozer, Scripture is the ‘script’ for human beings’ fitting participation in the acts and deeds of God in the world (i.e., ‘theodrama’. Keeping with this dramatic paradigm, the author will explore what ‘rehearsal’ might entail by drawing from a branch of psychotherapy called ‘psychodrama.’ The main question to be addressed in this appropriation of dramatic theology is, “How might dramatic rehearsal combat self-deception?” The author will only begin to answer this question, but in the attempt it is hoped that further reflection and clarity will be induced.

  12. Mad Men’s Deceptive (Critique Of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Robert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Mad Men’s relationship to creativity. Considering popular, industry-specific and scholarly understandings, it uses close readings of the show and its narratological techniques to demonstrate how these potentially contradictory concepts and practices of creativity overlap in the show’s fourth season. The points at which these understandings collide become sources of tension between characters and are marked by narrative gaps that conceal deceptive creativity. The conflicts centre on three primary debates: a the role of alcohol in the creative process, b industry-specific norms of creativity, and c the popular perception that creativity is about expression. Consequently, this article approaches questions about creativity using the show’s own partially elided debates and undermines widely-held romantic beliefs about the creative ‘type’ and the what exactly it means to sell creativity in a corporate setting.

  13. Deceptively Simple: Unpacking the Notion of “Sharing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Lampinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay approaches social media by addressing the deceptively simple notion of “sharing.” While “sharing” is central to how activities taking place on social media get discussed, the word does not necessarily help us get our analytical work about social media done. It is at risk of turning into one of those words that mean little because we try to make them mean too many things at once. While it remains relevant to address and analyze discourses surrounding the notion of “sharing,” it is important to be critical about them. Sharing is not a monolith. Sharing is diverse. Sharing serves the economic interests of big corporations. Perhaps most importantly, referring to activities as “sharing” is political and value-laden.

  14. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misrepresentation as to source or origin (e.g., “Colorado Blue Spruce,” “Arizona Cypress,” “Black Hills Spruce... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is...

  15. A Game-Theoretic Taxonomy and Survey of Defensive Deception for Cybersecurity and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlick, Jeffrey; Colbert, Edward; Zhu, Quanyan

    2017-01-01

    Cyber attacks on both databases and critical infrastructure have threatened public and private sectors. Meanwhile, ubiquitous tracking and wearable computing have infringed upon privacy. Advocates and engineers have recently proposed using defensive deception as a means to leverage the information asymmetry typically enjoyed by attackers as a tool for defenders. The term deception, however, has been employed broadly and with a variety of meanings. In this paper, we survey 24 articles from 200...

  16. Data-Driven and Deep Learning Methodology for Deceptive Advertising and Phone Scams Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, TonTon Hsien-De; Yu, Chia-Mu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The advance of smartphones and cellular networks boosts the need of mobile advertising and targeted marketing. However, it also triggers the unseen security threats. We found that the phone scams with fake calling numbers of very short lifetime are increasingly popular and have been used to trick the users. The harm is worldwide. On the other hand, deceptive advertising (deceptive ads), the fake ads that tricks users to install unnecessary apps via either alluring or daunting texts and pictur...

  17. Effects of Deceptive Advertising on Consumer Loyalty in Telecommunication Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Syed Akif; Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to interrogate the effects of deceptive advertising on consumer loyalty in telecommunication industry of Pakistan. Four variables, Call Charges (CC), Network Coverage (NC), Network Quality (NQ) and Customer Service (CS) were used to measure deception in Telecom Ads and then its effect on consumer loyalty while the consumer preference is used as the proxy of consumer loyalty. 10,000 random individuals from telecom industry were selected to conclude the results. Testing...

  18. The contribution of self-deceptive enhancement to display rules in the United States and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Socially desirable responding was tested as a mediator of American and Japanese college student differences in display rules. Americans endorsed the expression of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and surprise more than the Japanese. Americans also exhibited more self-deceptive enhancement than the Japanese, and self-deceptive enhancement partially mediated country differences on the endorsement of anger, disgust, happiness, and surprise, but not contempt and fear. These findings hig...

  19. Federal Trade Commission's authority to regulate marketing to children: deceptive vs. unfair rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing directed at children is of increasing concern to the public health and legal communities. The new administration at the Federal Trade Commission and abundant science on the topic make it a particularly opportune time for the government to reconsider regulating marketing directed at youth. This Article analyzes the Commission's authority to regulate food and beverage marketing directed at children under its jurisdiction over unfair and deceptive acts and practices to determine which avenue is most viable. The author finds that the Federal Trade Commission has the authority to regulate deceptive marketing practices directed at vulnerable populations. Although the Commission can issue individual orders, its remedial power to initiate rules would better address the pervasiveness of modern marketing practices. The Commission does not currently have the power to regulate unfair marketing to children; however, even if Congress reinstated this authority, the Commission's authority over deceptive marketing may be preferable to regulate these practices. Deceptive communications are not protected by the First Amendment and the deceptive standard matches the science associated with marketing to children. The Federal Trade Commission has the authority to initiate rulemaking in the realm of food and beverage marketing to children as deceptive communications in interstate commerce, in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. However, to effectuate this process, Congress would need to grant the Commission the authority to do so under the Administrative Procedures Act.

  20. Reaction Time of Motor Responses in Two-Stimulus Paradigms Involving Deception and Congruity with Varying Levels of Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. C. Vendemia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deception research has focused on identifying peripheral nervous system markers while ignoring cognitive mechanisms underlying those markers. Cognitive theorists argue that the process of deception may involve such constructs as attentional capture, working memory load, or perceived incongruity with memory, while psychophysiologists argue for stimulus salience, arousal, and emotion. Three studies were conducted to assess reaction time (RT in relation to deception, response congruity, and preparedness to deceive. Similar to a semantic verification task, participants evaluated sentences that were either true or false, and then made truthful or deceptive evaluations of the sentence’s base truth-value. Findings indicate that deceptive responses have a longer RT than truthful responses, and that this relationship remains constant across response type and preparedness to deceive. The authors use these findings in preliminary support of a comprehensive cognitive model of deception.

  1. DU weaponry: a view on facts and deceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of literature research conducted by the author on the use of depleted uranium (DU) weaponry. The research was initiated during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 with an objective of searching for facts in the presence of massive deceptions staged by the huge propaganda machinery of DU weaponry use proponents. The U.S. made use of DU penetrators in the Persian Gulf war as well as in the Balkan wars both in Bosnia and Kosovo. Brief science and history backgrounds are provided including overviews of DU uses and abuses in these three wars. The U.S./NATO public pronouncements have been centered around the theme that there has been no proven link between DU and cancers. In the author's view, these types of carefully word engineered statements are motivated by possible compensation and cleanup claims rather than supported by hard data and sound science. Since underlying causes of so called Gulf and Balkan syndromes have not been found despite a decade elapsed since conclusion of the Persian Gulf War, the DU must continue to be a front-line suspect. From the standpoint of public health and safety, it is prudent and responsible to call for a moratorium. DU use in the Kosovo war, which was not sanctioned by the UN Security Council, was reckless in the extreme. (author)

  2. Deception and Manipulation: The Arms of Leishmania, a Successful Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecílio, Pedro; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santarém, Nuno; Maciel, Joana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are intracellular parasitic protozoa responsible for a group of neglected tropical diseases, endemic in 98 countries around the world, called leishmaniasis. These parasites have a complex digenetic life cycle requiring a susceptible vertebrate host and a permissive insect vector, which allow their transmission. The clinical manifestations associated with leishmaniasis depend on complex interactions between the parasite and the host immune system. Consequently, leishmaniasis can be manifested as a self-healing cutaneous affliction or a visceral pathology, being the last one fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. As a result of a long host–parasite co-evolutionary process, Leishmania spp. developed different immunomodulatory strategies that are essential for the establishment of infection. Only through deception and manipulation of the immune system, Leishmania spp. can complete its life cycle and survive. The understanding of the mechanisms associated with immune evasion and disease progression is essential for the development of novel therapies and vaccine approaches. Here, we revise how the parasite manipulates cell death and immune responses to survive and thrive in the shadow of the immune system. PMID:25368612

  3. Deception and Manipulation: the arms of Leishmania, a successful parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eCecílio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania spp. are intracellular parasitic protozoa responsible for a group of neglected tropical diseases, endemic in 98 countries around the world, called leishmaniasis. These parasites have a complex digenetic life cycle requiring a susceptible vertebrate host and a permissive insect vector, which allow their transmission. The clinical manifestations associated with leishmaniasis depend on complex interactions between the parasite and the host immune system. Consequently, leishmaniasis can be manifested as a self-healing cutaneous affliction or a visceral pathology, being the last one fatal in 85-90% of untreated cases. As a result of a long host-parasite co-evolutionary process, Leishmania spp. developed different immunomodulatory strategies that are essential for the establishment of infection. Only through deception and manipulation of the immune system, Leishmania spp. can complete its life cycle and survive. The understanding of the mechanisms associated with immune evasion and disease progression is essential for the development of novel therapies and vaccine approaches. Here, we revise how the parasite manipulates cell death and immune responses to survive and thrive in the shadow of the immune system.

  4. Adult smokers' responses to "corrective statements" regarding tobacco industry deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Thrasher, James F; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Krugman, Dean M; Berg, Carla J; Hardin, James W

    2014-07-01

    To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate "corrective statements" (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280-281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco-related health disparities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. How children with head injury represent real and deceptive emotion in short narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, M; Barnes, M A; Wilkinson, M; Humphreys, R P

    1998-02-15

    Narratives are not only about events, but also about the emotions those events elicit. Understanding a narrative involves not just the affective valence of implied emotional states, but the formation of an explicit mental representation of those states. In turn, this representation provides a mechanism that particularizes emotion and modulates its display, which then allows emotional expression to be modified according to particular contexts. This includes understanding that a character may feel an emotion but inhibit its display or even express a deceptive emotion. We studied how 59 school-aged children with head injury and 87 normally-developing age-matched controls understand real and deceptive emotions in brief narratives. Children with head injury showed less sensitivity than controls to how emotions are expressed in narratives. While they understood the real emotions in the text, and could recall what provoked the emotion and the reason for concealing it, they were less able than controls to identify deceptive emotions. Within the head injury group, factors such as an earlier age at head injury and frontal lobe contusions were associated with poor understanding of deceptive emotions. The results are discussed in terms of the distinction between emotions as felt and emotions as a cognitive framework for understanding other people's actions and mental states. We conclude that children with head injury understand emotional communication, the spontaneous externalization of real affect, but not emotive communication, the conscious, strategic modification of affective signals to influence others through deceptive facial expressions.

  6. A search for the volcanomagnetic signal at Deception volcano (South Shetland I., Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ibáñez

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available After the increase in seismic activity detected during the 1991-1992 summer survey at Deception Island, the continuous measurement of total magnetic intensity was included among the different techniques used to monitor this active volcano. The Polish geomagnetic observatory Arctowski, located on King George Island, served as a reference station, and changes in the differences between the daily mean values at both stations were interpreted as indicators of volcanomagnetic effects at Deception. A magnetic station in continuous recording mode was also installed during the 1993-1994 and 1994-1995 surveys. During the latter, a second magnetometer was deployed on Deception Island, and a third one in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station on Livingston Island (at a distance of 35 km and was used as a reference station. The results from the first survey suggest that a small magma injection, responsible for the seismic re-activation, could produce a volcanomagnetic effect, detected as a slight change in the difference between Deception and Arctowski. On the other hand, a long term variation starting at that moment seems to indicate a thermomagnetic effect. However the short register period of only two stations do not allow the sources to be modelled. The future deployment of a magnetic array during the austral summer surveys, throughout the volcano, and of a permanent geomagnetic observatory at Livingston I. is aimed at further observations of magnetic transients of volcanic origin at Deception Island.

  7. Stimulating the Right Temporoparietal Junction with tDCS Decreases Deception in Moral Hypocrisy and Unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-centered and other-regarding concerns play important roles in decisions of deception. To investigate how these two motivations affect deception in fairness related moral hypocrisy, we modulated the brain activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ, the key region for decision making involved in self-centered and other-regarding concerns. After receiving brain stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, participants finished a modified dictator game. In the game, they played as proposers to make allocations between themselves and recipients and had a chance to deceive by misreporting their totals for allocations. Results show that deception in moral hypocrisy was decreased after anodal stimulation than sham and cathodal stimulation, only when participants know that their reported totals (appearing fair would be revealed to recipients rather than being unrevealed. Anodal stimulation also increased offers to recipients than cathodal stimulation regardless of the revelation of reported totals. These findings suggest that enhancing the activity of rTPJ decreased deception caused by impression management rather than self-deception in moral hypocrisy and unfairness through facilitating other-regarding concerns and weakening non-material self-centered motivations. They provide causal evidence for the role of rTPJ in both other-regarding concerns and non-material self-centered motivations, shedding light on the way to decrease moral hypocrisy.

  8. A Mosaic of Geothermal and Marine Features Shapes Microbial Community Structure on Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. Bendia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Active volcanoes in Antarctica contrast with their predominantly cold surroundings, resulting in environmental conditions capable of selecting for versatile and extremely diverse microbial communities. This is especially true on Deception Island, where geothermal, marine, and polar environments combine to create an extraordinary range of environmental conditions. Our main goal in this study was to understand how microbial community structure is shaped by gradients of temperature, salinity, and geochemistry in polar marine volcanoes. Thereby, we collected surface sediment samples associated with fumaroles and glaciers at two sites on Deception, with temperatures ranging from 0 to 98°C. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to assess the composition and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea. Our results revealed that Deception harbors a combination of taxonomic groups commonly found both in cold and geothermal environments of continental Antarctica, and also groups normally identified at deep and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, such as hyperthermophilic archaea. We observed a clear separation in microbial community structure across environmental gradients, suggesting that microbial community structure is strongly niche driven on Deception. Bacterial community structure was significantly associated with temperature, pH, salinity, and chemical composition; in contrast, archaeal community structure was strongly associated only with temperature. Our work suggests that Deception represents a peculiar “open-air” laboratory to elucidate central questions regarding molecular adaptability, microbial evolution, and biogeography of extremophiles in polar regions.

  9. The science of ethics: Deception, the resilient self, and the APA code of ethics, 1966-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper has two aims. The first is to shed light on a remarkable archival source, namely survey responses from thousands of American psychologists during the 1960s in which they described their contemporary research practices and discussed whether the practices were "ethical." The second aim is to examine the process through which the American Psychological Association (APA) used these survey responses to create principles on how psychologists should treat human subjects. The paper focuses on debates over whether "deception" research was acceptable. It documents how members of the committee that wrote the principles refereed what was, in fact, a disagreement between two contemporary research orientations. The paper argues that the ethics committee ultimately built the model of "the resilient self" into the APA's 1973 ethics code. At the broadest level, the paper explores how prevailing understandings of human nature are written into seemingly universal and timeless codes of ethics. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 17 CFR 240.10b-3 - Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices by brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deceptive devices by brokers or dealers. 240.10b-3 Section 240.10b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Contrivances § 240.10b-3 Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices by brokers or dealers. (a) It shall be unlawful for any broker or dealer, directly or indirectly, by the use of any means or...

  11. Deception Detection: The Relationship of Levels of Trust and Perspective Taking in Real-Time Online and Offline Communication Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Catherine; Fox Hamilton, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Where humans have been found to detect lies or deception only at the rate of chance in offline face-to-face communication (F2F), computer-mediated communication (CMC) online can elicit higher rates of trust and sharing of personal information than F2F. How do levels of trust and empathetic personality traits like perspective taking (PT) relate to deception detection in real-time CMC compared to F2F? A between groups correlational design (N = 40) demonstrated that, through a paired deceptive conversation task with confederates, levels of participant trust could predict accurate detection online but not offline. Second, participant PT abilities could not predict accurate detection in either conversation medium. Finally, this study found that conversation medium also had no effect on deception detection. This study finds support for the effects of the Truth Bias and online disinhibition in deception, and further implications in law enforcement are discussed.

  12. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  14. Looking for truth and finding lies: the prospects for a nascent neuroimaging of deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sean A; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Lying is ubiquitous and has acquired many names. In 'natural experiments', both pathological lying and truthfulness implicate prefrontal cortices. Recently, the advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed investigators to study deception in the non-pathological state. Prefrontal cortices are again implicated, although the regions identified vary across experiments. Forensic application of such technology (to the detection of deceit) requires the solution of tractable technical problems. Whether we 'should' detect deception remains an ethical problem: one for societies to resolve. However, such a procedure would only appear to be ethical when subjects volunteer to participate, as might occur during the investigation of alleged miscarriages of justice. We demonstrate how this might be approached.

  15. How do incentives lead to deception in advisors-client interactions? Explicit and implicit strategies of self-interested deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMackinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors’ motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory. In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: Self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: Self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: When accountability was high advisor’s self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information, and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information. Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients self-interested, but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing—a tendency which even increased with

  16. How do incentives lead to deception in advisor-client interactions? Explicit and implicit strategies of self-interested deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinger, Barbara; Jonas, Eva

    2012-01-01

    When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors' motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information) and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory). In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: when accountability was high advisor's self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information), and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information). Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients "self-interested," but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing - a tendency which even increased with high

  17. How Do Incentives Lead to Deception in Advisor–Client Interactions? Explicit and Implicit Strategies of Self-Interested Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinger, Barbara; Jonas, Eva

    2012-01-01

    When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors’ motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information) and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory). In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: when accountability was high advisor’s self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information), and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information). Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients “self-interested,” but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing – a tendency which even increased with high

  18. On Lying and Being Lied to: A Linguistic Analysis of Deception in Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jeffrey T.; Curry, Lauren E.; Goorha, Saurabh; Woodworth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated changes in both the liar's and the conversational partner's linguistic style across truthful and deceptive dyadic communication in a synchronous text-based setting. An analysis of 242 transcripts revealed that liars produced more words, more sense-based words (e.g., seeing, touching), and used fewer self-oriented but more…

  19. By Force or by Fraud: Optimizing U.S. Information Strategy With Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    WITH DECEPTION Ryan Q. Flaherty Major, United States Army B.S., Sacred Heart University, 2001 M.B.A., Sacred Heart University, 2004...to hide their religious agenda of establishing an Islamic Republic under the cloak of Lebanese nationalism.163 B. UNITY OF EFFORT State Unity of

  20. 48 CFR 2152.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. 2152.203-70 Section 2152.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  1. 14 CFR 399.80 - Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.80 Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents. It is the policy of the Board to regard any of... are available, when such discounts or reductions are not specific in the lawful tariffs of the air...

  2. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  3. 17 CFR 240.10b-5 - Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fraud or deceit upon any person, in connection with the purchase or sale of any security. (Sec. 10; 48... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices. 240.10b-5 Section 240.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  4. Non-invasive brain stimulation in the detection of deception: scientific challenges and ethical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Fisher, Carl; Appelbaum, Paul S; Ploesser, Marcus; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2009-01-01

    Tools for noninvasive stimulation of the brain, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have provided new insights in the study of brain-behavior relationships due to their ability to directly alter cortical activity. In particular, TMS and tDCS have proven to be useful tools for establishing causal relationships between behavioral and brain imaging measures. As such, there has been interest in whether these tools may represent novel technologies for deception detection by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit. Investigation of deceptive behavior using noninvasive brain stimulation is at an early stage. Here we review the existing literature on the application of noninvasive brain stimulation in the study of deception. Whether such approaches could be usefully applied to the detection of deception by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit remains to be validated. Ethical and legal consequences of the development of such a technology are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Destination memory and deception: when I lie to Barack Obama about the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Mohamad El; Saloppé, Xavier; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates whether deceivers demonstrate high memory of the person to whom lies have been told (i.e., high destination memory). Participants were asked to tell true information (e.g., the heart is a vital organ) and false information (e.g., the moon is bigger than the sun) to pictures of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama) and, in a subsequent recognition test, they had to remember to whom each type of information had previously been told. Participants were also assessed on a deception scale to divide them into two populations (i.e., those with high vs. those with low deception). Participants with high tendency to deceive demonstrated similar destination memory for both false and true information, whereas those with low deception demonstrated higher destination memory for lies than for true information. Individuals with a high tendency to deceive seem to keep track of the destination of both true information and lies to be consistent in their future social interactions, and thus to avoid discovery of their deception. However, the inconsistency between deceiving and the moral standard of individuals with a low tendency to deceive may result in high destination memory in these individuals.

  6. The use of the truth and deception in dementia care amongst general hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alex; Eccles, Fiona; Keady, John; Simpson, Jane; Elvish, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Deceptive practice has been shown to be endemic in long-term care settings. However, little is known about the use of deception in dementia care within general hospitals and staff attitudes towards this practice. This study aimed to develop understanding of the experiences of general hospital staff and explore their decision-making processes when choosing whether to tell the truth or deceive a patient with dementia. This qualitative study drew upon a constructivist grounded theory approach to analyse data gathered from semi-structured interviews with a range of hospital staff. A model, grounded in participant experiences, was developed to describe their decision-making processes. Participants identified particular triggers that set in motion the need for a response. Various mediating factors influenced how staff chose to respond to these triggers. Overall, hospital staff were reluctant to either tell the truth or to lie to patients. Instead, 'distracting' or 'passing the buck' to another member of staff were preferred strategies. The issue of how truth and deception are defined was identified. The study adds to the growing research regarding the use of lies in dementia care by considering the decision-making processes for staff in general hospitals. Various factors influence how staff choose to respond to patients with dementia and whether deception is used. Similarities and differences with long-term dementia care settings are discussed. Clinical and research implications include: opening up the topic for further debate, implementing staff training about communication and evaluating the impact of these processes.

  7. Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo, Maria J; Winther, Gudrun; Tuni, Cristina; Toft, Søren; Bilde, Trine

    2011-11-14

    In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG), regular fly gift (FG), worthless gift (WG), or no gift (NG). Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition. We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception.

  8. 48 CFR 1652.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unfair advertising. 1652.203-70 Section 1652.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF... CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.203-70 Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in... Unfair Advertising (JAN 1991) (a) The Carrier agrees that any advertising material, including that...

  9. When Worldviews Collide: What Linguistic Style Matching and Distal Language Reveal about Deception in Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Lucille M.

    2012-01-01

    Political discourse is an observable, measurable, and testable manifestation of political worldviews. However, when worldviews collide, notions of truth and of lies are put to the test. The challenge for researchers is how to establish confidence in their analysis. Despite the growing interest in deception research from a diversity of fields and…

  10. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  11. Are computers effective lie detectors? A meta-analysis of linguistic cues to deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauch, Valerie; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Masip, Jaume; Sporer, Siegfried L

    2015-11-01

    This meta-analysis investigates linguistic cues to deception and whether these cues can be detected with computer programs. We integrated operational definitions for 79 cues from 44 studies where software had been used to identify linguistic deception cues. These cues were allocated to six research questions. As expected, the meta-analyses demonstrated that, relative to truth-tellers, liars experienced greater cognitive load, expressed more negative emotions, distanced themselves more from events, expressed fewer sensory-perceptual words, and referred less often to cognitive processes. However, liars were not more uncertain than truth-tellers. These effects were moderated by event type, involvement, emotional valence, intensity of interaction, motivation, and other moderators. Although the overall effect size was small, theory-driven predictions for certain cues received support. These findings not only further our knowledge about the usefulness of linguistic cues to detect deception with computers in applied settings but also elucidate the relationship between language and deception. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  13. Observations of volcanic earthquakes and tremor at Deception Island - Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morales

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception Island - South Shetlands, Antarctica is site of active volcanism. Since 1988 field surveys have been carried out with the aim of seismic monitoring, and in 1994 a seismic array was set up near the site of the Spanish summer base in order to better constrain the source location and spectral properties of the seismic events related to the volcanic activity. The array was maintained during the Antarctic summer of 1995 and the last field survey was carried out in 1996. Data show the existence of three different groups (or families of seismic events: 1 long period events, with a quasi-monochromatic spectral content (1-3 Hz peak frequency and a duration of more than 50 s, often occurring in small swarms lasting from several minutes to some day; 2 volcanic tremor, with a spectral shape similar to the long period events but with a duration of several minutes (2-10; 3 hybrid events, with a waveform characterised by the presence of a high frequency initial phase, followed by a low frequency phase with characteristics similar to those of the long period events. The high frequency phase of the hybrid events was analysed using polarisation techniques, showing the presence of P waves. This phase is presumably located at short epicentral distances and shallow source depth. All the analysed seismic events show back-azimuths between 120 and 330 degrees from north (corresponding to zones of volcanic activity showing no seismic activity in the middle of the caldera. Particle motion, Fourier spectral and spectrogram analysis show that the low frequency part of the three groups of the seismic signals have similar patterns. Moreover careful observations show that the high frequency phase which characterises the hybrid events is present in the long period and in the tremor events, even with lower signal to noise ratios. This evidence suggests that long period events are events in which the high frequency part is simply difficult to observe, due to a very

  14. Deception, discrimination, and fear of reprisal: lessons in ethics from third-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldicott, Catherine V; Faber-Langendoen, Kathy

    2005-09-01

    To systematically examine ethical conflicts reported by all State University of New York Upstate Medical University third-year students, compare them with conflicts reported in the literature, and identify content areas that compel new or renewed emphasis in national educational objectives, standard curricula, and texts. From 1999 to 2002, all third-year students submitted papers for a required bioethics course. These papers depicted ethical issues arising during clinical clerkships. The authors devised a checklist of ethical issues; after analyzing the students' papers, the authors applied the checklist to the papers to create a taxonomy. Three hundred twenty-seven students submitted 688 cases involving 40 ethical issues. The most common issues were deliberate lies or deceptions (n = 68), patients' right to refuse recommended treatment (n = 48), and insistence on futile treatment (n = 46). Students perceived overt and subtle discrimination toward patients, reflected in substandard or excessive treatment. In 81 cases (12%), students expressed reluctance to speak up about moral conflict for fear of reprisal. This fear was expressed in 18 (45%) of the 40 issues-particularly student-specific (36 [52% of 69]) and quality of care (7 [24% of 29])-and most frequently in cases involving surgery (p ethical dilemmas in both "usual and customary" and seemingly incidental situations. Students who described fear of speaking up perceived a tradeoff between academic survival and patients' interests. The cases demonstrated that students still lacked the tools to navigate ethical dilemmas effectively. The authors propose that moral courage is within the realm of professional expectations for medical students; its cultivation is an appropriate formal objective for medical education.

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Mismatching Expressive and Verbal Messages: A Contribution to Detection of Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception. PMID:24658500

  16. Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wojciechowski

    Full Text Available Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI. However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception.

  17. Deceptive but Not Honest Manipulative Actions Are Associated with Increased Interaction between Middle and Inferior Frontal gyri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Kireev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex is believed to be responsible for execution of deceptive behavior and its involvement is associated with greater cognitive efforts. It is also generally assumed that deception is associated with the inhibition of default honest actions. However, the precise neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. The present study was aimed to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to reveal the underlying functional integration within the prefrontal cortex during the task which requires that subjects to deliberately mislead an opponent through the sequential execution of deceptive and honest claims. To address this issue, we performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis, which allows for statistical assessment of changes in functional relationships between active brain areas in changing psychological contexts. As a result the whole brain PPI-analysis established that both manipulative honest and deceptive claiming were associated with an increase in connectivity between the left middle frontal gyrus and right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ. Taking into account the role played by rTPJ in processes associated with the theory of mind the revealed data can reflect possible influence of socio-cognitive context on the process of selecting manipulative claiming regardless their honest or deceptive nature. Direct comparison between deceptive and honest claims revealed pattern enhancement of coupling between the left middle frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus. This finding provided evidence that the execution of deception relies to a greater extent on higher-order hierarchically-organized brain mechanisms of executive control required to select between two competing deceptive or honest task sets.

  18. Waving the Red Flag: FTC Regulation of Deceptive Weight-Loss Advertising 1951-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the historical role of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in regulating deceptive weight-loss advertising, which the commission began to prioritize in the 1990s after a dramatic rise in complaints. It also includes the results of a content analysis of more than 150 FTC complaints filed between 1951 and 2009, which were used to analyze trends in advertising content, liability for deceptive practices, and outcomes. Regulatory efforts may not have curbed the use of bogus weight-loss claims, which have only increased over time. The FTC has made attempts to apply broad liability, but advertisers and corporate leaders continue to be named most frequently over other respondents, including advertising agencies, media outlets, and product endorsers. Although the number of complaints that result in financial penalties is increasing, the FTC lacks systematic and specific policies to adequately deter advertisers and address what continues to be a growing problem.

  19. Joseph Jastrow, the psychology of deception, and the racial economy of observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article reconstructs the recurring themes in the career of Joseph Jastrow, both inside and outside the laboratory. His psychology of deception provides the bridge between his experimental and popular pursuits. Furthermore, Jastrow's career illustrates the complex ways in which scientific psychology and pragmatist philosophy operated within the constraints of a moral economy deeply marked by notions of "race." Psychological investigations of deception were grafted onto two of the human sciences' leading tools: the evolutionary narrative and the statistical analysis of populations. Such associations abetted the racialization of the acts of deceiving and being deceived. These connections also were used to craft moral lessons about how individuals ought to behave in relationship to the aggregate population and natural selection's endowment.

  20. A Mosaic of Geothermal and Marine Features Shapes Microbial Community Structure on Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda G. Bendia; Camila N. Signori; Diego C. Franco; Rubens T. D. Duarte; Brendan J. M. Bohannan; Vivian H. Pellizari

    2018-01-01

    Active volcanoes in Antarctica contrast with their predominantly cold surroundings, resulting in environmental conditions capable of selecting for versatile and extremely diverse microbial communities. This is especially true on Deception Island, where geothermal, marine, and polar environments combine to create an extraordinary range of environmental conditions. Our main goal in this study was to understand how microbial community structure is shaped by gradients of temperature, salinity, an...

  1. Modelling the Antecedent and Consequence of Consumer Perceived Deception in Loan Services

    OpenAIRE

    Mbawuni Joseph; Simon Gyasi Nimako

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the antecedent and consequence of consumer perceived deception (CPD) on consumer trust, satisfaction, attitude recommendation and intentions to acquire future loans from financial service providers. The proposed research model was tested using data from a survey of 371 loan customers of leading financial service providers in Ghana. Data were analysed using SmartPLS 2.0 for Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling. The results show high information quality could ...

  2. Detecting deception in movement: the case of the side-step in rugby.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Brault

    Full Text Available Although coordinated patterns of body movement can be used to communicate action intention, they can also be used to deceive. Often known as deceptive movements, these unpredictable patterns of body movement can give a competitive advantage to an attacker when trying to outwit a defender. In this particular study, we immersed novice and expert rugby players in an interactive virtual rugby environment to understand how the dynamics of deceptive body movement influence a defending player's decisions about how and when to act. When asked to judge final running direction, expert players who were found to tune into prospective tau-based information specified in the dynamics of 'honest' movement signals (Centre of Mass, performed significantly better than novices who tuned into the dynamics of 'deceptive' movement signals (upper trunk yaw and out-foot placement (p<.001. These findings were further corroborated in a second experiment where players were able to move as if to intercept or 'tackle' the virtual attacker. An analysis of action responses showed that experts waited significantly longer before initiating movement (p<.001. By waiting longer and picking up more information that would inform about future running direction these experts made significantly fewer errors (p<.05. In this paper we not only present a mathematical model that describes how deception in body-based movement is detected, but we also show how perceptual expertise is manifested in action expertise. We conclude that being able to tune into the 'honest' information specifying true running action intention gives a strong competitive advantage.

  3. The application of fractional Mel cepstral coefficient in deceptive speech detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinyu; Zhao, Heming; Zhou, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The inconvenience operation of EEG P300 or functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) will be overcome, when the deceptive information can be effectively detected from speech signal analysis. In this paper, the fractional Mel cepstral coefficient (FrCC) is proposed as the speech character for deception detection. The different fractional order can reveal various personalities of the speakers. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model (which has the ability of global optimal vector mapping) is introduced, and the performance of FrCC and MFCC in deceptive detection is compared when all the data are mapped to low dimensional. Then, the hidden Markov model (HMM) is introduced as a long-term signal analysis tool. Twenty-five male and 25 female participants are involved in the experiment. The results show that the clustering effect of optimal fractional order FrCC is better than that of MFCC. The average accuracy for male and female speaker is 59.9% and 56.2%, respectively, by using the FrCC under the LDA model. When MFCC is used, the accuracy is reduced by 3.2% and 5.9%, respectively, for male and female. The accuracy can be increased to 71.0% and 70.2% for male and female speakers when HMM is used. Moreover, some individual accuracy is increased over 20%, or even more than 85%, when FrCC is introduced. The results show that the deceptive information is indeed hidden in the speech signals. Therefore, speech-based psychophysiology calculating may be a valuable research field.

  4. Toward a Robust Method of Presenting a Rich, Interconnected Deceptive Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    SDN Software - Defined Networking SNOS Systemic Network Obfuscation System SSH Secure Shell TCP Transmission Control Protocol TTL time to...same DeTracer functionality directly on routers. One particularly interesting research area would be the use of Software - Defined Networking ( SDN ) to...Hughes, “Employing deceptive dynamic network topology through software - defined networking ,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Comput. Sci., Naval

  5. Deception Detection: Accuracy Levels Among International Military Officers Using Content and Contextual Questioning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    deception than any one method on its own. This research project focuses on students at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA, to...international military officers were also limited on the type of contextual questioning methods and scenarios. These scenarios were not a very good ...research received participation from 52 students . Although the sample size was small, proportionally, 24% is a good response rate for lab research

  6. A sacred command of reason? Deceit, deception, and dishonesty in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Kant (Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Hackett, Indianapolis, 1797) described honesty as 'a sacred command of reason' which should be obeyed at all times and at any cost. This study inquires into the practice of dishonesty, deception, and deceit by universities in the UK in the pursuit of quality indicators such as league table positions, Research Excellence Framework (REF) scores, and student satisfaction survey results. Deception occurs when the metrics which inform these tables and surveys are manipulated to suggest an improvement in quality when, in fact, the raised scores are merely the result of clever strategic planning. Deceit occurs when these manipulated scores are deliberately and knowingly presented as real improvements in research and educational quality. It might be argued that, within the context of the artificial ivory tower world of academe, this is a game played by almost every academic in every higher education institution with no real losers and little wider consequence. However, this study suggests that some of the strategies employed by institutions to improve their scores without directly addressing the issue of quality can, in certain practice-based disciplines such as nursing, result in dire consequences for practitioners and service users. It concludes with a number of suggestions taken from personal experience to resolve the tension between the contractual demands placed on nurse academics by their employers and the moral and practical obligations of their professional body, most notably the use of subversion. The conclusion, contra Kant, is that the most effective strategy against dishonesty and deception is often more dishonesty and deception. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Functional Architecture of the Brain Underlies Strategic Deception in Impression Management

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Luo; Qiang Luo; Yina Ma; Yina Ma; Meghana A. Bhatt; Meghana A. Bhatt; P. Read Montague; P. Read Montague; P. Read Montague; Jianfeng Feng; Jianfeng Feng; Jianfeng Feng; Jianfeng Feng; Jianfeng Feng

    2017-01-01

    Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent...

  8. The Functional Architecture of the Brain Underlies Strategic Deception in Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiang; Ma, Yina; Bhatt, Meghana A; Montague, P Read; Feng, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent noise (SDN), which captured the directional connectivity underlying the impression management during the bargaining game. We found that the sophisticated strategists engaged stronger directional connectivity from both dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and retrosplenial cortex to rostral prefrontal cortex, and the strengths of these directional influences were associated with higher level of deception during the game. Using the directional connectivity as a neural signature, we identified the strategic deception with 80% accuracy by a machine-learning classifier. These results suggest that different social strategies are supported by distinct patterns of directional connectivity among key brain regions for social cognition.

  9. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Ludwig Sporer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory ModelAbstractRecently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the cognitive load approach as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes. Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley's (2000, 2007, 2012 working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009, the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed. Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed.

  10. Sex, Lies and fMRI—Gender Differences in Neural Basis of Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Grabowska, Anna; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants’ subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization. PMID:22952631

  11. The Functional Architecture of the Brain Underlies Strategic Deception in Impression Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent noise (SDN, which captured the directional connectivity underlying the impression management during the bargaining game. We found that the sophisticated strategists engaged stronger directional connectivity from both dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and retrosplenial cortex to rostral prefrontal cortex, and the strengths of these directional influences were associated with higher level of deception during the game. Using the directional connectivity as a neural signature, we identified the strategic deception with 80% accuracy by a machine-learning classifier. These results suggest that different social strategies are supported by distinct patterns of directional connectivity among key brain regions for social cognition.

  12. Sex, lies and fMRI--gender differences in neural basis of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Marchewka

    Full Text Available Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants' subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG. Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization.

  13. Improvements in Cycling Time Trial Performance Are Not Sustained Following the Acute Provision of Challenging and Deceptive Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie S Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available TThe provision of performance-related feedback during exercise is acknowledged as an influential external cue used to inform pacing decisions. The provision of this feedback in a challenging or deceptive context allows research to explore how feedback can be used to improve performance and influence perceptual responses. However, the effects of deception on both acute and residual responses have yet to be explored, despite potential application for performance enhancement. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of challenging and deceptive feedback on perceptual responses and performance in self-paced cycling time trials (TT and explored whether changes in performance are sustained in a subsequent TT following the disclosure of the deception.Seventeen trained male cyclists were assigned to either an accurate or deceptive feedback group and performed four 16.1 km cycling TTs; 1 and 2 ride-alone baseline TTs where a fastest baseline (FBL performance was identified, 3 a TT against a virtual avatar representing 102% of their FBL performance (PACER, and 4 a subsequent ride-alone TT (SUB. The deception group, however, were initially informed that the avatar accurately represented their FBL, but prior to SUB were correctly informed of the nature of the avatar. Affect, self-efficacy and RPE were measured every quartile. Both groups performed PACER faster than FBL and SUB (p < 0.05 and experienced lower affect (p = 0.016, lower self-efficacy (p = 0.011, and higher RPE (p < 0.001 in PACER than FBL. No significant differences were found between FBL and SUB for any variable. The presence of the pacer rather than the manipulation of performance beliefs acutely facilitates TT performance and perceptual responses. Revealing that athletes’ performance beliefs were falsely negative due to deceptive feedback provision has no effect on subsequent perceptions or performance. A single experiential exposure may not be sufficient to produce meaningful

  14. An object cue is more effective than a word in ERP-based detection of deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Tim R H; Djakovic, Tatjana; Kebbell, Mark R; Shum, David H K

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies of deception have used a form of the guilty knowledge test along with the oddball P300 event-related potential (ERP) to uncover hidden memories. These studies typically have used words as the cuing stimuli. In the present study, a mock crime was enacted by participants to prime their episodic memory and different memory cue types (Words, Pictures of Objects and Faces) were created to investigate their relative efficacy in identifying guilt. A peak-to peak (p-p) P300 response was computed for rare known non-guilty item (target), rare guilty knowledge item (probe) and frequently presented unknown items (irrelevant). Difference in this P300 measure between the probe and irrelevant was the key dependent variable. Object cues were found to be the most effective, particularly at the parietal site. A bootstrap procedure commonly used to detect deception in individual participants by comparing their probe and irrelevant P300 p-p showed the object cues to provide the best discrimination. Furthermore, using all three of the cue types together provided high detection accuracy (94%). These results confirm prior findings on the utility of ERPs for detecting deception. More importantly, they provide support for the hypothesis that direct cueing with a picture of the crime object may be more effective than using a word (consistent with the picture superiority effect reported in the literature). Finally, a face cue (e.g., crime victim) may also provide a useful probe for detection of guilty knowledge but this stimulus form needs to be chosen with due caution.

  15. Evolutionary relationships among pollinators and repeated pollinator sharing in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R D; Brown, G R; Dixon, K W; Hayes, C; Linde, C C; Peakall, R

    2017-09-01

    The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the wasp lineages exploited by orchids. We focused on species that are pollinated by sexual deception of thynnine wasps in the distantly related genera Caladenia and Drakaea, including new field observations for 45 species of Caladenia. Specialization was extreme with most orchids using a single pollinator species. Unexpectedly, seven cases of pollinator sharing were found, including two between Caladenia and Drakaea, which exhibit strikingly different floral morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of pollinators using four nuclear sequence loci demonstrated that although orchids within major clades primarily use closely related pollinator species, up to 17% of orchids within these clades are pollinated by a member of a phylogenetically distant wasp genus. Further, compared to the total diversity of thynnine wasps within the study region, orchids show a strong bias towards exploiting certain genera. Although these patterns may arise through conservatism in the chemical classes used in sex pheromones, apparent switches between wasp clades suggest unexpected flexibility in floral semiochemical production. Alternatively, wasp sex pheromones within lineages may exhibit greater chemical diversity than currently appreciated. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Transcriptome and proteome data reveal candidate genes for pollinator attraction in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Qi, Weihong; Schauer, Monica A; Gupta, Alok K; Poveda, Lucy; Xu, Shuqing; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2013-01-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys mimic the mating signals of their pollinator females to attract males as pollinators. This mode of pollination is highly specific and leads to strong reproductive isolation between species. This study aims to identify candidate genes responsible for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation between three closely related species, O. exaltata, O. sphegodes and O. garganica. Floral traits such as odour, colour and morphology are necessary for successful pollinator attraction. In particular, different odour hydrocarbon profiles have been linked to differences in specific pollinator attraction among these species. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in these traits is important for understanding the molecular basis of pollinator attraction by sexually deceptive orchids. We have created floral reference transcriptomes and proteomes for these three Ophrys species using a combination of next-generation sequencing (454 and Solexa), Sanger sequencing, and shotgun proteomics (tandem mass spectrometry). In total, 121 917 unique transcripts and 3531 proteins were identified. This represents the first orchid proteome and transcriptome from the orchid subfamily Orchidoideae. Proteome data revealed proteins corresponding to 2644 transcripts and 887 proteins not observed in the transcriptome. Candidate genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis were represented by 156 and 61 unique transcripts in 20 and 7 genes classes, respectively. Moreover, transcription factors putatively involved in the regulation of flower odour, colour and morphology were annotated, including Myb, MADS and TCP factors. Our comprehensive data set generated by combining transcriptome and proteome technologies allowed identification of candidate genes for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among sexually deceptive orchids. This includes genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation, and the development of

  17. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker's Dozen of Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker's dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion-for truth-tellers and deceivers alike-to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling.

  18. Equating Efficiency with Reduction: A Self-Deception in Energy Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhite, Harold; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    power, mobility and so on). The policy makers at the centre of the policy discourse on energy sustainability suffer from a form for self-deception which revolves around the equation of ‘efficiency’ with ‘reduction’ and ‘sustainability’, i.e., the untenable contention that technological and market...... and infrastructure for homes, businesses, transport, health and public services, so that it is neither ethical nor even practical to argue for restrictions in overall energy growth in these and other developing countries. This places the onus for deep reductions in energy use on Europe, North America and the other...

  19. A Deceptive Initiation: An Ecological Paradigm in Howard O’Hagan’s Tay John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Yakovenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Howard O’Hagan’s novel Tay John has been widely discussed as a modernist work of deconstruction that undermines the established concepts of broadly understood mythology, narrative, and gender. In this article, I focus on one of the previously neglected aspects of the novel’s mythological drama – the clash of the pre-modern and modern ecological epistemai, which unfolds as an originary event of entering into modernity. I argue that the dramatic irony of a recoded indigenous myth introduces the aboriginal Shuswaps to the colonialist perception of the environment, deceptively making them hostages of their own beliefs and thereby drastically changing their temporal-spatial continuum.

  20. When interference helps: Increasing executive load to facilitate deception detection in the Concealed Information Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eVisu-Petra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to enhance the detection efficiency of the Concealed Information Test (CIT by increasing executive load was investigated, using an interference design. After learning and executing a mock crime scenario, subjects underwent three deception detection tests: an RT-based CIT, an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent memory task (CITMem, and an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent set-shifting task (CITShift. The concealed information effect, consisting in increased RT and lower response accuracy for probe items compared to irrelevant items, was evidenced across all three conditions. The group analyses indicated a larger difference between RTs to probe and irrelevant items in the dual-task conditions, but this difference was not translated in a significantly increased detection efficiency at an individual level. Signal detection parameters based on the comparison with a simulated innocent group showed accurate discrimination for all conditions. Overall response accuracy on the CITMem was highest and the difference between response accuracy to probes and irrelevants was smallest in this condition. Accuracy on the concurrent tasks (Mem and Shift was high, and responses on these tasks were significantly influenced by CIT stimulus type (probes vs. irrelevants. The findings are interpreted in relation to the cognitive load/dual-task interference literature, generating important insights for research on the involvement of executive functions in deceptive behavior.

  1. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding Our Horizon with a Working Memory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Siegfried L

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the "cognitive load approach" as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes). Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley's (2000, 2007, 2012) working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal, and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009), the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed). Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed.

  2. Multiple shifts to different pollinators fuelled rapid diversification in sexually deceptive Ophrys orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Hendrik; Onstein, Renske E; Cafasso, Donata; Schlüter, Philipp M; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Episodes of rapid speciation provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species radiations and patterns of biodiversity. Here we investigated the radiation of sexually deceptive bee orchids (Ophrys). Based on a time-calibrated phylogeny and by means of ancestral character reconstruction and divergence time estimation, we estimated the tempo and mode of this radiation within a state-dependent evolutionary framework. It appears that, in the Pleistocene, the evolution of Ophrys was marked by episodes of rapid diversification coinciding with shifts to different pollinator types: from wasps to Eucera bees to Andrena and other bees. An abrupt increase in net diversification rate was detected in three clades. Among these, two phylogenetically distant lineages switched from Eucera to Andrena and other bees in a parallel fashion and at about the same time in their evolutionary history. Lack of early radiation associated with the evolution of the key innovation of sexual deception suggests that Ophrys diversification was mainly driven by subsequent ecological opportunities provided by the exploitation of novel pollinator groups, encompassing many bee species slightly differing in their sex pheromone communication systems, and by spatiotemporal fluctuations in the pollinator mosaic. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Simultaneous Event-Triggered Fault Detection and Estimation for Stochastic Systems Subject to Deception Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunji; Wu, QingE; Peng, Li

    2018-01-23

    In this paper, a synthesized design of fault-detection filter and fault estimator is considered for a class of discrete-time stochastic systems in the framework of event-triggered transmission scheme subject to unknown disturbances and deception attacks. A random variable obeying the Bernoulli distribution is employed to characterize the phenomena of the randomly occurring deception attacks. To achieve a fault-detection residual is only sensitive to faults while robust to disturbances, a coordinate transformation approach is exploited. This approach can transform the considered system into two subsystems and the unknown disturbances are removed from one of the subsystems. The gain of fault-detection filter is derived by minimizing an upper bound of filter error covariance. Meanwhile, system faults can be reconstructed by the remote fault estimator. An recursive approach is developed to obtain fault estimator gains as well as guarantee the fault estimator performance. Furthermore, the corresponding event-triggered sensor data transmission scheme is also presented for improving working-life of the wireless sensor node when measurement information are aperiodically transmitted. Finally, a scaled version of an industrial system consisting of local PC, remote estimator and wireless sensor node is used to experimentally evaluate the proposed theoretical results. In particular, a novel fault-alarming strategy is proposed so that the real-time capacity of fault-detection is guaranteed when the event condition is triggered.

  4. Caldera unrest detected with seawater temperature anomalies at Deception Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocoso, M.; Prates, G.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Peci, L. M.; de Gil, A.; Rosado, B.; Páez, R.; Jigena, B.

    2018-04-01

    Increased thermal activity was detected to coincide with the onset of volcano inflation in the seawater-filled caldera at Deception Island. This thermal activity was manifested in pulses of high water temperature that coincided with ocean tide cycles. The seawater temperature anomalies were detected by a thermometric sensor attached to the tide gauge (bottom pressure sensor). This was installed where the seawater circulation and the locations of known thermal anomalies, fumaroles and thermal springs, together favor the detection of water warmed within the caldera. Detection of the increased thermal activity was also possible because sea ice, which covers the entire caldera during the austral winter months, insulates the water and thus reduces temperature exchange between seawater and atmosphere. In these conditions, the water temperature data has been shown to provide significant information about Deception volcano activity. The detected seawater temperature increase, also observed in soil temperature readings, suggests rapid and near-simultaneous increase in geothermal activity with onset of caldera inflation and an increased number of seismic events observed in the following austral summer.

  5. Deceptive vibratory communication: pupae of a beetle exploit the freeze response of larvae to protect themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2012-10-23

    It is argued that animal signals may have evolved so as to manipulate the response of receivers in a way that increases the fitness of the signallers. In deceptive communication, receivers incur costs by responding to false signals. Recently, we reported that pupae of the soil-inhabiting Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotoma produce vibratory signals to deter burrowing larvae, thereby protecting themselves. In the present study, monitoring of vibrations associated with larval movement revealed that T. dichotoma larvae remained motionless for ca 10 min when pupal vibratory signals were played back transiently (freeze response). Furthermore, pupal signals of T. dichotoma elicited a freeze response in three other scarabaeid species, whose pupae do not produce vibratory signals. This indicates that the freeze response to certain types of vibration evolved before the divergence of these species and has been evolutionarily conserved, presumably because of the fitness advantage in avoiding predators. Pupae of T. dichotoma have probably exploited pre-existing anti-predator responses of conspecific larvae to protect themselves by emitting deceptive vibratory signals.

  6. The Myth of Offenders' Deception on Self-Report Measure Predicting Recidivism: Example from the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy; Loza-Fanous, Amel; Heseltine, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the vulnerability of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) to deception and self-presentation biases. The SAQ is a self-report measure used to predict recidivism and guide institutional and program assignments. In the first study, comparisons were made between 429 volunteer offenders who completed the SAQ…

  7. A System of Deception and Fraud Detection Using Reliable Linguistic Cues Including Hedging, Disfluencies, and Repeated Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpherys, Sean LaMarc

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing problem of fraud, crime, and national security threats, assessing credibility is a recurring research topic in Information Systems and in other disciplines. Decision support systems can help. But the success of the system depends on reliable cues that can distinguish deceptive/truthful behavior and on a proven classification…

  8. Effect of nectar supplementation on male and female components of pollination success in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, S.D.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Pupin, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2008), s. 300-306 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Dactylorhiza sambucina * Deception * Nectar supplementation * Pollination * Pollen removal and deposition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.456, year: 2008

  9. 16 CFR 301.43 - Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. 301.43 Section 301.43 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... Regulations § 301.43 Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. No person shall use in labeling, invoicing or advertising any fur or fur product a trade name...

  10. When deception becomes easy : The effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bockstaele, B.; Wilhelm, C.; Meijer, E.; Debey, E.; Verschuere, B.

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people

  11. The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren C. J. Wong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems.

  12. The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren C J; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen) in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few) by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems.

  13. Self-Deception in the Classroom: Educational Manifestations of Sartre's Concept of Bad Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Sean; Waddington, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an important section of Jean-Paul Sartre's famous early work, "Being and Nothingness." In that section Sartre proposes that part of the human condition is to actively engage in a particular kind of self-deception he calls bad faith. Bad faith is recognized by the obvious inconsistency between the purported…

  14. It's the deceiver, not the receiver: No individual differences when detecting deception in a foreign and a native language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin K H Law

    Full Text Available Individual differences in lie detection remain poorly understood. Bond and DePaulo's meta-analysis examined judges (receivers who were ascertaining lies from truths and senders (deceiver who told these lies and truths. Bond and DePaulo found that the accuracy of detecting deception depended more on the characteristics of senders rather than the judges' ability to detect lies/truths. However, for many studies in this meta-analysis, judges could hear and understand senders. This made language comprehension a potential confound. This paper presents the results of two studies. Extending previous work, in Study 1, we removed language comprehension as a potential confound by having English-speakers (N = 126, mean age = 19.86 judge the veracity of German speakers (n = 12 in a lie detection task. The twelve lie-detection stimuli included emotional and non-emotional content, and were presented in three modalities-audio only, video only, and audio and video together. The intelligence (General, Auditory, Emotional and personality (Dark Triads and Big 6 of participants was also assessed. In Study 2, a native German-speaking sample (N = 117, mean age = 29.10 were also tested on a similar lie detection task to provide a control condition. Despite significantly extending research design and the selection of constructs employed to capture individual differences, both studies replicated Bond and DePaulo's findings. The results of Study1 indicated that removing language comprehension did not amplify individual differences in judge's ability to ascertain lies from truths. Study 2 replicated these results confirming a lack of individual differences in judge's ability to detect lies. The results of both studies suggest that Sender (deceiver characteristics exerted a stronger influence on the outcomes of lie detection than the judge's attributes.

  15. Measuring cues for stand-off deception detection based on full-body nonverbal features in body-worn cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Burghouts, Gertjan; den Hollander, Richard; van der Zee, Sophie; Baan, Jan; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; van Diepen, Sjaak; van den Haak, Paul; van Rest, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    Deception detection is valuable in the security domain to distinguish truth from lies. It is desirable in many security applications, such as suspect and witness interviews and airport passenger screening. Interviewers are constantly trying to assess the credibility of a statement, usually based on intuition without objective technical support. However, psychological research has shown that humans can hardly perform better than random guessing. Deception detection is a multi-disciplinary research area with an interest from different fields, such as psychology and computer science. In the last decade, several developments have helped to improve the accuracy of lie detection (e.g., with a concealed information test, increasing the cognitive load, or measurements with motion capture suits) and relevant cues have been discovered (e.g., eye blinking or fiddling with the fingers). With an increasing presence of mobile phones and bodycams in society, a mobile, stand-off, automatic deception detection methodology based on various cues from the whole body would create new application opportunities. In this paper, we study the feasibility of measuring these visual cues automatically on different parts of the body, laying the groundwork for stand-off deception detection in more flexible and mobile deployable sensors, such as body-worn cameras. We give an extensive overview of recent developments in two communities: in the behavioral-science community the developments that improve deception detection with a special attention to the observed relevant non-verbal cues, and in the computer-vision community the recent methods that are able to measure these cues. The cues are extracted from several body parts: the eyes, the mouth, the head and the fullbody pose. We performed an experiment using several state-of-the-art video-content-analysis (VCA) techniques to assess the quality of robustly measuring these visual cues.

  16. “Time for Some Traffic Problems": Enhancing E-Discovery and Big Data Processing Tools with Linguistic Methods for Deception Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Smith Crabb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic deception theory provides methods to discover potentially deceptive texts to make them accessible to clerical review. This paper proposes the integration of these linguistic methods with traditional e-discovery techniques to identify deceptive texts within a given author’s larger body of written work, such as their sent email box. First, a set of linguistic features associated with deception are identified and a prototype classifier is constructed to analyze texts and describe the features’ distributions, while avoiding topic-specific features to improve recall of relevant documents. The tool is then applied to a portion of the Enron Email Dataset to illustrate how these strategies identify records, providing an example of its advantages and capability to stratify the large data set at hand.

  17. Interference and deception detection technology of satellite navigation based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyi; Deng, Pingke; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yaping

    2017-10-01

    Satellite navigation system plays an important role in people's daily life and war. The strategic position of satellite navigation system is prominent, so it is very important to ensure that the satellite navigation system is not disturbed or destroyed. It is a critical means to detect the jamming signal to avoid the accident in a navigation system. At present, the detection technology of jamming signal in satellite navigation system is not intelligent , mainly relying on artificial decision and experience. For this issue, the paper proposes a method based on deep learning to monitor the interference source in a satellite navigation. By training the interference signal data, and extracting the features of the interference signal, the detection sys tem model is constructed. The simulation results show that, the detection accuracy of our detection system can reach nearly 70%. The method in our paper provides a new idea for the research on intelligent detection of interference and deception signal in a satellite navigation system.

  18. Liar, liar, working memory on fire: Investigating the role of working memory in childhood verbal deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; McCallum, Fiona; Alloway, Ross G; Hoicka, Elena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of working memory in verbal deception in children. We presented 6- and 7-year-olds with a temptation resistance paradigm; they played a trivia game and were then given an opportunity to peek at the final answers on the back of a card. Measures of both verbal and visuospatial working memory were included. The good liars performed better on the verbal working memory test in both processing and recall compared with the bad liars. However, there was no difference in visuospatial working scores between good liars and bad liars. This pattern suggests that verbal working memory plays a role in processing and manipulating the multiple pieces of information involved in lie-telling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P; Williamson, Jane E

    2012-10-23

    Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods.

  20. Crustal Structure Picture of Deception Island [western Bransfield Strait] From Gravimetric and Magnetic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, M.; Carbó, A.; Martín, Davila; Muñoz, A.; Agudo, L.

    Bransfield Strait constitutes a marginal basin that separates the South Shetland archipielago from the Antarctic Peninsula. Since the beginning of its geological record, due to the presence of several submarine and above sea surface volcanoes, eruptions could be appointed easily. All these aspects turn the area as one of the most active at Antarctic region. During 1999 austral summer a seismic crisis was developed. It caused the organisation of a geophysical campaign called DECVOL, where several Spanish scientific institutions participated. Along this, several kinds of studies were carried out. Onland: geodesic GPS and gravity measurements, sampling and gases analysis, continuous seismic recording and geomagnetic measurements. Additionally a geophysical marine campaign [inside and outside Deception island] was carried out. Bathymetry and geopotential information [earth gravity field and geomagnetis m data] were acquired. The multi-disciplinar campaign goal was to perform a fast geophysical evaluation of the volcanic risk. This aspect was important particularly, because the emplacement of Spanish and Argentinean semi -permanent stations around its inner bay. In this study, potential field data recorded along this cruise have been used, together with satellite borne altimetry derived data for gravity, seismic bibliography information of the area, and finally magnetic data compiled in previous campaigns, that were processed until homogeneity could be guaranteed. All these gives a deep detail vision of the structure of the crust at Deception surroundings. In this communication the Bouguer gravity anomaly and scalar magnetic maps are presented, compared and discussed, as well as three gravity and magnetic marine profiles are 2D 1/2 modelled.

  1. Facial markings in the social cuckoo wasp Polistes sulcifer: No support for the visual deception and the assessment hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, Alessandro; Ortolani, Irene; Zechini, Luigi; Cervo, Rita

    2015-02-01

    Insect social parasites have to conquer a host colony by overcoming its defensive barriers. In addition to increased fighting abilities, many social parasites evolved sophisticated sensory deception mechanisms to elude host colonies defenses by exploiting host communication channels. Recently, it has been shown that the conspicuous facial markings of a paper wasp social parasite, Polistes sulcifer, decrease the aggressiveness of host foundresses. Two main hypotheses stand as explanations of this phenomenon: visual sensory deception (i.e. the black patterning reduces host aggression by exploiting the host visual communication system) and visual quality assessment (i.e. facial markings reduce aggressiveness as they signal the increased fighting ability of parasites). Through behavioral assays and morphological measurements we tested three predictions resulting from these hypotheses and found no support either for the visual sensory deception or for the quality assessment to explain the reduction in host aggressiveness towards the parasite. Our results suggest that other discrimination processes may explain the observed phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Critical Examination of Kant's Hypothesis that Citizens should have an Interest in Avoiding War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    In the paper I discuss the hypothesis that citizens of any well ordered republic will put their own rational interests before the ambitions of their rulers  suggesting that it is the hub of the entire project for a pacific federation  which lends some power of enforcement behind otherwise unsanct...... unsanctioned contractual international obligations. If so the premises need critical examination for their apparent simplicity is deceptive....

  3. A reverse order interview does not aid deception detection regarding intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Elise; McGuire, Mollie; Langben, Sara; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Promising recent research suggests that more cognitively demanding interviews improve deception detection accuracy. Would these cognitively demanding techniques work in the same way when discriminating between true and false future intentions? In Experiment 1 participants planned to complete a task, but instead were intercepted and interviewed about their intentions. Participants lied or told the truth, and were subjected to high (reverse order) or low (sequential order) cognitive load interviews. Third-party observers watched these interviews and indicated whether they thought the person was lying or telling the truth. Subjecting participants to a reverse compared to sequential interview increased the misidentification rate and the appearance of cognitive load in truth tellers. People lying about false intentions were not better identified. In Experiment 2, a second set of third-party observers rated behavioral cues. Consistent with Experiment 1, truth tellers, but not liars, exhibited more behaviors associated with lying and fewer behaviors associated with truth telling in the reverse than sequential interview. Together these results suggest that certain cognitively demanding interviews may be less useful when interviewing to detect false intentions. Explaining a true intention while under higher cognitive demand places truth tellers at risk of being misclassified. There may be such a thing as too much cognitive load induced by certain techniques.

  4. Impression management ("lie") scales are associated with interpersonally oriented self-control, not other-deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Liad

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the status of impression management (IM) scales ("lie scales," notably, BIDR-IM) as measures of response bias, offers theory-driven substantive meaning to them, and compares them with self-deception enhancement (SDE). Study 1 (N = 99) compared self-descriptions of actual self and ideal self given in a non-anonymous setting. High similarity indicates self-enhancement. Study 2 (70 dyads) analyzed self-other agreement about IM and SDE. Agreement indicates substantive basis to the scales' scores. Study 3 (N = 182) explored the centrality of self-control in the self-perception of individuals varying in IM and SDE. Study 4 (95 dyads) corroborated self-reports about self-control using informants' reports. In Study 1, IM was associated with relative humility, whereas SDE was associated with self-enhancement. In Study 2, strong self-other agreement was found only for IM, indicating that high IM (but not SDE) is grounded in real-life behavior. In Study 3, self-control was central in the self-perception of high IM and high SDE individuals. In Study 4, strong relations with self-control were corroborated by informants only for IM. IM scales measure substantive content associated with self-control aimed at social adaptation, whereas the SDE scale depicts individuals with a grandiose self-perception, who fail to impress knowledgeable others. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reflections on Phishing for Phools – The Economics of Manipulation and Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klikauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Nobel Prize winning economists Akerlof and Shiller’s phishing for phools explains the economics behind mass deception and manipulation in market economies. While “phishing” is commonly known as a form of internet fraught, their book ‘takes a new, broader meaning, i.e. getting people to do things that are in the interest of the phisherman, but not in the interest of the target. A phool is someone who, for whatever reason, is successfully phished. These are emotional phools (feelings override common sense and information phools (people act on information that is intentionally crafted to mislead them. Divided into “unpaid bills and financial crash”, “phishing in many contexts”, and “general lessons”, the book uses rafts of examples from economics, the media, and advertising to substantiate their claim. While it avoids linking their findings to capitalism, the book contains a few helpful hints when seeking to avoid being “phished as a phool”. In the end, and despite the economic analysis of the two Nobel Prize winners, the more illuminating book on the subject remains Lindstrom’s “Buyology”.

  6. A reverse order interview does not aid deception detection regarding intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Elise; McGuire, Mollie; Langben, Sara; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Promising recent research suggests that more cognitively demanding interviews improve deception detection accuracy. Would these cognitively demanding techniques work in the same way when discriminating between true and false future intentions? In Experiment 1 participants planned to complete a task, but instead were intercepted and interviewed about their intentions. Participants lied or told the truth, and were subjected to high (reverse order) or low (sequential order) cognitive load interviews. Third-party observers watched these interviews and indicated whether they thought the person was lying or telling the truth. Subjecting participants to a reverse compared to sequential interview increased the misidentification rate and the appearance of cognitive load in truth tellers. People lying about false intentions were not better identified. In Experiment 2, a second set of third-party observers rated behavioral cues. Consistent with Experiment 1, truth tellers, but not liars, exhibited more behaviors associated with lying and fewer behaviors associated with truth telling in the reverse than sequential interview. Together these results suggest that certain cognitively demanding interviews may be less useful when interviewing to detect false intentions. Explaining a true intention while under higher cognitive demand places truth tellers at risk of being misclassified. There may be such a thing as too much cognitive load induced by certain techniques PMID:26379610

  7. Friendship after a friends with benefits relationship: deception, psychological functioning, and social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D; Manthos, Megan

    2013-11-01

    Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends.

  8. Can training improve laypersons helping behaviour in first aid? A randomised controlled deception trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Stijn; Roex, Ann; Vangronsveld, Karoline; Niezink, Lidewij; Van Praet, Koen; Heselmans, Annemie; Donceel, Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Ramaekers, Dirk; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2013-04-01

    There is limited evidence indicating that laypersons trained in first aid provide better help, but do not help more often than untrained laypersons. This study investigated the effect of conventional first aid training versus conventional training plus supplementary training aimed at decreasing barriers to helping. The authors conducted a randomised controlled trial. After 24 h of conventional first aid training, the participants either attended an experimental lesson to reduce barriers to helping or followed a control lesson. The authors used a deception test to measure the time between the start of the unannounced simulated emergency and seeking help behaviour and the number of particular helping actions. The authors randomised 72 participants to both groups. 22 participants were included in the analysis for the experimental group and 36 in the control group. The authors found no statistically or clinically significant differences for any of the outcome measures. The time until seeking help (geometrical mean and 95% CI) was 55.5 s (42.9 to 72.0) in the experimental group and 56.5 s (43.0 to 74.3) in the control group. 57% of the participants asked a bystander to seek help, 40% left the victim to seek help themselves and 3% did not seek any help. Supplementary training on dealing with barriers to helping did not alter the helping behaviour. The timing and appropriateness of the aid provided can be improved. The authors registered this trial at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00954161.

  9. Adult Smokers' Responses to “Corrective Statements” Regarding Tobacco Industry Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Thrasher, James F.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J.; Krugman, Dean M.; Berg, Carla J.; Hardin, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Background To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate “corrective statements” (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. Purpose To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Methods Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280–281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Results Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. Conclusions This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco–related health disparities. PMID:24746372

  10. Secrecy in Educational Practices: Enacting Nested Black Boxes in Cheating and Deception Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo An Oravec

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers secrecy from the vantage point of recent technological initiatives designed to detect cheating and deception in educational contexts as well as to monitor off-campus social media speech code violations. Many of these systems are developed and implemented by third-party corporate entities who claim practices to be proprietary and secret. The outsourcers involved in these efforts have provided one level of secrecy and educational administrators involved yet another level, thus constructing "nested black boxes." Also discussed in this paper is the “paranoid style” of administration, often supported by the surveillance and construction of rosters of potential non-conformists, such as alleged cheaters and speech code violators. The educational technologies described in this article are increasingly applied to workplace practices, with young people being trained in what is deemed acceptable conduct. Secrecy can serve to alter the character of relationships within the educational institutions involved as well as inside the workplaces in which the approaches are increasingly being integrated.

  11. Potential ash impact from Antarctic volcanoes: Insights from Deception Island's most recent eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, A; Marti, A; Giralt, S; Folch, A

    2017-11-28

    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions may disperse over vast areas of the globe posing a threat to human health and infrastructures and causing significant disruption to air traffic. In Antarctica, at least five volcanoes have reported historic activity. However, no attention has been paid to the potential socio-economic and environmental consequences of an ash-forming eruption occurring at high southern latitudes. This work shows how ash from Antarctic volcanoes may pose a higher threat than previously believed. As a case study, we evaluate the potential impacts of ash for a given eruption scenario from Deception Island, one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica. Numerical simulations using the novel MMB-MONARCH-ASH model demonstrate that volcanic ash emitted from Antarctic volcanoes could potentially encircle the globe, leading to significant consequences for global aviation safety. Results obtained recall the need for performing proper hazard assessment on Antarctic volcanoes, and are crucial for understanding the patterns of ash distribution at high southern latitudes with strong implications for tephrostratigraphy, which is pivotal to synchronize palaeoclimatic records.

  12. Double Deception: Ant-Mimicking Spiders Elude Both Visually- and Chemically-Oriented Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Divya; Durkee, Caitlin; Herzner, Gudrun; Weiss, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Biological mimicry is often multimodal, in that a mimic reinforces its resemblance to another organism via different kinds of signals that can be perceived by a specific target audience. In this paper we describe a novel scenario, in which a mimic deceives at least two distinct audiences, each of which relies primarily on a different sensory modality for decision-making. We have previously shown that Peckhamia picata, a myrmecomorphic spider that morphologically and behaviorally resembles the ant Camponotus nearcticus, experiences reduced predation by visually-oriented jumping spiders. Here we report that Peckhamia also faces reduced aggression from spider-hunting sphecid wasps as well as from its model ant, both of which use chemical cues to identify prey. We also report that Peckhamia does not chemically resemble its model ants, and that its total cuticular hydrocarbons are significantly lower than those of the ants and non-mimic spiders. Although further studies are needed to clarify the basis of Peckhamia's chemically-mediated protection, to our knowledge, such ‘double deception,’ in which a single organism sends misleading visual cues to one set of predators while chemically misleading another set, has not been reported; however, it is likely to be common among what have until now been considered purely visual mimics. PMID:24236152

  13. When is deceptive message production more effortful than truth-telling? A baker’s dozen of moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judee K Burgoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker’s dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion--for truth-tellers and deceivers alike--to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling.

  14. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): the 2010-2011 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, R.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Serrano, I.; Villaseñor, A.; Galeano, J.

    2012-04-01

    As an example of the recent advances introduced in seismic monitoring of Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) during recent years, we describe the instrumental network deployed during the 2010-2011 survey by the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR). The period of operation extended from December 19, 2010 to March 5, 2011. We deployed a wireless seismic network composed by four three-component seismic stations. These stations are based on 24-bit SL04 SARA dataloggers sampling at 100 sps. They use a PC with embedded linux and SEISLOG data acquisition software. We use two types of three-component seismometers: short-period Mark L4C with natural frequency of 1 Hz and medium-period Lennartz3D/5s with natural frequency of 0.2 Hz. The network was designed for an optimum spatial coverage of the northern half of Deception, where a magma chamber has been reported. Station locations include the vicinity of the Spanish base "Gabriel de Castilla" (GdC), Obsidianas Beach, a zone near the craters from the 1970 eruptions, and the Chilean Shelter located south of Pendulum Cove. Continuous data from the local seismic network are received in real-time in the base by wifi transmission. We used Ubiquiti Networks Nanostation2 antennas with 2.4 GHz, dual-polarity, 10 dBi gain, and 54 Mbps transmission rate. They have shown a great robustness and speed for real-time applications. To prioritize data acquisition when the battery level is low, we have designed a circuit that allows independent power management for the seismic station and wireless transmission system. The reception antenna located at GdC is connected to a computer running SEISCOMP. This software supports several transmission protocols and manages the visualization and recording of seismic data, including the generation of summary plots to show the seismic activity. These twelve data channels are stored in miniseed format and displayed in real time, which allows for a rapid evaluation of

  15. A massive experiment on choice blindness in political decisions: Confidence, confabulation, and unconscious detection of self-deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rieznik

    Full Text Available We implemented a Choice Blindness Paradigm containing political statements in Argentina to reveal the existence of categorical ranges of introspective reports, identified by confidence and agreement levels, separating easy from very hard to manipulate decisions. CBP was implemented in both live and web-based forms. Importantly, and contrary to what was observed in Sweden, we did not observe changes in voting intentions. Also, confidence levels in the manipulated replies where significantly lower than in non-manipulated cases even in undetected manipulations. We name this phenomenon unconscious detection of self-deception. Results also show that females are more difficult to manipulate than men.

  16. Using G-Theory to Enhance Evidence of Reliability and Validity for Common Uses of the Paulhus Deception Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2018-01-01

    We applied a new approach to Generalizability theory (G-theory) involving parallel splits and repeated measures to evaluate common uses of the Paulhus Deception Scales based on polytomous and four types of dichotomous scoring. G-theory indices of reliability and validity accounting for specific-factor, transient, and random-response measurement error supported use of polytomous over dichotomous scores as contamination checks; as control, explanatory, and outcome variables; as aspects of construct validation; and as indexes of environmental effects on socially desirable responding. Polytomous scoring also provided results for flagging faking as dependable as those when using dichotomous scoring methods. These findings argue strongly against the nearly exclusive use of dichotomous scoring for the Paulhus Deception Scales in practice and underscore the value of G-theory in demonstrating this. We provide guidelines for applying our G-theory techniques to other objectively scored clinical assessments, for using G-theory to estimate how changes to a measure might improve reliability, and for obtaining software to conduct G-theory analyses free of charge.

  17. When Appearances Are not Deceptive: A Comparative History of School Uniforms in Argentina and the United States (Nineteenth--Twentieth Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussel, Ines

    2005-01-01

    Appearances are deceptive, the saying goes. However, we devote much time to the presentation of ourselves, and ties and necklaces can take up more energy than other "substantial" matters. This article analyzes the history of the presentation of selves in schools through the study of school uniforms. It will be claimed that modernity…

  18. Implications of Self-Deception for Self-Reported Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Dispositions and Actual Learning Performance: A Higher Order Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Robert R.; Thomas, Christopher H.; McNatt, D. Brian

    2008-01-01

    The authors explored implications of individuals' self-deception (a trait) for their self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic motivational dispositions and their actual learning performance. In doing so, a higher order structural model was developed and tested in which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational dispositions were underlying factors that…

  19. Is Italian regulation of Deceptive advertising Really Effective? A Content Analysis of the Authority’s Sentences (1999-2004) in Three Sectors: Mobile Communication, Cosmetics, Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    K. Premazzi

    2005-01-01

    Study involving a content analysis of the Italian Authority’s Sentences about deceptive advertising in the mobile communication, cosmetics, and retailing sector in the period 1999-2004, with the main aim to assess the effectiveness of the Italian regulation on this subject.

  20. Nondestructive examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mletzko, U.

    1980-01-01

    Visual examination is treated as a method for the control of size and shape of components, surface quality and weld performance. Dye penetrant, magnetic particle and eddy current examinations are treated as methods for the evaluation of surface defects and material properties. The limitations to certain materials, defect sizes and types are shown. (orig./RW)

  1. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  2. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Palomäki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502, where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  3. A super-assembly of Whi3 encodes memory of deceptive encounters by single cells during yeast courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron, Fabrice; Barral, Yves

    2013-12-05

    Cellular behavior is frequently influenced by the cell's history, indicating that single cells may memorize past events. We report that budding yeast permanently escape pheromone-induced cell-cycle arrest when experiencing a deceptive mating attempt, i.e., not reaching their putative partner within reasonable time. This acquired behavior depends on super-assembly and inactivation of the G1/S inhibitor Whi3, which liberates the G1 cyclin Cln3 from translational inhibition. Super-assembly of Whi3 is a slow response to pheromone, driven by polyQ and polyN domains, counteracted by Hsp70, and stable over generations. Unlike prion aggregates, Whi3 super-assemblies are not inherited mitotically but segregate to the mother cell. We propose that such polyQ- and polyN-based elements, termed here mnemons, act as cellular memory devices to encode previous environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  5. Radiologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeni, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The radiographic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract has been changed drastically by the introduction of endoscopic procedures that are now widely available. However, the diagnostic approach to the small bowel remains largely unchanged. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are occasionally employed but are not primary imaging modalities for small bowel disease. Even though small bowel endoscopes are available, they are infrequently used, and no scientific paper on their employment has been published. Barium studies are still the mainstay for evaluating patients with suspected small bowel abnormalities. This paper discusses the anatomy and physiology of the small bowel and lists the various types of barium and pharmacologic aids used for examining it. The different radiographic methods for examining the small bowel with barium, including SBFT, dedicated SBFT, enteroclysis, peroral pneumocolon (PPC), and retrograde small bowel examination, are described and put into perspective. To some degree such an undertaking must be a personal opinion, but certain conclusions can be made based on the available literature and practical experience. This analysis is based on the assumption that all the various barium techniques are performed with equal expertise by the individual radiologist, thus excluding bias from unfamiliarity with certain aspects of a procedure, such as intubation or skilled compression during fluoroscopy. Also, the use of water-soluble contrast material, CT, and MRI for evaluating suspected small bowel abnormalities is outlined

  6. How Can Men Convicted of Violence Against Women Feel Moral While Holding Sexist and Violent Attitudes? A Homeostatic Moral Model Based on Self-Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina, María L

    2018-05-01

    A moral model is proposed to understand how men convicted of violence against the partner can feel moral in spite of their past violent behavior and their current violent and sexist attitudes. Because of its appeal to the role of self-deception and its relationship to psychological well-being, it was hypothesized that a rigid conception about what is right and wrong (moral absolutism) is associated with ambivalent outcomes that keep their psychological system in homeostasis. The relationships were specified a priori and tested using path analysis. Several fit indices supported the adequacy of the model and showed that moral absolutism was indirectly related to both psychological well-being and a good moral self-conceptualization through self-deception. At the same time, moral absolutism was related to sexist and violent attitudes and a poor moral self-conceptualization. Future interventions could include strategies to reduce the resistances to change based on the reduction of moral absolutism and self-deception.

  7. Chaotic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike; Sonustun, Fulya Ozaksoy; Sonustun, Bahri

    2018-01-01

    In the regards of chaos theory, new concepts such as complexity, determinism, quantum mechanics, relativity, multiple equilibrium, complexity, (continuously) instability, nonlinearity, heterogeneous agents, irregularity were widely questioned in economics. It is noticed that linear models are insufficient for analyzing unpredictable, irregular and noncyclical oscillations of economies, and for predicting bubbles, financial crisis, business cycles in financial markets. Therefore, economists gave great consequence to use appropriate tools for modelling non-linear dynamical structures and chaotic behaviors of the economies especially in macro and the financial economy. In this paper, we aim to model the chaotic structure of exchange rates (USD-TL and EUR-TL). To determine non-linear patterns of the selected time series, daily returns of the exchange rates were tested by BDS during the period from January 01, 2002 to May 11, 2017 which covers after the era of the 2001 financial crisis. After specifying the non-linear structure of the selected time series, it was aimed to examine the chaotic characteristic for the selected time period by Lyapunov Exponents. The findings verify the existence of the chaotic structure of the exchange rate returns in the analyzed time period.

  8. Verbal Deception from Late Childhood to Middle Adolescence and Its Relation to Executive Functioning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation examined 8- to 16-year-olds' tendency to lie, the sophistication of their lies, and related cognitive factors. Participants were left alone and asked not to look at the answers to a test, but the majority peeked. The researcher then asked a series of questions to examine whether the participants would lie about their…

  9. Seasonal variation in biochemical indicators of physiological status in Euphausia superba from Port Foster, Deception Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, M.; Kaufmann, R. S.; Lowery, M. S.

    2003-06-01

    Seasonal changes in biochemical indicators of physiological status were analyzed in abdominal muscle of the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, collected from Port Foster, Deception Island, an active volcano located in the Shetland Island chain west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Krill were collected with a 10 m 2 MOCNESS trawl during four cruises (November 1999, February, May, November 2000). RNA:DNA mirrored the chlorophyll a concentration, with the highest values found during seasons of abundant phytoplankton. Activities of the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (CS) were significantly higher in male krill when compared to females of similar size, indicating that their burst and aerobic swimming performance may be higher than females throughout the year. RNA:DNA ratio and enzyme activities were highly elevated in summer as compared to the earliest spring sampling period. Krill showed significant seasonal changes in LDH activity, with lowest values in spring and highest values in summer (females) or autumn (males). Krill showed significant seasonal changes in CS activity with highest values in summer. Protein and % water varied significantly among seasons for both males and females. Lower CS activity and RNA:DNA ratio suggest krill exhibit reduced metabolism during the winter when phytoplankton production is reduced, perhaps enhancing survival. Lower enzyme activities in female krill in early spring suggest they may achieve greater metabolic suppression during overwintering.

  10. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  11. Macrobenthic patterns at the shallow marine waters in the caldera of the active volcano of Deception Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Martín-Martín, Rafael; Rull-Lluch, Jordi; Gómez-Garreta, Amelia; Avila, Conxita

    2018-04-01

    Deception Island is an active volcano located at the southern end of the South Shetland Archipelago, in the Antarctic Ocean. After the last eruption in 1970, benthic recolonization took place within the bay, with echinoderms being the dominant epifauna (e.g., the ophiuroid Ophionotus victoriae, the echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri and the sea star Odontaster validus), together with dense infaunal communities (mostly composed by oligochaetes, polychaetes, and bivalves). Here, we aim to describe the actual status of the marine benthic ecosystems inhabiting the shallow subtidal areas of this volcanic island. Benthic species were qualitatively scored as presence versus absence, considering the different sampling effort between localities done over the years. A total of 139 species of macroorganisms, belonging to 16 phyla were found, including fauna and flora, increasing the species richness values previously reported in all sites surveyed within the volcano caldera. Moreover, a dramatic increase in biodiversity was found towards the entrance of the bay. We suggest, however, that recolonization from external waters may not be the only reason for this pattern. In fact, sediment flux rates and substrate instability are common disturbances within the bay, probably being among the major factors determining benthic community assemblages. These processes probably favour deposit feeding communities at the innermost locations of the bay. This study provides a remarkably increased and updated species inventory from previous reports, altogether with a description of the main communities inhabiting the bay and the abiotic factors regulating this, mainly the bottom type.

  12. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-02

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  13. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Peci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARMTM processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (DebianTM as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  14. Study of the active layer at the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla”, Deception Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, M.A. de; Molina, A.; Recio, C.; Ramos, M.; Goyanes, G.; Ropero, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of permanent frozen ground (permafrost) and the increase in the thickness of the active layer may be caused both by natural processes (such as global climate change) and by anthropic activity, which changes the natural environmental conditions that allow its existence, as has been widely reported to occur in the northern polar and subpolar regions. In the case of Antarctica, some scientific research stations are located in areas with permafrost, such as the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla” on Deception Island. In the place where the station is located, an important increase in erosion has been observed in recent years, including the excavation of new gullies and the erosion of the coastal cliffs. In order to develop an initial analysis of the possible effects of the station on the permafrost degradation, ground temperature has been monitored since 2012 and the thickness and of the active layer and the temperature, both inside and beneath the station, have also been sporadically measured. Here we show the results and discuss how the station reduces the freezing of the ground during the winter when the station is closed and facilitates the warming of the ground during the living periods of the station in the Antarctic summer. Those initial results and conclusions make necessary to continue the study of the permafrost and the active layer in the station site by systematic monitoring of the ground temperature and the thickness of the active layer. [es

  15. Functional Significance of Labellum Pattern Variation in a Sexually Deceptive Orchid (Ophrys heldreichii: Evidence of Individual Signature Learning Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stejskal

    Full Text Available Mimicking female insects to attract male pollinators is an important strategy in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys, and some species possess flowers with conspicuous labellum patterns. The function of the variation of the patterns remains unresolved, with suggestions that these enhance pollinator communication. We investigated the possible function of the labellum pattern in Ophrys heldreichii, an orchid species in which the conspicuous and complex labellum pattern contrasts with a dark background. The orchid is pollinated exclusively by males of the solitary bee, Eucera berlandi. Comparisons of labellum patterns revealed that patterns within inflorescences are more similar than those of other conspecific plants. Field observations showed that the males approach at a great speed and directly land on flowers, but after an unsuccessful copulation attempt, bees hover close and visually scan the labellum pattern for up to a minute. Learning experiments conducted with honeybees as an accessible model of bee vision demonstrated that labellum patterns of different plants can be reliably learnt; in contrast, patterns of flowers from the same inflorescence could not be discriminated. These results support the hypothesis that variable labellum patterns in O. heldreichii are involved in flower-pollinator communication which would likely help these plants to avoid geitonogamy.

  16. Xenoepitope substitution avoids deceptive imprinting and broadens the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanek, Steven M; Barrette, Roger W; Rood, Debra; Alejo, Diana; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2012-04-01

    Many RNA viruses encode error-prone polymerases which introduce mutations into B and T cell epitopes, providing a mechanism for immunological escape. When regions of hypervariability are found within immunodominant epitopes with no known function, they are referred to as "decoy epitopes," which often deceptively imprint the host's immune response. In this work, a decoy epitope was identified in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O VP1 G-H loop after multiple sequence alignment of 118 isolates. A series of chimeric cyclic peptides resembling the type O G-H loop were prepared, each bearing a defined "B cell xenoepitope" from another virus in place of the native decoy epitope. These sequences were derived from porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), from HIV, or from a presumptively tolerogenic sequence from murine albumin and were subsequently used as immunogens in BALB/c mice. Cross-reactive antibody responses against all peptides were compared to a wild-type peptide and ovalbumin (OVA). A broadened antibody response was generated in animals inoculated with the PRRSV chimeric peptide, in which virus binding of serum antibodies was also observed. A B cell epitope mapping experiment did not reveal recognition of any contiguous linear epitopes, raising the possibility that the refocused response was directed to a conformational epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that xenoepitope substitution is a novel method for immune refocusing against decoy epitopes of RNA viruses such as FMDV as part of the rational design of next-generation vaccines.

  17. Test of a Mock Theft Scenario for Use in the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception: IV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... In Experiments 1 and 2 two groups of 16 participants who were assigned to be either guilty or innocent of the mock theft of a ring were tested using the Zone Comparison Test, a PDD examination taught...

  18. Anaplasma phagocytophilum: deceptively simple or simply deceptive?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severo, M. S.; Stephens, K. D.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), s. 719-731 ISSN 1746-0913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : obligate intracellular bacterium * rickettsial agents * ticks * vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2012

  19. Potentially Deceptive Health Nutrition-Related Advertising Claims: The Role of Inoculation in Conferring Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia M.; Miller, Claude H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition-related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design: Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects…

  20. The reupholster of stained glass designs and “ the deceptive silence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reflecting on the seminal theme of Biography as a provisional means of accessing artistic substance, this study dares a reading of the metamorphosis of the artistry of the Nigerian glass designs of Frank Ugiomoh and Nsikak Essien. Utilising an empirical analysis, principal art works of these masters are examined. However ...

  1. Do impression management and self-deception distort self-report measures with content of dynamic risk factors in offender samples? A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Martin; Wibbelink, Carlijn J M; Verschuere, Bruno

    Self-report measures provide an important source of information in correctional/forensic settings, yet at the same time the validity of that information is often questioned because self-reports are thought to be highly vulnerable to self-presentation biases. Primary studies in offender samples have provided mixed results with regard to the impact of socially desirable responding on self-reports. The main aim of the current study was therefore to investigate-via a meta-analytic review of published studies-the association between the two dimensions of socially desirable responding, impression management and self-deceptive enhancement, and self-report measures with content of dynamic risk factors using the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) in offender samples. These self-report measures were significantly and negatively related with self-deception (r = -0.120, p impression management (r = -0.158, p impression management effect with the trim and fill method indicating that the relation is probably even smaller (r = -0.07). The magnitude of the effect sizes was small. Moderation analyses suggested that type of dynamic risk factor (e.g., antisocial cognition versus antisocial personality), incentives, and publication year affected the relationship between impression management and self-report measures with content of dynamic risk factors, whereas sample size, setting (e.g., incarcerated, community), and publication year influenced the relation between self-deception and these self-report measures. The results indicate that the use of self-report measures to assess dynamic risk factors in correctional/forensic settings is not inevitably compromised by socially desirable responding, yet caution is warranted for some risk factors (antisocial personality traits), particularly when incentives are at play. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The charisma and deception of reparative therapies: when medical science beds religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, André P

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the history and resurgence of interest in sexual reorientation or reparative therapies. I begin with a critique of the contemporary "ex-gay" movement, interrogating Exodus as the prototype of a politico-religious transformational ministry that works to "cure" homosexuals, and examine how Exodus utilizes ex-gay testimony to deceive harried homosexuals looking for escape from the effects of internalized and cultural homophobia. Next, I investigate how reparative therapies function as orthodox treatments that charismatically meld conservative religious perspectives with medical science to produce a pseudoscience promising to treat homosexuality effectively. In this regard, I assess the ongoing debate regarding gay-affirming versus reparative therapies by first looking at the history of medicalizing homosexuality and then surveying the debate spurred by Robert L. Spitzer's research. I conclude with a consideration of research needed to measure whether efficacious change in sexual orientation is possible.

  3. Deceptive appearance of normal variant of scaphoid bone in a teenage patient: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad N. Bhatti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures are a common injury in late teens and mid twenties with a peak period in skeletally immature children at about 15 years of age, although considered to be rare in first decade of life, its exact incidence in early teen age remains to be a subject of debate. We report an unusual case of anatomical variation of scaphoid bone at the level of waist which could potentially cause diagnostic confusion. A 14-years-old boy presented in the fracture clinic 2 weeks after injury to his Right wrist which was managed in a scaphoid cast. X-ray examinations, both at the time of injury and later on in the fracture clinic revealed features suspicious of a fracture at the level of waist of the scaphoid bone, however the clinical examination did not correlate with imaging, in view of that radiological imaging of the unaffected side was performed for comparison, which revealed it to be an anatomical variant of scaphoid at this age. To our knowledge there are very few cases of such variation reported in literature in this age group of patients. This case highlights the importance of anatomical variants in scaphoid bone in this age group, which might pose a diagnostic challenge and the need for appropriate management plan and reassurance to avoid unnecessary anxiety.

  4. Cyber-Physical System Security With Deceptive Virtual Hosts for Industrial Control Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    A challenge facing industrial control network administrators is protecting the typically large number of connected assets for which they are responsible. These cyber devices may be tightly coupled with the physical processes they control and human induced failures risk dire real-world consequences. Dynamic virtual honeypots are effective tools for observing and attracting network intruder activity. This paper presents a design and implementation for self-configuring honeypots that passively examine control system network traffic and actively adapt to the observed environment. In contrast to prior work in the field, six tools were analyzed for suitability of network entity information gathering. Ettercap, an established network security tool not commonly used in this capacity, outperformed the other tools and was chosen for implementation. Utilizing Ettercap XML output, a novel four-step algorithm was developed for autonomous creation and update of a Honeyd configuration. This algorithm was tested on an existing small campus grid and sensor network by execution of a collaborative usage scenario. Automatically created virtual hosts were deployed in concert with an anomaly behavior (AB) system in an attack scenario. Virtual hosts were automatically configured with unique emulated network stack behaviors for 92% of the targeted devices. The AB system alerted on 100% of the monitored emulated devices

  5. Scalable interrogation: Eliciting human pheromone responses to deception in a security interview setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedmon, Alex W; Eachus, Peter; Baillie, Les; Tallis, Huw; Donkor, Richard; Edlin-White, Robert; Bracewell, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Individuals trying to conceal knowledge from interrogators are likely to experience raised levels of stress that can manifest itself across biological, physiological, psychological and behavioural factors, providing an opportunity for detection. Using established research paradigms an innovative scalable interrogation was designed in which participants were given a 'token' that represented information they had to conceal from interviewers. A control group did not receive a token and therefore did not have to deceive the investigators. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences between deceivers and truth-tellers across the four factors by collecting data for cortisol levels, sweat samples, heart-rate, respiration, skin temperature, subjective stress ratings and video and audio recordings. The results provided an integrated understanding of responses to interrogation by those actively concealing information and those acting innocently. Of particular importance, the results also suggest, for the first time in an interrogation setting, that stressed individuals may secrete a volatile steroid based marker that could be used for stand-off detection. The findings are discussed in relation to developing a scalable interrogation protocol for future research in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Views about scientists and scientific work in the novel Deception Point by Dan Brown: possibilities to insert History and Philosophy of Science elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmo Ernesto Francisco Junior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of literature on people lives, this study investigates elements concerning views about scientists and scientific work presented in Deception Point, a novel by Dan Brown. Multiple aspects to represent the scientist figure, life and work, emerge from the novel and problematize characteristics that can be considered as a common sense view, or others perspectives based on more contemporaneous philosophical thoughts on science. Reading and analyzing this novel could be an interesting opportunity to insert elements of history and philosophy of science under different focus. This study discusses some elements, from excerpts of the novel, which may become possibilities for debates in Science classes at schools, and in teacher education.

  7. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education.

  8. Deception: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    or degrade these plans. An example of poor coordinate occurred during the assault on the German garrison at Brest during the summer of 1944; the 23rd... Paris peace talks.339 The SSPL program was effectively ended with the 1 April 1968.340 335

  9. Testing Deceptive Honeypots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    42 Figure 26. IPv6 address of traffic by region (cmand.org). .................................... 42 Figure 27. Web honeypot traffic...distribution for IPv6 addresses. Unfortunately, only a few honeypots support IPv6 address like Dionaea. 11 We studied mostly two honeypot technologies...used data from cmand.org (183,713 IPv4 packets and 199 IPv6 packets) from May 30, 2011, to November 26, 2013. For the web honeypot, data were

  10. Deception or Illusion ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan YUNCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reputation is defined as the collective assesments evaluations on the reliability or credibility of an organization based on its past performance. Its effect on ensuring the stakeholders’ support and loyalty is increasingly recognized. Media is one of the most crucial elements that affect these evaluations since it has a great effect on the general opinion of society, and this effect lays the ground for the emergence of social pressure in any negative situation. Thus, there is a linear relationship between the effect of media on stakeholder groups and the sustainability and perceived reputation of businesses. In this age of information and technology, the ability of consumers to spread a slightest malfunction that they encounter to the entire world by means of internet and especially social media urges the businesses take extremely meticulous measures to protect their perceived reputations. This study is aimed to analyze the effect of the reflection of the results of a worldwide auto manufacturer’s emission test investigation for some vehicles in 2015 on the perceived reputation of the brand. Through logistic regression analysis, it is observed that the news regrading the brand had a negative effect on consumers in Turkey.

  11. Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunji, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination malpractice or cheating has become a global phenomenon. In different countries of the world today, developed and developing, academic dishonesty especially cheating in examinations has heightened and taken frightening dimension. In many countries of the world this phenomenon has become a serious matter of concern that has left many…

  12. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  13. Health Examination by PET. (1) Cancer Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Cancer examination by positron emission tomography (PET) started in Japan in 1994 and has been rapidly popularized. This paper describes author's experience of the examination in his hospital along the recent Japanese guideline for the PET cancer examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is intravenously injected at 3.7 (or 4.6, for diabetic patients) MBq/kg after 4-5 hr fasting and 40 min later, imaging is conducted with additional delayed scan at 2 hr to reduce the possible false positive. Image is taken by the equipment with PET-specific camera, of which quality assurance (QA) is maintained according to the guideline, and 3D image is constructed by the ordered subset expectation maximization method. Number of examinees during 4.5 years are 18,210 (M/F=9,735/8,475), and 236 (1.3%), together with use of other test measures like ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical marker and occult blood as well, are found to have cancer of thyroid, large bowel, lung, breast and others. The false negative rate by PET alone is 78/236 (33%) for cancer. PET examination has problems of image reading and specificity of organs, and tasks of informed consent, test cost, increased exchange of information and radiation exposure. However, PET cancer examination will be established as a routine diagnostic tool when the accumulated evidence of early cancer detection is shown useful for improving the survival rate and for reducing the medicare cost. (T.I.)

  14. Anti-deception: reliable EEG-based biometrics with real-time capability from the neural response of face rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qunjian; Yan, Bin; Zeng, Ying; Zhang, Chi; Tong, Li

    2018-05-03

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) signal represents a subject's specific brain activity patterns and is considered as an ideal biometric given its superior invisibility, non-clonality, and non-coercion. In order to enhance its applicability in identity authentication, a novel EEG-based identity authentication method is proposed based on self- or non-self-face rapid serial visual presentation. In contrast to previous studies that extracted EEG features from rest state or motor imagery, the designed paradigm could obtain a distinct and stable biometric trait with a lower time cost. Channel selection was applied to select specific channels for each user to enhance system portability and improve discriminability between users and imposters. Two different imposter scenarios were designed to test system security, which demonstrate the capability of anti-deception. Fifteen users and thirty imposters participated in the experiment. The mean authentication accuracy values for the two scenarios were 91.31 and 91.61%, with 6 s time cost, which illustrated the precision and real-time capability of the system. Furthermore, in order to estimate the repeatability and stability of our paradigm, another data acquisition session is conducted for each user. Using the classification models generated from the previous sessions, a mean false rejected rate of 7.27% has been achieved, which demonstrates the robustness of our paradigm. Experimental results reveal that the proposed paradigm and methods are effective for EEG-based identity authentication.

  15. A tale of harm, waste and deception: how big pharma has undermined public faith in trial data disclosure and what we can do about it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne C. Bachelet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of data stemming from interventional studies in humans conducted by the pharmaceutical industry and how lack of data, or data distortion, can impact on clinical decision making and systematic reviews. The cases of rosiglitazone (Avandia ™, GlaxoSmithKline, rofecoxib (Vioxx ™, Merck, and oseltamivir (Tamiflu ™, Roche, are discussed as examples of harm (morbidity and mortality were higher in the treatment groups, waste (government spending in public health programs was not based on evidence, and deception (non-reporting of adverse events in fase III trials. The consequences of this behavior on scientific production are manifold. Most importantly, evidence that is used to inform clinical decisions is reduced and distorted, which also includes publication bias. The article mentions several solutions that have appeared in international literature, such as registration of clinical trials prior to implementation, the use of guidelines to improve the quality of reports, encouraging the publication of all research results and safeguarding autonomy of academy and investigators. Registration of clinical trials has not been effective in preventing the opacity surrounding phase III intervention trials funded by industry. Editors of biomedical journals, health authorities in charge of approving drugs before marketing, ethics committees that authorize the conduct of trials in their facilities, researchers, academics and patient organizations, are all major stakeholders. The pharmaceutical industry is called upon to respond to these proposals that promote transparency. If they do so, public trust in research conducted by them may be recovered.

  16. Metallographic examination in irradiated materials examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Lee, Key Soon; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Yoo, Byoung Ok

    1998-01-01

    It is very important to have equipment of metallographic examination in hot-cell to observe the micro-structure of nuclear fuels and materials irradiated at nuclear power and/or research reactor. Those equipment should be operated by master-slave manipulators, so they are designed, manufactured and modified to make exercise easy and no trouble. The metallographic examination equipment and techniques as well as its operation procedure are described, so an operator can practice the metallography in hot-cell. (author). 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  17. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  18. Deception Detection: Study of Information Manipulation Through Electronic Identity Theft - Email Forgery in the U.S. Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rockwell, Roy

    2002-01-01

    This research describes the results of a field experiment which examines the effects of warnings on system trust and individual awareness in government computer systems through the use of email forgery...

  19. Examine Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  20. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  1. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  2. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  3. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  4. The Outpatient Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artandi, Maja K; Stewart, Rosalyn W

    2018-05-01

    The physical examination in the outpatient setting is a valuable tool. Even in settings where there is lack of evidence, such as the annual physical examination of an asymptomatic adult, the physical examination is beneficial for the physician-patient relationship. When a patient has specific symptoms, the physical examination-in addition to a thorough history-can help narrow down, or in many cases establish, a diagnosis. In a time where imaging and laboratory tests are easily available, but are expensive and can be invasive, a skilled physical examination remains an important component of patient evaluation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. TMI-2 core examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of the damaged core at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor is structured to address the following safety issues: fission product release, transport, and deposition; core coolability; containment integrity; and recriticality during severe accidents; as well as zircaloy cladding ballooning and oxidation during so-called design basis accidents. The numbers of TMI-2 components or samples to be examined, the priority of each examination, the safety issue addressed by each examination, the principal examination techniques to be employed, and the data to be obtained and the principal uses of the data are discussed in this paper

  6. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  7. Functional MRI analysis of deception among people with antisocial personality disorders%反社会人格障碍患者说谎的功能磁共振分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟雄; 廖坚; 刘华生; 唐艳; 王维

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of deception in antisocial personality disorders (ASPD).Methods: A total of 32 criminals meeting the criteria for ASPD underwent fMRI at 1.5T while responding truthfully questions or lying. We compared the brain activities between truth-telling and lie-telling, and then computed the correlation coefficient between the contrast brain activities and the inclination to deception.Results: The left anterior cingulate gyrus, the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal lobule were associated with the executive aspects of deception among people with ASPD. But with the greater inclination to deception, the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activities in those regions decreased Conclusion: Evaluations of truthful and untruthful communications pertaining to ASPD subjects may be differentiated in terms of brain BOLD activities, though those activities may decrease in habitual liars, which remains a challenge to the diagnostic accuracy in lie detection.%目的:研究反社会人格的罪犯说谎时的功能磁共振情况.方法:对32个满足反社会人格标准的男性罪犯进行功能磁共振,分析他们在说真话和说假话时的脑区激活差异以及习惯性说谎程度与激活脑区强弱之间的关系.结果:反社会人格障碍患者左扣带回前部,双侧的背外侧前额叶,左顶下小叶与其欺骗行为的执行相关.并且随着善于说谎程度的加强,这些区域的激活强度呈下降趋势.结论:利用大脑的血氧水平依赖激活可对反社会人格障碍患者说谎和说真话行为进行识别,但是血氧水平依赖激活差异会随着善于说谎程度的增加而降低,这对测谎精确度提出了挑战.

  8. Explaining MRI examinations DVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Komeda, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    When conducting MRI examinations, there are various things to be careful of. There is often stress related to the MRI examinations, so in order to perform an examination safely and smoothly, sufficient explanation must be given. An explanation of what to do and what not to do during an examination should be outlined in a brochure given to patients before the examination. There may be many patients who have misgivings about their MRI examinations, so to reduce their anxiousness and deepen their understanding of MRI examinations and to improve the safety and effiency of MRI examinations,; we created a DVD about MRI examinations. We gathered MRI-related safety information and instructions, and assessed the effect that the information might have on patients. We started a workgroup for a project to plan and record a video according to the Storyboard. When editing, we reviewed the length of each segment, the amount of information on screen, and the overall length of the DVD. We discussed the issue within the workgroup and had hospital approval. It was possible for us to complete it without depending on the supplier and the cost was kept to a minimum. Finally, we decided on a viewing location. We asked a hospital volunteers to see a complete DVD and we evaluated their responses by questionnaires. As the result, their understanding and anxieties related to MRI examinations were alleviated, as expected. Their anxiety seemed to be eased. Patients also seemed to have a deeper understanding of MRI examinations having seen an examination being conducted. (author)

  9. Assessing ultrasonic examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, V.; Vogt, M.

    1977-01-01

    Amongst nondestructive examination methods, the ultrasonic examination plays an important role. The reason why its scope of application is so wide is because the sound conducting capacity is the only property the material of a test specimen has to have. As the fields are so manifold, only main aspects can be described briefly. The list of references, however, is very extensive and gives plenty of information of all the problems concerning the assessment of ultrasonic examination results. (orig./RW) [de

  10. Dose from radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko; Uji, Teruyuki; Sakuyama, Keiko; Fujikawa, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Relatively high gonad doses, several hundred to one thousand mR, have been observed in case of pelvis, hip-joint, coccyx, lower abdomen and lumber examination. Dose to the ovary is especially high in barium enema and I.V.P. examinations. About 12 per cent of the 4-ray examination are high-dose. The gonad dose is relatively high in examination of abdomen and lower extremities, in infants. The dose to the eyes is especially high, 1.0 to 2.5R per exposure, in temporal bone and nasal sinuses tomography. X-ray doses have been compared with dose limits recommended by ICRP and with the gonad dose from natural radiations. The gonad dose in lumbar examination, barium enema, I.V.P. etc. is as high as the maximum permissible dose per year recommended by ICRP. Several devices have been made for dose reduction in the daily examinations: (1) separating the radiation field from the gonad by one centimeter decreases the gonad dose about one-half. (2) using sensitive screens and films. In pelvimetry and in infant hip-joint examination, the most sensitive screen and film are used. In the I.V.P. examination of adult, use of MS screen in place of FS screen decreases the dose to one-third, in combination with careful setting of radiation field, (3) use of grid increases the dose about 50 percent and the lead rubber protection (0.1mm lead equivalent) decreases the gonad dose to one-thirtieth in the spinal column examination of infant, (4) A lead protector, 1mm thickness and 2.5cm in diameter, on the eyes decreases the dose to about one-eighth in the face and nead examinations. These simple and effective methods for dose reduction. Should be carried out in as many examinations as possible in addition to observing dose limits recommended by ICRP. (Evans, J.)

  11. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  12. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, PhD, Professor of Dermatology, Brown University, for permission to use this video. UPDATED: ... Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention ...

  13. Physical examination of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B J; Hamilton, M; Masters, P G

    1992-07-01

    Swine may be examined to evaluate a disease state or a lowered economic performance or as a herd health consultation. As much of the examination as possible should be performed without handling the animal. A thorough history, evaluation of herd records, environmental examination, and herd examination should be performed prior to the evaluation of an individual animal. All necessary equipment should be available when starting the individual examination. The animals is then restrained and examined, and necessary samples are taken. Post-mortem examinations or slaughter house evaluations are a very frequent part of a health examination on swine. All samples taken should be in accordance with the standards of the laboratory that you use. You should work closely with the laboratory to obtain the best results. Physical examination of swine can be rewarding for the veterinarian as well as the producer. The most important aspect to remember is to have enough information and the proper equipment available to handle the animals for the minimal amount of time to gain the maximum benefits. Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs are similar to domestic swine in terms of their diseases and health but are dissimilar in management; pot-bellied pigs are frequently brought to the veterinarian for individual examinations. History is the most valuable part of the examination, followed by observation. Pot-bellied pigs prefer to be held securely with a hand under the chin and rump. The examination is conducted similarly to the examination of any companion animal. Chemical restraint often is necessary for sampling or minor surgical procedures. Owners should be consulted prior to the use of any restraint. This will help win their approval and confidence when working on their pets. While performing the physical examination, look at the pig's overall health as well as specific breed characteristics. Try to stay abreast of swine vaccination recommendations; you may be consulted in this regard. Most

  14. Dosimetry in endoscopic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Paes, Walter Siqueira; Fausto, Agnes M.F.; Nucci, Jose Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Okuno, Emico; Maruta, Luis Massuo

    1996-01-01

    Equivalent and effective doses in occupational exposures are evaluated considering that some specific endoscopic examinations, radiographic and fluoroscopic images of patients are taken with the medical staff near to the radiation field. Examinations are simulated using an anthropomorphic phantom as a member of the medical staff. Thermoluminescent dosemeters are attached in several positions of the phantom in order to determine some organ doses. From the comparison between the doses experimentally determined and the International and the Brazilian recommended occupational dose limits, the maximum number of examination that any member of the staff can perform was calculated

  15. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma Treatment: Stages I & II Melanoma Treatment: Stage III Melanoma ...

  16. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We Are Be On Our PAGE MIF Staff Programs & Services Scientific Advisory Board Advisory Board Patrons & Sponsors ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ...

  17. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    OpenAIRE

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000): 257-260

  18. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 257-260

  19. Nuclear medical examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Kazuo; Yamada, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear medical examinations for cerebral vascular diseases were outlined. These procedures developed associated with development of scanners, production of radionuclides and development of labelled compounds. Examination of cerebral circulation with 133 Xe and sup(87m)Kr was replaced by CT. Furthermore, emission CT developed. Each of brain scintiscan, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, positron emission CT and single photon emission CT was reviewed. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Online video examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    have large influence on their own teaching, learning and curriculum. The programme offers streamed videos in combination with other learning resources. It is a concept which offers video as pure presentation - video lectures - but also as an instructional tool which gives the students the possibility...... to construct their knowledge, collaboration and communication. In its first years the programme has used Skype video communication for collaboration and communication within and between groups, group members and their facilitators. Also exams have been mediated with the help of Skype and have for all students......, examiners and external examiners been a challenge and opportunity and has brought new knowledge and experience. This paper brings results from a questionnaire focusing on how the students experience the video examination....

  1. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  2. Internal examination of CAGR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, P.J.; Langley, J.P.; Simons, C.R.; Hart, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    During selected reactor maintenance periods it will be necessary to conduct examinations of reactor internal components to gain assurance of their continuing integrity throughout the design life. Equipment for remote examination is being developed that will measure the distortions of the graphite moderator bricks and extract samples from them for analysis. Other remotely operated equipment will allow closed circuit TV viewing inside the reactors: the equipment provides both wide field and detailed inspection facilities within a single compact unit. Manipulators are being developed to ring the viewing units to the best vantage points. Reeling and handling gear will be operated from outside the vessels and these provide full containment at all times. (author)

  3. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... the severity of dementia disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-25...

  4. Scintigraphic examinations in neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emde, H [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    1979-06-01

    The introduction of CT in neuroradiological diagnostics has clearly lowered the interest in nuclear examinations. Frequently, these are carried only out of a lack of CT capacity. Still, some examples are given to show how useful cerebral, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid scintiscanning can be in every day routine diagnostics.

  5. Present State Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Bertelsen, Aksel

    Present State Examination (PSE) 5. udgave er en revideret version af speciallæge i psykiatri Aksel Bertelsens oprindelige materiale. Aksel Bertelsen er ophavsmand til PSE og til den danske udgave af ICD-10. Revisionen omfatter et forbedret layout, en modernisering af sproget, tilføjelse af...

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ... 29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use Toll-free: 866-463- ...

  7. The paediatric ophthalmic examination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vision improves with the pinhole, then it is most probably a refractive error and can be corrected with glasses. If the vision does not improve the child should be investigated for a cause. Pupil examination in bright light and dim light, looking for anisocoria or a poorly reactive pupil is vital. Watching a child reading a page with.

  8. A radiographic examination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, A.P.; Cable, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for performing radiographic examination, particularly of large items such as international container units is disclosed. The system is formed as an installation comprising housings for respective linear accelerators transmitting a beam of radiation across the path of a conveyor along which the units can be displaced continuously or incrementally. On either end of the installation are container handling areas including roller conveyors with drag chains and transverse manipulators, and the whole installation is secured within automatically operated doors which seal the high energy region when a container on the conveyor is being subjected to examination. The radiation transmitted through a container is detected in a detector system incorporating a fluoroscopic screen light output from which is detected in a camera system such as a television camera, and transmitted as coded pulsed signals by a coding transfer unit to display screens where an image of the transmitted information can be displayed and/or recorded for further use. (author)

  9. Pain Examination and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a clinical challenge to health care providers who care for hand disorders. Pathologic pain that prevents recovery leads to dissatisfaction for both patients and providers. Despite pain being common, the root cause is often difficult to diagnose. This article reviews the examination and diagnostic tools that are helpful in identifying pathologic and neuropathic pain. This article provides tools to speed recognition of these processes to allow earlier intervention and better patient outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  11. Legal examination of physician advertising on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jenny

    2006-02-01

    The Internet provides an invaluable resource to physicians seeking to market healthcare services to consumers. No longer considered an unethical practice, physician advertising has transformed over the years into an indispensable business tool in the medical community. While the Internet creates opportunities to reach vast numbers of individuals in a timely and cost-effective manner, physicians must be vigilant in adhering to laws, rules, and regulations designed to protect the public from false and deceptive practices.

  12. Examining fatigue in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shair, Khaled; Muellerova, Hana; Yorke, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a disruptive symptom that inhibits normal functional performance of COPD patients in daily activities. The availability of a short, simple, reliable and valid scale would improve assessment of the characteristics and influence of fatigue in COPD. METHODS......: At baseline, 2107 COPD patients from the ECLIPSE cohort completed the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale. We used well-structured classic method, the principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis for structurally examining the 13-item FACIT-F. RESULTS: Four items...... were less able to capture fatigue characteristics in COPD and were deleted. PCA was applied to the remaining 9 items of the modified FACIT-F and resulted in three interpretable dimensions: i) general (5 items); ii) functional ability (2 items); and iii) psychosocial fatigue (2 items). The modified...

  13. Tomographic examination table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redington, R.W.; Henkes, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Equipment is described for positioning and supporting patients during tomographic mammography using X-rays. The equipment consists of a table and fabric slings which permit the examination of a downward, pendant breast of a prone patient by allowing the breast to pass through a aperture in the table into a fluid filled container. The fluid has an X-ray absorption coefficient similar to that of soft human tissue allowing high density resolution radiography and permitting accurate detection of breast tumours. The shape of the equipment and the positioning of the patient allow the detector and X-ray source to rotate 360 0 about a vertical axis through the breast. This permits the use of relatively simple image reconstruction algorithms and a divergent X-ray geometry. (UK)

  14. Dubai: A City of Deception

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Binevs; Awad, Aisha; Kara, Atakan; Angell, Joshua; Kirkan, Türkan

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to undercover the reasons as to why exploitation is such a key social issue in the UAE. More specifically, the problem area narrows this down to focus on the male construction workforce in Dubai, seeing as this is the largest group of migrant workers. The structure of the project follows our train of thought. We maintain that certain social, economic and legal mechanisms found with Dubai’s urban structure, are responsible for putting this group of workers are a disadvantag...

  15. Deception Using an SSH Honeypot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AND ABBREVIATIONS DMZ demilitarized zone Gbps gigabits per second HTTP hypertext transfer protocol IoT Internet of things IP Internet protocol...new problems. Most users own more than one device, and the predicted number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices will be 26 billion by 2020 [1]. Today... Internet of things research study. (Nov. 2015). Hewlett Packard Enterprise. Palo Alto, CA. [Online]. Available: http://h20195.www2.hpe.com/V4/getpdf.aspx

  16. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-25

    enough from the truth. Subjects were then interviewed individually in a sound booth to obtain “norming” speech data, pre- interview. We also...e.g. pitch, intensity, speaking rate, voice quality), gender, ethnicity and personality information, our machine learning experiments can classify...Have you ever been in trouble with the police?” vs. open-ended (e.g. “What is the last movie you saw that you really hated ?”) DISTRIBUTION A

  17. Science & the Senses: Perceptions & Deceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Science requires the acquisition and analysis of empirical (sense-derived) data. Given the same physical objects or phenomena, the sense organs of all people do not respond equally to these stimuli, nor do their minds interpret sensory signals identically. Therefore, teachers should develop lectures on human sensory systems that include some…

  18. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    emplotment: Comedy , Tragedy, Romance, and Satire. 2 3 It is not the actions of individual charac- ters but the plot structure that determines...laughter have been a response unless the observer emplot- ted the actions of the rectangles as narrative figures in a comedy ? Another experiment is...pretext be influenced by generals following the romantic tradition of the Old South with its emphasis on honor, gallant:y, and manners? These questions

  19. Temporomandibular joint examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guarda Nardini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ it’s a joint closely related to the skull base, the spine, and the jaws; all these anatomical structures must be taken in consideration when evaluating pain involving the tmj. In order to detect patients affected by pathology or dysfunctions of the tmj, physical examination is of great value in orienting the diagnosis. Inspection must consider the symmetry of the body, the dental status and the type of occlusion. Palpation is a way to assess contractiont involving the muscles of the masticatory system and of the neck. Auscultation, based on articular noise provides means to determine whether we are dealing with degeneration of the joint or a dislocation of the intrarticular disc. In order to confirm the diagnosis obtained with the clinical evaluation, it’s useful to perform imaging techniques as opt, tomography and TC of the tmj and electromyokineosiography – index of the mandibular functionality and of the muscles status. MRI and dynamic MRI are among the non invasive exams which give the greatest amount of information, regarding the disc position and the joint degeneration. Arthroscopy is an invasive technique that allows early diagnosis of degeneration and is helpful to reveal early inflammatory processes of the joint.

  20. Radiographic examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetham, S.; Hogg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tube examination apparatus has a head actuated by fluid pressure, for centralising a radioactive source. Preferably the source is shielded during transport from its storage unit to the head. A body attached to a drive-wire has hollow shield-parts which define a radiation window therebetween, and closure shield-parts which have the source located therebetween and which are a sliding fit. A spring biases the closure shields towards a first position relative to the body in which the source is enclosed. When the body moves along a guide in the head, the closure shield engages an abutment surface which arrests the closure shields. Further movement of the body to engage an abutment surface causes relative movement between the shield parts to a second position relative to the body in which the source is exposed at the window. Retraction of the body along the guide allows the spring to restore the closure shield parts to the first position. (U.K.)

  1. Parameterized examination in econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Anna; Kyurkchiev, Vesselin; Spasov, Georgi

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a parameterization of basic types of exam questions in Econometrics. This algorithm is used to automate and facilitate the process of examination, assessment and self-preparation of a large number of students. The proposed parameterization of testing questions reduces the time required to author tests and course assignments. It enables tutors to generate a large number of different but equivalent dynamic questions (with dynamic answers) on a certain topic, which are automatically assessed. The presented methods are implemented in DisPeL (Distributed Platform for e-Learning) and provide questions in the areas of filtering and smoothing of time-series data, forecasting, building and analysis of single-equation econometric models. Questions also cover elasticity, average and marginal characteristics, product and cost functions, measurement of monopoly power, supply, demand and equilibrium price, consumer and product surplus, etc. Several approaches are used to enable the required numerical computations in DisPeL - integration of third-party mathematical libraries, developing our own procedures from scratch, and wrapping our legacy math codes in order to modernize and reuse them.

  2. System for ultrasonic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.A.; Kristensen, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized system for the recording of flaw images by ultrasonic examination according to the pulse-echo method includes at least one ultrasonic probe which can be moved in steps over the surface of an object along a rectilinear scanning path. Digital signals containing information on the successive positions of the sound beam, on echo amplitudes, and on the lengths of sound paths to reflectors inside the object, are processed and used for the accumulated storage of circular patterns of echo amplitude data in a matrix memory associated with a sectional plane through the object. A video screen terminal controls the system and transforms the accumulated data into displays of sectional flaw images of greatly improved precision and sharpness of definition. A gradual transfer of filtered data from a number of parallel sectional planes to three further matrix memories associated with projection planes at right angles to each other permits presentation in three dimensions of equally improved projection flaw images. (author) 2 figs

  3. European windpower: project financing examined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    In part two of an examination of funding mechanisms for wind-generated electricity, the financing of wind projects in the major producers - Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and the UK is examined. Part one examined the tariff and subsidy mechanisms available for wind generation in the same countries. (author)

  4. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  5. TMI-2 core examination plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; MacDonald, P.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; Ploggr, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Three Mile Island (TMI-2) core examination is divided into four stages: (1) before removing the head; (2) before removing the plenum; (3) during defueling; and (4) offsite examinations. Core examinations recommended during the first three stages are primarily devoted to documenting the post-accident condition of the core. The detailed analysis of core damage structures will be performed during offsite examinations at government and commercial hot cell facilities. The primary objectives of these examinations are to enhance the understanding of the degraded core accident sequence, to develop the technical bases for reactor regulations, and to improve LWR design and operation

  6. Computer tomographic examinations in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.F.K.

    1984-01-01

    Epileptic patients that was examined at the Universitas Hospital (Bloemfontein) by means of computerized tomography for the period July 1978 - December 1980, are divided into two groups: a) Patients with general epilepsy of convulsions - 507; b) Patients with vocal or partial epilepsy - 111. The method of examination and the results for both general and vocal epilepsy are discussed. A degenerative state was found in 35% of the positive computer tomographic examinations in general epilepsy and 22% of the positive examinations for vocal epilepsy. The purpose of the article was to explain the circumstances that can be expected when a epileptic patient is examined by means of computerized tomography

  7. Standard examination stage for the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J.W.; Frandsen, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    A Standard Examination Stage (SES) has been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, WA. The SES will perform multiple functions in a variety of nuclear fuel, absorber, and blanket pin handling, positioning, and examination operations in 11 of 22 work stations in the FMEF Nondestructive Examination (NDE) cell. Preprogrammable, automated, closed loop computer control provides precision positioning in the X, Y and Z directions and in pin rotational positioning. Modular construction of both the mechanical hardware and the electrical and control system has been used to facilitate in-cell maintainability

  8. Individual plant examination: Submittal guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    Based on a Policy Statement on Severe Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants, the performance of a plant examination is requested from the licensee of each nuclear power plant. The plant examination looks for vulnerabilities to severe accidents and cost-effective safety improvements that reduce or eliminate the important vulnerabilities. This document delineates guidance for reporting the results of that plant examination. 38 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Southeast Asian Languages Proficiency Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…

  10. Pedagogy in the Age of Media Control: Language Deception and Digital Democracy. Minding the Media: Critical Issues for Learning and Teaching. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Joao J.; Rosa, Ricardo D.

    2011-01-01

    Supported by critical theoretical frameworks, this book is a purposeful engagement with bodies of knowledge rooted in popular culture, yet routinely excluded from "common sense" visions of curriculum. Aimed at teachers as well as teacher-educators, the book examines areas such as Disney, African American stand-up comedy, intersections of…

  11. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  12. MANAGEMENT OF EXAMINATIONS: ETHICAL ISSUES.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    Abstract. Examinations occupy a strategic position in our lives and society today.. In a .... Test Development and Research Office (TEDRO), as an arm of WAEC. ..... classroom management as proposed by Queen, Blackwelder & Mallen. (1997):.

  13. TMI-2 core examination plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.O.

    1984-07-01

    The role of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) core examination in the resolution of major nuclear safety issues is delineated in this plan. Relevant data needs are discussed, and approaches for recovering data from the TMI-2 plant are identified. Specific recommendations and justifications are provided for in situ documentation and off-site artifact examination activities. The research and development program is being managed by EG and G Idaho, Inc

  14. The engagement and control examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, H.D.; Hinz, G.

    1976-01-01

    The legal provisions of the 1st radiation protection ordinance and of the X-ray ordinance valid in the FRG at present prescribe an engagement examination for persons who are exposed to radiation for professional reasons. These persons are also to be examined by authorized physicians at certain intervals. An employee may only be employed in the controlled area if this employment is not thought to cause any hazards to his health. (orig.) [de

  15. Micrographic examination of irradiated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, J.; Bourgues, J.

    1959-01-01

    An installation for the metallographic examination of the EL2 reactor uranium rods has been put into service since September 1955 at the High Activity Lab of CEA Saclay center. This paper describes the apparatuses used for these examinations and presents the results of the micrographic studies of the first three rod assemblies removed from EL2 so far. Reprint of a paper published in Revue de Metallurgie, LV, No. 4, 1958, p. 339-344 [fr

  16. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  17. Examinations for radiologists. 1250 examination questions, with comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albes, G.

    2007-01-01

    The first section presents self-tests and learning tips for a realistic assessment and optimisation of students' learning styles. Rhetoric and communicative competences are looked into, and hints are given on how to organize ones's documents. The second section contains more than 1250 examination questions from all fields of radiology, with which examination situations can be simulated for self-studies. The student is shown how to provide structured answers to complex questions, how to solve clinical problems step by step, how to assess facts, to develop key statements, etc. (orig.)

  18. CT examinations in older patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciuk, J.; Peters, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 2,878 unselected subsequent CT examinations carried out in 1984 were analyzed retrospectively. All studies were performed in a university hospital with a centralized department of diagnostic radiology. Most of the patients investigated were hospitalized; there were only 12% outpatients. Of the patients studied 12.6% were older than 65 years and 20.5% older than 60; 17.7% were emergency cases and patients between 16 and 25 years of age represented the largest fraction. In all other age groups the relative distribution between emergency cases and regular studies revealed no significant differences. There was no statistically significant difference between the older age group (patients older than 65 years) and the total population of this study in almost all items investigated, i.e., no differences in CT examination time and no differences in preparation time (time between two CT studies). The rate of abdominal CT examinations was 7% higher in the older age group, while the relative distribution of all other CT examinations was again comparable to the total population under study. Thus, the expected increase in patients in the older age group does not measurably prolong the CT examination time. This statement applies to a major referral center with a high percentage of inpatients. (orig.) [de

  19. Examination of musculoskeletal chest pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunse, Mads Hostrup; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Vach, Werner

    2010-01-01

    using a standardized examination protocol, (2) to determine inter-observer reliability of single components of the protocol, and (3) to determine the effect of observer experience. Eighty patients were recruited from an emergency cardiology department. Patients were eligible if an obvious cardiac or non......-cardiac diagnosis could not be established at the cardiology department. Four observers (two chiropractors and two chiropractic students) performed general health and manual examination of the spine and chest wall. Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappa and ICC were calculated for observer pairs (chiropractors.......01 to 0.59. Provided adequate training of observers, the examination protocol can be used in carefully selected patients in clinical settings and should be included in pre- and post-graduate clinical training....

  20. Why operators fail licensing examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.R.; Zerbo, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was conducted among nuclear utility operators who have taken NRC licensing examinations to determine which factors they considered important in their success or failure. The operators also compared the actual NRC examination with their expectations prior to taking the examination. The results of the survey supplement NRC statistics with regard to failure rates. Over 350 operators and 20 utilities participated in the survey and a good cross section of the nuclear community is represented. Reactor theory and emergency procedures are important areas in which operators found NRC emphasis to be different than expected. Observation Training and Design Lecture Series are two training segments which appear to require improvement. Recommendations are made for the use of data collected through this survey and for continuation of the effort to give operators a mechanism of supplying feedback to the training and licensing process

  1. Post irradiation examination technology exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozawa, Shizuo; Ito, Masayasu; Taguchi, Taketoshi; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Lee, Hyung-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Under the KAERI and JAEA agreement, in a part of the program 18 (Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and Evaluation Technique of Irradiated Materials), an eddy current test was proposed as a round robin test, and it has been being progressed in both organizations in order to enhance the post irradiation examination technology. Up to now, several data are obtained by both PIE facilities. In this paper, the round robin test program is shown, and also shown obtained data with discussion from applicability as a nondestructive test in the hot cell. (author)

  2. Industrial relations in agriculture examined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture remains an important part of the Dutch economy, accounting for around 10%of GDP . The sector is currently undergoing major changes in terms of production, markets and technology, with important implications for employment. This article examines industrial relations in agriculture,

  3. Open Book Professional Accountancy Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, J. E.; Forsyth, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the structure and rationale for an open-book approach in professional accountancy examinations. The concept of knowledge management and the recognition that some knowledge ought to be embedded in the minds of professional accountants while other knowledge ought to be readily accessible and capable of application forms the…

  4. Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchirka, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Jose Cabrera (Zorita) tube examination procedures are discussed. This plant continues to use phosphate water chemistry (sodium/phosphate ratio = 2.1). Three hot leg tube segments were pulled from the Jose Cabera (Zorita) plant in 1985. One tube had a field EC indication on the OD at the first tube support plate and the other two had field EC indications on their ID about 3 inches above the bottom of the tube sheet. All three tubes were initially sent to Battelle for preliminary NDE and decontamination. Segments of two tubes were sent to Westinghouse for destructive examination. The results of the laboratory eddy current and radiographic examinations are given. The results of the visual examinations are also given. The tube with OD indications was destructively examined and shallow intergranular pitting and intergranular attack, up to 2 mils deep, were found on the OD in the tube sheet region. Local areas of IGA, up to 5 mils deep, were found on the OD within the tube support plate region. A summary of this information together with supporting micrographs is given. It was hypothesized that a caustic crevice environment was the cause of this mild degradation. Shallow areas of thinning or wastage, up to 3 mils, were found just above the top of the tube sheet in the sludge pile region. Even more shallow wastage was found at the edges of support plate locations. This wastage is believed to be the remnant of early plant chemistry when a higher sodium/phosphate ratio and higher phosphate concentration were allowed

  5. [Diagnosis. History and physical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Family physicians play a key role in the diagnosis and management of patients with osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. A complete history should be taken with meticulous physical examination of the joints. The history-taking should aim to detect risk factors and compatible clinical symptoms. Pain characteristics should be identified, distinguishing between mechanical and inflammatory pain, and an exhaustive examination of the joints should be performed, with evaluation of the presence of pain, deformity, mobility restrictions (both active and passive), crepitus, joint effusion, and inflammation. A differential diagnosis should be made with all diseases that affect the joints and/or produce joint stiffness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological examinations of radiological personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litver, B.Ya.; Ivanov, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that a comprehensjve hygienic evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on man needs to take into account not only the biologic effects of these radiations, but also their psychologic and emotional effects, which may aggravate or lessen the disturbances caused by radiation. Several methods of psychologic examination of persons handling ionizing radiation sources are proposed, and the desirability of applying these methods in the dispensary system is indicated

  7. Ultrasound examination of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaenepoel, L.; Demeester-Mirkine, N.; Sacre, R.; Jockheer, M.H.; van Geertruyden, J.

    1982-07-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland.

  8. Ultrasonographic examination in chest disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, K.O.; Lee, J.D.; Yoo, H.S. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Ultrasonographic examination is not widely applied to chest disease, but is may give useful information when the acoustic window for a lesion exist. We did perform ultrasound examination in 68 cases of chest disease. 1. The cases of pleural diseases was predominant; pleural effusion 35 cases, pleural metastatic tumor 2 case, mesothelioma 2 cases and fibrous thickening 1 case, total 40 cases. It was useful to differentiate pleural effusion and fibrous thickening or parenchymal lesion simulating pleural disease, to localize the optimal aspiration site for a loculated empyema, to detect pleural bumorhidden by effusion such as metastatic tumor or mesothelioma. 2. 15 cases of parenchymal lesion and 2 cases of extra pleural mass was examined. The echo pattern of consolidation and atelectasis shows typical multiple tubular streaks within the echogenic area. The echogenicity of the peripheral mass due to primary bronchogenic carcinoma, parenchymal or extrapleural metastatic tumor and granuloma were compared. 3. In the cases of pleural or parenchymal cystic lesions, such as loculated empyema or lung abscess, because of strong reverberation artifact from posterior border of the lesion, the prediction of cystic and solid lesion is sometimes difficult. 4. In 7 cases of mediastinal lesion, cystic lesion show free echo and posterior enhancement. In contrast, solid or fat component show characteristic echo pattern. 5. In the cases of juxta diaphragmatic lesion, sonogram can confirm the underlying intraabdominal pathology, in this case subphrenic abscess

  9. Ultrasonographic examination in chest disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, K.O.; Lee, J.D.; Yoo, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonographic examination is not widely applied to chest disease, but is may give useful information when the acoustic window for a lesion exist. We did perform ultrasound examination in 68 cases of chest disease. 1. The cases of pleural diseases was predominant; pleural effusion 35 cases, pleural metastatic tumor 2 case, mesothelioma 2 cases and fibrous thickening 1 case, total 40 cases. It was useful to differentiate pleural effusion and fibrous thickening or parenchymal lesion simulating pleural disease, to localize the optimal aspiration site for a loculated empyema, to detect pleural bumorhidden by effusion such as metastatic tumor or mesothelioma. 2. 15 cases of parenchymal lesion and 2 cases of extra pleural mass was examined. The echo pattern of consolidation and atelectasis shows typical multiple tubular streaks within the echogenic area. The echogenicity of the peripheral mass due to primary bronchogenic carcinoma, parenchymal or extrapleural metastatic tumor and granuloma were compared. 3. In the cases of pleural or parenchymal cystic lesions, such as loculated empyema or lung abscess, because of strong reverberation artifact from posterior border of the lesion, the prediction of cystic and solid lesion is sometimes difficult. 4. In 7 cases of mediastinal lesion, cystic lesion show free echo and posterior enhancement. In contrast, solid or fat component show characteristic echo pattern. 5. In the cases of juxta diaphragmatic lesion, sonogram can confirm the underlying intraabdominal pathology, in this case subphrenic abscess

  10. Continuous assessment and matriculation examination marks – An empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servaas van der Berg

    2015-12-01

    This study compares CASS data to the externally assessed matric exam marks for a number of subjects. There are two signalling dimensions to inaccurate assessments: (i Inflated CASS marks can give students a false sense of security and lead to diminished exam effort. (ii A weak correlation between CASS and the exam marks could mean poor signalling in another dimension: Relatively good students may get relatively low CASS marks. Such low correlations indicate poor assessment reliability, as the examination and continuous assessment should both be testing mastery of the same national curriculum. The paper analyses the extent of each of these dimensions of weak signalling in South African schools and draws disturbing conclusions for a large part of the school system.

  11. Online examiner calibration across specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Nancy; Wong, Wai Yee; Turner, Jane; Allan, Chris

    2017-09-26

    Integrating undergraduate medical curricula horizontally across clinical medical specialties may be a more patient-centred and learner-centred approach than rotating students through specialty-specific teaching and assessment, but requires some interspecialty calibration of examiner judgements. Our aim was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of an online pilot of interdisciplinary examiner calibration. Fair clinical assessment is important to both medical students and clinical teachers METHODS: Clinical teachers were invited to rate video-recorded student objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) performances and join subsequent online discussions using the university's learning management system. Post-project survey free-text and Likert-scale participant responses were analysed to evaluate the acceptability of the pilot and to identify recommendations for improvement. Although 68 clinicians were recruited to participate, and there were 1599 hits on recordings and discussion threads, only 25 clinical teachers rated at least one student performance, and 18 posted at least one comment. Participants, including rural doctors, appeared to value the opportunity for interdisciplinary rating calibration and discussion. Although the asynchronous online format had advantages, especially for rural doctors, participants reported considerable IT challenges. Our findings suggest that fair clinical assessment is important to both medical students and clinical teachers. Interspecialty discussions about assessment may have the potential to enrich intraspecialty perspectives, enhance interspecialty engagement and collaboration, and improve the quality of clinical teacher assessment. Better alignment of university and hospital systems, a face to face component and other modifications may have enhanced clinician engagement with this project. Findings suggest that specialty assessment cultures and content expertise may not be barriers to pursuing more integrated

  12. Nursing ultrasound examination in catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Romei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US examination of the bladder can precisely determine the bladder volume and is a useful tool in estimating the residual urine volume. Its application is consequently recommended as an alternative to catheterization for the determination of residual urine. Moreover it represents a simple, noninvasive method to predict the outcome of a voiding trial following acute urine retention based on intravesical prostatic protrusion and on the US pattern of the bladder content. In this article, the Authors review the implementation and results of a bladder US program developed for non-medical caregivers at one Emergency Department.

  13. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements

  14. Australia's uranium policy: an examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.A.W.; Derborough, M.A.; Diesendorf, M.; Inall, E.K.; Peaslee, D.C.; Taylor, S.R.

    1974-12-01

    The mining and export of Australian Uranium poses problems for the safety of the world that any responsible government is bound to consider. The following note lists the major problems, attempts to assess their importance, and to suggest what lines may be relevant to Australia for their solution. These problems were examined because of the concern about the appropriateness of attempting to fulfill projected world energy needs by any means; and their fulfillment, by using nuclear fuels carries special problems of biological, social and political hazards. Any development of Australia's uranium resources should be considered in this light. (author)

  15. 'Decipio': examining Virchow in the context of modern 'democracy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, R Gregory; McKee, Martin

    2012-04-01

    More than 100 years ago Rudolf Virchow advocated for enhanced democracy and socioeconomic reforms in order that the state could empower people to achieve better health. With reference to these now famous assertions this article traces the promises and pit-falls of democracy from ancient Greece to neo-liberal economies, to ascertain if the democratic state is indeed the ideal mechanism for promoting public health. In the end we conclude that contemporary western political systems are not rooted in the interest of the people, but are rather deceptive forces of branding designed to promote underlining agendas. This 'decipractic' (decipo = to deceive) system of politics demands a vigilant analysis and response from those in the health and academic communities to ensure that governments can be a mechanism for positive change in the public's interest. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Request for a comparison of the cost of heating oils and natural gas for advertising purposes as deception in the sense of Article 3 paragraph 1 Law Against Unfair Competition and as an action which is contra bonos mores in the sense of Article 1 Law Against Unfair Competition. OLG, Munich, decision of June 22, 1989 - 6 U 1530/89. Aufforderung zu einem Brennstoffkostenvergleich zwischen Heizoel und Erdgas als Irrefuehrung i. S. v. Paragraph 3 Abs. 1 UWG und als gegen die guten Sitten verstossende Handlung i. S. v. Paragraph 1 UWG. OLG, Muenchen, Urteil vom 22. 6. 1989 - 6 U 1530/89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Court decisions are presented, assessing a request for a comparison of the cost of heating oils and natural gas for advertising purposes as deception in the sense of Article 3 paragraph 1 Law Against Unfair Competition, and as an action which is contra bonos mores in the sense of Article 1 Law Against Unfair Competition. (orig./HSCH)

  17. Tissue-Specific Floral Transcriptome Analysis of the Sexually Deceptive Orchid Chiloglottis trapeziformis Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis and Regulation of Its Unique UV-B Dependent Floral Volatile, Chiloglottone 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren C. J. Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian sexually deceptive orchid, Chiloglottis trapeziformis, employs a unique UV-B-dependent floral volatile, chiloglottone 1, for specific male wasp pollinator attraction. Chiloglottone 1 and related variants (2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones, represent a unique class of specialized metabolites presumed to be the product of cyclization between two fatty acid (FA precursors. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of precursors, intermediates, and transcriptional regulation remains to be discovered. Chiloglottone 1 production occurs in the aggregation of calli (callus on the labellum under continuous UV-B light. Therefore, deep sequencing, transcriptome assembly, and differential expression (DE analysis were performed across different tissue types and UV-B treatments. Transcripts expressed in the callus and labellum (∼23,000 transcripts were highly specialized and enriched for a diversity of known and novel metabolic pathways. DE analysis between chiloglottone-emitting callus versus the remainder of the labellum showed strong coordinated induction of entire FA biosynthesis and β-oxidation pathways including genes encoding Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase, Acyl-CoA Oxidase, and Multifunctional Protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed potential gene duplicates with tissue-specific differential regulation including two Acyl-ACP Thioesterase B and a Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase genes. UV-B treatment induced the activation of UVR8-mediated signaling and large-scale transcriptome changes in both tissues, however, neither FA biosynthesis/β-oxidation nor other lipid metabolic pathways showed clear indications of concerted DE. Gene co-expression network analysis identified three callus-specific modules enriched with various lipid metabolism categories. These networks also highlight promising candidates involved in the cyclization of chiloglottone 1 intermediates (e.g., Bet v I and dimeric α,β barrel proteins and orchestrating regulation of precursor

  18. Postirradiation examination of HTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabielek, H.; Reitsamer, G.; Kania, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel for the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) consists of 1 mm diameter coated particles uniformly distributed in a graphite matrix within a cold-molded 60 mm diameter spherical fuel element. Fuel performance demonstrations under simulated normal operation conditions are conducted in accelerated neutron environments available in Material Test Reactors and in real-time environments such as the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) Juelich. Postirradiation examinations are then used to assess fuel element behavior and the detailed performance of the coated particles. The emphasis in postirradiation examination and accident testing is on assessment of the capability for fuel elements and individual coated particles to retain fission products and actinide fuel materials. To accomplish this task, techniques have been developed which measures fission product and fuel material distributions within or exterior to the particle: Hot Gas Chlorination - provides an accurate method to measure total fuel material concentration outside intact particles; Profile Electrolytic Deconsolidation - permits determination of fission product distribution along fuel element diameter and retrieval of fuel particles from positions within element; Gamma Spectrometry - provides nondestructive method to measure defect particle fractions based on retention of volatile metallic fission products; Particle Cracking - permits a measure of the partitioning of fission products between fuel kernel and particle coatings, and the derivation of diffusion parameters in fuel materials; Micro Gas Analysis - provides gaseous fission product and reactive gas inventory within free volume of single particles; and Mass-spectrometric Burnup Determination - utilizes isotope dilution for the measurement of heavy metal isotope abundances

  19. OCT for Examination of Artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Rouba, Bogumiła J.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    In this chapter the application of OCT to examination of objects of cultural heritage is given. The knowledge about the structure of the object of art is necessary both for inventory purposes and planning/monitoring of conservation-restoration treatments. Due to its noninvasiveness OCT is well suited for such applications. The major limitation is in the lack of transparency of certain structures. Specific requirements, advantages and limitations of use of the OCT technique in this area are discussed first. Then the overview of applications to easel paintings, historic glass, and craftsmanship is given, followed by two examples of monitoring the laser ablation with OCT: very local in case of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and more general in case of laser ablation of the varnish layer. Then the examples of application of OCT to examination of paintings are given: investigation of deterioration of the varnish layer in the "Adoration of the Magi" by Leonardo da Vinci (Uffizi, Italy), imaging of overpaintings on two 17th and 18th c. oil paintings on canvas, and visualization of specific case of retouching located between two layers of varnish in the "Madonna with Yarnwinder" (attributed to L. da Vinci, private property).

  20. CT examination of the kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Youji; Ishida, Ken; Arita, Takeshi; Ishine, Kenji; Tezen, Takashi; Ohta, Nobuhiro

    1985-01-01

    Plain CT scanning of the kidney was performed in 16 patients with renal failure whose basic renal disorder had been not necessarily known beforehand. The findings of the CT examination were composed of renal atrophy of various degree (12 cases), cystic lesions (8 cases), polycystic renal disease (one case), nephrosclerosis (2 cases), hydronephrosis (2 cases), ureter and renal stones (one case), and normal CT profile (2 cases). Being based on these CT findings and other clinical informations, basic renal disorders could be either presumed or confirmed. It was concluded that plain CT scanning of the kidney was useful to decide a method of treatment and to estimate prognosis in patients with renal failure. (author)

  1. National Postirradiation Examination Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, Jason L

    2011-06-01

    A National Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) Workshop was held March 29-30, 2011, in Washington D.C., stimulated by the DOE Acting Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy approval on January 31, 2011 of the “Mission Need Statement for Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capability”. As stated in the Mission Need, “A better understanding of nuclear fuels and material performance in the nuclear environment, at the nanoscale and lower, is critical to the development of innovative fuels and materials required for tomorrow’s nuclear energy systems.” (2011) Developing an advanced post-irradiation capability is the most important thing we can do to advance nuclear energy as an option to meeting national energy goals. Understanding the behavior of fuels and materials in a nuclear reactor irradiation environment is the limiting factor in nuclear plant safety, longevity, efficiency, and economics. The National PIE Workshop is part of fulfilling or addressing Department of Energy (DOE) missions in safe and publically acceptable nuclear energy. Several presentations were given during the opening of the workshop. Generally speaking, these presentations established that we cannot continue to rely on others in the world to provide the capabilities we need to move forward with nuclear energy technology. These presentations also generally identified the need for increased microstructural understanding of fuels and materials to be coupled with modeling and simulation, and increased accessibility and infrastructure to facilitate the interaction between national laboratories and participating organizations. The overall results of the work of the presenters and panels was distilled into four primary needs 1. Understanding material changes in the extreme nuclear environment at the nanoscale. Nanoscale studies have significant importance due to the mechanisms that cause materials to degrade, which actually occur on the nanoscale. 2. Enabling additional proficiency in

  2. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  3. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  4. TMI-2 quick look examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, W.A.; Rider, R.L.; Austin, W.A.; Cole, N.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this work, conducted under the Department of Energy's Reactor Evaluation Program, was to gain the earliest possible access to the TMI-2 reactor vessel and to determine the condition of the plenum assembly and the reactor core. Completion of this examination has also provided substantial progress towards removal of the reactor vessel head and eventual defueling. Two methods were developed for gaining through-head access. The first involves removal of an entire CRDM, providing a 6.8-cm-diameter access through the nozzle. In case normal uncoupling proved unsuccessful, contingency techniques were developed to disconnect the leadscrew. Two contingency procedures, one ex-head and one in-head, were developed. A second technique for through-head access, the so-called Quick Look technique, was developed at the suggestion of the Technical Assessment and Advisory Group (TAAG), a group of senior technical people funded by DOE to advise GPU Nuclear on the TMI-2 recovery. This simplified method involves uncoupling and removing a CRDM leadscrew by basically normal methods and inserting a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera directly through the space vacated by the leadscrew

  5. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  6. The Measurement of Advertising Impact on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, James E.; And Others

    This study examined the impact on children of two deceptive and two non-deceptive 60-second color commericals inserted in a 25-minute film. The ads were rated as deceptive or non-deceptive by attorneys at the Federal Trade Commission. A total of 102 students aged 11 to 13 and 34 students aged 7 viewed the film with the ads inserted. Pre- and…

  7. Liar! Liar! Deception Detection in 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    How would you know?‖ retorts her companion Nova. ―You were barely out of diapers yourself when that event happened. That‘s ancient history!‖ ―I know...40 Alton Crawford Walter Brown is the part scientist-part chef who hosts Food Network‟s “Iron Chef America” and “Good Eats” programs. On the

  8. [Economisation of research -- or: what price deception?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K

    2005-06-01

    According to the accepted credo of German science policy the organization of research has to be reshaped to fit the needs of the national economy better than it did so in the past. This is seen as a conditio sine qua non to help German corporations to prevail in the global competition as well as to protect national welfare. The author argues that reorganizing research on a strictly mission-oriented line under economic imperatives will partly suspend the code of science in favor of the code of economy. The focal aim of science, which is to reach at the most reliable information in a methodical and impartial way, will be partly replaced by the aim to reach at the best sellable information in any way which is cheap and profitable. The probability that any information which might endanger the market performance of a product is clandestinely kept under cover by the selling corporation will be greatly enlarged. Expert knowledge necessary to uncover the truth will be mainly interest bound and no longer be freely available. Knowledge perceived to be irrelevant for economy, although possibly being of great intrinsic interest, and even knowledge which might become an essential part of a culture's identity, will be lost on its search for an investor. The great danger is that this applies also to important parts of basic science potentially providing the foundations for future technologies. Externalities such as these could be called the costs of economization, or: the costs of untruth.

  9. Deceptive pictures and revealing sounds / Anu Allas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allas, Anu, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    2009. aasta Ars Fennica kunstipreemia pälvinud eesti kunstniku ja fotograafi Mark Raidpere videokunstist, muusika ja heli tähtsast rollist tema videotes (videod "Pühendus/Dedication" (2008), "5 Guards" (2006), "Wailing Woman" (2007), "Majestoso Mystico" (2007), "Vekovka" (2008) jt.)

  10. Pheochromocytoma and pregnancy: a deceptive connection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    A pheochromocytoma in a pregnant patient is one of the most threatening medical conditions for mother, fetus, and physician. Although extraordinarily rare with a frequency of 0.002% of all pregnancies, this tumor is notorious for its devastating consequences. As in non-pregnant patients, the signs

  11. Retweeting Activity on Twitter: Signs of Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    for computing the like- lihood of an unknown user being a human, bot or cyborg . [16] shows the strong classification and prediction performance of...ACM (2013) 2. Chu, Z., et al.: Who is Tweeting on Twitter: Human, Bot, or Cyborg ? ACSAC, 21–30 (2010) 3. Derrida, B., et al.: Statistical Properties

  12. Why Television Advertising Is Deceptive and Unfair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Rose K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…

  13. Detection of Active Topology Probing Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the probing host and day, which contain traceroute data across all /24 prefixes in the routed IPv4 address space. Luckie [21] designed Scam - per to be...1 0 4067 0 0 0 0 1 69 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 70 List of References [1] ATIS Committee PRQC. (2015). ATIS Telecom Glossary. [ Online ...Werber. (2013, Feb). Star Wars Traceroute. [ Online ]. Available: http: //beaglenetworks.net/post/42707829171/star-wars-traceroute [4] (2015). Virtual

  14. Shale gas - the story of a deception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical sheet presents a book which aims at informing citizen about the irreversible consequences of shale gas exploitation on the environment, and about the economical and social aspects of an exploitation of this energy on a large scale. The author highlights the technical and environmental problems raised by hydraulic fracturing, outlines the complexity of the regulatory, legal and administrative framework, discusses the arguments which support shale gas exploitation, and outlines the importance of and energy transition without shale gas. The author notably outlines the conflicts of interest which pervert the debate on shale gas, notably within the French National Assembly

  15. 16 CFR 18.1 - Deception (general).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or distribute industry products by any method or under any circumstance or condition that... quantity, size, grade, kind, species, age, maturity, condition, vigor, hardiness, number of times... inhibitions of this section shall apply to every type of advertisement or method of representation, whether in...

  16. Detecting deception: the scope and limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sip, Kamila E; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William

    2008-01-01

    has been put into their development, paradigms are still inadequate. The problems that bedevilled the old technology have not been eliminated by the new. Advances will only be possible if experiments are designed that take account of the intentions of the subject and the context in which these occur...

  17. An Improved Tarpit for Network Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    pollute network measurement studies, as well as note the negative impact that even small blocks of tarpit address spaces have on automated scanners...to ping Greasy and LaBrea hosts: a Mac OS X Version 10.10.5 machine on a home residential net- work in California, the CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511...attack analysis and democracy,” 2010. [18] C. Ruvalcaba, “ Smart IDS – Hybrid LaBrea Tarpit,” SANS Institute, Report, 2009. [19] V. Oppleman, “Network

  18. The magic grasp: motor expertise in deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of us are poor at faking actions. Kinematic studies have shown that when pretending to pick up imagined objects (pantomimed actions, we move and shape our hands quite differently from when grasping real ones. These differences between real and pantomimed actions have been linked to separate brain pathways specialized for different kinds of visuomotor guidance. Yet professional magicians regularly use pantomimed actions to deceive audiences.In this study, we tested whether, despite their skill, magicians might still show kinematic differences between grasping actions made toward real versus imagined objects. We found that their pantomimed actions in fact closely resembled real grasps when the object was visible (but displaced (Experiment 1, but failed to do so when the object was absent (Experiment 2.We suggest that although the occipito-parietal visuomotor system in the dorsal stream is designed to guide goal-directed actions, prolonged practice may enable it to calibrate actions based on visual inputs displaced from the action.

  19. Content in Context Improves Deception Detection Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. Pete; Levine, Timothy R.; Shaw, Allison S.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that people are only slightly better than chance at distinguishing truths from lies. Higher accuracy rates, however, are possible when contextual knowledge is used to judge the veracity of situated message content. The utility of content in context was shown in a series of experiments with students (N = 26, 45, 51, 25, 127)…

  20. 78 FR 27343 - Medical Examiner's Certification Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... efficiency; (2) reflect current medical terminology and examination components; and (3) be a self-contained... 391 [Docket No. FMCSA-2012-0178] RIN 2126-AB40 Medical Examiner's Certification Integration AGENCY...: FMCSA proposes to require certified medical examiners (MEs) performing physical examinations on drivers...

  1. 42 CFR 21.53 - Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination. 21.53 Section 21.53 Public Health... Appointment § 21.53 Examination. The examination of candidates for original appointment as officers to any... education and their training and experience. In the discretion of the Surgeon General the examination of any...

  2. 5 CFR 339.303 - Examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination procedures. 339.303 Section... QUALIFICATION DETERMINATIONS Medical Examinations § 339.303 Examination procedures. (a) When an agency orders or offers a medical examination under this subpart, it must inform the applicant or employee in writing of...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6265 - Examination gown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination gown. 880.6265 Section 880.6265 Food... § 880.6265 Examination gown. (a) Identification. An examination gown is a device intended for medical... covering during a medical examination. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  4. 7 CFR 4290.692 - Examination fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination fees. 4290.692 Section 4290.692... Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Examination Requirements for RBICs Examinations of Rbics by the Secretary for Regulatory Compliance § 4290.692 Examination fees. (a) General. The Secretary will assess fees for...

  5. 13 CFR 108.692 - Examination fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination fees. 108.692 Section...NMVCâ) PROGRAM Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Examination Requirements for NMVC Companies Examinations of Nmvc Companies by Sba for Regulatory Compliance § 108.692 Examination fees. (a) General. SBA will...

  6. 47 CFR 13.209 - Examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination procedures. 13.209 Section 13.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.209 Examination procedures. (a) Each examination for a commercial radio operator license must be administered at a...

  7. 37 CFR 1.809 - Examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination procedures. 1.809... Biological Material § 1.809 Examination procedures. (a) The examiner shall determine pursuant to § 1.104 in... deposited biological material sufficient to specifically identify it and to permit examination; and (4) The...

  8. A Matter of Exposition: Examination and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sabrina; Thompson, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    While current literature on examination and testing mostly engages with the objectivity of exams and their procedural logic, this article is concerned with the 'ethical dimension' of examination: Examinations provoke a particular relation to oneself, possibly self-transformation. The praxis of examination entails self-confrontation in the light of…

  9. Design and implementation of online examination administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Online examination system is a web-based examination system where examination is taken online i.e. through the internet or intranet using computer system. It is an effective solution for mass education evaluation. We have developed an online examination system based on a Browser/Server framework using Microsoft ...

  10. Organization of roentgenofluorographic examination of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, A.G.; Yukelis, L.I.; Ivanova, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The organizational-methodical supervision of roentgenofluorography comprises two main subdivisions: supervision of stationary and transportable roentgenofluorographic rooms as well as control and organization of mass preventive examinations of the population. The second subdivision comprises planning, accountancy of examinations, control of examination of different groups of population. Problems of registration and accountancy of the examined patients, groups of increased risk, peculiarities of children and teenage examination as well as application of computers are discussed

  11. Does Changing Examiner Stations During UK Postgraduate Surgery Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Influence Examination Reliability and Candidates' Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Peter A; Croke, David T; Reed, Malcolm; Smith, Lee; Munro, Euan; Foulkes, John; Arnett, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) are widely used for summative assessment in surgery. Despite standardizing these as much as possible, variation, including examiner scoring, can occur which may affect reliability. In study of a high-stakes UK postgraduate surgical OSCE, we investigated whether examiners changing stations once during a long examining day affected marking, reliability, and overall candidates' scores compared with examiners who examined the same scenario all day. An observational study of 18,262 examiner-candidate interactions from the UK Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons examination was carried at 3 Surgical Colleges across the United Kingdom. Scores between examiners were compared using analysis of variance. Examination reliability was assessed with Cronbach's alpha, and the comparative distribution of total candidates' scores for each day was evaluated using t-tests of unit-weighted z scores. A significant difference was found in absolute scores differences awarded in the morning and afternoon sessions between examiners who changed stations at lunchtime and those who did not (p design and examiner experience in surgical OSCEs and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining Teacher Assessment Scores with External Examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combining Teacher Assessment Scores with External Examination Scores for Certification: Comparative Study of Four Statistical Models. ... University entrance examination scores in mathematics were obtained for a subsample of 115 ...

  13. Nuclear medical examinations in Marfan's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'haene, E.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients of one family with the Marfan's syndrome have been examined with nuclear medical techniques. A combination of isotopes, angiography and ECG triggered bloodpoolscintigraphy with echocardiography are very suitable to examine the course of the disease. (Auth.)

  14. Radiographic examination of the equine head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic examinations of the equine head can be performed with portable x-ray machines. The views comprising the examination depend on the area of the head being examined. With a knowledge of radiographic anatomy and radiographic signs of disease, valuable diagnostic information can be obtained from the radiographic examination. In addition, the radiographic information can also be used to develop a prognosis and determine the most appropriate therapy

  15. Managing examination malpractice in Nigerian University system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination malpractice is as old as examination itself. However, the rate at which examination malpractices occurs in the Nigerian educational system is highly disturbing. The challenge therefore needs prompt attention. The phenomenon which has both moral and legal dimensions is considered as a hydra-headed ...

  16. A Practical Concussion Physical Examination Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszak, Jason M; McVige, Jennifer; McPherson, Jacob; Willer, Barry; Leddy, John

    With heightened awareness of concussion, there is a need to assess and manage the concussed patient in a consistent manner. Unfortunately, concussion physical examination has not been standardized or supported by evidence. Important questions remain about the physical examination. Review of ClinicalKey, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and PubMed prior to July 2015 was performed using search terms, including concussion, mTBI, physical examination, mental status, cranial nerves, reflexes, cervical, vestibular, and oculomotor. The references of the pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. The pertinent physical examination elements for concussion include evaluation of cranial nerves, manual muscle testing, and deep tendon reflexes; inspecting the head and neck for trauma or tenderness and cervical range of motion; Spurling maneuver; a static or dynamic balance assessment; screening ocular examination; and a mental status examination that includes orientation, immediate and delayed recall, concentration, mood, affect, insight, and judgment. Other examination elements to consider, based on signs, symptoms, or clinical suspicion, include testing of upper motor neurons, cervical strength and proprioception, coordination, pupillary reactivity, and visual acuity; examination of the jaw, temporomandibular joint, and thoracic spine; fundoscopic evaluation; orthostatic vital signs; assessment of dynamic visual acuity; and screening for depression, anxiety, substance abuse disorders, and preinjury psychiatric difficulties. Various elements of the physical examination, such as screening ocular examination, cervical musculoskeletal examination, static and/or dynamic balance assessment, and mental status examination, appear to have utility for evaluating concussion; however, data on validity are lacking.

  17. 38 CFR 4.61 - Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination. 4.61 Section... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.61 Examination. With any form of arthritis (except traumatic arthritis) it is essential that the examination for rating purposes cover all major...

  18. 30 CFR 850.14 - Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination. 850.14 Section 850.14 Mineral..., EXAMINATION, AND CERTIFICATION OF BLASTERS PERMANENT REGULATORY PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS-STANDARDS FOR CERTIFICATION OF BLASTERS § 850.14 Examination. (a) The regulatory authority shall ensure that candidates for...

  19. 12 CFR 741.1 - Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination. 741.1 Section 741.1 Banks and... Unions and That Are Not Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations § 741.1 Examination. As provided in... examination may require access to all records, reports, contracts to which the credit union is a party, and...

  20. 22 CFR 92.60 - Examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination procedures. 92.60 Section 92.60... and Letters Rogatory § 92.60 Examination procedures. (a) Explaining interrogatory to witness. If the... examination of a witness propound such inquiries as may be necessary to satisfy himself whether the witness is...

  1. 8 CFR 1245.5 - Medical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical examination. 1245.5 Section 1245.5... examination. Pursuant to section 232(b) of the Act, an applicant for adjustment of status shall be required to have a medical examination by a designated civil surgeon, whose report setting forth the findings of...

  2. 30 CFR 955.14 - Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination. 955.14 Section 955.14 Mineral... AND ON INDIAN LANDS § 955.14 Examination. (a) Certificate issuance or reissuance. After submitting an... examination, as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Administration and content. (1) On a regular...

  3. 8 CFR 245.5 - Medical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical examination. 245.5 Section 245.5... THAT OF PERSON ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.5 Medical examination. Pursuant to section 232(b) of the Act, an applicant for adjustment of status shall be required to have a medical examination by...

  4. 22 CFR 41.108 - Medical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical examination. 41.108 Section 41.108... AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Nonimmigrant Visa § 41.108 Medical examination. (a) Requirements for medical examination. An applicant for a nonimmigrant visa shall be required to take a medical...

  5. 10 CFR 55.21 - Medical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical examination. 55.21 Section 55.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Medical Requirements § 55.21 Medical examination. An applicant for a license shall have a medical examination by a physician. A licensee shall have a medical...

  6. 30 CFR 75.361 - Supplemental examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental examination. 75.361 Section 75.361... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.361 Supplemental examination. (a) Except for certified persons conducting examinations required by this subpart, within 3 hours before anyone...

  7. 46 CFR 11.707 - Examination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination requirements. 11.707 Section 11.707 Shipping... OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Pilots § 11.707 Examination requirements. (a) An... required to pass the examination described in subpart I of this part. (b) An applicant for an extension of...

  8. 28 CFR 12.40 - Public examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public examination. 12.40 Section 12.40... ESPIONAGE, COUNTERESPIONAGE, OR SABOTAGE MATTERS UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST 1, 1956 § 12.40 Public examination. Registration statements shall be available for public examination at the offices of the Registration Unit...

  9. 5 CFR 330.401 - Competitive examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive examination. 330.401 Section 330.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT... examination. In each entrance examination for the positions of custodian, elevator operator, guard, and...

  10. 19 CFR 19.10 - Examination packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination packages. 19.10 Section 19.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Examination packages. Merchandise sent from a bonded warehouse to the appraiser's stores for examination shall...

  11. 30 CFR 75.364 - Weekly examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weekly examination. 75.364 Section 75.364... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.364 Weekly examination. (a) Worked-out... bleeder system. (b) Hazardous conditions. At least every 7 days, an examination for hazardous conditions...

  12. 22 CFR 42.66 - Medical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical examination. 42.66 Section 42.66... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.66 Medical examination. (a) Medical examination required of all applicants. Before the issuance of an immigrant visa, the consular officer shall...

  13. 25 CFR 11.1014 - Medical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical examination. 11.1014 Section 11.1014 Indians... ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1014 Medical examination. The children's court may order a medical examination for a minor who is alleged to be a juvenile offender. ...

  14. 19 CFR 134.53 - Examination packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination packages. 134.53 Section 134.53... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.53 Examination packages. (a) Site of marking—(1) Customs custody. Articles (or containers) in examination packages may be marked by...

  15. 13 CFR 107.692 - Examination fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Addition—% of base examination fee No prior violations 15 Partnership or limited liability company 5... liability company, you will pay an additional charge equal to 5% of your base fee; (4) If you are a Licensee... COMPANIES Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Examination Requirements for Licensees Examinations of Licensees by...

  16. 13 CFR 108.690 - Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....690 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Examination Requirements for NMVC Companies Examinations of Nmvc Companies by Sba for Regulatory Compliance § 108.690 Examinations. All NMVC companies must submit to annual...

  17. Nondestructive examination development and demonstration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) of waste matrices using penetrating radiation is by nature very subjective. Two candidate systems of examination have been identified for use in WRAP 1. This test plan describes a method for a comparative evaluation of different x-ray examination systems and techniques

  18. Legal aspects and regulations of roentgenofluorographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.D.

    1988-01-01

    Organization and execution of roentgenofluorographic examinations in the USSR is supervised by laws of the Ministry of public health of the USSR, instructions, methodical recommendations. These documents and their additions concerning preventive measures against tuberculosis, standard norms of medical personnel, necessary preventive examinations and other aspects of conducting roentgenofluorographic examinations are discussed

  19. Hypothesis-driven physical examination curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sharon; Olson, Andrew; Menk, Jeremiah; Nixon, James

    2017-12-01

    Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres. Alternatives like hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) may promote students' understanding of the contribution of physical examination to diagnostic reasoning. We sought to determine whether first-year medical students can effectively learn to perform a physical examination using an HDPE approach, and then tailor the examination to specific clinical scenarios. Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres CONTEXT: First-year medical students at the University of Minnesota were taught both traditional and HDPE approaches during a required 17-week clinical skills course in their first semester. The end-of-course evaluation assessed HDPE skills: students were assigned one of two cardiopulmonary cases. Each case included two diagnostic hypotheses. During an interaction with a standardised patient, students were asked to select physical examination manoeuvres in order to make a final diagnosis. Items were weighted and selection order was recorded. First-year students with minimal pathophysiology performed well. All students selected the correct diagnosis. Importantly, students varied the order when selecting examination manoeuvres depending on the diagnoses under consideration, demonstrating early clinical decision-making skills. An early introduction to HDPE may reinforce physical examination skills for hypothesis generation and testing, and can foster early clinical decision-making skills. This has important implications for further research in physical examination instruction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  20. X-ray examinations pose little risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Komppa, T.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray examinations account for about 15 per cent of Finns' radiation exposure and for roughly one out of a hundred deaths from cancer. The risk is small when compared to other risks in life and to the health benefits obtained from the examinations. About 4.1 million x-ray examinations were conducted in Finland in 1995, i.e. an average of 0.8 examinations per inhabitant. The mean effective dose was about 0.67 mSv per examination and about 0.54 mSv per inhabitant. Natural background radiation causes an annual radiation dose of approximately 3 mSv per person. Examinations of bones and soft tissues accounted for the highest number of x-ray images, roughly 2.1 million, of which half were examinations of the extremities. Some 1.3 million x-ray images were taken of the pulmonary organs, most of them being examinations of the lungs. Computed tomography and examinations of the gastrointestinal tract accounted for about 130,000 images each. To assess the radiation risk involved in x-ray examinations, we need knowledge or an estimate of the radiation doses of organs sensitive to radiation. Efficient calculation methods are available for this purpose. (orig.)

  1. Examination of weld defects by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jovanović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Defects in metal arc gas (MAG welds made in S235JR low carbon steel of 6 mm thickness were examined. A sample containing lack of fusion (LOF and pores was examined by computed tomography – CT. The computed tomography examination was performed in order to define LOF size and position as well as dimensions and distribution of accompanying pores in the weld metal.

  2. LABORATORY EXAMINATION IN NERVE AGENT INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bajgar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of nerve agent intoxication is based on anamnestic data, clinical signs and laboratory examination. For acute poisoning, cholinesterase activity in the blood (erythrocyte AChE, plasma/serum BuChE is sensitive, simple and most frequent laboratory examination performed in biochemical laboratories. Specialized examinations to precise treatment (reactivation test or to make retrospective diagnosis (fluoride induced reactivation etc. can be conducted. Other sophisticated methods are available, too.

  3. A Practical Concussion Physical Examination Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszak, Jason M.; McVige, Jennifer; McPherson, Jacob; Willer, Barry; Leddy, John

    2016-01-01

    Context: With heightened awareness of concussion, there is a need to assess and manage the concussed patient in a consistent manner. Unfortunately, concussion physical examination has not been standardized or supported by evidence. Important questions remain about the physical examination. Evidence Acquisition: Review of ClinicalKey, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and PubMed prior to July 2015 was performed using search terms, including concussion, mTBI, physical examination, mental status, cranial nerves, reflexes, cervical, vestibular, and oculomotor. The references of the pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: The pertinent physical examination elements for concussion include evaluation of cranial nerves, manual muscle testing, and deep tendon reflexes; inspecting the head and neck for trauma or tenderness and cervical range of motion; Spurling maneuver; a static or dynamic balance assessment; screening ocular examination; and a mental status examination that includes orientation, immediate and delayed recall, concentration, mood, affect, insight, and judgment. Other examination elements to consider, based on signs, symptoms, or clinical suspicion, include testing of upper motor neurons, cervical strength and proprioception, coordination, pupillary reactivity, and visual acuity; examination of the jaw, temporomandibular joint, and thoracic spine; fundoscopic evaluation; orthostatic vital signs; assessment of dynamic visual acuity; and screening for depression, anxiety, substance abuse disorders, and preinjury psychiatric difficulties. Conclusion: Various elements of the physical examination, such as screening ocular examination, cervical musculoskeletal examination, static and/or dynamic balance assessment, and mental status examination, appear to have utility for evaluating concussion; however, data on validity are lacking. PMID:27022058

  4. Pressure piping systems examination. 2. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This Code is Part 13 of the IP Model Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum Industry. Its purpose is to provide a guide to safe practices in the in-service examination and test of piping systems used in the petroleum and chemical industries. The Code gives general requirements regarding the provision and maintenance of adequate documentation, in-service examination, the control of modifications and repairs, examination frequency, protective devices and testing of piping systems. (author)

  5. Examinations in radiology with commented answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmaack, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    This book is meant to be a help in the preparation for the examination in the subject of radiology. Original questions from the examinations of the past years and questions put by the author cover all subjects of the catalogue. All questions are answered, with additional comments in order to ensure the understanding of the subject, thus creating best preconditions for a successful examination. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Radiographic examination for successful dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    2005-01-01

    Recently implant has become an important field in dental clinic. Radiographic examination of pre- and post-operation is essential for successful treatment. Clinicians should have knowledge about the purpose of the radiographic examination, suitable imaging modality for the cases, anatomic landmarks of tooth and jaw bone, advantage and limitation of panoramic radiographic examination for implant, principle and interpretation of cross-sectional imaging, bone mineral density, post-operative radiographic examination. This paper will be helpful to get above information for dentists who want to do dental implant successfully.

  7. Post mortem examination report concerning Nadim Nuwwara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2014-01-01

    Post mortem examination report concerning Nadim Nuwawara, 17-years old, who was killed may 15 2014 in Beitunia near Rahmallah, Palestine. The examination was performed by an international team consisting of dr. Saber Al-Aloul, director of the Medico Legal Institute at Quds University, dr. Marc A....... Krouse, Deputy Chief Medical Examiner, Office of Chief Medical Examiner, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, dr. Chen Kugel, Chief Forensic Pathologist, Abu Kabir Institute of Forensic Medicine, Tel Aviv, dr. Ricardo Pablo Nachman, forensic expert at Abu Kabir Institute of Forensic Medicine, Tel Aviv and dr. Peter...

  8. A disjointed effort: paediatric musculoskeletal examination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Irwin

    2012-07-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms are a frequent cause of emergency department attendance for children, and while most often indicative of benign or self-limiting disease, such symptoms can occasionally be the first presentation of serious illness such as leukaemia or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. MSK examination, however, is often not included as part of the routine paediatric examination. The authors aimed to evaluate how often and how thoroughly MSK examination was performed during admissions to the paediatric ward and to compare it with the examination of other symptoms in relation to the presenting complaint and eventual diagnosis.

  9. Ultrasonographic examination in juvenile idiopathic arthritis is better than clinical examination for identification of intraarticular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Erik; Strandberg, Charlotte; Andersen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is formally based on clinical examination, but ultrasound (US) examination is used increasingly. Our purpose was to compare US and clinical examination in the assessment of synovitis in JIA.......The diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is formally based on clinical examination, but ultrasound (US) examination is used increasingly. Our purpose was to compare US and clinical examination in the assessment of synovitis in JIA....

  10. 10 CFR 709.31 - DOE standards for polygraph examiners and polygraph examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum qualifications: (1) The examiner must be an experienced CI or criminal investigator with extensive... in psychology, physiology, interviewing, and interrogation. (2) The examiner must have a favorably...

  11. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...

  12. 29 CFR 1921.21 - Hearing examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Miscellaneous § 1921.21 Hearing examiners. (a) Who presides. All hearings shall be presided over by a hearing examiner appointed under section 11 of the Administrative Procedure Act...

  13. Student-patient communication during physical examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleland, Jennifer; de la Croix, Anne; Cotton, Philip; Coull, Sharon; Skelton, John

    BACKGROUND: Communication during the physical examination has been understudied. Explicit, evidence-based guidance is not available as to the most effective content or process of communication while performing physical examination, or indeed how to teach this to medical students. The objective of

  14. Verification and Examination Management of Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Ruud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As ship systems become more complex, with an increasing number of safety-critical functions, many interconnected subsystems, tight integration to other systems, and a large amount of potential failure modes, several industry parties have identified the need for improved methods for managing the verification and examination efforts of such complex systems. Such needs are even more prominent now that the marine and offshore industries are targeting more activities and operations in the Arctic environment. In this paper, a set of requirements and a method for verification and examination management are proposed for allocating examination efforts to selected subsystems. The method is based on a definition of a verification risk function for a given system topology and given requirements. The marginal verification risks for the subsystems may then be evaluated, so that examination efforts for the subsystem can be allocated. Two cases of requirements and systems are used to demonstrate the proposed method. The method establishes a systematic relationship between the verification loss, the logic system topology, verification method performance, examination stop criterion, the required examination effort, and a proposed sequence of examinations to reach the examination stop criterion.

  15. Examining Gender Bias in Studies of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Crowden, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the presence of a gender bias in studies of innovation. Using the Innovation Systems Research Network (ISRN) and its interview guide as a case study, this research project examines how accurately and completely such innovation studies present gender differences in the innovation process.

  16. Parenting styles, gender, religiosity and examination malpractices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the influence of parenting styles, gender and religiousity on the attitude of students towards examination malpractices. One hundred and ninety –eight participants were used which comprises of 100 males and 98 females of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba- Akoko in Ondo state. Parental care scale ...

  17. Radiation protection during radiological examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, D.; Gillet, R.; Wambersie, A.

    The dose delivered to children during radiological examinations were assessed and their variations compared with an experimental model. It is shown how to make good radiological examinations limiting the dose delivered to children and reducing the hazard to the medical staff [fr

  18. Examiners' Reports on Theses: Feedback or Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Stracke, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, examiners' reports on theses at the doctoral and Master's level consist of two components: firstly, summative assessment where a judgement is made about whether the thesis has met the standards established by the discipline for the award of the degree, and, secondly, the developmental and formative component, where examiners provide…

  19. 25 CFR 151.13 - Title examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title examination. 151.13 Section 151.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.13 Title examination. If the Secretary determines that he will approve a request for the acquisition of land from...

  20. 37 CFR 1.167 - Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination. 1.167 Section 1.167 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Examination. Applications may be submitted by the Patent and Trademark Office to the Department of Agriculture...

  1. AAPT/NSTA High School Physics Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses development of the American Association of Physics Teachers and National Science Teachers Association (AAPT/NSTA) high school physics examination. Includes sample examination questions and distribution of topics: mechanics (30 percent), waves/optics/sound (20 percent), heat/kinetic theory (10 percent), electricity/magnetism (25 percent),…

  2. Examining the Doctoral Thesis: A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The examination of doctoral theses controls an important academic threshold, yet practices are often private, codes non-specific, and individuals isolated. This article adds to recent investigation of the examination culture by reporting informal panel discussion amongst a total of 23 University of Auckland (New Zealand) faculty members as to…

  3. Standardized CT examination of the multitraumatized patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidner, B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oskarshamn Hospital (Sweden)]|[Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital (Sweden); Adiels, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oskarshamn Hospital (Sweden); Aspelin, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital (Sweden); Gullstrand, P.; Wallen, S. [Department of Surgery, Oskarshamn Hospital (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a standardized non-helical-CT protocol including head, body and proximal extremities in order to achieve a good time efficiency and diagnostic accuracy in the initial radiological evaluation of the multitraumatized patient. A total of 111 circulatory stable blunt trauma patients, brought in to a trauma level II-III hospital, were examined according to a standardized CT protocol. After examining the head with contiguous 10-mm slices without IV contrast medium injection, the trunk was examined with 10-mm slices every 30 mm through thorax-abdomen-pelvis with IV contrast medium enhancement (occasionally modified). All data in the medical reports were collected and used as ``end-point``, and the outcome of the CT examination was compared with this final diagnosis. Mean examination time was 20 min (range 12-32 min). In total, 55 head injuries, 89 thoracic injuries, 27 abdominal/pelvic injuries and 62 fractures were found. Computed tomography correctly identified the injuries, except one brain stem injury, one contusion/rupture of the heart, one hepatic injury, two intestinal injuries, eight vertebral injuries and one joint dislocation. A standardized non-helical-CT examination of the head and body may be achieved in 20 min. Its diagnostic accuracy was high, except for vertebral column injuries, which is why we recommend it as the method of choice for initial radiological examination of multitraumatized patients. When available, helical scanning would improve both examination speed and accuracy. (orig.) With 6 figs., 40 refs.

  4. design and implementation of online examination administration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oria

    Online examination system is a web-based examination system where ... as chemistry, physics or economics employ a style ... model is easy to understand and reinforces the notion of ..... Logout enables the student to return to the login page ...

  5. The Hypothesis-Driven Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, Brian T; Olson, Andrew P J

    2018-05-01

    The physical examination remains a vital part of the clinical encounter. However, physical examination skills have declined in recent years, in part because of decreased time at the bedside. Many clinicians question the relevance of physical examinations in the age of technology. A hypothesis-driven approach to teaching and practicing the physical examination emphasizes the performance of maneuvers that can alter the likelihood of disease. Likelihood ratios are diagnostic weights that allow clinicians to estimate the post-probability of disease. This hypothesis-driven approach to the physical examination increases its value and efficiency, while preserving its cultural role in the patient-physician relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ströfer, Sabine; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Ufkes, Elze Gooitzen; Giebels, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already

  7. Examination results of medical students with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, Jean; Snowling, Margaret J

    2011-02-01

    dyslexia is a learning disorder, the primary sign of which is significant difficulty in learning to read and spell. However, accumulating evidence suggests that many people with dyslexia can overcome their reading difficulties and enjoy high levels of educational success. There is debate about the appropriateness of different forms of summative assessment for people with dyslexia, but there is little research investigating different examination formats, particularly in higher education, including medical education. Currently, medical school examinations comprise a range of different assessments, both written and performance-based, offering an opportunity to compare performance on different formats. This study compared results between students with and without dyslexia on all summative assessment types used at one UK medical school. examination scores were collated for all summative Year 1 and 2 examinations at Hull York Medical School (HYMS) over four cohorts entering from 2004 to 2007. These included scores on two types of forced-choice question (multiple-choice and extended matching question) examinations, on short written answer examinations and on performance in a 16-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Results for written answers were gathered separately for basic science questions and for questions involving critical analysis and evidence-based medicine. an overall multivariate analysis of covariance (mancova) on examinations across both years controlling for gender, ethnicity and age on entry indicated that there was no significant overall effect of dyslexia on examination results. Regression analysis further showed that dyslexia was not a significant predictor on any of the examination forms in Year 1 or Year 2. there is no indication that any of the assessment methods used in HYMS, in common with many other medical schools, disadvantage students with dyslexia in comparison with their peers. In the light of these findings, we support

  8. Status of the nondestructive examination equipment for the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The present status of Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Equipment proposed for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) now under construction at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory is discussed. Items discussed include the NDE cell receiving machine, the dismantling machine, the standard examination stage, profilometry, eddy current, wire wrap removal machine, surface examination, gamma scan and general NDE equipment

  9. Health examination for A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako

    1996-01-01

    The health examination for A-bomb survivors by national, prefectural and city administrations was described and discussed on its general concept, history, time change of examinee number, improvement of examination, prevalence of individual diseases, significance of cancer examinations, examinees' point of view and future problems. Subjects were the survivors living in Hiroshima city: in 1994, their number was 100,188, whose ages were 63 y in average for males consisting of 39.5% and 67 y for females of 60.5%. The examination was begun in 1957 on the law for medical care for the survivors firstly and then systematically in 1961. From 1965, it was performed 4 times a year, and in 1988, one examination in the four was made for cancer. Authors' Center examined previously 90% but recently 70% of the examinees. The remainder underwent the examination in other medical facilities. Tests are blood analysis, electrocardiography and computed radiography of chest with imaging plate, of which data have been accumulated either in photodisc or in host computer. From 1973 to 1993, the cardiovascular diseases increased from 6.1% to 26.9%, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, 3.6% to 19.7%, and bowel ones, 0.9% to 12.3%. Correlations of these diseases with A-bomb irradiation are not elucidated and possibly poor. Five classes of cancer examinations are performed but the examinee rate in the survivors is as low as 7.6-21.8% (1993). The cancer of the large intestine is increasing. The overall examinee rates in the survivors were 70.6% in 1965-1967, 69.5% in 1976-1977 and 58.2% in 1990. In conclusion, how to examine the survivors, who are getting older, as many as possible is the future problem. (H.O.)

  10. [Parameters of phoniatric examination of solo vocalists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Slobodan; Jović, Rajko; Aleksić, Vesna; Cvejić, Biserka

    2002-01-01

    A phoniatrist analyzes the professional's voice at the beginning of his vocal studies or career but also later, in cases of voice disorder. Phoniatric examination of professional singers must be done according to "all inclusive" protocols of examination. Such protocols must establish the status of basic elements of phonatory system: activator, generator and resonator of voice and articulatory space. All patients requiring phoniatric examination no matter if they are candidates for professional singers, need to provide anamnestic data about their previous problems regarding voice or singing. This examination is necessary and it must include: examination of nose, cavum oris, pharynx, ears and larynx. This analysis is based on evaluation of physiological and pathophysiological manifestations of voice. Determination of musical voice range during phoniatric examination does not intend to make any classification of voice, nor to suggest to vocal teacher what he should count upon from future singers. Musical range can be determined only by a phoniatrist skilled in music or with musical training, but first of all vocal teacher. These methods are used for examination of phonatory function, or laryngeal pathology. They are not invasive and give objective and quantitative information. They include: laryngostroboscopy, spectral analysis of voice (sonography) and fundamental parameters of voice signal (computer program). Articulation is very important for solo singers, because good articulation contributes to qualitative emission of sound and expression of emotions. Tonal-threshold audiometry is performed as a hearing test. They include rhinomanometry, vital capacity measurements, maximal phonation time and phonation quotient. Phoniatric examination is a necessary proceeding which must be performed before admission to the academy of solo singing, and then during singers' education and career. The phoniatric protocol must include a minimal number of parameters, which can be

  11. Nervous system examination on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; Aleshaiwi, Sarah M; Algrain, Hala A; Alkhelaif, Rana A

    2012-12-22

    Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words "nervous system examination", "nervous system clinical examination", "cranial nerves examination", "CNS examination", "examination of cerebellum", "balance and coordination examination". Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47%) of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2) and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%), cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%), upper limbs (6 videos, 10%), lower limbs (3 videos, 5%), balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%). The other 68 (53%) videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0). The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers). The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD). Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource for learning nervous system examination, which can be used by medical students

  12. Gonad doses in biliary tract examinations (cholecystography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, I [Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentrum; Angerstein, W [Forschungsinstitut fuer Tuberkulose und Lungenkrankheiten, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Koenig, W; Menzel, B [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)

    1979-02-01

    622 single measurements of gonad doses were performed during cholecystography in patients of either sex (intravaginally in women). In oral cholecystography on an average 13 mR were revealed for men and 149 mR for women, resp. According to a minimum, medium, or maximum extent of examination, in intravenous cholecystography the data for men were 11, 17, and 24 mR, while the corresponding data for women were 93, 185, and 278 mR. Based on about 400,000 cholegraphic examinations per year in the GDR the contribution to the total gonad dose caused by radiological examinations is 6-8%.

  13. Gonad doses in biliary tract examinations (cholecystography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, I.; Koenig, W.; Menzel, B.

    1979-01-01

    622 single measurements of gonad doses were performed during cholecystography in patients of either sex (intravaginally in women). In oral cholecystography on an average 13 mR were revealed for men and 149 mR for women, resp. According to a minimum, medium, or maximum extent of examination, in intravenous cholecystography the data for men were 11, 17, and 24 mR, while the corresponding data for women were 93, 185, and 278 mR. Based on about 400,000 cholegraphic examinations per year in the GDR the contribution to the total gonad dose caused by radiological examinations is 6-8%. (author)

  14. The construction of irradiated material examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Lee, Key Soon; Herr, Young Hoi

    1990-03-01

    A detail design of the examination process, the hot cell facility and the annexed facility of the irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) which will be utilized to examine and evaluate physical and mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated materials, has been performed. Also a start-up work of the underground structure construction has been launched out. The project management and tasks required for the license application were duly carried out. The resultant detail design data will be used for the next step. (author)

  15. Developing job-related preplacement medical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J C; Bernacki, E J

    1981-07-01

    Federal regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring require that employment selection procedures to evaluate applicants be based on job-related criteria. The preplacement physical examination used in employment, particularly in the placement of handicapped persons, must also be conducted in a job-related manner. This paper discusses the development and use of the physical examination in selecting and placing applicants for jobs in the workplace with special reference to handicapped persons and disabled veterans. It presents and justifies a method of performing these examinations in a manner consistent with humanistic and business goals as well as the goals of federal regulatory agencies prohibiting employment discrimination.

  16. Patient radiation doses from enteroclysis examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.; Wall, B.F.; Haggett, P.J.; Boardman, P.; Nolan, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Data relating to patient dose have been acquired for enteroclysis examinations (small bowel enemas) performed at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, on 23 adult patients. Dose-area products, fluoroscopy times and the number of radiographs taken are used to compare the examination procedure at the Hospital with enteroclysis and barium follow-throughs performed elsewhere. The mean dose-area product for the 23 examinations was 6.8 Gy cm 2 and the mean effective dose was estimated to be 1.5 mSv. These doses are intermediate between those arising from barium meals and barium enemas performed in the same room. (author)

  17. Practice-related examinations are feasible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrauth, Markus

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The 9th Revision of the German Federal Medical Training Regulations demands a practice-related assessment of medical students. On the way to these new regulations German faculties face as well problems related to a lack of experience of lecturers, tutors, examiners, and students with the required examination procedures as strains of a financial and logistic kind. How to succeed in introducing suitable examinations at short notice and which positive effects can be achieved is shown by the Faculty of Medicine of the university of Tübingen.

  18. DO GENERAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS EXAMINE INJURED RUNNERS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk, Solvej; Jensen, A V; Rasmussen, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General Medical Practitioners (GMP) in Denmark perform clinical examinations of patients with musculoskeletal pain. However, the prevalence proportion of examinations caused by running-related injuries remains unknown. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of the present study was to estimate...... the prevalence proportion of consultations in general medical practice caused by running-related injuries. The secondary purpose was to estimate the prevalence proportion of injured runners, who consult their GMP, that are referred to additional examinations or treatments. STUDY DESIGN: A survey-based study...

  19. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain; Vulcanismo cuaternario de la Isla Decepcion (Antartida): una signatura relacionada con la subduccion de la Fosa de las Shetland del Sur en el dominio de tras-arco de la Cuenca de Bransfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.

    2014-06-01

    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  20. Facilities for the examination of radioactive bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.; Richardson, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    A facility for the examination of radioactive bodies comprises carriages, each transporting one or more radioactive bodies, e.g. nuclear fuel elements, which travel along a shielded passage to bring the bodies to examination stations spaced along the passage. The passage comprises a circular section tube surrounded by a thick cylinder of shielding material e.g. lead. The transverse sectional dimensions of the passage are not much larger than the corresponding dimensions of the carriages in order to maintain the radioactive region as small as possible. Equipment for the examination of the radioactive bodies is located outside the shielded passage, and may be for metallurgical examination, e.g. by ultrasonics, radiography or other non-destructive testing means, or for mensuration to identify changes in shape, dimensions or weight. (author)

  1. Radiologic examination of orthopaedics. Methods and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, E.; Meuli, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    This volume describes in detail radiological examinations of the skeleton modern procedures in orthopaedic surgery. Special emphasis is given to functional examination techniques based upon the authors' extensive work on standardized radiological examinations best suited to the needs of orthopaedic surgeons. These techniques were developed at the Radiodiagnostic Department of the Central Radiological Clinic, Bern University, in cooperation with the University Clinic of Orthopaedics and Surgery of the Locomotor System. Exposure techniques are explained concisely, yet with extraordinary precision and attention to detail. They have proved highly successful in teaching programs for X-ray technicians and as standard examination techniques for many hospitals, X-ray departments, orthopaedic units, and private clinics. Recommended for orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists, general surgeons, and X-ray technicians, this definitive treatise, with its superb X-ray reproductions and complementary line drawings, explains how to achieve improved diagnoses and standardized control with the least possible radiation exposure to the patient

  2. Final examination of IDMS corrosion coupons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.; Jenkins, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The metallurgical examination of corrosion coupons removed from the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) was performed as part of the IDMS Materials Evaluation Program. The findings and conclusions of the evaluation program are presented in this report

  3. Medical radiography examinations and carcinogenic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demina, Eh.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the review was the synthesis of the literature data and the results of our radiobiological (biodosimetric) research on the development of radiation-associated tumors as a result of medical radiography (X-ray) diagnostic. Medical X-ray examinations contribute the most to the excess of radiation exposure of the population, much of which is subject to examination to diagnose the underlying disease, the dynamic observation of the patient during treatment, the research of related diseases, and preventative examinations. The review provides arguments for the necessity of developing a more balanced indication for preventative radiological examination of the population in the aftermath of radio-ecological crisis caused by the Chornobyl accident, taking into account the likelihood of radiation carcinogenesis. The problems and tasks of biological (cytogenetic) dosimetry in radiology are formulated

  4. Compensation of Disadvantages in University Examination Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Quapp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Active social participation of disabled people is one of the major tasks of modern society. That also includes access to the academic community by higher education. Universities all over the world work hard to give handicapped students a chance to graduate. In this context, compensation of disadvantages in examination procedures is an important matter. But, also chronic illness may impair the student's examination performance. To ensure equal examination opportunities for all students, responsible university officials must be creative to find individual compensation solutions. The paper analyzes examination regulations at universities in different countries and offers solutions to compensate disabled and chronic ill students' disadvantages. It discusses the necessity of compensation for different types of disability and chronic illness. Finally, an overview of current German case law and solutions for compensation problems are provided.

  5. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  6. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  7. Radiologic examination of the small bowel: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, H.C.; Maglinte, D.D.T.

    1987-01-01

    Effective clinical imaging of the small intestine is accomplished only with methods capable of accurately demonstrating bowel morphology. The two major approaches to barium enema examination of this segment of gut - orally and enteroclysis - will be described and illustrated with short videotape presentations. Pursued vigorously and with interest, both methods can yield excellent results in an efficient manner. Careful execution of the examination rather than use of a particular methodology is probably the most important factor in realizing such results. However, each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and these will be presented and discussed. A cursory small bowel examination has no role in modern medicine. Radiologists assume primary responsibility for the diagnostic evaluation of the small bowel and should strive to refine and advance the accuracy of the examination

  8. Predictors of examination malpractice among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Validated scales were used to collect data and SPSS was used to carry out a t-test and stepwise ... Keywords: Examination, Malpractice, Text Anxiety, Secondary School Students.

  9. Examining Success Factors for Sustainable Rural Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This collaborative project will examine the role the Integrated Co-operative ... are integrated, and if so, under what conditions this integration works best. ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  10. VVER-1000 RPV Head Examination Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erak, Z.; Gortan, K.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the electronic system used for automated NDT examination of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH). The control system drives the inspection tool with end-effectors to needed position. When the final position is reached, the eddy current and ultra sound acquisition system performs the data acquisition. The system is composed of 3 layers. The first layer is the hardware layer consisting of motors driving the tool and end-effectors along with sensors needed to obtain the positioning data. The second layer is the MAC-8 control system performing basic monitoring and control routines as an interconnection between first and third layer. The third layer is the control software, running on PC, which is used as a human-machine-interface. Presentation contains details of examination techniques with focus on eddy current examination as well as details on manipulator and end effectors developed by Inetec for VVER-1000 RPVH examination.(author)

  11. 5 CFR 4501.102 - Examination information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employee of OPM who takes part in the construction of written tests or any other assessment device, has... that his spouse, minor child, or business general partner intends to take any of these examinations. (b...

  12. Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors influencing behavioural intentions in retail purchase in Ghana. ... Journal of Business Research ... effects of age and gender differentials on values among retail consumers.

  13. Nondestructive examination techniques on Candu fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, G.; Man, I.

    2013-01-01

    During irradiation in nuclear reactor, fuel elements undergo dimensional and structural changes, and changes of surface conditions sheath as well, which can lead to damages and even loss of integrity. Visual examination and photography of Candu fuel elements are among the non-destructive examination techniques, next to dimensional measurements that include profiling (diameter, bending, camber) and length, sheath integrity control with eddy currents, measurement of the oxide layer thickness by eddy current techniques. Unirradiated Zircaloy-4 tubes were used for calibration purposes, whereas irradiated Zircaloy-4 tubes were actually subjected to visual inspection and dimensional measurements. We present results of measurements done by eddy current techniques on Zircaloy- 4 tubes, unirradiated, but oxidized in an autoclave prior to examinations. The purpose of these nondestructive examination techniques is to determine those parameters that characterize the behavior and performance of nuclear fuel operation. (authors)

  14. An Examination of Disciplinary Procedures with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined the effect of negative attention and repeated demands on the noncompliant behavior of children. Experiment 2 studied the relative effectiveness of negative attention, isolation, ignoring, and a combination of procedures in reducing noncompliance in children. (GO)

  15. Examination of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matokovic, A.; Picek, E.; Markulin, K.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand of a higher level of safety in the operation of the nuclear power plants requires the utilisation of more precise automated equipment to perform in-service inspections. That has been achieved by technological advances in computer technology, in robotics, in examination probe technology with the development of the advanced inspection technique and has also been due to the considerable and varied experience gained in the performance of such inspections. In-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel, especially Russian-designed WWER-1000 presents one of the most important and extensive examination of nuclear power plants primary circuit components. Such examination demand high standards of inspection technology, quality and continual innovation in the field of non-destructive testing advanced technology. A remote underwater contact ultrasonic technique is employed for the examination of the base metal of vessel and reactor welds, whence eddy current method is applied for clad surface examinations. Visual testing is used for examination of the vessel interior. The movement of inspection probes and data positioning are assured by using new reactor pressure vessel tool concept that is fully integrated with inspection systems. The successful performance of reactor pressure vessel is attributed thorough pre-outage planning, training and successful performance demonstration qualification of chosen non-destructive techniques on the specimens with artificial and/or real defects. Furthermore, use of advanced approach of inspection through implementation the state-of-the-art examination equipment significantly reduced the inspection time, radiation exposure to examination personnel, shortening nuclear power plant outage and cutting the total inspection costs. This paper presents advanced approach in the reactor pressure vessel in-service inspections and it is especially developed for WWER-1000 nuclear power plants.(author)

  16. The radiologic examination in rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houli, J.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of the radiologic examination in rheumatic diseases is discussed. The value of correct execution (incidence and appropriate method) and posterior interpretation in the radiographic proceeding is broached aiming at a clinic-radiologic association. The necessity of an analitic radiographic examination is emphasized and basic principles of its interpretation are described. The expressives aspects of main rheumatic diseases are presented (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. X-ray examinations during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Hospital Sao Luiz, Sao Paulo, SP; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo UNIFESP/EPM, SP

    2005-01-01

    X-ray examinations may be necessary during pregnancy for an accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment administration. In these cases, the exposure to ionizing radiation and its effects on the fetus are a major concern to the patient and to the clinician. In fact, most of these examinations are safe and do not represent a significant risk to the fetus. However, the radiologist must know the potential risks to be able to instruct all personnel involved in the care of the patient. (author)

  18. Characterization of the 309 fuel examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Examination Facility. It is located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor containment structure (309 Building.) The facility was a hot cell used for examination of PRTR fuel and equipment during the 1960's. Located inside the cell is a PRTR shim rod assembly, reported are radiological conditions of the sample. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition

  19. Significance of blood examination in radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shinobu; Ando, Atsushi; Kojima, Kazuhiko; Kikuta, Yoko.

    1978-01-01

    Blood examination made for the past 3 years revealed that the influences of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation (an average of 5 mrem/day) on peripheral blood are not detected. However, the blood examination, which is prescribed at least twice a year by law, is for determining whether or not the results of blood examination are within a normal range. Therefore, even though influences of a large amount of radiation are detected, it has little significance as a monitoring of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation. If the blood examination is used as a monitoring method for detecting exposure, it is important to compare the results with the previous ones in the same individuals. It is also necessary to increase the number of examinations and to study the blood more in detail. However, before that, the standard of the evaluation should be more defined because of its obscurity. The present blood examination is useful in managing the health generally. However, it is not good as a monitoring for chronic exposure of the extremely small amounts of radiation. Therefore, a routine biological method to be able to monitor radiation more precisely, is required. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Present and future aspects of PET examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tomio

    2003-01-01

    The PET examination gives the body distribution image of a compound labeled with the positron emitter manufactured by cyclotron. Recently, PET with F18-deoxyglucose (FDG) attracts considerable attention because the imaging is particularly useful for cancer detection. Since the technique was authorized by the United States (US) official health insurance in 1998, the number of the examination is increasing, which is also under similar situation in Japan due to the latest partial authorization for some malignant tumors. In Japan, about 30,000 examinations per year are carried out, half of which, in private hospitals. Their purpose is increasingly for cancer detection. For future PET examination, awaited are improvement of PET camera and development of a novel imaging agent. PET/CT imaging is for the former and F18-α-methyltyrosine, for the latter. Miniaturization of cyclotron, FDG delivery system, improved FDG synthetic method, popularization of PET/CT, development of PET camera for health examination, clinical trial of a novel imaging agent, and spread of PET health examination and operation of PET Center, are expected for future progress of PET technique. (N.I.)